WorldWideScience

Sample records for sponsored derived variables

  1. Simple derivations of Kepler's first law: use of complex variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Donghui

    2012-01-01

    By making use of complex variables, simple derivations of Kepler's first law are introduced. Such derivations might be of interest for undergraduate students in an introductory physics course. (paper)

  2. A variable-order fractal derivative model for anomalous diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaoting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to develop a variable-order fractal derivative model for anomalous diffusion. Previous investigations have indicated that the medium structure, fractal dimension or porosity may change with time or space during solute transport processes, results in time or spatial dependent anomalous diffusion phenomena. Hereby, this study makes an attempt to introduce a variable-order fractal derivative diffusion model, in which the index of fractal derivative depends on temporal moment or spatial position, to characterize the above mentioned anomalous diffusion (or transport processes. Compared with other models, the main advantages in description and the physical explanation of new model are explored by numerical simulation. Further discussions on the dissimilitude such as computational efficiency, diffusion behavior and heavy tail phenomena of the new model and variable-order fractional derivative model are also offered.

  3. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives. Derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-01-01

    A general framework for deriving and using a class of constitutive laws incorporating spatial gradients of internal variables is presented. It uses two basic ingredients: a derivation of such models by homogenization techniques and a reformulation of the evolution equation at the scale of the whole structure. (orig.)

  4. Variable coefficient nonlinear systems derived from an atmospheric dynamical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Yan, Tang; Yuan, Gao; Sen-Yue, Lou; Fei, Huang

    2009-01-01

    Variable coefficient nonlinear systems, the Korteweg de Vries (KdV), the modified KdV (mKdV) and the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) type equations, are derived from the nonlinear inviscid barotropic nondivergent vorticity equation in a beta-plane by means of the multi-scale expansion method in two different ways, with and without the so-called y-average trick. The non-auto-Bäcklund transformations are found to transform the derived variable coefficient equations to the corresponding standard KdV, mKdV and NLS equations. Thus, many possible exact solutions can be obtained by taking advantage of the known solutions of these standard equations. Further, many approximate solutions of the original model are ready to be yielded which might be applied to explain some real atmospheric phenomena, such as atmospheric blocking episodes. (general)

  5. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives: derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-12-31

    When they are subjected to excessive loads, some materials may exhibit a softening behaviour resulting from the deterioration of their mechanical properties. To idealize such behaviours, constitutive relations with softening are introduced, for which the size of the domain of reversibility in the stress-space decreases. These models feature a strain localization within the material, in agreement with experiments, but cannot predict the subsequent behaviour because they lead to shear bands the width of which is equal to zero, physically unacceptable and numerically troublesome. It has been proposed in the literature to overcome these difficulties by adding to the list of internal variable the spatial gradients of some of them. This procedure suffers from lack of firm methodological basis. Although, some quantitative justification have been advanced relying on some kind of microscopic analysis. Therefore, we propose to extend the classical (local) models by introducing the internal state variable first gradients. Given local model within the framework of standard generalized materials, consistent homogenization procedure is put forward to derive macroscopic free energy and dissipation potentials. The standard generalized character is preserved, with an extended set of state variables, containing not only the strain and the internal variables but also the internal variable derivatives. Nevertheless, when dealing with the whole structure, the independence between the new state variables is lost. We propose then to generalize the constitutive relations, leading to a new variational principle that ensures the Clausius-Duhem inequality at the structure scale. (authors). 9 refs.

  6. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives: derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-01-01

    When they are subjected to excessive loads, some materials may exhibit a softening behaviour resulting from the deterioration of their mechanical properties. To idealize such behaviours, constitutive relations with softening are introduced, for which the size of the domain of reversibility in the stress-space decreases. These models feature a strain localization within the material, in agreement with experiments, but cannot predict the subsequent behaviour because they lead to shear bands the width of which is equal to zero, physically unacceptable and numerically troublesome. It has been proposed in the literature to overcome these difficulties by adding to the list of internal variable the spatial gradients of some of them. This procedure suffers from lack of firm methodological basis. Although, some quantitative justification have been advanced relying on some kind of microscopic analysis. Therefore, we propose to extend the classical (local) models by introducing the internal state variable first gradients. Given local model within the framework of standard generalized materials, consistent homogenization procedure is put forward to derive macroscopic free energy and dissipation potentials. The standard generalized character is preserved, with an extended set of state variables, containing not only the strain and the internal variables but also the internal variable derivatives. Nevertheless, when dealing with the whole structure, the independence between the new state variables is lost. We propose then to generalize the constitutive relations, leading to a new variational principle that ensures the Clausius-Duhem inequality at the structure scale. (authors)

  7. OCOPTR, Minimization of Nonlinear Function, Variable Metric Method, Derivative Calculation. DRVOCR, Minimization of Nonlinear Function, Variable Metric Method, Derivative Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazareth, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: OCOPTR and DRVOCR are computer programs designed to find minima of non-linear differentiable functions f: R n →R with n dimensional domains. OCOPTR requires that the user only provide function values (i.e. it is a derivative-free routine). DRVOCR requires the user to supply both function and gradient information. 2 - Method of solution: OCOPTR and DRVOCR use the variable metric (or quasi-Newton) method of Davidon (1975). For OCOPTR, the derivatives are estimated by finite differences along a suitable set of linearly independent directions. For DRVOCR, the derivatives are user- supplied. Some features of the codes are the storage of the approximation to the inverse Hessian matrix in lower trapezoidal factored form and the use of an optimally-conditioned updating method. Linear equality constraints are permitted subject to the initial Hessian factor being chosen correctly. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The functions to which the routine is applied are assumed to be differentiable. The routine also requires (n 2 /2) + 0(n) storage locations where n is the problem dimension

  8. SPONSORING, BRAND VALUE AND SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zauner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing involvement of individuals in social media over the past decade has enabled firms to pursue new avenues in communication and sponsoring activities. Besides general research on either social media or sponsoring, questions regarding the consequences of a joint activity (sponsoring activities in social media remain unexplored. Hence, the present study analyses whether the perceived image of the brand and the celebrity endorser credibility of a top sports team influence the perceived brand value of the sponsoring firm in a social media setting. Moreover, these effects are compared between existing customers and non-customers of the sponsoring firm. Interestingly, perceived celebrity endorser credibility plays no role in forming brand value perceptions in the case of the existing customers. Implications for marketing theory and practice are derived.

  9. 7 CFR 654.11 - Sponsor(s)' responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...&M on land administered by that agency. If project measures benefit both Federal and non-Federal land... § 654.11 Sponsor(s)' responsibility. (a) On non-Federal land, sponsor(s) are responsible for financing and performing without cost to the Federal Government, needed operation and maintenance (O&M) of...

  10. Solution of heat equation with variable coefficient using derive

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lebelo, RS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available are considered. The first one involves quadratic approximation of the variable coefficient by direct integration. This case is studied using a conic domain. The second case approximates the variable coefficient quadratically and by step functions. The solution...

  11. Metal derivatives of heterocyclic-2-thiones: Variable donor ability, C ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thiones: Variable donor ability,. C–S rupture and new structural motifs. TARLOK S LOBANA. ∗ and RAZIA SULTANA. Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005, India e-mail: tarlokslobana@yahoo.co.in. Abstract.

  12. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort Derived Variables. Technical Report 69

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This technical report details the derived variables developed for users of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) data. The derived variables fall into the categories education, employment and social, and help to simplify the complexity of the LSAY data by providing useful indicators for analysis. To help LSAY data users understand…

  13. Derivation and application of hydraulic equation for variable-rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... high uniformity irrigation. Much of past research work were concentrated on the mechanical availability of variable-rate application and the design of VRCS main construction without considering the theoretical operation principles of VRCS. This study aimed to develop the mathematic models describing the ...

  14. Derivation and application of hydraulic equation for variable-rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variable-rate contour-controlled sprinkler (VRCS) for precision irrigation can throw water on a given shaped area and the flow rate is also varied with the throw distance of the sprinkler for the purpose of high uniformity irrigation. Much of past research work were concentrated on the mechanical availability of ...

  15. Committees and sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    International Advisory Committee Richard F CastenYale, USA Luiz Carlos ChamonSão Paulo, Brazil Osvaldo CivitareseLa Plata, Argentina Jozsef CsehATOMKI, Hungary Jerry P DraayerLSU, USA Alfredo Galindo-UribarriORNL & UT, USA James J KolataNotre Dame, USA Jorge López UTEP, USA Joseph B NatowitzTexas A & M, USA Ma Esther Ortiz IF-UNAM Stuart PittelDelaware, USA Andrés SandovalIF-UNAM Adam SzczepaniakIndiana, USA Piet Van IsackerGANIL, France Michael WiescherNotre Dame, USA Organizing Committee Libertad Barrón-Palos (Chair)IF-UNAM Roelof BijkerICN-UNAM Ruben FossionICN-UNAM David LizcanoININ Sponsors Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAMInstituto de Física, UNAMInstituto Nacional de Investigaciones NuclearesDivisión de Física Nuclear de la SMFCentro Latinoamericano de Física

  16. Variables influencing the use of derivatives in South Africa – the development of a conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schwegler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper, which is the first in a two-part series, sets out the development of a conceptual model on the variables influencing investors’ decisions to use derivatives in their portfolios. Investor-specific variables include: the investor’s needs, goals and return expectations, the investor’s knowledge of financial markets, familiarity with different asset classes including derivative instruments, and the investor’s level of wealth and level of risk tolerance. Market-specific variables include: the level of volatility, standardisation, regulation and liquidity in a market, the level of information available on derivatives, the transparency of price determination, taxes, brokerage costs and product availability.

  17. Fractional derivatives of constant and variable orders applied to anomalous relaxation models in heat transfer problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address a class of the fractional derivatives of constant and variable orders for the first time. Fractional-order relaxation equations of constants and variable orders in the sense of Caputo type are modeled from mathematical view of point. The comparative results of the anomalous relaxation among the various fractional derivatives are also given. They are very efficient in description of the complex phenomenon arising in heat transfer.

  18. Jointly Sponsored Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett A. Sondreal; John G. Hendrikson; Thomas A. Erickson

    2009-03-31

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40321 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) supported the performance of a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) with a minimum 50% nonfederal cost share to assist industry in commercializing and effectively applying highly efficient, nonpolluting energy systems that meet the nation's requirements for clean fuels, chemicals, and electricity in the 21st century. The EERC in partnership with its nonfederal partners jointly performed 131 JSRP projects for which the total DOE cost share was $22,716,634 (38%) and the nonfederal share was $36,776,573 (62%). Summaries of these projects are presented in this report for six program areas: (1) resource characterization and waste management, (2) air quality assessment and control, (3) advanced power systems, (4) advanced fuel forms, (5) value-added coproducts, and (6) advanced materials. The work performed under this agreement addressed DOE goals for reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions through efficiency, capture, and sequestration; near-zero emissions from highly efficient coal-fired power plants; environmental control capabilities for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine respirable particulate (PM{sub 2.5}), and mercury; alternative transportation fuels including liquid synfuels and hydrogen; and synergistic integration of fossil and renewable resources.

  19. An Expansion Formula with Higher-Order Derivatives for Fractional Operators of Variable Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain approximation formulas for fractional integrals and derivatives of Riemann-Liouville and Marchaud types with a variable fractional order. The approximations involve integer-order derivatives only. An estimation for the error is given. The efficiency of the approximation method is illustrated with examples. As applications, we show how the obtained results are useful to solve differential equations, and problems of the calculus of variations that depend on fractional derivatives of Marchaud type.

  20. An Expansion Formula with Higher-Order Derivatives for Fractional Operators of Variable Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We obtain approximation formulas for fractional integrals and derivatives of Riemann-Liouville and Marchaud types with a variable fractional order. The approximations involve integer-order derivatives only. An estimation for the error is given. The efficiency of the approximation method is illustrated with examples. As applications, we show how the obtained results are useful to solve differential equations, and problems of the calculus of variations that depend on fractional derivatives of Marchaud type. PMID:24319382

  1. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): Derived Variables. Technical Report 64

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This technical report describes the 24 derived variables developed for users of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) data. The variables fall into the categories education, employment and social, and help to simplify the complexity of the LSAY data by providing useful indicators for analysis. To help LSAY data users understand and…

  2. Employer-sponsored pension plans

    OpenAIRE

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.

    2004-01-01

    Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k), in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the re...

  3. From beat rate variability in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived pacemaker cells to heart rate variability in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Meital; Schick, Revital; Barad, Lili; Novak, Atara; Ben-Ari, Erez; Lorber, Avraham; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Rosen, Michael R; Weissman, Amir; Binah, Ofer

    2014-10-01

    We previously reported that induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes manifest beat rate variability (BRV) resembling heart rate variability (HRV) in the human sinoatrial node. We now hypothesized the BRV-HRV continuum originates in pacemaker cells. To investigate whether cellular BRV is a source of HRV dynamics, we hypothesized 3 levels of interaction among different cardiomyocyte entities: (1) single pacemaker cells, (2) networks of electrically coupled pacemaker cells, and (3) the in situ sinoatrial node. We measured BRV/HRV properties in single pacemaker cells, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived contracting embryoid bodies (EBs), and electrocardiograms from the same individual. Pronounced BRV/HRV was present at all 3 levels. The coefficient of variance of interbeat intervals and Poincaré plot indices SD1 and SD2 for single cells were 20 times greater than those for EBs (P heart (the latter two were similar; P > .05). We also compared BRV magnitude among single cells, small EBs (~5-10 cells), and larger EBs (>10 cells): BRV indices progressively increased with the decrease in the cell number (P heart rhythm. The decreased BRV magnitude in transitioning from the single cell to the EB suggests that the HRV of in situ hearts originates from the summation and integration of multiple cell-based oscillators. Hence, complex interactions among multiple pacemaker cells and intracellular Ca(2+) handling determine HRV in humans and cardiomyocyte networks. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Employer-sponsored pension plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k, in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the return to their investment have a preferential tax treatment, i.e. do not enter a tax base. The funds are taxed only when drawn from the account in the form of a pension. This paper aims to present the functioning of 401(k pension plan as the most widely used employer sponsored pension plan in the USA, which is likely, in a modified form, to have an important place within our future reformed pension insurance system.

  5. Variability of GPS-derived running performance during official matches in elite professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Haddad, Hani; Méndez-Villanueva, Alberto; Torreño, Nacho; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Suárez-Arrones, Luis

    2017-09-22

    The aim of this study was to assess the match-to-match variability obtained using GPS devices, collected during official games in professional soccer players. GPS-derived data from nineteen elite soccer players were collected over two consecutive seasons. Time-motion data for players with more than five full-match were analyzed (n=202). Total distance covered (TD), TD >13-18 km/h, TD >18-21 km/h, TD >21 km/h, number of acceleration >2.5-4 m.s-2 and >4 m.s-2 were calculated. The match-to-match variation in running activity was assessed by the typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV,%) and the magnitude of the CV was calculated (effect size). When all players were pooled together, CVs ranged from 5% to 77% (first half) and from 5% to 90% (second half), for TD and number of acceleration >4 m.s-2, and the magnitude of the CVs were rated from small to moderate (effect size = 0.57-0.98). The CVs were likely to increase with running/acceleration intensity, and were likely to differ between playing positions (e.g., TD > 13-18 km/h 3.4% for second strikers vs 14.2% for strikers and 14.9% for wide-defenders vs 9.7% for wide-midfielders). Present findings indicate that variability in players' running performance is high in some variables and likely position-dependent. Such variability should be taken into account when using these variables to prescribe and/or monitor training intensity/load. GPS-derived match-to-match variability in official games' locomotor performance of professional soccer players is high in some variables, particularly for high-speed running, due to the complexity of match running performance and its most influential factors and reliability of the devices.

  6. Chemical equilibrium. [maximizing entropy of gas system to derive relations between thermodynamic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The entropy of a gas system with the number of particles subject to external control is maximized to derive relations between the thermodynamic variables that obtain at equilibrium. These relations are described in terms of the chemical potential, defined as equivalent partial derivatives of entropy, energy, enthalpy, free energy, or free enthalpy. At equilibrium, the change in total chemical potential must vanish. This fact is used to derive the equilibrium constants for chemical reactions in terms of the partition functions of the species involved in the reaction. Thus the equilibrium constants can be determined accurately, just as other thermodynamic properties, from a knowledge of the energy levels and degeneracies for the gas species involved. These equilibrium constants permit one to calculate the equilibrium concentrations or partial pressures of chemically reacting species that occur in gas mixtures at any given condition of pressure and temperature or volume and temperature.

  7. On the derivation of thermodynamic restrictions for materials with internal state variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, T.

    1987-07-01

    Thermodynamic restrictions for the constitutive relations of an internal variable model are derived by evaluating the Clausius-Duhem entropy inequality with two different approaches. The classical Coleman-Noll argumentation of Rational Thermodynamics applied by Coleman and Gurtin to an internal variable model is summarized. This approach requires an arbitrary modulation of body forces and heat supply in the interior of the body which is subject to criticism. The second approach applied in this presentation is patterned after a concept of Mueller and Liu, originally developed within the context of a different entropy inequality and different classes of constitutive models. For the internal variable model the second approach requires only the modulation of initial values on the boundary of the body. In the course of the development of the second approach certain differences to the argumentation of Mueller and Liu become evident and are pointed out. Finally, the results demonstrate that the first and second approach give the same thermodynamic restrictions for the internal variable model. The derived residual entropy inequality requires further analysis. (orig.) [de

  8. Evaluation of the performance of hydrological variables derived from GLDAS-2 and MERRA-2 in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-Rangel, R. A.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Breña-Naranjo, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological studies have found in data assimilation systems and global reanalysis of land surface variables (e.g soil moisture, streamflow) a wide range of applications, from drought monitoring to water balance and hydro-climatology variability assessment. Indeed, these hydrological data sources have led to an improvement in developing and testing monitoring and prediction systems in poorly gauged regions of the world. This work tests the accuracy and error of land surface variables (precipitation, soil moisture, runoff and temperature) derived from the data assimilation reanalysis products GLDAS-2 and MERRA-2. Validate the performance of these data platforms must be thoroughly evaluated in order to consider the error of hydrological variables (i.e., precipitation, soil moisture, runoff and temperature) derived from the reanalysis products. For such purpose, a quantitative assessment was performed at 2,892 climatological stations, 42 stream gauges and 44 soil moisture probes located in Mexico and across different climate regimes (hyper-arid to tropical humid). Results show comparisons between these gridded products against ground-based observational stations for 1979-2014. The results of this analysis display a spatial distribution of errors and accuracy over Mexico discussing differences between climates, enabling the informed use of these products.

  9. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concistrè, A; Grillo, A; La Torre, G; Carretta, R; Fabris, B; Petramala, L; Marinelli, C; Rebellato, A; Fallo, F; Letizia, C

    2018-04-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with a cluster of cardiovascular manifestations, including hypertension, leading to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, in comparison with patients with essential hypertension and normotensive controls. Twenty-five patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (7 normotensive,18 hypertensive) underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring at diagnosis, and fifteen out of them were re-evaluated after parathyroidectomy. Short-term-blood pressure variability was derived from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and calculated as the following: 1) Standard Deviation of 24-h, day-time and night-time-BP; 2) the average of day-time and night-time-Standard Deviation, weighted for the duration of the day and night periods (24-h "weighted" Standard Deviation of BP); 3) average real variability, i.e., the average of the absolute differences between all consecutive BP measurements. Baseline data of normotensive and essential hypertension patients were matched for age, sex, BMI and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring values with normotensive and hypertensive-primary hyperparathyroidism patients, respectively. Normotensive-primary hyperparathyroidism patients showed a 24-h weighted Standard Deviation (P blood pressure higher than that of 12 normotensive controls. 24-h average real variability of systolic BP, as well as serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels, were reduced in operated patients (P blood pressure variability is increased in normotensive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and is reduced by parathyroidectomy, and may potentially represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease.

  10. Modes of ocean variability in the tropical Pacific as derived from GEOSAT altimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jiansheng

    1993-01-01

    Satellite-derived (GEOSAT) sea surface height anomalies for the period November 1986 to August 1989 were investigated in order to extract the dominant modes of climate variability in the tropical Pacific. Four modes are identified by applying the POP technique. The first mode has a time scale of about 3 months and can be identified with the first baroclinic equatorial Kelvin wave mode. The second mode has a time scale of about six months and describes the semi-annual cycle in tropical Pacific sea level. Equatorial wave propagation is also crucial for this mode. The third mode is the annual cycle which is dominated by Ekman dynamics. Wave propagation or reflection are found to be unimportant. The fourth mode is associated with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. The ENSO mode is found to be consistent with the 'delayed action oscillator' scenario. The results are substantiated by a companion analysis of the sea surface height variability simulated with an oceanic general circulation model (OGCM) forced by observed wind stresses for the period 1961 to 1989. The modal decomposition of the sea level variability is found to be similar to that derived from the GEOSAT data. The high consistency between the satellite and the model data indicates the high potential value of satellite altimetry for climate modeling and forecasting. (orig.)

  11. Improving evapotranspiration in a land surface model using biophysical variables derived from MSG/SEVIRI satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ghilain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring evapotranspiration over land is highly dependent on the surface state and vegetation dynamics. Data from spaceborn platforms are desirable to complement estimations from land surface models. The success of daily evapotranspiration monitoring at continental scale relies on the availability, quality and continuity of such data. The biophysical variables derived from SEVIRI on board the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG and distributed by the Satellite Application Facility on Land surface Analysis (LSA-SAF are particularly interesting for such applications, as they aimed at providing continuous and consistent daily time series in near-real time over Africa, Europe and South America. In this paper, we compare them to monthly vegetation parameters from a database commonly used in numerical weather predictions (ECOCLIMAP-I, showing the benefits of the new daily products in detecting the spatial and temporal (seasonal and inter-annual variability of the vegetation, especially relevant over Africa. We propose a method to handle Leaf Area Index (LAI and Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC products for evapotranspiration monitoring with a land surface model at 3–5 km spatial resolution. The method is conceived to be applicable for near-real time processes at continental scale and relies on the use of a land cover map. We assess the impact of using LSA-SAF biophysical variables compared to ECOCLIMAP-I on evapotranspiration estimated by the land surface model H-TESSEL. Comparison with in-situ observations in Europe and Africa shows an improved estimation of the evapotranspiration, especially in semi-arid climates. Finally, the impact on the land surface modelled evapotranspiration is compared over a north–south transect with a large gradient of vegetation and climate in Western Africa using LSA-SAF radiation forcing derived from remote sensing. Differences are highlighted. An evaluation against remote sensing derived land

  12. Mantle-derived trace element variability in olivines and their melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, David A.; Shorttle, Oliver; Oeser, Martin; Weyer, Stefan; Kobayashi, Katsura

    2018-02-01

    Trace element variability in oceanic basalts is commonly used to constrain the physics of mantle melting and the chemistry of Earth's deep interior. However, the geochemical properties of mantle melts are often overprinted by mixing and crystallisation processes during ascent and storage. Studying primitive melt inclusions offers one solution to this problem, but the fidelity of the melt-inclusion archive to bulk magma chemistry has been repeatedly questioned. To provide a novel check of the melt inclusion record, we present new major and trace element analyses from olivine macrocrysts in the products of two geographically proximal, yet compositionally distinct, primitive eruptions from the Reykjanes Peninsula of Iceland. By combining these macrocryst analyses with new and published melt inclusion analyses we demonstrate that olivines have similar patterns of incompatible trace element (ITE) variability to the inclusions they host, capturing chemical systematics on intra- and inter-eruption scales. ITE variability (element concentrations, ratios, variances and variance ratios) in olivines from the ITE-enriched Stapafell eruption is best accounted for by olivine-dominated fractional crystallisation. In contrast, ITE variability in olivines and inclusions from the ITE-depleted Háleyjabunga eruption cannot be explained by crystallisation alone, and must have originated in the mantle. Compatible trace element (CTE) variability is best described by crystallisation processes in both eruptions. Modest correlations between host and inclusion ITE contents in samples from Háleyjabunga suggest that melt inclusions can be faithful archives of melting and magmatic processes. It also indicates that degrees of ITE enrichment can be estimated from olivines directly when melt inclusion and matrix glass records of geochemical variability are poor or absent. Inter-eruption differences in olivine ITE systematics between Stapafell and Háleyjabunga mirror differences in melt

  13. Measurement of circulating cell-derived microparticles by flow cytometry: sources of variability within the assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Lisa; Kohler, Malcolm; Harrison, Paul; Sargent, Ian; Dragovic, Rebecca; Schaap, Marianne; Nieuwland, Rienk; Brooks, Susan A; Ferry, Berne

    2011-04-01

    Circulating cell-derived microparticles (MPs) have been implicated in several disease processes and elevated levels are found in many pathological conditions. The detection and accurate measurement of MPs, although attracting widespread interest, is hampered by a lack of standardisation. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable flow cytometric assay to measure distinct subtypes of MPs in disease and to identify any significant causes of variability in MP quantification. Circulating MPs within plasma were identified by their phenotype (platelet, endothelial, leukocyte and annexin-V positivity (AnnV+). The influence of key variables (i.e. time between venepuncture and centrifugation, washing steps, the number of centrifugation steps, freezing/long-term storage and temperature of thawing) on MP measurement were investigated. Increasing time between venepuncture and centrifugation leads to increased MP levels. Washing samples results in decreased AnnV+MPs (P=0.002) and platelet-derived MPs (PMPs) (P=0.002). Double centrifugation of MPs prior to freezing decreases numbers of AnnV+MPs (P=0.0004) and PMPs (P=0.0004). A single freeze thaw cycle of samples led to an increase in AnnV+MPs (P=0.0020) and PMPs (P=0.0039). Long-term storage of MP samples at -80° resulted in decreased MP levels. This study found that minor protocol changes significantly affected MP levels. This is one of the first studies attempting to standardise a method for obtaining and measuring circulating MPs. Standardisation will be essential for successful development of MP technologies, allowing direct comparison of results between studies and leading to a greater understanding of MPs in disease. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of corneal cross-linking on ocular response analyzer waveform-derived variables in keratoconus and postrefractive surgery ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, Katie M; Rocha, Karolinne; Roy, Abhijit S; Randleman, J Bradley; Stulting, R Doyle; Dupps, William J

    2014-11-01

    To assess changes in Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) waveforms after UVA/riboflavin corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) using investigator-derived and manufacturer-supplied morphometric variables in patients with keratoconus (KC) and postrefractive surgery ectasia. Prospective randomized trial of a standard epithelium-off CXL protocol. Patients with progressive KC (24 eyes of 21 patients) or postrefractive surgery ectasia (27 eyes of 23 patients) were enrolled. Replicate ORA measurements were obtained before and 3 months after CXL. Pretreatment and posttreatment waveform variables were analyzed for differences by paired Student t tests using measurements with the highest waveform scores. Corneal hysteresis, corneal resistance factor, 37-s generation manufacturer-supplied ORA variables, and 15 investigator-derived ORA variables. No variables were significantly different 3 months after CXL in the KC group, and no manufacturer-supplied variables changed significantly in the postrefractive surgery ectasia group. Four custom variables (ApplanationOnsetTime, P1P2avg, Impulse, and Pmax) increased by small but statistically significant margins after CXL in the postrefractive surgery ectasia group. Changes in a small subset of investigator-derived variables suggested an increase in corneal bending resistance after CXL. However, the magnitudes of these changes were low and not commensurate with the degree of clinical improvement or prior computational estimates of corneal stiffening in the same cohort over the same period. Available air-puff-derived measures of the corneal deformation response underestimate the biomechanical changes produced by CXL.

  15. Deriving Daytime Variables From the AmeriFlux Standard Eddy Covariance Data Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Ingen, Catharine [Berkeley Water Center. Berkeley, CA (United States); Microsoft. San Francisco, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berkeley Water Center. Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Humphrey, Marty [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Li, Jie [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2008-12-06

    A gap-filled, quality assessed eddy covariance dataset has recently become available for the AmeriFluxnetwork. This dataset uses standard processing and produces commonly used science variables. This shared dataset enables robust comparisons across different analyses. Of course, there are many remaining questions. One of those is how to define 'during the day' which is an important concept for many analyses. Some studies have used local time — for example 9am to 5pm; others have used thresholds on photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). A related question is how to derive quantities such as the Bowen ratio. Most studies compute the ratio of the averages of the latent heat (LE) and sensible heat (H). In this study, we use different methods of defining 'during the day' for GPP, LE, and H. We evaluate the differences between methods in two ways. First, we look at a number of statistics of GPP. Second, we look at differences in the derived Bowen ratio. Our goal is not science per se, but rather informatics in support of the science.

  16. Pot binding as a variable confounding plant phenotype: theoretical derivation and experimental observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Thomas R; Manandhar, Anju; Shekoofa, Avat; Rosas-Anderson, Pablo; Bagherzadi, Laleh; Schoppach, Remy; Sadok, Walid; Rufty, Thomas W

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical derivation predicted growth retardation due to pot water limitations, i.e., pot binding. Experimental observations were consistent with these limitations. Combined, these results indicate a need for caution in high-throughput screening and phenotyping. Pot experiments are a mainstay in many plant studies, including the current emphasis on developing high-throughput, phenotyping systems. Pot studies can be vulnerable to decreased physiological activity of the plants particularly when pot volume is small, i.e., "pot binding". It is necessary to understand the conditions under which pot binding may exist to avoid the confounding influence of pot binding in interpreting experimental results. In this paper, a derivation is offered that gives well-defined conditions for the occurrence of pot binding based on restricted water availability. These results showed that not only are pot volume and plant size important variables, but the potting media is critical. Artificial potting mixtures used in many studies, including many high-throughput phenotyping systems, are particularly susceptible to the confounding influences of pot binding. Experimental studies for several crop species are presented that clearly show the existence of thresholds of plant leaf area at which various pot sizes and potting media result in the induction of pot binding even though there may be no immediate, visual plant symptoms. The derivation and experimental results showed that pot binding can readily occur in plant experiments if care is not given to have sufficiently large pots, suitable potting media, and maintenance of pot water status. Clear guidelines are provided for avoiding the confounding effects of water-limited pot binding in studying plant phenotype.

  17. Genetic variability in three Italian beef cattle breeds derived from pedigree information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Filippini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to estimate genetic variability in Chianina (CH, Marchigiana (MC and Romagnola (RO breeds using pedigree information. Different approaches based on probability of identity-by-descent (effective population size through an increase in inbreeding Ne or probability of gene origin (total number of founders f, effective number of founders fe, ancestors fa and founder genomes fg were used. Reference populations were defined using female animals born between 1996 and 2000 where both parents are known. Generation intervals were 5.35, 4.93 and 5.15 years for CH, MC and RO, respectively. The total number of founders were 7092, 11947, 3928, for CH, MC and RO, respectively. Complete generation equivalent showed the relative high quality of pedigree information: 5.66 for CH, 4.54 for MC and 4.95 for RO. For CH, MC and RO, respectively, a fe value of 152.1, 70.9 and 89.8, a fa value of 73.6, 48.0 and 59.5 and a fg value of 39.5, 25.0 and 38.5, were calculated. When inbreeding was used effective population sizes were 138, 122 and 124 for CH, MC and RO, respectively. Parameters derived from the probabilities of gene origin were variable among the investigated breeds and the results for MC demonstrate the need to pay specific attention to breeding strategies.

  18. A Method to Derive Monitoring Variables for a Cyber Security Test-bed of I and C System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kyung Soo; Song, Jae Gu; Lee, Joung Woon; Lee, Cheol Kwon

    2013-01-01

    In the IT field, monitoring techniques have been developed to protect the systems connected by networks from cyber attacks and incidents. For the development of monitoring systems for I and C cyber security, it is necessary to review the monitoring systems in the IT field and derive cyber security-related monitoring variables among the proprietary operating information about the I and C systems. Tests for the development and application of these monitoring systems may cause adverse effects on the I and C systems. To analyze influences on the system and safely intended variables, the construction of an I and C system Test-bed should be preceded. This article proposes a method of deriving variables that should be monitored through a monitoring system for cyber security as a part of I and C Test-bed. The surveillance features and the monitored variables of NMS(Network Management System), a monitoring technique in the IT field, were reviewed in section 2. In Section 3, the monitoring variables for an I and C cyber security were derived by the of NMS and the investigation for information used for hacking techniques that can be practiced against I and C systems. The monitoring variables of NMS in the IT field and the information about the malicious behaviors used for hacking were derived as expected variables to be monitored for an I and C cyber security research. The derived monitoring variables were classified into the five functions of NMS for efficient management. For the cyber security of I and C systems, the vulnerabilities should be understood through a penetration test etc. and an assessment of influences on the actual system should be carried out. Thus, constructing a test-bed of I and C systems is necessary for the safety system in operation. In the future, it will be necessary to develop a logging and monitoring system for studies on the vulnerabilities of I and C systems with test-beds

  19. Sponsors' participation in conduct and reporting of industry trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Krogsbøll, Lasse T; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Bias in industry-sponsored trials is common and the interpretation of the results can be particularly distorted in favour of the sponsor's product. We investigated sponsors' involvement in the conduct and reporting of industry-sponsored trials.......Bias in industry-sponsored trials is common and the interpretation of the results can be particularly distorted in favour of the sponsor's product. We investigated sponsors' involvement in the conduct and reporting of industry-sponsored trials....

  20. Pressure and pressure derivative analysis for injection tests with variable temperature without type-curve matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Freddy Humberto; Martinez, Javier Andres; Montealegre Matilde

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of injection tests under nonisothermic conditions is important for the accurate estimation of the reservoir permeability and the well's skin factor; since previously an isothermical system was assumed without taking into account a moving temperature front which expands with time plus the consequent changes in both viscosity and mobility between the cold and the hot zone of the reservoir which leads to unreliable estimation of the reservoir and well parameters. To construct the solution an analytical approach presented by Boughrara and Peres (2007) was used. That solution was initially introduced for the calculation of the injection pressure in an isothermic system. It was later modified by Boughrara and Reynolds (2007) to consider a system with variable temperature in vertical wells. In this work, the pressure response was obtained by numerical solution of the anisothermical model using the Gauss Quadrature method to solve the integrals, and assuming that both injection and reservoir temperatures were kept constant during the injection process and the water saturation is uniform throughout the reservoir. For interpretation purposes, a technique based upon the unique features of the pressure and pressure derivative curves were used without employing type-curve matching (TDS technique). The formulation was verified by its application to field and synthetic examples. As expected, increasing reservoir temperature causes a decrement in the mobility ratio, then estimation of reservoir permeability is some less accurate from the second radial flow, especially, as the mobility ratio increases

  1. Variability in physical contamination assessment of source segregated biodegradable municipal waste derived composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echavarri-Bravo, Virginia; Thygesen, Helene H; Aspray, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Physical contaminants (glass, metal, plastic and 'other') and stones were isolated and categorised from three finished commercial composts derived from source segregated biodegradable municipal waste (BMW). A subset of the identified physical contaminant fragments were subsequently reintroduced into the cleaned compost samples and sent to three commercial laboratories for testing in an inter-laboratory trial using the current PAS100:2011 method (AfOR MT PC&S). The trial showed that the 'other' category caused difficulty for all three laboratories with under reporting, particularly of the most common 'other' contaminants (paper and cardboard) and, over-reporting of non-man-made fragments. One laboratory underreported metal contaminant fragments (spiked as silver foil) in three samples. Glass, plastic and stones were variably underreported due to miss-classification or over reported due to contamination with compost (organic) fragments. The results are discussed in the context of global physical contaminant test methods and compost quality assurance schemes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Variability, heritability, and correlations of agronomic traits in an onion landrace and derived S1 lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Porta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed variability, heritability and correlations of agronomic traits in an onion (Allium cepa L. landrace and derived S1 lines after a single selfing generation. Bulbs used to develop S1 lines were selected for shape, colour and high number of skins. Fifty-one S1 lines and the original population were evaluated using an incomplete random block design. The original population and S1 lines were highly diverse for quantitative and qualitative traits. S1 lines were significantly different, with transgressive segregation for number and maximum leaf length, bulbing index, bulb weight, diameter, and dry matter content. Variances within S1 lines were greater than among S1 lines for all traits. Bulb colour and number of skins responded to selection. Heritabilities for dry matter and soluble solids were 52.6% and 36.1% respectively. Both traits were highly correlated. The development of S1 lines allowed the expression of genetic variation and the identification of better genotypes for agronomic traits of interest.

  3. EFFECTS OF CORNEAL CROSSLINKING ON OCULAR RESPONSE ANALYZER WAVEFORM-DERIVED VARIABLES IN KERATOCONUS AND POST-REFRACTIVE SURGERY ECTASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, Katie M.; Rocha, Karolinne; Sinha Roy, Abhijit; Randleman, J. Bradley; Stulting, R. Doyle; Dupps, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess changes in Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) waveforms after UVA/riboflavin corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) using investigator-derived and manufacturer-supplied morphometric variables in keratoconus (KC) and post-refractive surgery ectasia patients. Design Prospective, randomized trial of a standard, epithelium-off CXL protocol Participants Patients with progressive KC (24 eyes of 21 patients) or post-refractive surgery ectasia (27 eyes of 23 patients) were enrolled. Methods Replicate ORA measurements were obtained prior to and 3 months after CXL. Pre-treatment and post-treatment waveform variables were analyzed for differences by paired student’s t-tests using measurements with the highest waveform scores. Main Outcome Measures Corneal Hysteresis, Corneal Resistance Factor, 37 second-generation manufacturer-supplied ORA variables, 15 investigator-derived ORA variables Results No variables were significantly different 3 months after CXL in the KC group, and no manufacturer–supplied variables changed significantly in the post-refractive surgery ectasia group. Four custom variables (ApplanationOnsetTime, P1P2avg, Impulse, and Pmax) increased by small but statistically significant margins after CXL in the post-refractive surgery ectasia group. Conclusions Changes in a small subset of investigator-derived variables suggested an increase in corneal bending resistance after CXL. However, the magnitudes of these changes were low and not commensurate with the degree of clinical improvement or prior computational estimates of corneal stiffening in the same cohort over the same period. Available air-puff derived measures of the corneal deformation response underestimate the biomechanical changes produced by CXL. PMID:25365551

  4. Paradigma Baru Sponsor sebagai Mitra Penyelenggaraan Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Evelina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this article is to know why sponsorship only to be viewed as sources of funding to implement the public relation events or marketing communication events. Method used in this article is qualitative method research to be based on observation, library study and content analysis. The result of this research seems that change happened in role of sponsorship from only fund source to become a partner of cooperation (mutual symbiotism between sponsor and event organizer. This article exploring the change of sponsorship concept from only looking for sponsor as an activity of fund mobilitation to become a partnership cooperation between event organizer and sponsor company. The mean of sponsor itself beside the fund supporter, they are also a side who takes mutual benefit from the cooperation. Conclusion, any close relationship (mutual benefit between two sides who take cooperation in event implementation (sponsor and event organiser. 

  5. Analytical Derivation of Power Laws in Firm Size Variables from Gibrat's Law and Quasi-inversion Symmetry: A Geomorphological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Atushi; Fujimoto, Shouji; Mizuno, Takayuki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2014-03-01

    We start from Gibrat's law and quasi-inversion symmetry for three firm size variables (i.e., tangible fixed assets K, number of employees L, and sales Y) and derive a partial differential equation to be satisfied by the joint probability density function of K and L. We then transform K and L, which are correlated, into two independent variables by applying surface openness used in geomorphology and provide an analytical solution to the partial differential equation. Using worldwide data on the firm size variables for companies, we confirm that the estimates on the power-law exponents of K, L, and Y satisfy a relationship implied by the theory.

  6. Lidar-derived variables as a proxy for fungal species richness and composition in temperate Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thers, Henrik; Brunbjerg, Ane Kirstine; Læssøe, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    . Lidar-derived variables performed best in predicting fungal richness and the first ordination axis, interpreted as a gradient from low and open herb-dominated communities over closed swards and scrubs to closed-canopy forests (cross validated r2 of 0.50 and 0.81, respectively). The number of red...

  7. Trends and inter-annual variability of methane emissions derived from 1979-1993 global CTM simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentener, F; van Weele, M; Krol, M; Houweling, S; van Velthoven, P

    2003-01-01

    The trend and interannual variability of methane sources are derived from multi-annual simulations of tropospheric photochemistry using a 3-D global chemistry-transport model. Our semi-inverse analysis uses the fifteen years (1979-1993) re-analysis of ECMWF meteorological data and annually varying

  8. Derivation and application of mathematical model for well test analysis with variable skin factor in hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengcheng; Li, Wenhui; Xia, Jing; Jiao, Yuwei; Bie, Aifang

    2016-06-01

    Skin factor is often regarded as a constant in most of the mathematical model for well test analysis in oilfields, but this is only a kind of simplified treatment with the actual skin factor changeable. This paper defined the average permeability of a damaged area as a function of time by using the definition of skin factor. Therefore a relationship between a variable skin factor and time was established. The variable skin factor derived was introduced into existing traditional models rather than using a constant skin factor, then, this newly derived mathematical model for well test analysis considering variable skin factor was solved by Laplace transform. The dimensionless wellbore pressure and its derivative changed with dimensionless time were plotted with double logarithm and these plots can be used for type curve fitting. The effects of all the parameters in the expression of variable skin factor were analyzed based on the dimensionless wellbore pressure and its derivative. Finally, actual well testing data were used to fit the type curves developed which validates the applicability of the mathematical model from Sheng-2 Block, Shengli Oilfield, China.

  9. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  10. Validation Framework for USGS Landsat-derived Essential Climate Variables: the Burned Area Product Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladinich, C. S.; Brunner, N. M.; Beal, Y. G.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), as defined by the Global Climate Observing System program, from the Landsat data archive. The Landsat archive will provide high spatial resolution (30 m) and long-term (1972 to present) global land products, meeting the needs of climate and ecological studies at global, national, and regional scales. Validation protocols for these products are being established, paralleling the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Calibration/Validation Working Groups' best practice guidelines, but also being modified to account for the unique characteristics of the Landsat data. The USGS validation plan is unique in that it incorporates protocols that span not only the breadth of ecoregions but the timespan of the ECV products and Landsat satellite sensors (MSS, TM, TM+, and OLI). To achieve these goals, the incorporation of existing data bases is essential. Protocols are being developed to perform a CEOS Working Group on Calibration/Validation Stage 2 validation with plans on performing a full Stage 4 validation ensuring the spatial and temporal consistency of the ECV products. A Stage 2 validation reports product accuracies over a large number of locations and time periods by comparison with in situ or other suitable reference data. The Stage 3 validation reports product uncertainties in a statistically robust way over multiple locations and time periods representing global conditions. Validation at this stage reports on the accuracies and confidence of products for the user communities as well as to the algorithm developers. The Stage 4 validation calls for continual assessments as new product versions of the algorithms are released. This presentation will report on the validation protocols used for the Burned Area ECV product. The burned area ECV product is unique from other ECV products such as land cover or LAI because of the transitory nature of fires. In the United

  11. Measurement of circulating cell-derived microparticles by flow cytometry: Sources of variability within the assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayers, Lisa; Kohler, Malcolm; Harrison, Paul; Sargent, Ian; Dragovic, Rebecca; Schaap, Marianne; Nieuwland, Rienk; Brooks, Susan A.; Ferry, Berne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Circulating cell-derived microparticles (MPs) have been implicated in several disease processes and elevated levels are found in many pathological conditions. The detection and accurate measurement of MPs, although attracting widespread interest, is hampered by a lack of

  12. The Weighted Square Integral Inequalities for the First Derivative of the Function of a Real Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shashiashvili

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the square integral estimate for the derivative of the convex function by Shashiashvili (2005 to the case of the family of the weight functions, satisfying certain conditions. This kind of generalization is especially valuable in the problems of mathematical finance for construction of the discrete time hedging strategies.

  13. The Weighted Square Integral Inequalities for the First Derivative of the Function of a Real Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the square integral estimate for the derivative of the convex function by Shashiashvili (2005 to the case of the family of the weight functions, satisfying certain conditions. This kind of generalization is especially valuable in the problems of mathematical finance for construction of the discrete time hedging strategies.

  14. Time-variable gravity fields derived from GPS tracking of Swarm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezděk, Aleš; Sebera, Josef; da Encarnacao, J.T.; Klokočník, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 3 (2016), s. 1665-1669 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14026; GA ČR GA13-36843S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : satellite geodesy * time variable gravity * global change from geodesy Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.414, year: 2016

  15. Redactions in protocols for drug trials: what industry sponsors concealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardsen, Mikkel; Ogden, Michelle; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    Objective To describe the redactions in contemporary protocols for industry-sponsored randomised drug trials with patient relevant outcomes and to evaluate whether there was a legitimate rationale for the redactions. Design Cohort study. Under the Freedom of Information Act, we requested access to trial protocols approved by a research ethics committee in Denmark from October 2012 to March 2013. We received 17 consecutive protocols, which had been redacted before we got them, and nine protocols without redactions. In five additional cases, the companies refused to let the committees give us access, and in three other cases, documents were missing. Participants Not applicable. Setting Not applicable. Main outcome measure Amount and nature of redactions in 22 predefined key protocol variables. Results The redactions were most widespread in those sections of the protocol where there is empirical evidence of substantial problems with the trustworthiness of published drug trials: data analysis, handling of missing data, detection and analysis of adverse events, definition of the outcomes, interim analyses and premature termination of the study, sponsor's access to incoming data while the study is running, ownership to the data and investigators' publication rights. The parts of the text that were redacted differed widely, both between companies and within the same company. Conclusions We could not identify any legitimate rationale for the redactions. The current mistrust in industry-sponsored drug trials can only change if the industry offers unconditional access to its trial protocols and other relevant documents and data.

  16. The Political Economy of Federally Sponsored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Ragon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Librarian involvement in the Open Access (OA movement has traditionally focused on access to scholarly publications. Recent actions by the White House have focused attention on access on the data produced from federally sponsored research. Questions have emerged concerning access to the output of federally sponsored research and whether it is a public or private good. Understanding the political battle over access to federally funded research is closely tied to the ownership of the peer review process in higher education and associated revenue streams, and as a result, interest groups seeking to influence government regulation have politicized the issues. As a major funder of research in higher education, policies from the federal government are likely to drive change in research practices at higher education institutions and impact library services. The political economy of federally sponsored research data will shape research enterprises in higher education inspire a number of new services distributed throughout the research life cycle.

  17. 77 FR 26697 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Change of Sponsor Address; Change of Sponsor Name and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... that it has transferred ownership of, and all rights and interest in, abbreviated new animal drug... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510 and 522 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal...

  18. Recent Climate Variability in Antarctica from Satellite-derived Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David P.; Steig, Eric J.; Comiso, Josefino C.

    2004-01-01

    Recent Antarctic climate variability on month-to-month to interannual time scales is assessed through joint analysis of surface temperatures from satellite thermal infrared observations (T(sub IR)) and passive microwave brightness temperatures (T(sub B)). Although Tw data are limited to clear-sky conditions and T(sub B) data are a product of the temperature and emissivity of the upper approx. 1m of snow, the two data sets share significant covariance. This covariance is largely explained by three empirical modes, which illustrate the spatial and temporal variability of Antarctic surface temperatures. T(sub B) variations are damped compared to TIR variations, as determined by the period of the temperature forcing and the microwave emission depth; however, microwave emissivity does not vary significantly in time. Comparison of the temperature modes with Southern Hemisphere (SH) 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies demonstrates that Antarctic temperature anomalies are predominantly controlled by the principal patterns of SH atmospheric circulation. The leading surface temperature mode strongly correlates with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) in geopotential height. The second temperature mode reflects the combined influences of the zonal wavenumber-3 and Pacific South American (PSA) patterns in 500-hPa height on month-to-month timescales. ENSO variability projects onto this mode on interannual timescales, but is not by itself a good predictor of Antarctic temperature anomalies. The third temperature mode explains winter warming trends, which may be caused by blocking events, over a large region of the East Antarctic plateau. These results help to place recent climate changes in the context of Antarctica's background climate variability and will aid in the interpretation of ice core paleoclimate records.

  19. TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 3: Variables Derived from the Student, Home, Teacher, and School Questionnaire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement contains documentation on all the derived variables contained in the TIMSS 2011 data files that are based on background questionnaire variables. These variables were used to report background data in the TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics and TIMSS 2011 International Results in Science reports, and are made available…

  20. 14 CFR 152.309 - Availability of sponsor's records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the purposes of accounting and audit. (b) The sponsor or planning agency shall allow appropriate FAA... to the sponsor or planning agency. (c) It audit findings have not been resolved, the applicable... sponsor's records. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall allow any authorized representative of the...

  1. 48 CFR 35.017-1 - Sponsoring agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sponsoring agreement or sponsoring agencies' policies and procedures: (1) A statement of the purpose and... of the FFRDC's relationship with its sponsor(s). (3) A provision for the identification of retained earnings (reserves) and the development of a plan for their use and disposition. (4) A prohibition against...

  2. Flexible transition state theory for a variable reaction coordinate: Derivation of canonical and microcanonical forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Struan; Wagner, Albert F.; Wardlaw, David M.

    2000-01-01

    A completely general canonical and microcanonical (energy-resolved) flexible transition state theory (FTST) expression for the rate constant is derived for an arbitrary choice of reaction coordinate. The derivation is thorough and rigorous within the framework of FTST and replaces our previous treatments [Robertson et al., J. Chem. Phys. 103, 2917 (1995); Robertson et al., Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 102, 65 (1995)] which implicitly involved some significant assumptions. The canonical rate expressions obtained here agree with our earlier results. The corresponding microcanonical results are new. The rate expressions apply to any definition of the separation distance between fragments in a barrierless recombination (or dissociation) that is held fixed during hindered rotations at the transition state, and to any combination of fragment structure (atom, linear top, nonlinear top). The minimization of the rate constant with respect to this definition can be regarded as optimizing the reaction coordinate within a canonical or microcanonical framework. The expression is analytic except for a configuration integral whose evaluation generally requires numerical integration over internal angles (from one to five depending on the fragment structures). The form of the integrand in this integral has important conceptual and computational implications. The primary component of the integrand is the determinant of the inverse G-matrix associated with the external rotations and the relative internal motion of the fragments. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  3. The Influence of Sponsor-Event Congruence in Sponsorship of Music Festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hutabarat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE This paper focuses the research on the Influence of Sponsor-Event Congruence toward Brand Image, Attitudes toward the Brand and Purchase Intention. Having reviewed the literatures and arranged the hypotheses, the data has been gathered by distributing the questionnaire to 155 audiences at the Java Jazz Music Festival, firstly with convenience sampling and then snowballing sampling approach. The analysis of data was executed with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The result shows the sponsor-event congruence variable has a positive impact toward brand image and attitudes toward the brand sponsor. Brand Image also has a positive impact toward purchase intention; in contrary attitudes toward the brand do not have a positive purchase intention. With those results, to increase the sponsorship effectiveness, the role of congruency is very significant in the sponsorship event. Congruency is a key influencer to trigger the sponsorship effectiveness. Congruency between the event and the sponsor is able to boost up the brand image and bring out favorable attitudes towards the brand for the success of marketing communication programs, particularly sponsorship. In addition to it, image transfer gets higher due to the congruency existence (fit between sponsor and event and directs the intention creation to buy sponsor brand product/service (purchase intention. In conclusion, sponsor-event congruence has effect on consumer responds toward sponsorship, either on the cognitive level, affective and also behavior.

  4. The Influence of Sponsor-Event Congruence in Sponsorship of Music Festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hutabarat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses the research on the Influence of Sponsor-Event Congruence toward Brand Image, Attitudes toward the Brand and Purchase Intention. Having reviewed the literatures and arranged the hypotheses, the data has been gathered by distributing the questionnaire to 155 audiences at the Java Jazz Music Festival, firstly with convenience sampling and then snowballing sampling approach. The analysis of data was executed with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The result shows the sponsor-event congruence variable has a positive impact toward brand image and attitudes toward the brand sponsor. Brand Image also has a positive impact toward purchase intention; in contrary attitudes toward the brand do not have a positive purchase intention. With those results, to increase the sponsorship effectiveness, the role of congruency is very significant in the sponsorship event. Congruency is a key influencer to trigger the sponsorship effectiveness. Congruency between the event and the sponsor is able to boost up the brand image and bring out favorable attitudes towards the brand for the success of marketing communication programs, particularly sponsorship. In addition to it, image transfer gets higher due to the congruency existence (fit between sponsor and event and directs the intention creation to buy sponsor brand product/service (purchase intention. In conclusion, sponsor-event congruence has effect on consumer responds toward sponsorship, either on the cognitive level, affective and also behavior.

  5. Cosmic ray muon charge ratio derived from the new scaling variable model

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P

    1980-01-01

    The charge ratio of sea level muons has been estimated from the new scaling variable model and the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring data of Capiluppi et al. (1974) for pp to pi /sup +or-/X and pp to K/sup +or- /X inclusive reactions. The estimated muon charge ratio is found to be 1.21 and the result has been compared with the experimental data of Parker et al. (1969), Burnet et al. (1973), Ashley et al., and Muraki et al. (1979). (20 refs).

  6. Sponsors, Sponsorship Rates and the Immigration Multiplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, Guillermina; Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews evidence of the extent to which U.S. immigrants utilize the family reunification entitlements of immigration laws. Examines two studies of the immigrant cohort: Jasso and Rosenzweig (1986) and the General Accounting Office report (1988). Provides estimates of the characteristics of U.S. citizen sponsors of immigrant spouses and parents.…

  7. 22 CFR 62.3 - Sponsor eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sponsor eligibility. 62.3 Section 62.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions... visitor program are: (1) United States local, state and federal government agencies; (2) International...

  8. Agency-Sponsored Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, James S.

    1976-01-01

    Sponsors of these programs include nonprofit organizations, proprietary agencies, wholly owned subsidiaries of U.S. corporations, and foreign-based institutions catering to North American students. Problems arising from their non-accredited status are examined and a criterion instrument for evaluating them is developed. (LBH)

  9. SMMR-SSM/I derived Greenland Sea ice variability: links with Indian and Korean Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Amita; Oh, Jaiho; Kim, In-won; Kripalani, R. H.; Pandithurai, G.

    2018-02-01

    Greenland Sea ice area (GRESIA) in boreal autumn and its association with the subsequent summer monsoon rainfall over India and South Korea is assessed for the period 1983-2013. It is found that GRESIA in the month of October has a significant positive relation (correlation coefficient (cc) = 0.45) with the subsequent Indian monsoon rainfall (IMR) while having a significant negative relation (cc = -0.40) with the ensuing Korean monsoon rainfall (KMR). GRESIA episodes in the preceding autumn impact the ensuing summer monsoon rainfall over India (South Korea) adversely (favourably). While central Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) play a mediating role in transmitting the GRESIA signal towards the Indian subcontinent, snow over eastern Eurasia, just north of the Korea-Japan peninsula, plays a mediating role in transmitting the GRESIA signal towards the Korean peninsula. Although, the anomalies of equatorial central Pacific SSTs and eastern Eurasian snow play a crucial role in modulating IMR and KMR respectively, the GRESIA variability also plays a dominant role in modulating the monsoon variability over both the regions. Thus, a combination of autumn GRESIA along with SSTs over the central Pacific and snow over the eastern Eurasia, may possibly serve as a unique precursor to presage Asia's two diverse regional subsystems.

  10. Trends and inter-annual variability of methane emissions derived from 1979-1993 global CTM simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dentener

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The trend and interannual variability of methane sources are derived from multi-annual simulations of tropospheric photochemistry using a 3-D global chemistry-transport model. Our semi-inverse analysis uses the fifteen years (1979--1993 re-analysis of ECMWF meteorological data and annually varying emissions including photo-chemistry, in conjunction with observed CH4 concentration distributions and trends derived from the NOAA-CMDL surface stations. Dividing the world in four zonal regions (45--90 N, 0--45 N, 0--45 S, 45--90 S we find good agreement in each region between (top-down calculated emission trends from model simulations and (bottom-up estimated anthropogenic emission trends based on the EDGAR global anthropogenic emission database, which amounts for the period 1979--1993 2.7 Tg CH4 yr-1. Also the top-down determined total global methane emission compares well with the total of the bottom-up estimates. We use the difference between the bottom-up and top-down determined emission trends to calculate residual emissions. These residual emissions represent the inter-annual variability of the methane emissions. Simulations have been performed in which the year-to-year meteorology, the emissions of ozone precursor gases, and the stratospheric ozone column distribution are either varied, or kept constant. In studies of methane trends it is most important to include the trends and variability of the oxidant fields. The analyses reveals that the variability of the emissions is of the order of 8Tg CH4 yr-1, and likely related to wetland emissions and/or biomass burning.

  11. Automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system based on photoplethysmography-derived heart rate variability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Il-Hyung; Cha, Jaepyeong; Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Lee, Choonghee; Lee, Seung Yup; Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system (ASMRS) for individual music listeners. The ASMRS uses a portable, wireless photoplethysmography module with a finger-type sensor, and a program that translates heartbeat signals from the sensor to the stress index. The sympathovagal balance index (SVI) was calculated from heart rate variability to assess the user's stress levels while listening to music. Twenty-two healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. The results have shown that the participants' SVI values are highly correlated with their prespecified music preferences. The sensitivity and specificity of the favorable music classification also improved as the number of music repetitions increased to 20 times. Based on the SVI values, the system automatically recommends favorable music lists to relieve stress for individuals.

  12. Using a Budyko Derived Index to Evaluate the Internal Hydrological Variability of Catchments in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, M.

    2017-12-01

    Headwater catchments in complex terrain typically exhibit significant variations in microclimatic conditions across slopes. This microclimatic variability in turn, modifies land surface properties presumably altering the hydrologic dynamics of these catchments. The extent to which differences in microclimate and land cover dictate the partition of water and energy fluxes within a catchment is still poorly understood. In this study, we attempt to do an assessment of the effects of aspect, elevation and latitude (which are the principal factors that define microclimate conditions) on the hydrologic behavior of the hillslopes within catchments with complex terrain. Using a distributed hydrologic model on a number of catchments at different latitudes, where data is available for calibration and validation, we estimate the different components of the water balance to obtain the aridity index (AI = PET/P) and the evaporative index (EI = AET/P) of each slope for a number of years. We use Budyko's curve as a framework to characterize the inter-annual variability in the hydrologic response of the hillslopes in the studied catchments, developing a hydrologic sensitivity index (HSi) based on the relative change in Budyko's curve components (HSi=ΔAI/ΔEI). With this method, when the HSi values of a given hillslope are larger than 1 the hydrologic behavior of that part of the catchment is considered sensitive to changes in climatic conditions, while values approaching 0 would indicate the opposite. We use this approach as a diagnostic tool to discern the effect of aspect, elevation, and latitude on the hydrologic regime of the slopes in complex terrain catchments and to try to explain observed patterns of land cover conditions on these types of catchments.

  13. Measuring Consumer Reactions to Sponsoring Partnerships Based upon Emotional and Attitudinal Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis Christensen, Sverre

    2004-01-01

    batteries of statements, attitude words and feeling words, are developed and a study is carried out with 470 respondents, randomly selected from the population. The data are analysed and pro-vide expressions of positive and negative attitude reaction and emotional reaction that show marked differences...... in consumer reactions towards sponsored objects of different natures as well as towards potential sponsoring organisations. For instance, the charitable institutions measured in the study elicit larger negative emotional re-sponses than positive responses, corresponding to a negative Net Emotional Response...... to the measurements, and it is suggested that the effects can be measured on the atti-tudes-towards-the sponsor and on the emotion-towards-the sponsor levels. This type of modelling is known as the ELAM model, however the types of independent variables involved is new to research into sponsorship effects. Two...

  14. Documentary-derived chronologies of rainfall variability in Antigua, Lesser Antilles, 1770–1890

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Berland

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first extensive reconstruction of precipitation variability in the Lesser Antilles using historical documentary sources. Over 13 250 items of documentation pertaining to Antigua from the period 1769–1890 were consulted, including missionary, plantation and governmental papers as well as contemporary scholarly publications. Based on the predominant meteorological conditions observed throughout the island, each "rain-year" (December–November was assigned one of five classifications (very wet, wet, "normal", dry and very dry. Local weather references relating to seven plantations in central-eastern Antigua were grouped according to dry (December–April and wet seasons (May–November, each of which were also categorised in the aforementioned manner. Results comprise individual island-wide and central-eastern Antiguan chronologies of relative precipitation levels, spanning the rain-years 1769–70 to 1889–90 and 1769–70 to 1853–54 respectively. The former is compared with available instrumental data for the years 1870–1890. Significant dry phases are identified in the rain-years 1775–80, 1788–91, 1820–22, 1834–37, 1844–45, 1859–60, 1862–64, 1870–74 and 1881–82, while wet episodes were 1771–74, 1833–34, 1837–38, 1841–44, 1845–46 and 1878–81. Evidence for major wet and dry spells is presented and findings are evaluated within wider historical and palaeoclimatic contexts.

  15. Snow Extent Variability in Lesotho Derived from MODIS Data (2000–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wunderle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Lesotho, snow cover is not only highly relevant to the climate system, but also affects socio-economic factors such as water storage for irrigation or hydro-electricity. However, while sound knowledge of annual and inter-annual snow dynamics is strongly required by local stakeholders, in-situ snow information remains limited. In this study, satellite data are used to generate a time series of snow cover and to provide the missing information on a national scale. A snow retrieval method, which is based on MODIS data and considers the concept of a normalized difference snow index (NDSI, has been implemented. Monitoring gaps due to cloud cover are filled by temporal and spatial post-processing. The comparison is based on the use of clear sky reference images from Landsat-TM and ENVISAT-MERIS. While the snow product is considered to be of good quality (mean accuracy: 68%, a slight bias towards snow underestimation is observed. Based on the daily product, a consistent time series of snow cover for Lesotho from 2000–2014 was generated for the first time. Analysis of the time series showed that the high annual variability of snow coverage and the short duration of single snow events require daily monitoring with a gap-filling procedure.

  16. Genetic engineering of chimeric antigen receptors using lamprey derived variable lymphocyte receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Moot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs are used to redirect effector cell specificity to selected cell surface antigens. Using CARs, antitumor activity can be initiated in patients with no prior tumor specific immunity. Although CARs have shown promising clinical results, the technology remains limited by the availability of specific cognate cell target antigens. To increase the repertoire of targetable tumor cell antigens we utilized the immune system of the sea lamprey to generate directed variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs. VLRs serve as membrane bound and soluble immune effectors analogous but not homologous to immunoglobulins. They have a fundamentally different structure than immunoglobulin (Ig-based antibodies while still demonstrating high degrees of specificity and affinity. To test the functionality of VLRs as the antigen recognition domain of CARs, two VLR-CARs were created. One contained a VLR specific for a murine B cell leukemia and the other contained a VLR specific for the human T cell surface antigen, CD5. The CAR design consisted of the VLR sequence, myc-epitope tag, CD28 transmembrane domain, and intracellular CD3ζ signaling domain. We demonstrate proof of concept, including gene transfer, biosynthesis, cell surface localization, and effector cell activation for multiple VLR-CAR designs. Therefore, VLRs provide an alternative means of CAR-based cancer recognition.

  17. Smartphone-Derived Heart-Rate Variability and Training Load in a Women's Soccer Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Andrew A; Esco, Michael R

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the 7-d mean and coefficient of variation (CV) of supine and standing ultrashort log-transformed root mean square of successive R-R intervals multiplied by 20 (lnRMSSDx20) obtained with a smartphone application (app) in response to varying weekly training load (TL). In addition, the authors aimed to determine if these values could be accurately assessed in as few as 5 or 3 d/wk. Nine women from a college soccer team performed daily heart-rate-variability measures with an app in supine and standing positions over 3 wk of moderate, high, and low TL. The mean and CV over 7, 5, and 3 d were compared within and between weeks. The 5- and 3-d measures within each week provided very good to nearly perfect intraclass correlations (ICCs .74-.99) with typical errors ranging from 0.64 to 5.65 when compared with the 7-d criteria. The 7, 5, and 3-d supine CV and the 7-day standing CV were moderately lower during the low-load than the high-load week (P .003-.045, effect sizes 0.86-0.92), with no significant changes occurring in the other measures. This study supports the use of the mean and CV of lnRMSSD measured across at least 5 d for reflecting weekly values. The supine lnRMSSDx20 CV as measured across 7, 5, and 3 d was the most sensitive marker to the changes in TL in the 3-wk period.

  18. Variable performance of a human derived Sarcoptes scabiei recombinant antigen ELISA in swine mange diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, R; Goyena, E; Martínez-Carrasco, C; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R; Alonso de Vega, F; Ramis, G; Prieto, J M; Berriatua, E

    2013-10-18

    The performance of an indirect ELISA test based on Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis recombinant antigen Ssλ20ΔB3 (rec-ELISA), to diagnose pig mange was investigated in 15 experimentally infected and non-infected pigs and 692 commercial pigs from 16 herds in southeast Spain. These latter animals included 6-7 month old fatteners (13 herds), 11-12 month old replacement sows (1 herd) and ≥24 month old breeding sows (7 herds). All pigs were examined for mites in ear skin scrapings and the presence of S. scabiei-associated macroscopic dermatitis; moreover, fatteners were also tested for antibodies against porcine viruses including: Aujeszky disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus (SIV), type 2 porcine circovirus (PCV2) and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV). S. scabiei and chronic hyperkeratotic dermatitis were detected in breeding sows from 6 herds. Mite prevalence in other pigs was 83% in replacement sows, 0% in 7 fattener's herds and 3-82% in other fattener's herds. All fattener herds had pigs with acute hypersensitivity dermatitis and the percentage of affected pigs and lesion area was significantly greater in S. scabiei infected ones. Rec-ELISA relative optical densities (RODs) were greater in older than in young pigs, as well as in infected compared to non-infected pigs. However, RODs differed significantly between infected individuals, regardless of age and origin (commercial or experimental) and the herd prevalence of S. scabiei. Low repeatability between ELISA microtiter plates, suggesting variable specific antibody binding to antigen, are likely partly responsible for ROD variation. Other potential causes of variation were examined in fatteners using random effects logistic regression analysis, after defining a seropositivity threshold value with receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The logistic model indicated that seropositivity was associated with large dermatitis areas and with the only herd with low PCV2

  19. The Complex Dynamics of Sponsored Search Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, Valentin; La Poutré, Han; Bohte, Sander

    This paper provides a comprehensive study of the structure and dynamics of online advertising markets, mostly based on techniques from the emergent discipline of complex systems analysis. First, we look at how the display rank of a URL link influences its click frequency, for both sponsored search and organic search. Second, we study the market structure that emerges from these queries, especially the market share distribution of different advertisers. We show that the sponsored search market is highly concentrated, with less than 5% of all advertisers receiving over 2/3 of the clicks in the market. Furthermore, we show that both the number of ad impressions and the number of clicks follow power law distributions of approximately the same coefficient. However, we find this result does not hold when studying the same distribution of clicks per rank position, which shows considerable variance, most likely due to the way advertisers divide their budget on different keywords. Finally, we turn our attention to how such sponsored search data could be used to provide decision support tools for bidding for combinations of keywords. We provide a method to visualize keywords of interest in graphical form, as well as a method to partition these graphs to obtain desirable subsets of search terms.

  20. Le sponsoring politique : un défi et espoir pour la communication politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zouabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le monde économique géré par la concurrence acharnée et exacerbée, l’entreprise tend à développer et diversifier ses moyens de communication et profiter des changements de l’environnement. En effet, à côté des médias traditionnels, l’entreprise s’appuie sur d’autres moyens de communication à savoir le sponsoring. Aujourd’hui le sponsoring est un moyen efficace dans la stratégie de communication des entreprises. Il ne cesse de se développer dans tous les domaines à savoir le sport, la culture, la santé, la politique, etc. Toutefois, les recherches spécialisées, professionnelles et académiques sur le sponsoring politique sont très limitées. C’est pourquoi cette recherche a été proposée. L’objectif de cet article est donc d’explorer le sponsoring politique comme un défi et espoir pour la communication politique. Les résultats de cette recherche montrent que les entreprises considèrent le sponsoring comme étant une variable stratégique. Pour le sponsoring politique, l’attitude des entreprises enquêtées varie largement en fonction de leur perception des risques et de leurs attentes pour les marques.

  1. Microcontroller Based Proportional Derivative Plus Conditional Integral Controller for Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley Continuously Variable Transmission Ratio Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto, A.; Tawi, K. B.; Hussein, M.; Supriyo, B.; Ariyono, S.; Che Kob, M. S.; Ezlamy Zulkifli, Mohd; K, Khairuldean A.; Daraoh, Aishah

    2012-09-01

    Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley (EMDAP) Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) is a transmission utilized by electro-mechanical actuated system. It has a potential to reduce energy consumption because it only needs power during changing CVT ratio and no power is needed to maintain CVT ratio due to self lock mechanism design. This paper proposed simple proportional derivative plus conditional integral (PDCI) controller to control EMDAP CVT ratio which can be simply implemented on a microcontroller. This proposed controller used Astrom-Hagglund method and Ziegler-Nichols formula to tune PDCI gain. The Proportional Derivative controller is directly activated from the start but Integral controller is only activated when the error value reaches error value setting point. Simulation using Matlab/Simulink software was conducted to evaluate PDCI system performance. The simulation results showed PDCI controller has ability to perform maximum overshoot 0.1%, 0.001 steady state error and 0.5s settling time. For clamping condition, settling time is about 11.46s during changing ratio from 2.0 to 0.7, while for release condition, settling time is about 8.33s during changing ratio from 0.7 to 2.0.

  2. DOE-EERC jointly sponsored research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrikson, J.G.; Sondreal, E.A.

    1999-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-93MC30098 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) supported the performance of a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with a minimum 50% nonfederal cost share to assist industry in commercializing and effectively applying efficient, nonpolluting energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting market demands for clean fuels, chemical feedstocks, and electricity in the 21st century. The objective of the JSRP was to advance the deployment of advanced technologies for improving energy efficiency and environmental performance through jointly sponsored research on topics that would not be adequately addressed by the private sector alone. Examples of such topics include the barriers to hot-gas cleaning impeding the deployment of high-efficiency power systems and the search for practical means for sequestering CO{sub 2} generated by fossil fuel combustion. The selection of particular research projects was guided by a combination of DOE priorities and market needs, as provided by the requirement for joint venture funding approved both by DOE and the private sector sponsor. The research addressed many different energy resource and related environmental problems, with emphasis directed toward the EERC's historic lead mission in low-rank coals (LRCs), which represent approximately half of the U.S. coal resources in the conterminous states, much larger potential resources in Alaska, and a major part of the energy base in the former U.S.S.R., East Central Europe, and the Pacific Rim. The Base and JSRP agreements were tailored to the growing awareness of critical environmental issues, including water supply and quality, air toxics (e.g., mercury), fine respirable particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}), and the goal of zero net CO{sub 2} emissions.

  3. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor or...

  4. 14 CFR 151.121 - Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. 151.121 Section 151.121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.121 Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. Each sponsor must adopt the following...

  5. 17 CFR 229.1104 - (Item 1104) Sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (c) Describe the sponsor's securitization program and state how long the sponsor has been engaged in the securitization of assets. The description must include, to the extent material, a general... material roles and responsibilities in its securitization program, including whether the sponsor or an...

  6. What can Bilfinger teach Olympic sponsors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Dodds

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilfinger SE (Bilfinger is a leading international engineering and services group (Bilfinger.com, 2015, and was a local sponsor of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The company is accused of paying bribes through its subsidiary company, Mauell, (dw. com, 2015 to public officials in Brazil for contracts related to the 2014 World Cup (Cassin, 2015. The corruption allegations relate to orders to equip security command centers at twelve host cities during the 2014 World Cup in Brazil (dw.com, 2015. Because Brazil hosted the 2014 FIFA World Cup and will host the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, companies need to consider the risks of many international anti-corruption laws, such as Brazil’s anti-corruption law commonly referred as The Clean Companies Act and other applicable anticorruption law like the United States’ Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (Rogers, et. al, 2014. This paper will analyze the Bilfinger case involving corruption activity at the 2014 FIFA World Cup and offer insights for sponsors of the 2016 Summer Olympic Games.

  7. Academic investigator-initiated trials and the challenge of sponsor responsibility: the Cologne Sponsor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgias, Christine; Grunow, Andrea; Olderog, Miriam; May, Alexander; Paulus, Ursula

    2012-12-01

    With the amendment to the German Drug Law in 2004, the conduct of clinical trials changed by at least two main aspects: (1) The principles of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) were implemented in the national legislation, and (2) for the first time, the function of the sponsor of a clinical trial and the clinical trial itself have become legally binding definitions. By that, legal differences between industrial and academic clinical trials no longer exist. Clinical trials initiated by investigators have to fulfil the same requirements while the entire sponsor responsibility has to be carried out by the Coordinating Investigator or his institution including implementation of a quality management system according to the GCP. The Cologne Sponsor Model is an effective approach with settings, structures, basic features, action, and reporting lines, as well as funding for clinical trials initiated in an academic environment. The University of Cologne assumes the sponsor responsibility for clinical trials organised by the university researchers according to law. Sponsor's duties are delegated to a central operational unit of the sponsor - the Clinical Trials Center Cologne - which further delegates duties to the Coordinating Investigator. Clinical Trials Center Cologne was established in 2002 to support the performance of clinical trials at the university by offering comprehensive advisory and practical services covering all aspects of study planning and conduct. Furthermore, a specialised division of its quality management department acts as an independent sponsor's Quality Assurance Unit. The Clinical Trials Center Cologne has established a quality management system consisting of different components (1) to enable a reasoned decision to subsequent delegation, (2) for risk-based surveillance of trial conduct (audits, monitoring-checks, and reports), and (3) support and training of the Coordinating Investigator. Double functions of persons and departments in the university

  8. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental

  9. List of Organizing Committees and Sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Organizers DIRECTORS Maria L CalvoPresident of International Commission for Optics, Spain Aram V PapoyanDirector of Institute for Physical Research of NAS, Armenia HEADS OF PROJECT Tigran Dadalyan YSU, Armenia Artsrun MartirosyanIPR, Armenia COORDINATOR Narine GevorgyanIPR, Armenia / ICTP, Italy MANAGERS Paytsar MantashyanIPR, Armenia Karen VardanyanIPR, Armenia INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE Marcis AuzinshLatvia Roland AvagyanArmenia Tapash ChakrabortyCanada Yuri ChilingaryanArmenia Eduard KazaryanArmenia Albert KirakosyanArmenia Radik KostanyanArmenia Avinash PandeyIndia Marat SoskinUkraine INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM COMMITTEE David Sarkisyan (Chair)Armenia Roman AlaverdyanArmenia Dan ApostolRomania Levon AslanyanArmenia Aranya BhattacherjeeIndia Gagik BuniatyanArmenia Vigen ChaltykyanArmenia Roldao Da RochaBrazil Miltcho DanailovItaly Vladimir GerdtRussia Samvel GevorgyanArmenia Gayane GrigoryanArmenia Rafik HakobyanArmenia Takayuki MiyaderaJapan Levon MouradianArmenia Atom MuradyanArmenia Simon RochesterUSA Hayk SarkisyanArmenia Aleksandr VardanyanArmenia LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Narek AghekyanArmenia Anahit GogyanArmenia Melanya GrigoryanArmenia Armen HovhannisyanArmenia Lilit HovhannisyanArmenia Tatevik KhachatryanArmenia Astghik KuzanyanArmenia Satenik KuzanyanArmenia Vladimir LazarevRussia Lilit MantashyanArmenia Hripsime MkrtchyanArmenia Pavel MuzhikyanArmenia Wahi NarsisianArmenia Sahak OrdukhanyanArmenia Anna ReymersArmenia Narine TorosyanArmenia The Symposium was organized by YSU & NAS SPIE Armenian Student Chapter Institute for Physical Research (IPR) of National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University (RAU) LT-PYRKAL cjsc Yerevan State University (YSU) Official Sponsors of the Symposium LT-PYRKAlRussian ArmenianSPIE LT-PYRKAL cjscRussian-Armenian UniversityYSU & NAS SPIE Student Chapter Further sponsors NFSATICTPSCSADevout Generation National Foundation of Science and Advanced TechnologiesThe Abdus Salam International Centre

  10. Jointly Sponsored Research Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Under this program, which has been in place since Fiscal Year 1990, DOE makes approximately $2.5 million available each year to the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to fund projects that are of current interest to industry but which still involve significant risk, thus requiring some government contribution to offset the risk if the research is to move forward. The program guidelines require that at least 50% of the project funds originate from nonfederal sources. Projects funded under the JSRP often originate under a complementary base program, which funds higher-risk projects. The projects funded in Fiscal Year 1996 addressed a wide range of Fossil Energy interests, including hot-gas filters for advanced power systems; development of cleaner, more efficient processing technologies; development of environmental control technologies; development of environmental remediation and reuse technologies; development of improved analytical techniques; and development of a beneficiation technique to broaden the use of high-sulfur coal. Descriptions and status for each of the projects funded during the past fiscal year are included in Section A of this document, Statement of Technical Progress.

  11. The Effects of Climate Variability on Phytoplankton Composition in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean using a Model and a Satellite-Derived Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, C. S.; Gregg, W. W.

    2012-01-01

    Compared the interannual variation in diatoms, cyanobacteria, coccolithophores and chlorophytes from the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model with those derived from satellite data (Hirata et al. 2011) between 1998 and 2006 in the Equatorial Pacific. Using NOBM, La Ni a events were characterized by an increase in diatoms (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81, Pphytoplankton community in response to climate variability. However, satellite-derived phytoplankton groups were all negatively correlated with climate variability (r ranged from -0.39 for diatoms to -0.64 for coccolithophores, Pphytoplankton groups except diatoms than NOBM. However, the different responses of phytoplankton to intense interannual events in the Equatorial Pacific raises questions about the representation of phytoplankton dynamics in models and algorithms: is a phytoplankton community shift as in the model or an across-the-board change in abundances of all phytoplankton as in the satellite-derived approach.

  12. Team sponsors in community-based health leadership programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tracy Enright; Dinkin, Donna R; Champion, Heather

    2017-05-02

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to share the lessons learned about the role of team sponsors in action-learning teams as part of community-based health leadership development programs. Design/methodology/approach This case study uses program survey results from fellow participants, action learning coaches and team sponsors to understand the value of sponsors to the teams, the roles they most often filled and the challenges they faced as team sponsors. Findings The extent to which the sponsors were perceived as having contributed to the work of the action learning teams varied greatly from team to team. Most sponsors agreed that they were well informed about their role. The roles sponsors most frequently played were to provide the teams with input and support, serve as a liaison to the community and serve as a sounding board, motivator and cheerleader. The most common challenges or barriers team sponsors faced in this role were keeping engaged in the process, adjusting to the role and feeling disconnected from the program. Practical implications This work provides insights for program developers and community foundations who are interested in building the capacity for health leadership by linking community sponsors with emerging leaders engaged in an action learning experience. Originality/value This work begins to fill a gap in the literature. The role of team sponsors has been studied for single organization work teams but there is a void of understanding about the role of sponsors with multi-organizational teams working to improve health while also learning about leadership.

  13. 42 CFR 423.401 - General requirements for PDP sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sponsor is organized and licensed under State law as a risk bearing entity eligible to offer health insurance or health benefits coverage in each State in which it offers a prescription drug plan. If not... with State Law and Preemption by Federal Law § 423.401 General requirements for PDP sponsors. (a...

  14. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103 Section 152.103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development with...

  15. 76 FR 2807 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 510 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor AGENCY...) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect a change of sponsor for hemoglobin glutamer-200... ownership of, and all rights and interest in, NADA 141-067 for OXYGLOBIN (hemoglobin glutamer-200) to OPK...

  16. The relationship between absenteeism and employer-sponsored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6This article makes a specific contribution to studies on the use of on-site employer-sponsored ... 7Key words: absenteeism, child care, types of absenteeism, family-friendly practices, employer-sponsored child care ...... models to study the absence-taking process', Journal of Applied Psychology, 74: 300–316. Harrison, D.A. ...

  17. Sponsors of Nebraska Indochinese Refugees: Meeting the Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, William H.; Cramer, Sheran L.

    This report summarizes the response of 80 sponsors of Indochinese refugees in Nebraska to a survey designed to explore their sponsorship experience. Problem solving areas for sponsors and refugees are named as: acculturation, emotional adjustments, communication, health, housing, transportation, employment, and legal, financial and consumer…

  18. The Alliances of New-Technology Based Firms: the Role of Sponsors

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo Massimo G.; Grilli Luca; Piva Evila

    2007-01-01

    Why do new technology-based firms (NTBFs) cooperate? Starting from the literature on alliance formation in the resource and competence-based tradition, we derive an empirical model that aims at highlighting the drivers of the formation of alliances by NTBFs. In particular, we focus on the effects of the support provided by sponsor institutions on the probability to establish "exploitative commercial" alliances and "explorative technological" alliances. The conceptual model leads to a series o...

  19. Temporal and spatial variability of wind resources in the United States as derived from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the spatial and temporal variability of wind speed at 80m above ground (the average hub height of most modern wind turbines) in the contiguous United States using Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data from 1979 to 2011. The mean 80-m wind exhibits strong seasonality and large spatial variability, with higher (lower) wind speeds in the...

  20. Northern South China Sea Surface Circulation and its Variability Derived by Combining Satellite Altimetry and Surface Drifter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Peter Benny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyses the mean and seasonal mesoscale surface circulation of the Northern South China Sea (NSCS and determines the influence of El Niño/SouthernNiño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO. High resolution Eulerian velocity field is derived by combining the available satellite tracked surface drifter data with satellite altimetry during 1993 - 2012. The wind driven current is computed employing the weekly ocean surface mean wind fields derived from the scatterometers on board ERS 1/2, QuikSCAT and ASCAT. The derived mean velocity field exhibits strong boundary currents and broad zonal flow across NSCS. The anomalous field is quite strong in the southern part and the Seasonal circulation clearly depicts the monsoonal forcing. Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE distribution and its spatial and temporal structures are determined employing Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis. The ENSO influence on NSCS surface circulation has been analyzed using monthly absolute geostrophic velocity fields during 1996 - 1999.

  1. Upper and lower solutions for BVPs on the half-line with variable coefficient and derivative depending nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Djebali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a second-order nonlinear boundary value problem with a derivative depending nonlinearity and posed on the positive half-line. The derivative operator is time dependent. Upon a priori estimates and under a Nagumo growth condition, the Schauder's fixed point theorem combined with the method of upper and lower solutions on unbounded domains are used to prove existence of solutions. A uniqueness theorem is also obtained and some examples of application illustrate the obtained results.

  2. A numerical solution for a variable-order reaction-diffusion model by using fractional derivatives with non-local and non-singular kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Torres, L.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.

    2018-02-01

    A reaction-diffusion system can be represented by the Gray-Scott model. The reaction-diffusion dynamic is described by a pair of time and space dependent Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). In this paper, a generalization of the Gray-Scott model by using variable-order fractional differential equations is proposed. The variable-orders were set as smooth functions bounded in (0 , 1 ] and, specifically, the Liouville-Caputo and the Atangana-Baleanu-Caputo fractional derivatives were used to express the time differentiation. In order to find a numerical solution of the proposed model, the finite difference method together with the Adams method were applied. The simulations results showed the chaotic behavior of the proposed model when different variable-orders are applied.

  3. Identification and verification of hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibody variable region sequences using recombinant DNA technology and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibody engineering requires the identification of antigen binding domains or variable regions (VR) unique to each antibody. It is the VR that define the unique antigen binding properties and proper sequence identification is essential for functional evaluation and performance of recombinant antibo...

  4. Alternatives to retaliation in response to state sponsored terrorist attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Paul James

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited We consider a game played between a state sponsor of international terrorism, a terrorist organization and the victim of a terrorist attack. The state sponsor wishes to inflict as much damage to the victim as possible without risking retaliation. The victim state wishes to end these attacks as soon as possible, through non-retaliatory means if possible in order to avoid the penalty associated with retaliation. In this thesis we compare...

  5. Distribution and Variability of Satellite-Derived Signals of Isolated Convection Initiation Events Over Central Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yipeng; Meng, Zhiyong; Li, Jing; Li, Wanbiao; Bai, Lanqiang; Zhang, Murong; Wang, Xi

    2017-11-01

    This study combined measurements from the Chinese operational geostationary satellite Fengyun-2E (FY-2E) and ground-based weather radars to conduct a statistical survey of isolated convection initiation (CI) over central eastern China (CEC). The convective environment in CEC is modulated by the complex topography and monsoon climate. From May to August 2010, a total of 1,630 isolated CI signals were derived from FY-2E using a semiautomated method. The formation of these satellite-derived CI signals peaks in the early afternoon and occurs with high frequency in areas with remarkable terrain inhomogeneity (e.g., mountain, water, and mountain-water areas). The high signal frequency areas shift from northwest CEC (dry, high altitude) in early summer to southeast CEC (humid, low altitude) in midsummer along with an increasing monthly mean frequency. The satellite-derived CI signals tend to have longer lead times (the time difference between satellite-derived signal formation and radar-based CI) in the late morning and afternoon than in the early morning and night. During the early morning and night, the distinction between cloud top signatures and background terrestrial radiation becomes less apparent, resulting in delayed identification of the signals and thus short and even negative lead times. A decline in the lead time is observed from May to August, likely due to the increasing cloud growth rate and warm-rain processes. Results show increasing lead times with increasing landscape elevation, likely due to more warm-rain processes over the coastal sea and plain, along with a decreasing cloud growth rate from hill and mountain to the plateau.

  6. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Derivations and Verification of Plans. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K, Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques. This recommended procedure would be used as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. This document contains the outcome of the assessment.

  7. Wisdom for Building the Project Manager/Project Sponsor Relationship: Partnership for Project Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patton, Nanette; Shechet, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The project sponsor can promote information technology (IT) project success in several ways, yet many projects either have no formally designated project sponsor or the project sponsor is confused about his/her...

  8. Classification of acute stress using linear and non-linear heart rate variability analysis derived from sternal ECG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, George; Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Hoppe, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress detection is an important factor in predicting and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. This work is a pilot study with a focus on developing a method for detecting short-term psychophysiological changes through heart rate variability (HRV) features. The purpose of this pilot...... features from electrocardiograms (ECG) acquired by the wireless wearable ePatch® recorder. The highest recognition rates were acquired for the neutral stage (90%), the acute stress stage (80%) and the baseline stage (80%) by sample entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis and normalized high frequency...

  9. Northern Hemisphere extratropical winter cyclones variability over the 20th century derived from ERA-20C reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varino, Filipa; Arbogast, Philippe; Joly, Bruno; Riviere, Gwendal; Fandeur, Marie-Laure; Bovy, Henry; Granier, Jean-Baptiste

    2018-03-01

    The multi-decadal variations of wintertime extra-tropical cyclones during the last century are studied using a vorticity-based tracking algorithm applied to the long-term ERA-20C reanalysis from ECMWF. The variability of moderate-to-deep extra-tropical winter cyclones in ERA-20C show three distinct periods. Two at the beginning and at the end of the century (1900-1935 and 1980-2010) present weak or no significant trends in the Northern Hemisphere as a whole and only some regional trends. The period in between (1935-1980) is marked by a significant increase in Northern Hemisphere moderate-to-deep cyclones frequency. During the latter period, polar regions underwent a significant cooling over the whole troposphere that increased and shifted poleward the mid-latitude meridional temperature gradient and the baroclinicity. This is linked to positive-to-negative shifts of the PDO between 1935 and 1957 and of the AMO between 1957 and 1980 which mainly reinforced the storm-track eddy generation in the North Pacific and North Atlantic regions respectively, as seen from baroclinic conversion from mean to eddy potential energy. As a result, both the North Pacific and North Atlantic extra-tropical storms increase in frequency during the two subperiods (1935-1957 and 1957-1980), together with other storm-track quantities such as the high-frequency eddy kinetic energy. In contrast, the first and third periods are characterized by a warming of the polar temperatures. However, as the stronger warming is confined to the lower troposphere, the baroclinicity do not uniformly increase in the whole troposphere. This may explain why the recent rapid increase in polar temperatures has not affected the behaviour of extratropical cyclones very much. Finally, the large magnitude of the positive trend found in moderate-to-deep cyclone frequency during the second period is still questioned as the period is marked by an important increase in the number of assimilated observations. However, the

  10. Criminal implication of sponsoring in medicine: legal ramifactions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W.; Theilmann, M.; Bolenz, M.

    2005-01-01

    As a consequence of the so-called ''Heart-Valve-Affair'' in 1994, the German public became aware of the potential criminal significance of industrial sponsoring and third-party financial support in medicine. Since 1997, when the German Anti-Corruption Law came into effect, the penal regulations regarding bribery and benefits for public officers were tightened. Due to the lack of explicit and generally accepted guidelines in combination with regional differences of jurisdiction, there is a lingering uncertainty regarding the criminal aspects of third-party funding and industrial sponsoring. The aim of this review is to summarize the penal and professional implications of third-party funding and sponsoring in medicine including recent aspects of jurisdiction. The currently available recommendations on this issue are introduced. (orig.)

  11. [Criminal implication of sponsoring in medicine: legal ramifactions and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnken, A H; Theilmann, M; Bolenz, M; Günther, R W

    2005-08-01

    As a consequence of the so-called "Heart-Valve-Affair" in 1994, the German public became aware of the potential criminal significance of industrial sponsoring and third-party financial support in medicine. Since 1997, when the German Anti-Corruption Law came into effect, the penal regulations regarding bribery and benefits for public officers were tightened. Due to the lack of explicit and generally accepted guidelines in combination with regional differences of jurisdiction, there is a lingering uncertainty regarding the criminal aspects of third-party funding and industrial sponsoring. The aim of this review is to summarize the penal and professional implications of third-party funding and sponsoring in medicine including recent aspects of jurisdiction. The currently available recommendations on this issue are introduced.

  12. Modelling Emotional and Attitudinal Evaluations of Major Sponsors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Hansen, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    equation model where the drivers are attitudes towards thesponsorship and emotions towards the sponsorship. It is found that the two classes ofvariables describe different aspects of the perception of sponsorships, and that they bothcontribute significantly to the overall value of sponsoring...... for a particular company. In thepresent paper, two cases are shown for two major sponsors. The specified Sponsor ValueModel is estimated by a partial least squares (PLS) method. It is found that the two sponsorsare perceived differently, both in terms of emotional and attitudinal responses. It is also foundthat...... the emotional responses aroused by the sponsorships are at least as important as thoseascribable to attitudinal elements.Key words: Sponsorship, emotional response, attitudes towards sponsorship, structuralequation model...

  13. Classification of acute stress using linear and non-linear heart rate variability analysis derived from sternal ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanev, George; Saadi, Dorthe B; Hoppe, Karsten; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress detection is an important factor in predicting and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. This work is a pilot study with a focus on developing a method for detecting short-term psychophysiological changes through heart rate variability (HRV) features. The purpose of this pilot study is to establish and to gain insight on a set of features that could be used to detect psychophysiological changes that occur during chronic stress. This study elicited four different types of arousal by images, sounds, mental tasks and rest, and classified them using linear and non-linear HRV features from electrocardiograms (ECG) acquired by the wireless wearable ePatch® recorder. The highest recognition rates were acquired for the neutral stage (90%), the acute stress stage (80%) and the baseline stage (80%) by sample entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis and normalized high frequency features. Standardizing non-linear HRV features for each subject was found to be an important factor for the improvement of the classification results.

  14. Pre-analytical and Analytical Variables Affecting the Measurement of Plasma-Derived Microparticle Tissue Factor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, RD; Barcel, DA; Williams, JC; Wang, JG; Boles, JC; Manly, DA; Key, NS; Mackman, N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Elevated levels of tissue factor positive (TF+) microparticles (MPs) are observed in plasma from a variety of patients with an increased risk of thrombosis. We and others have described the measurement of TF activity in MPs isolated from plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-analytical and analytical variables on TF activity of MPs isolated from blood of healthy volunteers treated ex vivo with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Materials and Methods We evaluated the following parameters: use of different centrifugation speeds to isolate the MPs; comparison of TF activity of MPs isolated from platelet poor plasma versus platelet free plasma; effect of freeze/thaw on MP TF activity; and comparison of the MP TF activity assay with the measurement of TF protein by ELISA or flow cytometry. Results MPs prepared from platelet poor plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g or 100,000 × g for 15 minutes had similar levels of TF activity. However, significantly less TF activity was found in MPs isolated from platelet free plasma compared with platelet poor plasma. Interestingly, freeze/thawing of the plasma showed donor to donor variation in MP TF activity, with a moderate increase in some individuals. Conclusion TF+ MPs can be quantitatively isolated from platelet poor or platelet free plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g for 15 minutes. Measurement of MP TF activity in plasma can be used to detect a prothrombotic state in patients with various diseases. PMID:21737126

  15. Temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Indian Ocean, derived from the CZCS time series images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 93 monthly global composite remotely sensed ocean color images from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS on board the Nimbus-7 satellite were extracted for the Indian Ocean region (35ºN–55ºS; 30–120ºE to examine the seasonal variations in phytoplankton pigment concentrations, resulting from large-scale changes in physical oceanographic processes. The CZCS data sets were analyzed with the PC-SEAPAK software, and revealed large phytoplankton blooms in the northwest Arabian Sea and off the Somali coast. The blooms were triggered by wind-driven upwelling during the southwest monsoonal months of August and September. In the northern Arabian Sea, phytoplankton blooms, detected from January to March, appeared to be associated with nutrient enhancement resulting from winter convective mixing. In the Bay of Bengal, higher pigment concentrations were confined to the coastal regions but varied only marginally between seasons both in the coastal and offshore regions. Phytoplankton pigment concentrations were consistently low in the open Indian Ocean. Analysis of pigment concentrations extracted from the monthly-accumulated images revealed that the Arabian Sea sustained a greater biomass of phytoplankton compared with any other region of the Indian Ocean. Overall, the coastal regions of the Indian Ocean are richer in phytoplankton pigment than the open Indian Ocean. The number of images in individual areas was highly variable throughout the region due to varying cloud cover.

  16. Intraseasonal to interannual variability of Kelvin wave momentum fluxes as derived from high-resolution radiosonde data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Sjoberg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Observational estimates of Kelvin wave momentum fluxes in the tropical lower stratosphere remain challenging. Here we extend a method based on linear wave theory to estimate daily time series of these momentum fluxes from high-resolution radiosonde data. Daily time series are produced for sounding sites operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE and from the recent Dynamics of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO field campaign. Our momentum flux estimates are found to be robust to different data sources and processing and in quantitative agreement with estimates from prior studies. Testing the sensitivity to vertical resolution, our estimated momentum fluxes are found to be most sensitive to vertical resolution greater than 1 km, largely due to overestimation of the vertical wavelength. Climatological analysis is performed over a selected 11-year span of data from DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM radiosonde sites. Analyses of this 11-year span of data reveal the expected seasonal cycle of momentum flux maxima in boreal winter and minima in boreal summer, and variability associated with the quasi-biennial oscillation of maxima during easterly phase and minima during westerly phase. Comparison between periods with active convection that is either strongly or weakly associated with the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO suggests that the MJO provides a nontrivial increase in the lowermost stratospheric momentum fluxes.

  17. Identification and verification of hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibody variable region sequences using recombinant DNA technology and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babrak, Lmar; McGarvey, Jeffery A; Stanker, Larry H; Hnasko, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Antibody engineering requires the identification of antigen binding domains or variable regions (VR) unique to each antibody. It is the VR that define the unique antigen binding properties and proper sequence identification is essential for functional evaluation and performance of recombinant antibodies (rAb). This determination can be achieved by sequence analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) transcripts obtained from a monoclonal antibody (MAb) producing hybridoma and subsequent expression of a rAb. However the polyploidy nature of a hybridoma cell often results in the added expression of aberrant immunoglobulin-like transcripts or even production of anomalous antibodies which can confound production of rAb. An incorrect VR sequence will result in a non-functional rAb and de novo assembly of Ig primary structure without a sequence map is challenging. To address these problems, we have developed a methodology which combines: 1) selective PCR amplification of VR from both the heavy and light chain IgG from hybridoma, 2) molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis and 3) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) on enzyme digests obtained from the purified IgG. Peptide analysis proceeds by evaluating coverage of the predicted primary protein sequence provided by the initial DNA maps for the VR. This methodology serves to both identify and verify the primary structure of the MAb VR for production as rAb. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The chromogranin A- derived N-terminal peptide vasostatin-I: In vivo effects on cardiovascular variables in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, Silvestro; Passatore, Magda; Novello, Matteo; Colombo, Barbara; Dondossola, Eleonora; Mohammed, Mazher; Losano, Gianni; Corti, Angelo; Helle, Karen B

    2011-06-07

    This study is the first to report on vascular effect of the chromogranin A derived Vasostatin-I (CgA(1-76)) in vivo. Cardiovascular parameters were recorded in 29 rabbits with sympathetically decentralized right carotid vascular bed. The recombinant human STA CgA(1-78) (VS-1) was infused at 480 μg/kg over 25 min. Group I was kept awake while groups II-V were anesthetized with Ketamine-xylazine. VS-1 was given alone in groups I-II while in presence of either phentolamine, phentolamine plus propranolol or hexamethonium in groups III-V. Serum VS-1 peaked at 2 μg/ml (200 nM) before onset of vascular effects and declined rapidly to ~200 ng/ml within 30 min. In all groups but III and IV VS-1 induced a brief vasoconstriction, being larger in intact than in sympathetically decentralized beds. The VS-1 induced vasoconstriction was not altered by hexamethonium but was abolished by phentolamine. In presence of the α-adrenergic blocker a long lasting vasodilatation, unaffected by propranolol, was apparent on both innervated and decentralized sides. In conclusion, VS-1 induced an α-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction presumably brought about by noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerves when infused at a dose giving an initial serum concentration of ~200 nM. This initial vasoconstriction masked a persistent adrenoceptor-independent vasodilatation, consistent with previous reports from in vitro models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mineralogic variability of the Kelso Dunes, Mojave Desert, California derived from Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Michael S.; Howard, Douglas A.; Christensen, Philip R.; Lancaster, Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    the dunes range from 70% to 90% quartz mainly derived from a source 40 km to the west. The dune field is assumed to have formed in a much more arid climate than present, with the age of the deposit estimated at greater than 100,000 years.

  20. 45 CFR 2552.23 - What are a sponsor's program responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's program responsibilities... Sponsor § 2552.23 What are a sponsor's program responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a) Focus Foster... project's service area. (b) Assess in collaboration with other community organizations or utilize existing...

  1. 45 CFR 2551.23 - What are a sponsor's program responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's program responsibilities... Sponsor § 2551.23 What are a sponsor's program responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a) Focus Senior... within the project's service area. (b) Assess in collaboration with other community organizations or...

  2. 45 CFR 2552.25 - What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's administrative... a Sponsor § 2552.25 What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a... delegated to project staff for NSSC program(s) within its control. A full-time project director shall not...

  3. 45 CFR 2551.25 - What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's administrative... Sponsor § 2551.25 What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a) Assume full... program(s) within its control. A full-time project director shall not serve concurrently in another...

  4. 45 CFR 2553.25 - What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's administrative... Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2553.25 What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a... delegated to project staff for NSSC program(s) within its control. A full-time project director shall not...

  5. 45 CFR 2553.23 - What are a sponsor's program responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2553.23 What are a sponsor's program responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a) Focus RSVP resources to have a positive impact on critical human and social needs within the project service... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's program responsibilities...

  6. A Commentary on Literacy Narratives as Sponsors of Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This brief commentary first clarifies Brandt's concept of sponsors of literacy in light of the way the concept has been taken up in writing studies. Then it treats Brandt's methods for handling accounts of literacy learning in comparison with other ways of analyzing biographical material. Finally it takes up Lawrence's argument about literacy…

  7. Sponsorship recall and recognition of official sponsors of the 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With escalating interest in sports globally, sport sponsorship has emerged as a platform that provides sponsoring companies with a chance of securing a competitive advantage. Events of high magnitude such as the 2010 FIFA World Cup™, which was the world's largest football event hosted in South Africa (SA), offered ...

  8. Tax Exempt Organizations and Commercially Sponsored Scientific Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Consuelo Lauda

    1982-01-01

    Several related tax issues important to both the commercial sponsors and tax-exempt recipients of research funding are addressed: what type of activity qualified as scientific research; how acceptance of commercial funding affects tax-exempt status; and when the receipt of such funding generates a liability for tax on unrelated business income.…

  9. 7 CFR 225.14 - Requirements for sponsor participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 225.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM Sponsor and Site Provisions... Youth Sports Program; and (5) Private nonprofit organizations as defined in § 225.2. (c) General...

  10. A DST Sponsored Workshop on Methods in Behavioural Ecology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A DST Sponsored Workshop on Methods in. Behavioural Ecology. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. 15-29 January 2006. Aimed at Young Teachers and Senior Research Students The course will cover lectures on several aspects of Behavioral ecology including, ...

  11. 22 CFR 42.31 - Family-sponsored immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family-sponsored immigrants. 42.31 Section 42.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.31 Family...

  12. The relationship between absenteeism and employer-sponsored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between absenteeism and employer-sponsored child care. B Anderson, DJ Geldenhuys. Abstract. Given the high loss of revenue due to absenteeism, exploring different ways of managing absenteeism in South African companies, such as family-friendly practices, has become important. Establishing onsite

  13. Highlight: IDRC sponsors Caribbean symposium on impact of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-05-12

    12 mai 2015 ... An IDRC-sponsored symposium exploring the impact of the Internet on economic growth and public service delivery in the Caribbean was held in Saint Andrew, Jamaica, on May 12, 2015. Discussions from the symposium will feed into the 2016 World Development Report: Internet for Development.

  14. Exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Kristine E; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-11-01

    The lack of human data available to inform evidence-based treatment for illness during pregnancy has led to calls for greater inclusion of pregnant women in research, but the extent of their current representation is poorly characterized. Our objective was to measure the current exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials as a baseline for future comparison. We compiled data from studies enrolling women of childbearing potential posted on www.ClinicalTrials.gov between 1 October 2011 and 31 January 2012. The review was limited to open United States-based phase IV interventional studies sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry evaluating treatment of conditions that may be experienced by but are not limited to pregnant women and did not involve a medication classified as potentially teratogenic. If there was no mention of pregnancy in the inclusion or exclusion criteria, we contacted a study representative to confirm that pregnant women could be enrolled. Of 558 qualifying industry-sponsored studies, five (1%) were designed specifically for pregnant women. Of 367 phase IV clinical trials with verified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 348 (95%) excluded pregnant women and 19 (5%) did not. We found the exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials to be common practice. Moving beyond reflexive exclusion and developing thoughtful criteria for inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research would likely advance the evidence base to inform treatment decisions during pregnancy and lead to better health outcomes for women and children.

  15. Media exposure and sponsor recall: Cricket World Cup 2003 | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study into the relationship between media exposure and sponsor recall relating to an international event, namely the Cricket World Cup 2003 (CWC 2003). The application of sponsorship as a communication construct and recall as a media vehicle effect is investigated. Recall has been widely ...

  16. Unfulfilled translation opportunities in industry sponsored clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smed, Marie; Getz, Kenneth A

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge generated by site representatives through their participation in clinical trials is valuable for testing new products in use and obtaining final market approval. The leverage of this important knowledge is however challenged as the former direct relationships between in-house staff in the industry and site representatives are changing. The process of clinical trials has increased in complexity over the years, resulting in additional management layers. Besides an increase in internal management layers, sponsors often also outsource various tasks related to clinical trials to a CRO (Contract Research Organization) and thereby adding another link in the relationships between site and sponsor. These changes are intended to optimize the time-consuming and costly trial phases; however, there is a need to study whether valuable knowledge and experience is compromised in the process. Limited research exists on the full range of clinical practice insights obtained by investigators during and after clinical trials and how well these insights are transferred to study sponsors. This study explores the important knowledge-transfer processes between sites and sponsors and to what extent sites' knowledge gained in clinical trials is utilized by the industry. Responses from 451 global investigative site representatives are included in the study. The analysis of the extensive dataset reveals that the current processes of collaboration between sites and the industry restrict the leverage of valuable knowledge gained by physicians in the process of clinical trials. These restrictions to knowledge-transfer between site and sponsor are further challenged if CRO partners are integrated in the trial process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating the Relationship between the Inter-Annual Variability of Satellite-Derived Vegetation Phenology and a Proxy of Biomass Production in the Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Meroni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Sahel region, moderate to coarse spatial resolution remote sensing time series are used in early warning monitoring systems with the aim of detecting unfavorable crop and pasture conditions and informing stakeholders about impending food security risks. Despite growing evidence that vegetation productivity is directly related to phenology, most approaches to estimate such risks do not explicitly take into account the actual timing of vegetation growth and development. The date of the start of the season (SOS or of the peak canopy density can be assessed by remote sensing techniques in a timely manner during the growing season. However, there is limited knowledge about the relationship between vegetation biomass production and these variables at the regional scale. This study describes the first attempt to increase our understanding of such a relationship through the analysis of phenological variables retrieved from SPOT-VEGETATION time series of the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR. Two key phenological variables (growing season length (GSL; timing of SOS and the maximum value of FAPAR attained during the growing season (Peak are analyzed as potentially related to a proxy of biomass production (CFAPAR, the cumulative value of FAPAR during the growing season. GSL, SOS and Peak all show different spatial patterns of correlation with CFAPAR. In particular, GSL shows a high and positive correlation with CFAPAR over the whole Sahel (mean r = 0.78. The negative correlation between delays in SOS and CFAPAR is stronger (mean r = −0.71 in the southern agricultural band of the Sahel, while the positive correlation between Peak FAPAR and CFAPAR is higher in the northern and more arid grassland region (mean r = 0.75. The consistency of the results and the actual link between remote sensing-derived phenological parameters and biomass production were evaluated using field measurements of aboveground herbaceous biomass

  18. Deriving estimates of individual variability in genetic potentials of performance traits for 3 dairy breeds, using a model of lifetime nutrient partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, H N; Martin, O; de Boer, I J M

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the ability of an existing lifetime nutrient partitioning model for simulating individual variability in genetic potentials of dairy cows. Generally, the model assumes a universal trajectory of dynamic partitioning of priority between life functions and genetic scaling...... through sequential lactations were used to derive genetic scaling parameters for each animal by calibrating the model to achieve best fit, cow by cow. The model was able to fit individual curves of body weight, and milk fat, milk protein, and milk lactose concentrations with a high degree of accuracy....... Daily milk yield and dry matter intake were satisfactorily predicted in early and mid lactation, but underpredictions were found in late lactation. Breeds and parities did not significantly affect the prediction accuracy. The means of genetic scaling parameters between Danish Red and Danish Holstein...

  19. A hydro-optical model for deriving water quality variables from satellite images (HydroSat): A case study of the Nile River demonstrating the future Sentinel-2 capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salama, M.; Radwan, M.; van der Velde, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a hydro-optical model for deriving water quality variables from satellite images, hereafter HydroSat. HydroSat corrects images for atmospheric interferences and simultaneously retrieves water quality variables. An application of HydroSat to Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM)

  20. Amphipathic variable region heavy chain peptides derived from monoclonal human Wegener's anti-PR3 antibodies stimulate lymphocytes from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peen, E; Malone, C; Myers, C; Williams, R C; Peck, A B; Csernok, E; Gross, W L; Staud, R

    2001-01-01

    Amphipathic variable-region heavy chain 11-mer peptides from monoclonal human IgM antiproteinase-3 antibodies were studied for peripheral blood lymphocyte stimulation in 21 patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), connective tissue disease controls and normal control subjects. Positive T-cell activation was observed in most experiments with WG patients' lymphocytes using amphipathic VH-region peptides from four different human monoclonal anti-PR3 antibodies. Control peptides of the same length but without amphipathic characteristics along with other amphipathic peptides not derived from monoclonal anti-PR3 sequence were employed as controls. No significant lymphocyte stimulation was observed with normal controls, but positive stimulation with amphipathic VH peptides was also recorded in other connective tissue disease controls mainly patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Amphipathic peptides not derived from anti-PR3 sequence did not stimulate WG lymphocytes. Our findings indicate that lymphocyte reactivity as an element of cell-mediated immunity may be activated by amphipathic VH-region amino acid sequences of autoantibodies which are themselves associated with diseases such as WG. PMID:11529926

  1. Introduction to the project VAHINE: VAriability of vertical and tropHIc transfer of diazotroph derived N in the south wEst Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Sophie; Moutin, Thierry; Rodier, Martine; Grisoni, Jean-Michel; Louis, Francis; Folcher, Eric; Bourgeois, Bertrand; Boré, Jean-Michel; Renaud, Armelle

    2016-05-01

    On the global scale, N2 fixation provides the major external source of reactive nitrogen to the surface ocean, surpassing atmospheric and riverine inputs, and sustains ˜ 50 % of new primary production in oligotrophic environments. The main goal of the VAriability of vertical and tropHIc transfer of diazotroph derived N in the south wEst Pacific (VAHINE) project was to study the fate of nitrogen newly fixed by diazotrophs (or diazotroph-derived nitrogen) in oceanic food webs, and how it impacts heterotrophic bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton dynamics, stocks and fluxes of biogenic elements and particle export. Three large-volume ( ˜ 50 m3) mesocosms were deployed in a tropical oligotrophic ecosystem (the New Caledonia lagoon, south-eastern Pacific) and intentionally fertilized with ˜ 0.8 µM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) to stimulate diazotrophy and follow subsequent ecosystem changes. VAHINE was a multidisciplinary project involving close collaborations between biogeochemists, molecular ecologist, chemists, marine opticians and modellers. This introductory paper describes in detail the scientific objectives of the project as well as the implementation plan: the mesocosm description and deployment, the selection of the study site (New Caledonian lagoon), and the logistical and sampling strategy. The main hydrological and biogeochemical conditions of the study site before the mesocosm deployment and during the experiment itself are described, and a general overview of the papers published in this special issue is presented.

  2. Nonindustry-sponsored preclinical studies on statins yield greater efficacy estimates than industry-sponsored studies: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauth, David; Anglemyer, Andrew; Philipps, Rose; Bero, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Industry-sponsored clinical drug studies are associated with publication of outcomes that favor the sponsor, even when controlling for potential bias in the methods used. However, the influence of sponsorship bias has not been examined in preclinical animal studies. We performed a meta-analysis of preclinical statin studies to determine whether industry sponsorship is associated with either increased effect sizes of efficacy outcomes and/or risks of bias in a cohort of published preclinical statin studies. We searched Medline (January 1966-April 2012) and identified 63 studies evaluating the effects of statins on atherosclerosis outcomes in animals. Two coders independently extracted study design criteria aimed at reducing bias, results for all relevant outcomes, sponsorship source, and investigator financial ties. The I(2) statistic was used to examine heterogeneity. We calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) for each outcome and pooled data across studies to estimate the pooled average SMD using random effects models. In a priori subgroup analyses, we assessed statin efficacy by outcome measured, sponsorship source, presence or absence of financial conflict information, use of an optimal time window for outcome assessment, accounting for all animals, inclusion criteria, blinding, and randomization. The effect of statins was significantly larger for studies sponsored by nonindustry sources (-1.99; 95% CI -2.68, -1.31) versus studies sponsored by industry (-0.73; 95% CI -1.00, -0.47) (p valuefinancial conflict information, use of an optimal time window for outcome assessment, accounting for all animals, inclusion criteria, blinding, and randomization. Possible reasons for the differences between nonindustry- and industry-sponsored studies, such as selective reporting of outcomes, require further study.

  3. Phenotypic variability in LQT3 human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and their response to antiarrhythmic pharmacologic therapy: An in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Michelangelo; Passini, Elisa; Severi, Stefano; Hyttinen, Jari; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2017-11-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are in vitro models with the clear advantages of their human origin and suitability for human disease investigations. However, limitations include their incomplete characterization and variability reported in different cell lines and laboratories. The purpose of this study was to investigate in silico ionic mechanisms potentially explaining the phenotypic variability of hiPSC-CMs in long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) and their response to antiarrhythmic drugs. Populations of in silico hiPSC-CM models were constructed and calibrated for control (n = 1,463 models) and LQT3 caused by I NaL channelopathy (n = 1,401 models), using experimental recordings for late sodium current (I NaL ) and action potentials (APs). Antiarrhythmic drug therapy was evaluated by simulating mexiletine and ranolazine multichannel effects. As in experiments, LQT3 hiPSC-CMs yield prolonged action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD 90 ) (+34.3% than controls) and large electrophysiological variability. LQT3 hiPSC-CMs with symptomatic APs showed overexpression of I CaL , I K1 , and I NaL , underexpression of I Kr , and increased sensitivity to both drugs compared to asymptomatic LQT3 models. Simulations showed that both mexiletine and ranolazine corrected APD prolongation in the LQT3 population but also highlighted differences in drug response. Mexiletine stops spontaneous APs in more LQT3 hiPSC-CMs models than ranolazine (784/1,401 vs 53/1,401) due to its stronger action on I Na . In silico simulations demonstrate our ability to recapitulate variability in LQT3 and control hiPSC-CM phenotypes, and the ability of mexiletine and ranolazine to reduce APD prolongation, in agreement with experiments. The in silico models also identify potential ionic mechanisms of phenotypic variability in LQT3 hiPSC-CMs, explaining APD prolongation in symptomatic vs asymptomatic LQT3 hiPSC-CMs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  4. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Trace Gas Columns Derived from WRF/Chem Regional Model Output: Planning for Geostationary Observations of Atmospheric Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K.; Crawford, J.; Duncan, B.; Loughner, C.; Diskin, G.; Fried, A.; Weinheimer, A.

    2015-01-01

    We quantify both the spatial and temporal variability of column integrated O3, NO2, CO, SO2, and HCHO over the Baltimore / Washington, DC area using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting model with on-line chemistry (WRF/Chem) for the entire month of July 2011, coinciding with the first deployment of the NASA Earth Venture program mission Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ). Using structure function analyses, we find that the model reproduces the spatial variability observed during the campaign reasonably well, especially for O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument will be the first NASA mission to make atmospheric composition observations from geostationary orbit and partially fulfills the goals of the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission. We relate the simulated variability to the precision requirements defined by the science traceability matrices of these space-borne missions. Results for O3 from 0- 2 km altitude indicate that the TEMPO instrument would be able to observe O3 air quality events over the Mid-Atlantic area, even on days when the violations of the air quality standard are not widespread. The results further indicated that horizontal gradients in CO from 0-2 km would be observable over moderate distances (= 20 km). The spatial and temporal results for tropospheric column NO2 indicate that TEMPO would be able to observe not only the large urban plumes at times of peak production, but also the weaker gradients between rush hours. This suggests that the proposed spatial and temporal resolutions for these satellites as well as their prospective precision requirements are sufficient to answer the science questions they are tasked to address.

  5. Mitigation of Variability among 3D Echocardiography-Derived Regional Strain Values Acquired by Multiple Ultrasound Systems by Vendor Independent Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Streiff

    Full Text Available This study compared the variability of 3D echo derived circumferential and longitudinal strain values computed from vendor-specific and vendor-independent analyses of images acquired using ultrasound systems from different vendors.Ten freshly harvested porcine hearts were studied. Each heart was mounted on a custom designed phantom and driven to simulate normal cardiac motion. Cardiac rotation was digitally controlled and held constant at 5°, while pumped stroke volume (SV ranged from 30-70ml. Full-volume image data was acquired using three different ultrasound systems from different vendors. The image data was analyzed for longitudinal and circumferential strains (LS, CS using both vendor-specific and vendor-independent analysis packages.Good linear relationships were observed for each vendor-specific analysis package for both CS and LS at the mid-anterior segment, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.82-0.91 (CS and 0.86-0.89 (LS. Comparable linear regressions were observed for results determined by a vendor independent program (CS: R = 0.82-0.89; LS: R = 0.86-0.89. Variability between analysis packages was examined via a series of ANOVA tests. A statistical difference was found between vendor-specific analysis packages (p0.05.Circumferential and longitudinal regional strain values differ when quantified by vendor-specific analysis packages; however, this variability is mitigated by use of a vendor-independent quantification method. These results suggest that echocardiograms acquired using different ultrasound systems could be meaningfully compared using vendor-independent software.

  6. On a State-Sponsored Sport System in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Zhiwei, Pan

    The gold medal success of China in recent Olympic Games can be traced to the advancement of the state-sponsored sport system (SSSS). While the program was developed initially through socialist ideals, it is more than a centralized government system to monopolize resources for glorified sport performance. Participation in competition is an inherent part of the human condition. Success in athletics is associated with national identity and has economic, social, and cultural implications. Because of this, it is essential that the SSSS adjust and improve to keep pace with other facets of China's quickly changing national reform. In association with emerging economic reform, some sports now receive equal or more funds from private investments compared to government allocation. The state-sponsored sport system must continue to adapt to maintain the Chinese tradition of excellence in competition.

  7. Unfulfilled translation opportunities in industry sponsored clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Marie; Getz, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge generated by site representatives through their participation in clinical trials is valuable for testing new products in use and obtaining final market approval. The leverage of this important knowledge is however challenged as the former direct relationships between in-house staff...... in the industry and site representatives are changing. The process of clinical trials has increased in complexity over the years, resulting in additional management layers. Besides an increase in internal management layers, sponsors often also outsource various tasks related to clinical trials to a CRO (Contract...... Research Organization) and thereby adding another link in the relationships between site and sponsor. These changes are intended to optimize the time-consuming and costly trial phases; however, there is a need to study whether valuable knowledge and experience is compromised in the process. Limited...

  8. Budget constraints and optimization in sponsored search auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yanwu

    2013-01-01

    The Intelligent Systems Series publishes reference works and handbooks in three core sub-topic areas: Intelligent Automation, Intelligent Transportation Systems, and Intelligent Computing. They include theoretical studies, design methods, and real-world implementations and applications. The series' readership is broad, but focuses on engineering, electronics, and computer science. Budget constraints and optimization in sponsored search auctions takes into account consideration of the entire life cycle of campaigns for researchers and developers working on search systems and ROI maximization

  9. Searching for sponsors for four national rugby teams in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ylönen, Niina

    2017-01-01

    How to get more sponsors to four national rugby teams in Finland? Finnish Rugby Federation and its four national teams are in the need of new long lasting sponsorship deals to fund the national teams’ tournaments in Finland and abroad. Since rugby is quite unknown sports in Finland it faces challenges in getting new sponsorship deals and also its visibility is currently very low. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the current situation of rugby, sponsorship contracts Finnish rugby F...

  10. Biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored global clinical trials in emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Lenio Souza; Martins, Elisabeth Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials placed in countries previously described as emerging regions for clinical research, and potential differences for those placed in Brazil. Data regarding recruitment of subjects for clinical trials were retrieved from www.clinicaltrials.gov on February 2nd 2009. Proportions of sites in each country were compared among emerging countries. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate whether trial placement in Brazil could be predicted by trial location in other countries and/or by trial features. A total of 8,501 trials were then active and 1,170 (13.8%) included sites in emerging countries (i.e., Argentina, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, and South Africa). South Korea and China presented a significantly higher proportion of sites when compared to other countries (pBrazil. Trials involving subjects with less than 15 years of age, those with targeted recruitment of at least 1,000 subjects, and seven sponsors were identified as significant predictors of trial placement in Brazil. No clear direct competition between Brazil and other emerging countries was detected. South Korea showed the higher proportion of sites and ranked third in total number of trials, appearing as a major player in attractiveness for biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials.

  11. Quantitative 2- and 3-dimensional analysis of pharmacokinetic model-derived variables for breast lesions in dynamic, contrast-enhanced MR mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, E.A.M.; Jaeger, H.J.; Maderwald, S.; Muehler, A.; Kimmig, R.; Forsting, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: 2- and 3-dimensional evaluation of quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters derived from the Tofts model modeling dynamic contrast enhancement of lesions in MR mammography. Materials and methods: In 95 patients, MR mammography revealed 127 suspicious lesions. The initial rate of enhancement was coded by color intensity, the post-initial enhancement change is coded by color hue. 2D and 3D analysis of distribution of color hue and intensity, vascular permeability and extracellular volume were performed. Results: In 2D, malignant lesions showed significant higher number of bright red, medium red, dark red, bright green, medium green, dark green and bright blue pixels than benign lesions. In 3D, statistical significant differences between malignant and benign lesions was found for all this parameters. Vascular permeability was significant higher in malignant lesions than in benign lesions. Regression model using the 3D data found that the best discriminator between malignant and benign lesions was combined number of voxels and medium green pixels, with a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 83.1%. Conclusions: Quantitative analysis of pharmacokinetic variables of contrast kinetics showed significant differences between malignant and benign lesions. 3D analysis showed superior diagnostic differentiation between malignant and benign lesions than 2D analysis. The parametric analysis using a pharmacokinetic model allows objective analysis of contrast enhancement in breast lesions

  12. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 62 - Certification of Responsible Officers and Sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Sponsors A Appendix A to Part 62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES...__. Subscribed and sworn to before me this ______ day of ______, 19__. Notary Public 2. Sponsors. I hereby...__. Notary Public ...

  13. "This program contains advertising": How the timing of sponsorship disclosure influences critical processing of sponsored content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.; van Reijmersdal, E.; Neijens, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure influences the processing of sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure activates persuasion knowledge, which leads to critical processing of the sponsored content, and ultimately negatively affects the

  14. New Product Development. Engineering and Commerce Students Join Forces with a Corporate Sponsor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Josee; Pegna, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical engineering and business student teams developed new products using a corporate sponsor's technology in a simulated business setting. Students learned about product development and venture start-up, and the sponsor gained new applications for its patented technology. (SK)

  15. Laboratory incubation experiments assessing the factor interactions affecting urine-derived nitrous oxide emissions from spatially and temporally variable upland pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charteris, Alice; Loick, Nadine; Marsden, Karina; Chadwick, Dave; Whelan, Mick; Rao Ravella, Sreenivas; Mead, Andrew; Cardenas, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Urine patches deposited to soils by grazing animals represent hot-spots of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Hargreaves et al., 2015), a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) and precursor of ozone depletion in the stratosphere. Urine N2O emissions are produced via nitrification of ureolysis-derived ammonium (NH4+) and/or subsequent nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) denitrification (Kool et al., 2006). The dominant process and the N2O fluxes generated depend on interactions between urine characteristics (e.g. nitrogen [N] concentration and volume), soil characteristics (e.g. carbon [C] availability and pH) and preceding and prevailing environmental conditions (e.g. soil moisture and temperature; Bergstermann et al., 2011; Butterbach-Bahl et al., 2013; Dijkstra et al., 2013). The spatial and temporal variability of these interactions in grazing systems is potentially large and greatly increases the uncertainty associated with N2O emission estimates from such systems. In particular, the contribution of extensively managed upland agroecosystems, which occupy ca. 5.5 million hectares in the UK and provide the bulk of land for sheep farming (Pollott & Stone, 2004), to UK GHG emissions is poorly defined. Improving understanding of the interactions between the wide range of factors affecting urine-derived N2O production and emission from pasture soils and considering this in the context of the spatial and temporal variability of the grazing environment could therefore be extremely valuable in improving the accuracy of N2O emission estimates from such systems. The factorial laboratory incubation experiments presented have been designed to assess the interactive effects of factors such as urine N concentration, volume and soil moisture affecting soil N2O (and nitric oxide [NO], nitrogen gas [N2] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) production and emissions (García-Marco et al., 2014) using the state-of-the-art Denitrification Incubation System (DENIS). This work forms part of a wider project

  16. Stricter Employment Protection and Firms' Incentives to Sponsor Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messe, Pierre-Jean; Rouland, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a difference-in-differences approach, combined with propensity score matching, to identify the effect of older workers employment protection on French firms' incentives to sponsor training. Between 1987 and 2008, French firms laying off workers aged over 50 had to pay a tax...... to the unemployment insurance system, known as the Delalande tax. In 1999, the measure was subjected to a reform that increased the tax, but only for large firms. We find that this exogenous increase substantially raised firms' incentives to train workers aged 45–49 but had no impact on the training rates among...

  17. American Medical Association sponsors press conference in home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C G

    1996-01-01

    On September 12, 1996, the American Medical Association, with an educational grant from Hoffmann-La Roche, sponsored a National Press Conference in New York City at the Millenium Broadway Hotel on Times Square. Attended by more than 40 of the nation's top health care correspondents from the leading magazine and newspapers in the country, this conference was designed to promote "The Revolution in Home and Outpatient Care." With an emphasis on new sites and new technologies, speakers from the Academy of Homecare Physicians presented a number of related subjects.

  18. The Race for Sponsored Links: Bidding Patterns for Search Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Zsolt Katona; Miklos Sarvary

    2010-01-01

    Paid placements on search engines reached sales of nearly $11 billion in the United States last year and represent the most rapidly growing form of online advertising today. In its classic form, a search engine sets up an auction for each search word in which competing websites bid for their sponsored links to be displayed next to the search results. We model this advertising market, focusing on two of its key characteristics: (1) the interaction between the list of search results and the lis...

  19. 45 CFR 2553.24 - What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation? 2553.24 Section 2553.24 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... Eligibility and Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2553.24 What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing...

  20. 45 CFR 2551.24 - What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2551.24 What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation? 2551.24 Section 2551.24 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare...

  1. 45 CFR 2552.24 - What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2552.24 What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation? 2552.24 Section 2552.24 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare...

  2. Building Strong Bonds with Program Sponsors--Public Relations Ideas To Make It Happen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Lists public relations strategies for child care center directors seeking to cultivate relationships with their program sponsors. Suggests ways to identify a public relations message, make the sponsor part of the child care family, become part of the sponsor's family, give public recognition, and share the children's accomplishments. (JPB)

  3. 42 CFR 423.553 - Effect of leasing of a PDP sponsor's facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of leasing of a PDP sponsor's facilities... Change of Ownership or Leasing of Facilities During Term of Contract § 423.553 Effect of leasing of a PDP sponsor's facilities. (a) General effect of leasing. If a PDP sponsor leases all or part of its facilities...

  4. 5 CFR 792.211 - What is the definition of a Federally sponsored child care center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sponsored child care center? 792.211 Section 792.211 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... sponsored child care center? The term Federally sponsored child care center, for the purposes of this subpart, is a child care center that is located in a building or space that is owned or leased by the...

  5. Potential of On-Line Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Measurement of pH for Deriving Variable Rate Lime Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel Tekin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring the potential of visible and near infrared (vis-NIR spectroscopy for on-line measurement of soil pH, with the intention to produce variable rate lime recommendation maps. An on-line vis-NIR soil sensor set up to a frame was used in this study. Lime application maps, based on pH predicted by vis-NIR techniques, were compared with maps based on traditional lab-measured pH. The validation of the calibration model using off-line spectra provided excellent prediction accuracy of pH (R2 = 0.85, RMSEP = 0.18 and RPD = 2.52, as compared to very good accuracy obtained with the on-line measured spectra (R2 = 0.81, RMSEP = 0.20 and RPD = 2.14. On-line predicted pH of all points (e.g., 2,160 resulted in the largest overall field virtual lime requirement (1.404 t, as compared to those obtained with 16 validation points off-line prediction (0.28 t, on-line prediction (0.14 t and laboratory reference measurement (0.48 t. The conclusion is that the vis-NIR spectroscopy can be successfully used for the prediction of soil pH and for deriving lime recommendations. The advantage of the on-line sensor over sampling with limited number of samples is that more detailed information about pH can be obtained, which is the reason for a higher but precise calculated lime recommendation rate.

  6. Effects of sponsorship disclosure timing on the processing of sponsored content: a study on the effectiveness of European disclosure regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Neijens, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure affects viewers’ processing of sponsored content, and whether a disclosure influences the persuasive effect of the sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure enhances the recognition of sponsored

  7. "Food company sponsors are kind, generous and cool": (mis)conceptions of junior sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2011-09-05

    Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103) to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Most children (68%) could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47%) of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P sport performance (86% and 76%, respectively). Around one-third of children reported liking the company more after receiving these rewards. Children's high recall of food and beverage company sport sponsors and their positive attitudes towards these sponsors and their promotions is concerning as this is likely to be linked to children's food preferences and consumption. Limiting children's exposure to this marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition.

  8. "Food company sponsors are kind, generous and cool": (Misconceptions of junior sports players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Lesley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Methods Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103 to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Results Most children (68% could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47% of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P Conclusions Children's high recall of food and beverage company sport sponsors and their positive attitudes towards these sponsors and their promotions is concerning as this is likely to be linked to children's food preferences and consumption. Limiting children's exposure to this marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition.

  9. Perceived credibility of a "neutral" abortion-related message and its sponsor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafora, M; Pasadeos, Y

    1986-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of a high- versus low-credibility sponsor on the perceived credibility of an abortion-related message. Three groups of subjects read a message that had been evaluated as "neutral" by officials of both "pro-life" and "pro-choice" groups. Sponsorship of the message was varied among the three groups (no sponsor; pro-life sponsor; pro-choice sponsor). Subjects rated the credibility of the message and credibility of the sponsor and also indicated their own attitudes toward abortion. Pro-life and pro-choice subjects did not differ in their perception of the nonsponsored message. The signature of a high-credibility sponsor improved the message's perceived credibility; however, the signature of a low-credibility sponsor did not diminish the message's credibility.

  10. Employer-sponsored health insurance and the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Benjamin; Schwab, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    During prime working years, women have higher expected healthcare expenses than men. However, employees' insurance rates are not gender-rated in the employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) market. Thus, women may experience lower wages in equilibrium from employers who offer health insurance to their employees. We show that female employees suffer a larger wage gap relative to men when they hold ESI: our results suggest this accounts for roughly 10% of the overall gender wage gap. For a full-time worker, this pay gap due to ESI is on the order of the expected difference in healthcare expenses between women and men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Summary of the ORNL-sponsored reactor radwaste management workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibbey, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    On January 12 to 14, 1977, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored a Radwaste Management Workshop in New Orleans, Louisiana, the object of which was to obtain operating data on the uses of evaporation, ion exchange, filtration, and on solid radwaste practices at nuclear power plants. The collected data are being used to update three earlier generic reports done by ORNL on the status of evaporation, ion exchange, and solid radwaste practices at nuclear power plants and to prepare a new one on filtration. All segments of the nuclear power industry were invited to participate, and a total of 188 representatives came. There were four major Workshop groups: volume reduction, solidification, physical and chemical separations, and corrosion. The major findings of each group are reported

  12. Government-sponsored microfinance program: Joint liability vs. individual liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Kusum Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY is a government-sponsored microfinance program. The scheme is based on four features: group lending with joint liability, progressive lending, back-ended subsidy, and social capital. We propose a new model of SGSY having these features: group lending with individual liability, progressive lending, back-ended subsidy, and social capital. “Joint liability” clause of the existing model is replaced with individual liability in the new model. The paper shows that problem of adverse selection is removed in both models, i.e. in “SGSY with group lending and joint liability” and “SGSY with group lending and individual liability.” The problem of “moral hazard” is more severe in the existing model of SGSY compared with the proposed model of SGSY. Borrowers are also benefitted from participation in the proposed scheme of SGSY than that in the existing model of SGSY.

  13. Assessing the Financial Condition of Provider-Sponsored Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of health plans sponsored by provider organizations, with respect to plans generating strong positive cash flow relative to plans generating weaker cash flow. A secondary aim was to assess their capital adequacy. The study identified 24 provider-sponsored health plans (PSHPs) with an average positive cash flow margin from 2011 through 2013 at or above the top 75th percentile, defined as "strong cash flow PSHPs:" This group was compared with 72 PSHPs below the 75th percentile, defined as "weak cash flow PSHPs:" Atlantic Information Services Directory of Health Plans was used to identify the PSHPs. Financial ratios were computed from 2013 National Association of Insurance Commissioners Financial Filings. The study conducted a t test mean comparison between strong and weak cash flow PSHPs across an array of financial performance and capital adequacy measures. In 2013, the strong cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin ratio of 6.6%. Weak cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin of -0.4%. The net worth capital position of both groups was more than 4.5 times authorized capital. The operational analysis shows that strong cash-flow margin PSHPs are managing their medical costs to achieve this position. Although their medical loss ratio increased by almost 300 basis points from 2011 to 2013, it was still statistically significantly lower than the weaker cash flow PSHP group (P<.001). In terms of capital adequacy, both strong and weak cash-flow margin PSHP groups possessed sufficient capital to ensure the viability of these plans.

  14. Estimation of Mangrove Forest Aboveground Biomass Using Multispectral Bands, Vegetation Indices and Biophysical Variables Derived from Optical Satellite Imageries: Rapideye, Planetscope and SENTINEL-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balidoy Baloloy, Alvin; Conferido Blanco, Ariel; Gumbao Candido, Christian; Labadisos Argamosa, Reginal Jay; Lovern Caboboy Dumalag, John Bart; Carandang Dimapilis, Lee, , Lady; Camero Paringit, Enrico

    2018-04-01

    Aboveground biomass estimation (AGB) is essential in determining the environmental and economic values of mangrove forests. Biomass prediction models can be developed through integration of remote sensing, field data and statistical models. This study aims to assess and compare the biomass predictor potential of multispectral bands, vegetation indices and biophysical variables that can be derived from three optical satellite systems: the Sentinel-2 with 10 m, 20 m and 60 m resolution; RapidEye with 5m resolution and PlanetScope with 3m ground resolution. Field data for biomass were collected from a Rhizophoraceae-dominated mangrove forest in Masinloc, Zambales, Philippines where 30 test plots (1.2 ha) and 5 validation plots (0.2 ha) were established. Prior to the generation of indices, images from the three satellite systems were pre-processed using atmospheric correction tools in SNAP (Sentinel-2), ENVI (RapidEye) and python (PlanetScope). The major predictor bands tested are Blue, Green and Red, which are present in the three systems; and Red-edge band from Sentinel-2 and Rapideye. The tested vegetation index predictors are Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Green-NDVI (GNDVI), Simple Ratio (SR), and Red-edge Simple Ratio (SRre). The study generated prediction models through conventional linear regression and multivariate regression. Higher coefficient of determination (r2) values were obtained using multispectral band predictors for Sentinel-2 (r2 = 0.89) and Planetscope (r2 = 0.80); and vegetation indices for RapidEye (r2 = 0.92). Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) models performed better than the linear regression models with r2 ranging from 0.62 to 0.92. Based on the r2 and root-mean-square errors (RMSE's), the best biomass prediction model per satellite were chosen and maps were generated. The accuracy of predicted biomass maps were high for both Sentinel-2 (r2 = 0

  15. The effect size, study design, and development experience in commercially sponsored studies for new drug applications in approved drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Satoshi; Kusama, Makiko; Ono, Shunsuke

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies incorporate different features into the trials for new drug applications (NDAs) to render them efficient, making use of their experience. The objective of this analysis was to examine the associations between outcome and features related to study design and clinical development experience in commercially sponsored clinical trials. We collected data of phase 2 and phase 3 trials of all the drugs that obtained approval for depression, schizophrenia, asthma, hypertension, and diabetes in Japan from 1970 to 2011. In total, 145 trials from 90 test drugs were eligible for our study. We calculated the effect size, the standard mean of differences between test drug and comparator therapeutic effects, as the objective variable for use in our analysis. A linear mixed effect model with nested and crossed random effects was used in the analysis including variety of therapeutic area, test drugs and clinical trials. The analysis showed that trial features including sample size, subjective endpoints and active comparator of the same mode of action were negatively associated with effect size. In addition, sponsors' domestic clinical development experience with similar drugs seemed to have a positive association, but prior development experience in foreign countries did not. The accumulation of skills and knowledge within sponsors, and accumulated experience in domestic professionals who implement clinical trials under study contracts with sponsors would be of great importance for yielding clear outcomes. This study provides additional evidence with respect to possible sizes and directions of the influence of study design features that must be considered when planning and implementing trials for new drug applications, and when retrospectively comparing outcomes from trials with different designs and environments.

  16. Making renewable energy competitive in India: Reducing financing costs via a government-sponsored hedging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooquee, Arsalan Ali; Shrimali, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    In India, a significant barrier to market-competitiveness of renewable energy is a shortage of attractive debt. Domestic debt has high cost, short tenors, and variable interest rates, adding 30% to the cost of renewable energy compared to renewable energy projects elsewhere. Foreign debt is as expensive as domestic debt because it requires costly market-based currency hedging solutions. We investigate a government-sponsored foreign exchange facility as an alternative to reducing hedging costs. Using the geometric Brownian motion (GBM) as a representative stochastic model of the INR–USD foreign exchange rate, we find that the expected cost of providing a currency hedge via this facility is 3.5 percentage points, 50% lower than market. This leads to an up to 9% reduction in the per unit cost of renewable energy. However, this requires the government to manage the risks related to unexpected currency movements appropriately. One option to manage these risks is via a capital buffer; for the facility to obtain India's sovereign rating, the capital buffer would need to be almost 30% of the underlying loan. Our findings have significant policy implications given that the Indian government can use this facility to make renewable energy more competitive and, therefore, hasten its deployment. - Highlights: • We analyze a government-sponsored foreign exchange facility in India. •We use geometric Brownian motion to represent the INR–USD exchange rate. •This facility can reduce the currency hedging costs by 50%. •This facility can reduce the levelized cost of renewable energy by 9%. •The capital buffer to reach India's sovereign rating is 30% of the original loan.

  17. Classifying variability modeling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnema, Marco; Deelstra, Sybren

    Variability modeling is important for managing variability in software product families, especially during product derivation. In the past few years, several variability modeling techniques have been developed, each using its own concepts to model the variability provided by a product family. The

  18. Multiple Regression and Mediator Variables can be used to Avoid Double Counting when Economic Values are Derived using Stochastic Herd Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren; Ettema, Jehan Frans; Hjortø, Line

    Multiple regression and model building with mediator variables was addressed to avoid double counting when economic values are estimated from data simulated with herd simulation modeling (using the SimHerd model). The simulated incidence of metritis was analyzed statistically as the independent...... variable, while using the traits representing the direct effects of metritis on yield, fertility and occurrence of other diseases as mediator variables. The economic value of metritis was estimated to be €78 per 100 cow-years for each 1% increase of metritis in the period of 1-100 days in milk...

  19. 75 FR 15401 - Information Collection; Online Registration for FSA-sponsored Events and Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Description of Information Collection Title: Online Registration for FSA-sponsored... respondents and make hotel reservations and other special arrangements as necessary. Estimate of Annual Burden...

  20. Strategic Bidding Behaviors in Nondecreasing Sponsored Search Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kun Tsung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize the specific results in the sponsored search auctions, most advertisers submit particular bid prices. The bidding behaviors with specific purposes are called as the strategic bidding. However, some strategic bidding behaviors will result in negative effects, such as the elimination of the equilibrium and the payment increase for some advertisers. The bidding behaviors with negative results are termed as the vindictive bidding. We survey four strategic bidding behaviors which include a rational bidding and three vindictive bidding strategies. In this paper, we study the relationship between the effects resulted by the vindictive bidding and the valuations of the vindictive advertisers. In our experiments, the search engine provider (SEP is benefited by all vindictive bidding behaviors, and the increment of the SEP's revenue is proportional to the degree of the vindictiveness. Bidding vindictively without sacrificing the own utility improves the advertiser's utility with high probability. Moreover, we observe that the SEP's revenue is improved by the following situations. First, the vindictive advertiser with low valuation in the keywords with high market value results in more SEP's revenue than that in the keywords with low market value. The second case is to raise the bidding competition between advertisers.

  1. Provider-Sponsored Health Plans: Lessons Learned over Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breon, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare's movement to value-based care is causing health systems across the country to consider whether owning or partnering with a health plan could benefit their organizations. Although organizations have different reasons for wanting to enter the insurance business, potential benefits include improving care quality, lowering costs, managing population health, expanding geographic reach, and diversifying the organization's revenue stream. However, the challenges and risks of owning a health plan are formidable: Assuming 100 percent financial risk for a patient population requires considerable financial resources, as well as competencies that are wholly different from those needed to run a hospital or physician group. For Spectrum Health, an integrated, not-for-profit health system based in Grand Rapids, Michigan, owning a health plan has been vital to fulfilling its mission of improving the health of the communities it serves, as well as its value proposition of providing highquality care at lower costs. This article weighs the pros and cons of operating a health plan; explores key business factors and required competencies that organizations need to consider when deciding whether to buy, build, or partner; examines the current environment for provider-sponsored health plans; and shares some of the lessons Spectrum Health has learned over three decades of running its health plan, Priority Health.

  2. EU-sponsored photovoltaic systems for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesch, Gerhard [Joint Research Centre of the European Union, JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    Development and proliferation of renewable energies are sponsored since 1983 by the European Union, normally up to 40% of the cost. (Programme THERMIE and predecessors). In the frame of this programme for more than one hundred projects of all kinds with thousands of photovoltaic energy supply systems have been implemented in Europe, 29 of these projects with 939 single pv-systems concern electrification of rural sites (e.g. agriculture) or isolated sites (e.g. mountain huts). Most of the single systems are of small size, 50 to 1000 Wp. A few of the systems are larger, up to 25 kWp, and supply local isolated mini-grids. In this paper the main features of the systems in six european countries are presented: The technical, economical and social results as well as the contributions of the Electric Power Utility (EPU`s) to these electrification are discussed. [Espanol] Desde 1983 la Union Europea ha auspiciado normalmente hasta el 40% del costo del desarrollo y proliferacion de las energias renovables. (Programa THERMIE y predecesores). En el marco de este programa con mas de cien proyectos de todos tipos, con miles de sistemas fotovoltaicos de suministro de energia, han sido implantados en Europa, 29 de estos proyectos con 929 sistemas fotovoltaicos sencillos se relacionan con la electrificacion de sitios rurales (por ejemplo agricultura) o de sitios aislados (por ejemplo cabanas en la montana). La mayoria de los sistemas sencillos son de pequeno tamano, 50 a 1000 Wp. Unos pocos de los sistemas son mas grandes, hasta de 25 kWp y alimentan mini-redes locales aisladas. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas principales de los sistemas en seis paises europeos: se analizan los resultados tecnicos, economicos y sociales, asi como las contribuciones de las empresas electricas.

  3. Corporate sponsored education initiatives on board the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Ian T.; Durham, Alyson S.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Brod, Lawrence B.; Durham, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes the creation of a corporate sponsored ``Lecture from Space'' program on board the International Space Station (ISS) with funding coming from a host of new technology and marketing spin-offs. This program would meld existing education initiatives in NASA with new corporate marketing techniques. Astronauts in residence on board the ISS would conduct short ten to fifteen minute live presentations and/or conduct interactive discussions carried out by a teacher in the classroom. This concept is similar to a program already carried out during the Neurolab mission on Shuttle flight STS-90. Building on that concept, the interactive simulcasts would be broadcast over the Internet and linked directly to computers and televisions in classrooms worldwide. In addition to the live broadcasts, educational programs and demonstrations can be recorded in space, and marketed and sold for inclusion in television programs, computer software, and other forms of media. Programs can be distributed directly into classrooms as an additional presentation supplement, as well as over the Internet or through cable and broadcast television, similar to the Canadian Discovery Channel's broadcasts of the Neurolab mission. Successful marketing and advertisement can eventually lead to the creation of an entirely new, privately run cottage industry involving the distribution and sale of educationally related material associated with the ISS that would have the potential to become truly global in scope. By targeting areas of expertise and research interest in microgravity, a large curriculum could be developed using space exploration as a unifying theme. Expansion of this concept could enhance objectives already initiated through the International Space University to include elementary and secondary school students. The ultimate goal would be to stimulate interest in space and space related sciences in today's youth through creative educational marketing initiatives while at the

  4. 29 CFR 4010.12 - Alternative method of compliance for certain sponsors of multiple employer plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION CERTAIN REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.12 Alternative method of compliance for certain sponsors of multiple employer... part for an information year if any contributing sponsor of the multiple employer plan provides a...

  5. 76 FR 2807 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... sponsor for a new animal drug application (NADA) for follicle stimulating hormone from Ausa International... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510 and 522 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Follicle Stimulating Hormone AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  6. 13 CFR 106.300 - Fee Based SBA-Sponsored Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Sponsored Activities pursuant to section 4(h) of the Small Business Act. ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fee Based SBA-Sponsored Activity. 106.300 Section 106.300 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION COSPONSORSHIPS...

  7. A Case Study of Teaching Marketing Research Using Client-Sponsored Projects: Method, Challenges, and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Liliana L.; Davies, W. Martin

    2009-01-01

    This case study outlines the use of client-sponsored research projects in a quantitative postgraduate marketing research subject conducted in a 12-week semester in a research-intensive Australian university. The case study attempts to address the dearth of recent literature on client-sponsored research projects in the discipline of marketing.…

  8. 14 CFR 152.105 - Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport planning. 152.105 Section 152.105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....105 Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport planning. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for...

  9. 75 FR 66304 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Monensin Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510 and 520 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect a change of sponsor from Farmland... rights and interest in, NADA 118-509 for Pasture Gainer Block-37 R350 (monensin) to Land O' Lakes Purina...

  10. Predictive Modeling of Black Spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. Wood Density Using Stand Structure Variables Derived from Airborne LiDAR Data in Boreal Forests of Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Pokharel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to model the average wood density in black spruce trees in representative stands across a boreal forest landscape based on relationships with predictor variables extracted from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR point cloud data. Increment core samples were collected from dominant or co-dominant black spruce trees in a network of 400 m2 plots distributed among forest stands representing the full range of species composition and stand development across a 1,231,707 ha forest management unit in northeastern Ontario, Canada. Wood quality data were generated from optical microscopy, image analysis, X-ray densitometry and diffractometry as employed in SilviScan™. Each increment core was associated with a set of field measurements at the plot level as well as a suite of LiDAR-derived variables calculated on a 20 × 20 m raster from a wall-to-wall coverage at a resolution of ~1 point m−2. We used a multiple linear regression approach to identify important predictor variables and describe relationships between stand structure and wood density for average black spruce trees in the stands we observed. A hierarchical classification model was then fitted using random forests to make spatial predictions of mean wood density for average trees in black spruce stands. The model explained 39 percent of the variance in the response variable, with an estimated root mean square error of 38.8 (kg·m−3. Among the predictor variables, P20 (second decile LiDAR height in m and quadratic mean diameter were most important. Other predictors describing canopy depth and cover were of secondary importance and differed according to the modeling approach. LiDAR-derived variables appear to capture differences in stand structure that reflect different constraints on growth rates, determining the proportion of thin-walled earlywood cells in black spruce stems, and ultimately influencing the pattern of variation in important wood quality attributes

  11. Isoprene emission potentials from European oak forests derived from canopy flux measurements: an assessment of uncertainties and inter-algorithm variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Ben; Cash, James; Acton, W. Joe F.; Valach, Amy C.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Fares, Silvano; Goded, Ignacio; Gruening, Carsten; House, Emily; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Gros, Valérie; Schafers, Richard; Thomas, Rick; Broadmeadow, Mark; Nemitz, Eiko

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic emission algorithms predict that oak forests account for ˜ 70 % of the total European isoprene budget. Yet the isoprene emission potentials (IEPs) that underpin these model estimates are calculated from a very limited number of leaf-level observations and hence are highly uncertain. Increasingly, micrometeorological techniques such as eddy covariance are used to measure whole-canopy fluxes directly, from which isoprene emission potentials can be calculated. Here, we review five observational datasets of isoprene fluxes from a range of oak forests in the UK, Italy and France. We outline procedures to correct the measured net fluxes for losses from deposition and chemical flux divergence, which were found to be on the order of 5-8 and 4-5 %, respectively. The corrected observational data were used to derive isoprene emission potentials at each site in a two-step process. Firstly, six commonly used emission algorithms were inverted to back out time series of isoprene emission potential, and then an average isoprene emission potential was calculated for each site with an associated uncertainty. We used these data to assess how the derived emission potentials change depending upon the specific emission algorithm used and, importantly, on the particular approach adopted to derive an average site-specific emission potential. Our results show that isoprene emission potentials can vary by up to a factor of 4 depending on the specific algorithm used and whether or not it is used in a big-leaf or canopy environment (CE) model format. When using the same algorithm, the calculated average isoprene emission potential was found to vary by as much as 34 % depending on how the average was derived. Using a consistent approach with version 2.1 of the Model for Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), we derive new ecosystem-scale isoprene emission potentials for the five measurement sites: Alice Holt, UK (10 500 ± 2500 µg m-2 h-1); Bosco Fontana, Italy (1610

  12. Isoprene emission potentials from European oak forests derived from canopy flux measurements: an assessment of uncertainties and inter-algorithm variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langford

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic emission algorithms predict that oak forests account for ∼ 70 % of the total European isoprene budget. Yet the isoprene emission potentials (IEPs that underpin these model estimates are calculated from a very limited number of leaf-level observations and hence are highly uncertain. Increasingly, micrometeorological techniques such as eddy covariance are used to measure whole-canopy fluxes directly, from which isoprene emission potentials can be calculated. Here, we review five observational datasets of isoprene fluxes from a range of oak forests in the UK, Italy and France. We outline procedures to correct the measured net fluxes for losses from deposition and chemical flux divergence, which were found to be on the order of 5–8 and 4–5 %, respectively. The corrected observational data were used to derive isoprene emission potentials at each site in a two-step process. Firstly, six commonly used emission algorithms were inverted to back out time series of isoprene emission potential, and then an average isoprene emission potential was calculated for each site with an associated uncertainty. We used these data to assess how the derived emission potentials change depending upon the specific emission algorithm used and, importantly, on the particular approach adopted to derive an average site-specific emission potential. Our results show that isoprene emission potentials can vary by up to a factor of 4 depending on the specific algorithm used and whether or not it is used in a big-leaf or canopy environment (CE model format. When using the same algorithm, the calculated average isoprene emission potential was found to vary by as much as 34 % depending on how the average was derived. Using a consistent approach with version 2.1 of the Model for Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN, we derive new ecosystem-scale isoprene emission potentials for the five measurement sites: Alice Holt, UK (10 500 ± 2500

  13. Criminal implication of sponsoring in medicine: legal ramifactions and recommendations; Strafrechtliche Bedeutung des Sponsorings in der Medizin: Gesetzliche Rahmenbedingungen und Handlungsempfehlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany); Theilmann, M. [Rechtsanwalt Martin Theilmann, Osnabrueck (Germany); Bolenz, M. [Fakultaet Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Fachhochschule Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    As a consequence of the so-called ''Heart-Valve-Affair'' in 1994, the German public became aware of the potential criminal significance of industrial sponsoring and third-party financial support in medicine. Since 1997, when the German Anti-Corruption Law came into effect, the penal regulations regarding bribery and benefits for public officers were tightened. Due to the lack of explicit and generally accepted guidelines in combination with regional differences of jurisdiction, there is a lingering uncertainty regarding the criminal aspects of third-party funding and industrial sponsoring. The aim of this review is to summarize the penal and professional implications of third-party funding and sponsoring in medicine including recent aspects of jurisdiction. The currently available recommendations on this issue are introduced. (orig.)

  14. Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Foods and Derived Products Containing Ellagitannins and Anthocyanins on Cardiometabolic Biomarkers: Analysis of Factors Influencing Variability of the Individual Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Karen; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Konic Ristic, Aleksandra; Hollands, Wendy J.; Kroon, Paul A.; Rodríguez-Mateos, Ana; Istas, Geoffrey; Kontogiorgis, Christos A.; Morand, Christine; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Understanding interindividual variability in response to dietary polyphenols remains essential to elucidate their effects on cardiometabolic disease development. A meta-analysis of 128 randomized clinical trials was conducted to investigate the effects of berries and red grapes/wine as sources of anthocyanins and of nuts and pomegranate as sources of ellagitannins on a range of cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. The potential influence of various demographic and lifestyle factors on the variability in the response to these products were explored. Both anthocyanin- and ellagitannin-containing products reduced total-cholesterol with nuts and berries yielding more significant effects than pomegranate and grapes. Blood pressure was significantly reduced by the two main sources of anthocyanins, berries and red grapes/wine, whereas waist circumference, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were most significantly lowered by the ellagitannin-products, particularly nuts. Additionally, we found an indication of a small increase in HDL-cholesterol most significant with nuts and, in flow-mediated dilation by nuts and berries. Most of these effects were detected in obese/overweight people but we found limited or non-evidence in normoweight individuals or of the influence of sex or smoking status. The effects of other factors, i.e., habitual diet, health status or country where the study was conducted, were inconsistent and require further investigation. PMID:29495642

  15. Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Foods and Derived Products Containing Ellagitannins and Anthocyanins on Cardiometabolic Biomarkers: Analysis of Factors Influencing Variability of the Individual Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Teresa García-Conesa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding interindividual variability in response to dietary polyphenols remains essential to elucidate their effects on cardiometabolic disease development. A meta-analysis of 128 randomized clinical trials was conducted to investigate the effects of berries and red grapes/wine as sources of anthocyanins and of nuts and pomegranate as sources of ellagitannins on a range of cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. The potential influence of various demographic and lifestyle factors on the variability in the response to these products were explored. Both anthocyanin- and ellagitannin-containing products reduced total-cholesterol with nuts and berries yielding more significant effects than pomegranate and grapes. Blood pressure was significantly reduced by the two main sources of anthocyanins, berries and red grapes/wine, whereas waist circumference, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were most significantly lowered by the ellagitannin-products, particularly nuts. Additionally, we found an indication of a small increase in HDL-cholesterol most significant with nuts and, in flow-mediated dilation by nuts and berries. Most of these effects were detected in obese/overweight people but we found limited or non-evidence in normoweight individuals or of the influence of sex or smoking status. The effects of other factors, i.e., habitual diet, health status or country where the study was conducted, were inconsistent and require further investigation.

  16. Genetic algorithm as a variable selection procedure for the simulation of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of flavonoid derivatives using multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Raoof; Najafi, Amir; Sajadi, Mohammad; Djannaty, Farhad

    2008-09-01

    In order to accurately simulate (13)C NMR spectra of hydroxy, polyhydroxy and methoxy substituted flavonoid a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model, relating atom-based calculated descriptors to (13)C NMR chemical shifts (ppm, TMS=0), is developed. A dataset consisting of 50 flavonoid derivatives was employed for the present analysis. A set of 417 topological, geometrical, and electronic descriptors representing various structural characteristics was calculated and separate multilinear QSPR models were developed between each carbon atom of flavonoid and the calculated descriptors. Genetic algorithm (GA) and multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) were used to select the descriptors and to generate the correlation models. Analysis of the results revealed a correlation coefficient and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.994 and 2.53ppm, respectively, for the prediction set.

  17. Strategic considerations for provider sponsored organizations entering the risk-bearing Medicare market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treash, M; Thomson, K

    1997-01-01

    This article considers Michael Porter's five forces of industry competition as it relates to provider sponsored organizations and asks four important questions on marketing differentiation, quality, size of market, and product/service scope.

  18. Military Responses to State-Sponsored Terrorism: Re-Thinking Deterrence and Coercion Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bellon, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    ... or coercing states into ceasing their sponsorship. This thesis uses conventional deterrence and coercion theory, as well as comparative case studies to analyze the utility of deterrence and coercion against state-sponsored terrorism...

  19. 77 FR 28252 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Griseofulvin Powder; Levamisole...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Sponsor; Griseofulvin Powder; Levamisole Hydrochloride Powder; Oxytetracycline Powder AGENCY: Food and... applications (ANADAs) for griseofulvin powder, levamisole hydrochloride soluble powder, and oxytetracycline..., ANADA 200-391 for Griseofulvin Powder, ANADAs 200-146 and 200-247 for Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride...

  20. Gulf Regional Planning Commission scenario planning workshop : sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report summarizes noteworthy practices shared during a scenario planning workshop, hosted by the Gulf Regional Planning Commission, on March 15-16, 2016, in Biloxi, Mississippi. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored this event as p...

  1. Wisdom for Building the Project Manager/Project Sponsor Relationship: Partnership for Project Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patton, Nanette; Shechet, Allan

    2007-01-01

    .... This article discusses conventional roles and responsibilities of the project sponsor and then discusses strategies a project manager can employ to define boundaries to reduce role confusion and promote partnership to facilitate project success.

  2. why sponsored posts on facebook and instagram are effective online branding tools

    OpenAIRE

    Eggers, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    This research is motivated by the incongruence of how businesses and contemporary research evaluate paid social media advertisement as online branding tools. Therefore, we examine the possibilities of social media marketing: why sponsored posts on Facebook and Instagram are effective online branding tools. A questionnaire was utilized to approach the research, and answer the hypotheses. Results from 316 participants indicated that sponsored posts were effective for brand awaren...

  3. Tracking the progression of speciation: variable patterns of introgression across the genome provide insights on the species delimitation between progenitor-derivative spruces (Picea mariana × P. rubens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lafontaine, Guillaume; Prunier, Julien; Gérardi, Sébastien; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-10-01

    The genic species concept implies that while most of the genome can be exchanged somewhat freely between species through introgression, some genomic regions remain impermeable to interspecific gene flow. Hence, interspecific differences can be maintained despite ongoing gene exchange within contact zones. This study assessed the heterogeneous patterns of introgression at gene loci across the hybrid zone of an incipient progenitor-derivative species pair, Picea mariana (black spruce) and Picea rubens (red spruce). The spruce taxa likely diverged in geographic isolation during the Pleistocene and came into secondary contact during late Holocene. A total of 300 SNPs distributed across the 12 linkage groups (LG) of black spruce were genotyped for 385 individual trees from 33 populations distributed across the allopatric zone of each species and within the zone of sympatry. An integrative framework combining three population genomic approaches was used to scan the genomes, revealing heterogeneous patterns of introgression. A total of 23 SNPs scattered over 10 LG were considered impermeable to introgression and putatively under diverging selection. These loci revealed the existence of impermeable genomic regions forming the species boundary and are thus indicative of ongoing speciation between these two genetic lineages. Another 238 SNPs reflected selectively neutral diffusion across the porous species barrier. Finally, 39 highly permeable SNPs suggested ancestral polymorphism along with balancing selection. The heterogeneous patterns of introgression across the genome indicated that the speciation process between black spruce and red spruce is young and incomplete, albeit some interspecific differences are maintained, allowing ongoing species divergence even in sympatry. The approach developed in this study can be used to track the progression of ongoing speciation processes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Snow accumulation variability derived from radar and firn core data along a 600 km transect in Adelie Land, East Antarctic plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Verfaillie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The mass balance of ice sheets is an intensively studied topic in the context of global change and sea-level rise. However – particularly in Antarctica – obtaining mass balance estimates remains difficult due to various logistical problems. In the framework of the TASTE-IDEA (Trans-Antarctic Scientific Traverses Expeditions – Ice Divide of East Antarctica program, an International Polar Year project, continuous ground penetrating radar (GPR measurements were carried out during a traverse in Adelie Land (East Antarctica during the 2008–2009 austral summer between the Italian–French Dome C (DC polar plateau site and French Dumont D'Urville (DdU coastal station. The aim of this study was to process and interpret GPR data in terms of snow accumulation, to analyse its spatial and temporal variability and compare it with historical data and modelling. The focus was on the last 300 yr, from the pre-industrial period to recent times. Beta-radioactivity counting and gamma spectrometry were applied to cores at the LGGE laboratory, providing a depth–age calibration for radar measurements. Over the 600 km of usable GPR data, depth and snow accumulation were determined with the help of three distinct layers visible on the radargrams (≈ 1730, 1799 and 1941 AD. Preliminary results reveal a gradual increase in accumulation towards the coast (from ≈ 3 cm w.e. a−1 at Dome C to ≈ 17 cm w.e. a−1 at the end of the transect and previously undocumented undulating structures between 300 and 600 km from DC. Results agree fairly well with data from previous studies and modelling. Drawing final conclusions on temporal variations is difficult because of the margin of error introduced by density estimation. This study should have various applications, including model validation.

  5. Differential Globalization of Industry- and Non-Industry–Sponsored Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atal, Ignacio; Trinquart, Ludovic; Porcher, Raphaël; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Mapping the international landscape of clinical trials may inform global health research governance, but no large-scale data are available. Industry or non-industry sponsorship may have a major influence in this mapping. We aimed to map the global landscape of industry- and non-industry–sponsored clinical trials and its evolution over time. Methods We analyzed clinical trials initiated between 2006 and 2013 and registered in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We mapped single-country and international trials by World Bank's income groups and by sponsorship (industry- vs. non- industry), including its evolution over time from 2006 to 2012. We identified clusters of countries that collaborated significantly more than expected in industry- and non-industry–sponsored international trials. Results 119,679 clinical trials conducted in 177 countries were analysed. The median number of trials per million inhabitants in high-income countries was 100 times that in low-income countries (116.0 vs. 1.1). Industry sponsors were involved in three times more trials per million inhabitants than non-industry sponsors in high-income countries (75.0 vs. 24.5) and in ten times fewer trials in low- income countries (0.08 vs. 1.08). Among industry- and non-industry–sponsored trials, 30.3% and 3.2% were international, respectively. In the industry-sponsored network of collaboration, Eastern European and South American countries collaborated more than expected; in the non-industry–sponsored network, collaboration among Scandinavian countries was overrepresented. Industry-sponsored international trials became more inter-continental with time between 2006 and 2012 (from 54.8% to 67.3%) as compared with non-industry–sponsored trials (from 42.4% to 37.2%). Conclusions Based on trials registered in the WHO ICTRP we documented a substantial gap between the globalization of industry- and non-industry–sponsored clinical research. Only 3% of

  6. Differential Globalization of Industry- and Non-Industry-Sponsored Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atal, Ignacio; Trinquart, Ludovic; Porcher, Raphaël; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the international landscape of clinical trials may inform global health research governance, but no large-scale data are available. Industry or non-industry sponsorship may have a major influence in this mapping. We aimed to map the global landscape of industry- and non-industry-sponsored clinical trials and its evolution over time. We analyzed clinical trials initiated between 2006 and 2013 and registered in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We mapped single-country and international trials by World Bank's income groups and by sponsorship (industry- vs. non- industry), including its evolution over time from 2006 to 2012. We identified clusters of countries that collaborated significantly more than expected in industry- and non-industry-sponsored international trials. 119,679 clinical trials conducted in 177 countries were analysed. The median number of trials per million inhabitants in high-income countries was 100 times that in low-income countries (116.0 vs. 1.1). Industry sponsors were involved in three times more trials per million inhabitants than non-industry sponsors in high-income countries (75.0 vs. 24.5) and in ten times fewer trials in low- income countries (0.08 vs. 1.08). Among industry- and non-industry-sponsored trials, 30.3% and 3.2% were international, respectively. In the industry-sponsored network of collaboration, Eastern European and South American countries collaborated more than expected; in the non-industry-sponsored network, collaboration among Scandinavian countries was overrepresented. Industry-sponsored international trials became more inter-continental with time between 2006 and 2012 (from 54.8% to 67.3%) as compared with non-industry-sponsored trials (from 42.4% to 37.2%). Based on trials registered in the WHO ICTRP we documented a substantial gap between the globalization of industry- and non-industry-sponsored clinical research. Only 3% of academic trials but 30% of industry trials are

  7. GREP: Evaluation of the Copernicus Marine Service Global Reanalysis Ensemble Product: deriving uncertainty estimates for 3D T and S variability in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desportes, Charles; Drévillon, Marie; Drillet, Yann; Garric, Gilles; Parent, Laurent; Régnier, Charly; Masina, Simona; Storto, Andrea; Petterson, Drew; Wood, Richard; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Zuo, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Global ocean reanalyses are homogeneous 3D gridded descriptions of the physical state of the ocean spanning several decades, produced with a numerical ocean model constrained with data assimilation of satellite and in situ observations. The evaluation of global ocean reanalyses, and of how well they capture ocean variability, has progressed these recent years thanks to the CLIVAR/GSOP/GODAE Ocean Reanalyses Intercomparison Project ORA-IP (Balmaseda et al 2015). During the MyOcean project, several high resolution (1/4° horizontal grid) reanalyses based on NEMO but produced with different tunings and by different institutes, were evaluated jointly using common validation guidelines (Masina et al, 2015). The Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service CMEMS (marine.copernicus.eu) Global Monitoring and Forecasting Center now takes advantage of the diversity of ocean reanalyses currently developed with that same NEMO model grid (ORCA025 at ¼°) to propose a multi-model ensemble product, which spread allows uncertainties or error bars to be estimated. In a number of regions, the ensemble mean may even provide a more reliable estimate than any individual reanalysis product. Four reanalyses have been selected to contribute to the project; GLORYS2V4 from Mercator Ocean (Fr), ORAS5 from ECMWF, FOAM/GloSea from Met Office (UK), and C-GLORS from CMCC (It). The four different time series of global ocean 3D monthly estimates have been post-processed to create the new product called GREP (Global Reanalysis Ensemble Product), covering the recent period during which altimetry observations are available: 1993-2015. Starting from April 20th 2017, the ensemble mean and standard deviation of the ensemble, as well as the four individual members for the period 1993-2015, are thus made available on a 1°x1° grid and monthly frequency. The time series will be extended by one year each year. In the presentation, we will describe the results of the scientific qualification of the

  8. Jointly Sponsored Research Program on Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2013-12-31

    several criteria. Using the deployment of the federal funding with industrial participation as a performance criterion, over the course of the program, the copsonsors contributed more dollars than the federal funds. As stated earlier, a little more than half of the funding for the Program was derived from industrial partners. The industrial partners also enthusiastically supported the research and development activities with cash contribution of $4,710,372.67, nearly 65% of the required cost share. Work on all of the tasks proposed under the Cooperative Agreement has been completed. This report summarizes and highlights the results from the Program. Under the Cooperative Agreement Program, energy-related tasks emphasized petroleum processing, upgrading and characterization, coal and biomass beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils using microbial fuel cells, development of processes and sorbents for emissions reduction and recovery of water from power plant flue gas, and biological carbon capture and reuse. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental impacts associated with energy production and utilization. Technologies being brought to commercialization as a result of the funds provided by the Cooperative Agreement contribute to the overall goals of the USDOE and the nation. Each has broad applicability both within the United States and abroad, thereby helping to enhance the

  9. [Analysis of projects of schistosomiasis sponsored by National Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-di, Zhou; Liang, Shi; Xue-Dan, Ke; Jie, Wang

    2017-07-27

    To summarize the present development by analysis of projects in schistosomiasis funded by National Science Foundation of China (NSFC). Based on the ISIS database of NFSC, the projects in the studies of schistosomiasis from 2005 to 2016 were analyzed. The distributions of sponsored numbers, amounts, types, agencies, disciplines and changes in research topics by means of network profiles were described. During the study period, 198 projects were funded by NSFC totally with 76.05 million yuan in which the general and youth projects were main types. The main sponsored agencies were research institutes and medical colleges. The top three fields sponsored were medical pathogenic microbes and infection, veterinary and medical immunology. The funding on schistosomiasis researches has a downward trend, but studies are continuing in depth. In this situation, innovative and interdisciplinary researches need to be encouraged to promote the development of schistosomiasis.

  10. Gorenstein derived functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(􀀀;􀀀) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(􀀀;􀀀) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective an...

  11. Enhanced evaluation data initiates a collaborative out-of-school time food sponsors work group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Robin; Williams, Lauren A; Grode, Gabrielle M; Roberts-Johnson, Wendy-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Philadelphia's Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities Out-of-School Time (OST) Initiative led by the Health Promotion Council developed 10 Healthy Living Guidelines for Out-of-School Time Programs to support a healthy environment for Philadelphia youth in 200 OST programs. Health Promotion Council participated in an enhanced cross-site evaluation with the national Robert Wood Johnson Foundation evaluator during the final year of funding to learn more about food and nutrition in the OST setting, and to share data and engage the OST food providers. A plate waste study measured the quantity and nutrition composition of meals served to youth compared to food not eaten. Staff interviews measured program adherence to the Healthy Living Guidelines, along with other facets of the food environment in 7 Philadelphia OST programs. Online surveys were sent to OST programs. Food providers (sponsors) were interviewed using Appreciative Inquiry methodology to gain insight into systems, goals, and common interests. Aggregated plate waste data from 7 observations showed an average of 42% of the food uneaten after meal/snack consumption, and high sodium content of the meals. Twenty-nine staff at OST programs completed the online survey, and 3 food sponsors were interviewed. Recommendations to improve the food included increasing variety, offering more salads, fruits and vegetables, and culturally appropriate foods. Food sponsor interviews showed a variety of meal production, distribution, service and training systems, and an interest in working together. The food sponsors met to review the data and prioritized common goals. They continue to work together to improve systems and meals for food service. A food sponsors work group formed and continues as a result of sharing enhanced cross-site data about food in OST settings. Food sponsors continue to work together to improve systems and nutritional offerings for Philadelphia OST programs.

  12. Measuring Consumer Reactions to Sponsoring Partnerships Based upon Emotional and Attitudinal Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis Christensen, Sverre

    2004-01-01

    Score (NERS). Amongst the potential sponsoring companies only one company - a tobacco manufacturer - show this profile in NERS. The variation in NERS between charitable institutions and sports insti-tutions is quite dramatic - and has a high face validity. When studying attitude responses (Net Atti......-tude Response Score or NARS), the differences between sponsored institutions are much smaller, although the charitable institutions still show a structurally different profile from the cultural and sports institutions. The differences between companies in NARS are quite small and probably only significant...

  13. How do staff members at science and technology centres consider the impact of sponsors on the scientific content of exhibitions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, Eva; Sørensen, Helene

    2009-01-01

    or historical museums. But in what ways may sponsors impact exhibition content and design at science and technology centres? This study seeks to explore how staff members consider the impact of sponsors and donors on exhibit content and design. The data collection involves a survey, interviews and a focus group...... interview with staff members, who work with planning and constructing new exhibitions at their science and technology centre. The results suggest that sponsors may interfere in exhibition construction both directly and indirectly. This means that sponsors could put explicit demands when it comes...... to the choice of scientific content and design and thereby interfere directly. Indirect impact, on the other hand, refers to implicit demands of sponsors where staff members take into account for what they believe are views of the sponsors through self-censorship....

  14. 78 FR 44432 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Fentanyl; Iron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 522, and 524 [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0002] New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Fentanyl; Iron Injection AGENCY..., NADA 141-337 for RECUVYRA (fentanyl) Transdermal Solution to Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli...

  15. Marketing Capstone Models "The Apprentice" Television Show with Client-Sponsored Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Marketing faculty use cases, simulations, and client-sponsored projects to achieve learning objectives in the marketing capstone class. This class typically aims to integrate and apply previously learned material and to transition students into their careers. Drawing on the professional school, creative problem solving and constructivist learning…

  16. 78 FR 19713 - Possible Role of Independent Third Parties in Industry-Sponsored Tobacco Product Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... generally and to reduce tobacco use by minors. FDA expects that tobacco product manufacturers will undertake... information on third-party governance as it relates more generally to industry-sponsored tobacco research. FDA... premarket tobacco product applications and other submissions to FDA, as well as research designed to...

  17. Heineken in the House: Improving Online Media Reputation through Featuring a Sponsored Brand Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, S.; Remmelswaal, P.; Jacobs, S.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more organizations use social media to promote their sponsorships of big events. Heineken has created a major brand community by facilitating the Holland Heineken House during the Olympic Games. This study investigates to what extent featuring a sponsored brand community on social

  18. Motivations of Government-Sponsored Kurdish Students for Pursuing Postgraduate Studies Abroad; An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ahmad Bayiz; Hassan, Hemin Ali; Al-Ahmedi, Mustafa Wshyar Abdulla

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the motivations of government-sponsored Kurdish students to study abroad and the reasons for choosing a particular country as their destination choice. Based on data we collected through an online survey and follow-up interviews, we compare demographic differences to explore the diversity among this cohort. The findings of the…

  19. Financial administration of work for nonfederal sponsors, DOE Field Office (AL), Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Office, Albuquerque (AL) is responsible for managing and controlling nonfederally sponsored work done by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The audit objective was to determine whether the funding of, and accounting for, work done under a 1984 funds-in agreement and work for others in Fiscal Year (FY) 1989 complied with laws, regulations, and policies.

  20. Industrial Sponsor Perspective on Leveraging Capstone Design Projects to Enhance Their Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbach, Robert S.; Snyder, Joseph W.; Evans, Edward R., Jr.; Carucci, James R., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Capstone design projects have become commonplace among engineering and engineering technology programs. These projects are valuable tools when assessing students, as they require students to work in teams, communicate effectively, and demonstrate technical competency. The use of industrial sponsors enhances these projects by giving these projects…

  1. Computer Education: A Catalog of Projects Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susan S., Ed.

    This first catalog of computer education projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education presents summaries of 275 computer education projects, each of which includes an abstract and information on target audience, award amount, major products, project director, and Department of Education contact person. An introductory overview summarizes…

  2. Undergraduates' Perceptions of Conflict of Interest in Industry-Sponsored Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Heather Brodie

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of industry-sponsored research has led to significant concerns about financial conflicts of interest and the impact on research findings. This case study sought to examine how students considered conflict of interest when establishing the cognitive authority of a journal article. The case study used a mixed methods pretest and…

  3. 22 CFR Appendix C to Part 62 - Update of Information on Exchange-Visitor Program Sponsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Update of Information on Exchange-Visitor Program Sponsor C Appendix C to Part 62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND... Cultural Exchange. 9. ( ) Cancel the above named Exchange Visitor Program. (Signature of Responsible or...

  4. Informing consumers about 'hidden' advertising. A literature review of the effects of disclosing sponsored content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; De Pelsmacker, P.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of what is currently known in the scientific literature about the effects of disclosures of sponsored content on consumers' responses. Methodology We provide a qualitative literature review of 21 empirical studies. Findings Awareness of disclosures is rather low,

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CAMP ACTIVITIES IN SELECTED KENNEDY FOUNDATION SPONSORED CAMPS FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAINTER, GENEVIEVE

    RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES OBSERVED AT SIX SUMMER DAY CAMPS (REPRESENTATIVE OF 26 SUCH CAMPS SPONSORED BY THE KENNEDY FOUNDATION) ARE REPORTED. EACH CAMP WAS VISITED AND THE FIRST 25 ACTIVITIES PRESENTED WERE ANALYZED BY ONE OF TWO THEORETICAL MODELS. THE MODEL FOR MEANINGFUL (COGNITIVE) ACTIVITIES WAS USED TO RATE ACTIVITIES IN TERMS OF…

  6. Primary Care COPD Patients Compared with Large Pharmaceutically-Sponsored COPD Studies : An UNLOCK Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, Annemarije L.; Stallberg, Bjorn; Jones, Rupert C. M.; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G.; Lisspers, Karin; van der Molen, Thys; Kocks, Jan Willem H.; Chavannes, Niels H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Guideline recommendations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are based on the results of large pharmaceutically-sponsored COPD studies (LPCS). There is a paucity of data on disease characteristics at the primary care level, while the majority of COPD patients are treated in

  7. Gender and the effect of working hours on firm-sponsored training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan

    Using employees’ longitudinal data, we study the effect of working hours on the propensity of firms to sponsor training of their employees. We show that, whereas male part-time workers are less likely to receive training than male full-timers, part-time working women are as likely to receive

  8. Gender and the Effect of Working Hours on Firm-Sponsored Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Using employees’ longitudinal data, we study the effect of working hours on the propensity of firms to sponsor training of their employees. We show that, whereas male part-time workers are less likely to receive training than male full-timers, parttime working women are as likely to receive training

  9. 77 FR 9273 - WORKSHOP Sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0037] WORKSHOP Sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute on the Treatment of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Uncertainties: Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of public meeting...

  10. Opinion Survey of Naval Officers Who Have Received a Navy Sponsored Graduate Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Cecil Roy, Jr.; Shaddix, James Delano

    A survey of naval officers who have received a Navy sponsored graduate degree was conducted by a questionnaire to determine their opinions concerning numerous topics related to obtaining a graduate degree and the utilization of their graduate education. Results showed that obtaining a graduate degree was perceived as having a positive influence on…

  11. [Analysis of projects of infectious disease epidemiology sponsored by National Natural Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-Ming, Wang; Yan-Kai, Xia; Hui-Juan, Zhu; Feng, Chen; Hong-Bing, Shen

    2016-05-10

    To analyze the projects on the infectious disease epidemiology sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), explore the hotspot and development trend, and offer a reference for researchers in this field. Based on the NSFC database, the projects on the infectious disease epidemiology (H2609) sponsored from 1987 to 2014 were analyzed. The changes of fund numbers, amounts and research fields were described. During the study period, NSFC sponsored 373 projects, including 228 general projects (61.1%), 78 youth projects (20.9%) and 67 other projects (18.0%). The average amount of the grant was 358.2 thousand Yuan (20 thousand-8 million). The main sponsored research fields were mechanisms of pathogen and immunity (36.2%) and population-based epidemiological studies (33.0%). The top three diseases were hepatitis, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. The amount of funding on researches of infectious disease epidemiology has increased continuously, which has played an important role in training scientific talents in the field of prevention and control of infectious diseases.

  12. Marveling at "The Man Called Nova": Comics as Sponsors of Multimodal Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Dale

    2007-01-01

    This essay theorizes the ways in which comics, and Marvel Comics in particular, acted as sponsors of multimodal literacy for the author. In doing so, the essay demonstrates the possibilities that exist in examining comics more closely and in thinking about how literacy sponsorship happens in multimodal texts. (Contains 1 figure and 13 notes.)

  13. 7 CFR 226.13 - Food service payments to sponsoring organizations for day care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... day care homes. 226.13 Section 226.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... care homes. (a) Payments shall be made only to sponsoring organizations operating under an agreement... children and eligible enrolled children of day care home providers, at approved day care homes. (b) Each...

  14. Industry sponsored anti-smoking ads and adolescent reactance: test of a boomerang effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, L; Dauphinee, A L; Wang, Y; Fortmann, S P

    2006-02-01

    To examine whether adolescents' exposure to youth smoking prevention ads sponsored by tobacco companies promotes intentions to smoke, curiosity about smoking, and positive attitudes toward the tobacco industry. A randomised controlled experiment compared adolescents' responses to five smoking prevention ads sponsored by a tobacco company (Philip Morris or Lorillard), or to five smoking prevention ads sponsored by a non-profit organisation (the American Legacy Foundation), or to five ads about preventing drunk driving. A large public high school in California's central valley. A convenience sample of 9th and 10th graders (n = 832) ages 14-17 years. Perceptions of ad effectiveness, intention to smoke, and attitudes toward tobacco companies measured immediately after exposure. As predicted, adolescents rated Philip Morris and Lorillard ads less favourably than the other youth smoking prevention ads. Adolescents' intention to smoke did not differ as a function of ad exposure. However, exposure to Philip Morris and Lorillard ads engendered more favourable attitudes toward tobacco companies. This study demonstrates that industry sponsored anti-smoking ads do more to promote corporate image than to prevent youth smoking. By cultivating public opinion that is more sympathetic toward tobacco companies, the effect of such advertising is likely to be more harmful than helpful to youth.

  15. The Impact of Employer-Sponsored Educational Assistance Benefits on Community College Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Henry; Smith, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Studies of community college finance often focus on revenue sources from the state and local government, private foundations, and tuition. While these resources are important, an often-neglected source of revenue is employer-sponsored educational assistance benefits for students. Given the dearth of literature on the benefits of this funding…

  16. Ego Strength Development of Adolescents Involved in Adult-Sponsored Structured Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Carol A.; Li, Xaioming; Blackshire, Shana L.; Wilfong, Juanita J.

    2005-01-01

    A psychosocial conception of ego strengths is presented in relation to adolescent involvement in adult-sponsored structured youth activities. Five-hundred and seventeen high school students completed measures on their involvement in structured activities and on 8 ego strengths. Gender, age, and SES were controlled in a MANCOVA procedure and it was…

  17. Trends underlying employer-sponsored health insurance growth for Americans younger than age sixty-five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carolina-Nicole; Gaynor, Martin; Newman, David; Town, Robert J; Parente, Stephen T

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the trends in health care spending for the 156 million Americans who are younger than age sixty-five and enrolled in employer-sponsored health insurance. Using a new source of health insurance claims data, we estimated per capita spending, utilization, and prices for this population between 2007 and 2011. During this period per capita spending on employer-sponsored insurance grew at historically slow rates, but still faster than per capita national health expenditures. Total per capita spending for employer-sponsored insurance grew at an average annual rate of 4.9 percent, with prescription spending growing at 3.3 percent and medical spending growing at 5.3 percent. Out-of-pocket medical spending increased at an average annual rate of 8.0 percent, whereas out-of-pocket prescription drug spending growth was flat. Growth in the use of medical services and prescription drugs slowed. Medical price growth accelerated, and prescription price growth decelerated. As a result, changes in utilization contributed less than changes in price did to overall spending growth for those with employer-sponsored insurance.

  18. Write. Persist. Struggle: Sponsors of Writing and Workers' Education in the 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutnick, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Organizations like the John Reed Clubs and the WPA Federal Writers' Project, as well as publications like "The New Masses" can be seen as "literacy sponsors" of the U.S. literary left in the 1930s, particularly the young, the working class, and African American writers. The vibrant, inclusionary, activist, literary culture of…

  19. 77 FR 60622 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Address; Monensin; Spinosad; Tilmicosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. This rule does not meet the... Indications for use Limitations Sponsor (i) 568 to 757 Beef and nonlactating Feed continuously for 000986... Histophilus somni in not approved for use groups of beef and in female dairy nonlactating dairy cattle 20...

  20. 76 FR 40229 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect a change of sponsor for a new animal drug... informed FDA that it has transferred ownership of, and all rights and interest in, NADA 092-150 for Purina...

  1. NICBR-Sponsored Spring Research Festival Set for May 8 and 9 | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer For the first time, the Spring Research Festival (SRF), scheduled for May 8 and 9, will be sponsored by all of the agencies that are part of the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR).

  2. 47 CFR 68.602 - Sponsor of the Administrative Council for Terminal Attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Attachments. (a) The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) and the Alliance for Telecommunications... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sponsor of the Administrative Council for Terminal Attachments. 68.602 Section 68.602 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...

  3. A single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP)-derived quantitative variable to monitor the virulence of a Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) isolate during adaptation to the TC14 resistant wheat line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunay, Agnes; Lacroix, Christelle; Morliere, Stephanie; Riault, Gerard; Chain, Florian; Trottet, Maxime; Jacquot, Emmanuel

    2010-09-01

    A standardized single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) procedure is proposed as an alternative to the time-consuming biological characterization of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) isolates. Using this procedure, six of 21 overlapping regions used to scan the viral genome gave patterns specific to '4E' (avirulent) or '4T' ('4E'-derived virulent) isolates. The calibration of samples and integration of SSCP patterns corresponding to the nucleotide region 1482-2023 allowed the estimation of P(T) values that reflect the proportions of a '4T'-specific band. Analysis of the biological (area under the pathogen progress curve) and molecular (P(T)) data suggested a positive linear relation between these variables. Moreover, sequence analysis of the nucleotide region 1482-2023 highlighted the presence of a nucleotide polymorphism (C/A(1835)) which can be considered as a candidate for virus-host interactions linked to the monitored virulence. According to these parameters, P(T) values associated with '4E'- and '4T'-derived populations show that: (i) long-term infection of a BYDV-PAV isolate on the 'TC14' resistant host leads to the fixation of virulent individuals in viral populations; and (ii) the introduction of susceptible hosts in successive 'TC14' infections results in the maintenance of low virulence of the populations. Thus, the presented study demonstrates that SSCP is a useful tool for monitoring viral populations during the host adaptation process. The described impact of host alternation provides new opportunities for the use of the 'TC14' resistance source in BYDV-resistant breeding programmes. This study is part of the global effort made by the scientific community to propose sustainable alternatives to the chemical control of this viral disease.

  4. 76 FR 25733 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS-7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS- 7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program... of 1995. Title of Information Collection: DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program Application. OMB.... Respondents: Applicants for the Academic Exchange Program. Estimated Number of Respondents: 7160 (For DS-7001...

  5. 76 FR 58074 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS-7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS- 7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange..., DS-7005. Respondents: Applicants for the Academic Exchange Program. Estimated Number of Respondents...

  6. Calculus of one variable

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1986-01-01

    Calculus of One Variable, Second Edition presents the essential topics in the study of the techniques and theorems of calculus.The book provides a comprehensive introduction to calculus. It contains examples, exercises, the history and development of calculus, and various applications. Some of the topics discussed in the text include the concept of limits, one-variable theory, the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and infinite series.This textbook is intended for use by college students.

  7. Does Sport Event Involvement Influence Brand Recognition of Official Sponsors and Ambush Marketers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piątkowska Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to verify how event involvement in the UEFA Euro 2012 influenced the recognition of both sponsors’ and ambushers’ brands. Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews were conducted on a representative sample of the Polish society (N = 1,000. On the basis of five groups of consumers regarding involvement in the event, authors examined brand recognition, using Top of Mind Awareness (TOMA tests of official sponsors and ambushers.

  8. Predictors of Weight Loss Maintenance following an Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program

    OpenAIRE

    Christiaan G. Abildso; Olivier Schmid; Megan Byrd; Sam Zizzi; Alessandro Quartiroli; Sean J. Fitzpatrick

    2014-01-01

    Intentional weight loss among overweight and obese adults (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) is associated with numerous health benefits, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) following participation in weight management programming has proven to be elusive. Many individuals attempting to lose weight join formal programs, especially women, but these programs vary widely in focus, as do postprogram weight regain results. We surveyed 2,106 former participants in a community-based, insurance-sponsored wei...

  9. Estimating the Returns to Firm-Sponsored on-the-Job and Classroom Training

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Dostie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate returns to classroom and on-the-job firm-sponsored training in terms of value-added per worker using longitudinal linked employee-employer Canadian data from 1999 to 2006. We estimate a standard production function controlling for endogenous training decisions because of perceived net benefits and time-varying market conditions using dynamic panel GMM methods. We find that employees who undertook classroom training are 11 percent more productive than otherwise simil...

  10. Systematic review of employer-sponsored wellness strategies and their economic and health-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspin, Lisa C; Gorman, Kathleen M; Miller, Ross M

    2013-02-01

    This review determines the characteristics and health-related and economic outcomes of employer-sponsored wellness programs and identifies possible reasons for their success. PubMed, ABI/Inform, and Business Source Premier databases, and Corporate Wellness Magazine were searched. English-language articles published from 2005 to 2011 that reported characteristics of employer-sponsored wellness programs and their impact on health-related and economic outcomes among US employees were accepted. Data were abstracted, synthesized, and interpreted. Twenty references were accepted. Wellness interventions were classified into health assessments, lifestyle management, and behavioral health. Improved economic outcomes were reported (health care costs, return on investment, absenteeism, productivity, workers' compensation, utilization) as well as decreased health risks. Programs associated with favorable outcomes had several characteristics in common. First, the corporate culture encouraged wellness to improve employees' lives, not only to reduce costs. Second, employees and leadership were strongly motivated to support the wellness programs and to improve their health in general. Third, employees were motivated by a participation-friendly corporate policy and physical environment. Fourth, successful programs adapted to the changing needs of the employees. Fifth, community health organizations provided support, education, and treatment. Sixth, successful wellness programs utilized technology to facilitate health risk assessments and wellness education. Improved health-related and economic outcomes were associated with employer-sponsored wellness programs. Companies with successful programs tended to include wellness as part of their corporate culture and supported employee participation in several key ways.

  11. Why Consumers Misattribute Sponsorships to Non-Sponsor Brands: Differential Roles of Item and Relational Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Clinton S; Humphreys, Michael S; Cornwell, T Bettina

    2018-02-01

    Brands engaged in sponsorship of events commonly have objectives that depend on consumer memory for the sponsor-event relationship (e.g., sponsorship awareness). Consumers however, often misattribute sponsorships to nonsponsor competitor brands, indicating erroneous memory for these relationships. The current research uses an item and relational memory framework to reveal sponsor brands may inadvertently foster this misattribution when they communicate relational linkages to events. Effects can be explained via differential roles of communicating item information (information that supports processing item distinctiveness) versus relational information (information that supports processing relationships among items) in contributing to memory outcomes. Experiment 1 uses event-cued brand recall to show that correct memory retrieval is best supported by communicating relational information when sponsorship relationships are not obvious (low congruence). In contrast, correct retrieval is best supported by communicating item information when relationships are obvious (high congruence). Experiment 2 uses brand-cued event recall to show that, against conventional marketing recommendations, relational information increases misattribution, whereas item information guards against misattribution. Results suggest sponsor brands must distinguish between item and relational communications to enhance correct retrieval and limit misattribution. Methodologically, the work shows that choice of cueing direction is critical in differentially revealing patterns of correct and incorrect retrieval with pair relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Variability in the combustion-derived fraction of urban humidity in Salt Lake City winter estimated from stable water vapor isotopes and its relationship to atmospheric stability and inversion structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorella, R.; Bares, R.; Lin, J. C.; Strong, C.; Bowen, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Water released from the combustion of fossil fuels, while a negligible part of the global hydrological cycle, may be a significant contributor to urban humidity as fossil fuel emissions are strongly concentrated in space and time. The fraction of urban humidity comprised of combustion-derived vapor (CDV) cannot be observed through humidity measurements alone. However, the distinct stable isotopic composition of CDV, which arises from the reaction of 18O-enriched atmospheric O2 with 2H-depleted organic molecules, represents a promising method to apportion observed humidity between CDV and advected vapor. We apply stable water vapor isotopes to investigate variability in CDV amount and its relationship to atmospheric conditions in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Salt Lake Valley experiences several periods of atmospheric stratification during winter known as cold air pools, during which concentrations of CDV and pollutants can be markedly elevated due to reduced atmospheric mixing. Therefore, the SLV during winter is an ideal place to investigate variability in CDV fraction across a spectrum of boundary layer conditions, ranging from well-mixed to very stable. We present water vapor isotope data from four winters (2013-2017) from the top of a 30 m building on the University of Utah (U of U) Campus. Additionally, we present water vapor isotope data from the summit of Hidden Peak from the 2016-2017 winter, 25 km SE and 2000 m above the U of U site. The Hidden Peak site is consistently above the cold air pool emplaced in the SLV during stable events. We find the expression of the CDV signal in the valley is related to the atmospheric structure of the cold air pools in the SLV, and that the fraction of CDV inferred in the valley is likely related to the mixing height within the cold air pool. Furthermore, we find that patterns between the Hidden Peak and U of U sites during inversion events may record the large-scale atmospheric dynamics promoting emplacement of the cold air

  13. Science Innovation Through Industry Partnership: Lessons from AMPERE in Bridging the Federal Sponsor/Private Corporation Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Erlandson, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) was made possible by harnessing an fortuitous capability of the Iridium Communications constellation of 70 polar orbiting satellites. In 1996 it was realized that the attitude magnetometers on-board the Iridium satellites, then in fabrication, could potentially be used to obtain the first ever global and continuous measurements of the Birkeland currents with a sufficiently short re-sampling cadence (10 minutes) to track the dynamic evolution of the large-scale currents. The experience of taking this idea from 1996 through various research grant supported efforts, mission of opportunity proposal attempts, and finally through funding and implementation as a National Science Foundation geospace facility, revealed a number of challenges both in proposing innovative solutions to existing sponsor programs and also in working between the federal sponsor community and the private commercial space environment. Implementing AMPERE required a code change to on-board software on the Iridium satellites and it proved necessary to engage NASA to adjust the solicitation language to allow AMPERE. For NASA proposals we also encountered a conflict with respect to federal sponsorship such that the original business configuration of Iridium could not accept the accounting regime implied by a sub-contract derived from a federal contract acquisition. Subsequent mission of opportunity efforts encountered various other challenges including the cancellation of an explorer to fund the exploration initiative in 2001. The facilities proposal to NSF was almost not submitted owing a funding vehicle disparity between the preferred proposer structure (contract) vs NSF's requirement to fund only grants and a final hurdle concerned the structure of the contract with Iridium which was initially a sub-contract but was changed to a fixed-price data purchase due to NSF's limitations on funding fee-bearing engineering

  14. Hemoglobin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003371.htm Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  15. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    Many modern software systems are highly configurable. They embrace variability to increase adaptability and to lower cost. To implement configurable software, developers often use the C preprocessor (CPP), which is a well-known technique, mainly in industry, to deal with variability in code....... Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular...... be exploited. Variability bugs are not confined to any particular type of bug, error-prone feature, or location. In addition to introducing an exponential number of program variants, variability increases the complexity of bugs due to unintended feature interactions, hidden features, combinations of layers...

  16. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  17. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research.

  18. 75 FR 16125 - Call for Co-Sponsors for Office of Healthcare Quality's Programs to Strengthen Coordination and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... collaborating co-sponsors in the development and implementation of an innovative program that advances the goals...-associated infections (HAIs) exact a significant toll on human life. They are among the leading causes of...

  19. 76 FR 70722 - Request for Co-Sponsors for the Office of Healthcare Quality's Programs To Strengthen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... as collaborating co- sponsors in the development and implementation of an innovative program that... life. They are among the leading causes of preventable death in the United States. On average, 1 in 3...

  20. Face to Face: Introduction to the People and History of Haiti. LIRS Manual for Sponsors of Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Margaret

    This manual was prepared for sponsors of Haitian refugees. The manual attempts to describe the background of refugees from Haiti by briefly explaining their history, culture, religion, politics, economics, customs, and habits. (MK)

  1. Skill needs and the institutional framework: Conditions for enterprise-sponsored CVT - The case of Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Lassen, Morten; Sørensen, John Houman; Lindkvist Jørgensen, Anja; Møberg, Rasmus Juul

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this article is twofold. The first part is centred around the historical development of the Danish training and education system for people in employment, while the second draws on the results of a recently conducted survey in order to discuss the role of skill needs analyses and the determinants of enterprise-sponsored training. A major issue that emerges in an analysis of the historical development to the present is that the introduction in 2001 of the latest changes in the leg...

  2. Information risk in emerging utility markets: The role of commission- sponsored audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Lawton, R.W.; Burns, R.E.; Lee, S.

    1996-03-01

    As public utilities and regulators begin to define their new relationship under various forms of regulations, some have questioned the continuing need for commission-sponsored audits. This study evaluates the role of such audits by examining their core purpose: the reduction of information risk (risk that a commission might make a wrong decision because of reliance on faulty information). It identifies five generic types of information that will be needed by commissions in the future and describes a cost-benefit analysis for identifying the appropriate method for mitigating information risk for state regulatory commissions.

  3. "Doping, Fair Play, and the Dilemmas of Government Sponsored Sport Institutions"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2005-01-01

    The article inquires into the moral dilemmas public sport institutions are facing when they on the one hand officially argue that the important thing in sport is fair play and sportsmanship while their raison d'etre on the other hand is to help the athletes to achieve the best possible results...... on the international arenas. The problems of the governement sponsored elite sport institution Team Danmark', is not only seen in their moral panic following doping cases that hardly can be surprising, but also in the institutions ambiguous handling of and advisory to athletes about the use of grey area products...

  4. Health risk reduction programs in employer-sponsored health plans: Part II-law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A; Harrell, Heather L

    2009-08-01

    We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests.

  5. Health Risk Reduction Programs in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans: Part II—Law and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A.; Harrell, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. Methods We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. Results A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Conclusion Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests. PMID:19625971

  6. Financial derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Koutný, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    1 Abstract/ Financial derivatives The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to financial derivatives which has been, from the legal perspective, described in a not satisfactory manner as quite little literature that can be found about this topic. The main objectives of this thesis are to define the term "financial derivatives" and its particular types and to analyse legal nature of these financial instruments. The last objective is to try to draft future law regulation of finan...

  7. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren......Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...

  8. Social advertising, the standpoint of its customers and sponsors: searching of comercial avail or manifestation of social responsability?

    OpenAIRE

    Politaitė, Edita

    2006-01-01

    SOCIAL ADVERTISING, THE STANDPOINT OF ITS CUSTOMERS AND SPONSORS: SEARCHING OF COMERCIAL AVAIL OR MANIFESTATION OF SOCIAL RESPONSABILITY?” The subject of this work is relevant because social advertising is conditionally new expression in the postsovietical space, and that is why it is important to analyse it. The subject is also relevant because it is gainful for the bussiness organisations to sponsor the social advertising and social actions though this reason is not always made public. The ...

  9. Army Corps of Engineers: Better Guidance Could Improve Corps’ Information on Water Resources Projects Undertaken by Nonfederal Sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Engineers continued to build the project. In addition to cost savings , another nonfederal sponsor said that it chose to lead a harbor deepening... save lives and reduce property damage. For navigation projects, expedited project completion may result in economic benefits, such as increased...commerce and tourism from deeper-draft ships having the ability to enter ports that have been deepened, according to one nonfederal sponsor.26 In 2013

  10. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  11. A moral quandary for sponsors. Like the family, and the state, sponsorship is an institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, H

    1996-01-01

    Nowadays many religious institutes are asking questions about sponsorship. The issue is usually phrased as the sponsoring of institutions. But it might be useful to ask about the institution of sponsorship instead. In The Good Society, Robert Bellah and his associates say that, on one hand, institutions are created by human beings; on the other hand, because we draw our sense of identity from them, institutions create us too. Bellah et al. also say that institutions, being human creations, are susceptible to corruption, especially when great wealth and power are involved. Since hospitals and healthcare systems obviously do involve wealth and power, we sponsors now have many questions, as well as some ambiguity about our sponsorship capability. One might even say that a moral debate is raging in our collective subconscious: Is loss of corporate influence something we would do something about if we could, or have we chosen some other value, such as ministerial diversity, instead? My institute, the Sisters of Mercy, has decided to continue our sponsorship of such organizations. As an institution, sponsorship is an essential bearer of our ideals and meanings. We need this institution to announce, to the world and to ourselves, that whatever power and wealth we possess are committed to mercy and justice.

  12. Australian consumer responses to DTCA and other pharmaceutical company sponsored advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Danika V; Jones, Sandra C

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to elicit and compare the responses of Australian consumers towards New Zealand (NZ) direct-to-consumer-advertisements (DTCA) for prescription medicines and matched pharmaceutical company-sponsored advertisements from Australia. A survey questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of residents in a metropolitan area in NSW. Potential participants were randomised to receive one of four different advertisements: two for weight loss and two for Alzheimer's disease. A total of 413 responses were received and analysed. Participants reported that they were not likely to ask for a prescription from their doctor as a result of seeing any of the advertisements in the study. The Australian disease awareness advertisement that did not refer to a medicinal treatment was perceived as more valuable than the NZ DTCA or other Australian advertisement. Overall, participants found it easier to make sense of the more informational advertisements, and felt that there was insufficient information regarding the disease/condition and treatments in the more emotive and transformational advertisements. While there is concern over potential negative effects of pharmaceutical-sponsored disease awareness advertisements, this study found that Australian consumers perceived an informational advertisement with a list of disease symptoms to be valuable. These findings contribute to debate in New Zealand and Australia regarding DTCA and disease awareness advertising, and have the potential to inform guidelines relevant to the advertising of prescription medicine in each country.

  13. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  14. Operant Variability: Procedures and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Armando; Tonneau, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Barba's (2012) article deftly weaves three main themes in one argument about operant variability. From general theoretical considerations on operant behavior (Catania, 1973), Barba derives methodological guidelines about response differentiation and applies them to the study of operant variability. In the process, he uncovers unnoticed features of…

  15. Fluid Mechanics and Complex Variable Theory: Getting Past the 19th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul K.

    2017-01-01

    The subject of fluid mechanics is a rich, vibrant, and rapidly developing branch of applied mathematics. Historically, it has developed hand-in-hand with the elegant subject of complex variable theory. The Westmont College NSF-sponsored workshop on the revitalization of complex variable theory in the undergraduate curriculum focused partly on…

  16. Sponsors' and investigative staffs' perceptions of the current investigational new drug safety reporting process in oncology trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Raymond; Archdeacon, Patrick; Roach, Nancy; Goodwin, Robert; Jarow, Jonathan; Stuccio, Nina; Forrest, Annemarie

    2017-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's final rule on investigational new drug application safety reporting, effective from 28 March 2011, clarified the reporting requirements for serious and unexpected suspected adverse reactions occurring in clinical trials. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative released recommendations in 2013 to assist implementation of the final rule; however, anecdotal reports and data from a Food and Drug Administration audit indicated that a majority of reports being submitted were still uninformative and did not result in actionable changes. Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative investigated remaining barriers and potential solutions to full implementation of the final rule by polling and interviewing investigators, clinical research staff, and sponsors. In an opinion-gathering effort, two discrete online surveys designed to assess challenges and motivations related to management of expedited (7- to 15-day) investigational new drug safety reporting processes in oncology trials were developed and distributed to two populations: investigators/clinical research staff and sponsors. Data were collected for approximately 1 year. Twenty-hour-long interviews were also conducted with Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative-nominated interview participants who were considered as having extensive knowledge of and experience with the topic. Interviewees included 13 principal investigators/study managers/research team members and 7 directors/vice presidents of pharmacovigilance operations from 5 large global pharmaceutical companies. The investigative site's responses indicate that too many individual reports are still being submitted, which are time-consuming to process and provide little value for patient safety assessments or for informing actionable changes. Fewer but higher quality reports would be more useful, and the investigator and staff would benefit from sponsors'"filtering" of reports and increased sponsor communication. Sponsors

  17. The cost of unintended pregnancies for employer-sponsored health insurance plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez, Gabriela; Pyenson, Bruce S; Law, Amy W; Lynen, Richard; Trussell, James

    2015-04-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a significant cost for employers providing health insurance benefits to their employees. The latest study on the topic was published in 2002, estimating the unintended pregnancy rate for women covered by employer-sponsored insurance benefits to be approximately 29%. The primary objective of this study was to update the cost of unintended pregnancy to employer-sponsored health insurance plans with current data. The secondary objective was to develop a regression model to identify the factors and associated magnitude that contribute to unintended pregnancies in the employee benefits population. We developed stepwise multinomial logistic regression models using data from a national survey on maternal attitudes about pregnancy before and shortly after giving birth. The survey was conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through mail and via telephone interviews between 2009 and 2011 of women who had had a live birth. The regression models were then applied to a large commercial health claims database from the Truven Health MarketScan to retrospectively assign the probability of pregnancy intention to each delivery. Based on the MarketScan database, we estimate that among employer-sponsored health insurance plans, 28.8% of pregnancies are unintended, which is consistent with national findings of 29% in a survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. These unintended pregnancies account for 27.4% of the annual delivery costs to employers in the United States, or approximately 1% of the typical employer's health benefits spending for 1 year. Using these findings, we present a regression model that employers could apply to their claims data to identify the risk for unintended pregnancies in their health insurance population. The availability of coverage for contraception without employee cost-sharing, as was required by the Affordable Care Act in 2012, combined with the ability to identify women who are at high

  18. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    ." - Steen Parsholt, Chairman and CEO, Aon Nordic Region. "Andersen has done a wonderful job of developing a comprehensive text that deals with risk management in global markets. I would recommend this book to any student or businessman who has a need to better understand the risks and risk management......""In Global Derivatives: A Strategic Risk Management Perspective", Torben Juul Andersen has succeeded to gather in one book a complete and thorough summary and an easy-to-read explanation of all types of derivative instruments and their background, and their use in modern management of risk...... approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk...

  19. The Importance of Preserving Tax-Preferred Status for Employer-Sponsored Health and Retirement Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildes, Annette Guarisco

    The future of employer-sponsored health and retirement plans may be at risk. For years, employers have struggled to maintain and pay for these plans despite the increasing compliance and financial burdens imposed by legislative and regulatory action. Now, as Congress begins to lay the foundation for comprehensive tax reform, the need to raise federal revenue may trump the continuation of the tax preferences for employer-provided health and retirement benefits. Recent actions illustrate that the drive for federal revenue may not be sufficiently tempered by the potential negative impact on employers and employees who must bear the brunt of these revenue-induced changes. This article considers the erosion of protections offered by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) and the importance of maintaining the tax treatment of employer-provided benefits.

  20. Proposal to establish a Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In the present proposal, the publishers' subscription income from multiple institutions is replaced by an "author-side" funding. Journals are paid through contracts between publishers and a single financial partner, the "Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics" (SCOAP3). SCOAP3 is envisioned as a global network of funding agencies, research laboratories, and libraries that will contribute the necessary funding; each SCOAP3 partner will recover its contribution from the cancellation of journal subscriptions. This model avoids the obvious disadvantage of authors being directly charged for the OA publication of their articles, which is perceived as an even higher barrier than subscription charges, in particular for theoretical physicists from small institutions who account for the vast majority of HEP papers. The financing and governance of SCOAP3 will follow as much as possible the example of the memoranda of understanding governing large research collaborations. Its partners will c...

  1. Provider-based Medicare risk contracting and subcontracting: opportunities and risks for provider sponsored organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, H A; Zenner, P A; Kipp, R A; Whitney, E L

    1997-01-01

    Provider sponsored organizations (PSOs) are increasingly acquiring the risk for the management of Medicare Risk patients by accepting capitation directly from the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) or through contracts with HMOs or other organizations contracting with HCFA. The Medicare population and the requirements that the federal administration has put into place with respect to risk contracting are unique and demand specific responses on the part of the PSO for a contract to be successful. The PSO is cautioned to understand the actuarial risk, the clinical uniqueness of the Medicare beneficiary, Medicare reimbursement regulatory requirements, utilization management needs, and necessary reporting before entering into a contractual arrangement. This article attempts to describe some of the more common issues a provider organization must consider.

  2. New Estimates of Offer and Take-Up of Employer-Sponsored Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Joelle; O'Hara, Brett

    2017-10-01

    This analysis uses new questions in the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement to examine rates of offer and take-up of employer-sponsored health insurance over early 2014 and early 2015, as well as reasons reported for why individuals did not enroll. We find increases in offer and eligible rates of 0.5 and 0.9 percentage points, respectively, and a decrease in the take-up rate of 1.5 percentage points, while the coverage rate remained stable. We further find an increase in the proportion of workers covered by another plan and decreases in the proportions eligible for coverage but having a preexisting condition, employed as contract or temporary employees not allowed in the plan, and who have not yet worked for an employer long enough.

  3. The greenhouse of the future: Using a sponsored competition in a capstone course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, R.M.; Baumbauer, D.

    1998-02-18

    Educational objectives of capstone courses such as critical-thinking and problem-solving skills are among the most cited needs in curriculum revitalization efforts. Sponsored competitions present an important vehicle for achieving these educational objectives. Opportunities such as the Greenhouse of the Future Competition provide students a diverse range of critical experiences not easily simulated in traditional classroom settings. The objective of the competition was to provide an opportunity for US university students to conceptualize, design, integrate, fabricate, and demonstrate innovative greenhouse or controlled environment ideas. The students achieved a great sense of accomplishment and satisfaction by converting their ideas into proposals, developing proposals into experiments, tracking the data generated by the experiments and translating that data into a meaningful communication locally and to the scientific community at large. Most of these important learning experiences would have remained as components of the project even if the team had not advanced as the winning entry.

  4. Biological research work within the Association of the Government-Sponsored Research Institutions (AGF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Six of the thirteen government-sponsored research institutions in the Federal Republic of Germany carry out research work for the protection of the population against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Their activities in this field concentrate on the following four points of main interest: analysis of radiation-induced processes resulting in biological radiation injury; description and analysis of complex radiation effects on man; medical applications of ionizing radiation for diagnosis and therapy; concepts and methods for radiological protection. The work reported reviews the main problems encountered in the above-mentioned subject fields and presents examples of significant results, with illustrations. The original research papers and their authors are listed separately under the four points of main interest. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Physician-industry conflict of interest: public opinion regarding industry-sponsored research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles G; DiPaola, Christian P; Noonan, Vanessa K; Bailey, Christopher; Dvorak, Marcel F S

    2012-07-01

    The nature of physician-industry conflict of interest (COI) has become a source of considerable concern, but is often not discussed in the research setting. With reduced funding available from government and nonprofit sources, industry support has enthusiastically grown, but along with this comes the potential for COI that must be regulated. In this era of shared decision making in health care, society must have input into this regulation. The purpose of this study was to assess the opinions of a North American population sample on COI regarding industry-funded research and to analyze population subgroups for trends. A survey was developed for face and content validity, underwent focus group evaluation for clarity and bias reduction, and was administered via the World Wide Web. Demographic and general survey results were summarized as a percentage for each answer, and subgroup analysis was done using logistic regression. Generalizability of the sample to the US population was also assessed. Of 541 surveys, 40 were excluded due to missing information, leaving 501 surveys for analysis. The sample population was composed of more females, was older, and was more educated than a representative cross-section of the American population. Respondents support multidisciplinary surgeon-industry COI regulation and trust doctors and their professional societies the most to head this effort. Respondents trust government officials and company representatives the least with respect to regulation of COI. Most respondents feel that industry-sponsored research can involve physicians and be both objective and beneficial to patients. Most respondents in this study felt that surgeons should be involved in industry-sponsored research and that more research, regardless of funding source, will ultimately benefit patients. The majority of respondents distrust government or industry to regulate COI. The development of evidence-based treatment recommendations requires the inclusion of patient

  6. Overview of the projects sponsored within th EU-R and D framework programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurita, A.; Goethem, G. van; Bermejo, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Assuming that preventive measures to avoid reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure under core degradation scenarios have failed, the stabilisation of the core melts after its release from the RPV is a key issue. Adequate cooling of the ex-vessel corium and the control of its interactions with the coolant and structures are the main challenges to mitigate and stabilise the situation preserving the containment integrity. In this regard, the on-going Fourth Euratom Framework Programme (4 th EFP) contributes with experimental and theoretical research activities aimed at responding to the main challenges mentioned, by satisfying three objectives: - To improve the understanding of the basic physics related to ex-vessel corium behaviour from the phenomenological and technological viewpoints, as well as to provide a methodology for investigating it and setting up joint multi-partner projects to be co-sponsored and co-ordinated by the EC; - to quantify and reduce the uncertainties associated with the risk issues by conducting experimental and numerical investigations and eventually to achieve a European consensus on the phenomenology and on accident mitigation strategies; - to provide a technological response to the risk issues by developing engineered safety systems (e.g. core-catchers) and severe accident management strategies (e.g. guidelines), and to discuss such a technological response with the end users of these technologies, i.e. designers and licensers. To fulfil these objectives, the 4 th EFP co-sponsors a total of five projects within the cluster 'Ex-Vessel Corium Behaviour and Coolability' of the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme. The research undertaken addresses the main different aspects such as the determination of the composition and thermodynamic data of the melt; experiments on spreading behaviour on various types of surfaces, as well as on corium coolability by flooding or water injection; investigation of corium stratification, crust and heat transfer

  7. Project-based fieldwork: perspectives of graduate entry students and project sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Tracy; McKinstry, Carol

    2012-08-01

    This article builds on an earlier viewpoint regarding the need for project-focussed fieldwork. It presents the findings of an evaluative study into the value of project placements undertaken by final year graduate entry master's students as part of a capstone subject. The authors argue that provision of project placements enable impending graduates to develop and implement macro level strategies to develop prevention, resource and service development skills often required of contemporary occupational therapy practitioners. A qualitative approach is adopted. Student cohorts from 2005 and 2006 completed open-ended, written questionnaires, and agency project sponsors were interviewed to obtain their perspectives of the project placement experience. Despite some concern that project placements might be undertaken at the expense of 'clinical' placements these findings reveal that projects managed by students were perceived by services to add great value enabling them to advance important priorities. Students and sponsors highlighted a range of positive learning outcomes, including the ability to work collaboratively with supervisors and develop advanced communication skills and political acumen. The success of such placements depends on supportive supervision from academic staff. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: The findings promote project placements as a highly authentic aspect of work integrated learning enabling learners to draw together a range of attributes that support the ability to manage complex issues that have occupational relevance at a macro level. In addition, such experiences help learners to develop agency and political acumen both increasingly important capabilities for the contemporary workplace. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  8. Coordinated Analysis 101: A Joint Training Session Sponsored by LPI and ARES/JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, D. S.; Treiman, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), co-sponsored a training session in November 2016 for four early-career scientists in the techniques of coordinated analysis. Coordinated analysis refers to the approach of systematically performing high-resolution and -precision analytical studies on astromaterials, particularly the very small particles typical of recent and near-future sample return missions such as Stardust, Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, and OSIRIS-REx. A series of successive analytical steps is chosen to be performed on the same particle, as opposed to separate subsections of a sample, in such a way that the initial steps do not compromise the results from later steps in the sequence. The data from the entire series can then be integrated for these individual specimens, revealing important in-sights obtainable no other way. ARES/JSC scientists have played a leading role in the development and application of this approach for many years. Because the coming years will bring new sample collections from these and other planned NASA and international exploration missions, it is timely to begin disseminating specialized techniques for the study of small and precious astromaterial samples. As part of the Cooperative Agreement between NASA and the LPI, this training workshop was intended as the first in a series of similar training exercises that the two organizations will jointly sponsor in the coming years. These workshops will span the range of analytical capabilities and sample types available at ARES/JSC in the Astromaterials Research and Astro-materials Acquisition and Curation Offices. Here we summarize the activities and participants in this initial training.

  9. Are results from pharmaceutical-company-sponsored studies available to the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Pedromingo, Alejandro; García-Losa, Manuel; Lahuerta, Juan; Ortega, Rafael

    2010-11-01

    Only 53% and 63% of studies and clinical trials results presented at congresses are published. Company-sponsored trial results are being posted on publicly accessible Web sites. We analyzed the public availability (publication or posting on a Web site) rate, time to publication, and factors predicting public availability of results of studies sponsored by a pharmaceutical company. This was a retrospective cohort study analyzing all studies conducted by GlaxoSmithKline in Spain between 2001 and 2006. Initiation and completion were defined as first participant/first visit and last participant/last visit (or their equivalents). Papers published up to 31 March 2009 were considered. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors predicting public availability of results. The cohort comprised 143 studies (94 clinical trials; of these, 87 were included in international products clinical development plans). Public availability rate was 80% (114/143) for all studies and 78% (73/94) for clinical trials; publication rates were 68% and 61%, respectively. The median time to publication for all studies and trials was 27.3 and 28.4 months, respectively. Study associated to a cancelled project was the only significant factor associated with lower publication rate for all studies [odds ratio (OR) 0.069; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-024; p public availability rate (OR 0.052; 95% CI 0.007-0.382; p = 0.004) for trial results. Therapy area, sample size, positive trial results, duration of experimental phase, and being a clinical trial did not predict publication or public availability. Eighty percent of studies included in this analysis are publicly available. Web site posting increases public availability rate of clinical trial results from 61% to 78%. Cancellation of projects is the single factor negatively influencing publication and public availability rates.

  10. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  11. Derivative chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂ μ φ∂ μ φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂ μ φ∂ μ φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type

  12. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    , postgraduate qualification or MBA programme. This book also caters for practicing managers and executives who need to understand current developments in global derivatives markets and require cutting-edge insight on strategic risk management issues. Dr Torben Juul Andersen is currently Associate Professor...... approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk...... management practice. Of particular note is the global and integrated approach chosen in this book which should be of special interest to aspiring managers active in global and international markets." - Dr Jean-Pierre Zigrand, Lecturer in Finance, London School of Economics, UK. More than 90 per cent...

  13. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  14. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Virulence-Resistance Plasmids Derived from the pSLT Carrying Nonconventional Class 1 Integrons with dfrA12 Gene in Their Variable Region and sul3 in the 3' Conserved Segment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beutlich, J.; Rodicio, M.R.; Mendoza, M.C.; Garcia, P.; Kirchner, M.; Luzzi, I.; Mevius, D.J.; Threllfall, J.; Helmuth, R.; Guerra, B.

    2013-01-01

    Drug-resistant derivatives of serovar-specific virulence plasmids, such as pSLT, in clinically-relevant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains, represent a threat for human health. We have analysed 14 S. Typhimurium isolates recovered in Italy and the United Kingdom from swine and from

  15. A comparison of case volumes among urologic surgeons identified on an industry-sponsored website to an all provider peer group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, William A; Jacobson, Kenneth; Derus, Sue; Langenstroer, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Industry-sponsored websites for robotic surgery direct to surgeons listed as performing specific robotic surgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to compare average annual, surgeon-specific, case volumes for those procedures for which they were listed as performing on the commercial website with the volumes of all providers performing these same procedures across a defined geographic region. A list of providers within the state of Wisconsin cited as performing specific urologic procedures was obtained through the Intuitive Surgical website 〈http://www.davincisurgery.com/da-vinci-urology/〉. Surgeon-specific annual case volumes from 2009 to 2013 for these same cases were obtained for all Wisconsin providers through DataBay Resources (Warrendale, PA) based on International classification of diseases-9 codes. Procedural activity was rank ordered, and surgeons were placed in "volume deciles" derived from the total annual number of cases performed by all surgeons. The distribution of commercially listed surgeon volumes, both 5-year average and most recent year, was compared with the average and 2013 volumes of all surgeons performing a specific procedure. A total of 35 individual urologic surgeons listed as performing robotic surgery in Wisconsin were identified through a "search" using the Intuitive Surgical website. Specific procedure analysis returned 5, 12, 9, and 15 surgeon names for cystectomy, partial nephrectomy, radical nephrectomy, and prostatectomy, respectively. This compared with the total number of surgeons who had performed the listed procedure in Wisconsin at least 1 time during the prior 5 years of 123, 153, 242, and 165, respectively. When distributed by surgeon-volume deciles, surgeons listed on industry-sponsored sites varied widely in their respective volume decile. More than half of site-listed, procedure-specific surgeons fell below the fifth decile for surgeon volume. Data analysis based solely on 2013 case volumes had no effect on

  16. Should Health Care Organizations Use Information Gleaned from Organization-Sponsored Patient Support Groups in Strategic Planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambisan, Priya

    2017-11-01

    Online forums and partnerships with patients have several benefits, such as the creation of new products and services. However, as with any such initiatives, there are risks as well as benefits. Through analysis of a case of misinformation being spread through a health care provider-sponsored online support group for patients dealing with obesity, this article outlines best practices and strategies to deploy in such organization-sponsored patient support groups. These strategies would enable organizations and patients to use such forums to the fullest extent while preventing or managing their potential risks as best as possible. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Electricity derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Barone-Adesi, Giovanni; Gigli, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose an algorithm for pricing derivatives written on electricity in an incomplete market setting. A discrete time model for price dynamics which embodies the main features of electricity price revealed by simple time series analysis is considered. We use jointly Binomial and Monte Carlo methods for pricing under a risk-neutral measure of which we prove the existence.

  18. dione derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dione derivatives via de-Boc and cyclization reaction in modest yield. Spectroscopic (1H, 13C NMR, and Mass) and analytical techniques have been used to identify and confirm the structure of the products. Keywords. Triflic anhydride; Boc anhydride; Negishi coupling; acid-amine coupling; cyclization reaction; cytotoxicity ...

  19. Bibliography of publications related to Nevada-sponsored research of the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository site through 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.

    1994-12-01

    Since 1985, the State of Nevada has sponsored academic/private sector research into various health, safety, and environmental issues identified with the Yucca Mountain site. This research has been documented in scientific peer-reviewed literature, conferences, and workshops, as well as numerous state-sponsored University thesis and dissertation programs. This document is a bibliography of the scientific articles, manuscripts, theses, dissertations, conference symposium abstracts, and meeting presentations produced as a result of state-sponsored research

  20. Bibliography of publications related to Nevada-sponsored research of the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository site through 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.

    1994-12-01

    Since 1985, the State of Nevada has sponsored academic/private sector research into various health, safety, and environmental issues identified with the Yucca Mountain site. This research has been documented in scientific peer-reviewed literature, conferences, and workshops, as well as numerous state-sponsored University thesis and dissertation programs. This document is a bibliography of the scientific articles, manuscripts, theses, dissertations, conference symposium abstracts, and meeting presentations produced as a result of state-sponsored research.

  1. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  2. 76 FR 68808 - Exchange Visitor Program-Cap on Current Participant Levels and Moratorium on New Sponsor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... post-secondary students have participated in the past decade. The SWT program supports public diplomacy... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7677] Exchange Visitor Program--Cap on Current Participant Levels and Moratorium on New Sponsor Applications for Summer Work Travel Program AGENCY: Department of...

  3. Case Study: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior as Interventions to Increase Sponsored Project Proposal Submissions from Liberal Arts Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anita

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic climate, many colleges and universities face similar challenges: the need to increase external sponsorship for research activities and the need to benefit from additional indirect cost recovery. Preparing funding proposals for submission to sponsors is a faculty behavior that can be modified by applying behavioral theory to…

  4. 75 FR 5637 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs; Secondary School Student Sponsor On-Site Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... experiences, but so too are their families, friends, and teachers in their home countries. Globalization and... review of each individual designated sponsor organization and its business practices is necessary to... business documents. The on-site portion of the review will entail interviews with key employees and review...

  5. An Analysis of Collaborative Problem-Solving Mechanisms in Sponsored Projects: Applying the 5-Day Sprint Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenolt, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In May 2016, the office of Finance and Sponsored Projects at The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital conducted a 5-day design sprint session to re-evaluate and redesign a flawed final reporting process within the department. The department sprint was modeled after the design sprint sessions that occur routinely in software…

  6. 45 CFR 2552.103 - Must a sponsor be required to enroll non-stipended Foster Grandparents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Foster Grandparents? 2552.103 Section 2552.103 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE FOSTER GRANDPARENT PROGRAM Non-Stipended Foster Grandparents § 2552.103 Must a sponsor be required to enroll non-stipended Foster Grandparents? Enrollment of...

  7. How Student Written Communication Skills Benefit during Participation in an Industry-Sponsored Civil Engineering Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Ryan; Cross, Brad; Zhou, Jianpeng; Verbais, Chad

    2017-01-01

    Because many engineering programs use capstone design courses and value strong communication abilities, authors sought to identify how student written communication skills changed because of industry-sponsored capstone design projects. A student exit survey was collected at the end of the capstone design course during faculty-led projects and…

  8. Telling and Selling: A Consideration of the Pedagogical Work Done by Nationally Endorsed Corporate-Sponsored Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel B.; Gleddie, Doug; Schaefer, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, not-for-profit organisations have been partnering with for-profit corporations to create educational resources. This has been especially true in physical and health education, particularly within Canada. For example, Physical and Health Education Canada has recently endorsed a number of corporate-sponsored educational resources…

  9. Federally Sponsored Research at Educational Institutions: A Need for Improved Accountability. Report by the U.S. General Accounting Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses federally sponsored research at educational institutions and suggests ways to improve accountability for these funds. The following suggestions are made for minimizing problems presented in this report: (1) development of more definitive cost principles for both the institutions and the Federal auditors to follow; (2) more…

  10. 42 CFR 423.272 - Review and negotiation of bid and approval of plans submitted by potential Part D sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review and negotiation of bid and approval of plans... and negotiation of bid and approval of plans submitted by potential Part D sponsors. (a) Review and negotiation regarding information, terms and conditions. CMS reviews the information filed under § 423.265(c...

  11. Healthy Kids Make Better Learners: A Guide to School-Based Enrollment in State-Sponsored Health Insurance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Carolyn; Chavez, Elena; Imholz, Betsy; Lui, Earl

    Recognizing the relationship between child health and success in school and the importance of health insurance in remaining healthy, the Healthy Kids, Healthy Schools project of Consumers Union works to connect children in schools with California's state-sponsored health insurance program. This guide provides ideas on how a school and community…

  12. Comedy Stages, Poets Projects, Sports Columns, and Kinesiology 341: Illuminating the Importance of Basic Writers' Self-Sponsored Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Dominant perspectives of basic writers' self-sponsored literacies tend to overlook the important roles such activities can play in literate development. Drawn from texts, interviews, and participant-observations collected during a five-year study, this article continues the examination of the relationship between one writer's curricular and…

  13. 41 CFR 301-74.8 - Who may authorize reimbursement of the conference lodging allowance for a Government sponsored...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....8 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.8 Who...? The approval authority for the conference lodging allowance is the Government agency sponsoring the...

  14. Sports Mark Communities Fantasy Games: Identification, Engagement, Continuity of Intent and Value of Sponsor's Mark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Bastos de Almeida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate to what extent does a Fantasy Sports Game (FSG brand community’s members Identification and Engagement influence their Membership Continuance Intention as well as their perception of the brand equity of the FSG’s sponsor. The Consumer Culture Theory – CCT  CITATION Arn05 \\l 1046 (Arnould & Thompson, 2005 was used as the theoretical framework for this study, more specifically situated in the brand community group of CCT studies. The ‘Social Influence of Brand Communities’ model  CITATION Alg05 \\l 1046 (Algesheimer, Dholakia, & Herrmann, 2005 was used as the basis for the development of the conceptual model of this study, which focused on the players of Cartola FC, the most important Brazilian football (soccer FSG. A non-probabilistic judgment sample was collected through a web survey focusing on the Cartola FC’s official Facebook fan page members resulting in 3,710 valid responses. The constructs’ reliability, as well as their convergent, discriminant and nomological validities were assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to test the substantive hypotheses of this study. Five of the six substantive hypotheses were empirically supported. The results suggest that the sponsor’s consumer based brand equity is positively influenced by the brand communities members engagement and membership continuance intention.

  15. NRC sponsored rotating equipment vibration research: a program description and progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitzel, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is currently involved in a research project sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regarding operational vibration in rotating equipment. The object of this program is to assess the nature of vibrational failures and the effect that improved qualification standards may have in reducing the incidence of failure. In order to limit the scope of the initial effort, safety injection (SI) pumps were chosen as the component group for concentrated study. The task has been oriented to addressing the issues of whether certain SI pumps experience more failures than others, examining the dynamic environments in operation, examining the adequacy of current qualification standards, and examining what performance parameters could be used more efficiently to predict degradation or failure. Results of a literature search performed to survey SI pump failures indicate that failures are due to a diversity of causes, many of which may not be influenced by qualification criteria. Cooperative efforts have been undertaken with a limited number of nuclear utilities to describe the variety of possible operating environments and to analyze available data. The results of this analysis as they apply to the research issues are presented and possibilities for the future direction of the program are discussed

  16. SOME LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE JUSTICE AGAINST SPONSORS OF TERRORISM ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Fahmy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the lead of the U.S. Senate on May 17, 2016, the House of Representatives of the United States of America unanimously adopted the Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act (JASTA, which will allow victims of terrorism to bring class actions against any state directly or indirectly involved in terrorist acts against American citizens. U.S. president Barack Obama attempted to impose his veto against this legislation, but was overridden by both houses in September, 2016. As a result, the Act entered into law, risking a real revolution in international law with potentially very serious political consequences.While it may be anticipated that those countries directly complicit in terrorism will see their assets – including their sovereign assets in the United States – seized to finance the compensation of the victims, such prosecutions will undoubtedly also involve European countries, many of which have themselves been targeted by terrorism. This is especially likely when their nationals are involved in terrorist acts.There is now a great risk that U.S. law will unilaterally modify several fundamental principles of international law, such as the sovereign immunity of states, creating genuine legal conflict in which victims of terrorism will seek redress from all states, including allied nations or countries that have themselves been victims of terror. 

  17. Primary care COPD patients compared with large pharmaceutically-sponsored COPD studies: an UNLOCK validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Annemarije L; Ställberg, Björn; Jones, Rupert C M; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; Lisspers, Karin; van der Molen, Thys; Kocks, Jan Willem H; Chavannes, Niels H

    2014-01-01

    Guideline recommendations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are based on the results of large pharmaceutically-sponsored COPD studies (LPCS). There is a paucity of data on disease characteristics at the primary care level, while the majority of COPD patients are treated in primary care. We aimed to evaluate the external validity of six LPCS (ISOLDE, TRISTAN, TORCH, UPLIFT, ECLIPSE, POET-COPD) on which current guidelines are based, in relation to primary care COPD patients, in order to inform future clinical practice guidelines and trials. Baseline data of seven primary care databases (n=3508) from Europe were compared to baseline data of the LPCS. In addition, we examined the proportion of primary care patients eligible to participate in the LPCS, based on inclusion criteria. Overall, patients included in the LPCS were younger (mean difference (MD)-2.4; p=0.03), predominantly male (MD 12.4; p=0.1) with worse lung function (FEV1% MD -16.4; pTRISTAN) to 42% (ECLIPSE, UPLIFT). Primary care COPD patients stand out from patients enrolled in LPCS in terms of gender, lung function, quality of life and exacerbations. More research is needed to determine the effect of pharmacological treatment in mild to moderate patients. We encourage future guideline makers to involve primary care populations in their recommendations.

  18. The comparative value of various employer-sponsored influenza vaccination clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Richard K; Wiringa, Ann E; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Rousculp, Matthew D; Mitgang, Elizabeth A; Lee, Bruce Y

    2012-09-01

    Many US firms offer influenza vaccination clinics to prevent lost productivity due to influenza. Strategies to promote and offer vaccination differ, and the economic value of the strategies is unknown. Decision analytic modeling and Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analyses estimated the one-season cost-consequences of three types of influenza clinics (trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine only, vaccine choice [trivalent inactivated influenza or intranasal {live attenuated influenza} vaccine], or vaccine choice plus incentive) in firms of 50 and 250 employees, from the employer's perspective. On-site influenza vaccination was generally cost-saving over no vaccination. For the scenario of vaccine effectiveness of 70% and intermediate transmissibility, the incremental costs per employee for a firm of 50 employees were -$6.41 (ie, cost savings) for inactivated vaccine only versus no vaccination, -$1.48 for vaccine choice versus inactivated vaccine, and $1.84 for vaccine choice plus incentive versus vaccine choice. Clinics offering a choice of vaccines were slightly less costly under many scenarios. Generally, incremental costs were lower (1) in larger firms; (2) when influenza was assumed to be more contagious; and (3) when vaccine effectiveness was assumed to be higher. Employer-sponsored influenza vaccination clinics are generally cost-saving.

  19. A Christian faith-based recovery theory: understanding God as sponsor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Shirley M

    2012-12-01

    This article reports the development of a substantive theory to explain an evangelical Christian-based process of recovery from addiction. Faith-based, 12-step, mutual aid programs can improve drug abstinence by offering: (a) an intervention option alone and/or in conjunction with secular programs and (b) an opportunity for religious involvement. Although literature on religion, spirituality, and addiction is voluminous, traditional 12-step programs fail to explain the mechanism that underpins the process of Christian-based recovery (CR). This pilot study used grounded theory to explore and describe the essence of recovery of 10 former crack cocaine-addicted persons voluntarily enrolled in a CR program. Data were collected from in-depth interviews during 4 months of 2008. Audiotapes were transcribed verbatim, and the constant comparative method was used to analyze data resulting in the basic social process theory, understanding God as sponsor. The theory was determined through writing theoretical memos that generated key elements that allow persons to recover: acknowledging God-centered crises, communicating with God, and planning for the future. Findings from this preliminary study identifies important factors that can help persons in recovery to sustain sobriety and program administrators to benefit from theory that guides the development of evidence-based addiction interventions.

  20. The Tax Exclusion for Employer-Sponsored Insurance Is Not Regressive-But What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    Conventional wisdom says that the tax exclusion for employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) is "regressive and therefore unfair." Yet, by the standard definition of regressive tax policy, the conventional view is almost certainly false. It confuses the absolute size of the tax exclusion with its proportional effect on income. The error results from paying attention only to the marginal tax rate applied to ESI benefits as a portion of income and ignoring the fact that benefits are normally a much larger share of income for people with lower wages. This article explains the difference and then considers other distributional effects of ESI. It suggests that ESI-for those who receive it-further redistributes toward those with lesser means or greater need. The most evident effect is by need, favoring employees with families over those without. Yet there is good reason to believe there is also a redistribution by income, with the package of wages plus benefits being less unequal than wages alone would be. Therefore reformers should be much more careful before criticizing either ESI or its subsidy through the tax code as "unfair," especially as the likelihood of enacting something better in the United States seems quite low. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  1. An analysis of online courses in research ethics in the Fogarty-sponsored bioethics training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Henry; Strosberg, Martin; Luna, Florencia; Philpott, Sean; Hemmerle, Cheryl A

    2013-12-01

    Several training programs sponsored by the NIH/Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Program offer online graduate-level courses in research ethics to participants in lowand middle-income countries. This paper describes the evaluation of four of these online courses and recommendations for improvements to achieve the highest-quality design and delivery. We used an evaluation matrix consisting of 95 criteria based on recommended best practices in eLearning. Our results showed that these courses are developing or meeting nearly 73% of the criteria, while they are not meeting approximately 21% of the criteria. Together, one or more of the courses are developing or meeting 89 of the 95 criteria. These results suggest that the necessary skills and expertise exist in these programs to bring all of the eLearning courses close to 100% proficiency by sharing a common set of best practices. This paper is part of a collection of articles analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Program.

  2. Predictors of Weight Loss Maintenance following an Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan G. Abildso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intentional weight loss among overweight and obese adults (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 is associated with numerous health benefits, but weight loss maintenance (WLM following participation in weight management programming has proven to be elusive. Many individuals attempting to lose weight join formal programs, especially women, but these programs vary widely in focus, as do postprogram weight regain results. We surveyed 2,106 former participants in a community-based, insurance-sponsored weight management program in the United States to identify the pre, during, and post-intervention behavioral and psychosocial factors that lead to successful WLM. Of 835 survey respondents (39.6% response rate, 450 met criteria for inclusion in this study. Logistic regression analyses suggest that interventionists should assess and discuss weight loss and behavior change perceptions early in a program. However, in developing maintenance plans later in a program, attention should shift to behaviors, such as weekly weighing, limiting snacking in the evening, limiting portion sizes, and being physically active every day.

  3. Should nutritional supplements and sports drinks companies sponsor sport? A short review of the ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Simon M; Stewart, Bob

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes that the sponsorship of sport by nutritional supplements and sport drinks companies should be re-examined in the light of ethical concerns about the closeness of this relationship. A short overview is provided of the sponsorship of sport, arguing that ethical concerns about its appropriateness remain despite the imposition of severe restrictions on tobacco sponsorship. Further, the paper examines the main concerns about supplement use and sports drinks with respect to efficacy, health and the risks of doping. Particular consideration is given to the health implications of these concerns. It is suggested that they, of themselves, do not warrant the restriction of sponsorship by companies producing supplements and sports drinks. Nevertheless, it is argued that sports sponsorship does warrant further ethical examination--above and beyond that afforded to other sponsors of sport--as sport sponsorship is integral to the perceived need for such products. In conclusion, it is argued that sport may have found itself lending unwarranted credibility to products which would otherwise not necessarily be seen as beneficial for participation in sports and exercise or as inherently healthy products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. The potential for bias in reporting of industry-sponsored clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Stephen; Julious, Steven A; Day, Simon; O'Kelly, Michael; Todd, Susan; Matcham, James; Seldrup, Jorgen

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about potentially misleading reporting of pharmaceutical industry research have surfaced many times. The potential for duality (and thereby conflict) of interest is only too clear when you consider the sums of money required for the discovery, development and commercialization of new medicines. As the ability of major, mid-size and small pharmaceutical companies to innovate has waned, as evidenced by the seemingly relentless decline in the numbers of new medicines approved by Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency year-on-year, not only has the cost per new approved medicine risen: so too has the public and media concern about the extent to which the pharmaceutical industry is open and honest about the efficacy, safety and quality of the drugs we manufacture and sell. In 2005 an Editorial in Journal of the American Medical Association made clear that, so great was their concern about misleading reporting of industry-sponsored studies, henceforth no article would be published that was not also guaranteed by independent statistical analysis. We examine the precursors to this Editorial, as well as its immediate and lasting effects for statisticians, for the manner in which statistical analysis is carried out, and for the industry more generally. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. QAP co-sponsors global meeting on quality assurance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A consultative meeting on quality health care in developing countries was held in the Netherlands immediately before the 1993 conference of the International Society of Quality Assurance in Health Care. Sponsored by the USAID-funded Quality Assurance Project in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Danish foreign aid agency, DANIDA, the meeting brought together representatives from 17 developing countries. Participants enthusiastically exchanged experiences in adapting and applying quality assurance methods to resource-strained health care systems and valued the recommendations they received. Technical discussions focused on strategic planning, standard setting and monitoring, problem solving, and quality assurance capacity building. The meeting included background papers on each theme, synopses of the work of representatives of selected countries, and small group sessions. The participants recognized that certain structures, such as a data and health information monitoring system, must be in place to sustain a quality assurance program. There are also key environmental factors, including a commitment in the form of resource allocation from top leadership. The highlights of the meeting were presented at the general conference to great acclaim. Participants in the meeting benefitted from the information generated by the exchange of ideas and became unified in their understanding that quality assurance is a viable and necessary component of health care management. The success of the meeting led to the proposal which is under consideration that a permanent committee be established to ensure the participation of representatives of developing countries in international quality assurance activities.

  6. Climate and the inter-annual variability of fire in southern Africa: a meta-analysis using long-term field data and satellite-derived burnt area data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available -sensed burned area data to test whether it is possible to develop a general model. Location: Africa south of the equator Methods: Linear mixed e ects models were used to determine the e ect of rainfall, season- ality, and re weather in driving variation... in re extent between years, and to test whether the e ect of these variables changes across the sub-continent, and in areas more and less impacted by human activities. Results: A simple model including rainfall and seasonality explained 40...

  7. The Role of a Provider-Sponsored Health Plan in Achieving Scale and Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of two primary strategies-to become an integrated delivery network (IDN) on the local level and to achieve additional overall organizational scale to sustain operations-Health First, based in Rockledge, Florida, relies on the success of its provider-sponsored health plan (PSHP) as a critical asset. For Health First, the PSHP serves as an agent for holding and administering financial risk for the health of populations. In addition, we are learning that our PSHP is a critical asset in support of integrating the components of our care delivery system to manage that financial risk effectively, efficiently, and in a manner that creates a unified experience for the customer.Health First is challenged by continuing pressure on reimbursement, as well as by a substantial regulatory burden, as we work to optimize the environments and tools of care and population health management. Even with strong margins and a healthy balance sheet, we simply do not have the resources needed to bring an IDN robustly to life. However, we have discovered that our PSHP can be the vehicle that carries us to additional scale. Many health systems do not own or otherwise have access to a PSHP to hold and manage financial risk. Health First sought and found a not-for-profit health system with complementary goals and a strong brand to partner with, and we now provide private-label health plan products for that system using its strong name while operating the insurance functions under our license and with our capabilities.

  8. Health Care Use And Spending Patterns Vary By Wage Level In Employer-Sponsored Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Bruce W; Gibson, Teresa B; Lynch, Wendy D; Addy, Carol

    2017-02-01

    Employees face an increasing financial burden for health services as health care costs increase relative to earnings. Yet little is known about health care utilization patterns relative to employee wages. To better understand this association and the resulting implications, we examined patterns of health care use and spending by wage category during 2014 among 42,936 employees of four self-insured employers enrolled in a private health insurance exchange. When demographics and other characteristics were controlled for, employees in the lowest-wage group had half the usage of preventive care (19 percent versus 38 percent), nearly twice the hospital admission rate (31 individuals per 1,000 versus 17 per 1,000), more than four times the rate of avoidable admissions (4.3 individuals per 1,000 versus 0.9 per 1,000), and more than three times the rate of emergency department visits (370 individuals per 1,000 versus 120 per 1,000) relative to top-wage-group earners. Annual total health care spending per patient was highest in both the lowest-wage ($4,835) and highest-wage ($5,074) categories relative to the middle two wage groups ($3,952 and $3,987, respectively). These findings provide new insights about wage-associated variations in health care use and spending in employer-sponsored plans. For policy makers, these findings can inform employer benefit design strategies and research priorities, to encourage effective use of health care services. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. Mental Health Services Utilization and Expenditures Among Children Enrolled in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Angela Wangari; Yuan, Yiyang; Cabral, Howard J

    2017-05-01

    Mental illness in children increases the risk of developing mental health disorders in adulthood, and reduces physical and emotional well-being across the life course. The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA, 2008) aimed to improve access to mental health treatment by requiring employer-sponsored health plans to include insurance coverage for behavioral health services. Investigators used IBM Watson/Truven Analytics MarketScan claims data (2007-2013) to examine: (1) the distribution of mental illness; (2) trends in utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures; and (3) the overall effect of the MHPAEA on mental health services utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures among privately-insured children aged 3 to 17 with mental health disorders. Multivariate Poisson regression and linear regression modeling techniques were used. Mental health services use for outpatient behavioral health therapy (BHT) was higher in the years after the implementation of the MHPAEA (2010-2013). Specifically, before the MHPAEA implementation, the annual total visits for BHT provided by mental health physicians were 17.1% lower and 2.5% lower for BHT by mental health professionals, compared to years when MHPAEA was in effect. Children covered by consumer-driven and high-deductible plans had significantly higher out-of-pocket expenditures for BHT compared to those enrolled PPOs. Our findings demonstrate increased mental health services use and higher out-of-pocket costs per outpatient visit after implementation of the MHPAEA. As consumer-driven and high-deductible health plans continue to grow, enrollees need to be cognizant of the impact of health insurance benefit designs on health services offered in these plans. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Biomarkers of Potential Harm: Summary of an FDA-Sponsored Public Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cindy M; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cho, Matthew; Mishina, Elena; Del Valle-Pinero, Arseima Y; van Bemmel, Dana; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2017-12-14

    Since 2009, the United States (U.S.) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) has had the authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products in order to reduce the death and disease caused by tobacco use. Biomarkers could play an important role across a number of FDA regulatory activities, including assessing new and modified risk tobacco products and identifying and evaluating potential product standards. On April 4-5, 2016, FDA/CTP hosted a public workshop focused on biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH) with participants from government, industry, academia, and other organizations. The workshop was divided into five sessions focused on: 1) overview of BOPH; 2) cardiovascular disease (CVD); 3) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); 4) cancer; and 5) new areas of research. The deliberations from the workshop noted some promising BOPH but also highlighted the lack of systematic effort to identify BOPH that would have utility and validity for evaluating tobacco products. Research areas that could further strengthen the applicability of BOPH to tobacco regulatory science include the exploration of composite biomarkers as predictors of disease risk, "omics" biomarkers, and examining biomarkers using existing cohorts, surveys and experimental studies. This paper synthesizes the main findings from the 2016 FDA-sponsored workshop focused on biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH) and highlights research areas that could further strengthen the science around BOPH and their applicability to tobacco regulatory science. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Essential rules and requirements for global clinical trials in rare lung diseases: a sponsor's standpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuerner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    International multicenter trials have the advantage of being able to recruit many patients within a short period. This is particularly useful for rare diseases. Ideally, conclusions drawn from the results of a global clinical trial apply to all study centers and countries involved, potentially expediting drug development and facilitating approval in foreign markets. However, several challenges must be overcome to ensure optimal trial conduct and coordinate trial sites working under different regulations and technical and cultural conditions. Thus, standardizing these trial elements is essential and may include training courses for the medical and technical staff at the study sites. Considering a rare disease, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), it is the trial sponsor's responsibility to seek consensus among clinical experts and regulatory agencies about fundamental questions, including a consistent diagnosis. In cross-cultural studies, it is important to use hard (objective) efficacy endpoints rather than patient-reported (subjective) measures, such as quality of life. A quality assurance program should be implemented, including the central review of diagnostic findings. Careful safety monitoring and an external independent data monitoring committee that periodically assesses a study treatment's risk-benefit ratio are required to protect trial patients from potential harm. Over the past few years, Boehringer Ingelheim has conducted two large-scale global clinical trials for the treatment of IPF (INPULSIS™-1 and INPULSIS™-2). These studies have just been completed and, as a result of careful planning, have successfully complied with the standards and needs of an international, cross-cultural study. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. NSF-Sponsored Summit on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education: outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, S.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-sponsored Summit on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education made major progress toward developing a collective community vision for the geosciences. A broad spectrum of the geoscience education community, ~200 educators from research universities/four and two year colleges, focused on preparation of undergraduates for graduate school and future geoscience careers, pedagogy, use of technology, broadening participation/retention of underrepresented groups, and preparation of K-12 science teachers. Participants agreed that key concepts, competencies and skills learned throughout the curriculum were more important than specific courses. Concepts included understanding Earth as complex, dynamic system, deep time, evolution of life, natural resources, energy, hazards, hydrogeology, surface processes, Earth materials and structure, and climate change. Skills/competencies included ability to think spatially and temporally, reason inductively and deductively, make and use indirect observations, engage in complex open, coupled systems thinking, and work with uncertainty, non-uniqueness, and incompleteness, as well as critical thinking, problem solving, communication, and ability to think like a scientist and continue to learn. Successful ways of developing these include collaborative, integrative projects involving teams, interdisciplinary projects, fieldwork and research experiences, as well as flipped classrooms and integration and interactive use of technology, including visualization, simulation, modeling and analysis of real data. Wider adoption of proven, effective best practices is our communities' main pedagogical challenge, and we focused on identifying implementation barriers. Preparation of future teachers in introductory and general geoscience courses by incorporating Next Generation Science Standards and using other sciences/math to solve real world geoscience problems should help increase diversity and number of future geoscientists and

  13. A Citation Tracking System to Facilitate Sponsoring Institution Oversight of ACGME-Accredited Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Timothy R; Poe, John D; Zimmerman, Richard S; Rose, Steven H

    2012-12-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires the graduate medical education committee and the designated institutional official to ensure that citations for noncompliance with the accreditation standards and institutional trends in citations are reviewed and corrected. To describe a citation tracking system (CTS) that uses Microsoft Office Access to efficiently catalogue, monitor, and document resolution of citations. The CTS was implemented in a sponsoring institution with oversight of 133 ACGME-accredited programs. The designated institutional official and the graduate medical education committee review all program letters of notification and enter citations into the CTS. A program-correction plan is required for each citation and is entered into the database. Open citations and action plans are reviewed by the graduate medical education committee and the designated institutional official on a quarterly basis, with decisions ranging from "closing" the citation to approving the action plan in process to requiring a new or modified action plan. Citation categories and subcategories are accessed on the ACGME website and entered into the CTS to identify trends. All 236 citations received since the 2006 Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education institutional site visit were entered into the CTS. On November 22, 2011, 26 of 236 citations (11%) were in active status with ongoing action plans, and 210 (89%) citations had been resolved and were closed. The CTS uses commercially available software to ensure citations are monitored and addressed and to simplify analysis of citation trends. The approach requires minimal staff time for data input and updates and can be performed without institutional information technology assistance.

  14. Primary care COPD patients compared with large pharmaceutically-sponsored COPD studies: an UNLOCK validation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarije L Kruis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guideline recommendations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are based on the results of large pharmaceutically-sponsored COPD studies (LPCS. There is a paucity of data on disease characteristics at the primary care level, while the majority of COPD patients are treated in primary care. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the external validity of six LPCS (ISOLDE, TRISTAN, TORCH, UPLIFT, ECLIPSE, POET-COPD on which current guidelines are based, in relation to primary care COPD patients, in order to inform future clinical practice guidelines and trials. METHODS: Baseline data of seven primary care databases (n=3508 from Europe were compared to baseline data of the LPCS. In addition, we examined the proportion of primary care patients eligible to participate in the LPCS, based on inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Overall, patients included in the LPCS were younger (mean difference (MD-2.4; p=0.03, predominantly male (MD 12.4; p=0.1 with worse lung function (FEV1% MD -16.4; p<0.01 and worse quality of life scores (SGRQ MD 15.8; p=0.01. There were large differences in GOLD stage distribution compared to primary care patients. Mean exacerbation rates were higher in LPCS, with an overrepresentation of patients with ≥ 1 and ≥ 2 exacerbations, although results were not statistically significant. Our findings add to the literature, as we revealed hitherto unknown GOLD I exacerbation characteristics, showing 34% of mild patients had ≥ 1 exacerbations per year and 12% had ≥ 2 exacerbations per year. The proportion of primary care patients eligible for inclusion in LPCS ranged from 17% (TRISTAN to 42% (ECLIPSE, UPLIFT. CONCLUSION: Primary care COPD patients stand out from patients enrolled in LPCS in terms of gender, lung function, quality of life and exacerbations. More research is needed to determine the effect of pharmacological treatment in mild to moderate patients. We encourage future guideline makers to involve primary care

  15. Bayesian variable selection in regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T.J.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the selection of subsets of ''predictor'' variables in a linear regression model for the prediction of a ''dependent'' variable. We take a Bayesian approach and assign a probability distribution to the dependent variable through a specification of prior distributions for the unknown parameters in the regression model. The appropriate posterior probabilities are derived for each submodel and methods are proposed for evaluating the family of prior distributions. Examples are given that show the application of the Bayesian methodology. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  16. 5 CFR 792.226 - How may an agency disburse funds to a Federally sponsored child care center in a multi-tenant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federally sponsored child care center in a multi-tenant building? 792.226 Section 792.226 Administrative... agency disburse funds to a Federally sponsored child care center in a multi-tenant building? In a multi...' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income...

  17. The Effects of Employer-Sponsored Child Care on Employee Absenteeism, Turnover, Productivity, Recruitment or Job Satisfaction: What Is Claimed and What Is Known.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas I.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluates the evidence supporting claims that employer-sponsored child care programs improve employee work behaviors and attitudes. Results indicated that assertions that employer-sponsored child care reduces workers' absenteeism or tardiness, or that it increases workers' productivity or job satisfaction are not supported by credible research.…

  18. Reports of research programs in the field of reactor safety sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    Investigations on the safety of Light Water Reactors (LWR) being performed in the framework of his research program on reactor safety (RS-projects) are sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT). Objective of this program is to investigate in greater detail the safety margins of nuclear power plants and their systems and the further development of safety technology. Besides the investigations of LWR tasks also projects on the safety of advanced reactors are sponsored by the BMFT. The individual reports are classified according to the research program on the safety of LWRs 1977-1980 of the BMFT. Another table of contents uses the same classification system as applied in the nuclear safety index of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities) and the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). The reports are arranged in the sequence of their project numbers. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A J; Azarm, A; Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Carew, J; Diamond, D J; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Haber, S B

    1989-07-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1988.

  20. Summary of government sponsored foreign electronics: European union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, United Kingdom, France, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garian, Robert

    1994-10-01

    This report provides basic information and statistical data on foreign electronics research and development sponsored by the governments of the European Union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, France, and Singapore. Industrial R&D funding was found to be highly significant in all of the countries studied. Government and industry typically collaborate closely in the planning of economic strategies for capturing new or larger shares of targeted segments of the electronics market.

  1. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.

    1989-02-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through June 30, 1988. 71 figs., 24 tabs

  2. Attitudes towards the (UN)official sponsor : ‘Cultural factors' impact on consumers' attitudes towards ambush marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Jens; Rosenborg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Ambush marketing has recently become a large problem for event owners and official sponsors. One of the main focuses, in the field of ambush marketing, has been about consumers' attitudes towards ambush marketing. However, the research field has a gap in what affects consumers’ attitudes. The purpose of this thesis is to explain the causal effect between consumers’ culture factors and their attitudes towards ambush marketing. This thesis uses a conceptual model that is based on theories in na...

  3. Employer-sponsored long-term care insurance: best practices for increasing sponsorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, J

    2000-04-01

    Behind the enthusiasm of policymakers for long-term care (LTC) insurance is the belief that increased ownership of private LTC insurance will reduce the government's future liability for financing the nation's LTC needs, currently projected by the Congressional Budget Office to increase by 2.6 percent annually between 2000 and 2040. Some observers say that sustained economic growth could keep these increased expenditures at the same share of total GDP; others argue that current federal expenditure trends will become unsustainable without large tax increases. The potential of the employer-sponsored group LTC market to stave off a national LTC financing crisis has recently started to receive popular notice in the news media. However, for the potential of the group LTC market to be realized, there must be widespread employer sponsorship of group LTC plans and significant participation levels among eligible employees in these plans. The present analysis of industry data estimates the LTC plan sponsorship rate for all U.S. employers with 10 or more employees at 0.2 percent. The sponsorship rate among large employers is significantly higher (8.7 percent). The greatest growth opportunities are projected to lie in the smaller employer market, because it is enormous and virtually untapped. Nonsponsors cite a variety of barriers to employer sponsorship of LTC plans. For many nonsponsors, the most important obstacles are the intrinsic characteristics of their work forces: employees are too young, transient, part-time, and/or low-income to be suitable for LTC insurance. For many others, lack of awareness and low priority are the primary obstacles. Because group LTC insurance has been widely available for only 10 years, many benefits managers view it as "too new and untested." Prior to the passage of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), in August 1996, the tax treatment of long-term care insurance premiums was unclear because Congress had not

  4. Variation in average costs among federally sponsored state-organized cancer detection programs: economies of scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansley, Edward C; Duñet, Diane O; May, Daniel S; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; McKenna, Matthew T

    2002-01-01

    Societal cost-effectiveness analysis and its variants help decision makers achieve an efficient allocation of resources across the set of all possible health interventions. Sometimes, however, decision makers are focused instead on the efficient allocation of resources within a particular intervention program that has already been implemented. This is especially true when the intervention is being delivered at several different sites. An analysis of average cost across program sites may help program officials to maximize the health benefits that can be achieved with limited resources. In this article, the authors present such an analysis, with special attention paid to the possible existence and implications of economies of scale. Focusing on federally sponsored, state-organized cancer detection programs, the authors modeled 19 state programs as productive processes and examined their average costs over a 2- to 5-year period of operation. They considered 3 alternative definitions of output: women served, screens performed, and conditions detected. Average federal costs and average total costs were estimated for each grant period. Multivariate regression analysis was used to help explain the variation in average costs. The average cost estimates were distributed in a skewed pattern with the majority of observations falling close to the median and substantially below the mean. For all measures considered, average cost decreased as output expanded. This inverse relationship between average cost and output level persisted even after controlling for the effects of other predictors, suggesting the possible existence of economies of scale. The potential existence of economies of scale calls into question the assumption of a constant average cost frequently made in economic analyses of proposed public health programs. It also implies that a) differences in output level should be taken into account when comparing operating efficiency across program sites; b) conclusions

  5. Patient perspectives on physician conflict of interest in industry-sponsored clinical trials for multiple sclerosis therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Andrew J; Klein, Eran P; Corboy, John R; Bernat, James L

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceutical industry financial support of physicians, physician practices, and academic departments involved in multicenter industry-sponsored clinical trials of novel therapeutic agents is a relatively new and infrequently acknowledged source of potential physician conflict of interest. Detailed disclosure of these relationships to study participants is not uniformly a part of informed consent and documentation practices. To understand attitudes of patients with multiple sclerosis concerning disclosure of potential physician-industry conflicts of interest created by clinical trials and how such disclosures may influence study participation An anonymous online instrument was developed. 597 people with multiple sclerosis participated in the study. The study found that detailed disclosure of conflicts of interest is important to potential participants in industry-sponsored clinical trials for multiple sclerosis therapies and that the presence of these conflicts of interest may influence patients' decisions to participate in these studies. Findings from this study support a call for uniform guidelines regarding disclosure of physician-industry relationships to prospective research participants for industry-sponsored clinical trials. © The Author(s), 2015.

  6. On sponsoring and CSR involvement. Two theories explaining their effects on a company’s attractiveness for candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wozniak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of e-recruitment for hiring personnel is constantly expanding. However, the scientific understanding of factors affecting company employer brand during e-recruitment, is still poor. Research into corporate social responsibilities (CSR shows that information about the company’s involvement in these areas makes its image more positive, including its image as an employer. CSR is an umbrella concept, which includes activities similar to traditional sponsoring of sports and cultural events. Two theories explaining the impact of information on attractiveness of the employer’s brand in the e-recruitment process are presented. The aim of the text is to check which of them – cultural fit or signaling theory – more adequately explains the changes in how a candidate perceives a company’s attractiveness, when given information about its’ sports and cultural sponsoring and environment-related activities. The effect of both positive and negative information concerning a company’s activities on its employer image in the e-recruitment situation is analyzed. Data from an questionnaire filled in by 80 young full-time workers shows that positive information about a company’s CSR and sponsoring activities affects candidates according to the cultural fit model, while negative – according to the signaling theory model. The consequences for theory and managerial practice are described.

  7. The Effects of Korean Medical Service Quality and Satisfaction on Revisit Intention of the United Arab Emirates Government Sponsored Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoyoung; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate medical service quality, satisfaction and to examine factors influencing hospital revisit intention of the United Arab Emirates government sponsored patients in Korea. A total of 152 UAE government sponsored patients who visited Korean hospitals participated in the questionnaire survey from August to November 2016. Stepwise multiple regression was used to identify the factors that affected the revisit intention of the participants. The mean scores of medical service quality, satisfaction, and revisit intention were 5.72 out of 7, 88.88 out of 100, 4.59 out of 5, respectively. Medical service quality and satisfaction, Medical service quality and revisit intention, satisfaction and revisit intention were positively correlated. Medical service of physician, visiting routes and responsiveness of medical service quality explained about 23.8% of revisit intention. There are needs for physicians to communicate with patients while ensuring sufficient consultation time based on excellent medical skills and nurses to respond immediately for the patients' needs through an empathic encounter in order to improve medical service quality and patient satisfaction so that to increase the revisit intention of the United Arab Emirates government sponsored patients. Further, it is necessary for the hospitals to have support plans for providing country specialized services in consideration of the UAE culture to ensure that physicians' and nurses' competencies are not undervalued by non-medical service elements such as interpreters and meals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. This journal is sponsored by the Critical Care Society of Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within SA, advanced life support (ALS) practitioners with various qualifications are undertaking CCTs. The training of these providers in critical care has been variable at best.[5] In October 2016, the Health. Professions Council of SA released newly proposed scopes of practice for all prehospital providers for commentary.

  9. Evidence on climatic variability and prehistoric human activities between 165 B.C. and A.D. 1400 derived from subfossil Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L. found in a lake in Utsjoki, northernmost Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetterberg, P.

    1994-12-01

    conjunction with the variability in the measured tree-growth curve. These provide detailed information on growth conditions and variations in temperature during the period 165 B.C. - A.D. 1400. The correlation of the present data with the previously published results from northern Sweden display great general similarity, but also some significant differences. We propose that the combined data give a more reliable indication of regional climatic variations and that the differences are due to local factors at the two locations. The similarity between these two independent series supports general conclusions made about changing summer climate over Fennoscandia after A.D. 500 and strongly suggests that our conclusions drawn here for the period 165 B.C. - A.D. 500 are on a firm basis. The present data thus enable us to infer the record of summer climate variability in northern Fennoscandia about 600 years back in time. Most of the subfossil pines preserved in the lake grew very close to the place where they were found. Reaction wood indicating tilting of the trunk, probably caused by rising water levels, was found in several trees. These trees grew on the lake shore where the soil was soft or eroding. The large number of relatively young trees indicates that storms may have occasionally felled pines. This cannot be proven (by demonstrating a common death year however, because the outermost tree rings in the subfossil material are frequently decayed. A small number of the pines found in Lake Ailigas were cut by Man. The pines, identified by axe marks may be remnants of barriers built by the Prehistoric Saami for hunting of wild reindeer. The dates of these indicate that traps were constructed in the mid 9th century and at the end of the 11th and start of the 12th centuries, i.e. late Iron Age times.

  10. Combining psychosocial data to improve prediction of cardiovascular disease risk factors and events:: The NHLBI-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Kerry S.; Krantz, David S.; Rutledge, Thomas; Johnson, B. Delia; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J.; Bittner, Vera; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Eteiba, Wafia; Cornell, Carol E.; Pepine, Carl J.; Vido, Diane A.; Handberg, Eileen; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2012-01-01

    Background There is overlap among psychosocial variables associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and utility of combining psychosocial variables as risk markers for understanding CVD is largely unknown. Methods Women (n=493) in the NHLBI Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study were evaluated. The predictive value for CVD events was determined for multivariate combination of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Social Network Index (SNI), and Cook-Medley hostility (Ho) scales. Principal components analysis of psychosocial scales revealed composite psychosocial risk markers, and their relationships to CVD events and risk factors were assessed. Results In a multivariate model, the block of SNI, Hostile Affect, STAI and BDI predicted CVD events (χ2[6]=27.8, ppsychosocial variables. Multivariate combination of psychosocial risk markers predicts CVD events; derived psychosocial factors were associated with CVD risk factors but not events. Measuring common and unique variance among psychosocial variables may be useful for understanding and predicting CVD. PMID:22434916

  11. Identifying associations between sport sponsorship decision-making variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Van Heerden

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport sponsorship spending in South Africa has increased steadily. This paper discusses the findings of an exploratory study into key sponsorship decision-areas, namely the setting of sponsorship objectives, the integration of marketing communication variables into sponsorship to create a leverage effect, and the measurement of sponsorship success. It is argued that for a sponsorship to be successful certain associations should exist between these key decision-making areas and also among elements internal to each of these areas. The main findings are that the respondents indicated a bias towards setting media related objectives that will subsequently enable the sponsors to use media-related measurement tools. It is recommended that sponsors should develop alternative methods to measure the effectiveness of their sponsorships.

  12. External bulb variable volume maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, V. S.; Cervenka, P. O. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A maser functioning as a frequency standard stable to one part in 10 to the 14th power includes a variable volume, constant surface area storage bulb having a fixed volume portion located in a resonant cavity from which the frequency standard is derived. A variable volume portion of the bulb, exterior to the resonant cavity, has a maximum volume on the same order of magnitude as the fixed volume bulb portion. The cavity has a length to radius ratio of at least 3:1 so that the operation is attained without the need for a feedback loop. A baffle plate, between the fixed and variable volume bulb portions, includes apertures for enabling hydrogen atoms to pass between the two bulb portions and is an electromagnetic shield that prevents coupling of the electromagnetic field of the cavity into the variable volume bulb portion.

  13. Does industry-sponsored education foster overdiagnosis and overtreatment of depression, osteoporosis and over-active bladder syndrome? An Australian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara; Swandari, Swestika; Fabbri, Alice; Grundy, Quinn; Moynihan, Ray; Bero, Lisa

    2018-02-13

    To investigate patterns of industry-sponsored educational events that focus on specific health conditions for which there are concerns about overdiagnosis and overtreatment. This retrospective cohort study examines publicly reported industry-sponsored events in Australia from October 2011 to September 2015 for three conditions potentially subject to overdiagnosis and overtreatment: depression, osteoporosis and overactive bladder. We used a database of transparency reports to identify events with a focus on depression, osteoporosis and overactive bladder and compared these with other sponsored events. We hypothesised that companies marketing treatments for each condition would sponsor related events and that target audiences would mainly work in primary care, reflecting a broad patient population. Event and attendee characteristics, sponsoring companies, related marketed treatments, cost-effectiveness ratings and dispensing rates. Over the study period, we identified 1567 events focusing on depression, 1375 on osteoporosis and 190 on overactive bladder (total n=3132, with 96 660 attendees). These events were attended by primary care doctors more often than sponsored events without a focus on these three conditions: relative risk (RR)=3.06 (95% CI 2.81 to 3.32) for depression, RR=1.48 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.55) for osteoporosis and RR=2.59 (95% CI 2.09 to 3.21) for overactive bladder. Servier, which markets agomelatine and AstraZeneca (quetiapine) sponsored 51.2% and 23.0% of depression events, respectively. Amgen and GlaxoSmithKline, which co-market denosumab, sponsored 49.5% of osteoporosis events and Astellas and Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL) (mirabegron and solifenacin) sponsored 80.5% of overactive bladder events. This 4-year overview of industry-sponsored events on three overdiagnosed and overtreated conditions found that primary care clinicians were often targeted, dinner was often provided and that a few companies sponsored most events. In most cases

  14. RESPONSABILIDAD DEL PATROCINADOR DESPUÉS DE UN ENSAYO CLÍNICO RESPONSABILIDADE DO PATROCINADOR APÓS A REALIZAÇÃO DE UM ENSAIO CLÍNICO RESPONSABILITY OF SPONSORS AFTER CLINICAL TRIALS ARE FINISHED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Benites Estupiñán

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe algunos problemas éticos derivados de los estudios multicéntricos en países en desarrollo, particularmente los referidos al rol de los patrocinadores luego de concluido un ensayo clínico. Luego de pasar revista a algunas normativas internacionales, propone un conjunto de obligaciones éticas para los patrocinadores de estos ensayos. Las evidencias mostradas hacia el final sugieren más bien pesimismo respecto de su cumplimientoEste artigo descreve alguns problemas éticos derivados dos estudos muticêntricos nos países em desenvolvimento, particularmente os relacionados com o papel dos patrocinadores logo após a conclusão de um ensaio clínico. Após análise de algumas normas interaccionáis, propõe um conjunto de obrigações éticas para os patrocinadores destes ensaios. As evidências indicam um certo pessimismo quanto ao seu cumprimentoThis paper describes some ethical problems derived from multi center studies in developing countries, specifically those referred to the role of sponsors after the clinical trial is concluded. After reviewing some international norms, it proposes several ethical obligations fro sponsors of these trials. Finally, the evidence shows pessimism with respect to fulfilling them

  15. Dimension and deriving manner for derived quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhixiang

    1993-01-01

    Most physical quantities we are interested in are derived from some directly measured physical quantities. To obtain correct least-square result in derived quantity space, one must pay attention to inconsistencies problem to avoid ppp phenomenon in generating derived quantities and their covariance matrix. The situation is complicated by the problems of dimension and deriving manner for derived quantities. Some more general problems, which are independent of ppp, are discussed

  16. When Can Information from Ordinal Scale Variables Be Integrated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Simon; Grace, Randolph C.

    2010-01-01

    Many theoretical constructs of interest to psychologists are multidimensional and derive from the integration of several input variables. We show that input variables that are measured on ordinal scales cannot be combined to produce a stable weakly ordered output variable that allows trading off the input variables. Instead a partial order is…

  17. Surgeon-industry conflict of interest: survey of opinions regarding industry-sponsored educational events and surgeon teaching: clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Christian P; Dea, Nicolas; Dvorak, Marcel F; Lee, Robert S; Hartig, Dennis; Fisher, Charles G

    2014-03-01

    Conflict of interest (COI) as it applies to medical education and training has become a source of considerable interest, debate, and regulation in the last decade. Companies often pay surgeons as faculty for educational events and often sponsor and give financial support to major professional society meetings. Professional medical societies, industry, and legislators have attempted to regulate potential COI without consideration for public opinion. The practice of evidence-based medicine requires the inclusion of patient opinion along with best available evidence and expert opinion. The primary goal of this study was to assess the opinion of the general population regarding surgeon-industry COI for education-related events. A Web-based survey was administered, with special emphasis on the surgeon's role in industry-sponsored education and support of professional societies. A survey was constructed to sample opinions on reimbursement, disclosure, and funding sources for educational events. There were 501 completed surveys available for analysis. More than 90% of respondents believed that industry funding for surgeons' tuition and travel for either industry-sponsored or professional society educational meetings would either not affect the quality of care delivered or would cause it to improve. Similar results were generated for opinions on surgeons being paid by industry to teach other surgeons. Moreover, the majority of respondents believed it was ethical or had no opinion if surgeons had such a relationship with industry. Respondents were also generally in favor of educational conferences for surgeons regardless of funding source. Disclosures of a surgeon-industry relationship, especially if it involves specific devices that may be used in their surgery, appears to be important to respondents. The vast majority of respondents in this study do not believe that the quality of their care will be diminished due to industry funding of educational events, for surgeon

  18. Computational Equipment for Support of Air Force Sponsored Programs for the Design of Advanced and Miniaturized Explosive and Advanced Propellant Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, D. S; Buckmaster, John D; Jackson, Thomas L

    2008-01-01

    This grant funded the acquisition of a 128 node/256 processor cluster computer that now supports the computational needs of the combined, Air Force-sponsored research groups of Prof. D. Scott Stewart (PI...

  19. The role of corruption and unethical behaviour in precluding the placement of industry sponsored clinical trials in sub-Saharan Africa: Stakeholder views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efe Egharevba

    2016-08-01

    More discussion around corruption with all relevant stakeholders is required in order for progress to be made and to enable greater involvement of sub-Saharan African countries in the conduct of industry sponsored clinical trials.

  20. Cross-sectional study of Pfizer-sponsored clinical trials: assessment of time to publication and publication history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, LaVerne A; Fay, Lorna

    2016-07-18

    To estimate the proportion of Pfizer-sponsored clinical trials that completed in 2010 and are published as manuscripts in the peer-reviewed literature, and to assess the manuscript development history. Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. Clinical trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov that completed in 2010 for approved, Pfizer prescription products in patients or vaccines in healthy participants. The proportion of studies for which the primary outcome(s) was published and the median time from study completion to publication. The manuscript development history included the number of times a manuscript was submitted before it was accepted for publication. Among registered clinical trials for which Pfizer was the sponsor that completed in 2010, 76 met all inclusion criteria. The primary outcome(s) for 65 (85%) studies was published in 71 manuscripts; the median time to publication was 31 months (range 3-63 months). Of the remaining 11 studies, 2 had been submitted to at least one journal, 2 had not yet been submitted and 7 had no plans to publish because the study had terminated early due to recruitment challenges. Manuscripts accepted at the first choice journal were published at median time of 28 months (range 8-63, n=31), those accepted at second choice journal were published at 32 months (3-45, n=19), and for those accepted at third choice journal, it was 40 months (range 24-53, n=13). The publication rate and median time to publication from study completion for Pfizer-sponsored studies were comparable to those previously reported for combined analyses of industry and non-industry sectors. Opportunities exist for sponsors, authors and journals to explore ideas that would facilitate more timely publication for clinical trial results. However, to be effective, such changes may need to revisit the entire publication process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  1. The Effects of Korean Medical Service Quality and Satisfaction on Revisit Intention of the United Arab Emirates Government Sponsored Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoyoung Lee, RN, MSN

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: There are needs for physicians to communicate with patients while ensuring sufficient consultation time based on excellent medical skills and nurses to respond immediately for the patients' needs through an empathic encounter in order to improve medical service quality and patient satisfaction so that to increase the revisit intention of the United Arab Emirates government sponsored patients. Further, it is necessary for the hospitals to have support plans for providing country specialized services in consideration of the UAE culture to ensure that physicians' and nurses' competencies are not undervalued by non-medical service elements such as interpreters and meals.

  2. Derivation of Stochastic Equations for Computational Uncertainties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a simple mathematical algorithm or procedure for computing the uncertainties at the various percent of data input, using the stochastic approach of simulating the input variables to compute the output variables. A simple algorithm was used to derive stochastic equations for some selected petrophysical ...

  3. Metal derivatives of heterocyclic-2-thiones: Variable donor ability, C ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    per(I) iodide was reacted with SNC5H5 in acetonitrile followed by the addition of dppe in CHCl3 (1:1:1 molar ratio), which however yielded a complex of composi- tion, Cu3I3(dppe)3(κ1-SNC5H5) 5 (figure 1).24 The sin- gle crystal X-ray study has shown that it is a trinuclear complex. In the moiety Cu3I3((dppe)3, the two cop-.

  4. Resonance energy in benzene derivatives with a variable functional group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Otto; Böhm, S.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 11 (2001), s. 1623-1637 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/1454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : arenes * benzene Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2001

  5. Systematic derivation of correct variability-aware program analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Dimovski, Aleksandar S.; Brabrand, Claus

    2015-01-01

    A recent line of work lifts particular verification and analysis methods to Software Product Lines (SPL). In an effort to generalize such case-by-case approaches, we develop a systematic methodology for lifting single-program analyses to SPLs using abstract interpretation. Abstract interpretation...

  6. Improving academic leadership and oversight in large industry-sponsored clinical trials: the ARO-CRO model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Neil A; Spyropoulos, Alex C; Halperin, Jonathan L; Kessler, Craig M; Schulman, Sam; Turpie, Alexander G G; Skene, Allan M; Cutler, Neal R; Hiatt, William R

    2011-02-17

    Standards for clinical trial design, execution, and publication have increased in recent years. However, the current structure for interaction among the pharmaceutical sponsor funding a drug or device development program, the contract research organization (CRO) that typically assists in executing the trial, regulatory agencies, and academicians, provides inadequate leadership and oversight of the development process. Conventional academic steering committees are not provided with the independent infrastructure by which to verify statistical analyses and conclusions regarding safety and efficacy. We propose an alternative approach centered on partnerships between CROs and university-based academic research organizations (AROs). In this model, the ARO takes responsibility for processes that address journal requirements and regulatory expectations for independent academic oversight (including oversight of Steering Committee and Data and Safety Monitoring Board activities), whereas the CRO provides infrastructure for efficient trial execution, site monitoring, and data management. The ARO engages academic experts throughout the trial process and minimizes conflicts of interest in individual industry relationships via diversification of sponsors, agents, and therapeutic areas. Although numerous models can be entertained, the ARO-CRO model is uniquely structured to meet the demand for greater assurance of integrity in clinical trials and the needs of each stakeholder in the process.

  7. Reports on research projects in the field of reactor safety sponsored by the Federal Minister for Research and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Investigations on the safety of Light Water Reactors (LWR) being performed in the framework of the Research Program Reactor Safety (RS - Projects) are sponsored by the BMFT (Federal Minister for Research and Technology), der Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie. Objective of this program is to investigate in greater detail the safety margins of nuclear power plants and their systems and the further development of safety technology. Besides the investigations of LWR tasks first projects on the safety of FBR type reactors are sponsored by the BMFT. The GRS (Reactor Safety Association), Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit mbH, by order of the BMFT, informs continuously of the status of such investigations by means of quarterly and annually publication of progress reports within the series GRS - F Fortschrittsberichte (GRS - F - Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about objectives, the work performed, the results, the next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the contractors themselves as a documentation of their progress in work. The individual reports are arranged according to the amended LWR Safety Research Program of the BMFT. Another table contents uses the same classification system as applied in the Nuclear Safety Index of the CEC Communities and the OECD. (orig./HP) 891 HP [de

  8. Generalized instrumental variable models

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Chesher; Adam Rosen

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops characterizations of identified sets of structures and structural features for complete and incomplete models involving continuous or discrete variables. Multiple values of unobserved variables can be associated with particular combinations of observed variables. This can arise when there are multiple sources of heterogeneity, censored or discrete endogenous variables, or inequality restrictions on functions of observed and unobserved variables. The models g...

  9. Derivation of sequential, real-time, process-control programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Keith; Schneider, Fred B.; Budhiraja, Navin

    1991-01-01

    The use of weakest-precondition predicate transformers in the derivation of sequential, process-control software is discussed. Only one extension to Dijkstra's calculus for deriving ordinary sequential programs was found to be necessary: function-valued auxiliary variables. These auxiliary variables are needed for reasoning about states of a physical process that exists during program transitions.

  10. Screening Obesity by Direct and Derived Anthropometric Indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening Obesity by Direct and Derived Anthropometric Indices with Evaluation of Physical Efficiency Among Female College Students of Kolkata. ... included total 24 variables, with thirteen direct and eleven derived anthropometric variables; while physical efficiency parameters were physical fitness index, VO2max, ...

  11. Progressive or regressive? A second look at the tax exemption for employer-sponsored health insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Cathy; Stremikis, Kristof; Collins, Sara; Davis, Karen

    2009-05-01

    The major argument for capping the exemption of health insurance benefits from income tax is that doing so will generate significant revenue that can be used to finance an expansion of health coverage. This analysis finds that given the state of insurance markets and current variations in premiums, limiting the current exemption could adversely affect individuals who are already at high risk of losing their health coverage. Evidence suggests that capping the exemption for employment-based health insurance could disproportionately affect workers in small firms, older workers, and wage-earners in industries with high expected claims costs. To avoid putting many families at increased health and financial risk, and to avoid undermining employer-sponsored group coverage, any consideration of a cap would have to be combined with coverage for all, changes in insurance market rules, and shared responsibility for financing.

  12. A structural econometric model of family valuation and choice of employer-sponsored health insurance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanness, David J

    2003-09-01

    This paper estimates a fully structural unitary household model of employment and health insurance decisions for dual wage-earner families with children in the United States, using data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey. Families choose hours of work and the breakdown of compensation between cash wages and health insurance benefits for each wage earner in order to maximize expected utility under uncertain need for medical care. Heterogeneous demand for the employer-sponsored health insurance is thus generated directly from variations in health status and earning potential. The paper concludes by discussing the benefits of using structural models for simulating welfare effects of insurance reform relative to the costly assumptions that must be imposed for identification. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. How avatar customizability affects children's arousal and subjective presence during junk food-sponsored online video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachel; Wise, Kevin; Bolls, Paul

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how children cognitively and emotionally process interactive marketing of snack food products in advergames. Children (N = 30) aged 10 to 12 were asked to play advergames with (a) avatars that were assigned to them, (b) avatars chosen from a pool, and (c) self-designed avatars. The children's skin conductance levels were collected during play. After gameplay, at each customization level, self-reported presence was collected. The results of this study indicate that customization of game avatars can affect both subjective feelings of presence and psychophysiological indicators of emotion during gameplay, which may make the gameplay experience more enjoyable. This may have implications for game sponsors and producers. Self-reported presence had no effect on psychophysiological indicators of emotion during gameplay. Implications of this finding and limitations of this study are discussed.

  14. Awareness and enforcement of guidelines for publishing industry-sponsored medical research among publication professionals: the Global Publication Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Elizabeth; Woolley, Karen; Adshead, Viv; Cairns, Angela; Fullam, Josh; Gonzalez, John; Grant, Tom; Tortell, Stephanie

    2014-04-19

    To gather information about current practices and implementation of publication guidelines among publication professionals working in or for the pharmaceutical industry. Web-based survey publicised via email and social media to members of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) and other organisations from November 2012 to February 2013. 469 individuals involved in publishing industry-sponsored research in peer-reviewed journals, mainly working in pharmaceutical or device companies ('industry', n=144), communication agencies ('agency', n=238), contract research organisations (CRO, n=15) or as freelancers (n=34). Most respondents (78%) had worked on medical publications for ≥5 years and 62% had a PhD/MD. Over 90% of industry, agency and CRO respondents routinely refer to Good Publication Practice (GPP2) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' Uniform Requirements. Most respondents (78% industry, 79% agency) received mandatory training on ethical publication practices. Over 90% of respondents' companies had publication guidelines or policies and required medical writing support to be acknowledged in publications (96% industry, 99% agency). Many industry respondents used publication management tools to monitor compliance with company guidelines and about half (46%) stated that their company had formal publication audits. Fewer agencies audited adherence to guidelines but 20% of agency respondents reported audits of employees and 6% audits of freelancers. Of concern, 37% of agency respondents reported requests from authors or sponsors that they believed were unethical, although 93% of these requests were withdrawn after respondents explained the need for compliance with guidelines. Most respondents' departments (63% industry, 58% agency, 60% CRO) had been involved in publishing studies with negative or inconclusive results. Within this sample, most publication professionals working in or for industry were aware of

  15. The functional variable method for solving the fractional Korteweg ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the exact solutions for the fractional Korteweg–de Vries equations and the coupled Korteweg–de Vries equations with time-fractional derivatives using the functional variable method. The fractional derivatives are described in the modified Riemann–Liouville derivative sense. It is demonstrated that the ...

  16. Effects of Variability Associated with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current on Sound Propagation in the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Technologies, 23-25 Sep 2008, Portsmouth, VA sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) 14... Hydroacoustic phases are often represented as a suite of acoustic modes, which are derived from the Helmholtz equation that governs acoustic propagation at a...Jenkins (2007). Hydroacoustic propagation through the Antarctic Convergence Zone, in Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based

  17. Variable importance in latent variable regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvalheim, O.M.; Arneberg, R.; Bleie, O.; Rajalahti, T.; Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The quality and practical usefulness of a regression model are a function of both interpretability and prediction performance. This work presents some new graphical tools for improved interpretation of latent variable regression models that can also assist in improved algorithms for variable

  18. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  19. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.

  20. Generalized Riemann derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Radulescu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Initiated by Marshall Ash in 1966, the study of generalized Riemann derivative draw significant attention of the mathematical community and numerous studies where carried out since then. One of the major areas that benefits from these developments is the numerical analysis, as the use of generalized Riemann derivatives leads to solving a wider class of problems that are not solvable with the classical tools. This article studies the generalized Riemann derivative and its properties and establishes relationships between Riemann generalized derivative and the classical one. The existence of classical derivative implies the existence of the Riemann generalized derivative, and we study conditions necessary for the generalized Riemann derivative to imply the existence of the classical derivative. Furthermore, we provide conditions on the generalized Riemann derivative that are sufficient for the existence of the classical derivative.

  1. A Core Language for Separate Variability Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosif-Lazăr, Alexandru Florin; Wasowski, Andrzej; Schaefer, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Separate variability modeling adds variability to a modeling language without requiring modifications of the language or the supporting tools. We define a core language for separate variability modeling using a single kind of variation point to define transformations of software artifacts in object...... models. Our language, Featherweight VML, has several distinctive features. Its architecture and operations are inspired by the recently proposed Common Variability Language (CVL). Its semantics is considerably simpler than that of CVL, while remaining confluent (unlike CVL). We simplify complex......, which makes it suitable to serve as a specification for implementations of trustworthy variant derivation. Featherweight VML offers insights in the execution of other variability modeling languages such as the Orthogonal Variability Model and Delta Modeling. To the best of our knowledge...

  2. EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    1994-01-01

    International audience; 1. The conference The third conference on "Nonlinear VAriability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes" (NVAG 3) was held in Cargese, Corsica, Sept. 10-17, 1993. NVAG3 was joint American Geophysical Union Chapman and European Geophysical Society Richardson Memorial conference, the first specialist conference jointly sponsored by the two organizations. It followed NVAG1 (Montreal, Aug. 1986), NVAG2 (Paris, June 1988; Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991), five conse...

  3. EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes

    OpenAIRE

    D. Schertzer; S. Lovejoy; S. Lovejoy

    1994-01-01

    1. The conference The third conference on "Nonlinear VAriability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes" (NVAG 3) was held in Cargese, Corsica, Sept. 10-17, 1993. NVAG3 was joint American Geophysical Union Chapman and European Geophysical Society Richardson Memorial conference, the first specialist conference jointly sponsored by the two organizations. It followed NVAG1 (Montreal, Aug. 1986), NVAG2 (Paris, June 1988; Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991), five consecutive annual ...

  4. The COVAMOF derivation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnema, Marco; Deelstra, Sybren; Hoekstra, Piter; Morisio, M

    2006-01-01

    The design, usage and maintenance of variability, i.e. variability management, is a very complex and time-consuming task in industrial product families. The COVAMOF Variability Modeling Framework is our approach to enable efficient variability management. As a practical realization of COVAMOF, swe

  5. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-01-01

    The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europ...

  6. Smoking Behavior and Use of Tobacco Industry Sponsored Websites Among Medical Students and Young Physicians in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, M Victoria; Mejia, Raul; Kaplan, Celia P

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet-based marketing has become an attractive option for promoting tobacco products due to its potential to avoid advertising restrictions. In Argentina, several cigarette brands have designed websites for the local market, which promote user participation. Objective The intent of the study was to report on the use of tobacco company-sponsored websites by medical students and recently graduated physicians. Methods An online self-administered survey was conducted among eligible medical students and recent graduates from the University of Buenos Aires (UBA). Sampling was from lists of email addresses of students enrolled in two required courses. Eligibility criteria were ages 18-30 years and reporting on smoking status. Questions on Internet use included accessing a tobacco brand website at least once during their lifetime and any use of tobacco promotional materials. Results The response rate was 35.08% (1743/4969). The final sample included 1659 participants: 73.06% (1212/1659) were women and mean age was 26.6 years (SD 1.9). The majority were current medical students (55.70%, 924/1659) and 27.31% (453/1659) were current smokers. Men were more likely to report having seen a tobacco advertisement on the Internet (P=.001), to have received a tobacco promotion personally addressed to them (P=.03), to have used that promotion (P=.02), and to have accessed a tobacco-sponsored website (P=.01). Among respondents, 19.35% (321/1659) reported having accessed a tobacco-sponsored website at least once in their lifetime and almost all of them (93.8%, 301/321) accessed these sites only when it was necessary for participating in a marketing promotion. Most people logging on for promotions reported entering once a month or less (58.9%, 189/321), while 25.5% (82/321) reported accessing the tobacco industry Internet sites once a week or more. In adjusted logistic regression models, participants were more likely to have accessed a tobacco brand website if they were

  7. Variable Selection in ROC Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binhuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Regression models are introduced into the receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis to accommodate effects of covariates, such as genes. If many covariates are available, the variable selection issue arises. The traditional induced methodology separately models outcomes of diseased and nondiseased groups; thus, separate application of variable selections to two models will bring barriers in interpretation, due to differences in selected models. Furthermore, in the ROC regression, the accuracy of area under the curve (AUC should be the focus instead of aiming at the consistency of model selection or the good prediction performance. In this paper, we obtain one single objective function with the group SCAD to select grouped variables, which adapts to popular criteria of model selection, and propose a two-stage framework to apply the focused information criterion (FIC. Some asymptotic properties of the proposed methods are derived. Simulation studies show that the grouped variable selection is superior to separate model selections. Furthermore, the FIC improves the accuracy of the estimated AUC compared with other criteria.

  8. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases (PIDDs) Primary ... PIDDs Genetics & Inheritance Talking to Your Doctor Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by low levels of ...

  9. A Qualitative Study of the Relationship between a Banking IT Troubled Project and the Executive Project Sponsor's Project Management Maturity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcraft, Terry G.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the effect the level of project management maturity a banking IT project sponsor has on project success. Project management maturity is gauged by the amount of modern project management training, knowledge and organizational skills an individual or organization has and applies to their project lifecycle experiences.…

  10. 41 CFR 301-74.14 - Are there any special requirements for sponsoring or funding a conference at a hotel, motel or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there any special requirements for sponsoring or funding a conference at a hotel, motel or other place of public accommodation? 301-74.14 Section 301-74.14 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System...

  11. The Factors Influencing the Achievement of a U.S. Governmentally-Sponsored International Education Exchange Program's Objectives: Reflections of Alumni from the Kyrgyz Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timlin, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine which factors influence the achievement of program objectives for Kyrgyz Republic alumni of the U.S. governmentally sponsored UGRAD program. The UGRAD program was designed to provide university students from the former Soviet Union an opportunity to study at an institute of higher education in the United…

  12. A Human Resource Development Action Plan for the Radiography Program Sponsored by Lincoln Land/St. John's Based on a View of the Radiographer of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Steven B.

    The purpose of a practicum was to develop an effective and valid human resource development plan based on a view of the practitioner of the future. The targeted program was one in radiography (radiologic technology) co-sponsored by Lincoln Land Community College and St. John's Hospital (Illinois). A review of the literature was used to establish a…

  13. Reactor safety research program. A description of current and planned reactor safety research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Division of Reactor Safety Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The reactor safety research program, sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Division of Reactor Safety Research, is described in terms of its program objectives, current status, and future plans. Elements of safety research work applicable to water reactors, fast reactors, and gas cooled reactors are presented together with brief descriptions of current and planned test facilities. (U.S.)

  14. Reflecting on the Postgraduate Experience: Teaching Research Methods and Statistics: Review of the DART-P Sponsored Workshop at PsyPAG 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Emma J.; Davies, Emma. L.

    2014-01-01

    Following the success of last year's teaching and career development workshop, this year's DART-P sponsored workshop at the Psychology Postgraduate Affairs Group (PsyPAG) Annual Conference held at Lancaster University focused on postgraduate's experiences of teaching research methods. This article provides a review of the invited speakers…

  15. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  16. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  17. RU SciTech: Weaving Astronomy and Physics into a University-sponsored Summer Camp for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Quyen N.

    2015-01-01

    We present a successful model for organizing a small University-sponsored summer camp that integrates astronomy and physics content with other science disciplines and computer programming content. The aim of our science and technology camp is to engage middle school students in a wide array of critical thinking tasks and hands-on activities centered on science and technology. Additionally, our program seeks to increase and maintain STEM interest among children, particularly in under-represented populations (e.g., Hispanic, African-American, women, and lower socioeconomic individuals) with hopes of decreasing disparities in diversity across many STEM fields.During this four-day camp, organized and facilitated by faculty volunteers, activities rotated through many STEM modules, including optics, telescopes, circuit building, computer hardware, and programming. Specifically, we scaffold camp activities to build upon similar ideas and content if possible. Using knowledge and skills gained through the AAS Astronomy Ambassadors program, we were able to integrate several astronomy activities into the camp, leading students through engaging activities, and conduct educational research. We present best practices on piloting a similar program in a university environment, our efforts to connect the learning outcomes common across all the modules, specifically in astronomy and physics, outline future camp activities, and the survey results on the impact of camp activities on attitudes toward science, technology, and science careers.

  18. Reports on the projects in the field of reactor safety sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Investigations on the safety of Light Water Reactors (LWR) being performed in the framework of the Research Program Reactor Safety (RS-projects) are sponsored by the BMFT (Federal Minister for Research and Technology), Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie. Objective of this program is to investigate in greater detail the safety margins of nuclear energy plants and their systems and the further development of safety technology. The GRS (Reactor Safety Association), Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit mbH, by order of BMFT, informs continuously of the status of these investigations within the series 'GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte' (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the different projects of the search program. The individual reports are prepared by the contractors themselves as a documentation of their progress in work and published by the GRS-FB (Research Coordination Department), Forschungsbetreuung at the GRS, within the framework of general information of the progress in reactor safety research. Each report describes the work performed, the results and the next steps of the work. The individual reports are attached to the classification system established by the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The GRS-F-Progress Reports also include a list of the current investigations arranged according to the projects of the BMFT-Research Program Reactor Safety. This compilation, in addition to the LWR-investigations, also contains first contributions on the safety of advanced reactors. (orig.) [de

  19. Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Annual progress report, May 1982-May 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Opitz, B.E.; Deutsch, W.J.; Peterson, S.R.; Gee, G.W.; Serne, R.J.; Hartley, J.N.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.; Walters, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is currently conducting research for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on uranium recovery process wastes for both active and inactive operations. NRC-sponsored uranium recovery research at PNL is focused on NRC regulatory responsibilities for uranium-recovery operations: license active milling and in situ extraction operations; concur on the acceptability of DOE remedial-action plans for inactive sites; and license DOE to maintain inactive sites following remedial actions. PNL's program consists of four coordinated projects comprised of a program management task and nine research tasks that address the critical technical and safety issues for uranium recovery. Specifically, the projects endeavor to find and evaluate methods to: prevent erosion of tailings piles and prevent radon release from tailings piles; evaluate the effectiveness of interim stabilization techniques to prevent wind erosion and transport of dry tailings from active piles; estimate the dewatering and consolidation behavior of slurried tailings to promote early cover placement; design a cover-protection system to prevent erosion of the cover by expected environmental stresses; reduce seepage into ground water and prevent ground-water degradation; control solution movement and reaction with ground water in in-situ extraction operations; evaluate natural and induced restoration of ground water in in-situ extraction operations; and monitor releases to the environment from uranium recovery facilities.

  20. Biomedical learning experiences for middle school girls sponsored by the Kansas State University Student Chapter of the IEEE EMBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Lucinda; Griffith, Connor; Young, Ethan; Sullivan, Adriann; Schuler, Jeff; Arnold-Christian, Susan; Warren, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Learning experiences for middle school girls are an effective means to steer young women toward secondary engineering curricula that they might not have otherwise considered. Sponsorship of such experiences by a collegiate student group is worthwhile, as it gives the group common purpose and places college students in a position to mentor these young women. This paper addresses learning experiences in different areas of bio-medical engineering offered to middle school girls in November 2008 via a day-long workshop entitled "Engineering The Body." The Kansas State University (KSU) Student Chapter of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) worked with the KSU Women in Engineering and Science Program (WESP) to design and sponsor these experiences, which addressed the areas of joint mechanics, electrocardiograms, membrane transport, computer mouse design, and audio filters for cochlear implants. Fifty five middle-school girls participated in this event, affirming the notion that biomedical engineering appeals to young women and that early education and recruitment efforts have the potential to expand the biomedical engineering talent pool.

  1. The Nutritional Contribution of Foods and Beverages Provided by Government-Sponsored Day Care Centers in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossenaar, Marieke; Hernández, Liza; Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Soto-Méndez, María José; Bermudez, Odilia I; Solomons, Noel W

    2015-09-01

    Meals served at government-run day care centers must be nutritionally adequate to ensure good health and proper development of preschool-aged children. They can provide a controlled opportunity to complement the daily diet of children in vulnerable populations. To determine the nutrient adequacy and leading food sources of nutrients provided by the diet served in government-sponsored day care centers. Estimated daily energy and nutrient intakes of a theoretical 40-day day care center menu were calculated, and the nutrient adequacy was assessed. Nutrient densities and critical nutrient densities of the menu were computed to identify nutrient inadequacies. Furthermore, main sources of nutrients were identified, and energy and nutrient distributions were examined by meal time. The menu provides approximately 90% of daily energy requirement and more than 100% of Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs), with the exception of vitamin D and calcium. Sugar was the first leading source of energy, whereas milk was the first leading contributor of vitamin D. Within an environment of budgetary constraints, the Guatemalan government developed and advocated an exemplary menu offering for children in the vulnerable preschool period. We have demonstrated that, if prepared and served as planned, the items from the official, standard menu would supply most of the nutrients needed. High vitamin A intake related to the mandated national fortification program is a potential problem. From the analysis, it was found that vitamin D emerges as the most prominent candidate for a problem nutrient of deficient intake. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Annual progress report, May 1982-May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Opitz, B.E.; Deutsch, W.J.

    1983-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is currently conducting research for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on uranium recovery process wastes for both active and inactive operations. NRC-sponsored uranium recovery research at PNL is focused on NRC regulatory responsibilities for uranium-recovery operations: license active milling and in situ extraction operations; concur on the acceptability of DOE remedial-action plans for inactive sites; and license DOE to maintain inactive sites following remedial actions. PNL's program consists of four coordinated projects comprised of a program management task and nine research tasks that address the critical technical and safety issues for uranium recovery. Specifically, the projects endeavor to find and evaluate methods to: prevent erosion of tailings piles and prevent radon release from tailings piles; evaluate the effectiveness of interim stabilization techniques to prevent wind erosion and transport of dry tailings from active piles; estimate the dewatering and consolidation behavior of slurried tailings to promote early cover placement; design a cover-protection system to prevent erosion of the cover by expected environmental stresses; reduce seepage into ground water and prevent ground-water degradation; control solution movement and reaction with ground water in in-situ extraction operations; evaluate natural and induced restoration of ground water in in-situ extraction operations; and monitor releases to the environment from uranium recovery facilities

  3. Employer-sponsored insurance, health care cost growth, and the economic performance of U.S. Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Ghosh, Arkadipta; Escarce, José J

    2009-10-01

    To estimate the effect of growth in health care costs that outpaces gross domestic product (GDP) growth ("excess" growth in health care costs) on employment, gross output, and value added to GDP of U.S. industries. We analyzed data from 38 U.S. industries for the period 1987-2005. All data are publicly available from various government agencies. We estimated bivariate and multivariate regressions. To develop the regression models, we assumed that rapid growth in health care costs has a larger effect on economic performance for industries where large percentages of workers receive employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI). We used the estimated regression coefficients to simulate economic outcomes under alternative scenarios of health care cost inflation. Faster growth in health care costs had greater adverse effects on economic outcomes for industries with larger percentages of workers who had ESI. We found that a 10 percent increase in excess growth in health care costs would have resulted in 120,803 fewer jobs, US$28,022 million in lost gross output, and US$14,082 million in lost value added in 2005. These declines represent 0.17 to 0.18 percent of employment, gross output, and value added in 2005. Excess growth in health care costs is adversely affecting the economic performance of U.S. industries.

  4. Reports on the research projects in the field of reactor safety sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    Investigations on the safety of Light Water Reactors (LWR) being performed in the framework of the safety program 'Reactor Safety' are sponsored by the Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie (BMFT - Secretary of State for Research and Technology). Objective of this program is to continue improving the safety of LWRs, in order to minimize the risk for the environment. With grant assistance from the Bundesminister des Innern (BMI - Secretary of State for Home Affairs) research contracts in the field of reactor safety are being performed. Results of these projects should contribute to resolving questions arising from nuclear licensing procedures. The Forschungsbetreuung (FB - research supervision department) at the Institute for Reactor Safety (IRS), as consultants to BMFT and BMI, provides information about the progress of investigations. Individual reports will be prepared and put into standard forms by the research contractors. Each report gives information on: 1) the work accomplished, 2) the results obtained, 3) the work planned to be continued. Initial reports of research projects describe in addition the purpose of the work. A BMFT-research program on the safety of Fast Breeders (Schneller Brutreaktor - SBR) is presently under discussion. In order to define several problems, investigations included in the present compilation (RS 139, 140, 143, 162) will be previously performed. (orig.) [de

  5. [Nationwide Survey on Informed Consent and Ethical Review at Hospitals Conducting Post-marketing Studies Sponsored by Pharmaceutical Companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushihara, Hisashi; Murakami, Yuka; Matsui, Kenji; Tashiro, Shimon

    2018-01-01

     Under the Japanese drug regulatory system, post-marketing studies (PMS) must be in compliance with Good Post-marketing Study Practice (GPSP). The GPSP Ordinance lacks standards for the ethical conduct of PMSs; although only post-marketing clinical trials are subject to Good Clinical Practice. We conducted a web-based questionnaire survey on the ethical conduct of PMSs in collaboration with the Japanese Society of Hospital Pharmacists and pharmacists belonging to the Society. 1819 hospitals around Japan answered the questionnaire, of which 503 hospitals had conducted company-sponsored PMSs in 2015. 40.2% of the hospitals had obtained informed consent from participating patients in at least one PMS conducted in 2015, the majority of which was in written form. The first and second most frequent reasons for seeking informed consent in PMSs were to meet protocol requirements, followed by the requirement to meet institutional standard operational procedures and the request of the ethical review board of the hospital. Ethical review of PMSs was conducted in 251 hospitals. Despite a lack of standards for informed consent and ethical review in PMSs, a considerable number of study sites employed informed consent and ethical review for PMSs. While company policies and protocols are likely to be major determinants of the ethical conduct of PMSs, the governmental regulatory agency should also play a significant role in implementing a standardized ethical code for the conduct of PMSs.

  6. Reports on the projects in the field of reactor safety sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Investigations on the safety of Light Water Reactors (LWR) being performed in the framework of the Research Program Reactor Safety (RS-projects) are sponsored by the BMFT (Federal Minister for Research and Technology), Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie. Objective of this program is to investigate in greater detail the safety margins of nuclear energy plants and their systems and the further development of safety technology. The GRS (Reactor Safety Association), Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit mbH, by order of the BMFT, informs continuously of the status of these investigations within the series 'GRS-F-Forschrittsberichte' (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the different projects of the search program. The individual reports are prepared by the contractors themselves as a documentation of their progress in work and published by the GRS-FB (Research Coordination Department), Forschungsbetreuung at the GRS, within the framework of general information of the progress in reactor safety research. Each report describes the work performed, the results and the next steps of the work. The individual reports are attached to the classification system established by the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The GRS-F-Progress Reports also include a list of the current investigations arranged according to the projects of the BMFT-Research Program Reactor Safety. This compilation, in addition to the LWR-investigations, also contains first contributions on the safety of advanced reactors. (orig.) [de

  7. Clinical studies in orthodontics--an overview of NIDR-sponsored clinical orthodontic studies in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    A number of clinical trials sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) use rigorous methods of data acquisition and analysis previously developed in fundamental biology and the physical sciences. The naive expectation that these trials would lead relatively rapidly to definitive answers concerning the therapeutic strategies and techniques under study is dispelled. This presentation focuses on delineating differences between the study of central tendencies and individual variation, more specifically on the strategy to study this variation: measure additional sources of variance within each patient at more timepoints and perhaps with greater precision. As rigorous orthodontic research is still in its infancy, the problem of defining the proper mix between prospective and retrospective trials is discussed. In view of the high costs of prospective clinical trials, many of the questions germane to orthodontics can be answered by well-conducted retrospective trials, assuming that properly randomized sampling procedures are employed. Definitive clinical trials are likely to require better theoretical constructs, better instrumentation, and better measures than now available. Reasons for concern are the restricted resources available and the fact that current mensurational approaches may not detect many of the individual differences. The task of constructing sharable databases and record bases stored in digital form and available either remotely from servers, or locally from CD-ROMs or optical disks, is crucial to the optimization of future investigations.

  8. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  9. Countering Iranian Sponsored Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    DISCUSSION OF SANCTIONS THEORY ................................................. 86  BIBLIOGRAPHY...sanctions theory , and the sanctions imposed by the United States and the United Nations, see Appendix C. 9 Economic Sanctions and the US National...the thirty-six story Piaget building on Fifth Avenue in New York City. The U.S. Government made these seizures on information that the Alavi

  10. The Ungraded Derived Category

    OpenAIRE

    Stai, Torkil Utvik

    2012-01-01

    By means of the ungraded derived category we prove that the orbit category of the bounded derived category of an iterated tilted algebra with respect to translation is triangulated in such a way that the canonical functor from the bounded derived category to the orbit category becomes a triangle functor.

  11. Temporal relationship between climate variability, Prosopis juliflora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data derived from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m satellite imageries for 2000 to 2014 were used to determine the temporal dynamics of P. juliflora invasion in the study area. Both temperature and rainfall trends showed marked variability over ...

  12. Spatially Resolved Images and Solar Irradiance Variability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this research, the images of CaII K-line (NSO/Sac Peak) have been analysed to segregate the various chromospheric features.We derived the different indices and estimated their contribution from the time series data to total CaII K emission flux and UV irradiance variability. A part of the important results ...

  13. Effects of full-facility variable tolling on traveler behavior : evidence from a panel study of the SR-520 corridor in Seattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This paper uses a two-stage panel survey approach, with roughly 2,000 respondent households, to analyze the impacts of a federally sponsored variable tolling program on SR-520 in the Seattle region. The focus is on corridor users daily travel choi...

  14. Variable mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Paula Caitano; Prestes, Renata Bernardy; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Friedman, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    To review the literature on the use of variable mechanical ventilation and the main outcomes of this technique. Search, selection, and analysis of all original articles on variable ventilation, without restriction on the period of publication and language, available in the electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE®, and PubMed, by searching the terms "variable ventilation" OR "noisy ventilation" OR "biologically variable ventilation". A total of 36 studies were selected. Of these, 24 were original studies, including 21 experimental studies and three clinical studies. Several experimental studies reported the beneficial effects of distinct variable ventilation strategies on lung function using different models of lung injury and healthy lungs. Variable ventilation seems to be a viable strategy for improving gas exchange and respiratory mechanics and preventing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. However, further clinical studies are necessary to assess the potential of variable ventilation strategies for the clinical improvement of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  15. Derived Transformation of Children's Pregambling Game Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Simon; Bateman, Helena; Dixon, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary behavior-analytic perspectives on gambling emphasize the impact of verbal relations, or derived relational responding and the transformation of stimulus functions, on the initiation and maintenance of gambling. Approached in this way, it is possible to undertake experimental analysis of the role of verbal/mediational variables in…

  16. Derivation of Stochastic Equations for Computational Uncertainties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    physical parameters using the relative standard deviations techniques (σ). These equations also known as ... define the maximum level of uncertainty that can be tolerated in any independent variable if the maximum uncertainty to be ... standard deviations, partial derivatives, degree of accuracy, empirical models. LIST OF ...

  17. Actuarial risk measures for financial derivative pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goovaerts, M.J.; Laeven, R.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    We present an axiomatic characterization of price measures that are superadditive and comonotonic additive for normally distributed random variables. The price representation derived involves a probability measure transform that is closely related to the Esscher transform, and we call it the

  18. Dynamics of Variable Mass Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Fidelis O.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of the effects of mass loss on the attitude behavior of spinning bodies in flight. The principal goal is to determine whether there are circumstances under which the motion of variable mass systems can become unstable in the sense that their transverse angular velocities become unbounded. Obviously, results from a study of this kind would find immediate application in the aerospace field. The first part of this study features a complete and mathematically rigorous derivation of a set of equations that govern both the translational and rotational motions of general variable mass systems. The remainder of the study is then devoted to the application of the equations obtained to a systematic investigation of the effect of various mass loss scenarios on the dynamics of increasingly complex models of variable mass systems. It is found that mass loss can have a major impact on the dynamics of mechanical systems, including a possible change in the systems stability picture. Factors such as nozzle geometry, combustion chamber geometry, propellant's initial shape, size and relative mass, and propellant location can all have important influences on the system's dynamic behavior. The relative importance of these parameters on-system motion are quantified in a way that is useful for design purposes.

  19. Simulating solar power plant variability :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua.

    2013-06-01

    It is important to be able to accurately simulate the variability of solar PV power plants for grid integration studies. We aim to inform integration studies of the ease of implementation and application-specific accuracy of current PV power plant output simulation methods. This report reviews methods for producing simulated high-resolution (sub-hour or even sub-minute) PV power plant output profiles for variability studies and describes their implementation. Two steps are involved in the simulations: estimation of average irradiance over the footprint of a PV plant and conversion of average irradiance to plant power output. Six models are described for simulating plant-average irradiance based on inputs of ground-measured irradiance, satellite-derived irradiance, or proxy plant measurements. The steps for converting plant-average irradiance to plant power output are detailed to understand the contributions to plant variability. A forthcoming report will quantify the accuracy of each method using application-specific validation metrics.

  20. Analytic computation of energy derivatives - Relationships among partial derivatives of a variationally determined function

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, H. F.; Komornicki, A.

    1986-01-01

    Formulas are presented relating Taylor series expansion coefficients of three functions of several variables, the energy of the trial wave function (W), the energy computed using the optimized variational wave function (E), and the response function (lambda), under certain conditions. Partial derivatives of lambda are obtained through solution of a recursive system of linear equations, and solution through order n yields derivatives of E through order 2n + 1, extending Puley's application of Wigner's 2n + 1 rule to partial derivatives in couple perturbation theory. An examination of numerical accuracy shows that the usual two-term second derivative formula is less stable than an alternative four-term formula, and that previous claims that energy derivatives are stationary properties of the wave function are fallacious. The results have application to quantum theoretical methods for the computation of derivative properties such as infrared frequencies and intensities.

  1. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Hanrahan

    Full Text Available Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN, regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1 context, (2 process, (3 content and (4 translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level, and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh, syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent; and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several

  2. Analysis of esophagogastric cancer patients enrolled in the National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program sponsored phase 1 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Hideaki; Rubinstein, Larry; Harris, Pamela; Yoshino, Takayuki; Doi, Toshihiko; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Welch, John; Takebe, Naoko

    2017-05-01

    In phase 1 trials, an important entry criterion is life expectancy predicted to be more than 90 days, which is generally difficult to predict. The Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) prognostic score that is determined by lactate dehydrogenase level, albumin level, and number of metastatic sites of disease was developed to help project patient outcomes. There have been no systematic analyses to evaluate the utility of the RMH prognostic score for esophagogastric cancer patients. All nonpediatric phase 1 oncology trials sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program that began between 2001 and 2013 were considered in this review. Of 4722 patients with solid tumors, 115 patients were eligible for our analysis; 54 (47 %) with cancer of the esophagus, 14 (12 %) with cancer of the esopagogastric junction, and 47 (41 %) with stomach cancer. Eighty-six patients (75 %) had a good RMH prognostic score (0 or 1) and 29 patients (25 %) had a poor RMH prognostic score (2 or 3). Disease control rates were significantly different between patients with good and poor RMH prognostic scores (49 % vs 17 %; two-sided Fisher's exact test P = 0.004). The median treatment duration and overall survival for good and poor RMH prognostic score patients were significantly different (median treatment duration 2.1 months vs 1.2 months respectively, P = 0.016; median overall survival 10.9 months vs 2.1 months respectively, P cancer patients who might participate in a phase 1 trial.

  3. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications – US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  4. Service functions of private community health stations in China: A comparison analysis with government-sponsored community health stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wanli; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jing; Wang, Fang; Chai, Yun; Xu, Hancheng; Li, Yongbin; Liu, Liqun; Wang, Bin; Jin, Jianqiang; Lu, Zuxun

    2012-04-01

    In China, with the restructuring of health care system moving forward, private community health facilities have been playing a complementary but increasingly important role in providing public health and basic medical care services in urban areas. However, only limited evidence is available concerning the service functions of private community health facilities in China. The aim of this study was to explore the functions of private community health stations (PCHSs) to provide evidence-based recommendations for policy-making and practice in the development of urban community health services systems. A total of 818 PCHSs and 4320 government-sponsored community health stations (GCHSs) located in 28 cities of China were investigated in 2008. The percentages of stations that provided health services and the annual workload per community health worker (CHW) were compared between the two types of institutions. The results showed that the percentages of PCHSs providing public health services were significantly higher than those of GCHSs (P0.05). The annual workloads of all the public health services and basic medical services per CHW in PCHSs were lighter than those in GCHSs (P0.05). At present, the GCHSs are still the mainstream in urban China, which will last for a long period in future. However, our findings showed that the annual workloads of CHWs in PCHSs were no heavier than those in GCHSs, and the PCHSs were willing to provide public health services. In view of current inadequacy of health resources in China, it is feasible to further develop PCHSs under the guidance of the government, given that PCHSs can perform the basic functions of community health services, which is useful for the formation of public-private partnerships (PPP) and the improvement of community health services.

  5. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  6. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  7. The nebular variables

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    1974-01-01

    The Nebular Variables focuses on the nebular variables and their characteristics. Discussions are organized by type of nebular variable, namely, RW Aurigae stars, T Orionis stars, T Tauri stars, and peculiar nebular objects. Topics range from light variations of the stars to their spectroscopic and physical characteristics, spatial distribution, interaction with nebulosity, and evolutionary features. This volume is divided into four sections and consists of 25 chapters, the first of which provides general information on nebular variables, including their stellar associations and their classifi

  8. Higher derivative mimetic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic gravity in the presence of classified higher derivative terms which can make the mimetic perturbations stable. We show that the quadratic higher derivative terms which are independent of curvature and the cubic higher derivative terms which come from curvature corrections are sufficient to remove instabilities in mimetic perturbations. The classified higher derivative terms have the same dimensions but they contribute differently in the background and perturbed equations. Therefore, we can control both the background and the perturbation equations allowing us to construct the higher derivative extension of mimetic dark matter and the mimetic nonsingular bouncing scenarios. The latter can be thought as a new higher derivative effective action for the loop quantum cosmology scenario in which the equations of motion coincide with those suggested by loop quantum cosmology. We investigate a possible connection between the mimetic cosmology and the Randall-Sundrum cosmology.

  9. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    are known as futures, forwards, options and swaps. Derivatives are traded for the purpose of hedging financial or business risk, speculating in future spot prices and taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities. This market has increased tremendously in recent years. The term derivative is not used......The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...

  10. Global Derivatives Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

  11. Periods of ZZ Ceti variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.W.; Starrfield, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    White dwarf pulsators (ZZ Ceti variables) osub solar acccur in the extension of the radial pulsation envelope ionization instability strip to the observed luminosities of 3 x 10 -3 L sub solar according to van Horn. Investigations were underway to see if the driving mechanisms of hydrogen and helium ionization can cause radial pulsations as they do for the Cepheids, the RR Lyrae variables, and the delta Scuti variables. Masses used in this study are 0.60 and 0.75 M sub solar for T/sub e/ between 10,000 K and 14,000 K, the observed range in T/sub e/. Helium rich surface compositions like Y = 0.78,, Z = 0.02 as well as Y = 0.28, Z = 0.02 were used in spite of observations showing only hydrogen lines in the spectrum. The deep layers are pure carbon, and several transition compositions are included. The models show radial pulsation instabilities for many overtone modes at periods between about 0.3 and 3 seconds. The driving mechanism is mostly helium ionization at 40,000 and 150,000 K. The blue edge at about 14,000 K is probably due to the driving region becoming too shallow, and the red edge at 10,000 K is due to so much convection in the pulsation deriving region that no radiative luminosity is available for modulation by the γ and kappa effects. It is speculated that the very long observed periods (100 to 1000 sec) of ZZ Ceti variables are not due to nonradial pulsations, but are possibly aliases due to data undersampling. 4 references

  12. Variability in early communicative development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenson, L; Dale, P S; Reznick, J S; Bates, E; Thal, D J; Pethick, S J

    1994-01-01

    Data from parent reports on 1,803 children--derived from a normative study of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs)--are used to describe the typical course and the extent of variability in major features of communicative development between 8 and 30 months of age. The two instruments, one designed for 8-16-month-old infants, the other for 16-30-month-old toddlers, are both reliable and valid, confirming the value of parent reports that are based on contemporary behavior and a recognition format. Growth trends are described for children scoring at the 10th-, 25th-, 50th-, 75th-, and 90th-percentile levels on receptive and expressive vocabulary, actions and gestures, and a number of aspects of morphology and syntax. Extensive variability exists in the rate of lexical, gestural, and grammatical development. The wide variability across children in the time of onset and course of acquisition of these skills challenges the meaningfulness of the concept of the modal child. At the same time, moderate to high intercorrelations are found among the different skills both concurrently and predictively (across a 6-month period). Sex differences consistently favor females; however, these are very small, typically accounting for 1%-2% of the variance. The effects of SES and birth order are even smaller within this age range. The inventories offer objective criteria for defining typicality and exceptionality, and their cost effectiveness facilitates the aggregation of large data sets needed to address many issues of contemporary theoretical interest. The present data also offer unusually detailed information on the course of development of individual lexical, gestural, and grammatical items and features. Adaptations of the CDIs to other languages have opened new possibilities for cross-linguistic explorations of sequence, rate, and variability of communicative development.

  13. Numerical derivation in optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, J.; Salhi, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Newton's method for function minimization possesses an outstanding property. Its final quadratic convergence under very weak hypothesis, but also some drawbacks, among which (i) the possibility of non convergence when starting far from the solution sought and (ii) the necessity of computing (and then programming) the first and second partial derivatives. We show in this paper how to avoid both difficulties, assuming however that the first partial derivatives are computed by exact formulae. The second partial derivatives are computed by central differences of first derivatives. The difference step h is calculated so as to establish a trade-off between accuracy and computation speed. Encouraging numerical experiments support the proposed method [fr

  14. Stochastic modeling of interannual variation of hydrologic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dralle, David; Karst, Nathaniel; Müller, Marc; Vico, Giulia; Thompson, Sally E.

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying the interannual variability of hydrologic variables (such as annual flow volumes, and solute or sediment loads) is a central challenge in hydrologic modeling. Annual or seasonal hydrologic variables are themselves the integral of instantaneous variations and can be well approximated as an aggregate sum of the daily variable. Process-based, probabilistic techniques are available to describe the stochastic structure of daily flow, yet estimating interannual variations in the corresponding aggregated variable requires consideration of the autocorrelation structure of the flow time series. Here we present a method based on a probabilistic streamflow description to obtain the interannual variability of flow-derived variables. The results provide insight into the mechanistic genesis of interannual variability of hydrologic processes. Such clarification can assist in the characterization of ecosystem risk and uncertainty in water resources management. We demonstrate two applications, one quantifying seasonal flow variability and the other quantifying net suspended sediment export.

  15. Software variability management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Nord, RL

    2004-01-01

    During recent years, the amount of variability that has to be supported by a software artefact is growing considerably and its management is evolving into a major challenge during development, usage, and evolution of software artefacts. Successful management of variability in software leads to

  16. Variability: A Pernicious Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis of greater male variability in test results is discussed in its historical context, and reasons feminists have objected to the hypothesis are considered. The hypothesis acquires political importance if it is considered that variability results from biological, rather than cultural, differences. (SLD)

  17. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  18. Interdependence Among Organizational Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The interrelationship between a set of organizational variables was investigated at 14 work organizations within a company. The variables were production, quality, costs, job satisfaction of operatives, job satisfaction of supervisors, work anxiety, accidents, absence, labor turnover, and industrial unrest. (Author)

  19. Collective variables and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.

    1984-09-01

    This is an introduction to some basic concepts of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We emphasize in particular the relevant entropy relative to a given set of collective variables, the meaning of the projection method in the Liouville space, its use to establish the generalized transport equations for these variables, and the interpretation of dissipation in the framework of information theory

  20. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  1. Human Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes: An Alternative ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical spills and associated deaths in the US has increased 2.6-fold and 16-fold from 1983 to 2012, respectfully. In addition, the number of chemicals to which humans are exposed to in the environment has increased almost 10-fold from 2001 to 2013 within the US. Internationally, a WHO report on the global composite impact of chemicals on health reported that 16% of the total burden of cardiovascular disease was attributed to environmental chemical exposure with 2.5 million deaths per year. Clearly, the cardiovascular system, at all its various developmental and life stages, represents a critical target organ system that can be adversely affected by existing and emerging chemicals (e.g., engineered nanomaterials) in a variety of environmental media. The ability to assess chemical cardiac risk and safety is critically needed but extremely challenging due to the number and categories of chemicals in commerce, as indicated. This presentation\\session will evaluate the use of adult human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes, and existing platforms, as an alternative model to evaluate environmental chemical cardiac toxicity as well as provide key information for the development of predictive adverse outcomes pathways associated with environmental chemical exposures. (This abstract does not represent EPA policy) Rapid and translatable chemical safety screening models for cardiotoxicity current status for informing regulatory decisions, a workshop sponsored by the Society

  2. NASA/DoD Aerospace knowledge diffusion research project. III - The impact of a sponsor letter on mail survey response rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the impact of two interventions in the design of mail surveys. The interventions were devised to increase response rates and to clarify sample eligibility. To test their effectiveness, interventions occurred at different points in each of three surveys. One intervention was a letter from the research sponsor (NASA) supporting the research. The other intervention was the inclusion of a postcard that could be used by the respondent to indicate that the questionnaire was not appropriate for him/her. The sample was drawn from the membership of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics research society. The results indicate that the sponsor letter improved response rates under certain conditions described in the paper. The postcards assisted in identifying noneligible persons particularly when they accompanied a pre-survey letter. The implications for survey costs are discussed.

  3. E-survey with researchers, members of ethics committees and sponsors of clinical research in Brazil: an emerging methodology for scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainesi, Sonia Mansoldo; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2012-12-01

    The growth of Internet users enables epidemiological studies to be conducted electronically, representing a promising methodology for data collection. Members of Ethics Committees, Clinical Researchers and Sponsors were interviewed using questionnaires sent over the Internet. Along with the questionnaire, participants received a message explaining the survey and also the informed consent. Returning the questionnaire meant the consent of the participant was given. No incentive was offered; two reminders were sent. The response rate was 21% (124/599), 20% (58/290) and 45% (24/53) respectively for Ethics Committees, Researchers and Sponsors. The percentage of return before the two reminders was about 62%. Reasons for non-response: participant not found, refusal to participate, lack of experience in clinical research or in the therapeutic field. Characteristics of participants: 45% of Ethics Committee participants, 64% of Researchers and 63% of Sponsors were male; mean age (range), respectively: 47 (28-74), 53 (24-72) and 40 (29-65) years. Among Researchers and Sponsors, all respondents had at least a university degree and, in the Ethics Committees group, only two (1.7%) did not have one. Most of the questionnaires in all groups came from the Southeast Region of Brazil, probably reflecting the highest number of clinical trials and research professionals in this region. Despite the potential limitations of a survey done through the Internet, this study led to a response rate similar to what has been observed with other models, efficiency in obtaining responses (speed and quality), convenience for respondents and low cost.

  4. 4-Aminoquinoline derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailja; Agarwal, Drishti; Sharma, Kumkum

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic quinoline derivatives continue to be considered as candidates for new drug discovery if they act against CQ-resistant strains of malaria even after the widespread emergence of resistance to CQ. In this study, we explored the activities of two series of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives a...

  5. The Dangers of Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1994-01-01

    Heavy investment in derivatives, whose value derives from the price movement of some underlying security, has meant heavy losses for some colleges and universities despite the fact that institutional investors are required to assure that they understand the risks of such investment. (MSE)

  6. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D 3 derivatives of high specific activity is described. These labelled vitamin D derivatives are useful in the determination of vitamin D metabolite levels in the blood and tissues of man and animals. (U.K.)

  7. Variable-coefficient nonisospectral Toda lattice hierarchy and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, a hierarchy of nonisospectral equations with variable coefficients is derived from the compatibility condition of Toda spectral problem and its time evolution. In order to solve the derived Toda lattice hierarchy, the inverse scattering transformation is utilized. As a result, new and more general exact ...

  8. Variable-coefficient nonisospectral Toda lattice hierarchy and its

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a hierarchy of nonisospectral equations with variable coefficients is derived from the compatibility condition of Toda spectral problem and its time evolution. In order to solve the derived Toda lattice hierarchy, the inverse scattering transformation is utilized. As a result, new and more general exact solutions are ...

  9. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games Olympic—Intelligence Centre: Lessons Learned from Working with the Olympic Sponsors and the Private Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Wilkinson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reflective discussion that critically describes the role of the Olympic Intelligence Centre (OIC played in the delivery of a safe and secure London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. In particular, it examines how the OIC worked with the Olympic Sponsors and the wider private sector to provide them with the classified intelligence and information they needed to play their role in the safety and security operation effectively. Issues discussed include the cultural, statutory and systemic challenges that had to be overcome; how relationships were built to allay concerns and build trust and confidence; and the process that was put into place to allow the exchange of classified intelligence that supported the Sponsors and private sector in their operation. It details how the OIC worked with Sponsors to allow them in turn to exchange intelligence they held in their systems with the OIC, thus completing the intelligence cycle, enhancing the security operation. The article concludes with an outline of the lessons learned that were deduced through a reflective process and are offered to practitioners for consideration in future intelligence work involving the private sector.

  10. Pricing variable annuity guarantees in South Africa under a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pricing variable annuity guarantees in South Africa under a Variance-Gamma model. AM Ngugi, Eben Maré, R Kufakunesu. Abstract. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pricing of variable annuity embedded derivatives using a suitably refined model for the underlying assets, in this case the Johannesburg ...

  11. New approximating results for data with errors in both variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, N.; Todorov, S.

    2015-05-01

    We introduce new data from mineral water probe Lenovo Bulgaria, measured with errors in both variables. We apply our Orthonormal Polynomial Expansion Method (OPEM), based on Forsythe recurrence formula to describe the data in the new error corridor. The development of OPEM gives the approximating curves and their derivatives in optimal orthonormal and usual expansions including the errors in both variables with special criteria.

  12. Load alleviation on wind turbine blades using variable geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basualdo, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    ) wind turbines, which mainly operate under this flow condition. The results show evident reductions in the airfoil displacements by using simple control strategies having the airfoil position and its first and second derivatives as input, especially at the system's eigenfrequency. The use of variable...... in loads in real wind turbines. Keywords: Variable Geometry, Wind Turbine, Load Alleviation, Fatigue Load, Trailing Edge Flap....

  13. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  14. Additive measures of travel time variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelson, Leonid; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper derives a measure of travel time variability for travellers equipped with scheduling preferences defined in terms of time-varying utility rates, and who choose departure time optimally. The corresponding value of travel time variability is a constant that depends only on preference...... parameters. The measure is unique in being additive with respect to independent parts of a trip. It has the variance of travel time as a special case. Extension is provided to the case of travellers who use a scheduled service with fixed headway....

  15. Derivations and generating degrees in the ring of arithmetical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we study a family of derivations in the ring of arithmetical functions of several variables over an integral domain, and compute the generating degrees of the ring of arithmetical functions over the kernel of these derivations. Author Affiliations. Alexandru Zaharescu1 Mohammad Zaki1. Department of Mathematics ...

  16. Legal and ethical obligations to conduct a clinical drug trial in Australia as an investigator initiated and sponsored study for an overseas pharmaceutical company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2004-01-01

    Most multi-centre trials are both financed and sponsored by the pharmaceutical company involved. What follows will map the path adopted for an investigator initiated and sponsored study for a new indication of an established medication. The chief investigators of a company-sponsored, investigator-initiated, multi-centre, placebo-controlled study of an established medication, Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) listed for treatment of one condition but trialled in the management of another condition (trial of off-label use), were approached to submit a protocol to repeat the type of study with a different compound. The new study would test a different agent, also PBS listed, for the same condition as in the initial study and with the same off-licence application. The company would finance the study, provide the medication and matched placebo but only review the investigator-initiated protocol which would be sponsored by the principal investigator. This required the investigator to implement the trial, as would normally be done by the pharmaceutical company, yet also act as its principal investigator. The principal investigator, with colleagues and a Clinical Research Organisation (CRO), developed a protocol, adapted for the new agent, and submitted it for approval. Upon acceptance a contract was negotiated with the pharmaceutical company which had to overcome jurisdictional conflicts between common law and civil law legal systems. A CRO was contracted to undertake administrative functions which dictated special contractual agreements to overcome possible conflicts of interest for a sponsor/investigator to protect patient interests. There was need to find indemnification insurance with jurisdictional problems, co-investigators, ethics committee approvals and finance management as just some of the difficulties encountered. The paper will outline how these obstacles were overcome and how ethical and legal issues were respected through compromise. The ethical and legal

  17. Economic Statistical Design of Variable Sampling Interval X¯$\\overline X $ Control Chart Based on Surrogate Variable Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tae-Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, a X¯$\\overline X $ control chart based on a performance variable is used in industrial fields. Typically, the control chart monitors the measurements of a performance variable itself. However, if the performance variable is too costly or impossible to measure, and a less expensive surrogate variable is available, the process may be more efficiently controlled using surrogate variables. In this paper, we present a model for the economic statistical design of a VSI (Variable Sampling Interval X¯$\\overline X $ control chart using a surrogate variable that is linearly correlated with the performance variable. We derive the total average profit model from an economic viewpoint and apply the model to a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR nuclear fuel measurement system and derive the optimal result using genetic algorithms. Compared with the control chart based on a performance variable, the proposed model gives a larger expected net income per unit of time in the long-run if the correlation between the performance variable and the surrogate variable is relatively high. The proposed model was confined to the sample mean control chart under the assumption that a single assignable cause occurs according to the Poisson process. However, the model may also be extended to other types of control charts using a single or multiple assignable cause assumptions such as VSS (Variable Sample Size X¯$\\overline X $ control chart, EWMA, CUSUM charts and so on.

  18. Variable Heat Rejection (VHR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop advanced technologies to enable a variable heat rejection Thermal Control System (TCS) capable of operating through a wide range of thermal environments...

  19. Variable-Rate Premiums

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — These interest rates are used to value vested benefits for variable rate premium purposes as described in PBGC's regulation on Premium Rates (29 CFR Part 4006) and...

  20. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  1. Classical pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacke, G.

    1987-01-01

    The nature of the three types of classical pulsating variables (δ-Cephei stars, W-Virginis stars and RR-Lyrae stars) is studied. Problems of the light-curve analysis such as (1) the frequency distribution of periods for the three types of classical pulsating variables, (2) spurions periods, (3) changes of periods and multiple periodicity as well as (4) the Blazhko-effect and other changes of the light-curve form are discussed

  2. Software Testing Requires Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2003-01-01

    Software variability is the ability of a software system or artefact to be changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context. Variability in software systems is important from a number of perspectives. Some perspectives rightly receive much attention due to their direct economic...... impact in software production. As is also apparent from the call for papers these perspectives focus on qualities such as reuse, adaptability, and maintainability....

  3. Effect of Flux Adjustments on Temperature Variability in Climate Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, P.; Bell, J.; Covey, C.; Sloan, L.

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that ''flux adjustments'' in climate models suppress simulated temperature variability. If true, this might invalidate the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases since 1860 are anthropogenic, since this conclusion is based in part on estimates of natural temperature variability derived from flux-adjusted models. We assess variability of surface air temperatures in 17 simulations of internal temperature variability submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. By comparing variability in flux-adjusted vs. non-flux adjusted simulations, we find no evidence that flux adjustments suppress temperature variability in climate models; other, largely unknown, factors are much more important in determining simulated temperature variability. Therefore the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases are anthropogenic cannot be questioned on the grounds that it is based in part on results of flux-adjusted models. Also, reducing or eliminating flux adjustments would probably do little to improve simulations of temperature variability

  4. Variable screening and ranking using sampling-based sensitivity measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y-T.; Mohanty, Sitakanta

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for screening insignificant random variables and ranking significant important random variables using sensitivity measures including two cumulative distribution function (CDF)-based and two mean-response based measures. The methodology features (1) using random samples to compute sensitivities and (2) using acceptance limits, derived from the test-of-hypothesis, to classify significant and insignificant random variables. Because no approximation is needed in either the form of the performance functions or the type of continuous distribution functions representing input variables, the sampling-based approach can handle highly nonlinear functions with non-normal variables. The main characteristics and effectiveness of the sampling-based sensitivity measures are investigated using both simple and complex examples. Because the number of samples needed does not depend on the number of variables, the methodology appears to be particularly suitable for problems with large, complex models that have large numbers of random variables but relatively few numbers of significant random variables

  5. The azobenzene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Ionica; Radulescu, Cristiana; Poinescu, Aurora Anca; Anghelina, Florina Violeta; Bunghez, Raluca; Ion, Rodica-Mariana

    2015-02-01

    Azobenzene derivatives constitute a group of dyes which have photochromic properties and have been investigated as promising systems for diverse applications in the unconventional optic area, their properties can be moulded with help of light.

  6. ASTEROID LIGHTCURVE DERIVED DATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a compilation of published rotational parameters derived from lightcurve data for asteroids, based on the Warner et al. (2009) Asteroid Lightcurve Database....

  7. Investigation - Derived Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.; Anderson, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Investigation-Derived Waste Program is a software application that was developed to identify the groundwater monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site that require containerization and treatment for purge water generated during sampling

  8. Degenerate odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    A linear degenerate odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely on Grassmann variables is proposed. It is revealed that this bracket has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, second and third orders with respect to the Grassmann derivatives. It is shown that these Δ-like operators, together with the Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket, form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra

  9. Granin-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troger, Josef; Theurl, Markus; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Pasqua, Teresa; Tota, Bruno; Angelone, Tommaso; Cerra, Maria C; Nowosielski, Yvonne; Mätzler, Raphaela; Troger, Jasmin; Gayen, Jaur R; Trudeau, Vance; Corti, Angelo; Helle, Karen B

    2017-07-01

    The granin family comprises altogether 7 different proteins originating from the diffuse neuroendocrine system and elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The family is dominated by three uniquely acidic members, namely chromogranin A (CgA), chromogranin B (CgB) and secretogranin II (SgII). Since the late 1980s it has become evident that these proteins are proteolytically processed, intragranularly and/or extracellularly into a range of biologically active peptides; a number of them with regulatory properties of physiological and/or pathophysiological significance. The aim of this comprehensive overview is to provide an up-to-date insight into the distribution and properties of the well established granin-derived peptides and their putative roles in homeostatic regulations. Hence, focus is directed to peptides derived from the three main granins, e.g. to the chromogranin A derived vasostatins, betagranins, pancreastatin and catestatins, the chromogranin B-derived secretolytin and the secretogranin II-derived secretoneurin (SN). In addition, the distribution and properties of the chromogranin A-derived peptides prochromacin, chromofungin, WE14, parastatin, GE-25 and serpinins, the CgB-peptide PE-11 and the SgII-peptides EM66 and manserin will also be commented on. Finally, the opposing effects of the CgA-derived vasostatin-I and catestatin and the SgII-derived peptide SN on the integrity of the vasculature, myocardial contractility, angiogenesis in wound healing, inflammatory conditions and tumors will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  11. Randomized controlled trials in mild cognitive impairment: Sources of variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ronald C; Thomas, Ronald G; Aisen, Paul S; Mohs, Richard C; Carrillo, Maria C; Albert, Marilyn S

    2017-05-02

    To examine the variability in performance among placebo groups in randomized controlled trials for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Placebo group data were obtained from 2 National Institute on Aging (NIA) MCI randomized controlled trials, the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study (ADCS) MCI trial and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), which is a simulated clinical trial, in addition to industry-sponsored clinical trials involving rivastigmine, galantamine, rofecoxib, and donepezil. The data were collated for common measurement instruments. The performance of the placebo participants from these studies was tracked on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale, Mini-Mental State Examination, and Clinical Dementia Rating-sum of boxes, and for progression on these measures to prespecified clinical study endpoints. APOE status, where available, was also analyzed for its effects. The progression to clinical endpoints varied a great deal among the trials. The expected performances were seen for the participants in the 2 NIA trials, ADCS and ADNI, with generally worsening of performance over time; however, the industry-sponsored trials largely showed stable or improved performance in their placebo participants. APOE 4 carrier status influenced results in an expected fashion on the study outcomes, including rates of progression and cognitive subscales. In spite of apparently similar criteria for MCI being adopted by the 7 studies, the implementation of the criteria varied a great deal. Several explanations including instruments used to characterize participants and variability among study populations contributed to the findings. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Rational Models for Inflation-Linked Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Henrik; Macrina, Andrea; Skovmand, David

    2018-01-01

    We construct models for the pricing and risk management of inflation-linked derivatives. The model is rational in the sense that affine payoffs written on the consumer price index have prices that are rational functions of the state variables. The nominal pricing kernel is constructed in a multip......We construct models for the pricing and risk management of inflation-linked derivatives. The model is rational in the sense that affine payoffs written on the consumer price index have prices that are rational functions of the state variables. The nominal pricing kernel is constructed...... in a multiplicative manner that allows for closed-form pricing of vanilla inflation products suchlike zero-coupon swaps, caps and floors, year-on-year swaps, caps and floors, and the exotic limited price index swap. The model retains the attractive features of a nominal multi-curve interest rate model such as closed...

  13. Neuroanatomical variability of religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Barbey, Aron K; Su, Michael; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-09-28

    We hypothesized that religiosity, a set of traits variably expressed in the population, is modulated by neuroanatomical variability. We tested this idea by determining whether aspects of religiosity were predicted by variability in regional cortical volume. We performed structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in 40 healthy adult participants who reported different degrees and patterns of religiosity on a survey. We identified four Principal Components of religiosity by Factor Analysis of the survey items and associated them with regional cortical volumes measured by voxel-based morphometry. Experiencing an intimate relationship with God and engaging in religious behavior was associated with increased volume of R middle temporal cortex, BA 21. Experiencing fear of God was associated with decreased volume of L precuneus and L orbitofrontal cortex BA 11. A cluster of traits related with pragmatism and doubting God's existence was associated with increased volume of the R precuneus. Variability in religiosity of upbringing was not associated with variability in cortical volume of any region. Therefore, key aspects of religiosity are associated with cortical volume differences. This conclusion complements our prior functional neuroimaging findings in elucidating the proximate causes of religion in the brain.

  14. Pulsating red variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The observational characteristics of pulsating red variables are reviewed with particular emphasis on the Miras. These variables represent the last stage in the evolution of stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). A large fraction of the IRAS sources in the Bulge are Mira variables and a subset of these are also OH/IR sources. Their periods range up to 720 days, though most are between 360 and 560 days. At a given period those stars with the highest pulsation amplitudes have the highest mass-loss rates; this is interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between mass-loss and pulsation. It is suggested that once an AGB star has become a Mira it will evolve with increasing pulsation amplitude and mass-loss, but with very little change of luminosity or logarithmic period. 26 refs

  15. Integrating models that depend on variable data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, A. T.; Hill, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    Models of human-Earth systems are often developed with the goal of predicting the behavior of one or more dependent variables from multiple independent variables, processes, and parameters. Often dependent variable values range over many orders of magnitude, which complicates evaluation of the fit of the dependent variable values to observations. Many metrics and optimization methods have been proposed to address dependent variable variability, with little consensus being achieved. In this work, we evaluate two such methods: log transformation (based on the dependent variable being log-normally distributed with a constant variance) and error-based weighting (based on a multi-normal distribution with variances that tend to increase as the dependent variable value increases). Error-based weighting has the advantage of encouraging model users to carefully consider data errors, such as measurement and epistemic errors, while log-transformations can be a black box for typical users. Placing the log-transformation into the statistical perspective of error-based weighting has not formerly been considered, to the best of our knowledge. To make the evaluation as clear and reproducible as possible, we use multiple linear regression (MLR). Simulations are conducted with MatLab. The example represents stream transport of nitrogen with up to eight independent variables. The single dependent variable in our example has values that range over 4 orders of magnitude. Results are applicable to any problem for which individual or multiple data types produce a large range of dependent variable values. For this problem, the log transformation produced good model fit, while some formulations of error-based weighting worked poorly. Results support previous suggestions fthat error-based weighting derived from a constant coefficient of variation overemphasizes low values and degrades model fit to high values. Applying larger weights to the high values is inconsistent with the log

  16. Dynamics of mechanical systems with variable mass

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The book presents up-to-date and unifying formulations for treating dynamics of different types of mechanical systems with variable mass. The starting point is overview of the continuum mechanics relations of balance and jump for open systems from which extended Lagrange and Hamiltonian formulations are derived. Corresponding approaches are stated at the level of analytical mechanics with emphasis on systems with a position-dependent mass and at the level of structural mechanics. Special emphasis is laid upon axially moving structures like belts and chains, and on pipes with an axial flow of fluid. Constitutive relations in the dynamics of systems with variable mass are studied with particular reference to modeling of multi-component mixtures. The dynamics of machines with a variable mass are treated in detail and conservation laws and the stability of motion will be analyzed. Novel finite element formulations for open systems in coupled fluid and structural dynamics are presented.

  17. Internal variables in thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovski, Arkadi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes an effective method for modeling advanced materials like polymers, composite materials and biomaterials, which are, as a rule, inhomogeneous. The thermoelastic theory with internal variables presented here provides a general framework for predicting a material’s reaction to external loading. The basic physical principles provide the primary theoretical information, including the evolution equations of the internal variables. The cornerstones of this framework are the material representation of continuum mechanics, a weak nonlocality, a non-zero extra entropy flux, and a consecutive employment of the dissipation inequality. Examples of thermoelastic phenomena are provided, accompanied by detailed procedures demonstrating how to simulate them.

  18. Resiliencia y variables sociodemograficas

    OpenAIRE

    Calero Martinez, Edgar David

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se aborda la definición de una de las variables dentro de lo que se denomina Capital psicológico positivo, la Resiliencia, sus principales características y algunas de las variables socio demográficas que en el estudio pretenden ver el nivel de relación existente entre cada una de ellas (indirecta o directamente) en el proceso resiliente de una persona para posteriores discusiones y su implicación dentro de la gestión empresarial y sus direcciones futuras.

  19. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  20. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2 , temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y -1 ) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y -1 ), and

  1. Biological Sampling Variability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-08

    There are many sources of variability that exist in the sample collection and analysis process. This paper addresses many, but not all, sources of variability. The main focus of this paper was to better understand and estimate variability due to differences between samplers. Variability between days was also studied, as well as random variability within each sampler. Experiments were performed using multiple surface materials (ceramic and stainless steel), multiple contaminant concentrations (10 spores and 100 spores), and with and without the presence of interfering material. All testing was done with sponge sticks using 10-inch by 10-inch coupons. Bacillus atrophaeus was used as the BA surrogate. Spores were deposited using wet deposition. Grime was coated on the coupons which were planned to include the interfering material (Section 3.3). Samples were prepared and analyzed at PNNL using CDC protocol (Section 3.4) and then cultured and counted. Five samplers were trained so that samples were taken using the same protocol. Each sampler randomly sampled eight coupons each day, four coupons with 10 spores deposited and four coupons with 100 spores deposited. Each day consisted of one material being tested. The clean samples (no interfering materials) were run first, followed by the dirty samples (coated with interfering material). There was a significant difference in recovery efficiency between the coupons with 10 spores deposited (mean of 48.9%) and those with 100 spores deposited (mean of 59.8%). There was no general significant difference between the clean and dirty (containing interfering material) coupons or between the two surface materials; however, there was a significant interaction between concentration amount and presence of interfering material. The recovery efficiency was close to the same for coupons with 10 spores deposited, but for the coupons with 100 spores deposited, the recovery efficiency for the dirty samples was significantly larger (65

  2. Flickering of the symbiotic variable CH Cygni during outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, M.H.; Africano, J.

    1978-01-01

    High-speed and conventional BVRI photometry are reported for the bright symbiotic variable CH Cygni (M6 IIIe), obtained during the course of a recent outburst. Unlike the quiescent symbiotic stars, the presence of flickering similar in nature to that seen in the cataclysmic variables has been confirmed during this active phase. The BVRI photometry for a sample of stars in the field is used to derive the reddening and the distance to CH Cyg. A composite energy distribution is derived from 0.35 to 11.0 μm which clearly establishes the existence of a variable, blue continuum. The lack of variability in the near infrared suggests that the blue continuum arises from a hot companion. A binary model including a subluminous hot companion accreting material from the stellar wind of an SRa variable is discussed to account for the observed photometric properties. (author)

  3. The impact of automatic enrollment in 401(k) plans on future retirement accumulations: a simulation study based on plan design modifications of large plan sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerhei, Jack

    2010-04-01

    SIGNIFICANCE OF AUTO-ENROLLMENT: Automatic enrollment of participants in 401(k) plans, which was encouraged by provisions in the Pension Protect Act of 2006, is designed to overcome the drawbacks of voluntary enrollment by getting more workers to save in their work place retirement plan. Auto-enrollment for 401(k) plans has been demonstrated by previous EBRI research to have substantial potential benefits for some employees. NEW EBRI RESEARCH: This EBRI study analyzes plan-specific data of 1,000 large defined contribution plans for salaried employees from Benefit SpecSelect (Hewitt Associates LLC) in 2005 and 2009 to compare a subsample of plan sponsors that did not have auto-enrollment in 2005 but that had adopted it in 2009. Actual plan information on both actual auto-enrollment and actual match rate information were coded both before and after adoption of auto-enrollment from 225 large 401(k) plan sponsors and found that the average change was positive under auto-enrollment in each of the following three categories: The first-tier match rate, the effective match rate, the average total employer contribution rate. MODELING ANALYSIS: This analysis created a series of simulation programs using these data. The analysis indicates that the adoption of automatic enrollment in 401(k) plans is likely to have a very significant positive impact (even greater than EBRI projected in 2008) in generating additional retirement savings for many workers, especially for young and low-income workers: Under baseline assumptions, the median 401(k) accumulations for the lowest-income quartile of workers currently age 25-29 (assuming all 401(k) plans were voluntary enrollment plans as typified by the 225 large plan sponsors described above) would only be 0.08 times final earnings at age 65. However, if all 401(k) plans are assumed to be using the large plan sponsor auto-enrollment provisions, the median 401(k) accumulations for the lowest-income quartile jumps to 4.96 times final

  4. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusaro, P.C.

    1997-09-01

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  5. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    . With the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options...... financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...... the market for multivariate credit instruments, we take a step back and focus on single-name default modeling and introduce two new model classes for modeling of the default time of a company. Finally, in the third paper we propose a consistent pricing model for index and volatility derivatives...

  6. INTER-EXAMINER VARIABILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish whether inter-examiner variability is still a significant factor for the undergraduate orthopaedic clinical ... D. The scores for each student were tabulated and the range, mean, and pass rate determined for each of the examiners. ... has not the heart to reject the man”, consistently gave higher scores (1).

  7. All Those Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.

    This paper presents a case study of a sixth grade remedial math class which illustrates the thesis that only the "experimental attitude," not the "experimental method," is appropriate in the classroom. The thesis is based on the fact that too many independent variables exist in a classroom situation to allow precise measurement. The case study…

  8. Variable speed generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  9. Variability in GPS sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauncey, DL; King, EA; Bignall, HE; Lovell, JEJ; Kedziora-Chudczer, L; Tzioumis, AK; Tingay, SJ; Macquart, JP; McCulloch, PM

    2003-01-01

    Flux density monitoring data at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz is presented for a sample of 33 southern hemisphere GPS sources, drawn from the 2.7 GHz Parkes survey. This monitoring data, together with VLBI monitoring data, shows that a small fraction of these sources, similar to10%, vary. Their variability falls

  10. Validation and Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carusi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Systems biology is currently making a bid to show that it is able to make an important contribution to personalised or precision medicine. In order to do so, systems biologists need to find a way of tackling the pervasive variability of biological systems that is manifested in the medical domain...

  11. Surfing wave climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Iñigo J.; Méndez, Fernando J.

    2014-10-01

    International surfing destinations are highly dependent on specific combinations of wind-wave formation, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. Surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, and analyses of surf quality require the consideration of the seasonal, interannual and long-term variability of surf conditions on a global scale. A multivariable standardized index based on expert judgment is proposed for this purpose. This index makes it possible to analyze surf conditions objectively over a global domain. A summary of global surf resources based on a new index integrating existing wave, wind, tides and sea surface temperature databases is presented. According to general atmospheric circulation and swell propagation patterns, results show that west-facing low to middle-latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere. Month-to-month analysis reveals strong seasonal variations in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing the frequency of such events in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. Interannual variability was investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional modes of low-frequency climate variability such as El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, revealing their strong influence at both the global and the regional scale. Results of the long-term trends demonstrate an increase in the probability of surfable events on west-facing coasts around the world in recent years. The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers, the surf tourism industry and surf-related coastal planners and stakeholders.

  12. Spatial Variability of Rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.E.; Pedersen, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    As a part of a Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) calibration exercise 15 km south of Århus, Denmark, the variability in accumulated rainfall within a single radar pixel (500 by 500 m) was measured using nine high-resolution rain gauges. The measured values indicate up to a 100% variation between...

  13. Several real variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  14. Integration i flere variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    -integralerne. Undervejs introduceres \\texttt{Integrator8}. Det er en pakke med Maple procedurer, som er udviklet specielt med henblik på eksempelbaseret visuel læring af de indledende integrationsbegreber og deres mangfoldige anvendelser. Vi giver eksempler på, hvordan integration i flere variable anvendes til beregning...

  15. Variable Oakleaf Caterpillar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis F. Wilson; Gordon A. Surgeoner

    1979-01-01

    The variable oakleaf caterpillar (Heterocampa manteo (Dbldy.)) is a common insect in deciduous forests of Eastern North America. It has been recorded from most of the Eastern Canadian Provinces and most of the States in the East to North Dakota in the West and south to eastern Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Heavy defoliations of hosts may occur anywhere within this...

  16. Variability and component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the

  17. Tides and Decadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanisms by which oceanic tides and decadal variability in the oceans are connected. We distinguish between variability caused by tides and variability observed in the tides themselves. Both effects have been detected at some level. The most obvious connection with decadal timescales is through the 18.6-year precession of the moon's orbit plane. This precession gives rise to a small tide of the same period and to 18.6-year modulations in the phase and amplitudes of short-period tides. The 18.6-year "node tide" is very small, no more than 2 cm anywhere, and in sea level data it is dominated by the ocean's natural Variability. Some authors have naively attributed climate variations with periods near 19 years directly to the node tide, but the amplitude of the tide is too small for this mechanism to be operative. The more likely explanation (Loder and Garrett, JGR, 83, 1967-70, 1978) is that the 18.6-y modulations in short-period tides, especially h e principal tide M2, cause variations in ocean mixing, which is then observed in temperature and other climatic indicators. Tidally forced variability has also been proposed by some authors, either in response to occasional (and highly predictable) tidal extremes or as a nonlinear low-frequency oscillation caused by interactions between short-period tides. The former mechanism can produce only short-duration events hardly more significant than normal tidal ranges, but the latter mechanism can in principle induce low-frequency oscillations. The most recent proposal of this type is by Keeling and Whorf, who highlight the 1800-year spectral peak discovered by Bond et al. (1997). But the proposal appears contrived and should be considered, in the words of Munk et al. (2002), "as the most likely among unlikely candidates."

  18. Pre-main sequence variables in young cluster Stock 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Tirthendu; Sharma, Saurabh; Pandey, Rakesh; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2018-04-01

    We have carried out multi-epoch deep I band photometry of the open cluster Stock 18 to search for variable stars in star forming regions. In the present study, we identified 65 periodic and 217 non-periodic variable stars. The periods of most of the periodic variables are between 2 hours to 15 days and their magnitude varies between 0.05 to 0.6 mag. We have derived spectral energy distributions for 48 probable pre-main sequence variables. Their average age and mass are 2.7 ± 0.3 Myrs and 2.7 ± 0.2 Mo, respectively.

  19. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees `proxy-entrepreneurs', and ask how the firm's organizational structure - its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating agreements, means of evaluating performance and so on - can...

  20. 78 FR 32191 - Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...] Counterparty exposure management. [cir] Evaluating liquidity risk. Conduct: [cir] Collateral [cir] Accounting... rate risk. This proposed rule applies to federal credit unions and any federally insured, state... derivatives transactions \\1\\ for the purpose of mitigating interest rate risk (IRR). This proposed authority...