WorldWideScience

Sample records for sponsored biomass power

  1. Power from biomass: the power utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafimova, K.; Angele, H.-C.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at possible strategies that electricity utilities in Switzerland could follow in order to be able to make use of biomass as a source of energy. Increasing interest in damp biomass as a relatively cheap, renewable and climate-friendly source of energy is commented on. Strategic choices that energy utilities have to make when they decide to enter into the biomass market are examined. The potentials involved are examined, including biogenic materials from domestic wastes and from agriculture. Figures on potential waste tonnage are quoted. Questions on subsidies and the free market are examined. The setting up of 'virtual power stations' - networks of installations using photovoltaic, wind and biomass - is discussed, as are various strategies that utilities can follow in this area. Examples of such 'virtual power stations' are listed.

  2. Economics of power generation from imported biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M.

    1998-02-01

    Attention is paid to the economics of import of biomass to the Netherlands, and subsequent utilisation for power generation, as a means to reduce dependence on (imported) fossil fuels and to reduce CO2 emission. Import of wood to the extent of 40 PJ or more from Baltic and South American states seems to be readily achievable. Import of biomass has various advantages, not only for the European Union (reduced CO2 emissions) but also for the countries of origin (employment creation). However, possible disadvantages or risks should be taken into account. With that in mind, import of biomass from Baltic states seems very interesting, although it should be noted that in some of those countries the alternative of fuel-switching to biomass seems to be more cost-effective than import of biomass from those countries. Given the expected increase in inland biomass consumption in the Baltic countries and the potential substantial future demand for biomass in other Western European countries it is expected that the biomass supply from Baltic countries will not be sufficient to fulfill the demand. An early focus on import from other countries seems advisable. Several power generation options are available with short to medium term potential and long term potential. The margin between costs of biomass-fuelled power and of coal fired power will be smaller, due to substantial improvements in power generating efficiency and reductions of investment costs of options for power generation from biomass, notably Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle. 18 refs

  3. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  4. 78 FR 26747 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Record of... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) related to providing financial assistance to the Oglethorpe Power...

  5. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft... financial assistance to Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW...

  6. 76 FR 77963 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA... related to possible financial assistance to Oglethorpe Power Corporation's (Oglethorpe) for the... online at the following Web site: http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/UWP-OglethorpePower.html and at the: Warren...

  7. Independent System Operators and Biomass Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Kevin L.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission issued its landmark open access transmission rule in 1996, the idea of creating and establishing independent system operators (ISOs) has gained momentum. ISOs may help combine individual utility transmission systems into more regional transmission networks, which ultimately will allow biomass companies to transmit power over longer distances while paying a single transmission rate. To the extent that ISOs are combined or operated with power exchanges, however, biomass companies will likely face even more competitive market pressures. Few operators have experience with ISOs and power exchanges, but preliminary results show that short-term electricity market prices are probably too low for most biomass companies to compete against. Without policy measures, biomass companies may have to pursue strategic opportunities with short-term, spot-market sales; direct bilateral sales to customers; alternative power exchanges; and perhaps a ''green'' power market and sales to ancillary service markets. In addition, prices will likely be more volatile in a restructured market so biomass generators should be selling during those times

  8. Biomass combustion technologies for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr. [Appel Consultants, Inc., Stevenson Ranch, CA (United States); McGowin, C.R.; Hughes, E.E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Technology in power production from biomass has been advancing rapidly. Industry has responded to government incentives such as the PURPA legislation in the US and has recognized that there are environmental advantages to using waste biomass as fuel. During the 1980s many new biomass power plants were built. The relatively mature stoker boiler technology was improved by the introduction of water-cooled grates, staged combustion air, larger boiler sizes up to 60 MW, higher steam conditions, and advanced sootblowing systems. Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) technology achieved full commercial status, and now is the leading process for most utility-scale power applications, with more complete combustion, lower emissions, and better fuel flexibility than stoker technology. Bubbling fluidized-bed (BFB) technology has an important market niche as the best process for difficult fuels such as agricultural wastes, typically in smaller plants. Other biomass power generation technologies are being developed for possible commercial introduction in the 1990s. Key components of Whole Tree Energy{trademark} technology have been tested, conceptual design studies have been completed with favorable results, and plans are being made for the first integrated process demonstration. Fluidized-bed gasification processes have advanced from pilot to demonstration status, and the world`s first integrated wood gasification/combined cycle utility power plant is starting operation in Sweden in early 1993. Several European vendors offer biomass gasification processes commercially. US electric utilities are evaluating the cofiring of biomass with fossil fuels in both existing and new plants. Retrofitting existing coal-fired plants gives better overall cost and performance results than any biomass technologies;but retrofit cofiring is {open_quotes}fuel-switching{close_quotes} that provides no new capacity and is attractive only with economic incentives.

  9. 77 FR 9273 - WORKSHOP Sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0037] WORKSHOP Sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute on the Treatment of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Uncertainties: Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of public meeting...

  10. Power from coal and biomass via CFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giglio, R.; Wehrenberg, J. [Foster Wheeler Power Group, Clinton, NY (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Circulating fluidized bed technology enables burning coal and biomass to generate power while reducing emissions at the same time. Flexi-Burn CFB is being developed. It produces a CO{sub 2} rich flue gas, form which CO{sub 2} can be captured.

  11. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages....... This is not very well explained by apply-ing conventional thermal ignition theory. An experimental study at lab scale, using pinewood as an example fuel, was conducted to examine self-heating and self-ignition. Supplemental experiments were performed with bituminous coal. Instead of characterizing ignition...

  12. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    % oxygen with those under inert atmosphere revealed two distinct pathways, pyrolysis and exothermic heterogeneous oxidation. At low temperatures and sufficient oxygen availability, heterogeneous oxidation of the solid seems to be favored over pyrolysis for wood, but not for coal. Current ignition models do......Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages....... This is not very well explained by apply-ing conventional thermal ignition theory. An experimental study at lab scale, using pinewood as an example fuel, was conducted to examine self-heating and self-ignition. Supplemental experiments were performed with bituminous coal. Instead of characterizing ignition...

  13. Biomass Supply and Trade Opportunities of Preprocessed Biomass for Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Junginger, M.; Klemm, M.; Schipfer, F.; Thrän, D.

    2016-01-01

    International trade of solid biomass is expected to increase significantly given the global distribution of biomass resources and anticipated expansion of bioenergy deployment in key global power markets. Given the unique characteristics of biomass, its long-distance trade requires optimized

  14. Competitiveness of biomass-fueled electrical power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. McCarl; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; John T. Chmelik

    2000-01-01

    One way countries like the United States can comply with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plants fueled with biomass. We examine the competitiveness of biomass-based fuel for electrical power as opposed to coal using a mathematical programming structure. We consider fueling power plants from milling residues, whole trees, logging...

  15. The development situation of biomass gasification power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhaoqiu; Yin, Xiuli; Xu, Jie; Ma, Longlong

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the development situation of biomass gasification power generation technology in China and analyzes the difficulty and challenge in the development process. For China, a large agricultural country with abundant biomass resources, the utilization of biomass gasification power generation technology is of special importance, because it can contribute to the electricity structure diversification under the present coal-dominant electricity structure, ameliorate the environmental impact, provide energy to electricity-scarce regions and solve the problems facing agriculture. Up to now, China has developed biomass gasification power generation plants of different types and scales, including simple gas engine-based power generation systems with capacity from several kW to 3 MW and integrated gasification combined cycle systems with capacity of more than 5 MW. In recent years, due to the rising cost of biomass material, transportation, manpower, etc., the final cost of biomass power generation has increased greatly, resulting in a serious challenge in the Chinese electricity market even under present preferential policy for biomass power price. However, biomass gasification power generation technology is generally in accord with the characteristics of biomass resources in China, has relatively good adaptability and viability, and so has good prospect in China in the future. - Highlights: ► Biomass gasification power generation of 2 kW–2 MW has wide utilization in China. ► 5.5 MW biomass IGCC demonstration plant has maximum power efficiency of up to 30%. ► Biomass power generation is facing a serious challenge due to biomass cost increase.

  16. Aspects of using biomass as energy source for power generation

    OpenAIRE

    Tîrtea Raluca-Nicoleta; Mărculescu Cosmin

    2017-01-01

    Biomass represents an important source of renewable energy in Romania with about 64% of the whole available green energy. Being a priority for the energy sector worldwide, in our country the development stage is poor compared to solar and wind energy. Biomass power plants offer great horizontal economy development, local and regional economic growth with benefic effects on life standard. The paper presents an analysis on biomass to power conversion solutions compared to fossil fuels using two...

  17. Biomass power: Exploring the diffusion challenges in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biomass resources for power generation offers numerous benefits of interest for political decision-makers: fuel security, rural and industrial development, ecological benefits. In Spain, policy instruments have been used since 1980 to stimulate biomass power generation. However, the

  18. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  19. Overview of biomass and waste fuel resources for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Burnham, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of issues and opportunities associated with the use of biomass for electric power generation. Important physical characteristics of biomass and waste fuels are summarized, including comparisons with conventional fossil fuels, primarily coal. The paper also provides an overview of the current use of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation. Biomass and waste fuels are currently used for approximately 9,800 megawatts (MW) of electric generating capacity, including about 6,100 MW of capacity fueled by wood/wood waste and about 2,200 MW of capacity fueled with municipal solid waste. Perspectives on the future availability of biomass fuels (including energy crops) are addressed, as well as projected levels of market penetration for biomass power. By the year 2010, there is a potential for 22,000 MW, to as much as 70,000 MW of biomass-powered electric generating capacity in the U.S. Given the range of benefits offered by biomass, including reduced sulfur emissions, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, job creation, rural revitalization impacts, and new incentives under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the potential use of biomass for power production could significantly expand in the future

  20. Opportunities for Small Biomass Power Systems. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, D. D.; Pinapati, V. S.

    2000-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to provide information to key stakeholders and the general public about biomass resource potential for power generation. Ten types of biomass were identified and evaluated. The quantities available for power generation were estimated separately for five U.S. regions and Canada. A method entitled ''competitive resource profile'' was used to rank resources based on economics, utilization, and environmental impact. The results of the analysis may be used to set priorities for utilization of biomass in each U.S. region. A review of current biomass conversion technologies was accomplished, linking technologies to resources.

  1. A mathematical model for transporting the biomass to biomass based power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jagtar [Mechanical Engineering Department, SLIET Longowal, District Sangrur, Punjab (India); Panesar, B.S. [Project Professional, SCS Engineers, 11260 Roger Bacon Drive, 300, Virginia 20190 (United States); Sharma, S.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, NIT Kurukshetra, Haryana (India)

    2010-04-15

    In Punjab, million of tons of agricultural biomass are being generated every year, but it is spatially scattered. The spatial distribution of this resource and the associated costs on collection and transportation are the major bottleneck in the success of biomass energy-conversion facilities. This paper deals with the mathematical model for collection and transporting the biomass from fields to biomass based power plant. The unit transport cost was calculated by using this model. Four systems of transport were conceptualized for two transport modes (tractor with wagon and truck). Three types of agricultural biomass (loose, baled and briquetted) were considered for transport analysis. For all modes of transport, it was observed that unit cost of transport decreases with increase in distance. The transport cost was least for briquetted biomass as compared to loose and baled biomass. (author)

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. Grate-firing of biomass for heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2008-01-01

    As a renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, biomass (i.e., any organic non-fossil fuel) and its utilization are gaining an increasingly important role worldwide Grate-firing is one of the main competing technologies in biomass combustion for heat and power production, because it ca...

  5. Aspects of using biomass as energy source for power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tîrtea Raluca-Nicoleta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass represents an important source of renewable energy in Romania with about 64% of the whole available green energy. Being a priority for the energy sector worldwide, in our country the development stage is poor compared to solar and wind energy. Biomass power plants offer great horizontal economy development, local and regional economic growth with benefic effects on life standard. The paper presents an analysis on biomass to power conversion solutions compared to fossil fuels using two main processes: combustion and gasification. Beside the heating value, which can be considerably higher for fossil fuels compared to biomass, a big difference between fossil fuels and biomass can be observed in the sulphur content. While the biomass sulphur content is between 0 and approximately 1%, the sulphur content of coal can reach 4%. Using coal in power plants requires important investments in installations of flue gas desulfurization. If limestone is used to reduce SO2 emissions, then additional carbon dioxide moles will be released during the production of CaO from CaCO3. Therefore, fossil fuels not only release a high amount of carbon dioxide through burning, but also through the caption of sulphur dioxide, while biomass is considered CO2 neutral. Biomass is in most of the cases represented by residues, so it is a free fuel compared to fossil fuels. The same power plant can be used even if biomass or fossil fuels is used as a feedstock with small differences. The biomass plant could need a drying system due to high moisture content of the biomass, while the coal plant will need a desulfurization installation of flue gas and additional money will be spent with fuel purchasing.

  6. Environmental and exergetic sustainability assessment of power generation from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; Tsalidis, G.A.; van der Kooi, H.J.; Korevaar, G.

    2017-01-01

    Power generation from biomass is mentioned as a means to make our society more sustainable as it decreases greenhouse gas emissions of fossil origin and reduces the dependency on finite energy carriers, such as coal, oil and natural gas. When assessing the sustainability of power generation from

  7. Biomass power. Exploring the diffusion challenges in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    The use of biomass resources for power generation offers numerous benefits of interest for political decision-makers: fuel security, rural and industrial development, ecological benefits. In Spain, policy instruments have been used since 1980 to stimulate biomass power generation. However, the diffusion outcome by 2007 was very disappointing: only 525 MW. This paper argues that two factors lie at the core of this: the conceptualization of biomass resources by political decision-makers in the instruments used, and the desire that policy instruments be in line with market liberalization principles. These generated a persistent economic obstacle for biomass power generation, and impeded the development of markets for the supply of biomass resources. The policy learning regarding the heterogeneity of biomass resources, and the investors' expectations on risks, profitability and resource markets was very slow among political decision-makers. The paper contributes to the understanding of diffusion outcomes by proposing to analyse diffusion by means of five indicators: types of resources, technologies, developers, motivations to invest and project sizes. Besides, the paper shows the usefulness of investigating policy instruments in terms of their risk and profitability characteristics. This enables a better understanding of the diffusion patterns and outcomes. (author)

  8. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  9. Hybrid biomass-wind power plant for reliable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.; Alfonso, D.; Alvarez, C.; Ibanez, F.; Sanchez, C.; Segura, I.

    2010-01-01

    Massive implementation of renewable energy resources is a key element to reduce CO 2 emissions associated to electricity generation. Wind resources can provide an important alternative to conventional electricity generation mainly based on fossil fuels. However, wind generators are greatly affected by the restrictive operating rules of electricity markets because, as wind is naturally variable, wind generators may have serious difficulties on submitting accurate generation schedules on a day ahead basis, and on complying with scheduled obligations in real-time operation. In this paper, an innovative system combining a biomass gasification power plant, a gas storage system and stand-by generators to stabilize a generic 40 MW wind park is proposed and evaluated with real data. The wind park power production model is based on real data about power production of a Spanish wind park and a probabilistic approach to quantify fluctuations and so, power compensation needs. The hybrid wind-biomass system is analysed to obtain main hybrid system design parameters. This hybrid system can mitigate wind prediction errors and so provide a predictable source of electricity. An entire year cycle of hourly power compensations needs has been simulated deducing storage capacity, extra power needs of the biomass power plant and stand-by generation capacity to assure power compensation during critical peak hours with acceptable reliability. (author)

  10. District heating and combined heat and power generation from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1999-01-01

    An Altener programme seminar District Heating and Combined Heat and Power Generation from Biomass. Minitraining seminar and study tours and also Business forum, Exhibition and Short company presentations were held in Tallinn on March 21-23, 1999. The Seminar was organised by the VTT Energy, the Estonian Bioenergy Association and the Estonian Heat and Power Association in co-operation with the AFB-net. The Agricultural and Forestry Biomass Network (AFB-net) is part of the ALTENER programme. The Network aims at promoting and stimulating the implementation and commercial utilisation of energy from biomass and waste, through the initiation of business opportunities. This includes national and international co-operation and the exchange of the personnel. The Seminar was attended by consulting companies, scientists, municipal authorities and representatives of co-ordinating bodies engaged in renewable energy management as well as DH and CHP plant managers, equipment manufacturers and local energy planners from Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Slovenia and Slovak Republic. At the Seminar minitraining issues were dealt with: the current situation and future trends in biomass DH in the Baltic Sea countries, and biomass DH and CHP in Eastern and Central Europe, planning and construction of biomass-based DH plants, biomass fuel procurement and handling technology, combustion technology, DH networks, financing of biomass projects and evaluating of projects, and case projects in Eastern and Central European countries. The following were presented: boilers with a capacity of 100 kW or more, stoker burners, wood and straw handling equipment, wood fuel harvesters, choppers, pelletisers, district heating pipelines and networks. (author)

  11. Integrated biomass pyrolysis with organic Rankine cycle for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, T. B.; Syahputra, A. W.

    2018-02-01

    The growing interest on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) application to produce electricity by utilizing biomass energy sources are increasingly due to its successfully used to generate power from waste heat available in industrial processes. Biomass pyrolysis is one of the thermochemical technologies for converting biomass into energy and chemical products consisting of liquid bio-oil, solid biochar, and pyrolytic gas. In the application, biomass pyrolysis can be divided into three main categories; slow, fast and flash pyrolysis mainly aiming at maximizing the products of bio-oil or biochar. The temperature of synthesis gas generated during processes can be used for Organic Rankine Cycle to generate power. The heat from synthesis gas during pyrolysis processes was transfer by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator unit. In this study, the potential of the palm oil empty fruit bunch, palm oil shell, and tree bark have been used as fuel from biomass to generate electricity by integrated with ORC. The Syltherm-XLT thermal oil was used as the heat carrier from combustion burner, while R245fa was used as the working fluid for ORC system. Through Aspen Plus, this study analyses the influences on performance of main thermodynamic parameters, showing the possibilities of reaching an optimum performance for different working conditions that are characteristics of different design parameters.

  12. Biomass gasification hot gas cleanup for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, B.C.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Horazak, D.A. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Reading, PA (United States); Ruel, R.H. [The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s Biomass Power Program, a Westinghouse Electric led team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C), and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), is conducting a 30 month research and development program. The program will provide validation of hot gas cleanup technology with a pressurized fluidized bed, air-blown, biomass gasifier for operation of a gas turbine. This paper discusses the gasification and hot gas cleanup processes, scope of work and approach, and the program`s status.

  13. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  14. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandvig, Eric; Walling, Gary; Brown, Robert C.; Pletka, Ryan; Radlein, Desmond; Johnson, Warren

    2003-01-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW e ; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system

  15. Exergy analysis of biomass organic Rankine cycle for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, T. B.; Sunoto

    2018-02-01

    The study examines proposed small biomass-fed Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant through exergy analysis. The system consists of combustion burner unit to utilize biomass as fuel, and organic Rankine cycle unit to produce power from the expander. The heat from combustion burner was transfered by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator part. The effects of adding recuperator into exergy destruction were investigated. Furthermore, the results of the variations of system configurations with different operating parameters, such as the evaporating pressures, ambient temperatures, and expander pressures were analyzed. It was found that the largest exergy destruction occurs during processes are at combustion part, followed by evaporator, condenser, expander, and pump. The ORC system equipped with a recuperator unit exhibited good operational characteristics under wide range conditions compared to the one without recuperator.

  16. Technical Manual for the SAM Biomass Power Generation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical manual provides context for the implementation of the biomass electric power generation performance model in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) System Advisor Model (SAM). Additionally, the report details the engineering and scientific principles behind the underlying calculations in the model. The framework established in this manual is designed to give users a complete understanding of behind-the-scenes calculations and the results generated.

  17. Pilot scale testing of biomass feedstocks for use in gasification/gas turbine based power generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najewicz, D.J.; Furman, A.H. [General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A biomass gasification pilot program was performed at the GE Corporate Research and Development Center using two types of biomass feedstock. The object of the testing was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its` suitability as a fuel for gas turbine based power generation cycles. The test program was sponsored by the State of Vermont, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy and Winrock International/US Agency for International Development. Gasification of bagasse and wood chip feedstock was performed at a feed rate of approximately one ton per hour, using the Ge pressurized fixed bed gasifier and a single stage of cyclone particulate removal, operating at a temperature of 1,000 F. Both biomass feedstocks were found to gasify easily, and gasification capacity was limited by volumetric capacity of the fuel feed equipment. The biomass product gas was analyzed for chemical composition, particulate loading, fuel bound nitrogen levels, sulfur and alkali metal content. The results of the testing indicated the combustion characteristics of the biomass product gas are compatible with gas turbine combustor requirements. However, the particulate removal performance of the pilot facility single stage cyclone was found to be inadequate to meet turbine particulate contamination specifications. In addition, alkali metals found in biomass based fuels, which are known to cause corrosion of high temperature gas turbine components, were found to exceed allowable levels in the fuel gas. These alkali metal compounds are found in the particulate matter (at 1000 F) carried over from the gasifier, thus improved particulate removal technology, designed specifically for biomass particulate characteristics could meet the turbine requirements for both particulate and alkali loading. The paper will present the results of the biomass gasification testing and discuss the development needs in the area of gas clean-up and turbine combustion.

  18. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1998-05-01

    The focus of the DOE/USDA sponsored biomass power for rural development project is to develop commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-1, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-2 of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is underway. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill Power Station. Phase-3 will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis. During the fourth quarter of 1997 the Consortium submitted a Phase-2 proposal. A few of the other more important milestones are outlined below. The first quarter of 1998 will be dominated by pre-planting activity in the spring.

  19. Biomass Gasification for Power Generation Internal Combustion Engines. Process Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia-Faure, Luis; Oliva-Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín-Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla-Suarez, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy sources worldwide greater prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By different processes and energy conversion technologies is possible to obtain solid, liquid and gaseous fuels from any biomass.In this paper the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification of Integral Forestry Company Santiago de Cuba is presented, designed to electricity generation from waste forest industry. The gasifier is a downdraft reactor, COMBO-80 model of Indian manufacturing and motor (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was conducted at different loads (electric power generated) of the motor from experimental measurements of flow and composition of gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25 %. (author)

  20. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  1. Distributed renewable power from biomass and other waste fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The world population is continually growing and putting a burden on our fossil fuels. These fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are used for a variety of critical needs such as power production and transportation. While significant environmental improvements have been made, the uses of these fuels are still causing significant ecological impacts. Coal power production efficiency has not improved over the past thirty years and with relatively cheap petroleum cost, transportation mileage has not improved significantly either. With the demand for these fossil fuels increasing, ultimately price will also have to increase. This presentation will evaluate alternative power production methods using localized distributed generation from biomass, municipal solid waste and other waste sources of organic materials. The presentation will review various gasification processes that produce a synthetic gas that can be utilized as a fuel source in combustion turbines for clean and efficient combined heat and power. This fuel source can produce base load renewable power. In addition tail gases from the production of bio-diesel and methanol fuels can be used to produce renewable power. Being localized can reduce the need for long and costly transmission lines making the production of fuels and power from waste a viable alternative energy source for the future.

  2. Alkali slagging problems with biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Baxter, L.L.; Jenkins, B.M.; Oden, L.L.

    1993-12-31

    Biomass fueled power boilers are unable to burn more than minor percentages of annually generated agricultural fuels. Determining the mechanisms of deposit formation, and developing means of increasing the proportion of these annual biofuels to be fired are the aims of the ongoing Alkali Deposit Investigation sponsored by DOE/NREL with matching funds from industry sponsors, combining Science, Engineering and Industry.

  3. Pilot plant straw biomass power plant; Demonstrationsanlage Strohkraftwerk Gronau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodegel, Stefan [Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Ueberlandwerk Leinetal GmbH, Gronau (Leine) (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Drastically increasing prices for oil and gas promote the change to renewable energies. Biomass has the advantage of the storability. However, it has the disadvantage of a small stocking density. This suggests decentralized power plants. Also the proven technology of water vapour cycles with use of turbine is questioned. In the rural district Hildesheim there are efforts of thermal utilisation straw from wheat cropping. For this, a feasibility study of the Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Technik GmbH (Clausthal Zellerfeld, Federal Republic of Germany) presents technical and economic possibilities exemplary for the industrial area West in Gronau (Federal Republic of Germany). Technical and economic chances and risks are pointed out.

  4. Biomass Co-Firing in Suspension-Fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Hvid, Søren Lovmand; Baxter, Larry

    , in the future it is expected to become relevant to cofire in more advanced plants as the trend in the power plant structure is towards older plants having fewer operating hours or being decommissioned. A major product of this project is an experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based...... of advanced cofired combustion and potentially gasification systems and secondarily to resolve immediate and critical issues associated with cofired systems. Another essential issue is the assessment of fuel flexibility in cofired plants to help keep biomass use competitive compared to other renewable...

  5. Solid oxide fuel cells powered by biomass gasification for high efficiency power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadsbøll, Rasmus Østergaard; Thomsen, Jesper; Bang-Møller, Christian

    2017-01-01

    efficiencies, flexibility and possibly costs of current biomass power generating systems, a power plant concept combining solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and gasification is investigated experimentally. The aim of the study is to examine the commercial operation system potential of these two technologies......Increased use of bioenergy is a very cost-effective and flexible measure to limit changes in the climate and the infrastructure. One of the key technologies toward a higher implementation of biomass is thermal gasification, which enables a wide span of downstream applications. In order to improve...

  6. Biomass power production in Amazonia: Environmentally sound, economically productive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.B. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Washington, DC (United States); Hollomon, J.B. [Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    With the support of the US Agency for International Development, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) is assisting their utility counterparts in Bolivia to improve electric service in the country`s rural population. In remote areas, the cost of extending transmission lines to small communities is prohibitive, and diesel generators represent an expensive alternative, especially for baseload power. This has led to serious consideration of electric generating systems using locally available renewable resources, including biomass, hydro, wind, and solar energy. A project has recently been initiated in Riberalta, in the Amazonian region of Bolivia, to convert waste Brazil nut shells and sawmill residues to electricity. Working in tandem with diesel generators, the biomass-fired plant will produce base-load power in an integrated system that will be able to provide reliable and affordable electricity to the city. The project will allow the local rural electric cooperative to lower the price of electricity by nearly forty percent, enable the local Brazil nut industry to increase its level of mechanization, and reduce the environmental impacts of dumping waste shells around the city and in an adjacent river. The project is representative of others that will be funded in the future by NRECA/AID.

  7. Analysis of biomass co-firing systems in Taiwan power markets using linear complementarity models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Lin, Chun-Hung [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chou, Chun-An [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Rutgers University, 96 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hsu, Shao-Yiu [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400, N Charles St, Ames-313, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wen, Tzai-Hung, E-mail: wenthung@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Geography, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Biomass co-firing systems in power plants generate electric power by the simultaneous combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. The co-firing process reduces investment costs by converting biomass energy into electricity in existing conventional power plants. Biomass co-firing significantly reduces carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions in power generation. To meet the increase in biomass demand, this paper has considered systematic energy crop production, which is expected to increase in the near future. Our aim is to analyze biomass co-firing systems in the Taiwanese electricity market. In this paper, we study two emerging biomass feedstocks: switchgrass and Miscanthus. We focus on the impact of energy crop co-firing on carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions for electricity generation. A Nash-Cournot competition model, which simulates potential biomass co-firing scenarios, is formulated for power markets. A case study conducted in the Taiwanese electricity market showed that biomass co-firing lowers total electricity demand and sale. Miscanthus is more economical than switchgrass in terms of the production cost and the land required to generate biopower for the same levels of biomass co-firing. - Highlights: > Biomass co-firing system in electricity market is analyzed in this paper. > The research studies the impact of two energy crops in co-firing system. > This paper conducts a case study of co-firing system in Taiwan power markets.

  8. Drivers of biomass co-firing in U.S. coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth Skog

    2013-01-01

    Substantial knowledge has been generated in the U.S. about the resource base for forest and other residue-derived biomass for bioenergy including co-firing in power plants. However, a lack of understanding regarding power plant-level operations and manager perceptions of drivers of biomass co-firing remains. This study gathered information from U.S. power plant...

  9. Biomass-powered Solid Oxide Fuel Cells : Experimental and Modeling Studies for System Integrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is a sustainable energy source which, through thermo-chemical processes of biomass gasification, is able to be converted from a solid biomass fuel into a gas mixture, known as syngas or biosyngas. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a power generation device that directly converts the chemical

  10. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, May 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1996-02-01

    Developing commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000 is the focus of the DOE/USDA sponsored Biomass Power for Rural Development project. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-I, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Facette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG). Phase-II of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. There will be testing of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials expected to occur at BED`s McNeill power station and potentially at one of GPU`s facilities. Phase-III will represent full-scale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis. Willow has been selected as the energy crop of choice for many reasons. Willow is well suited to the climate of the Northeastern United States, and initial field trials have demonstrated that the yields required for the success of the project are obtainable. Like other energy crops, willow has rural development benefits and could serve to diversify local crop production, provide new sources of income for participating growers, and create new jobs. Willow could be used to put a large base of idle acreage back into crop production. Additionally, the willow coppicing system integrates well with current farm operations and utilizes agricultural practices that are already familiar to farmers.

  11. The determination of mercury content in the biomass untended for industrial power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the oldest and most widely used renewable energy sources. The biomass is the whole organic matter of vegetable or animal origin which is biodegradable. Biomass includes leftovers from agricultural production, forestry residues, and industrial and municipal waste. The use of biomass in the power industry has become a standard and takes place in Poland and other European countries. This paper discusses the correlation of mercury content in different biomass types used in the power industry and in products of biomass combustion. Different biomass types, which are currently burned in a commercial power plant in Poland, were discussed. A photographic documentation of different biomass types, such as straw briquettes, wood briquettes, pellets from energy crops (sunflower husk and wood husk, wood pellets, wood chips, and agro-biomass (seeds was carried out. The presented paper discusses the results obtained for 15 biomass samples. Five selected biomass samples were burned in controlled conditions in the laboratory at the University of Silesia. The ash resulting from the combustion of five biomass samples was tested for mercury content. A total of twenty biomass samples and its combustion products were tested. Based on the obtained results, it was found that any supply of biomass, regardless of its type, is characterized by variable mercury content in dry matter. In the case of e.g. wood chips, the spread of results reaches 235.1 μm/kg (in dry matter. Meanwhile, the highest mercury content, 472.4 μm/kg (in dry matter was recorded in the biomass of straw, wood pellets, and pellets from energy crops (sunflower husk. In the case of combustion products of five selected biomass types, a three or four fold increase in the mercury content has been observed.

  12. Biomass Power Generation Investment in China: A Real Options Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a real options model for evaluating the biomass power generation investment in China. The uncertainties in the market price of electricity, CO2 price and straw price are considered. Meanwhile the dynamic relationship between installed capacity and fuel cost, as well as the long-term reduction of subsidy are described. Two scenarios, i.e., with the carbon emission trading scheme existent and non-existent, respectively, is built to empirically analyze the investment of a 25-MW straw-based power generation project. The results show that investors should undertake the investment in 2030 under two scenarios. Investment values are 14,869,254.8 and 37,608,727 Chinese Yuan (RMB, respectively. The implementation of the carbon emission trading scheme theoretically helps improve investment value and advance the most likely optimal investment time. However, the current CO2 price is not sufficient to advance the most likely optimal investment time. The impacts of several factors, including subsidy policy, CO2 price, straw price, installed capacity, correlation structure and the validity period of investment, on the optimal investment strategy are also examined. It is suggested that governments take some measures, including increasing subsidy, setting the growth pattern of subsidy and establishing and perfecting a nationwide carbon trading market, to improve the investment environment and attract more investments.

  13. EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site ₋ Biomass Power Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing biomass at the Kansas City, Missouri, Municipal Farm site, a group of City-owned properties, is explored. The study that none of the technologies we reviewed--biomass heat, power and CHP--are economically viable options for the Municipal Farms site. However, if the site were to be developed around a future central biomass heating or CHP facility, biomass could be a good option for the site.

  14. A Path Forward for Low Carbon Power from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Cuellar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The two major pathways for energy utilization from biomass are conversion to a liquid fuel (i.e., biofuels or conversion to electricity (i.e., biopower. In the United States (US, biomass policy has focused on biofuels. However, this paper will investigate three options for biopower: low co-firing (co-firing scenarios refer to combusting a given percentage of biomass with coal (5%–10% biomass, medium co-firing (15%–20% biomass, and dedicated biomass firing (100% biomass. We analyze the economic and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions impact of each of these options, with and without CO2 capture and storage (CCS. Our analysis shows that in the absence of land use change emissions, all biomass co-combustion scenarios result in a decrease in GHG emissions over coal generation alone. The two biggest barriers to biopower are concerns about carbon neutrality of biomass fuels and the high cost compared to today’s electricity prices. This paper recommends two policy actions. First, the need to define sustainability criteria and initiate a certification process so that biomass providers have a fixed set of guidelines to determine whether their feedstocks qualify as renewable energy sources. Second, the need for a consistent, predictable policy that provides the economic incentives to make biopower economically attractive.

  15. Deactivation of SCR catalysts in biomass fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard

    and test new alkali resistant catalyst formulations, coatings and/or improved means of operation which can extend the life-time of SCR catalysts in biomass fired power plants. Plate-type V2O5-(WO3)/TiO2 SCR catalysts have been exposed to KCl and K2SO4 aerosols in a bench-scale reactor at 150, 300 or 350 °C......-scale setup at 350 °C for up to 1100 hours, and their activities were followed by in situ measurements. A 3%V2O5-7%WO3/TiO2 reference catalyst deactivated with a rate of 0.91 %/day during 960 hours of exposure, and a subsequent SEM-EDS analysis showed complete potassium penetration of the catalyst wall....... A catalyst coated with a 1:1 mixture of MgO and TiO2 showed insufficient start activity (30 % of that of the reference) when tested in the bench-scale setup, likely due to a low porosity of the coat.vA deactivation model describing the potassium poisoning of an SCR monolith catalyst has been derived...

  16. Input of biomass in power plants for power generation. Calculation of the financial gap. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tilburg, X.; De Vries, H.J.; Pfeiffer, A.E.; Cleijne, J.W.

    2005-09-01

    The Ministry of Economic Affairs has requested ECN and KEMA to answer two questions. (1) Are the costs and benefits of projects in which wood-pellets are co-fired in a coal fired power plant representative for those of bio-oil fueled co-firing projects in a gas fired plant?; and (2) Are new projects representative for existing projects? To answer these questions, ECN and KEMA have calculated the financial gaps in six different situations: co-firing bio-oil in a gas fired power plant; co-firing bio-oil in a coal fired power plant; gasification of solid biomass; co-firing wood pellets in a coal fired power plant; co-firing agricultural residues in a coal fired power plant; and co-firing waste wood (A- and B-grade) in a coal fired power plant. The ranges and reference cases show that co-firing bio-oil on average has a smaller financial gap than the solid biomass reference case. On average it can also be concluded that when using waste wood or agro-residues, the financial gaps are smaller. Based on these findings it is concluded that: (1) The reference case of co-firing wood pellets in a coal fired power plant are not representative for bio-fuel options. A new category for bio-oil options seems appropriate; and (2) The financial gap of new projects as calculated in November 2004, is often higher then the ranges for existing projects indicate [nl

  17. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  18. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a t echnoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  19. Torrefied biomass for use in power station sector; Torrefizierte Biomasse zum Einsatz im Kraftwerkssektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Janet; Schaubach, Kay [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Kiel, Jaap; Carbo, Michiel [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Wojcik, Magdalena [OFI Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-10-01

    In the torrefaction process biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of at least 250 C. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass materials can be converted into a high-energy-density bioenergy carrier with improved behaviour in (long-distance) transport, handling and storage. Torrefaction also creates superior properties for biomass in many major end-use applications. The process has the potential to provide a significant contribution to an enlarged raw material portfolio for sustainable biomass fuel production inside Europe by including both agricultural and forestry biomass (residues). The article will briefly introduce the concept and objectives of the project and the different torrefaction technologies involved and then focus on the results obtained within the first project phase of the EU-project SECTOR. This comprises production of torrefied biomass batches, subsequent densification (pelletisation and briquetting), characterisation and Round Robin testing of characterisation methods, initial logistics and end-use performance testing, material safety data sheet preparation and sustainability assessment along the value chain. (orig.)

  20. Biomass power industry: Assessment of key players and approaches for DOE and industry interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    A review team established by the Department of Energy conducted an assessment of the US biomass power industry. The review team visited with more than 50 organizations representing all sectors of the biomass power industry including utilities, independent power producers, component manufacturers, engineering and construction contractors, agricultural organizations, industrial users, and regulatory organizations. DOE solicited industry input for the development of the Biomass Power Division`s Five Year Plan. DOE believed there was a critical need to obtain industry`s insight and working knowledge to develop the near- and long-term plans of the program. At the heart of this objective was the desire to identify near-term initiatives that the program could pursue to help accelerate the further development of biomass power projects.

  1. Modelling of combined cycle power plants using biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, F.; Cano, A. [University of Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Carpio, J. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2003-04-01

    The olive tree in Spain can generate large quantities of by-product biomass suitable for gasification. Gasification technologies under development would enable these fuels to be used in gas turbines. Biomass conversion to a clean essentially ash-free form, usually by gasification and purification, is necessary to obtain high efficiency. This paper reports results of detailed full-load performance modelling of cogeneration systems based on gasifier/gas turbine technologies. (Author)

  2. Biomass power industry: Assessment of key players and approaches for DOE and industry interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report reviews the status of the US biomass power industry. The topics of the report include current fuels and the problems associated with procuring, transporting, preparing and burning them, competition from natural gas projects because of the current depressed natural gas prices, need for incentives for biomass fueled projects, economics, market potential and expansion of US firms overseas

  3. Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Biomass constitutes the energetic form more important and of greater potential after solar energy (source of origin), being consumed in direct form through the combustion, or indirectly through the fossil fuels (those which originates) or by means of different technical of thermochemical and of biochemistry for its conversion and utilization. The current document describes the origin and the energetic characteristics of biomass, its energetic and environmental importance for a developing Country as Colombia, its possibilities of production and the technologies developed for its utilization and transformation, mainly, of the residual biomass

  4. Sewage sludge conditioning with the application of ash from biomass-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Marta; Stachowicz, Feliks; Masłoń, Adam

    2018-02-01

    During biomass combustion, there are formed combustion products. Available data indicates that only 29.1 % of biomass ashes were recycled in Poland in 2013. Chemical composition and sorptive properties of ashes enable their application in the sewage sludge treatment. This paper analyses the impact of ashes from biomass-combustion power plant on sewage sludge dewatering and higienisation. The results obtained in laboratory tests proved the possitive impact of biomass ashes on sewage sludge hydration reduction after dewatering and the increase of filtrate volume. After sludge conditioning with the use of biomass combustion by-products, the final moisture content decreased by approximatelly 10÷25 % in comparison with raw sewage sludge depending on the method of dewatering. The application of biomass combustion products in sewage sludge management could provide an alternative method of their utilization according to law and environmental requirements.

  5. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combinations and co-firing ratios, using a system model and numerical simulation. The results indicate that plant energy efficiency decreases with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture, and that the extent of the decrease depends on specific properties of the coal and biomass types.

  6. Present situation, problems and solutions of China's biomass power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jicheng; Wang, Sijia; Wei, Qiushuang; Yan, Suli

    2014-01-01

    With the reduction of global oil reserves, developing renewable energy has become an important issue for each country. Biomass power is an important kind of clean energy, as it has abundant resource and is environmental friendly. In the past few years, China biomass power industry has developed rapidly accompanied with some problems. This paper analyzes the current situation of China biomass power generation from several aspects such as power structure, resource distribution, investment strength, and policy environment, etc. We focus on the problems existed in practical operation and analyze the outstanding problems. At last, this paper offers several suggestions for future development on the relevant fields, such as cost, strategic planning and policy. - Highlights: • Review and analyze the internal and external environment of biomass power in China. • Summarize and classify policies of China biomass power according to time sequence. • Describe the distribution of biomass resources in China accurately on the map. • Use data to draw a picture for grasping current situation. • Provide valuable suggestions for practitioners to improve their business strategies

  7. Power production from biomass III. Gasification and pyrolysis R and D and D for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass III. Gasification and Pyrolysis R and D and D for Industry, was held on 14-15 September 1998 in Espoo. The seminar was organised by VTT Energy in co-operation with the University of Groningen, EU-Thermie Programme and Technology Development Centre, Finland (Tekes). Overviews of current activities on power production from biomass and wastes in Europe and in the United States were given, and all European and U. S. demonstration projects on biomass gasification were presented. In Europe, the target is to produce additional 90 Mtoe/a of bioenergy for the market by 2010. This is a huge challenge for the bioenergy sector, including biomass production and harvesting, conversion technology, energy companies, and end users. In USA, U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the Biomass Power Programme to encourage and assist industry in the development and validation of renewable, biomass-based electricity generation systems, the objective being to double the present use of 7 000 MW biomass power by the year 2010. The new Finnish PROGAS Programme initiated by VTT was also introduced. Several gasification projects are today on the demonstration stage prior to entering the commercial level. Pyrolysis technologies are not yet on the demonstration stage on the energy market. Bio-oils can easily be transported, stored and utilised in existing boiler and diesel plants. The proceedings include the presentations given by the keynote speakers and other invited speakers, as well as some extended poster presentations. (orig.)

  8. An Investigation of Sustainable Power Generation from Oil Palm Biomass: A Case Study in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Aghamohammadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia, with 22% of the nation's oil palm plantation area, making it the second largest contributor to palm biomass production. Despite the enormous amount of palm biomass in the state, the use of biomass as fuel for power generation remains low. This study is designed to investigate the sustainability of power generation from palm biomass specifically in Sarawak by conducting a survey among the palm oil mill developers. To conduct this investigation, several key sustainability factors were identified: the security of the biomass supply, the efficiency of conversion technology, the existing network system, challenges and future prospects for power generation from palm biomass. These factors were assessed through a set of questionnaires. The returned questionnaires were then analysed using statistical tools. The results of this study demonstrate that Sarawak has biomass in abundance, and that it is ready to be exploited for large scale power generation. The key challenge to achieving the renewable energy target is the inadequate grid infrastructure that inhibits palm oil developers from benefiting from the Feed-in-Tariff payment scheme. One way forward, a strategic partnership between government and industrial players, offers a promising outcome, depending on an economic feasibility study. The decentralization of electricity generation to support rural electrification is another feasible alternative for renewable energy development in the state.

  9. High efficiency power production from biomass and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Van Leijenhorst, R.J.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    Two-stage gasification allows power production from biomass and waste with high efficiency. The process involves pyrolysis at about 550C followed by heating of the pyrolysis gas to about 1300C in order to crack hydrocarbons and obtain syngas, a mixture of H2, CO, H2O and CO2. The second stage produces soot as unwanted by-product. Experimental results are reported on the suppression of soot formation in the second stage for two different fuels: beech wood pellets and Rofire pellets, made from rejects of paper recycling. Syngas obtained from these two fuels and from an industrial waste fuel has been cleaned and fed to a commercial SOFC stack for 250 hours in total. The SOFC stack showed comparable performance on real and synthetic syngas and no signs of accelerated degradation in performance over these tests. The experimental results have been used for the design and analysis of a future 25 MWth demonstration plant. As an alternative, a 2.6 MWth system was considered which uses the Green MoDem approach to convert waste fuel into bio-oil and syngas. The 25 MWth system can reach high efficiency only if char produced in the pyrolysis step is converted into additional syngas by steam gasification, and if SOFC off-gas and system waste heat are used in a steam bottoming cycle for additional power production. A net electrical efficiency of 38% is predicted. In addition, heat can be delivered with 37% efficiency. The 2.6 MWth system with only a dual fuel engine to burn bio-oil and syngas promises nearly 40% electrical efficiency plus 41% efficiency for heat production. If syngas is fed to an SOFC system and off-gas and bio-oil to a dual fuel engine, the electrical efficiency can rise to 45%. However, the efficiency for heat production drops to 15%, as waste heat from the SOFC system cannot be used effectively. The economic analysis makes clear that at -20 euro/tonne fuel, 70 euro/MWh for electricity and 7 euro/GJ for heat the 25 MWth system is not economically viable at the

  10. Gasification technologies for heat and power from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, AACM; Maniatis, K; Kaltschmitt, M; Bridgwater, AV

    1997-01-01

    A critical review is presented of biomass gasifier systems presently commercially available or under development. Advantages and possible problem areas are discussed in relation to particular applications. Both large and small scale technologies are reviewed. Catalysed by the EC JOULE and AIR

  11. The Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Power Generation from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Shen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the energy crisis and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG, renewable energy resources are exploited for power generation. Because lignocellulosic biomass resources are abundant and renewable, various technologies are applied to using lignocellulosic biomass to derive biofuel and electricity. This paper focuses on power generation from lignocellulosic biomass and comparison of the effects of different feedstocks, transportation, and power generation technologies evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA. The inputs and boundaries of LCA vary with different feedstocks, such as forestry wood, agricultural residues, and fast-growing grass. For agricultural residues and fast-growing grass, the transportation cost from field to power plant is more critical. Three technologies for power generation are analyzed both with and without pelletization of lignocellulosic biomass. The GHG emissions also vary with different feedstocks and depend on burning technologies at different plant scales. The daily criteria pollutant emissions of power generation from different lignocellulosic biomass were evaluated with a life cycle assessment model of GREET.net 2014. It is concluded that bio-power generation is critical with the urgency of greenhouse effects.

  12. Intelligent Control Framework for the Feeding System in the Biomass Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an intelligent control framework for biomass drying process with flue gases based on FLC (fuzzy logic controller and CAN (Controller Area Network bus. In the operation of a biomass drying process, in order to get the biomass with the set-point low moisture content dried by waste high temperature flue gases, it is necessary to intelligent control for the biomass flow rate. Use of an experiment with varied materials at different initial moisture contents enables acquisition of the biomass flow rates as initial setting values. Set the error between actual straw moisture content and set-point, and rate of change of error as two inputs. the biomass flow rate can be acquired by the fuzzy logic computing as the output. Since the length of dryer is more than twenty meters, the integration by the CAN bus can ensure real-time reliable data acquisition and processing. The control framework for biomass drying process can be applied to a variety of biomass, such as, cotton stalk, corn stalk, rice straw, wheat straw, sugar cane. It has strong potential for practical applications because of its advantages on intelligent providing the set-point low moisture content of biomass feedstock for power generation equipment.

  13. BIOMASS UTILIZATION AS A RENEVABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN POLISH POWER INDUSTRY – CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gołuchowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the conventional energy sources, as well as the degradation and pollution of the environment by the exploitation of fossil fuels caused the development of renewable energy sources (RES, including biomass. In Poland, biomass is the most popular renewable energy source, which is closely related to the obligations associated with the membership in the EU. Biomass is the oldest renewable energy source, and its potential, diversity and polymorphism place it over other sources. Besides, the improvement in its parameters, including an increase in its calorific value, resulted in increasing use of biomass as energy source. In the electric power industry biomass is applied in the process of co-combustion with coal. This process may contribute, inter alia, to the reduction in the emissions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur oxides. The article presents the characteristics of the biomass burned in power boilers of one of the largest Polish power plants, located in Opole Province (Southern Poland. Besides, the impact of biomass on the installation of co-combustion, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the co-combustion process not only in technological, but also environmental, economic and social aspects were described.

  14. A Co-Powered Biomass and Concentrated Solar Power Rankine Cycle Concept for Small Size Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Tortora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the matching of an advanced small scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP Rankine cycle plant with end-user thermal and electric load. The power plant consists of a concentrated solar power field co-powered by a biomass furnace to produce steam in a Rankine cycle, with a CHP configuration. A hotel was selected as the end user due to its high thermal to electric consumption ratio. The power plant design and its operation were modelled and investigated by adopting transient simulations with an hourly distribution. The study of the load matching of the proposed renewable power technology and the final user has been carried out by comparing two different load tracking scenarios, i.e., the thermal and the electric demands. As a result, the power output follows fairly well the given load curves, supplying, on a selected winter day, about 50 GJ/d of thermal energy and the 6 GJ/d of electric energy, with reduced energy dumps when matching the load.

  15. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr.; Easterly, J.; Vence, T.

    1993-12-01

    In this report, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) intends to help utility companies evaluate biomass and wastes for power generation. These fuels may be alternatives or supplements to fossil fuels in three applications: (1) utility boiler coining; (2) dedicated combustion/energy recovery plants; and 3) dedicated gasification/combined cycle plants. The report summarizes data on biomass and waste properties, and evaluates the cost and performance of fuel preparation and power generation technologies. The primary biomass and waste resources evaluated are: (1) wood wastes (from forests, mills, construction/demolition, and orchards) and short rotation woody crops; (2) agricultural wastes (from fields, animals, and processing) and herbaceous energy crops; and (3) consumer or industrial wastes (e.g., municipal solid waste, scrap tires, sewage sludge, auto shredder waste). The major fuel types studied in detail are wood, municipal solid waste, and scrap tires. The key products of the project include the BIOPOWER model of biomass/waste-fired power plant performance and cost. Key conclusions of the evaluation are: (1) significant biomass and waste fuel resources are available; (2) biomass power technology cannot currently compete with natural gas-fired combined cycle technology; (3) coining biomass and waste fuels with coal in utility and industrial boilers is the most efficient, lowest cost, and lowest risk method of energy recovery from residual materials; (4) better biomass and waste fuel production and conversion technology must be developed, with the help of coordinated government energy and environmental policies and incentives; and (5) community partnerships can enhance the chances for success of a project

  16. LED power efficiency of biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production in Nannochloropsis microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Chua, Elvis T; Eltanahy, Eladl; Netzel, Michael E; Netzel, Gabriele; Lu, Yinghua; Schenk, Peer M

    2018-03-01

    The microalga Nannochloropsis produces high-value omega-3-rich fatty acids and carotenoids. In this study the effects of light intensity and wavelength on biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production with respect to light output efficiency were investigated. Similar biomass and fatty acid yields were obtained at high light intensity (150 μmol m -2  s -1 ) LEDs on day 7 and low light intensity (50 μmol m -2  s -1 ) LEDs on day 11 during cultivation, but the power efficiencies of biomass and fatty acid (specifically eicosapentaenoic acid) production were higher for low light intensity. Interestingly, low light intensity enhanced both, carotenoid power efficiency of carotenoid biosynthesis and yield. White LEDs were neither advantageous for biomass and fatty acid yields, nor the power efficiency of biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production. Noticeably, red LED resulted in the highest biomass and fatty acid power efficiency, suggesting that LEDs can be fine-tuned to grow Nannochloropsis algae more energy-efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Successful experience with limestone and other sorbents for combustion of biomass in fluid bed power boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, D.R. [LG& E Power Systems, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents the theoretical and practical advantages of utilizing limestone and other sorbents during the combustion of various biomass fuels for the reduction of corrosion and erosion of boiler fireside tubing and refractory. Successful experiences using a small amount of limestone, dolomite, kaolin, or custom blends of aluminum and magnesium compounds in fluid bed boilers fired with biomass fuels will be discussed. Electric power boiler firing experience includes bubbling bed boilers as well as circulating fluid bed boilers in commercial service on biomass fuels. Forest sources of biomass fuels fired include wood chips, brush chips, sawmill waste wood, bark, and hog fuel. Agricultural sources of biomass fuels fired include grape vine prunings, bean straw, almond tree chips, walnut tree chips, and a variety of other agricultural waste fuels. Additionally, some urban sources of wood fuels have been commercially burned with the addition of limestone. Data presented includes qualitative and quantitative analyses of fuel, sorbent, and ash.

  18. Development of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia: niche development and the formation of innovative capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    The objective of this thesis is to contribute to advance further the emerging research agenda on the transfer and diffusion of low-carbon technologies in developing countries by adopting a study of the development of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia. The main research question addresses...... the main factors influencing the transfer and diffusion of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia. This question is explored in the four papers comprising the thesis, which are based on analyses of qualitative data, mainly in the form of interviews, documents and observations collected during...... successive periods of fieldwork in Malaysia. The thesis conceptualises the diffusion of biomass technologies in Malaysia as a niche development process and finds that the development of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia has only made limited progress despite a period of twenty years...

  19. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, October 3, 1998--January 1, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1999-02-01

    Information and education activities for this quarter include both the monthly progress activities with some copies of materials developed and a copy of the annual report prepared for the Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture. The Leopold Center is a project partner and the primary sponsor of the information and education activities. The Leopold annual report references many prepared documents and assorted presentation materials. The Energy and Geological Resources Division of the Iowa Department of Natural Resources sponsors a meeting four times a year in order to bring members of the Iowa biomass energy community together to share information. In this quarter the Stakeholders meeting was held on October 21, 1998, in Des Moines Iowa. The first phase of the Geographic Information System (GIS) efforts have been completed and a final report with a map presentation of materials will be included in the next Quarterly Report. A meeting with Ed Gray of The Antares Group and project staff/cooperators was held October 23, 1998. The authors discussed the Niagara Project and the efforts to value the biomass material and partner contributions. Niagara has identified a value to the grid support capabilities of the dispersed generation.

  20. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Power Plant Integrated with Fogging Inlet Cooling and a Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Athari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass energy and especially biofuels produced by biomass gasification are clean and renewable options for power plants. Also, on hot days the performance of gas turbines decreases substantially, a problem that can be mitigated by fog cooling. In the present paper, a biomass-integrated fogging steam injected gas turbine cycle is analyzed with energy and exergy methods. It is observed that (1 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the air flow rate in the plant but reduces the biomass flow rate; (2 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature decreases the air and biomass flow rates; (3 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the energy and exergy efficiencies, especially at lower pressure ratios; (4 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature raises both efficiencies; and (5 overspray increases the energy efficiency and net cycle power slightly. The gas turbine exhibits the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the combustor the lowest. A comparison of the cycle with similar cycles fired by natural gas and differently configured cycles fueled by biomass shows that the cycle with natural gas firing has an energy efficiency 18 percentage points above the biomass fired cycle, and that steam injection increases the energy efficiency about five percentage points relative to the cycle without steam injection. Also, the influence of steam injection on energy efficiency is more significant than fog cooling.

  1. Tactical supply chain planning for a forest biomass power plant under supply uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, Nazanin; Sowlati, Taraneh; Ouhimmou, Mustapha; Rönnqvist, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty in biomass supply is a critical issue that needs to be considered in the production planning of bioenergy plants. Incorporating uncertainty in supply chain planning models provides improved and stable solutions. In this paper, we first reformulate a previously developed non-linear programming model for optimization of a forest biomass power plant supply chain into a linear programming model. The developed model is a multi-period tactical-level production planning problem and considers the supply and storage of forest biomass as well as the production of electricity. It has a one-year planning horizon with monthly time steps. Next, in order to incorporate uncertainty in monthly available biomass into the planning, we develop a two-stage stochastic programming model. Finally, to balance the risk and profit, we propose a bi-objective model. The results show that uncertainty in availability of biomass has an additional cost of $0.4 million for the power plant. Using the proposed stochastic optimization model could reduce this cost by half. - Highlights: • Developed a two-stage stochastic optimization model to consider supply uncertainty. • Maximized the profit of a forest biomass power plant value chain. • Minimized two risk measures, variability index and downside risk, to manage risks. • Stochastic optimization model provided feasible solution for all scenarios. • Results showed a trade-off between profit and risk management

  2. Summary of Information Presented at an NRC-Sponsored Low-Power Shutdown Public Workshop, April 27, 1999, Rockville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, Timothy A.; Whitehead, Donnie W.; Lois, Erasmia

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes a public workshop that was held on April 27, 1999, in Rockville, Maryland. The workshop was conducted as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) efforts to further develop its understanding of the risks associated with low power and shutdown operations at US nuclear power plants. A sufficient understanding of such risks is required to support decision-making for risk-informed regulation, in particular Regulatory Guide 1.174, and the development of a consensus standard. During the workshop the NRC staff discussed and requested feedback from the public (including representatives of the nuclear industry, state governments, consultants, private industry, and the media) on the risk associated with low-power and shutdown operations

  3. Summary of Information Presented at an NRC-Sponsored Low-Power Shutdown Public Workshop, April 27, 1999, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Timothy A.; Whitehead, Donnie W.; Lois, Erasmia

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes a public workshop that was held on April 27, 1999, in Rockville, Maryland. The workshop was conducted as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) efforts to further develop its understanding of the risks associated with low power and shutdown operations at US nuclear power plants. A sufficient understanding of such risks is required to support decision-making for risk-informed regulation, in particular Regulatory Guide 1.174, and the development of a consensus standard. During the workshop the NRC staff discussed and requested feedback from the public (including representatives of the nuclear industry, state governments, consultants, private industry, and the media) on the risk associated with low-power and shutdown operations.

  4. Biomass Supply Planning for Combined Heat and Power Plants using Stochastic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guericke, Daniela; Blanco, Ignacio; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    During the last years, the consumption of biomass to produce power and heat has increased due to the new carbon neutral policies. Nowadays, many district heating systems operate their combined heat and power (CHP) plants using different types of biomass instead of fossil fuel, especially to produ...... profitability and feasibility. The risk of major deficits in biomass supply is reduced by including appropriate risk measures to the models. We present numerical results and an economic analysis based on a realistic test case....... heat. Since biomass is transported from the supplier to the consumption sites and the contracts with the suppliers are negotiated months in advance, the negotiation process involves many uncertainties from the energy producer’s side. The demand for biomass is uncertain at the time of negotiation......, and heat demand and electricity prices vary drastically during the planning period. Furthermore, the optimal operation of combined heat and power plants has to consider the existing synergies between the power and heating systems while always fulfilling the heat demand of the system. We propose a solution...

  5. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, July 3--December 4, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes progress in several projects related to biomass power. These include switchgrass conversion development; switchgrass gasification development; production activities including soil studies, carbon studies, switchgrass production economics, watershed impacts, and prairie lands bio-products; information and education; and geographical information system. Attachments describe switchgrass co-firing test; switchgrass production in Iowa; cooperative agreements with ISU; Rathbun Lake watershed project; newspaper articles and information publications; Secretary of Agriculture Glickman`s visit; integration of technical aspects of switchgrass production in Iowa; and evaluation of an integrated biomass gasification/fuel cell power plant.

  6. GIS-based biomass resource utilization for rice straw cofiring in the Taiwanese power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Huang, An-Lei; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Rice straw, a rich agricultural byproduct in Taiwan, can be used as biomass feedstock for cofiring systems. In this study, we analyzed the penetration of rice straw cofiring systems in the Taiwanese power market. In the power generation system, rice straw is cofired with fossil fuel in existing electricity plants. The benefits of cofiring systems include increasing the use of renewable energy, decreasing the fuel cost, and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. We established a linear complementarity model to simulate the power market equilibrium with cofiring systems in Taiwan. GIS-based analysis was then used to analyze the geospatial relationships between paddy rice farms and power plants to assess potential biomass for straw-power generation. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of the biomass feedstock supply system was conducted for various cofiring scenarios. The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring in Taiwanese power market are presented in the paper. - Highlights: ► The penetration of straw cofiring systems in the power market is analyzed. ► GIS-based analysis assesses potential straw-power generation. ► The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring are presented

  7. Biomass Power Generation through Direct Integration of Updraft Gasifier and Stirling Engine Combustion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai-Houng Leu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is the largest renewable energy source in the world. Its importance grows gradually in the future energy market. Since most biomass sources are low in energy density and are widespread in space, small-scale biomass conversion system is therefore more competitive than a large stand-alone conversion plant. The current study proposes a small-scale solid biomass power system to explore the viability of direct coupling of an updraft fixed bed gasifier with a Stirling engine. The modified updraft fixed bed gasifier employs an embedded combustor inside the gasifier to fully combust the synthetic gas generated by the gasifier. The flue gas produced by the synthetic gas combustion inside the combustion tube is piped directly to the heater head of the Stirling engine. The engine will then extract and convert the heat contained in the flue gas into electricity automatically. Output depends on heat input. And, the heat input is proportional to the flow rate and temperature of the flue gas. The preliminary study of the proposed direct coupling of an updraft gasifier with a 25 kW Stirling engine demonstrates that full power output could be produced by the current system. It could be found from the current investigation that no auxiliary fuel is required to operate the current system smoothly. The proposed technology and units could be considered as a viable solid biomass power system.

  8. The Influence of the Ash from the Biomass on the Power Boiler Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kowalczyk-Juśko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing units, which use biomass for combustion and cofiring, are obliged to increase the amount of biomass from agricultural sources gradually in place of timber biomass from forests. Many different species of trees that grow on arable land, bushes, grasses or perennials can be used for energy aims. A huge variety of plants, that give biomass useful in the power industry, is connected with a big diversity of physical characteristics (hardness, specific gravity, moisture content, porosity and chemical composition. It significantly affects not only the biomass calorific value but also the condition of the boilers in which it is burnt. This paper presents the results of the research concerning the influence of the process of combustion biomass from seven plant species on the boilers fouling on the basis of ash chemical composition. The indicators that we used for the analysis were: boilers slagging, the tendency of fuel to form impurities, sintering and agglomeration. There was shown a significant variation in the content of alkalies, that cause the formation of sediment on the boilers heating surfaces. The smallest risk of heating boilers fouling is associated with perennial grasses incineration, especially the ones from the Miscanthus species, that contain significant quantities of silicon monoxide, which is responsible for the heating surfaces erosion. The usage of polycarpic plants as Virginia mallow or Jerusalem artichoke may cause pollution deposition and reduce the efficiency of boilers to the greatest degree. Because of the fact that biomass of different plant species show the diversity of energy parameters and tendencies to foul boilers there is a need to select the material to the combustion carefully and also blends of biomass raw materials (or biomass with coal should be composed so that they are adapted to the boiler parameters and to the conditions of the combustion process.

  9. Investment appraisal for small CHP technology in biomass-fuel power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The paper is essentially an investment appraisal for small CHP (combined heat and power) technology in biomass-fuel power plant and discusses and presents data on the combustion/steam cycle technologies to demonstrate the economic viability of CHP projects using established market costs for technology and employing energy crops as biomass fuel. The data is based on the UK, where electricity prices are low, but the overseas market (where prices are higher and there is potential for UK exports) is also discussed. The report aims to synthesise up-to-date technical and economic information on biomass-fuel CHP projects of small scale and focuses on technical and financial information on equipment, capital, construction and operating costs, and revenue streams.

  10. Sustainable model for financial viability of decentralized biomass gasifier based power projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palit, D.; Malhotra, R.; Kumar, Atul

    2011-01-01

    This paper made a modest attempt for designing a sustainable model for financial viability of biomass gasifier power projects for enhancing electricity access in India and other developing countries. For long term sustainability of distributed generation projects in remote rural areas, viability

  11. Danish Experiences with Deposit Probe Measurements in Grate and Pulverized Fuel Biomass Power Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Several measuring campaigns with focus on deposition behavior have been conducted at full-scale power plants firing biomass in Denmark. These campaigns have been reviewed in this work. The focus is the obtained experiences on deposit formation, shedding and chemistry. When comparing results from...

  12. A financial evaluation of biomass-gasifier-based power generation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, A.K.; Iyer, P.V.R.; Kandpal, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary financial evaluation of biomass-gasifier-based power generation in India was undertaken. Simple cost functions were developed and used for this purpose. The unit cost of electricity has been estimated for a variety of scenarios taking into account some of the uncertainties associated with this emerging technology in India. (author)

  13. Characterization of biomass producer gas as fuel for stationary gas engines in combined heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this project has been the characterization of biomass producer gas as a fuel for stationary gas engines in heat and power production. More than 3200 hours of gas engine operation, with producer gas as fuel, has been conducted at the biomass gasification combined heat and power (CHP...... from 50% to 90% load. Biomass producer gas is an excellent lean burn engine fuel: Operation of a natural aspirated engine has been achieved for 1.2...

  14. Combined heat and power production through biomass gasification with 'Heatpipe-Reformer'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, I.; Kamburova, V.; Terziev, A.

    2013-01-01

    The current report aims is to analyze the system for combined heat and power production through biomass gasification with “heatpipe-reformer” system. Special attention is paid on the process of synthetic gas production in the Reformer, its cleaning and further burning in the co-generation unit. A financial analysis is made regarding the investments and profits generated by the combined heat and power production. (authors)

  15. Gas generation from biomass for decentralized power supply systems; Gaserzeugung fuer dezentrale Energiesysteme auf der Basis von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, H.; Papamichalis, A.; Heek, K.H. van [DMT-Inst. fuer Kokserzeugung und Brennstofftechnik, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    By a reaction with steam, bioresidues and plants can be converted into a gas consisting mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane which can be used for electric power generation in gas engines, gas turbins and fuel cells. The conversion processes, especially the fuel cell process, are environment-friendly and efficient. For decentralized applications (i.e. for biomass volumes of 0.5 to 1 t/h), an allothermal process is recommended which is described in detail. (orig) [Deutsch] Durch Reaktion mit Wasserdampf lassen sich Bioreststoffe und Energiepflanzen zu einem Gas umsetzen, das im wesentlichen aus Wasserstoff, Kohlenmonoxid und Methan besteht und z.B. ueber Gasmotoren, Gasturbinen, vorzugsweise aber Brennstoffzellen zu Strom umgewandelt werden kann. Die Umwandlungsverfahren, insbesondere unter Benutzung von Brennstoffzellen, sind umweltfreundlich und haben einen hohen Wirkungsgrad. Als Vergasungsverfahren eignet sich fuer die dezentrale Anwendung. - d.h. fuer eine Biomassemenge von 0,5 bis 1 t/h - insbesondere das hier beschriebene allotherme Verfahren. (orig)

  16. Using spatial information technologies to select sites for biomass power plants: A case study in Guangdong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xun [Geography Department, Dartmouth College, 6017 Fairchild, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Elmore, Andrew [Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Li, Xia; Wang, Fang [School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Gorence, Nathaniel J. [Epic Systems Corporation, Madison, WI 53703 (United States); Jin, Haiming [TX Energy, LLC, Houston, TX 77056 (United States); Zhang, Xiaohao [Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangzhou 510070 (China)

    2008-01-15

    Biomass is distributed over extensive areas. Therefore, transportation cost is a critical factor in planning new biomass power plants. This paper presents a case study of using remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) to evaluate the feasibility of setting up new biomass power plants and optimizing the locations of plants in Guangdong, China. In this study, the biologically available biomass was estimated from MODIS/Terra remote sensing data. The amount of biomass that is usable for energy production was then derived using a model incorporating factors including vegetation type, ecological retaining, economical competition, and harvest cost. GIS was employed to define the supply area of each candidate site based on transportation distance along roads. The amount of usable biomass within the supply area was calculated and optimal sites were identified accordingly. This study presents a procedural framework for taking advantage of spatial information technologies to achieve more scientific planning in bioenergy power plant construction. (author)

  17. Robust control for a gas turbine in biomass-based electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melguizo, F.J.; Ortega, M.; Cano, A.

    2002-07-01

    A power plant can generate electric power using biomass from olive trees in Spain. The gasifier is capable of converting tons of wood chips per day into a gaseous fuel that is fed into a gas turbine. While there are significant systems whose models may be exactly obtained from physical laws and whose states are measured, it is much less realistic to assume that all the parameters, such as biogas pressure or specific heat ratio in gas turbines, are exactly known. It is then natural to investigate what happens to control systems involving unknown, or not precisely known, parameters. In this paper, the derived model of gas turbine is quite valid for robust control studies in biomass-based electric power plants. (author)

  18. Micro Combined Heat and Power to provide heat and electrical power using biomass and Gamma-type Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damirchi, Hojjatollah; Najafi, G.; Alizadehnia, Siamak; Mamat, R.; Nor Azwadi, Che Sidik; Azmi, W.H.; Noor, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MCHP system by using of biomass and Stirling engine produced heat and electrical power. • Thermal efficiency of Stirling engine driven by the different biomass gases was 16%. • Maximum power (25.79 W) was obtained from sawdust and minimum for wood (10.71 W). • The maximum power was obtained with helium at 550 °C and 10 bar pressure at 700 rpm. • Results encouraged initiating the design of 1 kWe MCHP for rural electrification. - Abstract: With consideration of the biomass energy potential, a Gamma type Stirling engine with 220 cc swept volume and 580 cc total volume was designed, optimized and manufactured. The engine was tested with helium. Working characteristics of the engine were obtained within the range of heat source temperature of 370–410 °C and charge pressure of 10 bar for biomass resources. The heat source temperature of 540–560 °C and range of charge pressure 1–12 bar with 1 bar increments at each stage for gases were also looked into. By using of thermodynamic and heat transfer design methods, the key parameters of the designed Stirling engine like required surfaces for heat transfer were calculated (hot side 307 and the cold side 243 squares of centimeters). For the purpose of the analysis of fluid flow, a two-dimensional flow analysis method was performed with the CFD software methods. The principles of thermodynamics as well as the Schmidt theory were adapted to use for modeling the engine and then pressure – volume diagrams of the thermodynamic and Schmidt analysis were compared. During the test, the temperature was monitored by thermocouples and the pressure of the working fluid helium was monitored by pressure sensors. Indicated power, friction power and brake power were measured and the maximum brake power output was obtained with helium at 550 °C heat source temperature and 10-bar charge pressure at 700 rpm as 96.7 W. The electrical energy was produced from burning of biomass and flammable agricultural wastes

  19. Study on the application of combined cooling, heating and power system with biomass energy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Haibin; Sun, Rongfeng; Zhang, Weijie; Fan, Xiaoxu; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhao, Baofeng

    2017-08-01

    CCHP (Combined Cooling Heating and Power) system is highly evaluated and developed rapidly around the world possessing better performance than traditional energy systems because of the cascade utilization of energy. Biomass is one of the renewable energy resources that is abundant and has been widely used in China for a long time. In this paper the principle and development of biomass gasification system and CCHP is clarified, the feasibility of combining the two systems together is analyzed from theoretical and technical points of view, and the active significance is also indicated. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop CCHP with Biomass Energy in an agricultural country such as China, which can flourish in the future.

  20. Development Strategies for Deployment of Biomass Resources in the Production of Biomass Power: November 6, 2001--February 28, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, J.

    2004-01-01

    The study analyzes strategies for deployment of biomass resources for biopower generation. It compares biomass supply databases and the projected biopower market penetration for several alternative incentive scenarios. It analyzes the availability of biomass to meet the projected market demands and recommends future research.

  1. Occupational exposure at a contemplated Belarussian power plant fired with contaminated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.; Roed, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    -called 'big bags' filled with fly ash waste. Inhalation doses were estimated to be low. External doses received while working at the power plant do not appear to be highly significant compared with the doses from environmental contamination in the area where the power plant is expected to be constructed.......To meet the current demand in Belarus for remediation of the vast forest areas that were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident and at the same time establish a much needed energy production, applying contaminated forest biomass as fuel in special power plants is being considered. This paper...

  2. Direct power generation from waste coffee grounds in a biomass fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hansaem; Ocon, Joey D.; Lee, Seunghwa; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of direct power generation from waste coffee grounds (WCG) via high-temperature carbon fuel cell technology. At 900 °C, the WCG-powered fuel cell exhibits a maximum power density that is twice than carbon black. Our results suggest that the heteroatoms and hydrogen contained in WCG are crucial in providing good cell performance due to its in-situ gasification, without any need for pre-reforming. As a first report on the use of coffee as a carbon-neutral fuel, this study shows the potential of waste biomass (e.g. WCG) in sustainable electricity generation in fuel cells.

  3. The biomass valorization / the electric power in processes: innovation and challenges; valorisation de la biomasse / l'electricite dans les procedes: innovation et defis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahy, M. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Leclercq, M. [Ministere de l' Industrie, des Postes et Telecommunications et du Commerce Exterieur, 75 - Paris (France). Direction Generale de L' Energie et des Matieres Premieres; Gosse, G. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 75 - Paris (France); Lacour, P.A. [AFOCEL, 34 - St Clement de Riviere (France); Ballerini, D.; Duplan, J.L.; Monot, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 69 - Lyon (France); Seiler, J.M. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France); Ancelme, A. [Syndicat National des Producteurs d' Alcools Agricoles (SNPAA), 92 - Neuilly (France); Vermeersch, G. [Sofiproteol, 75 - Paris (France); Hervouet, V. [Total, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Rouveirolles, P. [Renault, 92 6 Boulogne Billancourt (France); Bellot, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Pascual, C. [ELYO Cylergie, 69 - Ecully (France); Girard, M. [PRONOVIAL, 51 - Reims (France); Bernard, D. [ARKEMA, 69 - Lyon (France); Dussaud, J.; Vrevin, L. [Ahlstrom Research and Services, Edinburgh, Midlothian (United Kingdom); Mentink, L. [Roquette Freres (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    In a context of an insufficient offer on processes/technology, this day is devoted to the processes adapted to the biomass conversion in energy, fuels and other products. It provides presentations on the biomass economy and regulations, the different channels, the thermochemical processes to produce synthetic fuels and hydrogen, the ethanol production, refiners, automotive industry, an electric power, producer point of view, the byproducts. (A.L.B.)

  4. Jointly Sponsored Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett A. Sondreal; John G. Hendrikson; Thomas A. Erickson

    2009-03-31

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40321 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) supported the performance of a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) with a minimum 50% nonfederal cost share to assist industry in commercializing and effectively applying highly efficient, nonpolluting energy systems that meet the nation's requirements for clean fuels, chemicals, and electricity in the 21st century. The EERC in partnership with its nonfederal partners jointly performed 131 JSRP projects for which the total DOE cost share was $22,716,634 (38%) and the nonfederal share was $36,776,573 (62%). Summaries of these projects are presented in this report for six program areas: (1) resource characterization and waste management, (2) air quality assessment and control, (3) advanced power systems, (4) advanced fuel forms, (5) value-added coproducts, and (6) advanced materials. The work performed under this agreement addressed DOE goals for reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions through efficiency, capture, and sequestration; near-zero emissions from highly efficient coal-fired power plants; environmental control capabilities for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine respirable particulate (PM{sub 2.5}), and mercury; alternative transportation fuels including liquid synfuels and hydrogen; and synergistic integration of fossil and renewable resources.

  5. Experience with a biomass-fuelled power plant in Peru. Peru kokunai no biomass nenryoka no hatsuden plant no keiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the result of operating a 25-kW biomass-fuelled power plant for 500 hours installed for people in a small village in jungle along the Amazon basin in Peru. The gasifier plant consists of two invert type gas combustors combined with series cyclone dryer filters. Filtration used activated carbons and cotton cloths. The fuel for the plant is wood chips containing water at 5.5% to 11% with calorific power of 20 mJ/kg, consumed at 2.0 kg of lumber per kWh (25 kWh). A gas analysis showed values of CO2 at 13%, CO at 14%, H2 at 18%, CH4 at 3%, and N2 at 52%. Because the fuel of wood chips may cause problems if the size is too large, a size of about 10[times]20[times]30 mm was selected finally. Pressure drop in the gas purifying system was measured using a manometer, which verified that a textile filtering material can be used. The gasoline engine rotation was fixed at 2700 rpm upon discussions. The gasoline engine had no need of modification except at a pipe to the carburetor. This system can be installed at any small village. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  6. Process analysis of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant fed with a biomass syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, C.; Baratieri, M.; Bosio, B.; Arato, E.; Baggio, P.

    The coupling of renewable energy sources and innovative power generation technologies is of topical interest to meet demands for increased power generation and cleaner environmental performance. Accordingly, biomass is receiving considerable attention as a partial substitute for fossil fuels, as it is more environmentally friendly and provides a profitable way of disposing of waste. In addition, fuel cells are perceived as most promising electrical power generation systems. Today, many plants combining these two concepts are under study; they differ in terms of biomass type and/or power plant configuration. Even if the general feasibility of such applications has been demonstrated, there are still many associated problems to be resolved. This study examines a plant configuration based on a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a recirculated fluidized-bed reactor which has been applied to the thermal conversion of many types of biomass. Process analysis is conducted by simulating the entire plant using a commercial code. In particular, an energy assessment is studied by taking account of the energy requirements of auxiliary equipment and the possibility of utilizing the exhaust gases for cogeneration.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Systems in China Using Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huacai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China.

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Systems in China Using Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG) systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI) approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China. PMID:25383383

  9. Life cycle assessment of fossil and biomass power generation chains. An analysis carried out for ALSTOM Power Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Ch.

    2008-12-15

    This final report issued by the Technology Assessment Department of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reports on the results of an analysis carried out on behalf of the Alstom Power Services company. Fossil and biomass chains as well as co-combustion power plants are assessed. The general objective of this analysis is an evaluation of specific as well as overall environmental burdens resulting from these different options for electricity production. The results obtained for fuel chains including hard coal, lignite, wood, natural gas and synthetic natural gas are discussed. An overall comparison is made and the conclusions drawn from the results of the analysis are presented.

  10. The Use of Fire Radiative Power to Estimate the Biomass Consumption Coefficient for Temperate Grasslands in the Atlantic Forest Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Salvador Cabral da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Every year, many active fire spots are identified in the satellite images of the southern Brazilian grasslands in the Atlantic Forest biome and Pampa biome. Fire Radiative Power (FRP is a technique that uses remotely sensed data to quantify burned biomass. FRP measures the radiant energy released per time unit by burning vegetation. This study aims to use satellite and field data to estimate the biomass consumption rate and the biomass consumption coefficient for the southern Brazilian grasslands. Three fire points were identified in satellite FRP products. These data were combined with field data, collected through literature review, to calculate the biomass consumption coefficient. The type of vegetation is an important variable in the estimation of the biomass consumption coefficient. The biomass consumption rate was estimated to be 2.237 kg s-1 for the southern Brazilian grasslands in Atlantic Forest biome, and the biomass consumption coefficient was estimated to be 0.242 kg MJ-1.

  11. Biomass and number of fish impinged at a nuclear power plant by the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Bryhn, Andreas; Bergenius, Mikaela; Dimberg, Peter H; Adill, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the number and biomass of impinged fish at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden, located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Of particular interest was the number of impinged individuals of the critically endangered European eel (Anguilla anguilla) which is regularly caught in the cooling system. Another aim was to determine the comparability of the results from Forsmark and results from impingement studies in other types of waters. Cross-systems st...

  12. Assessing biomass-fired gas turbine power plants: a techno-economic and environmental perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ihiabe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Fossil fuels continue to deplete with use as they are irreplaceable. In addition, the environmental impact with the continuous use of these conventional fuels has generated global concern due to the production of harmful emission gases. An alternative source of energy has become inevitable. Technological advancements in the area of biomass use for both aviation and power generation are at different levels of development. There is however the need for an integrated approach t...

  13. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, September 23, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1997-02-01

    Goals for the biomass power for rural development include: expanded feedstock research and demonstration activities to provide soil-specific production costs and yield data, as well as better methods for harvest and transport; four thousand acres of feedstock available for fueling a commercial venture; comparison of the feasibility of gasification and cocombustion; designs for on-site switchgrass handling and feeding system; a detailed assessment of utilizing switchgrass for gasification and cocombustion to generate electricity using turbines and fuel cells.

  14. Combined Heat and Power Systems for the Provision of Sustainable Energy from Biomass in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortwein Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of greenhouse gases causing climate change, combined heat and power (CHP systems fueled by biomass can efficiently supply energy with high flexibility. Such CHP systems will usually consist of one or more thermo-chemical conversion steps and at least one (the more or less separated electric power generation unit. Depending on the main products of the previous conversion steps (e.g. combustible gases or liquids, but also flue gases with sensible heat, different technologies are available for the final power conversion step. This includes steam cycles with steam turbines or engines and different working fluids (water, organic fluids, but also combustion based systems like gas turbines or gas engines. Further promising technologies include fuel cells with high electric efficiency. When integrating such CHP systems in buildings, there are different strategies, especially concerning electric power generation. While some concepts are focusing on base load production, others are regulated either by thermal or by electric power demand. The paper will give a systematic overview on the combination of thermo-chemical conversion of biomass and combined heat and power production technologies. The mentioned building integration strategies will be discussed, leading to conclusions for further research and development in that field.

  15. Power production from biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD, was organized by VTT Energy on 27 - 28 March 1995 in Espoo, Finland. All seminar speakers were invited in order to give a high-level overview of the achievements of biomass combustion, gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies. The sessions included presentations by all key industrial entrepreneurs in the field. The poster session was open to all groups interested. Globally bioenergy covers about 3 % of the primary energy consumption. Locally it has a significant role in many countries like in Finland, where bioenergy covers almost 15 % and peat 5 % of primary energy consumption. Today`s cost-effective heat and power production is based on industrial wood residues and spent cooking liquors in relatively large industrial units or municipal heating and power stations. Agricultural residues like straw and especially energy crops are becoming more interesting in co-utilization with other biomasses or fossil fuels. The seminar successfully displayed the status of present technologies as well as development targets for new gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies in the coming years. The many industrial participants showed that there are growing business possibilities in many countries all over the world. The proceedings include the most oral presentations given at the Seminar and also abstracts of poster presentations. (orig.)

  16. Optimal Sizing of a Hybrid Grid-Connected Photovoltaic–Wind–Biomass Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnau González

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES are a trendy alternative to enhance the renewable energy deployment worldwide. They effectively take advantage of scalability and flexibility of these energy sources, since combining two or more allows counteracting the weaknesses of a stochastic renewable energy source with the strengths of another or with the predictability of a non-renewable energy source. This work presents an optimization methodology for minimum life cycle cost of a HRES based on solar photovoltaic, wind and biomass power. Biomass power seeks to take advantage of locally available forest wood biomass in the form of wood chips to provide energy in periods when the PV and wind power generated are not enough to match the existing demand. The results show that a HRES combining the selected three sources of renewable energy could be installed in a rural township of about 1300 dwellings with an up-front investment of US $7.4 million, with a total life cycle cost of slightly more than US $30 million. Such a system would have benefits in terms of energy autonomy and environment quality improvement, as well as in term of job opportunity creation.

  17. Thermodynamic optimization of biomass gasification for decentralized power generation and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, 781 039, Assam (India)

    2010-06-15

    In recent years, biomass gasification has emerged as a viable option for decentralized power generation, especially in developing countries. Another potential use of producer gas from biomass gasification is in terms of feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis - a process for manufacture of synthetic gasoline and diesel. This paper reports optimization of biomass gasification process for these two applications. Using the non-stoichometric equilibrium model (SOLGASMIX), we have assessed the outcome of gasification process for different combinations of operating conditions. Four key parameters have been used for optimization, viz. biomass type (saw dust, rice husk, bamboo dust), air or equivalence ratio (AR = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), temperature of gasification (T = 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 C), and gasification medium (air, air-steam 10% mole/mole mixture, air-steam 30%mole/mole mixture). Performance of the gasification process has been assessed with four measures, viz. molar content of H{sub 2} and CO in the producer gas, H{sub 2}/CO molar ratio, LHV of producer gas and overall efficiency of gasifier. The optimum sets of operating conditions for gasifier for FT synthesis are: AR = 0.2-0.4, Temp = 800-1000 C, and gasification medium as air. The optimum sets of operating conditions for decentralized power generation are: AR = 0.3-0.4, Temp = 700-800 C with gasification medium being air. The thermodynamic model and methodology presented in this work also presents a general framework, which could be extended for optimization of biomass gasification for any other application. (author)

  18. Thermodynamic optimization of biomass gasification for decentralized power generation and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buragohain, Buljit; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, biomass gasification has emerged as a viable option for decentralized power generation, especially in developing countries. Another potential use of producer gas from biomass gasification is in terms of feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis - a process for manufacture of synthetic gasoline and diesel. This paper reports optimization of biomass gasification process for these two applications. Using the non-stoichometric equilibrium model (SOLGASMIX), we have assessed the outcome of gasification process for different combinations of operating conditions. Four key parameters have been used for optimization, viz. biomass type (saw dust, rice husk, bamboo dust), air or equivalence ratio (AR = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), temperature of gasification (T = 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 o C), and gasification medium (air, air-steam 10% mole/mole mixture, air-steam 30%mole/mole mixture). Performance of the gasification process has been assessed with four measures, viz. molar content of H 2 and CO in the producer gas, H 2 /CO molar ratio, LHV of producer gas and overall efficiency of gasifier. The optimum sets of operating conditions for gasifier for FT synthesis are: AR = 0.2-0.4, Temp = 800-1000 o C, and gasification medium as air. The optimum sets of operating conditions for decentralized power generation are: AR = 0.3-0.4, Temp = 700-800 o C with gasification medium being air. The thermodynamic model and methodology presented in this work also presents a general framework, which could be extended for optimization of biomass gasification for any other application.

  19. Externalities of biomass based electricity production compared to power generation from coal in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, A.; Meuleman, B.

    1997-12-01

    Externalities of electricity production from biomass and coal are investigated and compared for the Dutch context. Effects on economic activity and employment are investigated by means of Input/Output and multiplier tables. Valuations of damage from emissions to air are based on generic data from other studies. In addition, external costs are estimated for nitrogen leaching and for the use of agrochemicals for energy crop production. The average private costs for biomass and coal based power generation are projected to be 68 and 38 mECU/kWh respectively in the year 2005. It is assumed that biomass production takes place on fallow land. Coal mining is excluded from the analysis. If the quantified external damages and benefits are included the cost range for bio-electricity is 53-70 mECU/kWh and 45-72 mECU/kWh for coal. Indirect economic effects (increment of Gross Domestic Product) and the difference in CO2 emissions are the most important distinguishing factors between coal and biomass in economic terms. Damage costs of other emissions to air (NOx, SO2, dust and CO) are of the same order of magnitude for both coal and biomass (coal mining excluded). In this analysis environmental impacts of energy farming are compared mainly to fallow land focused on the use of fertilizers and agrochemicals. The related damage costs appear to be low but should be considered as a preliminary estimate only. The quantitative outcomes should not be considered as the external costs of the two fuel cycles studied. Many impacts have not been valued and large uncertainties persist e.g. with respect to the costs of climate change and numerous dose response relations. More detailed analysis is required with respect to macro-economic impacts. The results serve as a first indication, but the outcomes plead for the support of bio-electricity production and/or taxation of coal based power generation. 88 refs

  20. A roadmap for production of sustainable, consistent and reliable electric power from agricultural biomass- An Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of agricultural biomass for production of electric power can help to reduce the environmental emissions while achieving energy security and sustainable development. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the power production potential of agricultural biomass in a country. Further, the methodology has been applied to develop a roadmap for producing reliable power in India. The present study reveals that about 650 Mt/year of agricultural biomass is generated in India, while about one-third of this has been found to be surplus for energy applications. The cereal crops have major contribution (64.60%) in production of surplus biomass followed by sugarcane (24.60%) and cotton (10.68%). The energy potential of these resources is of the order of 3.72 EJ, which represents a significant proportion of the primary energy consumption in the country. These biomass resources can produce electric power of 23–35 GW depending upon the efficiency of thermal conversion. The delivery of biomass to the plants and selection of appropriate technology have been found as the major issues that need to be resolved carefully. In the end, the study summarizes various technological options for biomass collection and utilization that can be used for producing clean and consistent power supply. - Highlights: •The production of bioelectricity in India is imperative and inevitable. •About one-third of the agricultural biomass is available for power generation. •The power potential of these resources is of the order of 23–31 GW. •The delivery of biomass to plants and technology selection are the key issues. •India should exploit these resources for producing clean and reliable power.

  1. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, Phase 2, July 1--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1999-01-01

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase 1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and forging the necessary agreements to demonstrate commercial willow production. The Phase 1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boiler for 20 MW of biopower capacity; developing fuel supply plans for the project with a goal of establishing 365 ha (900 ac) of willow; obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase 2; obtaining construction and environmental permits; and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase 1 requirements, the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and has initiated development of the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. In Phase 2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow biomass will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase 2 is to transition the work performed under the Biomass Power for Rural Development project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  2. Biomass power generation in competitive markets - The impact of instruments and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas; Soeder, Lennart

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents and briefly evaluates the most important existing market instruments and market schemes which support the development of renewable energy generation as well as the impact of market regulations on the development of biomass power generation. The evaluation of the existing instruments focuses on the incentives provided by the various instruments to reduce production costs. The instruments and schemes are: Feed-in Tariffs, Net Metering, Bidding Process, Fixed Quotas, Green Certificate Trading, Green Power Exchange, Green Pricing. Feed-in tariffs and net metering are important instruments to get the different technologies 'off the ground', however, they can only be considered an interim solution as they do not necessarily lead to cost reduction. A bidding process is one way to achieve these cost reductions, but high transaction costs will support the development of large renewable energy projects, which is not always the desired effect. Fixed quotas combined with green certificate trading or a power exchange in combination with Green Pricing seem to lead to similar costs reduction, however, so far there is only limited experience with such instruments. The analysis of the impact of market regulations focuses on international electricity markets with a power exchange. Such markets exist, for example, in Scandinavia, England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand and California. The analysis showed that new distributed generation, for example based on biomass, faces significant market barriers. Furthermore, distributed generation is not treated equally within the market regulations compared to large-scale power generation

  3. The potential impact of externalities considerations on the market for biomass power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swezey, B.G.; Porter, K.L.; Feher, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Of all the renewable energy sources used for power generation, biomass energy has experienced the greatest growth over the last decade. Spurred by requirements established in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), as well as various tax incentives, biomass-based power generation now provides more than 50 billion kWh of electric energy from 10,000 MW of installed capacity. The overwhelming majority of this capacity, primarily wood-based, has been developed by the nonutility sector. However, the biomass industry is currently facing more difficult market conditions due to a reduction in federal incentives and changes in the generation market, such as lower utility avoided costs, slower demand growth, and greater competition among both generators and fuel sources. States are increasingly contemplating the inclusion of market externalities costs and benefits associated with different generation options in electricity resource planning and procurement decisions. Market externalities, as they relate to generation resources and technologies, represent impacts that are not wholly reflected in the market price of electricity derived from these sources. These impacts, which can be either positive or negative, can encompass environmental, economic and other social factors, but state considerations have focused predominantly on environmental externalities costs, especially air emissions. The explicit quantification of externalities could measurably affect the competitive standing of various energy resources and technologies in future generation resource acquisitions. This paper summarizes work undertaken to assess the status the externalities considerations in state and utility electricity resource planning processes and to determine how externalities considerations might help or hinder future development of biomass power plants. (author)

  4. Numerical simulation of a hybrid CSP/Biomass 5 MWel power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, João; Oliveira, Armando

    2017-06-01

    The fundamental benefit of using renewable energy systems is undeniable since they rely on a source that will not run out. Nevertheless, they strongly depend on meteorological conditions (solar, wind, etc.), leading to uncertainty of instantaneous energy supply and consequently to grid connection issues. An interesting concept is renewable hybridisation. This consists in the strategic combination of different renewable sources in the power generation portfolio by taking advantage of each technology. Hybridisation of concentrating solar power with biomass denotes a powerful way of assuring system stability and reliability. The main advantage is dispatchability through the whole extent of the operating range. Regarding concentrating solar power heat transfer fluid, direct steam generation is one of the most interesting concepts. Nevertheless, it presents itself technical challenges that are mostly related to the two-phase fluid flow in horizontal pipes, as well as the design of an energy storage system. Also, the use of reheat within the turbine is usually indirectly addressed, hindering system efficiency. These challenges can be addressed through hybridisation with biomass. In this paper, a hybrid renewable electricity generation system is presented. The system relies on a combination of solar and biomass sources to drive a 5 MWel steam turbine. System performance is analysed through numerical simulation using Ebsilon professional software. The use of direct reheat in the turbine is addressed. Results show that hybridisation results in an enhancement of system dispatchability and generation stability. Furthermore, hybridisation enhanced the annual solar field and power block efficiencies, and thus the system annual efficiency (from 7.6% to 20%). The use of direct reheat eliminates steam wetness in the last turbine stage and also improves system efficiency.

  5. Geographical distributions of biomass and potential sites of rubber wood fired power plants in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukanont, P.; Prasertsan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass residues from rubber trees in rubber producing countries have immense potential for power production. This paper presents the case of the south peninsular of Thailand, where the rubber industry is intense. Mathematical models were developed to determine the maximum affordable fuel cost and optimum capacity of the power plant for a given location of known area-based fuel availability density. GIS data of rubber growing was used to locate the appropriate sites and sizes of the power plants. Along 700 km of the highway network in the region, it was found that 8 power plants are financially feasible. The total capacity is 186.5 MW e . The fuel procurement area is in the range of less than 35 km. (Author)

  6. Research on the Intensive Material Management System of Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruosi; Hao, Tianyi; Li, Yunxiao; Zhang, Fangqing; Ding, Sheng

    2017-05-01

    In view of the universal problem which the material management is loose, and lack of standardization and interactive real-time in the biomass power plant, a system based on the method of intensive management is proposed in this paper to control the whole process of power plant material. By analysing the whole process of power plant material management and applying the Internet of Things, the method can simplify the management process. By making use of the resources to maximize and data mining, material utilization, circulation rate and quality control management can be improved. The system has been applied in Gaotang power plant, which raised the level of materials management and economic effectiveness greatly. It has an important significance for safe, cost-effective and highly efficient operation of the plant.

  7. Biomass energy technologies for rural infrastructure and village power - opportunities and challenges in the context of global climate change concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, V.V.N.; Bhandari, P.M.; Gupta, P.

    2004-01-01

    The potential and role of biomass resources in developing countries for addressing global climate change concerns are highlighted using India as a case study. Promotion of technologies, which use biomass more efficiently, is seen as a key strategy to integrate the concerns of both developing countries and developed countries. The role of various biomass technologies for improving rural infrastructure and village power is discussed in detail. A vision of establishing and running a chain of rural energy service companies, operating with a basket of devices and technologies, under the general provisions of CDM, is examined for commercialization and mainstreaming of biomass technologies which have achieved reasonable levels of maturity. (author)

  8. Gas, power and heat generation from biomass by allothermal gasification; Gas-, Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus Biomasse durch allotherme Vergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaqub Chughtai, M. [H und C Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Muehlen, H.J. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The allothermal DMT gasification process for biomass is a newcomer. The process, its initial materials, the uses of the product gas, and advantages of the allothermal process are described here. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz des allothermen DMT-Vergasungsverfahrens fuer Biomasse ist neu. Verfahren, Einsatzstoffe und Produktgasnutzung, sowie Vorteile des allothermen Verfahrens werden hier beschrieben. (orig./SR)

  9. Description of innovative power technologies for biomass using. High efficiency combined production of heat, cold and electricity - ORC technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mileva, D.

    2013-01-01

    The ORC - technologies (Organic Rankine Cycle) are comfortable to be used for combined heat and power production for domestic and industrial needs (local supply), mean for their height efficiency and long exploitation period. Biomass is a primary energy source. (author)

  10. Possibilities for biomass-based power plant and wind system integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, Francisco [Jaen Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Linares (Jaen) (Spain); Saenz, Jose R. [Univ. of the Basque Country, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    In this paper, the integration of a biomass-based diesel-wind system is investigated. The system consists of a pitch controlled wind turbine, which is equipped with an induction generator. The induction generator is connected to an ac bus-bar in parallel with a diesel-generator set consisting of a diesel engine driving a synchronous generator. A power plant can generate electric power using biomass from the olive tree in Spain. A gasifier is capable of converting tons of wood chips per day into a gaseous fuel that is fed into a diesel engine. While there are significant systems whose models may be exactly obtained from physical laws and whose states are measured, it is much less realistic to assume that all the parameters, such as the higher heating value of the biogas or wind speed, are exactly known. It is then natural to investigate what happens to control systems involving unknown, or not precisely known, parameters. In this paper, the derived model of biomass-based wind-diesel systems is quite valid for robust control studies. (Author)

  11. Assessment of the way of biomass transportation to the coal power plant with regard to the limitation of emissions of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamkiewicz, A.; Zenczak, W.

    2014-01-01

    One from the activities taken in Poland in aim of limitation of CO 2 , emission is coal and biomass combustion together in one boiler. Biomass is delivered to power station Dolna Odra in Szczecin by trucks, which are also a source of CO 2 , emission. The paper presents results of comparative analysis of CO 2 , emission from trucks during transportation of biomass to power station with actual reduction of emission through power station as result of substitution of part of coal by biomass.

  12. Biomass enables the transition to a carbon-negative power system across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel L.; Nelson, James H.; Johnston, Josiah; Mileva, Ana; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    Sustainable biomass can play a transformative role in the transition to a decarbonized economy, with potential applications in electricity, heat, chemicals and transportation fuels. Deploying bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) results in a net reduction in atmospheric carbon. BECCS may be one of the few cost-effective carbon-negative opportunities available should anthropogenic climate change be worse than anticipated or emissions reductions in other sectors prove particularly difficult. Previous work, primarily using integrated assessment models, has identified the critical role of BECCS in long-term (pre- or post-2100 time frames) climate change mitigation, but has not investigated the role of BECCS in power systems in detail, or in aggressive time frames, even though commercial-scale facilities are starting to be deployed in the transportation sector. Here, we explore the economic and deployment implications for BECCS in the electricity system of western North America under aggressive (pre-2050) time frames and carbon emissions limitations, with rich technology representation and physical constraints. We show that BECCS, combined with aggressive renewable deployment and fossil-fuel emission reductions, can enable a carbon-negative power system in western North America by 2050 with up to 145% emissions reduction from 1990 levels. In most scenarios, the offsets produced by BECCS are found to be more valuable to the power system than the electricity it provides. Advanced biomass power generation employs similar system design to advanced coal technology, enabling a transition strategy to low-carbon energy.

  13. International and Domestic Market Opportunities for Biomass Power: Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-09-01

    This report examines the domestic and international markets for biopower. Domestic and foreign markets present fundamentally different challenges to private power developers. Volume I focuses on the domestic market for biopower. The domestic challenge lies in finding economically viable opportunities for biopower. Vol. I outlines the current state of the U.S. biomass industry, discusses policies affecting biomass development, describes some demonstration projects currently underway, and discusses the future direction of the industry. Volume II focuses on the international market for biopower. Recent literature states that the electricity investment and policy climate in foreign markets are the key elements in successful private project development. Vol. II discusses the financing issues, policy climate, and business incentives and barriers to biopower development. As India and China are the largest future markets for biopower, they are the focus of this volume. Three other top markets- -Brazil, Indonesia, and the Philippines--are also discussed. Potential financial resources wrap up the discussion.

  14. Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass-coal co-gasification power generation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2016-04-01

    A novel chemical looping power generation system is presented based on the biomass-coal co-gasification with steam. The effects of different key operation parameters including biomass mass fraction (Rb), steam to carbon mole ratio (Rsc), gasification temperature (Tg) and iron to fuel mole ratio (Rif) on the system performances like energy efficiency (ηe), total energy efficiency (ηte), exergy efficiency (ηex), total exergy efficiency (ηtex) and carbon capture rate (ηcc) are analyzed. A benchmark condition is set, under which ηte, ηtex and ηcc are found to be 39.9%, 37.6% and 96.0%, respectively. Furthermore, detailed energy Sankey diagram and exergy Grassmann diagram are drawn for the entire system operating under the benchmark condition. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the units composing the system are also predicted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Autothermal upgrading of biomass and wastes for clean and efficient production of power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafal Kobylecki; Zbigniew Bis; Wojciech Nowak [Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated that the main barrier of large scale heat and electricity production from biomass may be significantly reduced or eliminated by fuel upgrading and thermal treatment in a specially-designed pilot plant autothermal reactor. The process does not require significant amount of additional energy, since the whole process is run autothermal. The process final products are hot flue gases and a solid residue called a 'biocarbon' of LHV of roughly 28 MJ/kg. The properties of the biocarbon were similar, regardless of the input raw fuel type (biomass, waste, sewage sludge, energy crops, etc.). The use of the biocarbon for direct co-combustion with coal does not require installation of any additional feeding or fuel treatment systems at the power plants. Apart from its possible direct combustion, the biocarbon can be also efficiently used as a promising solid energy carrier for other processes (e.g. fuel cells). 6 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 1. Main report. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. The Main Report is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Executive Study; (2.0) Project Objectives; (3.0) Review of Combustion Technology for Biomass Fueled Steam Generator Units; (4.0) Conceptual Design; (5.0) Plant Descriptions; (6.0) Plant Operations Staffing; (7.0) Project Schedule; (8.0) Project Cost Estimate; (9.0) Financial Analysis; Appendix - Financial Analysis

  17. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1995-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  18. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuen dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (1) suitability to small scale electricity production (<5-10 MWe), (2) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (3) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (1) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (2) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. The studies are scheduled to be completed in March 1996. (author)

  19. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Mondal, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (rp) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio and GT-TIT.

  20. Upgrading to lead firm position via international acquisition: learning from the global biomass power plant industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Fold, Niels; Hansen, Teis

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the case of a Chinese firm that has upgraded to lead firm position in the global biomass power plant industry mainly through acquisitions of technological frontier firms in Denmark. Sustaining the lead firm position was, however, challenged by difficulties in developing...... innovative capability. Drawing on the literature on (i) firm-level technological capability and (ii) knowledge transfer in international acquisitions, we explain the reasons for insufficient innovative capability building. Based on these empirical findings, we suggest maintaining the existing upgrading...

  1. Biomass and number of fish impinged at a nuclear power plant by the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryhn, Andreas C; Bergenius, Mikaela A J; Dimberg, Peter H; Adill, Anders

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the number and biomass of impinged fish at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden, located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Of particular interest was the number of impinged individuals of the critically endangered European eel (Anguilla anguilla) which is regularly caught in the cooling system. Another aim was to determine the comparability of the results from Forsmark and results from impingement studies in other types of waters. Cross-systems studies make it possible to (1) estimate fish loss at plants where fish is not counted, and (2) to predict changes in fish loss from changes in electricity production or cooling water use. In 2010, 31,300,000 fish with a total biomass of 62,600 kg were impinged at Forsmark. In 2011, 27,300,000 fish weighing 38,500 kg were impinged. The maximum peak in total fish number and biomass occurred in spring. The most critical period for herring was in late summer and early autumn. Regarding eel, the largest impingement losses were recorded in November. The number of fish agreed with earlier established quantities of impinged fish in both freshwater and marine ecosystems. The study also estimated that 1,300 critically endangered eels could survive at Forsmark each year if a fish return system would be constructed to allow the passage of fish from the plant back to the Baltic Sea.

  2. Corrosion Testing of Thermal Spray Coatings in a Biomass Co-Firing Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Oksa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale use of biomass and recycled fuel is increasing in energy production due to climate and energy targets. A 40% cut in greenhouse gas emission compared to 1990 levels and at least a 27% share of renewable energy consumption are set in EU Energy Strategy 2030. Burning fuels with high content of corrosive species such as chlorine and heavy metals causes deterioration of boiler components, shortened lifetime, limited availability of a plant and hence higher maintenance and investment costs and lower thermal and economic efficiency. Coatings can be applied to protect the critical boiler components against high temperature corrosion. In this study, five thermal spray coatings were tested in an actual biomass co-firing boiler for 1300 h with a measurement probe. The coatings were analyzed after the exposure by metallographic means and scanning electron microscope/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (SEM/EDX. The deposits formed on the specimens were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence. At 550 °C, the coatings showed excellent corrosion performance compared to reference material ferritic steel T92. At 750 °C, tube material A263 together with NiCr and NiCrTi had the highest corrosion resistance. To conclude, thermal spray coatings can offer substantial corrosion protection in biomass and recycled fuel burning power plants.

  3. Performance Assessment Of Local Biomass Powered Cereal Drier Used By Small-Scale Kenyan Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madaraka F. Mwema

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have revealed that drying maize using biomass driers increase the quality of grains delays insect infestation mold and aflatoxin contamination in relation to direct sunlight drying. Most importantly biomass drying takes shorter time. It is therefore important to undertake performance of these driers to investigate the possibility of empirical control of such systems in remote areas. In this paper we present results of thermal performance of typical biomass-powered drier batch type. The results show that under natural convection temperature behavior within the drying chamber is unpredictable. However the use of exhaust fan forced convection gives predictable temperature distribution within the drying chamber. For burner shutter open at 50 and using maize cob as the fuel for forced convection the drying chamber attained a maximum temperature of 93amp730C after 28 minutes and minimum temperature of 69amp730C after 37 minutes in the lower tray tray 1. For burner shutter open at 100 the drying chamber attained a maximum temperature of 91amp730C after 41 minutes and minimum temperature of 67amp730C in tray 1. With burner 50 open tray 2 attained a maximum temperature of 62amp730C after 30 minutes and minimum temperature of 56amp730C after 40 minutes. With the burner 100 open tray 2 attained a maximum temperature of 61amp730C after 39 minutes and minimum temperature of 52amp730C after 52 minutes. From these results the optimal operating conditions of the burner operation were achieved when the shutter was open at 50. It took 76 minutes to dry 5kg of maize with about 0.8kg including dampness from rains moisture content in tray 1. It took 140 minutes to dry the same quantity and moisture content of maize in tray 2. These results show that it is possible to control empirically biomass cereal maize driers.

  4. Alkali deposits found in biomass boilers: The behavior of inorganic material in biomass-fired power boilers -- Field and laboratory experiences. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States); Jenkins, B.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bryers, R.W. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Oden, L.L. [Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the major findings of the Alkali Deposits Investigation, a collaborative effort to understand the causes of unmanageable ash deposits in biomass-fired electric power boilers. Volume 1 of this report provide an overview of the project, with selected highlights. This volume provides more detail and discussion of the data and implications. This document includes six sections. The first, the introduction, provides the motivation, context, and focus for the investigation. The remaining sections discuss fuel properties, bench-scale combustion tests, a framework for considering ash deposition processes, pilot-scale tests of biomass fuels, and field tests in commercially operating biomass power generation stations. Detailed chemical analyses of eleven biomass fuels representing a broad cross-section of commercially available fuels reveal their properties that relate to ash deposition tendencies. The fuels fall into three broad categories: (1) straws and grasses (herbaceous materials); (2) pits, shells, hulls and other agricultural byproducts of a generally ligneous nature; and (3) woods and waste fuels of commercial interest. This report presents a systematic and reasonably detailed analysis of fuel property, operating condition, and boiler design issues that dictate ash deposit formation and property development. The span of investigations from bench-top experiments to commercial operation and observations including both practical illustrations and theoretical background provide a self-consistent and reasonably robust basis to understand the qualitative nature of ash deposit formation in biomass boilers. While there remain many quantitative details to be pursued, this project encapsulates essentially all of the conceptual aspects of the issue. It provides a basis for understanding and potentially resolving the technical and environmental issues associated with ash deposition during biomass combustion. 81 refs., 124 figs., 76 tabs.

  5. 7 CFR 654.11 - Sponsor(s)' responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...&M on land administered by that agency. If project measures benefit both Federal and non-Federal land... § 654.11 Sponsor(s)' responsibility. (a) On non-Federal land, sponsor(s) are responsible for financing and performing without cost to the Federal Government, needed operation and maintenance (O&M) of...

  6. Development of low cost systems for co-utilisation of biomass in large power plant. Mid term review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2003-07-01

    Interest in the cofiring of biomass materials with coal in large coal-fired power stations in the UK has increased significantly in recent years in response to the potential additional income from Renewables Obligation Certificates (ROCs). It is anticipated that most coal-fired power stations in the UK will have the capability to cofire biomass materials by the end of 2003. This mid-term review report examines the various stages in the route to fully commercial operation of biomass cofiring at coal-fired power stations, the availability of suitable biomass materials in the UK and the technical options for cofiring. The factors affecting the economics of biomass cofiring in large coal-fired boilers are discussed including the delivered price of biofuels, the future value of ROCs, the development costs of cofiring projects, the 25% ceiling on cofiring imposed by the Renewables Obligation Order 2002 and the use of preblending. An overview of the current status of cofiring in the UK is presented, which includes a summary of the results of trials already carried out by operators of coal-fired power stations and a discussion of the future prospects for biomass cofiring in the UK.

  7. Biomass combustion power generation technologies: Background report 4.1 for the EU Joule 2+ project: Energy from biomass: An assessment of two promising systems for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, R.; Faaij, A.; Van Wijk, A.

    1995-05-01

    New developments in biomass combustion technology in progress tend to go towards efficiencies which come close to the present fossil fuel fired systems. The objective of this study is to give a representation of the state of the art and future prospects of biomass combustion technologies and to compare those on a location-independent basis. This will be done both by a general boiler technology description on the basis of qualitative criteria and by a comparison of most recently built and planned power plants on more quantitative grounds. The methodology which has been used in gathering, selecting, presenting and comparing the information is discussed in chapter 2. In chapter 3, a general introduction is given on some basic principles of biomass combustion technology. This includes the combustion process, the Rankine steam cycle and NO x formation. Different boiler technologies which are in use for biomass combustion power generation are discussed in chapter 4. The main groups of boilers which are discussed are the pile burners, stoker fired boilers, suspension fired boilers and fluidized bed boilers. The description focuses on aspects such as construction, operation, fuel requirements, efficiencies and emissions. Chapter 5 deals with individual existing or planned biomass combustion plants, resulting from an international inventory. All the different technologies which have been discussed in chapter 4 are discussed in chapter 5 in the context of complete power plants. The information which is presented for each plant comprises a technical description, efficiencies, emissions and investment costs. At the end of chapter 5 an overview of comparable data from the literature is given, as well as an overview of the results of the inventory. 32 figs., 28 tabs., 4 appendices., 51 refs

  8. Comparison of metaheuristic techniques to determine optimal placement of biomass power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reche-Lopez, P.; Ruiz-Reyes, N.; Garcia Galan, S.; Jurado, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the application and comparison of several metaheuristic techniques to optimize the placement and supply area of biomass-fueled power plants. Both, trajectory and population-based methods are applied for our goal. In particular, two well-known trajectory method, such as Simulated Annealing (SA) and Tabu Search (TS), and two commonly used population-based methods, such as Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are hereby considered. In addition, a new binary PSO algorithm has been proposed, which incorporates an inertia weight factor, like the classical continuous approach. The fitness function for the metaheuristics is the profitability index, defined as the ratio between the net present value and the initial investment. In this work, forest residues are considered as biomass source, and the problem constraints are: the generation system must be located inside the supply area, and its maximum electric power is 5 MW. The comparative results obtained by all considered metaheuristics are discussed. Random walk has also been assessed for the problem we deal with.

  9. Comparison of metaheuristic techniques to determine optimal placement of biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reche-Lopez, P.; Ruiz-Reyes, N.; Garcia Galan, S. [Telecommunication Engineering Department, University of Jaen Polytechnic School, C/ Alfonso X el Sabio 28, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Jurado, F. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Jaen Polytechnic School, C/ Alfonso X el Sabio 28, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    This paper deals with the application and comparison of several metaheuristic techniques to optimize the placement and supply area of biomass-fueled power plants. Both, trajectory and population-based methods are applied for our goal. In particular, two well-known trajectory method, such as Simulated Annealing (SA) and Tabu Search (TS), and two commonly used population-based methods, such as Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are hereby considered. In addition, a new binary PSO algorithm has been proposed, which incorporates an inertia weight factor, like the classical continuous approach. The fitness function for the metaheuristics is the profitability index, defined as the ratio between the net present value and the initial investment. In this work, forest residues are considered as biomass source, and the problem constraints are: the generation system must be located inside the supply area, and its maximum electric power is 5 MW. The comparative results obtained by all considered metaheuristics are discussed. Random walk has also been assessed for the problem we deal with. (author)

  10. A comparative study of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle power systems: Performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Guiyan; Tejasvi, Sharma; Ratner, Albert; Lora, Electo Silva

    2018-05-01

    The Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) power system is believed to potentially be a highly efficient way to utilize biomass to generate power. However, there is no comparative study of BIGCC systems that examines all the latest improvements for gasification agents, gas turbine combustion methods, and CO 2 Capture and Storage options. This study examines the impact of recent advancements on BIGCC performance through exergy analysis using Aspen Plus. Results show that the exergy efficiency of these systems is ranged from 22.3% to 37.1%. Furthermore, exergy analysis indicates that the gas turbine with external combustion has relatively high exergy efficiency, and Selexol CO 2 removal method has low exergy destruction. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis shows that the system exergy efficiency is more sensitive to the initial temperature and pressure ratio of the gas turbine, whereas has a relatively weak dependence on the initial temperature and initial pressure of the steam turbine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Three biomass power plants in New England first five years of challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Generating electricity from biomass fuels, through stand-alone power plants, represents a renewal of a half-century old plus, renewable technology. New England has generated its electricity sequentially, and still in parallel, from hydro, coal, oil, and nuclear sources during this period, and most recently during the 1980's, from a mixture of various alternate technologies including wood waste fuels and domestic waste fuels. Three plants located in New Hampshire and Maine, of identical power-island design, were constructed in eighteen months, and began operation in the period December, 1987 through March, 1988. These plants almost from the start have experienced an outstanding record of operation, dependability, and reliability. This paper will describe how each plant has fit into its respective location and environment, the personnel, technical and administrative support required, the biomass wood waste production and supply infra-structure which has developed around these facilities; and the technical problems and challenges which arose and were resolved in the process of handling a cantankerous, bulk fuel and turning it into a reliable supply of electricity. These plants are designed around a zero discharge concept. The author will discuss the design features built in, and operating practices which have evolved, to effectively use waste water internally, minimize air emissions, and recycle 100% of its solid waste as an effective fertilizer and soil conditioner

  12. Fire Radiative Energy and Biomass Burned Estimation Under Sparse Satellite Sampling Conditions: Using Power Law Probability Distribution Properties of MODIS Fire Radiative Power Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyachandran, S.; Roy, D. P.; Boschetti, L.

    2010-12-01

    Spatially and temporally explicit mapping of the amount of biomass burned by fire is needed to estimate atmospheric emissions of green house gases and aerosols. The instantaneous Fire Radiative Power (FRP) [units: W] is retrieved at active fire detections from mid-infrared wavelength remotely sensed data and can be used to estimate the rate of biomass consumed. Temporal integration of FRP measurements over the duration of the fire provides the Fire Radiative Energy (FRE) [units: J] that has been shown to be linearly related to the total biomass burned [units: g]. However, FRE, and thus biomass burned retrieval, is sensitive to the satellite spatial and temporal sampling of FRP which can be sparse under cloudy conditions and with polar orbiting sensors such as MODIS. In this paper the FRE is derived in a new way as the product of the fire duration and the first moment of the FRP power law probability distribution. MODIS FRP data retrieved over savanna fires in Australia and deforestation fires in Brazil are shown to have power law distributions with different scaling parameters that are related to the fire energy in these two contrasting systems. The FRE derived burned biomass estimates computed using this new method are compared to estimates using the conventional temporal FRP integration method and with literature values. The results of the comparison suggest that the new method may provide more reliable burned biomass estimates under sparse satellite sampling conditions if the fire duration and the power law distribution parameters are characterized a priori.

  13. Design of Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP Systems based on Economic Risk using Minimax Regret Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wen Choong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a great challenge to identify optimum technologies for CHP systems that utilise biomass and convert it into heat and power. In this respect, industry decision makers are lacking in confidence to invest in biomass CHP due to economic risk from varying energy demand. This research work presents a linear programming systematic framework to design biomass CHP system based on potential loss of profit due to varying energy demand. Minimax Regret Criterion (MRC approach was used to assess maximum regret between selections of the given biomass CHP design based on energy demand. Based on this, the model determined an optimal biomass CHP design with minimum regret in economic opportunity. As Feed-in Tariff (FiT rates affects the revenue of the CHP plant, sensitivity analysis was then performed on FiT rates on the selection of biomass CHP design. Besides, design analysis on the trend of the optimum design selected by model was conducted. To demonstrate the proposed framework in this research, a case study was solved using the proposed approach. The case study focused on designing a biomass CHP system for a palm oil mill (POM due to large energy potential of oil palm biomass in Malaysia.

  14. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S., E-mail: suman.mech09@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT, Agarpara, Kolkata – 700109, West Bengal (India); Mondal, P., E-mail: mondal.pradip87@gmail.com; Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipghosh.becollege@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIEST, Shibpur, Howrah – 711103, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-12

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (r{sub p}) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio

  15. Pellets for Power: sustainable biomass import from Ukraine : public final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Poppens, R.P.; Lesschen, J.P.; Sluis, van der T.; Galytska, M.; Kulyk, M.; Jamblinne, de P.; Kraisvitnii, P.; Rii, O.; Hoekstra, T.

    2013-01-01

    This project responds to the mismatch between on the one hand a growing demand for biomass on the Dutch and EU energy markets with a limited biomass potential and on the other hand large amounts of biomass and biomass potential currently underutilised in Ukraine. Ukraine itself is seen as a very

  16. High temperature corrosion of superheater materials for power production through biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotthjaelp, K.; Broendsted, P. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark); Jansen, P. [FORCE Institute (Denmark); Montgomery, M.; Nielsen, K.; Maahn, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Corrosion and Surface Techn. Inst. of Manufacturing Engineering (Denmark)

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study has been to establish a fundamental knowledge of the corrosion mechanisms acting on materials for use in biomass fired power plants. The knowledge is created based on laboratory exposures of selected materials in well-defined corrosive gas environments. The experiments using this facility includes corrosion studies of two types of high temperature resistant steels, Sanvik 8LR30 (18Cr 10Ni Ti) and Sanicro 28 (27Cr 31Ni 4Mo), investigated at 600 deg. C in time intervals up to 300 hours. The influence of HCl (200 ppm) and of SO{sub 2} (300 ppm) on the corrosion progress has been investigated. In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was investigated after having been exposed under a cover of ash in air in a furnace at temperatures of 525 deg. C, 600 deg. C, and 700 deg. C. The ashes utilised are from a straw fired power plant and a synthetic ash composed of potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). Different analysis techniques to characterise the composition of the ash coatings have been investigated in order to judge the reliability and accuracy of the SEM-EDX method. The results are considered as an important step towards a better understanding of the high temperature corrosion under the conditions found in biomass fired power plants. One of the problems to solve in a suggested subsequent project is to combine the effect of the aggressive gases (SO{sub 2} and HCl) and the active ash coatings on high temperature corrosion of materials. (EG) 20 refs.

  17. Techno-economic Assessment of Biomass Pellets for Power Generation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, P.; Chaturvedi, V.

    2016-01-01

    Biomass pellet production has increased considerably in recent years, mainly due to the demand created by policies and bioenergy-use targets in the European Union (EU). Global biomass pellet production was 24.1 million tonne (Mt) in 2014. In this study, a preliminary attempt has been made to assess the techno-economic feasibility of biomass pellets for electricity generation in India produced from biomass surplus available from agriculture and forestry/wasteland. Biomass surplus availability ...

  18. Power/heat production from biomass in Finland - Two modern Finnish examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeijaelae, M.

    1997-01-01

    According to this conference paper, Finland is a leading country in the utilization of biomass fuels for power and heat production. One reason is that peat and wood are the only indigenous fuels available in Finland. Other reasons are the strong forest industry and the widely adopted combined heat and power (CHP) production. CHP production is typical of process industry and municipal district heating. The most common boiler type in modern CHP plants is the fluidized bed type. District heating is the cheapest heating in municipalities with a few thousand inhabitants. Electric heating dominates in sparsely populated regions. CHP becomes attractive for populations of more than ten thousand. Two examples are described: (1) Rauhalahti Power Plant produces 140 MW of district heat, 65 MW of industrial steam and 87 MW of electricity. (2) Kuusamo Power Plant produces 6.1 MW electric energy and 17.6 MW district heat; its unique feature is the utilization of the bed mixing dryer for drying of the fuel prior to combustion, this dryer being the first of its kind in the world. 1 figure

  19. A Honey Bee Foraging approach for optimal location of a biomass power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, David; Jurado, Francisco [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares, Jaen (Spain); Carabias, Julio; Ruiz-Reyes, Nicolas [Dept. of Telecommunication Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Over eight million hectares of olive trees are cultivated worldwide, especially in Mediterranean countries, where more than 97% of the world's olive oil is produced. The three major olive oil producers worldwide are Spain, Italy, and Greece. Olive tree pruning residues are an autochthonous and important renewable source that, in most of cases, farmers burn through an uncontrolled manner. Besides, industrial uses have not yet been developed. The aim of this paper consists of a new calculation tool based on particles swarm (Binary Honey Bee Foraging, BHBF). Effectively, this approach will make possible to determine the optimal location, biomass supply area and power plant size that offer the best profitability for investor. Moreover, it prevents the accurate method (not feasible from computational viewpoint). In this work, Profitability Index (PI) is set as the fitness function for the BHBF approach. Results are compared with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO), and Genetic Algorithms (GA). All the experiments have shown that the optimal plant size is 2 MW, PI = 3.3122, the best location corresponds to coordinate: X = 49, Y = 97 and biomass supply area is 161.33 km{sup 2}. The simulation times have been reduced to the ninth of time than the greedy (accurate) solution. Matlab registered is used to run all simulations. (author)

  20. Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle for heat and power at ethanol plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Kam, Matthew J.; Vance Morey, R. [Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Ave, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Tiffany, Douglas G. [Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, 1994 Buford Avenue St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) technology can be used to generate process heat and significant amounts of electricity at dry-grind ethanol facilities by utilizing the ethanol process co-products and other biomass sources. These systems can reduce fuel costs for ethanol plants, improve the renewable energy balance of dry-grind ethanol production, and provide reliable renewable electricity for process use and for sale to the local utility. An Aspen Plus model of the dry-grind ethanol process is used as the basis for a subsequent gasification system model. A twin fluidized bed steam gasification configuration based on the SilvaGas process is used to generate synthesis gas. The results show that a dry-grind ethanol facility with a capacity of 190 million liters per year could produce 30.4 MW{sub e} of power while supplying all its process heat needs using ethanol co-products and corn cobs. This configuration results in a three fold improvement in the amount of renewable energy produced per unit of fossil energy used compared to a conventional ethanol production process using natural gas. (author)

  1. Sustainable model for financial viability of decentralized biomass gasifier based power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palit, Debajit; Malhotra, Ramit; Kumar, Atul

    2011-01-01

    This paper made a modest attempt for designing a sustainable model for financial viability of biomass gasifier power projects for enhancing electricity access in India and other developing countries. For long term sustainability of distributed generation projects in remote rural areas, viability from both project implementing agency (PIA) and the end-users need to be ensured. The minimum required prices of electricity from both PIA and end-user perspective have been estimated. While for PIA the cost recovery is the key for viability, the affordability to pay the electricity cost is crucial for the end users. Analysis carried out in this paper on the basis of data obtained from operational projects implemented in India reveal that it is essential to operate the system at a higher capacity utilization factor. While this can be achieved though creating convergence with locally relevant economic activity, it is also observed that micro-enterprises cannot pay beyond a certain price of electricity to keep it sustainable. This paper sets forth a case for developing a regulatory mechanism to extend the tariff fixation for the projects and providing cross-subsidies to ensure long term sustainability of off-grid project. - Highlights: → We design sustainable financial model for viability of biomass gasifier projects. → Analysis based on field data obtained from operational projects in India. Estimated electricity pricing from both implementing agency and end-users perspective. → A regulatory mechanism for tariff fixation and cross subsidization is recommended.

  2. An investigation into a laboratory scale bubble column humidification dehumidification desalination system powered by biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaseenivasan, T.; Srithar, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A biomass based humidification dehumidification desalination system is tested. • System is analyzed with the direct and preheated air supply. • Highest distillate rate of 6.1 kg/h is collected with the preheated air supply. • The minimum fuel feed of 0.2 kg is needed to produce 1 kg of fresh water. - Abstract: This article describes a biomass powered bubble column humidification-dehumidification desalination system. This system mainly consists of a biomass stove, air heat exchanger, bubble column humidifier and dehumidifier. Saw dust briquettes are used as biomass fuel in the stove. First level of experiments are carried out in bubble column humidifier with ambient air supply to select the best water depth, bubble pipe hole diameter and water temperature. Experiments are conducted by integrating the humidifier with the dehumidifier. Air is sent to the humidifier with and without pre-heating. Preheating of air is carried out in the air heat exchanger by using the flue gas and flame from the combustion chamber. It is observed that the humidifier ability is augmented with the rise in water depth, water temperature, mass flow rate of air and cooling water flow rate, and reduction in bubble pipe hole diameter. It is found from Taguchi analysis that the water temperature dominates in controlling the humidifier performance compared to other parameters. Better specific humidity is recorded with a bubble pipe hole diameter of 1 mm, water depth of 170 mm and water temperature of 60 °C. Highest distillate of 6.1 kg/h and 3.5 kg/h is collected for the HDH desalination system with preheated air and direct air supply respectively. Recovery of waste heat using an air heat exchanger reduces the fuel consumption from 0.36 kg to 0.2 kg for producing 1 kg of distilled water. Lowest distilled water cost of 0.0133 US $/kg through preheated air supply and 0.0231 US $/kg through direct air supply is observed. A correlation is developed to estimate the mass transfer

  3. Integration of biomass into urban energy systems for heat and power. Part I: An MILP based spatial optimization methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantaleo, Antonio M.; Giarola, Sara; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP tool for optimal sizing and location of heating and CHP plants to serve residential energy demand. • Trade-offs between local vs centralized heat generation, district heating vs natural gas distribution systems. • Assessment of multi-biomass supply chains and biomass to biofuel processing technologies. • Assessment of the key factors influencing the use of biomass and district heating in residential areas. - Abstract: The paper presents a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) approach to optimize multi-biomass and natural gas supply chain strategic design for heat and power generation in urban areas. The focus is on spatial and temporal allocation of biomass supply, storage, processing, transport and energy conversion (heat and CHP) to match the heat demand of residential end users. The main aim lies on the representation of the relationships between the biomass processing and biofuel energy conversion steps, and on the trade-offs between centralized district heating plants and local heat generation systems. After a description of state of the art and research trends in urban energy systems and bioenergy modelling, an application of the methodology to a generic case study is proposed. With the assumed techno-economic parameters, biomass based thermal energy generation results competitive with natural gas, while district heating network results the main option for urban areas with high thermal energy demand density. Potential further applications of this model are also described, together with main barriers for development of bioenergy routes for urban areas

  4. Microstructural investigations of Ni and Ni2Al3 coatings exposed in biomass power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, D. L.; Dahl, K. V.; Christiansen, T. L.

    2018-01-01

    temperature pack cementation. After exposure, microstructural investigations were performed by light optical and electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). Electroplated Ni coatings were not protective in straw firing power plants and exhibited similar corrosion morphology as uncoated tubes. For Ni2Al3 coatings......The present work investigates the corrosion resistance of Ni and Ni2Al3 coated austenitic stainless steel (TP347H) tubes, which were exposed in a biomass-fired boiler with an outlet steam temperature of 540 °C for 6757 h. The Ni2Al3 coating was produced by electroplating Ni followed by low......, the nickel aluminide layer was no longer adherent to the tube and was only found within the deposit. However, Ni2Al3 coatings had provided some protection compared to uncoated and Ni coated tubes. The formation of nickel chloride binds aggressive chlorine and slows down the active oxidation mechanism...

  5. Cob biomass supply for combined heat and power and biofuel in the north central USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmer, Marty R.; Dose, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) cobs are being evaluated as a potential bioenergy feedstock for combined heat and power generation (CHP) and conversion into a biofuel. The objective of this study was to determine corn cob availability in north central United States (Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) using existing corn grain ethanol plants as a proxy for possible future co-located cellulosic ethanol plants. Cob production estimates averaged 6.04 Tg and 8.87 Tg using a 40 km radius area and 80 km radius area, respectively, from existing corn grain ethanol plants. The use of CHP from cobs reduces overall GHG emissions by 60%–65% from existing dry mill ethanol plants. An integrated biorefinery further reduces corn grain ethanol GHG emissions with estimated ranges from 13.9 g CO 2  equiv MJ −1 to 17.4 g CO 2  equiv MJ −1 . Significant radius area overlap (53% overlap for 40 km radius and 86% overlap for 80 km radius) exists for cob availability between current corn grain ethanol plants in this region suggesting possible cob supply constraints for a mature biofuel industry. A multi-feedstock approach will likely be required to meet multiple end user renewable energy requirements for the north central United States. Economic and feedstock logistics models need to account for possible supply constraints under a mature biofuel industry. - Highlights: • Corn cob biomass was estimated for the north central United States region. • Cobs were evaluated for combined heat and power generation and bioethanol. • Co-located ethanol plants showed a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. • Biomass supply constraints may occur under a mature cellulosic ethanol scenario

  6. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Purchase of power by State Electricity Boards from biomass gasifier systems: formulating a long term national policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    Current policy for purchase of power from renewable sources of energy by State Electricity Boards in India is examined and certain changes in that policy are suggested. State Electricity Boards are reluctant to buy power from renewables as such a purchase is seen by the Boards as being of against their economic interests. But if socio-environmental and climatological costs of power of thermal plants are taken into consideration, it becomes imperative that a long term policy for power purchase from renewables by electricity boards will have to be followed. Such a policy is outlined. After giving formulae for unit cost of generation from thermal power plants, diesel generation (DG) sets and biomass gasification, it is recommended that basis for the purchase price for power generated through biomass gas should be the cost of generation through DG sets or cost of generation through biomass gasification whichever is lower. A clause for automatic price escalation should also be a part of such policy. Some measures to compensate electricity boards for purchase of power from renewables are suggested. They include levying of a special surcharge by boards on their electricity sales and funding by the Central Government. (M.G.B.)

  8. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 2. appendix: Detailed financial analysis results. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachgoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. Volume 2 of the study contains the following appendix: Detailed Financial Analysis Results

  9. High Temperature Corrosion of Superheater Materials for Power Production through Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Nielsen, Karsten agersted

    plant boiler. The experiments using this facility includes corrosion studies of two types of high temperature resistant steels, Sandvik 8LR30 (18Cr 10Ni Ti) and Sanicro 28 (27Cr 31Ni 4Mo)investigated at 600Cin time intervals up to 300 hours. The influence of HCl (200ppm) and of SO2 (300 ppm......The aim of the present study has been to establish a fundamental knowledge of the corrosion mechanisms acting on materials for use in biomass fired power plants. The knowledge is created based on laboratory exposures on selected materials in well-defined corrosive gas environments. An experimental......) on the corrosion progress has been investigated.In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was investigated after having been exposed under a cover of ash in air in a furnace at temperatures of 525C, 600C and 700C. The ashes utilised are from a straw-fired power plant and a synthetic ash composed...

  10. Operational characteristics of a 1.2-MW biomass gasification and power generation plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuang-zhi; Yin, Xiu-li; Ma, Long-long; Zhou, Zhao-qiu; Chen, Han-ping

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the operational characteristics of a 1.2-MW rice husk gasification and power generation plant located in Changxing, Zhejiang province, China. The influences of gasification temperature, equivalence ratio (ER), feeding rate and rice husk water content on the gasification characteristics in a fluidized bed gasifier were investigated. The axial temperature profile in the dense phase of the gasifier showed that inadequate fluidization occurred inside the bed, and that the temperature was closely related to changes in ER and feeding rate. The bed temperature increased linearly with increasing ER when the feeding rate was kept constant, while a higher feeding rate corresponded to a lower bed temperature at fixed ER. The gas heating value decreased with increasing temperature, while the feeding rate had little effect. When the gasification temperature was 700-800 degrees C, the gas heating value ranged from 5450-6400 kJ/Nm(3). The water content of the rice husk had an obvious influence on the operation of the gasifier: increases in water content up to 15% resulted in increasing ER and gas yield, while water contents above 15% caused aberrant temperature fluctuations. The problems in this plant are discussed in the light of operational experience of MW-scale biomass gasification and power generation plants.

  11. Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, Jindřich; Stojdl, Jiří; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiří; Vacek, Jiří; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-01

    A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the

  12. Safety - a Neglected Issue When Introducing Solid Biomass Fuel in Thermal Power Plants? Some Evidence of an Emerging Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Astad, John

    2013-01-01

    attention paid to safety and points to evidence of media-shifting-that the 'resolution' of a problem within the environmental domain creates a new problem in the workplace safety domain. The paper argues that biomass pellets qualify as an emerging risk for which proper control strategies have yet......The paper examines recent evidence from Denmark and abroad with climate change projects that aim to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by converting coal fired thermal power plants to solid biomass fuel. The paper argues that projects appear to be pursued narrow-mindedly with insufficient...

  13. Decentralized combined heat and power production by two-stage biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate options for increasing the electrical efficiency of decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) plants fuelled with biomass compared to conventional technology, this research explored the performance of an alternative plant design based on thermal biomass gasification and solid oxide......, carbon conversion factor in the gasifier and the efficiency of the DC/AC inverter were the most influential parameters in the model. Thus, a detailed study of the practical values of these parameters was conducted to determine the performance of the plant with the lowest possible uncertainty. The SOFC...

  14. IMPROVING SPECIFIC POWER CONSUMPTION FOR MECHANICAL MIXING OF THE FEEDSTOCK IN A BIOGAS FERMENTER BY MECHANICAL DISINTEGRATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSE BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kratky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass particles in biogas fermenter batch either sediment towards vessel bottom or rise towards batch surface, where they float and form a compact thick scum. These processes have primarily the negative influence on batch homogeneity, on evenness of batch temperature field, on removal of produced biogas bubbles out of liquid batch and also on mass transfer among microorganisms. These facts result in non-effective usage of biomass energy-potential that entails in low biogas yields. Therefore, good mixing of bioreactor batch is very important in order to stabilize anaerobic digestion process. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the impact of wheat straw disintegration and its hydration on hydrodynamic behaviour and on specific power consumption for mechanical mixing of wheat straw-water suspension. Based on experimental results, it was concluded that both hydration and mechanical disintegration of lignocellulosic biomass significantly improve homogeneity and pump-ability of biomass-water batches. Wheat straw hydration itself decreases specific power consumption for batch mixing by 60 % towards untreated straw. Moreover, mechanical disintegration itself decreases specific power consumption by 50 % at least towards untreated hydrated straw.

  15. Alkali deposits found in biomass power plants: A preliminary investigation of their extent and nature. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Bryers, R.W. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Jenkins, B.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Oden, L.L. [Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

    1995-04-15

    Alkali in the ash of annual crop biomass fuels creates serious fouling and slagging in conventional boilers. Even with the use of sorbents and other additives, power plants can only fire limited amounts of these fuels in combination with wood. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), US Department of Energy, and the biomass power industry carried out eight full-scale firing tests and several laboratory experiments to study the nature and occurrence of deposits with the goal of increasing the quantities of these biofuels that can be used. This report describes the results of the laboratory and power plant tests that included: tracking and analyzing fuels and deposits by various methods; recording operating conditions; and extensive laboratory testing. The paper describes the occurrence of deposits, fuel and deposit analyses, boiler design and operation, fouling and slagging indicators, and recommendations. 37 refs., 41 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Economic analysis of biomass power generation schemes under renewable energy initiative with Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hong; Lee, Jeung-Woo; Lee, Uen-Do

    2011-10-01

    An economic analysis of biomass power generation was conducted. Two key technologies--direct combustion with a steam turbine and gasification with a syngas engine--were mainly examined. In view of the present domestic biomass infrastructure of Korea, a small and distributed power generation system ranging from 0.5 to 5 MW(e) was considered. It was found that gasification with a syngas engine becomes more economically feasible as the plant size decreases. Changes in the economic feasibilities with and without RPS or heat sales were also investigated. A sensitivity analysis of each system was conducted for representative parameters. Regarding the cost of electricity generation, electrical efficiency and fuel cost significantly affect both direct combustion and gasification systems. Regarding the internal rate of return (IRR), the heat sales price becomes important for obtaining a higher IRR, followed by power generation capacity and electrical efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A renewable energy scenario for Aalborg Municipality based on low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Möller, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Aalborg Municipality, Denmark, wishes to investigate the possibilities of becoming independent of fossil fuels. This article describes a scenario for supplying Aalborg Municipality’s energy needs through a combination of low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass. Of particular focus...... in the scenario is how low-temperature geothermal heat may be utilised in district heating (DH) systems. The analyses show that it is possible to cover Aalborg Municipality’s energy needs through the use of locally available sources in combination with significant electricity savings, heat savings, reductions...... in industrial fuel use and savings and fuel-substitutions in the transport sector. With biomass resources being finite, the two marginal energy resources in Aalborg are geothermal heat and wind power. If geothermal heat is utilised more, wind power may be limited and vice versa. The system still relies...

  18. Committees and sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    International Advisory Committee Richard F CastenYale, USA Luiz Carlos ChamonSão Paulo, Brazil Osvaldo CivitareseLa Plata, Argentina Jozsef CsehATOMKI, Hungary Jerry P DraayerLSU, USA Alfredo Galindo-UribarriORNL & UT, USA James J KolataNotre Dame, USA Jorge López UTEP, USA Joseph B NatowitzTexas A & M, USA Ma Esther Ortiz IF-UNAM Stuart PittelDelaware, USA Andrés SandovalIF-UNAM Adam SzczepaniakIndiana, USA Piet Van IsackerGANIL, France Michael WiescherNotre Dame, USA Organizing Committee Libertad Barrón-Palos (Chair)IF-UNAM Roelof BijkerICN-UNAM Ruben FossionICN-UNAM David LizcanoININ Sponsors Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAMInstituto de Física, UNAMInstituto Nacional de Investigaciones NuclearesDivisión de Física Nuclear de la SMFCentro Latinoamericano de Física

  19. BIOMASS UTILIZATION AS A RENEVABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN POLISH POWER INDUSTRY – CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Gołuchowska; Jarosław Sławiński; Grzegorz Markowski

    2015-01-01

    The depletion of the conventional energy sources, as well as the degradation and pollution of the environment by the exploitation of fossil fuels caused the development of renewable energy sources (RES), including biomass. In Poland, biomass is the most popular renewable energy source, which is closely related to the obligations associated with the membership in the EU. Biomass is the oldest renewable energy source, and its potential, diversity and polymorphism place it over other sources. Be...

  20. Evaluation of design and operation of fuel handling systems for 25 MW biomass fueled CFB power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precht, D.

    1991-01-01

    Two circulating fluidized bed, biomass fueled, 25MW power plants were placed into operation by Thermo Electron Energy Systems in California during late 1989. This paper discusses the initial fuel and system considerations, system design, actual operating fuel characterisitics, system operation during the first year and modifications. Biomass fuels handled by the system include urban/manufacturing wood wastes and agricultural wastes in the form of orchard prunings, vineyard prunings, pits, shells, rice hulls and straws. Equipment utilized in the fuel handling system are described and costs are evaluated. Lessons learned from the design and operational experience are offered for consideration on future biomass fueled installations where definition of fuel quality and type is subject to change

  1. Analysis of biomass and waste gasification lean syngases combustion for power generation using spark ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, Cosmin; Cenuşă, Victor; Alexe, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study for food processing industry waste to energy conversion using gasification and internal combustion engine for power generation. The biomass we used consisted in bones and meat residues sampled directly from the industrial line, characterised by high water content, about 42% in mass, and potential health risks. Using the feedstock properties, experimentally determined, two air-gasification process configurations were assessed and numerically modelled to quantify the effects on produced syngas properties. The study also focused on drying stage integration within the conversion chain: either external or integrated into the gasifier. To comply with environmental regulations on feedstock to syngas conversion both solutions were developed in a closed system using a modified down-draft gasifier that integrates the pyrolysis, gasification and partial oxidation stages. Good quality syngas with up to 19.1% - CO; 17% - H2; and 1.6% - CH4 can be produced. The syngas lower heating value may vary from 4.0 MJ/Nm(3) to 6.7 MJ/Nm(3) depending on process configuration. The influence of syngas fuel properties on spark ignition engines performances was studied in comparison to the natural gas (methane) and digestion biogas. In order to keep H2 molar quota below the detonation value of ⩽4% for the engines using syngas, characterised by higher hydrogen fraction, the air excess ratio in the combustion process must be increased to [2.2-2.8]. The results in this paper represent valuable data required by the design of waste to energy conversion chains with intermediate gas fuel production. The data is suitable for Otto engines characterised by power output below 1 MW, designed for natural gas consumption and fuelled with low calorific value gas fuels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PowerStep - Wastewater as source of biomass for renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loderer, Christian; Lesjean, Boris; Krampe, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    at operating WWTP sites of different sizes (up to 350,000 pe) and involving various and representative state-of-the-art treatment processes, which underlines both the realistic nature of testing conditions and also the interest of associated partners and utilities in the innovative potential of the investigated technologies and concepts. Within the next three years the following goals should be achieved: • Breakthough innovation: the WWTP will be net energy producer. Wastewater as the last forgotten source of biomass for renewable energy. • No additional needs for power infrastructure, as WWTPs are already well connected in energy supply network and close to power demand (big cities). • First coordinated European project demonstrating energy positive WWTPs as cost effective combination of technological solutions. • Demonstration with first large-scale references: Best practices for next generation WWTPs integrated with global assessment. • Outstanding market and environment impact: Global yearly market value of up 30 Billion, energy cost savings for WWTP operators in Europe of at least €1.7 Billion per year and 5.9 Million tCO2 reduction per year.

  3. Development of an innovative polygeneration process in hybrid solar-biomass system for combined power, cooling and desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, U.; Kumar, R.; Pant, P.C.; Chaudhary, R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat utilization from solar and biomass resources are considered for hybridization. • Modeling of polygeneration process in hybrid solar-biomass power plant is considered. • Thermodynamic evaluation are performed to identify the effect of various parameters. • Primary Energy Saving of polygeneration process is determined. - Abstract: In the polygeneration process simultaneous production of power, vapor absorption refrigeration (VAR) cooling and multi-effect humidification and dehumidification (MEHD) desalination system from different heat sources in hybrid solar-biomass (HSB) system with higher energy efficiency take place. It is one of the solutions to fulfill energy requirements from renewable sources and also helps in the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. The VAR cooling system operates using the extracted heat taken from turbine and condenser heat of the VAR cooling system is used in desalination system for production of drinking water as per demand requirement. Though the production of electricity decreases due to extraction of heat from turbine for VAR cooling and desalination, the complete system meets the energy requirements & increases the primary energy savings (PES). The thermodynamic evaluation and optimization of HSB system in polygeneration process for combined power, cooling and desalination is investigated to identify the effects of various operating parameters. Primary energy savings (PES) of polygeneration process in HSB system is achieved to 50.5%. The energy output is increased to 78.12% from this system as compared to simple power plant.

  4. Reduction of CO2 emission by INCAM model in Malaysia biomass power plants during the year 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina; Talebian-Kiakalaieh, Amin

    2018-03-01

    As the world's second largest palm oil producer and exporter, Malaysia could capitalize on its oil palm biomass waste for power generation. The emission factors from this renewable energy source are far lower than that of fossil fuels. This study applies an integrated carbon accounting and mitigation (INCAM) model to calculate the amount of CO 2 emissions from two biomass thermal power plants. The CO 2 emissions released from biomass plants utilizing empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), as alternative fuels for powering steam and gas turbines, were determined using the INCAM model. Each section emitting CO 2 in the power plant, known as the carbon accounting center (CAC), was measured for its carbon profile (CP) and carbon index (CI). The carbon performance indicator (CPI) included electricity, fuel and water consumption, solid waste and waste-water generation. The carbon emission index (CEI) and carbon emission profile (CEP), based on the total monthly carbon production, were determined across the CPI. Various innovative strategies resulted in a 20%-90% reduction of CO 2 emissions. The implementation of reduction strategies significantly reduced the CO 2 emission levels. Based on the model, utilization of EFB and POME in the facilities could significantly reduce the CO 2 emissions and increase the potential for waste to energy initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Decentralised power generation using solid biomass - Know-how on combined heat and power generation for investors; Dezentrale Stromerzeugung mit Feststoffbiomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, M.; Gaegauf, Ch.; Sattler, M.

    2007-01-15

    This comprehensive report made by the Centre of Appropriate Technology and Social Ecology in Langenbruck, Switzerland presents a summary of know-how for investors on combined heat and power generation using solid biomass in installations with an electrical rating of up to one megawatt. Topics covered include a review of the reasons for using biomass to generate electricity - with the results of an analysis of potential in Switzerland and the European Union - and of economic assessment methods for the choice of technology and manufacturers. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis of technologies is presented and existing biomass-fired installations in Switzerland are listed. A comparison with centrally-refined combustibles is presented and examples of cost and profitability calculations are given. Finally technological background information is presented, including information on 'forgotten' technologies.

  6. Biomass from agriculture in small-scale combined heat and power plants - A comparative life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimming, M.; Sundberg, C.; Nordberg, A.; Baky, A.; Bernesson, S.; Noren, O.; Hansson, P.-A.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass produced on farm land is a renewable fuel that can prove suitable for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants in rural areas. However, it can still be questioned if biomass-based energy generation is a good environmental choice with regards to the impact on greenhouse gas emissions, and if there are negative consequences of using of agricultural land for other purposes than food production. In this study, a simplified life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted over four scenarios for supply of the entire demand of power and heat of a rural village. Three of the scenarios are based on utilization of biomass in 100 kW (e) combined heat and power (CHP) systems and the fourth is based on fossil fuel in a large-scale plant. The biomass systems analyzed were based on 1) biogas production with ley as substrate and the biogas combusted in a microturbine, 2) gasification of willow chips and the product gas combusted in an IC-engine and 3) combustion of willow chips for a Stirling engine. The two first scenarios also require a straw boiler. The results show that the biomass-based scenarios reduce greenhouse gas emissions considerably compared to the scenario based on fossil fuel, but have higher acidifying emissions. Scenario 1 has by far the best performance with respect to global warming potential and the advantage of utilizing a byproduct and thus not occupying extra land. Scenario 2 and 3 require less primary energy and less fossil energy input than 1, but set-aside land for willow production must be available. The low electric efficiency of scenario 3 makes it an unsuitable option.

  7. Use of biomass for clean and efficient production of heat and power. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Lans, R. van der; Frandsen, J.B.F.; Johnsson, J.E.; Jensen, A.; Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2001-03-01

    The present EFP98 project is the second phase of a long-term, strategic research project, the aim of which is to facilitate the use of significant amounts of biomass in the production of power and heat. The project deals with combustion and emission issues related to the use of biomass, specifically combustion of straw on a grate and wet flue gas desulphurization. A mathematical model for combustion of straw on a grate is developed as a tool to improve the understanding of this process. The model includes heat transfer to and in the bed as well as pyrolysis and char oxidation. To verify the model and to obtain a better understanding of fixed-bed straw combustion, a number of bench-scale laboratory experiments have been conducted at TNO in Holland. Predicted combustion rates and bed temperatures were in fairly good agreement with experimental fixed-bed data. A parameter analysis has identified the sensitivity of modeling predictions towards important parameters in the model. Measuring programs on straw firing have been conducted at Enstedvaerket and Masnedoe. Measuring results include gas temperature and gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO. SO{sub 2}, NO) from different positions in the boiler. Data from Masnedoe include also results from co-firing of straw with other biomass fuels (25-35%). The results indicate that co-firing in the quantities does not significantly affect emissions. Nitrogen oxides emissions from Masnedoevaerket were found to be significantly higher than those of Ensted. The work on wet flue gas desulphurization on aimed to provide the information necessary to optimize and further develop the process. The main focus was fuel and sorbent flexibility, use of the waste product from the semi-dry FGD process as a sorbent in wet FGD, and ways of optimizing the Wet FGD process with respect to a high degree of desulphurization, a low content of residual limestone in the gypsum and a continuous steady state operation of the FGD plant. Laboratory

  8. KBTAC [Knowledge-Based Technology Application Center] - The EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute]-sponsored knowledge-based technology application center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.; Wood, R.M.; Scherer, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has announced the establishment of the Knowledge-Based Technology Application Center (KBTAC), whose goal is to assist member utilities with expert system technology and applications. The center, established November 7, 1989, is located on the campus of Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, and will be operated jointly by Kaman Sciences Corporation and the university. The mission of the KBTAC is to assist EPRI member utilities to develop, test, and transfer expert systems into nuclear power plant operations, maintenance, and administration

  9. Reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol by integrating biomass to produce heat and power at ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance; Tiffany, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of corn ethanol was conducted to determine the reduction in the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol compared to gasoline by integrating biomass fuels to replace fossil fuels (natural gas and grid electricity) in a U.S. Midwest dry-grind corn ethanol plant producing 0.19 hm 3 y -1 of denatured ethanol. The biomass fuels studied are corn stover and ethanol co-products [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and syrup (solubles portion of DDGS)]. The biomass conversion technologies/systems considered are process heat (PH) only systems, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems. The life-cycle GHG emission reduction for corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 38.9% for PH with natural gas, 57.7% for PH with corn stover, 79.1% for CHP with corn stover, 78.2% for IGCC with natural gas, 119.0% for BIGCC with corn stover, and 111.4% for BIGCC with syrup and stover. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. GHG emission reductions for CHP, IGCC, and BIGCC include power sent to the grid which replaces electricity from coal. BIGCC results in greater reductions in GHG emissions than IGCC with natural gas because biomass is substituted for fossil fuels. In addition, underground sequestration of CO 2 gas from the ethanol plant's fermentation tank could further reduce the life-cycle GHG emission for corn ethanol by 32% compared to gasoline.

  10. Biomass direct-fired power generation system in China: An integrated energy, GHG emissions, and economic evaluation for Salix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changbo; Zhang, Lixiao; Chang, Yuan; Pang, Mingyue

    2015-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the options of biomass power generation in China, this study presented an integrated energy, environmental, and economic evaluation for Salix in China, and a typical Salix direct-fired power generation system (SDPGS) in Inner Mongolia was selected for case study. A tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to calculate the “planting-to-wire” (PTW) energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic cost and profit of the SDPGS, including feedstock cultivation, power plant construction and operation, and on-grid price with/without government subsidies. The results show that the PTW energy consumption and GHG emissions of Salix are 0.8 MJ/kWh and 114 g CO 2 -eq/kWh, respectively, indicating an energy payback time (EPBT) of 3.2 years. The SDPGS is not economically feasible without government subsidies. The PTW costs are dominated by feedstock cultivation. The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits are still robust, even when the power plant runs at only 60% design capacity. For future development of biomass power in China, scientific planning is necessary to guarantee a sufficient feedstock supply. In addition, technology progress, mature industrial chains, and reasonable price setting policy are required to enable potential energy and environmental advantages of biomass power moving forward. -- Highlights: •A hybrid LCA model was used to evaluate overall performance of the SDPGS. •On-site processes dominate the “planting-to-wire” footprints. •The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits of the SDPGS are robust. •The economic profit of the SDPGS is feeble without government subsidies. •Generating efficiency promotion has a comprehensive positive effect on the system

  11. The predator-prey power law: Biomass scaling across terrestrial and aquatic biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Ian A; McCann, Kevin S; Fryxell, John M; Davies, T Jonathan; Smerlak, Matteo; Sinclair, Anthony R E; Loreau, Michel

    2015-09-04

    Ecosystems exhibit surprising regularities in structure and function across terrestrial and aquatic biomes worldwide. We assembled a global data set for 2260 communities of large mammals, invertebrates, plants, and plankton. We find that predator and prey biomass follow a general scaling law with exponents consistently near ¾. This pervasive pattern implies that the structure of the biomass pyramid becomes increasingly bottom-heavy at higher biomass. Similar exponents are obtained for community production-biomass relations, suggesting conserved links between ecosystem structure and function. These exponents are similar to many body mass allometries, and yet ecosystem scaling emerges independently from individual-level scaling, which is not fully understood. These patterns suggest a greater degree of ecosystem-level organization than previously recognized and a more predictive approach to ecological theory. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, Rene M. J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain

  13. Design Concepts for Co-Production of Power, Fuels & Chemicals Via Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, A. D.; Chen, Q.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of the program is to develop design concepts, incorporating advanced technologies in areas such as oxygen production, feed systems, gas cleanup, component separations and gas turbines, for integrated and economically viable coal and biomass fed gasification facilities equipped with carbon capture and storage for the following scenarios: (i) coproduction of power along with hydrogen, (ii) coproduction of power along with fuels, (iii) coproduction of power along with petrochemicals, and (iv) coproduction of power along with agricultural chemicals. To achieve this goal, specifically the following objectives are met in this proposed project: (i) identify advanced technology options and innovative preliminary design concepts that synergistically integrate plant subsections, (ii) develop steady state system simulations to predict plant efficiency and environmental signature, (iii) develop plant cost estimates by capacity factoring major subsystems or by major equipment items where required, and then capital, operating and maintenance cost estimates, and (iv) perform techno- economic analyses for the above described coproduction facilities. Thermal efficiencies for the electricity only cases with 90% carbon capture are 38.26% and 36.76% (HHV basis) with the bituminous and the lignite feedstocks respectively. For the coproduction cases (where 50% of the energy exported is in the form of electricity), the electrical efficiency, as expected, is highest for the hydrogen coproduction cases while lowest for the higher alcohols (ethanol) coproduction cases. The electrical efficiencies for Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases are slightly higher than those for the methanol coproduction cases but it should be noted that the methanol (as well as the higher alcohol) coproduction cases produce the finished coproduct while the Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases produce a coproduct that requires further processing in a refinery. The cross comparison of the thermal

  14. Power generation based on biomass by combined fermentation and gasification--a new concept derived from experiments and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methling, Torsten; Armbrust, Nina; Haitz, Thilo; Speidel, Michael; Poboss, Norman; Braun-Unkhoff, Marina; Dieter, Heiko; Kempter-Regel, Brigitte; Kraaij, Gerard; Schliessmann, Ursula; Sterr, Yasemin; Wörner, Antje; Hirth, Thomas; Riedel, Uwe; Scheffknecht, Günter

    2014-10-01

    A new concept is proposed for combined fermentation (two-stage high-load fermenter) and gasification (two-stage fluidised bed gasifier with CO2 separation) of sewage sludge and wood, and the subsequent utilisation of the biogenic gases in a hybrid power plant, consisting of a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine. The development and optimisation of the important processes of the new concept (fermentation, gasification, utilisation) are reported in detail. For the gas production, process parameters were experimentally and numerically investigated to achieve high conversion rates of biomass. For the product gas utilisation, important combustion properties (laminar flame speed, ignition delay time) were analysed numerically to evaluate machinery operation (reliability, emissions). Furthermore, the coupling of the processes was numerically analysed and optimised by means of integration of heat and mass flows. The high, simulated electrical efficiency of 42% including the conversion of raw biomass is promising for future power generation by biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. JV Task 46 - Development and Testing of a Thermally Integrated SOFC-Gasification System for Biomass Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip Hutton; Nikhil Patel; Kyle Martin; Devinder Singh

    2008-02-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has designed a biomass power system using a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermally integrated with a downdraft gasifier. In this system, the high-temperature effluent from the SOFC enables the operation of a substoichiometric air downdraft gasifier at an elevated temperature (1000 C). At this temperature, moisture in the biomass acts as an essential carbon-gasifying medium, reducing the equivalence ratio at which the gasifier can operate with complete carbon conversion. Calculations show gross conversion efficiencies up to 45% (higher heating value) for biomass moisture levels up to 40% (wt basis). Experimental work on a bench-scale gasifier demonstrated increased tar cracking within the gasifier and increased energy density of the resultant syngas. A series of experiments on wood chips demonstrated tar output in the range of 9.9 and 234 mg/m{sup 3}. Both button cells and a 100-watt stack was tested on syngas from the gasifier. Both achieved steady-state operation with a 22% and 15% drop in performance, respectively, relative to pure hydrogen. In addition, tar tolerance testing on button cells demonstrated an upper limit of tar tolerance of approximately 1%, well above the tar output of the gasifier. The predicted system efficiency was revised down to 33% gross and 27% net system efficiency because of the results of the gasifier and fuel cell experiments. These results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of thermally integrating a gasifier and a high-temperature fuel cell in small distributed power systems.

  16. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1998-10-01

    In this quarter a large amount of time was spent doing project planning and budget preparation for the fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Many issues of long-term strategic planning and budgeting depend on the availability of Federal support, including financial, technical and political. It has become increasingly obvious that several significant barriers must be overcome in order to reach the final project goal of commercial replication of the technology. This report describes switchgrass conversion development, production activities, environmental analysis planning, and information and education. Appendices discuss the biomass project, sediment delivery, successful establishment of switchgrass, and legislative support for the biomass project.

  17. Biomass CHP Catalog of Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report reviews the technical and economic characterization of biomass resources, biomass preparation, energy conversion technologies, power production systems, and complete integrated CHP systems.

  18. Externalities of biomass based electricity production compared to power generation from coal in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.; Meuleman, B.

    1997-01-01

    Externalities of electricity production from biomass and coal are investigated and compared for the Dutch context. Effects on economic activity and employment are investigated with help of Input/Output and multiplier tables. Valuations of damage from emissions to air are based on generic data from

  19. Electric power generation from biomass gasification; Geracao de eletricidade a partir da gaseificacao de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Cristina Aparecida Vilas Boas de; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/IEM/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Estudos em Sistemas Termicos], e-mails: cristinasales@unifei.edu.br, ruben@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a techno-economical evaluation of the biomass gasification utilization with different technologies such as: reciprocating engine, gas micro turbine, Stirling engine and fuel cells for small scale electricity generation. The comparative evaluation about the technologies is limited to the utilization in isolated areas. This paper shows the principal characteristics of these technologies. (author)

  20. Design and process integration of organic Rankine cycle utilizing biomass for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ependi, S.; Nur, T. B.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has high potential biomass energy sources from palm oil mill industry activities. The growing interest on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) application to produce electricity by utilizing biomass energy sources are increasingly due to its successfully used for generating electricity from rejected waste heat to the environment in industrial processes. In this study, the potential of the palm oil empty fruit bunch, and wood chip have been used as fuel for biomass to generate electricity based ORC with combustion processes. The heat from combustion burner was transfer by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator unit. The Syltherm-XLT thermal oil was used as the heat carrier from combustion burner, while R245fa was used as the working fluid for ORC unit. Appropriate designs integration from biomass combustion unit to ORC unit have been analyzed and proposed to generate expander shaft-work. Moreover, the effect of recuperator on the total system efficiency has also been investigated. It was observed that the fuel consumption was increased when the ORC unit equipped recuperator operated until certain pressure and decreased when operated at high pressure.

  1. Corrosion and Materials Performance in biomass fired and co-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH; Biede, O

    2003-01-01

    In Denmark, biomass such as straw or woodchip is utilized increasingly as a fuel for generating energy. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulfate are present in ash products, which condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific chlorine corrosion problems...

  2. Superheater corrosion in biomass-fired power plants: Investigation of Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Carlsen, B; Biede, O

    2002-01-01

    In Denmark, biomass such as straw or woodchip is utilized as a fuel for generating energy. Straw is a "carbon dioxide neutral fuel" and therefore does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulfate are present in ash products, which...

  3. Employer-sponsored pension plans

    OpenAIRE

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.

    2004-01-01

    Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k), in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the re...

  4. A renewable energy scenario for Aalborg Municipality based on low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalborg Municipality, Denmark, wishes to investigate the possibilities of becoming independent of fossil fuels. This article describes a scenario for supplying Aalborg Municipality's energy needs through a combination of low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass. Of particular focus in the scenario is how low-temperature geothermal heat may be utilised in district heating (DH) systems. The analyses show that it is possible to cover Aalborg Municipality's energy needs through the use of locally available sources in combination with significant electricity savings, heat savings, reductions in industrial fuel use and savings and fuel-substitutions in the transport sector. With biomass resources being finite, the two marginal energy resources in Aalborg are geothermal heat and wind power. If geothermal heat is utilised more, wind power may be limited and vice versa. The system still relies on neighbouring areas as an electricity buffer though. The costs of the scenario are at a comparable level with the reference situation, but with significantly higher needs for investments and lower fuel costs. Implementation of the scenario would therefore have a positive socio-economic impact as investments are more local labour-intensive than fuel supply. (author)

  5. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabedin Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration system based on an IC engine and gasifier reactor has been simulated and realized using Thermoflex simulation software. Performance results suggest that utilization of sustainably-grown biomass in a Tri-Generation Power Plant (TGPP can be a possibility for providing cooling, heat and power demands with local renewable sources and reducing the environmental impacts of the energy conversion systems.

  6. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Biomass Power Plant in Morocco and a Photovoltaic Installation in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez Leal, J.; Varela, M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an overview of cost-benefit analysis general methodology, describing its principles and basic characteristics. This methodology was applied to two case studies analyzed in the project INTERSUDMED, one biomass power plant fed by energy crops in El Hajeb (Morocco) and the other a photovoltaic installation in Djanet (Algeria). Both cases have been selected among the ones analyzed in the INTERSUDMED Project because of their interesting social implications and possible alternatives, that make them most suitable for cost-benefit analysis application. Finally, this report addresses the conclusions of both studies and summarizes the most relevant obtained results. (Author) 13 refs

  7. Biomass low-temperature gasification in a rotary reactor prior to cofiring of syngas in power boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, Piotr; Maj, Izabella; Kalisz, Sylwester; Polok, Michał

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative method of gasification with use of flue gas was investigated. • Gasification temperature ranging from 350 °C was considered. • Discussed gasification unit is connected to a power boiler. • Syngas with combustible components is recirculated to the boiler. • Wide range of biomass and waste fuels can be used as a feedstock. - Abstract: The paper presents results of the investigation of an innovative biomass and alternative fuel low-temperature gasification method before co-firing in industrial or power plant boilers. Before running industrial-size installation, laboratory tests were carried out to determine usability of alternative fuels to low-temperature gasification process. Tests were conducted in a laboratory reactor designed and constructed specifically for this purpose. The experimental stand enables recording of the weight loss of a sample and syngas composition. The process occurs for a fuel sample of a constant weight and known granulation and with a flue gas of known composition used as a gasifying agent. The aim of the laboratory research was to determine the usability of selected biomass fuel for indirect co-firing in power boilers and to build a knowledge base for industrial-size process by defining the process kinetics (time for fuel to remain in the reactor), recommended fuel granulation and process temperature. Presented industrial-size gasification unit has been successfully built in Marcel power plant in Radlin town, Poland. It consist an innovative rotary gasification reactor. Gasification process takes place with use of flue gas from coal and coke-oven fired boiler as a gasifying agent with recirculation of resulting gas (syngas) with combustible components: CO, H 2 , CH 4 . C n H m to the boiler’s combustion chamber. The construction of the reactor allows the use of a wide range of fuels (biomass, industrial waste and municipal waste). This paper presents the results of the reactor tests using coniferous

  8. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Biomass Power Plant in Morocco and a Photovoltaic Installation in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez Leal, J.; Varela, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents an overview of cost-benefit analysis general methodology, describing its principles and basic characteristics. This methodology was applied to two case studies analyzed in the project INTERSUDMED, one biomass power plant fed by energy crops in El Hajeb (Morocco) and the other a photovoltaic installation in Djanet (Algeria). Both cases have been selected among the ones analyzed in the INTERSUDMED Project because of their interesting social implications and possible alternatives, that make them most suitable for cost-benefit analysis application. Finally, this report addresses the conclusions of both studies and summarizes the most relevant obtained results. (Author) 13 refs.

  9. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass- fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of operational safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  10. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A.

    1995-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  11. Integrated gasification combined cycle and steam injection gas turbine powered by biomass joint-venture evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzinger, G.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report analyzes the economic and environmental potential of biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine technology including its market applications. The mature technology promises to produce electricity at $55--60/MWh and to be competitive for market applications conservatively estimated at 2000 MW. The report reviews the competitiveness of the technology of a stand-alone, mature basis and finds it to be substantial and recognized by DOE, EPRI, and the World Bank Global Environmental Facility

  12. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  13. Comparative evaluation of power generation systems with integrated gasification of biomass; Vergleich von Systemen zur Stromerzeugung mit integrierter Biomassevergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Gasification of biomass followed by power generation from the lean product gas can make a significant contribution to power generation without affecting the climate or environment. It is made even more interesting by the high efficiencies and promising pollution ratings that can be achieved. To make full use of this technology, some technical problems still require solving, and some non-technical obstacles need to be removed. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zusammenfassend kann festgehalten werden, dass die Biomassevergasung mit anschliessender Verstromung des Schwachgases einen nennenswerten Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energiebereitstellung in Europa leisten kann. Dies gilt insbesondere vor dem Hintergrund der erreichbaren hohen Stromwirkungsgrade und der vielversprechenden Umweltkenngroessen, durch die diese Technik gekennzeichnet ist. Um die Vorteile der Biomassevergasung realisieren zu koennen, muessen jedoch noch verschiedene technische Probleme geloest und nicht technische Hindernisse aus dem Weg geraeumt werden. (orig./SR)

  14. Effects of the distribution density of a biomass combined heat and power plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in village-town systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Kang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    The building of biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants is an effective means of developing biomass energy because they can satisfy demands for winter heating and electricity consumption. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of the distribution density of a biomass CHP plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in a village-town system. The distribution density is determined based on the heat transmission threshold, and the heat utilisation efficiency is determined based on the heat demand distribution, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss. The objective of this study was to ascertain the optimal value for the heat transmission threshold using a multi-scheme comparison based on an analysis of these factors. To this end, a model of a biomass CHP plant network was built using geographic information system tools to simulate and generate three planning schemes with different heat transmission thresholds (6, 8, and 10 km) according to the heat demand distribution. The heat utilisation efficiencies of these planning schemes were then compared by calculating the gross power, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss of the biomass CHP plant for each scenario. This multi-scheme comparison yielded the following results: when the heat transmission threshold was low, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was high and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively small. In contrast, when the heat transmission threshold was high, the distribution density of the network was low and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively large. When the heat transmission threshold was 8 km, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was optimised for efficient heat utilisation. To promote the development of renewable energy sources, a planning scheme for a biomass CHP plant network that maximises heat utilisation efficiency can be obtained using the optimal heat transmission threshold and the nonlinearity

  15. Occupational exposure at a contemplated Belarussian power plant fired with contaminated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.; Roed, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    focuses on the radiation doses that may be received by workers at such a power plant. By Monte Carlo modelling based on a Danish biofuel power plant design it was found that the highest dose rates within the power plant would be those to people standing near the fly ash silo, bottom ash containers and so......-called 'big bags' filled with fly ash waste. Inhalation doses were estimated to be low. External doses received while working at the power plant do not appear to be highly significant compared with the doses from environmental contamination in the area where the power plant is expected to be constructed....

  16. Assessment of Hydrogen Generation Potential from Biomass and its Application for Power Generation in Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya C. Mathad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Andaman and Nicobar Islands located southeast of Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean comprises of several small islands separated by sea over large distances which makes it impractical for electrifying all the islands by a single grid. A population of 380,581 (Census, 2011 living in these group of islands get their electricity demand catered through Diesel Generator Sets from 34 power houses with an aggregate capacity of 67.8 MW. Unavailability of any form of conventional fossil fuel reserves in the islands makes the diesel supplied in barges from southeastern coast of India as a sole lifeline for its power generation. Hence there is an urgent need for the development of a self sustainable model from non conventional energy resources to not only cater for the power demands but also to reduce the GHG emissions related with diesel powered generator sets. This paper discusses a self sustainable model for Andaman and Nicobar Islands that would cater the electrical demand through hydrogen produced from waste biomass resource which has a potential of replacing 86.65% of the diesel utilized in the diesel generator sets. The reduction in both the GHG emission and the cost of power generation would be evaluated to understand the impact of the self sustainable model on the environment and the livelihood of the local population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

  17. The Complex Dynamics of Sponsored Search Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, Valentin; La Poutré, Han; Bohte, Sander

    This paper provides a comprehensive study of the structure and dynamics of online advertising markets, mostly based on techniques from the emergent discipline of complex systems analysis. First, we look at how the display rank of a URL link influences its click frequency, for both sponsored search and organic search. Second, we study the market structure that emerges from these queries, especially the market share distribution of different advertisers. We show that the sponsored search market is highly concentrated, with less than 5% of all advertisers receiving over 2/3 of the clicks in the market. Furthermore, we show that both the number of ad impressions and the number of clicks follow power law distributions of approximately the same coefficient. However, we find this result does not hold when studying the same distribution of clicks per rank position, which shows considerable variance, most likely due to the way advertisers divide their budget on different keywords. Finally, we turn our attention to how such sponsored search data could be used to provide decision support tools for bidding for combinations of keywords. We provide a method to visualize keywords of interest in graphical form, as well as a method to partition these graphs to obtain desirable subsets of search terms.

  18. Employer-sponsored pension plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k, in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the return to their investment have a preferential tax treatment, i.e. do not enter a tax base. The funds are taxed only when drawn from the account in the form of a pension. This paper aims to present the functioning of 401(k pension plan as the most widely used employer sponsored pension plan in the USA, which is likely, in a modified form, to have an important place within our future reformed pension insurance system.

  19. Specifications of the open tendering concerning electric power production installations from biomass; Cahier des charges de l'appel d'offres portant sur des installations de production d'electricite a partir de biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    These specifications precise the context and the object of the open tendering (the installation of a biomass power plant of 300 MWe installed realized for the 1 january 2010), the administration procedures, the conditions of admissibility, the documents needed for the candidate, the demand inquiry, particular conditions and candidates evolvement. (A.L.B.)

  20. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, January 1--April 2, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1998-07-01

    During the period of January 2 to April 2, 1998, efforts revolved around the design of the switchgrass materials handling/feeding system for the co-fire test and permanent system, the development of a revised statement of work and budget for fiscal years 1998--1999 and, the continuation of farmer/land conversion, and public relations efforts. The weather continues to be a major problem with an unprecedented warm winter. Much of Iowa has had little or no frost in the ground. This lack of frost has prevented farmers from getting into their fields and harvesting switchgrass. Farmers are hesitant to drive processing equipment into unfrozen fields due to the large ruts left by the wheels. The producers group has continued to gather information and develop resources necessary to supply the switchgrass to the facility in a competitive manner. Information and contacts are starting to be gathered which will help establish a market for the dedicated biomass generated electricity. The report describes the progress in the following tasks: Switchgrass conversion development including fuel analysis and engineering; Production activities which include: soil studies, carbon studies, switchgrass production economics, and switchgrass yield improvements; Information and education; and Miscellaneous which includes legislation and regulatory activities. Appendices contain the following: Switchgrass sample analysis; Chariton Valley biomass project cooperator agreement; Soil and landscape characterization status report for switchgrass project; Agreement with Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research; A literature review of reed canarygrass utility for biomass; Prairie Lands Bio-Products, Inc. agenda; Feasibility analysis and cooperative structure for value-added switchgrass products; and Information and education efforts.

  1. Novel Role of Rural Official Organization in the Biomass-Based Power Supply Chain in China: A Combined Game Theory and Agent-Based Simulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyan Luo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing biomass-based power generation is helpful for China to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to release the targets of carbon emission peak. The decentralized farming method leads to Chinese farmers’ weak willingness to collect and sell crop residues to biomass-based power plants. The purpose of this paper is to solve the issue by proposing a novel biomass feedstock supply model with China’s rural official organization—villagers’ committee, which has great influence on villagers’ decision making. Introducing it into the biomass-based power supply chain is beneficial to motivating farmers’ supplying enthusiasm. A combined game theory and agent-based simulation approach is applied to study the effectiveness of this new supply model. Multiple simulation scenarios are built to study impacts of different simulation parameters, and results show that farmers tend to supply more biomass material for electricity production in the proposed villagers’ committee model, compared with the two conventional supply models, direct-deal and broker models. The supply model incorporating the rural official organization can ensure the feedstock sufficiency for plants. A proper model design depends on the feed-in tariff subsidy for biomass-based electricity, feedstock shipping distance, performance appraisal system of the villagers’ committee, as well as farmers’ utility weights on net income and public service improvement.

  2. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, January 1, 1997--April 1, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1997-05-01

    The following information summarizes the major areas of project activities accomplished during the last quarter. Activities addressing conversion technology have been geared towards gathering information and drawing comparisons to specific project need. Of major benefit was the trip taken to Denmark by Project Manager, Edward Woolsey. The first section of this report provides an overview of his experiences and findings. As a follow up to this trip, representatives from Iowa State University and from IES Utilities will also visit some of these facilities. Their information will be included in the next report. At the supply development level, the RC&D has been working to identify and organize producers of swithgrass. A major accomplishment has been the formation of the Prairie Lands Bio-Products group. This association will explore different business structures that energy crop producers can use to supply biomass and to effectively market their materials to the energy industry. Thus, the group will begin to interact with IES in the next few months to determine how the supplier and the utility must interact to establish a working relationship and to efficiently provide biomass as a boiler fuel. Other major areas of focus for the group will be the development and implementation of risk management strategies to overcome income loss and allow acreage increases during market development. These strategies include the development of niche markets for swithgrass, the use of CRP lands, and outside sources of cost share for establishment.

  3. Biomass & Natural Gas Based Hydrogen Fuel For Gas Turbine (Power Generation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant progress has been made by major power generation equipment manufacturers in the development of market applications for hydrogen fuel use in gas turbines in recent years. Development of a new application using gas turbines for significant reduction of power plant CO2 e...

  4. BioDry: An Inexpensive, Low-Power Method to Preserve Aquatic Microbial Biomass at Room Temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Tuorto

    Full Text Available This report describes BioDry (patent pending, a method for reliably preserving the biomolecules associated with aquatic microbial biomass samples, without the need of hazardous materials (e.g. liquid nitrogen, preservatives, etc., freezing, or bulky storage/sampling equipment. Gel electrophoresis analysis of nucleic acid extracts from samples treated in the lab with the BioDry method indicated that molecular integrity was protected in samples stored at room temperature for up to 30 days. Analysis of 16S/18S rRNA genes for presence/absence and relative abundance of microorganisms using both 454-pyrosequencing and TRFLP profiling revealed statistically indistinguishable communities from control samples that were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after collection. Seawater and river water biomass samples collected with a portable BioDry "field unit", constructed from off-the-shelf materials and a battery-operated pumping system, also displayed high levels of community rRNA preservation, despite a slight decrease in nucleic acid recovery over the course of storage for 30 days. Functional mRNA and protein pools from the field samples were also effectively conserved with BioDry, as assessed by respective RT-PCR amplification and western blot of ribulose-1-5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Collectively, these results demonstrate that BioDry can adequately preserve a suite of biomolecules from aquatic biomass at ambient temperatures for up to a month, giving it great potential for high resolution sampling in remote locations or on autonomous platforms where space and power are limited.

  5. Life cycle cost of biomass power plant: Monte Carlo simulation of investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odavić Petrana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of life cycle cost is considered as an important instrument for designing and evaluating success of every project. The aim of this work is to determine the precise impact of the investment costs and future operating and maintenance costs of CHP biomass plant. By using the Monte Carlo simulation are determined variations in the settings and the possible impact on the investment risk. The results show that the investment is justified, thanks to the positive outcome of the net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR and the payback period. The greatest impact on the variability of annual profits have operating costs, which have the highest coefficient of variation of 6.44% and the largest share. Variability of net present value of 4% is acceptable, and the investment is considered as stable.

  6. Deposit Probe Measurements in Danish Grate and Pulverized Fuel Biomass Power Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    . Corresponding samples of fuels, ash deposits and fly ash have provided information on the transformation of inorganics in the boiler. Generally, grate fired boilers provide a fly ash containing high contents of K, Cl and S compared to the fuel ash, while suspension fired boilers fly ash has a composition nearly...... similar to the fuel ash. Inner most biomass deposits are always salt-rich, while thicker deposit layers also contain some Si and Ca. Deposit probe formation rate measurements have been performed in different ways on several boilers. Grate and suspension fired boilers seems to cause similar deposit...... formation rates. Suspension fired boilers generate more fly ash, while grate boilers form a fly ash with a higher fraction of melt formation (and thereby a higher sticking probability) at similar temperatures. For suspension fired units it is observed that wood with a lower ash content than straw gives rise...

  7. MAPPING THE FREQUENCY OF USE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF FOREST BIOMASS USED FOR POWER GENERATION LAGES, SANTA CATARINA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thielly Schmidt Furtado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987560The region of Lages, in Santa Catarina state, is the economy based on the forest industry, especially for primary processing, and this is characterized by low yields and high production of waste, constituting environmental problems, logistical and financial support. The use of biomass in co-generation systems has been an economically profitable, since the year 2005, the place of study. In this context, the aims of this study were to map the frequency of use and the availability of wood waste used for co-generating of energy in Lages, Santa Catarina, and to evaluate the energetic properties. The sample data and the results of the energetic properties of biomass samples used in a co-generating energy in the period 2005 to 2008. The residues were characterized in terms of moisture content, ash content, gross calorific value and net calorific value. The results showed that the most available residue is the pine bark, although the most energetically efficient ones were the chip with pine-bark and the mixture of all waste systems used in generating power.

  8. Integration of biomass fast pyrolysis and precedent feedstock steam drying with a municipal combined heat and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, Thomas; Laukkanen, Timo P.; Järvinen, Mika P.

    2014-01-01

    Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) is a promising pre-treatment technology for converting biomass to transport fuel and in the future also for high-grade chemicals. BFP can be integrated with a municipal combined heat and power (CHP) plant. This paper shows the influence of BFP integration on a CHP plant's main parameters and its effect on the energetic and environmental performance of the connected district heating network. The work comprises full- and part-load operation of a CHP plant integrated with BFP and steam drying. It also evaluates different usage alternatives for the BFP products (char and oil). The results show that the integration is possible and strongly beneficial regarding energetic and environmental performance. Offering the possibility to provide lower district heating loads, the operation hours of the plant can be increased by up to 57%. The BFP products should be sold rather than applied for internal use as this increases the district heating network's primary energy efficiency the most. With this integration strategy future CHP plants can provide valuable products at high efficiency and also can help to mitigate global CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: • Part load simulation of a cogeneration plant integrated with biomas fast pyrolysis. • Analysis of energetic and environmental performance. • Assessment of different uses of the pyrolysis products

  9. New Experimental Characterisation Methods for Solid Biomass Fuels to be used in Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnar Eriksson, (Energy Engineering Div., Luleaa Univ. of Technology, S-971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)); Nordgren, Daniel; Berg, Magnus (Vattenfall Research and Development AB, S-814 26 Aelvkarleby (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    The replacement of fossil fuels will lead to an increasing demand for unconventional biofuels. Fuel characterisation to predict combustion properties and facilitate the choice of combustion applications is important to avoid costly and time-consuming mistakes. Traditional methods are developed mainly for coal. Therefore procedures adapted specifically for solid biomass fuels are needed. This work is a survey on approaches for combustion characterisation of biomass developed during the last ten years. Innovative characterisation methods of interest concern: 1) Fuel handling behaviour: grindablility, erosion and abrasion properties. 2) Combustion characterisation: devolatilisation properties (important for ignition and flame stability), char burnout time. 3) Slagging and fouling properties of ash: ash particle formation, ash particle size distribution, ash composition, melting and gasification temperatures, slagging of bottom ash, reducing the risk by mixing with other fuels or using fuel additives and choice of suitable combustion applications for specific fuels. The main conclusions are: 1) a method to measure grindability which takes electric power consumption into account is needed as the Hardgrove Grindability Index used for coal grinding is pointless for biofuels, 2) there is a need to develop convenient low-cost methods to measure slagging and fouling tendencies, devolatilisation kinetics and char burnout for high heating rates found in fluidised beds and powder burners

  10. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Coal mining is more energy and CO 2 efficient than biomass production. • Co-combustion of 60% biomass with coal doubles mass transport compared to 100% coal. • Low co-combustion levels reduce GHG emissions, but the margins are small. • Total supply chain efficiency is the highest for the coal reference at 41.2%. - Abstract: Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain scenario, for a Dutch situation. The 60% biomass co-combustion supply chain scenarios show possibilities to reduce emissions up to 48%. The low co-combustion levels are effective to reduce GHG emissions, but the margins are small. Currently co-combustion of pellets is the norm. Co-combustion of combined torrefaction and pelleting (TOP) shows the best results, but is also the most speculative. The indicators from the renewable energy directive cannot be aligned. When biomass is regarded as scarce, co-combustion of small shares or no co-combustion is the best option from an energy perspective. When biomass is regarded as abundant, co-combustion of large shares is the best option from a GHG reduction perspective.

  11. Thermodynamic Model of a Very High Efficiency Power Plant based on a Biomass Gasifier, SOFCs, and a Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Aravind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations with a power plant based on a biomass gasifier, SOFCs and a gas turbine are presented. The SOFC anode off-gas which mainly consists of steam and carbon dioxides used as a gasifying agent leading to an allothermal gasification process for which heat is required. Implementation of heat pipes between the SOFC and the gasifier using two SOFC stacks and intercooling the fuel and the cathode streams in between them has shown to be a solution on one hand to drive the allothermal gasification process and on the other hand to cool down the SOFC. It is seen that this helps to reduce the exergy losses in the system significantly. With such a system, electrical efficiency around 73% is shown as achievable.

  12. Learning and technological capability building in emerging economies: The case of the biomass power equipment industry in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Ockwell, David

    2014-01-01

    industries in emerging economies tend to overlook firm-level specifics. This paper contributes to filling this gap by utilising in-depth qualitative firm-level data to analyse the extent to which the use of different learning mechanisms can explain differences in the accumulation of technological...... capabilities. This is explored via an examination of eight firms in the biomass power equipment industry in Malaysia during the period 1970–2011. The paper finds that firms relying on a combination of learning from foreign technology partners and internal learning by planned experimentation make most progress...... capabilities. Those firms who proactively pursued learning from foreign partners, on the other hand, advanced further, reaching basic innovative levels of technological capabilities. These findings are relevant for a wider range of industrial sectors in emerging economies....

  13. Application of Biomass from Palm Oil Mill for Organic Rankine Cycle to Generate Power in North Sumatera Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, T. B.; Pane, Z.; Amin, M. N.

    2017-03-01

    Due to increasing oil and gas demand with the depletion of fossil resources in the current situation make efficient energy systems and alternative energy conversion processes are urgently needed. With the great potential of resources in Indonesia, make biomass has been considered as one of major potential fuel and renewable resource for the near future. In this paper, the potential of palm oil mill waste as a bioenergy source has been investigated. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) small scale power plant has been preliminary designed to generate electricity. The working fluid candidates for the ORC plant based on the heat source temperature domains have been investigated. The ORC system with a regenerator has higher thermal efficiency than the basic ORC system. The study demonstrates the technical feasibility of ORC solutions in terms of resources optimizations and reducing of greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Cofiring versus biomass-fired power plants: GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions savings comparison by means of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, F.; Royo, J.; Gomez, M.

    2011-01-01

    One way of producing nearly CO 2 free electricity is by using biomass as a combustible. In many cases, removal of CO 2 in biomass grown is almost the same as the emissions for the bioelectricity production at the power plant. For this reason, bioelectricity is generally considered CO 2 neutral. For large-scale biomass electricity generation two alternatives can be considered: biomass-only fired power plants, or cofiring in an existing coal power plant. Among other factors, two important aspects should be analyzed in order to choose between the two options. Firstly, which is the most appealing alternative if their Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions savings are taken into account. Secondly, which biomass resource is the best, if the highest impact reduction is sought. In order to quantify all the GHG emissions related to each system, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been performed and all the processes involved in each alternative have been assessed in a cradle-to-grave manner. Sensitivity analyses of the most dominant parameters affecting GHG emissions, and comparisons between the obtained results, have also been carried out.

  15. Biomass power for rural development: Phase 2. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1998-11-01

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase-1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and agreements necessary to demonstrate commercial willow production in Phase-2. The Phase-1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boilers, developing fuel supply plans for the project, obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase-2, obtaining construction and environmental permits, and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase-1 requirements the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and developed the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. This past summer 105 acres were prepared in advance for the spring planting in 1998. Having completed the above tasks, the Consortium is well positioned to begin Phase-2. In phase-2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase-2 is to transition the work performed under the Rural Energy for the Future project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  16. Assessment of the way of biomass transportation to the coal power plant with regard to the limitation of emissions of CO{sub 2}; Beurteilung der Befoerderungsweise der Biomasse in das Kohlenkraftwerk im Blick auf die Beschraenkung der Emission von CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamkiewicz, A. [Maritime Univ. of Szczecin (Poland). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Zenczak, W. [West Pomeranian Univ. of Technology, Szczecin (Poland). Fakultaet fuer Meerestechnik und Transport

    2014-07-01

    One from the activities taken in Poland in aim of limitation of CO{sub 2}, emission is coal and biomass combustion together in one boiler. Biomass is delivered to power station Dolna Odra in Szczecin by trucks, which are also a source of CO{sub 2}, emission. The paper presents results of comparative analysis of CO{sub 2}, emission from trucks during transportation of biomass to power station with actual reduction of emission through power station as result of substitution of part of coal by biomass.

  17. DOE-EERC jointly sponsored research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrikson, J.G.; Sondreal, E.A.

    1999-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-93MC30098 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) supported the performance of a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with a minimum 50% nonfederal cost share to assist industry in commercializing and effectively applying efficient, nonpolluting energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting market demands for clean fuels, chemical feedstocks, and electricity in the 21st century. The objective of the JSRP was to advance the deployment of advanced technologies for improving energy efficiency and environmental performance through jointly sponsored research on topics that would not be adequately addressed by the private sector alone. Examples of such topics include the barriers to hot-gas cleaning impeding the deployment of high-efficiency power systems and the search for practical means for sequestering CO{sub 2} generated by fossil fuel combustion. The selection of particular research projects was guided by a combination of DOE priorities and market needs, as provided by the requirement for joint venture funding approved both by DOE and the private sector sponsor. The research addressed many different energy resource and related environmental problems, with emphasis directed toward the EERC's historic lead mission in low-rank coals (LRCs), which represent approximately half of the U.S. coal resources in the conterminous states, much larger potential resources in Alaska, and a major part of the energy base in the former U.S.S.R., East Central Europe, and the Pacific Rim. The Base and JSRP agreements were tailored to the growing awareness of critical environmental issues, including water supply and quality, air toxics (e.g., mercury), fine respirable particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}), and the goal of zero net CO{sub 2} emissions.

  18. Power generation from biomass: Status report on catalytic-allothermal wood gasification. Papers; Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse: Stand der Realisierung der katalytisch-allothermen Holzvergasung. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, H.; Bauermeister, U.; Kliche, H.; Seiffarth, K. (comps.)

    2001-12-01

    The topic of this event is bound up with the activities of FOeST in the field of gasification of biomass in decentralized small plants (< 2 MW{sub el}). The start project was a research work in 1993 to select a gasification process for using wood, sludge or plastic waste, continued 1995 by a research project with gasification tests of tar oil contaminated wood in a small gasification reactor with good results in environmental compatibility. But the following planning process of a demonstration plant for 500 kW{sub el} has shown, that the biomass gasification couldn't reach economic efficiency. Due to the development of an catalytic-partial allothermal gasification process of GNS ltd. it was clear, that the technical efficiency could be increased considerably. So, in 2000, a project started to test this catalytic-partial allothermal gasification in a pilot plant. Today the results of research, development and testing of biomass gasification with catalytic-partial allothermal processing as well as practically experience with a gasification plant, general conditions and further activities for energetically utilisation of biomass in Saxonia-Anhalt will be presented. (orig.)

  19. Corrosion in the Flue Gas Cleaning System of a Biomass-Fired Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Olesen, R. E.; Gensmann, P.

    2017-01-01

    bolts were under stress and this together with the presenceof accumulated chlorine between the sealing strips andbolts resulted in stress corrosion cracking and rupture. Inaddition, Zn-K-Cl deposits were agglomerated in the ductafter the DeNOx unit. Zn was also a constituent of corrosionproducts......After only a few years operation, corrosiondamage was observed in the flue gas cleaning system of abiomass power plant. The corrosion was on the lower partof the gas/gas heat exchanger fabricated from A242weathering steel, where UNS S31600 bolts were used toattach sealing strips to the rotor. Thick...

  20. Potential for Coal Power Plants to Co-Fire with Woody Biomass in the U. S. North, 2010-2030: A Technical Document Supporting the Northern Forest Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth E. Skog

    2015-01-01

    Future use of woody biomass to produce electric power in the U.S. North can have an important influence on timber production, carbon storage in forests, and net carbon emissions from producing electric power. The Northern Forest Futures Project (NFFP) has provided regional- and state-level projections of standing forest biomass, land-use change, and timber harvest,...

  1. Technical, economic and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in coal and natural gas fired power plants in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ree, R.; Korbee, R.; Eenkhoorn, S.; De Lange, T.; Groenendaal, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the technical, economic, and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in existing Dutch coal and natural gas fired power plants, and industrial combined-cycles (CC), is addressed. Main criteria that are considered are: the availability and contractibility of biomass for energy purposes; the (technical) operation of the conventional fossil fuel based processes may not be disturbed; the gaseous and liquid plant emissions have to comply to those applicable for power plants/CCs, the commercial applicability of the solid residues may not be negatively influenced; applicable additional biomass conversion technologies must be commercially available; the necessary additional investment costs must be acceptable from an economic point of view, and the co-firing option must result in a substantial CO 2 -emission reduction. The main result of the study described in the paper is the presentation of a clear and founded indication of the total co-firing potential of biomass in existing power plants and industrial CCs in the Netherlands. This potential is determined by considering both technical, economic, and environmental criteria. In spite of the fact that the co-firing potential for the specific Dutch situation is presented, the results of the criteria considered are more generally applicable, and therefore are also very interesting for potential co-firing initiatives outside of the Netherlands

  2. Switchgrass biomass energy storage project. Final report, September 23, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.A.; Teel, A.; Brown, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the Chariton Valley RC&D Inc., a USDA-sponsored rural development organization, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Energy Bureau (IDNR-EB), and IES Utilities, a major Iowa energy company, is directed at the development of markets for energy crops in southern Iowa. This effort is part of a statewide coalition of public and private interests cooperating to merge Iowa`s agricultural potential and its long-term energy requirements to develop locally sustainable sources of biomass fuel. The four-county Chariton Valley RC&D area (Lucas, Wayne, Appanoose and Monroe counties) is the site of one of eleven NREL/EPRI feasibility studies directed at the potential of biomass power. The focus of renewable energy development in the region has centered around the use of swithgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.). This native Iowa grass is one of the most promising sustainable biomass fuel crops. According to investigations by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), switchgrass has the most potential of all the perennial grasses and legumes evaluated for biomass production.

  3. International seminar on biomass and fossil fuels co-firing in power plants and heating plants in Europe; Seminaire international sur la cocombustion de biomasse et d'energies fossiles dans les centrales electriques et les chaufferies en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the European commission which has fixed to 12% the share of renewable energies in the total energy consumption up to 2010, is to develop the biomass sector. Co-firing is a solution that allows to increase significantly the use of biomass because it does not require important investments. Today, about 150 power plants in Europe use co-firing. An Altener project named 'Cofiring' has ben settled in order to bring together and analyze the European experience in this domain and to sustain and rationalize the design of future projects. The conclusions of this study, coordinated by VTT Energy and which involves CARMEN (Germany), CBE (Portugal), the Danish centre for landscape and planning, ITEBE (France), KOBA (Italy), SLU (Sweden), and EVA (Austria), were presented during this international seminar. (J.S.)

  4. Modeling and performance analysis of CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system based on co-firing of natural gas and biomass gasification gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangjiang; Mao, Tianzhi; Sui, Jun; Jin, Hongguang

    2015-01-01

    Co-firing biomass and fossil energy is a cost-effective and reliable way to use renewable energy and offer advantages in flexibility, conversion efficiency and commercial possibility. This study proposes a co-fired CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system based on natural gas and biomass gasification gas that contains a down-draft gasifier, ICE (internal combustion engine), absorption chiller and heat exchangers. Thermodynamic models are constructed based on a modifying gasification thermochemical equilibrium model and co-fired ICE model for electricity and heat recovery. The performance analysis for the volumetric mixture ratio of natural gas and product gas indicates that the energy and exergy efficiencies are improved by 9.5% and 13.7%, respectively, for an increasing mixture ratio of 0–1.0. Furthermore, the costs of multi-products, including electricity, chilled water and hot water, based on exergoeconomic analysis are analyzed and discussed based on the influences of the mixture ratio of the two gas fuels, investment cost and biomass cost. - Highlights: • Propose a co-fired CCHP system by natural gas and biomass gasification gas. • Modify biomass gasification and co-fired ICE models. • Present the thermodynamic analysis of the volumetric mixture ratios of two gas fuels. • Energy and exergy efficiencies are improved 9.5% and 13.7%. • Discuss multi-products’ costs influenced by investment and fuel costs.

  5. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 - Countries report. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on biorefineries: Co-production of fuels, chemicals, power and materials from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Mandl, M. (Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2010-07-01

    This report has been developed by the members of IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery: Co-production of Fuels, Chemicals, Power and Materials from Biomass (www.biorefinery.nl/ieabioenergy-task42). IEA Bioenergy is a collaborative network under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) to improve international cooperation and information exchange between national bioenergy RD and D programs. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery covers a new and very broad biomass-related field, with a very large application potential, and deals with a variety of market sectors with many interested stakeholders, a large number of biomass conversion technologies, and integrated concepts of both biochemical and thermochemical processes. This report contains an overview of the biomass, bioenergy and biorefinery situation, and activities, in the Task 42 member countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, and the Netherlands. The overview includes: national bioenergy production, non-energetic biomass use, bioenergy related policy goals, national oil refineries, biofuels capacity for transport purposes, existing biorefinery industries, pilot and demo plants, and other activities of research and development (such as main national projects and stakeholders). Data are provided by National Task Leaders (NTLs), whose contact details are listed at the end of the report. (author)

  6. Bioenergy guide. Projecting, operation and economic efficiency of biomass power plants; Leitfaden Bioenergie. Planung, Betrieb und Wirtschaftlichkeit von Bioenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deimling, S. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER); Kaltschmitt, M; Schneider, B. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This guide gives an survey over planning, operation and economics of biomass conversion plants. Main topics are: production and supply of biomass fuels, combustion properties, licensing, cost and financing. It shows planning and management of projects and the legal background for Germany and the European Union.

  7. Power generation in small scale from gasification of biomass; Geracao eletrica em pequena escala a partir da gaseificacao de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Aradas, Maria Eugenia Corria [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida (NEST)

    2004-07-01

    This paper present a review about biomass gasifier technology and discuss its advantages, disadvantages and applications as well as shows some succeeded experiences in this area. The paper also presents an analysis of the biomass gas use in alternative engines and in new distributed generation technology such as Stirling engines and microturbines. (author)

  8. Large-scale biodiesel production using flue gas from coal-fired power plants with Nannochloropsis microalgal biomass in open raceway ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baohua; Sun, Faqiang; Yang, Miao; Lu, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Pan, Kehou

    2014-12-01

    The potential use of microalgal biomass as a biofuel source has raised broad interest. Highly effective and economically feasible biomass generating techniques are essential to realize such potential. Flue gas from coal-fired power plants may serve as an inexpensive carbon source for microalgal culture, and it may also facilitate improvement of the environment once the gas is fixed in biomass. In this study, three strains of the genus Nannochloropsis (4-38, KA2 and 75B1) survived this type of culture and bloomed using flue gas from coal-fired power plants in 8000-L open raceway ponds. Lower temperatures and solar irradiation reduced the biomass yield and lipid productivities of these strains. Strain 4-38 performed better than the other two as it contained higher amounts of triacylglycerols and fatty acids, which are used for biodiesel production. Further optimization of the application of flue gas to microalgal culture should be undertaken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sponsors' participation in conduct and reporting of industry trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Krogsbøll, Lasse T; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Bias in industry-sponsored trials is common and the interpretation of the results can be particularly distorted in favour of the sponsor's product. We investigated sponsors' involvement in the conduct and reporting of industry-sponsored trials.......Bias in industry-sponsored trials is common and the interpretation of the results can be particularly distorted in favour of the sponsor's product. We investigated sponsors' involvement in the conduct and reporting of industry-sponsored trials....

  10. Energy production from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestebroer, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the task group 'Energy Production from Biomass', initiated by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, was to identify bottlenecks in the development of biomass for energy production. The bottlenecks were identified by means of a process analysis of clean biomass fuels to the production of electricity and/or heat. The subjects in the process analysis are the potential availability of biomass, logistics, processing techniques, energy use, environmental effects, economic impact, and stimulation measures. Three categories of biomass are distinguished: organic residual matter, imported biomass, and energy crops, cultivated in the Netherlands. With regard to the processing techniques attention is paid to co-firing of clean biomass in existing electric power plants (co-firing in a coal-fired power plant or co-firing of fuel gas from biomass in a coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plant), and the combustion or gasification of clean biomass in special stand-alone installations. 5 figs., 13 tabs., 28 refs

  11. GIS Methodology for Location of Biomass Power Plants Via Multi -Criteria Evaluation and Network Analysis. Location-Allocation Models for Forest Biomass Use; Metodologia SIG para la Localizacion de Centrales de Biomasa mediante Evaluacion Multicriterio y Analisis de Redes. Modelos de Localizacion-Asignacion para el Aprovechamiento de Biomasa Forestal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, C. de la; Dominguez, J.; Perez, M. E.

    2013-02-01

    The main purpose of this study is to find optimal areas for the installation of Biomass Plants for electric generation and grid connected. In order to achieve this goal, a methodology based on Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) and implemented by means a Geographic Information System (GIS) has been developed. Factors and restrictions for biomass resource and power plants location of biomass have been obtained through the dataset. The methodology output includes maps of greater aptitude areas for resource use (forest biomass available), as well as suitable locations for the placement of Forest Biomass facilities. Both cartographic products have been related by means Network Analysis. It generates Location-Allocation Models which allows locating Forest Biomass Facilities according with an optimization of the supply chain from the resource areas. (Author)

  12. SPONSORING, BRAND VALUE AND SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zauner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing involvement of individuals in social media over the past decade has enabled firms to pursue new avenues in communication and sponsoring activities. Besides general research on either social media or sponsoring, questions regarding the consequences of a joint activity (sponsoring activities in social media remain unexplored. Hence, the present study analyses whether the perceived image of the brand and the celebrity endorser credibility of a top sports team influence the perceived brand value of the sponsoring firm in a social media setting. Moreover, these effects are compared between existing customers and non-customers of the sponsoring firm. Interestingly, perceived celebrity endorser credibility plays no role in forming brand value perceptions in the case of the existing customers. Implications for marketing theory and practice are derived.

  13. Paradigma Baru Sponsor sebagai Mitra Penyelenggaraan Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Evelina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this article is to know why sponsorship only to be viewed as sources of funding to implement the public relation events or marketing communication events. Method used in this article is qualitative method research to be based on observation, library study and content analysis. The result of this research seems that change happened in role of sponsorship from only fund source to become a partner of cooperation (mutual symbiotism between sponsor and event organizer. This article exploring the change of sponsorship concept from only looking for sponsor as an activity of fund mobilitation to become a partnership cooperation between event organizer and sponsor company. The mean of sponsor itself beside the fund supporter, they are also a side who takes mutual benefit from the cooperation. Conclusion, any close relationship (mutual benefit between two sides who take cooperation in event implementation (sponsor and event organiser. 

  14. Trapezoidal Numerical Integration of Fire Radiative Power (FRP) Provides More Reliable Estimation of Fire Radiative Energy (FRE) and so Biomass Consumption Than Conventional Estimation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyachandran, S. K.; Roy, D. P.; Boschetti, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Fire Radiative Power (FRP) [MW] is a measure of the rate of biomass combustion and can be retrieved from ground based and satellite observations using middle infra-red measurements. The temporal integral of FRP is the Fire Radiative Energy (FRE) [MJ] and is related linearly to the total biomass consumption and so pyrogenic emissions. Satellite derived biomass consumption and emissions estimates have been derived conventionally by computing the summed total FRP, or the average FRP (arithmetic average of FRP retrievals), over spatial geographic grids for fixed time periods. These two methods are prone to estimation bias, especially under irregular sampling conditions such as provided by polar-orbiting satellites, because the FRP can vary rapidly in space and time as a function of the fire behavior. Linear temporal integration of FRP taking into account when the FRP values were observed and using the trapezoidal rule for numerical integration has been suggested as an alternate FRE estimation method. In this study FRP data measured rapidly with a dual-band radiometer over eight prescribed fires are used to compute eight FRE values using the sum, mean and trapezoidal estimation approaches under a variety of simulated irregular sampling conditions. The estimated values are compared to biomass consumed measurements for each of the eight fires to provide insights into which method provides more accurate and precise biomass consumption estimates. The three methods are also applied to continental MODIS FRP data to study their differences using polar orbiting satellite data. The research findings indicate that trapezoidal FRP numerical integration provides the most reliable estimator.

  15. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  16. Integration of biomass into urban energy systems for heat and power. Part II: Sensitivity assessment of main techno-economic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantaleo, Antonio M.; Giarola, Sara; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of a MILP tool for optimal sizing and location of heating and CHP plants to serve residential energy demand. • Trade-offs between local vs centralized heat generation, district heating vs natural gas distribution systems. • Assessment of the key factors influencing the use of biomass and district heating in residential areas. - Abstract: The paper presents the application of a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) methodology to optimize multi-biomass and natural gas supply chain strategic design for heat and power generation in urban areas. The focus is on spatial and temporal allocation of biomass supply, storage, processing, transport and energy conversion (heat and CHP) to match the heat demand of residential end users. The main aim lies on the assessment of the trade-offs between centralized district heating plants and local heat generation systems, and on the decoupling of the biomass processing and biofuel energy conversion steps. After a brief description of the methodology, which is presented in detail in Part I of the research, an application to a generic urban area is proposed. Moreover, the influence of energy demand typologies (urban areas energy density, heat consumption patterns, buildings energy efficiency levels, baseline energy costs and available infrastructures) and specific constraints of urban areas (transport logistics, air emission levels, space availability) on the selection of optimal bioenergy pathways for heat and power is assessed, by means of sensitivity analysis. On the basis of these results, broad considerations about the key factors influencing the use of bioenergy into urban energy systems are proposed. Potential further applications of this model are also described, together with main barriers for development of bioenergy routes for urban areas

  17. Jointly Sponsored Research Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Under this program, which has been in place since Fiscal Year 1990, DOE makes approximately $2.5 million available each year to the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to fund projects that are of current interest to industry but which still involve significant risk, thus requiring some government contribution to offset the risk if the research is to move forward. The program guidelines require that at least 50% of the project funds originate from nonfederal sources. Projects funded under the JSRP often originate under a complementary base program, which funds higher-risk projects. The projects funded in Fiscal Year 1996 addressed a wide range of Fossil Energy interests, including hot-gas filters for advanced power systems; development of cleaner, more efficient processing technologies; development of environmental control technologies; development of environmental remediation and reuse technologies; development of improved analytical techniques; and development of a beneficiation technique to broaden the use of high-sulfur coal. Descriptions and status for each of the projects funded during the past fiscal year are included in Section A of this document, Statement of Technical Progress.

  18. Electric power generation using biomass gasification systems in nature in isolated communities of the Amazon region: project GASEIBRAS; Geracao de eletricidade utilizando sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa in natura em comunidades isoladas da regiao amazonica: projeto GASEIBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortini Goncalves; Santos, Sandra M. Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Referencia Nacional em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, sandra@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper will present the pioneering project of electric energy generation from renewable sources 'GASEIBRAS - Nationalization of the Biomass Gasification Technology and Formation of Human Resources in the Amazon Region', recently approved by the National Advice of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and for the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME). The GASEIBRAS project intends to use the experience previously acquired in the project GASEIFAMAZ - Comparison between Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification in Brazil and Exterior and Formation of Human Resources in the North Region, sponsored by FINEP/CTENERG, to develop and construct a 20 kWe biomass gasification system, with total national technology, easy to operate and to maintain, and fed with local available biomass residues. Apart from contributing for the development of the national technology, this project will provide the sustainable development of the isolated communities in the Amazon region. The ongoing development of this project will enable to consolidate the national biomass gasification technology for electricity generation. The implemented prototype will allow the response of this project in other regions of the country, due its tailor made characteristic to attend to small isolated communities, thus supplying decentralized energy from renewable sources, to Amazon region. (author)

  19. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  20. Biomass Waste Gasification – Can Be the Two Stage Process Suitable for Tar Reduction and Power Generation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, J.; Štojdl, J.; Richter, M.; Popelka, J.; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, J.; Vacek, J.; Skoblia, S.; Buryan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2012), s. 692-700 ISSN 0956-053X Grant - others:RFCR(XE) CT-2010-00009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : waste biomass * gasification * tar Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 2.485, year: 2012

  1. State-sponsored dental terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, M

    2017-11-24

    Has the state's manipulation of the NHS dental contract systems deliberately, or accidentally, had corrupting effects on the behaviours of some members of the dental profession? If the answer is 'possibly' or 'probably', then obvious questions that follow include, 'was this done deliberately' and if so, 'why'? Could this have been done for largely altruistic reasons, or was it done to achieve government control for minimum cost? Might this have been undertaken for political, financial or ideological reasons - regardless of any adverse longer term consequences for some patients or for some dental professionals? Might it have been done to take greater control of the dental profession on the grounds that all professions are a conspiracy against the laity, as the mildly paranoid George Bernard Shaw once alleged? Is it possible that some of this manipulation might have been done to help to disempower yet another profession, allegedly to 'modernise it', but perhaps to enslave it for its own reasons? Was this just another example of some statist politicians wanting to interfere in all aspects of UK society, regardless of their lack of specific understanding, or any proven expertise, in many areas? Could the state's manipulation of contracts and processes be regarded as an abuse of power by a virtual monopoly, which has been used to control a largely altruistic profession by imposing corrupting NHS dental contract systems with the most recent one involving 'units of dental activity' (UDAs)? Perhaps it was really about some politicians wanting ever more power, control or money - their usual drivers - with the dental and medical professions accidentally becoming casualties?

  2. Biomass utilisation for combined heat and power generation: Status and perspectives for rural regions. Guelzow expert discussions; Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung: Stand der Technik und Perspektiven fuer den laendlichen Raum. Guelzower Fachgespraeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Biomass has a high potential but biomass utilisation technologies have not yet reached sufficient maturity for a general breakthrough on the market. Political boundary conditions alone are not sufficient if technical conversion processes are neglected. For the time being, the potential of biomass can not be utilised.

  3. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  4. Electricity from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B.

    1998-11-01

    Electricity from biomass assesses the potential of biomass electricity for displacing other more polluting power sources and providing a relatively clean and ecologically friendly source of energy; discusses its environmental and economic effects, while analysing political and institutional initiatives and constraints; evaluates key factors, such as energy efficiency, economics, decentralisation and political repurcussions; considers the processes and technologies employed to produce electricity from biomass; and discusses the full range of incentives offered to producers and potential producers and the far-reaching implications it could have for industry, society and the environment. (author)

  5. Biomass in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapron, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  6. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.; Mark, P.E.; Keller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  7. Development of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for the Biomass Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Sang Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study makes use of this distinction to analyze the exhaust gas concentration and fuel of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB boiler that mainly uses wood biomass, and to develop the emission factors of Methane (CH4, Nitrous oxide (N2O. The fuels used as energy sources in the subject working sites are Wood Chip Fuel (WCF, RDF and Refused Plastic Fuel (RPF of which heating values are 11.9 TJ/Gg, 17.1 TJ/Gg, and 31.2 TJ/Gg, respectively. The average concentrations of CH4 and N2O were measured to be 2.78 ppm and 7.68 ppm, respectively. The analyzed values and data collected from the field survey were used to calculate the emission factor of CH4 and N2O exhausted from the CFB boiler. As a result, the emission factors of CH4 and N2O are 1.4 kg/TJ (0.9–1.9 kg/TJ and 4.0 kg/TJ (2.9–5.3 kg/TJ within a 95% confidence interval. Biomass combined with the combustion technology for the CFB boiler proved to be more effective in reducing the N2O emission, compared to the emission factor of the CFB boiler using fossil fuel.

  8. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  9. The Political Economy of Federally Sponsored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Ragon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Librarian involvement in the Open Access (OA movement has traditionally focused on access to scholarly publications. Recent actions by the White House have focused attention on access on the data produced from federally sponsored research. Questions have emerged concerning access to the output of federally sponsored research and whether it is a public or private good. Understanding the political battle over access to federally funded research is closely tied to the ownership of the peer review process in higher education and associated revenue streams, and as a result, interest groups seeking to influence government regulation have politicized the issues. As a major funder of research in higher education, policies from the federal government are likely to drive change in research practices at higher education institutions and impact library services. The political economy of federally sponsored research data will shape research enterprises in higher education inspire a number of new services distributed throughout the research life cycle.

  10. Engineering the Pores of Biomass-Derived Carbon: Insights for Achieving Ultrahigh Stability at High Power in High-Energy Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Ranjith; Kaliyappan, Karthikeyan; Ramasamy, Hari Vignesh; Sun, Xueliang; Lee, Yun-Sung

    2017-07-10

    Electrochemical supercapacitors with high energy density are promising devices due to their simple construction and long-term cycling performance. The development of a supercapacitor based on electrical double-layer charge storage with high energy density that can preserve its cyclability at higher power presents an ongoing challenge. Herein, we provide insights to achieve a high energy density at high power with an ultrahigh stability in an electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) system by using carbon from a biomass precursor (cinnamon sticks) in a sodium ion-based organic electrolyte. Herein, we investigated the dependence of EDLC performance on structural, textural, and functional properties of porous carbon engineered by using various activation agents. The results demonstrate that the performance of EDLCs is not only dependent on their textural properties but also on their structural features and surface functionalities, as is evident from the electrochemical studies. The electrochemical results are highly promising and revealed that the porous carbon with poor textural properties has great potential to deliver high capacitance and outstanding stability over 300 000 cycles compared with porous carbon with good textural properties. A very low capacitance degradation of around 0.066 % per 1000 cycles, along with high energy density (≈71 Wh kg -1 ) and high power density, have been achieved. These results offer a new platform for the application of low-surface-area biomass-derived carbons in the design of highly stable high-energy supercapacitors. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. 77 FR 26697 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Change of Sponsor Address; Change of Sponsor Name and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... that it has transferred ownership of, and all rights and interest in, abbreviated new animal drug... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510 and 522 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal...

  12. Estimating tree biomass regressions and their error, proceedings of the workshop on tree biomass regression functions and their contribution to the error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Tiberius Cunia

    1987-01-01

    Proceedings of a workshop co-sponsored by the USDA Forest Service, the State University of New York, and the Society of American Foresters. Presented were papers on the methodology of sample tree selection, tree biomass measurement, construction of biomass tables and estimation of their error, and combining the error of biomass tables with that of the sample plots or...

  13. Summary of the ORNL-sponsored reactor radwaste management workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibbey, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    On January 12 to 14, 1977, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored a Radwaste Management Workshop in New Orleans, Louisiana, the object of which was to obtain operating data on the uses of evaporation, ion exchange, filtration, and on solid radwaste practices at nuclear power plants. The collected data are being used to update three earlier generic reports done by ORNL on the status of evaporation, ion exchange, and solid radwaste practices at nuclear power plants and to prepare a new one on filtration. All segments of the nuclear power industry were invited to participate, and a total of 188 representatives came. There were four major Workshop groups: volume reduction, solidification, physical and chemical separations, and corrosion. The major findings of each group are reported

  14. 14 CFR 152.309 - Availability of sponsor's records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the purposes of accounting and audit. (b) The sponsor or planning agency shall allow appropriate FAA... to the sponsor or planning agency. (c) It audit findings have not been resolved, the applicable... sponsor's records. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall allow any authorized representative of the...

  15. 48 CFR 35.017-1 - Sponsoring agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sponsoring agreement or sponsoring agencies' policies and procedures: (1) A statement of the purpose and... of the FFRDC's relationship with its sponsor(s). (3) A provision for the identification of retained earnings (reserves) and the development of a plan for their use and disposition. (4) A prohibition against...

  16. Sponsors, Sponsorship Rates and the Immigration Multiplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, Guillermina; Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews evidence of the extent to which U.S. immigrants utilize the family reunification entitlements of immigration laws. Examines two studies of the immigrant cohort: Jasso and Rosenzweig (1986) and the General Accounting Office report (1988). Provides estimates of the characteristics of U.S. citizen sponsors of immigrant spouses and parents.…

  17. 22 CFR 62.3 - Sponsor eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sponsor eligibility. 62.3 Section 62.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions... visitor program are: (1) United States local, state and federal government agencies; (2) International...

  18. Agency-Sponsored Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, James S.

    1976-01-01

    Sponsors of these programs include nonprofit organizations, proprietary agencies, wholly owned subsidiaries of U.S. corporations, and foreign-based institutions catering to North American students. Problems arising from their non-accredited status are examined and a criterion instrument for evaluating them is developed. (LBH)

  19. Analysing the economy-wide impact of the supply chains activated by a new biomass power plant. The case of cardoon in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonfiglio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact on the economy of Sardinia (Italy generated by a new biomass power plant fed by locally cultivated cardoon. The cardoon also serves the production of biopolymers. The impact is assessed at an economy-wide level using two multiregional closed Input-Output models, which allow us to take into account the entire supply chain activated and the supra-local effects generated by trade across local industries. The effects are computed under alternative scenarios simulating different levels of substitution of existing agricultural activities with the new activity (cardoon. Results show positive and locally significant impacts in terms of value added and employment. However, these impacts are substantially influenced by the degree of substitution. Results also suggest that there are specific territorial areas that are more sensitive to negative effects induced by substitution.

  20. Novel, cost-effective configurations of combined power plants for small-scale cogeneration from biomass: Feasibility study and performance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirante, Riccardo; Tamburrano, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A cheap small combined cycle for cogeneration from biomass is proposed. • An optimization procedure is utilized to explore its potential. • Two configurations employing two different heat exchangers are considered. • The maximum electrical efficiency is 25%, the maximum overall efficiency is 70%. • The operation in load following mode is effective for both configurations. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that, thanks to recent advances in designing micro steam expanders and gas to gas heat exchangers, the use of small combined cycles for simultaneous generation of heat and power from the external combustion of solid biomass and low quality biofuels is feasible. In particular, a novel typology of combined cycle that has the potential both to be cost-effective and to achieve a high level of efficiency is presented. In the small combined cycle proposed, a commercially available micro-steam turbine is utilized as the steam expander of the bottoming cycle, while the conventional microturbine of the topping cycle is replaced by a cheaper automotive turbocharger. The feasibility, reliability and availability of the required mechanical and thermal components are thoroughly investigated. In order to explore the potential of such a novel typology of power plant, an optimization procedure, based on a genetic algorithm combined with a computing code, is utilized to analyze the trade-off between the maximization of the electrical efficiency and the maximization of the thermal efficiency. Two design optimizations are performed: the first one makes use of the innovative “Immersed Particle Heat Exchanger”, whilst a nickel alloy heat exchanger is used in the other one. After selecting the optimum combination of the design parameters, the operation in load following mode is also assessed for both configurations

  1. Modeling of biomass pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Memon, A.S.; Akhund, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The fuels used in industry and power sector for the last two decades have become expensive. As a result renewable energy source have been emerging increasingly important, of these, biomass appears to be the most applicable in the near future. The pyrolysis of biomass plays a key role amongst the three major and important process generally encountered in a gas producer, namely, pyrolysis, combustion and reduction of combustion products. Each biomass has its own pyrolysis characteristics and this important parameters must be known for the proper design and efficient operation of a gasification system. Thermogravimetric analysis has been widely used to study the devolatilization of solid fuels, such as biomass. It provides the weight loss history of a sample heated at a predetermined rate as a function of time and temperature. This paper presents the experimental results of modelling the weight loss curves of the main biomass components i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Thermogravimetric analysis of main components of biomass showed that pyrolysis is first order reaction. Furthermore pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloe can be regarded as taking place in two stages, for while lignin pyrolysis is a single stage process. This paper also describes the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) technique to predict the weight retained during pyrolysis at any temperature, for number of biomass species, such as cotton stalk, bagasse ad graoundnut shell. (author)

  2. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report Phase-II. Contractual reporting period October-December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, Edward; The Salix Consortium

    2000-03-23

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase 1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and forging the necessary agreements to demonstrate commercial willow production. The Phase 1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing design plans for 2 utility pulverized coal boilers for 20 MW of biopower capacity; developing fuel supply plans for the project with a goal of establishing 365 ha (900 ac) of willow; obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase 2; obtaining construction and environmental permits; and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system.

  3. Study into the status of co-combustion of sewage sludge, biomass and household refuse in coal-fired power stations. Final report; Untersuchungen zum Stand der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm, Hausmuell und Biomasse in Kohlekraftwerken. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, K.R.G.; Spliethoff, H.; Scheurer, W. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen; Seifert, H.; Richers, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer technische Chemie - Thermische Abfallbehandlung

    2000-03-01

    The co-combustion of wastes in power stations is an additional option for the thermal treatment of certain waste materials and thus for complying with the specifications of the German TA-Siedlungsabfall (technical directive on disposal of municipal solid waste). The present investigation compiles the status of knowledge about co-combustion of sewage sludge, biomass and selected waste materials in coal-fired power stations. The results are meant to provide extensive assistance to evaluate the processes and thus to contribute to sort out uncertainties, both on the part of power plant operators and of the authorities. Based on the information acquired, the report shall point out the gaps in knowledge, the further need for research and development and the need for action conerning the authorities. By enquiries at disposal enterprises, power station operators as well as authorities, the literature work was completed and a comprehensive view of the current situation in Germany elaborated. The report points out the legal conditions of co-combustion and supplementary fuel potentials, presents the process engineering of co-combustion, and examines the obstacles encountered during the technical conversion, the environmental questions, and the potential for co-combustion of the above materials in existing power stations. The electrical power sector is subject to strong changes due to the liberalisation of the energy market. The pressure on costs has increased and the periods available for planning are shorter. On the one hand, this arouses an increased interest in co-combustion of waste materials because of possible additional payments for the wastes. On the other hand, however, initiatives in this respect are counteracted by high investments costs necessary for the introduction of co-combustion with the existing high environmental standards. What is more, the competitive situation reduces the exchange of experience between the power station operators. Co-combustion of sewage

  4. Biomass as a fuel: Advantages, limitations and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBurney, B.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation briefly outlines major issues related to the use of biomass fuels. Advantages and disadvantages of biomass fuels are identified, as well as major factors that may facilitate greater use of biomass fuels. Highlights of the US DOE Biomass Power Program, program activities, and demonstration projects are presented. Some statistical and economic data are provided, including biomass fueled electric capacity, biomass energy consumption by sector, and fuel cost savings and greenhouse gas emissions reductions for four biomass co-fired units

  5. Power generation with technology innovation of residual biomass utilization; Geracao de energia com inovacao tecnologica de aproveitamento de biomassa residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Johnson Pontes de; Selvam, P.V. Pannir [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In the present work, the introduction of alternative energy of biogas in agricultural communities for the sustainable development was studied through exploitation of residual biomass and also getting as by-product the biological fertilizer. A fast composting of the domestic residue with the organic was made possible where part of this residue after processing was taken together with effluent to the biodigester. The bibliographical research on the processes of generation of biogas, about composting and the equipment for processing had been carried through. The projects engineering with the use of computational tools had been developed with the software Super Pro 4,9 Design and ORC GPEC 2004 by our research group. Five case studies had been elaborated, where different scenes related with our innovation, that uses of the residue for the composting together with domestic effluent for digestion. Several economic parameters were obtained and our work proved the viability about the use of biogas for drying of the fruits banana. A economic feasibility study was carried where it was proven that the project with the innovation of the use of residues from the fruits possess more advantages than the conventional system of drying using electric energy. Considering the viability of this process and the use solar energy, it is intended to apply this technology in rural agricultural communities providing them an energy source of low cost in substitution of the conventional energy. (author)

  6. Removal and Conversion of Tar in Syngas from Woody Biomass Gasification for Power Utilization Using Catalytic Hydrocracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification has yet to obtain industrial acceptance. The high residual tar concentrations in syngas prevent any ambitious utilization. In this paper a novel gas purification technology based on catalytic hydrocracking is introduced, whereby most of the tarry components can be converted and removed. Pilot scale experiments were carried out with an updraft gasifier. The hydrocracking catalyst was palladium (Pd. The results show the dominant role of temperature and flow rate. At a constant flow rate of 20 Nm3/h and temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C the tar conversion rates reached 44.9%, 78.1% and 92.3%, respectively. These results could be increased up to 98.6% and 99.3% by using an operating temperature of 700 °C and lower flow rates of 15 Nm3/h and 10 Nm3/h. The syngas quality after the purification process at 700 °C/10 Nm3/h is acceptable for inner combustion (IC gas engine utilization.

  7. Generation of Electricity and Analysis of Microbial Communities in Wheat Straw Biomass-Powered Microbial Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Min, Booki; Huang, L.

    2009-01-01

    Electricity generation from wheat straw hydrolysate and the microbial ecology of electricity producing microbial communities developed in two chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were investigated. Power density reached 123 mW/m2 with an initial hydrolysate concentration of 1000 mg-COD/L while...... to improve understanding and optimizing the electricity generation in microbial fuel cells....

  8. Clean and efficient application of biomass for production of power and heat - Phase 3 in a long-term strategic research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Jensen, A.D.; Jensen, P.A.; Johnsson, J.E.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2002-06-01

    This project contains activities on: Rheology of ashes from co-firing of coal and biomass; Investigation of ash and deposit formation in full-scale utility boilers; and Selective catalytic reduction: Deactivation under biomass combustion. A fly ash and deposit investigation was carried out as part of the SK Power Company test programme on co-firing of biomasses in a grate-fired boiler. The alternative biomasses (wood chips, olive stones and shea nuts) contain more K, S, and Cl, than wheat straw, and higher fly ash mass loading (mass of fly ash/volume of flue gas) was observed when co-firing alternative biomasses with wheat straw. Anyhow, no significant change in deposit structure when co-firing alkali-rich biomass was observed: KCl is glues residual ash particles together, independent of the feedstock mixture. Thus it can be concluded that co-firing of the actual biomasses in boilers designed for straw-firing, at the present shares is not problematic, from an ash formation and/or deposit build-up point-of-view. Anyhow the increase in ash mass loading in the flue gas, may cause increased build-up of particulate deposits in the convective pass of the boiler. Mature deposit samples from the Masnedoe and Ensted straw-fired boilers were investigated by SEM and EDX. Each deposit sample was classified into an inner, an intermediate, and an outer main layer. The outermost deposit layers at Masnedoe and Ensted looked chemically quite similar, even though they were of different colours. The intermediate layer at Ensted contained many Si- and Ca-rich particles glued together by melted KCI, while the intermediate deposit layers at Masnedoe were different. Since the straw fuels probably are similar, the differences observed in the deposit chemistry must be induced by the higher temperature of the Masnedoe deposit. An experimental method has been set up for viscosity determinations on ashes from co-firing with wheat straw. The method contains a pre-treatment of the ashes, where

  9. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  10. On a clean power generation system with the co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; He, Boshu

    2017-07-01

    A clean power generation system was built based on the steam co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier. The chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling technology was used to supply oxygen for the calciner. The solid oxide fuel cell and the steam turbine were combined to generate power. The calcium looping and mineral carbonation were used for CO 2 capture and sequestration. The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of this system. The effects of key operation parameters on the system total energy efficiency (ŋ ten ), total exergy efficiency (ŋ tex ) and carbon sequestration rate (R cs ) were detected. The energy and exergy balance calculations were implemented and the corresponding Sankey and Grassmann diagrams were drawn. It was found that the maximum energy and exergy losses occurred in the steam turbine. The system ŋ ten and ŋ tex could be ∼50% and ∼47%, and R cs could be over unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On the use of fire radiative power, area, and temperature estimates to characterize biomass burning via moderate to coarse spatial resolution remote sensing data in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Wilfrid; Csiszar, Ivan; Giglio, Louis; Schmidt, Christopher C.

    2010-11-01

    Spaceborne instruments provide a unique view of global vegetation fire activity many times a day. In this study, we assessed the fire characterization information provided by two major products: the Terra and Aqua MODIS Thermal Anomalies product (MOD14 and MYD14, respectively) and the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) product derived from GOES East Imager. Using higher spatial resolution imagery data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instruments, we analyzed the characterization of subpixel fires detected by MOD14, MYD14, and WF_ABBA over parts of Brazilian Amazonia. Our results suggest that MODIS and GOES fire radiative power (FRP) estimates derived for individual fire-pixel clusters are subject to errors due to the effects of the point spread function of those instruments (underestimation of up to 75%), improper fire background characterization (overestimation of up to 80% assuming a 10 K cold bias in background temperature), and omission of small fire lines. Detection limits were approximately 11 and 9 MW for MOD14 and MYD14, respectively, and were equivalent to 27 and 19 MW for WF_ABBA data acquired coincidently with MOD14 and MYD14, respectively. We found a positive correlation between FRP and percentage tree cover indicating that FRP is sensitive to biomass density. Fire area and temperature estimates derived from the application of Dozier's (1981) approach to GOES data did not agree with our reference data (i.e., ASTER and ETM+ active fire masks and in situ fire temperature data), suggesting that large and variable errors could affect the retrieval of those parameters.

  12. Estimation of Biomass Burning Emissions by Fusing Fire Radiative Power Observed from Polar-orbiting and Geostationary Satellites across the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Zhang, X.; Kondragunta, S.

    2016-12-01

    Trace gases and aerosols released from biomass burning significantly disturb the energy balance of the Earth and also degrade regional air quality. However, biomass burning emissions (BBE) have been poorly estimated using the traditional bottom-up approach because of the substantial uncertainties in the burned area and fuel loads. Recently, Fire Radiative Power (FRP) derived from satellite fire observations enables the estimation of BBE at multiple spatial scales in near real time. Nonetheless, it is very challenging to accurately produce reliable FRP diurnal cycles from either polar-orbiting satellites or geostationary satellites for the calculation of the temporally integrated FRP, Fire Radiative Energy (FRE). Here we reconstruct FRP diurnal cycles by fusing FRP observed from polar-orbiting and geostationary satellites and estimate BBE from 2011 to 2015 across the Continental United States. Specifically, FRP from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) is preprocessed and calibrated using the collocated and concurred observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over Landsat TM burn scars. The climatologically diurnal FRP curves are then calculated from the calibrated GOES FRP for the 25 Bailey's ecoregions. By fitting MODIS FRP and the calibrated GOES FRP to the climatological curves, FRP diurnal cycles are further reconstructed for individual days at a 0.25-degree grid. Both FRE estimated from FRP diurnal cycles and ecoregion specified FRE combustion rates are used to estimate hourly BBE. The estimated BBE is finally evaluated using QFED and GFED4.0 inventories and emissions modeled using Landsat TM 30m burn severities and 30m fuel loading from Fuel Characteristic Classification System. The results show that BBE estimates are greatly improved by using the reconstructed FRP diurnal cycles from high temporal (GOES) and high spatial resolution (MODIS) FRP observations.

  13. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus...

  14. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  15. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    The primary energy production from solid biomass in the European Union reached 79.3 Mtoe in 2010 which implies a growth rate of 8% between 2009 and 2010. The trend, which was driven deeper by Europe's particularly cold winter of 2009-2010, demonstrates that the economic down-turn failed to weaken the member states' efforts to structure the solid biomass sector. Heat consumption rose sharply: the volume of heat sold by heating networks increased by 18% and reached 6.7 Mtoe and if we consider the total heat consumption (it means with and without recovery via heating networks) the figure is 66 Mtoe in 2010, which amounts to 10.1% growth. The growth of electricity production continued through 2010 (8.3% up on 2009) and rose to 67 TWh but at a slower pace than in 2009 (when it rose by 11.3% on 2008). The situation of the main producer countries: Sweden, Finland, Germany and France is reviewed. It appears that cogeneration unit manufacturers and biomass power plant constructors are the main beneficiaries of the current biomass energy sector boom. There is a trend to replace coal-fired plants that are either obsolete or near their end of life with biomass or multi-fuel plants. These opportunities will enable the industry to develop and further exploit new technologies such as gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction which will enable biomass to be turned into bio-coal. (A.C.)

  16. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  17. Building-integrated photobioteactors. An innovative facade system for the sustainable power generation of biomass and heat.; Gebaeudeintegrierte Photobioreaktoren. Ein innovatives Fassadensystem fuer die nachhaltige Energieerzeugung von Biomasse und Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, Jan [Arup Deutschland GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Schneider, Cornelius

    2012-08-15

    Photobioreactors are closed, translucent hollow bodies filled with a growing medium. This type of reactor creates controlled conditions for biochemical processes of the photosynthesis. The transformation of carbon dioxide and light initiates the production of biomass.

  18. Biomass Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunecky, Roman [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Chien-Yuan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Amore, Antonella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wei, Hui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Xiaowen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, Stefan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sluiter, Amie D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Magrini, Kimberly A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [Formerly NREL; Dayton, David C. [Formerly NREL; Bozell, Joseph J. [Formerly NREL; Adney, William S. [Formerly NREL; Aden, Andy [Formerly NREL; Hames, Bonnie [Formerly NREL; Thomas, Steven R. [Formerly NREL; Bain, Richard L. [Formerly NREL

    2017-08-02

    Biomass constitutes all the plant matter found on our planet, and is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. It is the photosynthetic capability of plants to utilize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that leads to its designation as a 'carbon neutral' fuel, meaning that it does not introduce new carbon into the atmosphere. This article discusses the life cycle assessments of biomass use and the magnitude of energy captured by photosynthesis in the form of biomass on the planet to appraise approaches to tap this energy to meet the ever-growing demand for energy.

  19. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.; Kristoferson, L.

    1992-01-01

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  20. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  1. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co...

  2. Economic evaluation of application of nuclear power, fossil and biomass for seawater desalination in the case of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios G, N.; Gomez A, R.; Vazquez R, R.; Espinosa P, G.

    2009-10-01

    In this work the fresh water production costs are compared on base to the seawater desalination, taking advantage of the heat or the electricity generated by means of the nuclear fission, the energy fossil result of the combustion of natural gas, fuel oil and coal, as well as the electricity generated by the bio-fuels combustion. The option of generating electricity and at the same time to produce drinking water is discussed. Using electricity, the best combination of technologies as for costs, the option more cheap, it is the distillation by means of a distillation combined process of multiple effects combined with reverse osmosis using nuclear energy coming from a gas cooled reactor using a cycle Brayton. While using direct heat was as the option more economic the use of nuclear vapor of low pressure exchanging heat in a vapor generator of low pressure, as energy source of a flash distillation process of several stages. In this last case, the energy source or nuclear vapor will be the result of the operation of a nuclear power plant cooled and moderate with water and operating in a cycle Rankine. (Author)

  3. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor or...

  4. 14 CFR 151.121 - Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. 151.121 Section 151.121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.121 Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. Each sponsor must adopt the following...

  5. 17 CFR 229.1104 - (Item 1104) Sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (c) Describe the sponsor's securitization program and state how long the sponsor has been engaged in the securitization of assets. The description must include, to the extent material, a general... material roles and responsibilities in its securitization program, including whether the sponsor or an...

  6. Deactivation of V2O5-WO3-TiO2 SCR catalyst at a biomass-fired combined heat and power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Anker; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2005-01-01

    The deactivation of a commercial type V2O5-WO3-TiO2 monolith catalyst under biomass combustion was studied at a full-scale grate-fired power plant burning straw/wood using a slip stream pilot scale reactor. The aerosols in the flue gas consisted of a mixture of potassium chloride and sulphate....... Three catalyst elements were exposed at 350 °C, and one element was exposed at 250 °C for comparison. The catalyst activity was measured in the reactor at the exposure temperature by addition of NH3 and extra NO. The activity, in terms of a first-order rate constant, dropped by 52% after about 1140 h...... decreased as a function of exposure time, which reveals that Brøndsted acid sites had reacted with potassium compounds and thereby rendered inactive. When washed by 0.5 M H2SO4 the regenerated catalyst regains a higher activity than that of the fresh catalyst at temperatures higher than 300 °C, but even...

  7. Optimization of Biomass-Fuelled Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP Systems Integrated with Subcritical or Transcritical Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maraver

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs, coupled with absorption or adsorption cooling units, for combined cooling heating and power (CCHP generation from biomass combustion. Results were obtained by modelling with the main aim of providing optimization guidelines for the operating conditions of these types of systems, specifically the subcritical or transcritical ORC, when integrated in a CCHP system to supply typical heating and cooling demands in the tertiary sector. The thermodynamic approach was complemented, to avoid its possible limitations, by the technological constraints of the expander, the heat exchangers and the pump of the ORC. The working fluids considered are: n-pentane, n-heptane, octamethyltrisiloxane, toluene and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane. In addition, the energy and environmental performance of the different optimal CCHP plants was investigated. The optimal plant from the energy and environmental point of view is the one integrated by a toluene recuperative ORC, although it is limited to a development with a turbine type expander. Also, the trigeneration plant could be developed in an energy and environmental efficient way with an n-pentane recuperative ORC and a volumetric type expander.

  8. What can Bilfinger teach Olympic sponsors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Dodds

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilfinger SE (Bilfinger is a leading international engineering and services group (Bilfinger.com, 2015, and was a local sponsor of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The company is accused of paying bribes through its subsidiary company, Mauell, (dw. com, 2015 to public officials in Brazil for contracts related to the 2014 World Cup (Cassin, 2015. The corruption allegations relate to orders to equip security command centers at twelve host cities during the 2014 World Cup in Brazil (dw.com, 2015. Because Brazil hosted the 2014 FIFA World Cup and will host the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, companies need to consider the risks of many international anti-corruption laws, such as Brazil’s anti-corruption law commonly referred as The Clean Companies Act and other applicable anticorruption law like the United States’ Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (Rogers, et. al, 2014. This paper will analyze the Bilfinger case involving corruption activity at the 2014 FIFA World Cup and offer insights for sponsors of the 2016 Summer Olympic Games.

  9. Energy production from biomass (Part 1): Overview of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendry, Peter

    2002-05-01

    The use of renewable energy sources is becoming increasingly necessary, if we are to achieve the changes required to address the impacts of global warming. Biomass is the most common form of renewable energy, widely used in the third world but until recently, less so in the Western world. Latterly much attention has been focused on identifying suitable biomass species, which can provide high-energy outputs, to replace conventional fossil fuel energy sources. The type of biomass required is largely determined by the energy conversion process and the form in which the energy is required. In the first of three papers, the background to biomass production (in a European climate) and plant properties is examined. In the second paper, energy conversion technologies are reviewed, with emphasis on the production of a gaseous fuel to supplement the gas derived from the landfilling of organic wastes (landfill gas) and used in gas engines to generate electricity. The potential of a restored landfill site to act as a biomass source, providing fuel to supplement landfill gas-fuelled power stations, is examined, together with a comparison of the economics of power production from purpose-grown biomass versus waste-biomass. The third paper considers particular gasification technologies and their potential for biomass gasification.

  10. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  11. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    sources of biomass for energy purposes in the European Union. Estimation of European biomass resources is associated with significant uncertainty, and it is not sure if the European Union can meet its 2020 energy policy targets with biomass produced in the EU, although some countries hold sway over...... a total production of residues from these six crops of ~3.7 billion tonnes dry matter annually. North and South America; Eastern, South-Eastern and Southern Asia and Eastern Europe each produce more than 200 million tonnes dry matter annually. The theoretical energy potential from the selected crop......, where bio-ethanol production is integrated with combined heat and power production may improve the energy balance with about 30 % point and reach energy efficiencies almost comparable to those seen for conversion of petroleum into gasoline. Minimisation of GHG emissions from bioenergy production...

  12. Academic investigator-initiated trials and the challenge of sponsor responsibility: the Cologne Sponsor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgias, Christine; Grunow, Andrea; Olderog, Miriam; May, Alexander; Paulus, Ursula

    2012-12-01

    With the amendment to the German Drug Law in 2004, the conduct of clinical trials changed by at least two main aspects: (1) The principles of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) were implemented in the national legislation, and (2) for the first time, the function of the sponsor of a clinical trial and the clinical trial itself have become legally binding definitions. By that, legal differences between industrial and academic clinical trials no longer exist. Clinical trials initiated by investigators have to fulfil the same requirements while the entire sponsor responsibility has to be carried out by the Coordinating Investigator or his institution including implementation of a quality management system according to the GCP. The Cologne Sponsor Model is an effective approach with settings, structures, basic features, action, and reporting lines, as well as funding for clinical trials initiated in an academic environment. The University of Cologne assumes the sponsor responsibility for clinical trials organised by the university researchers according to law. Sponsor's duties are delegated to a central operational unit of the sponsor - the Clinical Trials Center Cologne - which further delegates duties to the Coordinating Investigator. Clinical Trials Center Cologne was established in 2002 to support the performance of clinical trials at the university by offering comprehensive advisory and practical services covering all aspects of study planning and conduct. Furthermore, a specialised division of its quality management department acts as an independent sponsor's Quality Assurance Unit. The Clinical Trials Center Cologne has established a quality management system consisting of different components (1) to enable a reasoned decision to subsequent delegation, (2) for risk-based surveillance of trial conduct (audits, monitoring-checks, and reports), and (3) support and training of the Coordinating Investigator. Double functions of persons and departments in the university

  13. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biomass Power Generation at the Former Farmland Industries Site in Lawrence, Kansas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomberlin, G.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of biomass renewable energy generation at the former Farmland Industries site in Lawrence, Kansas. Feasibility assessment team members conducted a site assessment to gather information integral to this feasibility study. Information such as biomass resources, transmission availability, on-site uses for heat and power, community acceptance, and ground conditions were considered.

  14. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  15. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental

  16. Biomass in Switzerland. Energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggisberg, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the long term, biomass could be used for energy production in a three times more intensive way, compared to current figures. A major contribution would be delivered to Switzerland's energy supply. Numerous biomass conversion technologies do exist, for the production of heat, power or vehicle fuel. However, the implementation of such a large-scale utilisation of biomass requires a couple of strategic decisions in order to improve the framework conditions for biomass development and precisely target the supporting measures applicable to both research and pilot plants. In short, a clear and efficient strategy is necessary in what regards biomass, that will be used for the definition of a future catalogue of measures. (author)

  17. Energy from biomass. Teaching material; Energie aus Biomasse. Ein Lehrmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The textbook discusses the available options for power and heat generation from biomass as well as the limits of biomass-based power supply. The main obstacle apart from the high cost is a lack of knowledge, which the book intends to remedy. It addresses students of agriculture, forestry, environmental engineering, heating systems engineering and apprentice chimney sweepers, but it will also be useful to all other interested readers. [German] Biomasse kann aufgrund seiner vielfaeltigen Erscheinungs- und Umwandlungsformen sowohl als Brennstoff zur Waerme- und Stromgewinnung oder als Treibstoff eingesetzt werden. Die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse birgt zudem nicht zu verachtende Vorteile. Zum einen wegen des Beitrags zum Klimaschutz aufgrund der CO{sub 2}-Neutralitaet oder einfach, weil Biomasse immer wieder nachwaechst und von fossilen Ressourcen unabhaengig macht. All den bisher erschlossenen Moeglichkeiten der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse moechte dieses Lehrbuch Rechnung tragen. Es zeigt aber auch die Grenzen auf, die mit der Energieversorgung durch Bioenergie einhergehen. Hohe Kosten und ein erhebliches Informationsdefizit behinderten bisher eine verstaerkte Nutzung dieses Energietraeges. Letzterem soll dieses Lehrbuch entgegenwirken. Das vorliegende Lehrbuch wurde fuer die Aus- und Weiterbildung erstellt. Es richtet sich vor allem an angehende Land- und Forstwirte, Umwelttechniker, Heizungsbauer und Schornsteinfeger, ist aber auch fuer all diejenigen interessant, die das Thema ''Energie aus Biomasse'' verstehen und ueberblicken moechten. (orig.)

  18. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  20. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  1. Co-firing of biomass with coal: constraints and role of biomass pretreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciejewska, A.K.; Veringa, H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Peteves, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    This report aims at introducing the aspects of co-firing of biomass with coal. The main focus is given to problems and constraints related to utilizing biomass together with coal for power generation, and the potential of biomass pre-treatment in mitigating these constraints. The work is based on a

  2. List of Organizing Committees and Sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Organizers DIRECTORS Maria L CalvoPresident of International Commission for Optics, Spain Aram V PapoyanDirector of Institute for Physical Research of NAS, Armenia HEADS OF PROJECT Tigran Dadalyan YSU, Armenia Artsrun MartirosyanIPR, Armenia COORDINATOR Narine GevorgyanIPR, Armenia / ICTP, Italy MANAGERS Paytsar MantashyanIPR, Armenia Karen VardanyanIPR, Armenia INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE Marcis AuzinshLatvia Roland AvagyanArmenia Tapash ChakrabortyCanada Yuri ChilingaryanArmenia Eduard KazaryanArmenia Albert KirakosyanArmenia Radik KostanyanArmenia Avinash PandeyIndia Marat SoskinUkraine INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM COMMITTEE David Sarkisyan (Chair)Armenia Roman AlaverdyanArmenia Dan ApostolRomania Levon AslanyanArmenia Aranya BhattacherjeeIndia Gagik BuniatyanArmenia Vigen ChaltykyanArmenia Roldao Da RochaBrazil Miltcho DanailovItaly Vladimir GerdtRussia Samvel GevorgyanArmenia Gayane GrigoryanArmenia Rafik HakobyanArmenia Takayuki MiyaderaJapan Levon MouradianArmenia Atom MuradyanArmenia Simon RochesterUSA Hayk SarkisyanArmenia Aleksandr VardanyanArmenia LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Narek AghekyanArmenia Anahit GogyanArmenia Melanya GrigoryanArmenia Armen HovhannisyanArmenia Lilit HovhannisyanArmenia Tatevik KhachatryanArmenia Astghik KuzanyanArmenia Satenik KuzanyanArmenia Vladimir LazarevRussia Lilit MantashyanArmenia Hripsime MkrtchyanArmenia Pavel MuzhikyanArmenia Wahi NarsisianArmenia Sahak OrdukhanyanArmenia Anna ReymersArmenia Narine TorosyanArmenia The Symposium was organized by YSU & NAS SPIE Armenian Student Chapter Institute for Physical Research (IPR) of National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University (RAU) LT-PYRKAL cjsc Yerevan State University (YSU) Official Sponsors of the Symposium LT-PYRKAlRussian ArmenianSPIE LT-PYRKAL cjscRussian-Armenian UniversityYSU & NAS SPIE Student Chapter Further sponsors NFSATICTPSCSADevout Generation National Foundation of Science and Advanced TechnologiesThe Abdus Salam International Centre

  3. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  4. Review and analysis of the 1980-1989 biomass thermochemical conversion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    In the period between 1980 and 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research and development projects through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion (BTC) Program. Thermochemical conversion technologies use elevated temperatures to convert biomass into more useful forms of energy such as fuel gases or transportation fuels. The BTC Program included a wide range of biomass conversion projects in the areas of gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and combustion. This work formed the basis of the present DOE research and development efforts on advanced liquid fuel and power generation systems. At the beginning of Fiscal Year 1989, the management of the BTC Program was transferred from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, formerly Solar Energy Research Institute). This document presents a summary of the research which was performed under the BTC Program during the 1981-1989 time frame. The document consists of an analysis of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program and a bibliography of published documents. This work will help ensure that information from PNL`s BTC Program is available to those interested in biomass conversion technologies. The background of the BTC Program is discussed in the first chapter of this report. In addition, a brief summary of other related biomass research and development programs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and others is presented with references where additional information can be found. The remaining chapters of the report present a detailed summary of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program. The progress which was made on each project is summarized, the overall impact on biomass conversion is discussed, and selected references are provided.

  5. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  6. Team sponsors in community-based health leadership programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tracy Enright; Dinkin, Donna R; Champion, Heather

    2017-05-02

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to share the lessons learned about the role of team sponsors in action-learning teams as part of community-based health leadership development programs. Design/methodology/approach This case study uses program survey results from fellow participants, action learning coaches and team sponsors to understand the value of sponsors to the teams, the roles they most often filled and the challenges they faced as team sponsors. Findings The extent to which the sponsors were perceived as having contributed to the work of the action learning teams varied greatly from team to team. Most sponsors agreed that they were well informed about their role. The roles sponsors most frequently played were to provide the teams with input and support, serve as a liaison to the community and serve as a sounding board, motivator and cheerleader. The most common challenges or barriers team sponsors faced in this role were keeping engaged in the process, adjusting to the role and feeling disconnected from the program. Practical implications This work provides insights for program developers and community foundations who are interested in building the capacity for health leadership by linking community sponsors with emerging leaders engaged in an action learning experience. Originality/value This work begins to fill a gap in the literature. The role of team sponsors has been studied for single organization work teams but there is a void of understanding about the role of sponsors with multi-organizational teams working to improve health while also learning about leadership.

  7. Biomass energy in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Wood, straw, agricultural residues, organic wastes, biomass is everywhere you look. But the efficient use of this source of green electricity - the world's second largest renewable energy source - requires optimization of biomass collection and combustion processes. Biomass is back on the political agenda. In mid-June of this year, the French government gave this renewable energy a boost by selecting twenty-two projects to generate power and heat with biomass. The plants, to be commissioned by 2010, will be located in eleven different regions and will consume energy from organic plant matter. The power generated will be bought at a firm price of 128 euros per megawatt-hour. Most of the fuel will come from forest and paper industry waste, but straw and even grape pomace will be used in some cases. The plants will have a combined generating capacity of 300 MWh, raising France's installed biomass capacity to a total of 700 MWe. A drop of water in the ocean in the overall scheme of France's electricity. It is true that France has long neglected biomass. In 2004, electricity generated from biological resources represented a mere 1.74 TWhe in France, just 0.3% of its power consumption. This will rise to 0.6% once the new plants have come on line. The trend is the same in all of the EU's 27 member states, according to Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Communities: the amount of electricity generated from biomass (including biogas, municipal waste and wood) has practically doubled in six years, rising from 40 to 80 TWhe between 2000 and 2005. This is an improvement, but it still only represents 2.5% of the electricity supplied to Europeans. On a global scale, biomass contributes just 1% of total electric power generation. Yet biomass is an energy resource found all over the world, whether as agricultural waste, wood chips, or dried treatment plant sludge, to name but a few. Biomass power plants have managed to gain a foothold mainly in countries that produce

  8. Using JPSS VIIRS Fire Radiative Power Data to Forecast Biomass Burning Emissions and Smoke Transport by the High Resolution Rapid Refresh Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; James, E.; Alexander, C.; Stewart, J.; Benjamin, S.; McKeen, S. A.; Csiszar, I. A.; Tsidulko, M.; Pierce, R. B.; Pereira, G.; Freitas, S. R.; Goldberg, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new real-time smoke modeling system, the High Resolution Rapid Refresh coupled with smoke (HRRR-Smoke), to simulate biomass burning (BB) emissions, plume rise and smoke transport in real time. The HRRR is the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's 3km grid spacing version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used for weather forecasting. Here we make use of WRF-Chem (the WRF model coupled with chemistry) and simulate fine particulate matter (smoke) emissions emitted by BB. The HRRR-Smoke modeling system ingests fire radiative power (FRP) data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite to calculate BB emissions. The FRP product is based on processing 750m resolution "M" bands. The algorithms for fire detection and FRP retrieval are consistent with those used to generate the MODIS fire detection data. For the purpose of ingesting VIIRS fire data into the HRRR-Smoke model, text files are generated to provide the location and detection confidence of fire pixels, as well as FRP. The VIIRS FRP data from the text files are processed and remapped over the HRRR-Smoke model domains. We process the FRP data to calculate BB emissions (smoldering part) and fire size for the model input. In addition, HRRR-Smoke uses the FRP data to simulate the injection height for the flaming emissions using concurrently simulated meteorological fields by the model. Currently, there are two 3km resolution domains covering the contiguous US and Alaska which are used to simulate smoke in real time. In our presentation, we focus on the CONUS domain. HRRR-Smoke is initialized 4 times per day to forecast smoke concentrations for the next 36 hours. The VIIRS FRP data, as well as near-surface and vertically integrated smoke mass concentrations are visualized for every forecast hour. These plots are provided to the public via the HRRR-Smoke web-page: https

  9. Developing Engineered Fuel (Briquettes) Using Fly Ash from the Aquila Coal-Fired Power Plant in Canon City and Locally Available Biomass Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Carrasco; H. Sarper

    2006-06-30

    The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of producing engineered fuels from a combination of renewable and non renewable energy sources. The components are flyash (containing coal fines) and locally available biomass waste. The constraints were such that no other binder additives were to be added. Listed below are the main accomplishments of the project: (1) Determination of the carbon content of the flyash sample from the Aquila plant. It was found to be around 43%. (2) Experiments were carried out using a model which simulates the press process of a wood pellet machine, i.e. a bench press machine with a close chamber, to find out the ideal ratio of wood and fly ash to be mixed to get the desired briquette. The ideal ratio was found to have 60% wood and 40% flyash. (3) The moisture content required to produce the briquettes was found to be anything below 5.8%. (4) The most suitable pressure required to extract the lignin form the wood and cause the binding of the mixture was determined to be 3000psi. At this pressure, the briquettes withstood an average of 150psi on its lateral side. (5) An energy content analysis was performed and the BTU content was determined to be approximately 8912 BTU/lb. (6) The environmental analysis was carried out and no abnormalities were noted. (7) Industrial visits were made to pellet manufacturing plants to investigate the most suitable manufacturing process for the briquettes. (8) A simulation model of extrusion process was developed to explore the possibility of using a cattle feed plant operating on extrusion process to produce briquettes. (9) Attempt to produce 2 tons of briquettes was not successful. The research team conducted a trial production run at a Feed Mill in La Junta, CO to produce two (2) tons of briquettes using the extrusion process in place. The goal was to, immediately after producing the briquettes; send them through Aquila's current system to test the ability of the briquettes to flow

  10. 42 CFR 423.401 - General requirements for PDP sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sponsor is organized and licensed under State law as a risk bearing entity eligible to offer health insurance or health benefits coverage in each State in which it offers a prescription drug plan. If not... with State Law and Preemption by Federal Law § 423.401 General requirements for PDP sponsors. (a...

  11. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103 Section 152.103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development with...

  12. 76 FR 2807 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 510 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor AGENCY...) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect a change of sponsor for hemoglobin glutamer-200... ownership of, and all rights and interest in, NADA 141-067 for OXYGLOBIN (hemoglobin glutamer-200) to OPK...

  13. The relationship between absenteeism and employer-sponsored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6This article makes a specific contribution to studies on the use of on-site employer-sponsored ... 7Key words: absenteeism, child care, types of absenteeism, family-friendly practices, employer-sponsored child care ...... models to study the absence-taking process', Journal of Applied Psychology, 74: 300–316. Harrison, D.A. ...

  14. Sponsors of Nebraska Indochinese Refugees: Meeting the Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, William H.; Cramer, Sheran L.

    This report summarizes the response of 80 sponsors of Indochinese refugees in Nebraska to a survey designed to explore their sponsorship experience. Problem solving areas for sponsors and refugees are named as: acculturation, emotional adjustments, communication, health, housing, transportation, employment, and legal, financial and consumer…

  15. Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzel, F.

    1993-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program (GLRBEP) was initiated September, 1983, with a grant from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The program provides resources to public and private organizations in the Great Lakes region to increase the utilization and production of biomass fuels. The objectives of the GLRBEP are to: (1) improve the capabilities and effectiveness of biomass energy programs in the state energy offices; (2) assess the availability of biomass resources for energy in light of other competing needs and uses; (3) encourage private sector investments in biomass energy technologies; (4) transfer the results of government-sponsored biomass research and development to the private sector; (5) eliminate or reduce barriers to private sector use of biomass fuels and technology; (6) prevent or substantially mitigate adverse environmental impacts of biomass energy use. The Program Director is responsible for the day-to-day activities of the GLRBEP and for implementing program mandates. A 40 member Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) sets priorities and recommends projects. The governor of each state in the region appoints a member to the Steering Council, which acts on recommendations of the TAC and sets basic program guidelines. The GLRBEP is divided into three separate operational elements. The State Grants component provides funds and direction to the seven state energy offices in the region to increase their capabilities in biomass energy. State-specific activities and interagency programs are emphasized. The Subcontractor component involves the issuance of solicitations to undertake projects that address regional needs, identified by the Technical Advisory Committee. The Technology Transfer component includes the development of nontechnical biomass energy publications and reports by Council staff and contractors, and the dissemination of information at conferences, workshops and other events

  16. The influence of the size of the CHP (combined heat and power) system integrated with a biomass fueled gas generator and piston engine on the thermodynamic and economic effectiveness of electricity and heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorek-Osikowska, Anna; Bartela, Łukasz; Kotowicz, Janusz; Sobolewski, Aleksander; Iluk, Tomasz; Remiorz, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the possibility and the cost of using gas from biomass gasification in the production of electricity and generation of heat using a piston engine in which the power in the supplied biomass is no more than 50 MW. A mathematical model that allows for thermodynamic and economic analysis was designed. The input data regarding the gas generator and the process gas were collected in real experiments on the research installation. Electricity and heat production efficiencies and the electric and heat power of the system were primarily used as indicators of the thermodynamic effectiveness. For the economic analysis, discount methods were adopted that consider the legal and economic environment of such investments. Given the assumptions, the analysis shows that positive economic indicators can characterize the considered systems. The work also included sensitivity analysis of change of the selected characteristic quantities on the evaluation indices. The economic viability of such systems is strongly influenced by many factors, mainly price of fuel and green certificates. When the price of fuel is higher than 9.62 €/GJ or the price of certificates lower than 26.75 €/MWh the NPV (net present value) and NPVR (net present value ratio) indices do not reach positive values for any size of installation. - Highlights: • CHP systems integrated with biomass gasification and piston engine(s) were examined. • An experiment with a biomass-fed gasifier was conducted and the data were used for calculations. • The conditions for economic profitability were determined. • Sensitivity analyses of the influence of the selected quantities were performed. • Price of green certificates and price of fuel are the most important for economic viability

  17. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

    2012-02-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  18. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 2: Country case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The present publication presents the results of three UNIDO-sponsored case studies, each with a separate abstract, concerned with perspectives of development and utilisation of biomass energy resources in Brazil, Philippines and Romania. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues

  19. Eighteen years of electric power generation by using sugar cane biomass in Cuba: retrospective, costs and environmental considerations; Dieciocho anos de generacion de electricidad con biomasa canera en Cuba: retrospectiva, costos y consideraciones ambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Pippo, Walrido; Del Rey Ocampo, Joaquin [Universidad de La Habana (Cuba). Inst. de Materiales y Reactivos]. E-mail: pippo@imre.oc.uh.cu

    2002-07-01

    From the data of the electric power cogeneration of the sugar industry behaviour , the utilization of the energy bagasse potential as industrial residue from the sugar production and the associated costs. A preliminary comparison is established on the costs of conventional electric power generation and the costa resulting from generation using bagasse. The paper also considers the industry operation regime as one of the determinant aspects for obtaining significant quantities of wastes to be used in electric power generation and also in the production of other energy carriers from the using of new thermochemical and thermo energetic conversion technologies. The paper performs a retrospective analysis of the environmental costs biomass use, under the twenty century modern criteria.

  20. Assessment of forest biomass for use as energy. GIS-based analysis of geographical availability and locations of wood-fired power plants in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Viana; Warren B. Cohen; D. Lopes; J. Aranha

    2010-01-01

    Following the European Union strategy concerning renewable energy (RE), Portugal established in their national policy programmes that the production of electrical energy from RE should reach 45% of the total supply by 2010. Since Portugal has large forest biomass resources, a significant part of this energy will be obtained from this source. In addition to the two...

  1. Power and limitation of soil properties as predictors of variation in peak plant biomass in a northern mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil properties are thought to affect annual plant productivity in rangelands, and thus soil variables that are consistently correlated with variation in plant biomass may be general indicators of rangeland health. Here we measured several soil properties (e.g. aggregate stability, organic carbon, ...

  2. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.C.; Hauserman, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  3. Modeling integrated biomass gasification business concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Ted Bilek; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2011-01-01

    Biomass gasification is an approach to producing energy and/or biofuels that could be integrated into existing forest product production facilities, particularly at pulp mills. Existing process heat and power loads tend to favor integration at existing pulp mills. This paper describes a generic modeling system for evaluating integrated biomass gasification business...

  4. Participation of Calamagrostis epigejos (L. Roth in plant communities of the River Bytomka valley in terms of its biomass use in the power industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierka Edyta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt to assess the potential use of Calamagrostis epigejos (L. Roth. as a renewable energy source. Abandonment of human management is often followed by a decrease in species richness in semi-natural grasslands, mainly due to the increased dominance of clonal grasses such as Calamagrostis epigejos which were formerly repressed by management. The biomass resource of this, and its accompanying, species, i.e. species of the Solidago genus and others e.g. Cirsium rivulare, Deschampsia caespitosa, Molinia coerulea and Filipendula ulmaria, was evaluated in the green wastelands of the River Bytomka valley (Upper Silesia, Poland. It was found that approx. 1.2 t·ha−1 of dry matter can be obtained from approx. 30% of the average share of Calamagrostis epigejos in plant communities of unmown meadows. This is 10 times less than in the case of Miscanthus giganteus, a non-native cultivated grass. An increase in the biomass component of Calamagrostis epigejos reduced that of Solidago sp. (−0.522176, p< 0.05 and other species (−0.465806, p< 0.05. The calorific value of Calamagrostis epigejos biomass is approx. 15.91 MJ·kg−1, which is comparable to the calorific value of coal and close to, inter alia, that of Miscanthus sacchariflorus (19 MJ·kg−1 as an energy crop. The presented research is in its preliminary stages and therefore, it is necessary to investigate the reaction of Calamagrostis epigejos to regular mowing and to removal of the biomass from the studied areas.

  5. Production of hydrogen driven from biomass waste to power Remote areas away from the electric grid utilizing fuel cells and internal combustion engines vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Hazem [Farmingdale State College, NY (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Recent concerns over the security and reliability of the world’s energy supply has caused a flux towards the research and development of renewable sources. A leading renewable source has been found in the biomass gasification of biological materials derived from organic matters such as wood chips, forest debris, and farm waste that are found in abundance in the USA. Accordingly, there is a very strong interest worldwide in the development of new technologies that provide an in-depth understanding of this economically viable energy source. This work aims to allow the coupling of biomass gasification and fuel cell systems as well as Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) to produce high-energy efficiency, clean environmental performance and near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass gasification is a process, which produces synthesis gas (syngas) that contains 19% hydrogen and 20% carbon monoxide from inexpensive organic matter waste. This project main goal is to provide cost effective energy to the public utilizing remote farms’ waste and landfill recycling area.

  6. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  7. Vatenfall relies on biomass. Short rotation plantations shall secure the energy supply of a thermal power station in Berlin; Vattenfall setzt auf Biomasse. Kurzumtriebsplantagen sollen Versorgung eines Berliner Heizkraftwerkes sichern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernath, Dieter

    2013-04-01

    The Vattenfall subsidiary Energy Crops (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) looks for farmers for contract farming of short rotation plantations in order to secure the energy supply of a thermal power station in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany). Energy Crops supports farmers with seedlings, equipment and consultancy. However, Energy Crops looks for the correct methods.

  8. Alternatives to retaliation in response to state sponsored terrorist attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Paul James

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited We consider a game played between a state sponsor of international terrorism, a terrorist organization and the victim of a terrorist attack. The state sponsor wishes to inflict as much damage to the victim as possible without risking retaliation. The victim state wishes to end these attacks as soon as possible, through non-retaliatory means if possible in order to avoid the penalty associated with retaliation. In this thesis we compare...

  9. Overview of biomass conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, S.; Latif, A.; Jan, M.

    2011-01-01

    A large part of the biomass is used for non-commercial purposes and mostly for cooking and heating, but the use is not sustainable, because it destroys soil-nutrients, causes indoor and outdoor pollution, adds to greenhouse gases, and results in health problems. Commercial use of biomass includes household fuelwood in industrialized countries and bio-char (charcoal) and firewood in urban and industrial areas in developing countries. The most efficient way of biomass utilization is through gasification, in which the gas produced by biomass gasification can either be used to generate power in an ordinary steam-cycle or be converted into motor fuel. In the latter case, there are two alternatives, namely, the synthesis of methanol and methanol-based motor fuels, or Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis. This paper deals with the technological overview of the state-of-the-art key biomass-conversion technologies that can play an important role in the future. The conversion routes for production of Heat, power and transportation fuel have been summarized in this paper, viz. combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, digestion, fermentation and extraction. (author)

  10. Alternative route of process modification for biofuel production by embedding the Fischer-Tropsch plant in existing stand-alone power plant (10 MW) based on biomass gasification - Part I: A conceptual modeling and simulation approach (a case study in Thailand)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Cheali, Peam; Narataruksa, Phavanee

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of syngas shows a highly potential to improve the economic potential of the stand-alone power unit-based gasification plants as well as enhancing the growing demand of transportation fuels. The thermochemical conversion of biomass via gasification to heat and power generations from...

  11. The impacts of the power plant generation using biomass in the price of energy in Brazil and its incorporation to the mechanism for reallocation of energy; Os impactos da geracao de usinas a biomassa no preco da energia no Brasil e sua incorporacao ao mecanismo de realocacao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardin, Thiago V.; Souza, Luiz Eduardo de; Ribeiro, Paulo [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil)], Emails: thiago@engenho.com, luizeduardo_jf@yahoo.com.br, pfribeiro@ieee.org; Leite, Paula Beatriz Cerqueira [Engenho Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Consultoria Ltda, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: Paula@engenho.com

    2009-07-01

    The energy reallocation mechanism (ERM) is a compulsory scheme used to reduce the hydrology risk. The aim of this paper is to present a proposed merger of biomass power plants in ERM. This merger will bring great benefits to the power system as a whole in that the generation of biomass is complementary to the system, reducing thus, the hydrological risk and improve safety of supply, but without raising the price of energy, since that the variable cost of production of biomass is very down. Furthermore, biomass has also benefits to be incorporated into the ERM, as it may commercialize energy to a wider range of buyers, not only during the harvest period, but also in the off season, since the ERM 'donate' energy during the period between harvests, reducing the risk of exposure to the spot market.

  12. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...

  13. EU-sponsored photovoltaic systems for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesch, Gerhard [Joint Research Centre of the European Union, JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    Development and proliferation of renewable energies are sponsored since 1983 by the European Union, normally up to 40% of the cost. (Programme THERMIE and predecessors). In the frame of this programme for more than one hundred projects of all kinds with thousands of photovoltaic energy supply systems have been implemented in Europe, 29 of these projects with 939 single pv-systems concern electrification of rural sites (e.g. agriculture) or isolated sites (e.g. mountain huts). Most of the single systems are of small size, 50 to 1000 Wp. A few of the systems are larger, up to 25 kWp, and supply local isolated mini-grids. In this paper the main features of the systems in six european countries are presented: The technical, economical and social results as well as the contributions of the Electric Power Utility (EPU`s) to these electrification are discussed. [Espanol] Desde 1983 la Union Europea ha auspiciado normalmente hasta el 40% del costo del desarrollo y proliferacion de las energias renovables. (Programa THERMIE y predecesores). En el marco de este programa con mas de cien proyectos de todos tipos, con miles de sistemas fotovoltaicos de suministro de energia, han sido implantados en Europa, 29 de estos proyectos con 929 sistemas fotovoltaicos sencillos se relacionan con la electrificacion de sitios rurales (por ejemplo agricultura) o de sitios aislados (por ejemplo cabanas en la montana). La mayoria de los sistemas sencillos son de pequeno tamano, 50 a 1000 Wp. Unos pocos de los sistemas son mas grandes, hasta de 25 kWp y alimentan mini-redes locales aisladas. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas principales de los sistemas en seis paises europeos: se analizan los resultados tecnicos, economicos y sociales, asi como las contribuciones de las empresas electricas.

  14. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Badger, Philip C [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the second edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, assumptions for selected tables and figures, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  15. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also two appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  16. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2010-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the third edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  17. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of the Biomass Program and the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis in the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and is currently only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and BioOil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is about the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include measures of conversions, biomass characteristics and assumptions for selected tables and figures. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  18. Market dynamics of biomass fuel in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, W.F.; Zane, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The California market for biomass fuel purchased by independent power producers has grown substantially since 1980. The PURPA legislation that based power purchase rates upon the 'avoided cost' of public utilities resulted in construction of nearly 900 Megawatts of capacity coming online by 1991. Until 1987, most powerplants were co-sited at sawmills and burned sawmill residue. By 1990 the installed capacity of stand-alone powerplants exceeded the capacity co-sited at wood products industry facilities. The 1991 demand for biomass fuel is estimated as 6,400,000 BDT. The 1991 market value of most biomass fuel delivered to powerplants is from $34 to $47 per BDT. Biomass fuel is now obtained from forest chips, agriculture residue and urban wood waste. The proportion of biomass fuel from the wood products industry is expected to decline and non-traditional fuels are expected to increase in availability

  19. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    of the century an even lower proportion of the population-only one out of three Central Americans-will have access to the national grid). Finally, the paper recommends some actions to enhance alternative options for the conversion of biomass resources to energy in order to address the ever-increasing demand for power in the region. A key recommendation is a biomass technology assessment initiative that would facilitate the effective transfer of technology within the region. (author)

  20. Wisdom for Building the Project Manager/Project Sponsor Relationship: Partnership for Project Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patton, Nanette; Shechet, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The project sponsor can promote information technology (IT) project success in several ways, yet many projects either have no formally designated project sponsor or the project sponsor is confused about his/her...

  1. Biomass Pyrolysis in DNS of Turbulent Particle-Laden Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, E; Fröhlich, Jochen; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Armenio, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is important for co-firing in coal power plants thereby reducing CO2 emissions. Modeling the combustion of biomass involves various physical and chemical processes, which take place successively and even simultaneously [1, 2]. An important step in biomass combustion is pyrolysis, in which

  2. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  3. Biomass treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  4. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  5. Durability of Biomass Briquettes

    OpenAIRE

    Kaķītis, A.; Nulle, I.

    2006-01-01

    The main resources for biomass agro-ecotechnologies are cereal straw residues, energy crops and emergent vegetation from wetlands. The herbaceous biomass is a material of low density (20 – 60kg/m3) therefore new mobile equipment and technologies for biomass comminution and densification have to be worked out. To guarantee the quality of biomass briquettes in the handling and usage process, sufficient durability of briquettes should be provided. National Standards of biomass briquettes should ...

  6. Production of 800 kW of electrical power using medium calorific gas from a biomass gasifier integrated in a combined cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Cabrita, I. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1993-12-31

    An allothermal fluidized bed biomass gasifier is under construction to operate at a pressure slightly above atmospheric to produce a gaseous fuel of medium heating value. The output of the gasifier is 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} kcal/h and will be attached to a gas turbine that is specifically modified to burn the gas produced. The amount of electricity to be generated will be 800 kW. The gasifying medium used is superheated steam at 2.5 bars and 400{degrees}C and the amount needed will be 280 kg/h. The gasifier will have a cross sectional area of 2.1 m{sup 2} with dimensions of 1 500 mm {times} 1 400 mm. There is a heat exchanger to provide the heat needed for the gasification reactions. The gasifier will operate at about 850{degrees}C and the biomass throughput will be about 950 kg/h. The amount of gas that is to be produced will be about 1 300 kg/h or 1 900 Nm{sup 3}/h. Part of the gas obtained will be burned in an external combustor to provide the heat for the gasifier. The gas turbine to be employed is a single shaft turbine designed to drive 750 kVA electrical generator. The turbine combustion chamber is somewhat modified to allow for the lower heating value of the gas. However, there is no loss of efficiency in the turbine output due to lower calorific value of the fuel. The turbine inlet temperature is 900/{degrees}C and that of the exhaust will be 500{degrees}C. The amount of gas to be used is about 745 Nm{sup 3}/h. The paper reports the experimental results obtained from a pilot-scale gasifier operating under similar conditions. The results of test runs carried out with a gas turbine are also presented.

  7. Criminal implication of sponsoring in medicine: legal ramifactions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W.; Theilmann, M.; Bolenz, M.

    2005-01-01

    As a consequence of the so-called ''Heart-Valve-Affair'' in 1994, the German public became aware of the potential criminal significance of industrial sponsoring and third-party financial support in medicine. Since 1997, when the German Anti-Corruption Law came into effect, the penal regulations regarding bribery and benefits for public officers were tightened. Due to the lack of explicit and generally accepted guidelines in combination with regional differences of jurisdiction, there is a lingering uncertainty regarding the criminal aspects of third-party funding and industrial sponsoring. The aim of this review is to summarize the penal and professional implications of third-party funding and sponsoring in medicine including recent aspects of jurisdiction. The currently available recommendations on this issue are introduced. (orig.)

  8. [Criminal implication of sponsoring in medicine: legal ramifactions and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnken, A H; Theilmann, M; Bolenz, M; Günther, R W

    2005-08-01

    As a consequence of the so-called "Heart-Valve-Affair" in 1994, the German public became aware of the potential criminal significance of industrial sponsoring and third-party financial support in medicine. Since 1997, when the German Anti-Corruption Law came into effect, the penal regulations regarding bribery and benefits for public officers were tightened. Due to the lack of explicit and generally accepted guidelines in combination with regional differences of jurisdiction, there is a lingering uncertainty regarding the criminal aspects of third-party funding and industrial sponsoring. The aim of this review is to summarize the penal and professional implications of third-party funding and sponsoring in medicine including recent aspects of jurisdiction. The currently available recommendations on this issue are introduced.

  9. Modelling Emotional and Attitudinal Evaluations of Major Sponsors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Hansen, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    equation model where the drivers are attitudes towards thesponsorship and emotions towards the sponsorship. It is found that the two classes ofvariables describe different aspects of the perception of sponsorships, and that they bothcontribute significantly to the overall value of sponsoring...... for a particular company. In thepresent paper, two cases are shown for two major sponsors. The specified Sponsor ValueModel is estimated by a partial least squares (PLS) method. It is found that the two sponsorsare perceived differently, both in terms of emotional and attitudinal responses. It is also foundthat...... the emotional responses aroused by the sponsorships are at least as important as thoseascribable to attitudinal elements.Key words: Sponsorship, emotional response, attitudes towards sponsorship, structuralequation model...

  10. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  11. Small scale power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muoniovaara, M. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    IVO International is a major constructor of biomass power plants in Finland and abroad. As a subsidiary of Imatran Voima Oy, the largest power utility in Finland, it has designed and constructed ten power plants owned by IVO Group or others capable of burning biomasses. Sizes of the plants vary from the world`s largest condensing peat-fired power plant of 155 MWe to a 6 MWe combined heat and power producing unit. This article describes the biomass power plants designed and constructed by IVO Group 3 refs.

  12. Biomass a fast growing energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    Biomass as an energy resource is as versatile as the biodiversity suggests. The global net primary production, NPP, describes the annual growth of biomass on land and in the seas. This paper focuses on biomass grown on land. A recent estimate for the NPP on land is 120 billion tons of dry matter. How much of this biomass are available for energy purposes? The potential contribution of wood fuel and energy plants from sustainable production is limited to some 5% of NPP, i.e. 6 Bt. One third of the potential is energy forests and energy plantations which at present are not economic. One third is used in rural areas as traditional fuel. The remaining third would be available for modern biomass energy conversion. Biomass is assigned an expanding role as a new resource in the world's energy balance. The EU has set a target of doubling the share of renewable energy sources by 2010. For biomass the target is even more ambitious. The challenge for biomass utilization lies in improving the technology for traditional usage and expanding the role into other areas like power production and transportation fuel. Various technologies for biomass utilization are available among those are combustion, gasification, and liquefaction. Researchers have a grand vision in which the chemical elements in the hydrocarbon molecules of biomass are separated and reformed to yield new tailored fuels and form the basis for a new world economy. The vision of a new energy system based on fresh and fossilized biomass to be engineered into an environmentally friendly and sustainable fuel is a conceivable technical reality. One reason for replacing exhaustible fossil fuels with biomass is to reduce carbon emissions. The most efficient carbon dioxide emission reduction comes from replacing brown coal in a steam-electric unit, due to the efficiency of the thermal cycle and the high carbon intensity of the coal. The smallest emission reduction comes from substituting natural gas. (BA)

  13. Ecosystems and biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trossero, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Biomass, particularly fuelwood and charcoal, is one of the main sources of fuel to meet the energy needs of traditional, commercial and industrial activities in developing countries. While it satisfies only about 14% of the world's primary energy needs, in some countries it satisfies up to 80% of those needs. As a result of population growth, urbanization, economic reforms, restructuring and new development targets in most of these countries, new forms of energy and a more intensive use of energy are expected for the years ahead. This additional demand for energy will be met mainly by hydroelectricity, coal and fossil fuels. However, where biomass is available or can be planted, bio fuels can be converted into new forms of energy (electricity and power) and energy carriers (liquid and gaseous fuels) to meet not only the energy needs of the modem sectors but also to maintain a sustainable supply to traditional users. In fact, FAO estimates that biomass could provide nearly three times more energy than it does without affecting the current supply of other commodities and goods such as food, fodder, fuel, timber and non-wood fuel products. The benefits derived from the utilization of biomass as a source of energy are twofold: (a) the task of supplying bio fuels can help to attract new investment, create new employment and income opportunities in rural areas, raise the value of natural resources and preserve the environment and (b) new forms of energy and energy carriers could foster increased production and productivity at the rural and community level, particularly in remote areas where conventional fuels are not easily available at affordable prices. Bioenergy can be easily developed in modular and decentralized schemes and offers many advantages. It could be an inexpensive source of energy, even at present energy prices, and it requires less capital investment for its implementation than alternative solutions. However, there are many disadvantages, too. For

  14. A moral quandary for sponsors. Like the family, and the state, sponsorship is an institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, H

    1996-01-01

    Nowadays many religious institutes are asking questions about sponsorship. The issue is usually phrased as the sponsoring of institutions. But it might be useful to ask about the institution of sponsorship instead. In The Good Society, Robert Bellah and his associates say that, on one hand, institutions are created by human beings; on the other hand, because we draw our sense of identity from them, institutions create us too. Bellah et al. also say that institutions, being human creations, are susceptible to corruption, especially when great wealth and power are involved. Since hospitals and healthcare systems obviously do involve wealth and power, we sponsors now have many questions, as well as some ambiguity about our sponsorship capability. One might even say that a moral debate is raging in our collective subconscious: Is loss of corporate influence something we would do something about if we could, or have we chosen some other value, such as ministerial diversity, instead? My institute, the Sisters of Mercy, has decided to continue our sponsorship of such organizations. As an institution, sponsorship is an essential bearer of our ideals and meanings. We need this institution to announce, to the world and to ourselves, that whatever power and wealth we possess are committed to mercy and justice.

  15. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  16. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  17. 45 CFR 2552.23 - What are a sponsor's program responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's program responsibilities... Sponsor § 2552.23 What are a sponsor's program responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a) Focus Foster... project's service area. (b) Assess in collaboration with other community organizations or utilize existing...

  18. 45 CFR 2551.23 - What are a sponsor's program responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's program responsibilities... Sponsor § 2551.23 What are a sponsor's program responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a) Focus Senior... within the project's service area. (b) Assess in collaboration with other community organizations or...

  19. 45 CFR 2552.25 - What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's administrative... a Sponsor § 2552.25 What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a... delegated to project staff for NSSC program(s) within its control. A full-time project director shall not...

  20. 45 CFR 2551.25 - What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's administrative... Sponsor § 2551.25 What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a) Assume full... program(s) within its control. A full-time project director shall not serve concurrently in another...

  1. 45 CFR 2553.25 - What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's administrative... Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2553.25 What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a... delegated to project staff for NSSC program(s) within its control. A full-time project director shall not...

  2. 45 CFR 2553.23 - What are a sponsor's program responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2553.23 What are a sponsor's program responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a) Focus RSVP resources to have a positive impact on critical human and social needs within the project service... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's program responsibilities...

  3. A Commentary on Literacy Narratives as Sponsors of Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This brief commentary first clarifies Brandt's concept of sponsors of literacy in light of the way the concept has been taken up in writing studies. Then it treats Brandt's methods for handling accounts of literacy learning in comparison with other ways of analyzing biographical material. Finally it takes up Lawrence's argument about literacy…

  4. Sponsorship recall and recognition of official sponsors of the 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With escalating interest in sports globally, sport sponsorship has emerged as a platform that provides sponsoring companies with a chance of securing a competitive advantage. Events of high magnitude such as the 2010 FIFA World Cup™, which was the world's largest football event hosted in South Africa (SA), offered ...

  5. Tax Exempt Organizations and Commercially Sponsored Scientific Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Consuelo Lauda

    1982-01-01

    Several related tax issues important to both the commercial sponsors and tax-exempt recipients of research funding are addressed: what type of activity qualified as scientific research; how acceptance of commercial funding affects tax-exempt status; and when the receipt of such funding generates a liability for tax on unrelated business income.…

  6. 7 CFR 225.14 - Requirements for sponsor participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 225.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM Sponsor and Site Provisions... Youth Sports Program; and (5) Private nonprofit organizations as defined in § 225.2. (c) General...

  7. A DST Sponsored Workshop on Methods in Behavioural Ecology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A DST Sponsored Workshop on Methods in. Behavioural Ecology. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. 15-29 January 2006. Aimed at Young Teachers and Senior Research Students The course will cover lectures on several aspects of Behavioral ecology including, ...

  8. 22 CFR 42.31 - Family-sponsored immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family-sponsored immigrants. 42.31 Section 42.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.31 Family...

  9. The relationship between absenteeism and employer-sponsored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between absenteeism and employer-sponsored child care. B Anderson, DJ Geldenhuys. Abstract. Given the high loss of revenue due to absenteeism, exploring different ways of managing absenteeism in South African companies, such as family-friendly practices, has become important. Establishing onsite

  10. Highlight: IDRC sponsors Caribbean symposium on impact of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-05-12

    12 mai 2015 ... An IDRC-sponsored symposium exploring the impact of the Internet on economic growth and public service delivery in the Caribbean was held in Saint Andrew, Jamaica, on May 12, 2015. Discussions from the symposium will feed into the 2016 World Development Report: Internet for Development.

  11. Exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Kristine E; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-11-01

    The lack of human data available to inform evidence-based treatment for illness during pregnancy has led to calls for greater inclusion of pregnant women in research, but the extent of their current representation is poorly characterized. Our objective was to measure the current exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials as a baseline for future comparison. We compiled data from studies enrolling women of childbearing potential posted on www.ClinicalTrials.gov between 1 October 2011 and 31 January 2012. The review was limited to open United States-based phase IV interventional studies sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry evaluating treatment of conditions that may be experienced by but are not limited to pregnant women and did not involve a medication classified as potentially teratogenic. If there was no mention of pregnancy in the inclusion or exclusion criteria, we contacted a study representative to confirm that pregnant women could be enrolled. Of 558 qualifying industry-sponsored studies, five (1%) were designed specifically for pregnant women. Of 367 phase IV clinical trials with verified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 348 (95%) excluded pregnant women and 19 (5%) did not. We found the exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials to be common practice. Moving beyond reflexive exclusion and developing thoughtful criteria for inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research would likely advance the evidence base to inform treatment decisions during pregnancy and lead to better health outcomes for women and children.

  12. Media exposure and sponsor recall: Cricket World Cup 2003 | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study into the relationship between media exposure and sponsor recall relating to an international event, namely the Cricket World Cup 2003 (CWC 2003). The application of sponsorship as a communication construct and recall as a media vehicle effect is investigated. Recall has been widely ...

  13. Economic development through biomass system integration. Volumes 2--4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners.

  14. Biomass gasification for production of 'green energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mambre, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the differences between biomass gasification and biomass methanation, two ways of using biomass for decentralized production of energy. The stakes of biomass and biomass gasification for meeting the European and national energy goals and environmental targets are summarized. The gasification principle is described and in particular the FICFB optimized process from Repotec for the production of concentrated syngas. The four different ways of syngas valorization (combined heat and power (CHP), 'green methane' (SNG), 'green hydrogen' (gas shift) and liquid biofuels of 2. generation (Fisher-Tropsch)) are recalled and compared with each other. Finally, the economical and environmental key issues of the global chain are summarized with their technological and scientific key locks. The GAYA R and D project of Gaz de France Suez group, which aims at developing gasification and methanation demonstration plants through different programs with European partners, is briefly presented. (J.S.)

  15. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Liberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass resources meet about 99.5% of the Liberian population?s energy needs so they are vital to basic welfare and economic activity. Already, traditional biomass products like firewood and charcoal are the primary energy source used for domestic cooking and heating. However, other more efficient biomass technologies are available that could open opportunities for agriculture and rural development, and provide other socio-economic and environmental benefits.The main objective of this study is to estimate the biomass resources currently and potentially available in the country and evaluate their contribution for power generation and the production of transportation fuels. It intends to inform policy makers and industry developers of the biomass resource availability in Liberia, identify areas with high potential, and serve as a base for further, more detailed site-specific assessments.

  16. Electricity and heat production by biomass cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčič, Simon; Marčič, Milan

    2017-07-01

    In Slovenia, approximately 2 % of electricity is generated using cogeneration systems. Industrial and district heating networks ensure the growth of such technology. Today, many existing systems are outdated, providing myriad opportunities for reconstruction. One concept for the development of households and industry envisages the construction of several small biomass units and the application of natural gas as a fuel with a relatively extensive distribution network. This concept has good development potential in Slovenia. Forests cover 56 % of the surface area in Slovenia, which has, as a result, a lot of waste wood to be turned into biomass. Biomass is an important fuel in Slovenia. Biomass is gasified in a gasifier, and the wood gas obtained is used to power the gas engine. This paper describes a biomass cogeneration system as the first of this type in Slovenia, located in Ruše.

  17. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  18. Unfulfilled translation opportunities in industry sponsored clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smed, Marie; Getz, Kenneth A

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge generated by site representatives through their participation in clinical trials is valuable for testing new products in use and obtaining final market approval. The leverage of this important knowledge is however challenged as the former direct relationships between in-house staff in the industry and site representatives are changing. The process of clinical trials has increased in complexity over the years, resulting in additional management layers. Besides an increase in internal management layers, sponsors often also outsource various tasks related to clinical trials to a CRO (Contract Research Organization) and thereby adding another link in the relationships between site and sponsor. These changes are intended to optimize the time-consuming and costly trial phases; however, there is a need to study whether valuable knowledge and experience is compromised in the process. Limited research exists on the full range of clinical practice insights obtained by investigators during and after clinical trials and how well these insights are transferred to study sponsors. This study explores the important knowledge-transfer processes between sites and sponsors and to what extent sites' knowledge gained in clinical trials is utilized by the industry. Responses from 451 global investigative site representatives are included in the study. The analysis of the extensive dataset reveals that the current processes of collaboration between sites and the industry restrict the leverage of valuable knowledge gained by physicians in the process of clinical trials. These restrictions to knowledge-transfer between site and sponsor are further challenged if CRO partners are integrated in the trial process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Developing business in emerging biomass energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyszewski, J.

    2005-01-01

    Global market trends for forest products were reviewed in this PowerPoint presentation. The status of biomass energy products in relation to climate change and renewable energy portfolio standards was also examined. It was noted that China has increased investment in processing capacity and has increased imports of raw logs. India has doubled its imports of raw logs. Details of major tropical log producers and consumers were presented. Details of the biomass industry in the United States were presented, as well as data on fuel use at biomass energy plants and biomass energy capacity. An overview of biomass energy in the Russian far east and Siberia was presented, as well as details of activities and opportunities in Brazil and Indonesia. An economic analysis for small dry kilns was presented. Issues concerning boiler capacity in Russian companies for 2001-2005 were discussed. A case study of a biomass project from Congo was presented. It was noted that projects that replace fossil fuels can obtain revenues from the sale of carbon benefits, and that biomass energy offers the most attractive current option for the removal of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmosphere. Details of a district heating project in Siberia were presented, and it was noted that in remote regions, costs for heat and power from biomass can be lower than costs from diesel and coal. It was concluded that there will be significant growth for biomass energy systems in the developing world, and that climate change will be an increasingly important element in advancing biomass energy. tabs., figs

  20. Wallowa County Integrated Biomass Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, Nils [Wallowa Resources Community Solutions Inc., Wallowa, OR (United States)

    2014-05-02

    The Integrated Biomass Energy Center (IBEC) is an approximately 0.1 MW CHP integrated biorefinery in Northeastern Oregon which will demonstrate and validate small-scale combined heat and power from lignin intermediates/residues. IBEC will be co-located with feedstock suppliers and thermal and power customers for distributed generation. The project was developed by Wallowa Resources Community Solutions Inc.

  1. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is facing many challenges on its path of reconstruction and development. Among all its pressing needs, the country would benefit from the development and implementation of an energy strategy. In addition to conventional energy sources, the Afghan government is considering alternative options such as energy derived from renewable resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal). Biomass energy is derived from a variety of sources -- plant-based material and residues -- and can be used in various conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. This study provides policymakers and industry developers with information on the biomass resource potential in Afghanistan for power/heat generation and transportation fuels production. To achieve this goal, the study estimates the current biomass resources and evaluates the potential resources that could be used for energy purposes.

  2. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  3. deNOx catalysts for biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Steffen Buus

    The present thesis revolves around the challenges involved in removal of nitrogen oxides in biomass fired power plants. Nitrogen oxides are unwanted byproducts formed to some extent during almost any combustion. In coal fired plants these byproducts are removed by selective catalytic reduction......, however the alkali in biomass complicate matters. Alkali in biomass severely deactivates the catalyst used for the selective catalytic reduction in matter of weeks, hence a more alkali resistant catalyst is needed. In the thesis a solution to the problem is presented, the nano particle deNOx catalyst...

  4. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  5. Nonindustry-sponsored preclinical studies on statins yield greater efficacy estimates than industry-sponsored studies: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauth, David; Anglemyer, Andrew; Philipps, Rose; Bero, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Industry-sponsored clinical drug studies are associated with publication of outcomes that favor the sponsor, even when controlling for potential bias in the methods used. However, the influence of sponsorship bias has not been examined in preclinical animal studies. We performed a meta-analysis of preclinical statin studies to determine whether industry sponsorship is associated with either increased effect sizes of efficacy outcomes and/or risks of bias in a cohort of published preclinical statin studies. We searched Medline (January 1966-April 2012) and identified 63 studies evaluating the effects of statins on atherosclerosis outcomes in animals. Two coders independently extracted study design criteria aimed at reducing bias, results for all relevant outcomes, sponsorship source, and investigator financial ties. The I(2) statistic was used to examine heterogeneity. We calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) for each outcome and pooled data across studies to estimate the pooled average SMD using random effects models. In a priori subgroup analyses, we assessed statin efficacy by outcome measured, sponsorship source, presence or absence of financial conflict information, use of an optimal time window for outcome assessment, accounting for all animals, inclusion criteria, blinding, and randomization. The effect of statins was significantly larger for studies sponsored by nonindustry sources (-1.99; 95% CI -2.68, -1.31) versus studies sponsored by industry (-0.73; 95% CI -1.00, -0.47) (p valuefinancial conflict information, use of an optimal time window for outcome assessment, accounting for all animals, inclusion criteria, blinding, and randomization. Possible reasons for the differences between nonindustry- and industry-sponsored studies, such as selective reporting of outcomes, require further study.

  6. Minnesota Power Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and DOJ announced a Clean Air Act settlement with Minnesota Power, an ALLETE company based in Duluth, that will cover its three coal-fired power plants and one biomass-and-coal-fired steam and electricity cogeneration plan

  7. Chemical composition of wildland and agricultural biomass burning particles measured downwind during the BBOP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasch, T. B.; Shilling, J. E.; Wormhoudt, J.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Fortner, E.; Pekour, M. S.; Chand, D.; Zhou, S.; Collier, S.; Zhang, Q.; Kleinman, L. I.; Lewis, E. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.; Freedman, A.; Williams, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study, measured emissions from wildland fires in the Pacific Northwest and agricultural burns in the Central Southeastern US from the DOE Gulfstream-1 airborne platform over a four month period in 2013. Rapid physical, chemical and optical changes in biomass burning particles were measured downwind (tar balls and SP-AMS OA quantification while operating with both laser and tungsten vaporizers.

  8. The effect of cleaning on materials wastage in biomass and waste fired power plants; Sotningens inverkan paa materialfoerluster foer bio- och avfallseldade pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoernhede, Anders; Henderson, Pamela

    2006-03-15

    The reason for this study is the relatively large material loss caused by soot blowing of heat exchange surface in waste- and biomass fired boilers. The material losses depend on the method of cleaning: Normally soot blowing with a relatively high pressure is used in order to remove deposits on super heater tubes. However, this also damages the tube material. Earlier theories state that the material losses are caused by erosion or rather erosion-corrosion of the tube surface. There is a clear evidence for the existence for this type of damage, but it is often caused by badly adjusted soot blowing equipment. However, even well adjusted equipment causes accelerated metal loss, albeit lower than with badly adjusted soot blowers. This type of material loss is caused by the removal of the outer molten deposit layer. This outer layer of deposit actually acts as a barrier to corrosive species diffusing inwards towards the oxide and uncorroded metal. There is a lamellar oxide under this deposit, which is especially protective if it contains Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MoO{sub 3} or Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The lamellar oxide is damaged by the defects produced by the soot blowing and the diffusion of corrosive species into the metal tube. Since molybdenum probably through molybdenum oxide seems to reduce metal losses due to soot blowing, alloys containing molybdenum should be used. The addition of sulphur, or sulphur compounds like ammonium sulphate reduces the deposit growth rate by about 50%. This means that the soot blowing frequency and therefore metal losses are reduced. There is also an indication that certain metals or alloys reduce the tendency for deposits to stick to tubes. Coating with pure nickel is one example of this, but as nickel is sensitive to soot blowing it is not possible to use nickel in areas affected by soot blowing. A common way of reducing metal losses is to mount tube shields on the most affected tubes. These shields are changed regularly. Normally expensive

  9. On a State-Sponsored Sport System in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Zhiwei, Pan

    The gold medal success of China in recent Olympic Games can be traced to the advancement of the state-sponsored sport system (SSSS). While the program was developed initially through socialist ideals, it is more than a centralized government system to monopolize resources for glorified sport performance. Participation in competition is an inherent part of the human condition. Success in athletics is associated with national identity and has economic, social, and cultural implications. Because of this, it is essential that the SSSS adjust and improve to keep pace with other facets of China's quickly changing national reform. In association with emerging economic reform, some sports now receive equal or more funds from private investments compared to government allocation. The state-sponsored sport system must continue to adapt to maintain the Chinese tradition of excellence in competition.

  10. Unfulfilled translation opportunities in industry sponsored clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Marie; Getz, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge generated by site representatives through their participation in clinical trials is valuable for testing new products in use and obtaining final market approval. The leverage of this important knowledge is however challenged as the former direct relationships between in-house staff...... in the industry and site representatives are changing. The process of clinical trials has increased in complexity over the years, resulting in additional management layers. Besides an increase in internal management layers, sponsors often also outsource various tasks related to clinical trials to a CRO (Contract...... Research Organization) and thereby adding another link in the relationships between site and sponsor. These changes are intended to optimize the time-consuming and costly trial phases; however, there is a need to study whether valuable knowledge and experience is compromised in the process. Limited...

  11. Electricity from biomass: An environmental review and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-06-01

    This report presents an environmental assessment and strategy for the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program. The regulatory context and the environmental impact of biomass power technologies are described, and an environmental plan for the program is suggested. The plan suggest a proactive, synergistic approach, involving multiple parties with a stake in the successful commercialization of a biomass power industry. These parties include feedstock growers, state regulators. Forest Service and agricultural agents, utilities and independent power producers, rural electric cooperatives, and environmental activists.

  12. Biomass Support for the China Renewable Energy Law: Final Report, December 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-10-01

    Final subcontractor report giving an overview of the biomass power generation technologies used in China. Report covers resources, technologies, foreign technologies and resources for comparison purposes, biomass potential in China, and finally government policies in China that support/hinder development of the using biomass in China for power generation.

  13. Budget constraints and optimization in sponsored search auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yanwu

    2013-01-01

    The Intelligent Systems Series publishes reference works and handbooks in three core sub-topic areas: Intelligent Automation, Intelligent Transportation Systems, and Intelligent Computing. They include theoretical studies, design methods, and real-world implementations and applications. The series' readership is broad, but focuses on engineering, electronics, and computer science. Budget constraints and optimization in sponsored search auctions takes into account consideration of the entire life cycle of campaigns for researchers and developers working on search systems and ROI maximization

  14. Searching for sponsors for four national rugby teams in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ylönen, Niina

    2017-01-01

    How to get more sponsors to four national rugby teams in Finland? Finnish Rugby Federation and its four national teams are in the need of new long lasting sponsorship deals to fund the national teams’ tournaments in Finland and abroad. Since rugby is quite unknown sports in Finland it faces challenges in getting new sponsorship deals and also its visibility is currently very low. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the current situation of rugby, sponsorship contracts Finnish rugby F...

  15. Redactions in protocols for drug trials: what industry sponsors concealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardsen, Mikkel; Ogden, Michelle; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    Objective To describe the redactions in contemporary protocols for industry-sponsored randomised drug trials with patient relevant outcomes and to evaluate whether there was a legitimate rationale for the redactions. Design Cohort study. Under the Freedom of Information Act, we requested access to trial protocols approved by a research ethics committee in Denmark from October 2012 to March 2013. We received 17 consecutive protocols, which had been redacted before we got them, and nine protocols without redactions. In five additional cases, the companies refused to let the committees give us access, and in three other cases, documents were missing. Participants Not applicable. Setting Not applicable. Main outcome measure Amount and nature of redactions in 22 predefined key protocol variables. Results The redactions were most widespread in those sections of the protocol where there is empirical evidence of substantial problems with the trustworthiness of published drug trials: data analysis, handling of missing data, detection and analysis of adverse events, definition of the outcomes, interim analyses and premature termination of the study, sponsor's access to incoming data while the study is running, ownership to the data and investigators' publication rights. The parts of the text that were redacted differed widely, both between companies and within the same company. Conclusions We could not identify any legitimate rationale for the redactions. The current mistrust in industry-sponsored drug trials can only change if the industry offers unconditional access to its trial protocols and other relevant documents and data.

  16. Biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored global clinical trials in emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Lenio Souza; Martins, Elisabeth Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials placed in countries previously described as emerging regions for clinical research, and potential differences for those placed in Brazil. Data regarding recruitment of subjects for clinical trials were retrieved from www.clinicaltrials.gov on February 2nd 2009. Proportions of sites in each country were compared among emerging countries. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate whether trial placement in Brazil could be predicted by trial location in other countries and/or by trial features. A total of 8,501 trials were then active and 1,170 (13.8%) included sites in emerging countries (i.e., Argentina, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, and South Africa). South Korea and China presented a significantly higher proportion of sites when compared to other countries (pBrazil. Trials involving subjects with less than 15 years of age, those with targeted recruitment of at least 1,000 subjects, and seven sponsors were identified as significant predictors of trial placement in Brazil. No clear direct competition between Brazil and other emerging countries was detected. South Korea showed the higher proportion of sites and ranked third in total number of trials, appearing as a major player in attractiveness for biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials.

  17. Biomass valorization; La valorisation de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, M. [Groupe d' Analyse Thematique (France)

    2006-09-15

    Biomass is the photosynthesis product of carbon dioxide and water, made by the solar energy capture by plants (CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + solar energy hydrocarbons). It is this carbon which, at the end of the cycle, after fossilization, gives petroleum, gas and coal. But before being in this state, the biomass deposits are diversified and available all over the world. (O.M.)

  18. Cofiring biomass with coal: Opportunities for Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia generated 108,175 GWh of electricity in 2010 where 39.51 % was sourced from coal. Coal power generation is also planned to overtake natural gas as the main fuel for electricity generation within the next two decades. Malaysia also has a vast biomass resource that is currently under-utilised for electricity generation. This paper studies the option of cofiring biomass in existing Malaysian coal power plants to increase the nation's renewable energy mix as well as to reduce its power sector carbon dioxide emission. Benefits of cofiring to the nation were discussed and agricultural residues from palm oil and paddy was identified as a potential source of biomass for cofiring. It was also found that there is a willingness for cofiring by stakeholders but barriers existed in the form of technical issues and lack of clear direction and mechanism.

  19. Cofiring biomass with coal: Opportunities for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A A; Shamsuddin, A H

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia generated 108,175 GWh of electricity in 2010 where 39.51 % was sourced from coal. Coal power generation is also planned to overtake natural gas as the main fuel for electricity generation within the next two decades. Malaysia also has a vast biomass resource that is currently under-utilised for electricity generation. This paper studies the option of cofiring biomass in existing Malaysian coal power plants to increase the nation's renewable energy mix as well as to reduce its power sector carbon dioxide emission. Benefits of cofiring to the nation were discussed and agricultural residues from palm oil and paddy was identified as a potential source of biomass for cofiring. It was also found that there is a willingness for cofiring by stakeholders but barriers existed in the form of technical issues and lack of clear direction and mechanism.

  20. High Efficiency Hall Thruster Discharge Power Converter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek leveraged previous, internally sponsored, high power, Hall thruster discharge converter development which allowed it to design, build, and test new printed...

  1. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Angie [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Bertjens, Steve [Natural Resources Conservation Service, Madison, WI (United States); Lieurance, Mike [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Berguson, Bill [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.; Buchman, Dan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  2. Biomass gasification : The understanding of sulfur, tar, and char reaction in fluidized bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, X.

    2012-01-01

    As one of the currently available thermo-chemical conversion technologies, biomass gasification has received considerable interest since it increases options for combining with various power generation systems. The product gas or syngas produced from biomass gasification is environmental friendly

  3. Use of financial and economic analyses by federal forest managers for woody biomass removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Jason P. Brandt; John D. Baldridge; Dan R. Loeffler

    2011-01-01

    This study was sponsored by the Joint Fire Science Program to understand and enhance the ability of federal land managers to address financial and economic (F&E) aspects of woody biomass removal as a component of fire hazard reduction. Focus groups were conducted with nearly 100 federal land managers throughout the western United States. Several issues and...

  4. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...... number of biomass and refuse fired combined heat and power plant boilers, b) Laboratory exposures and metallurgical examinations of material specimens with ash deposits in well-defined gas environments with HCl and SO2 in a furnace....

  5. Biomass-derived nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tailored hierarchical porosity and high specific surface area for high energy and power density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junting; Niu, Jin; Liu, Mengyue; Ji, Jing; Dou, Meiling; Wang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Porous carbon materials with hierarchical structures attract intense interest for the development of high-performance supercapacitors. Herein, we demonstrate a facile and efficient strategy to synthesize nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbons with tailored porous structure combined with high specific surface area (SSA), which involves a pre-carbonization and a subsequent carbonization combined with KOH activation of silkworm cocoon precursors. Through adjusting the mass ratio of the activator (KOH) to pre-carbonized precursor in the activation process, the hierarchically porous carbon prepared at the mass ratio of 2 (referred to as NHPC-2) possesses a high defect density and a high SSA of 3386 m2 g-1 as well as the relatively high volumetric proportion of mesopores and macropores (45.5%). As a result, the energy density and power density of the symmetric supercapacitor based on NHPC-2 electrode are as high as 34.41 Wh kg-1 and 31.25 kW kg-1 in organic-solvent electrolyte, and are further improved to 112.1 Wh kg-1 and 23.91 kW kg-1 in ionic-liquid electrolyte.

  6. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics

  7. Development of Solar Biomass Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atnaw Samson Mekbib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper focuses on the experimental pre-treatment of biomass in agricultural site using solar energy as power source and contribution of common use and efficiency solar dryer system for consumer. The main purpose of this design for solar cabinet dryer is to dry biomass via direct and indirect heating. Direct heating is the simplest method to dry biomass by exposing the biomass under direct sunlight. The solar cabinet dryer traps solar heat to increase the temperature of the drying chamber. The biomass absorbs the heat and transforms the moisture content within the biomass into water vapour and then leaves the chamber via the exhaust air outlet. This problem however can be solved by adopting indirect solar drying system. High and controllable temperatures can be achieved as a fan is used to move the air through the solar collector. This project has successfully created a solar cabinet dryer that combines both direct and indirect solar drying systems and functions to dry biomass as well as crops effectively and efficiently with minimal maintenance. Hence, it is indeed a substitution for conventional dryers which are affordable to local farmers.

  8. Availability of Dutch biomass for electricity and heat in 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppejan, J.; Elbersen, W.; Meeusen, M.; Bindraban, P.

    2009-11-01

    Availability of biomass is an important factor in realizing the Dutch targets for renewable energy. This study maps the availability of Dutch biomass in the framework of alternative applications and sustainability requirements, today and in the future. The conclusion is drawn that there is approximately 13 to 16 million tons of dry biomass available for energy generation in the Netherlands in 2020. This is 30 to 40% of the amount of biomass that is annually used in the Netherlands, generating 53 to 94 PJ of final energy, avoiding 101 to 157 PJ of fossil energy. This availability of biomass and the energy that is generated from the biomass can increase further after 2020. In addition, biomass will also be imported, especially for combustion and co-firing in coal-fired power plants and for the production of transport fuels. [nl

  9. Biomass to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  10. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 62 - Certification of Responsible Officers and Sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Sponsors A Appendix A to Part 62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES...__. Subscribed and sworn to before me this ______ day of ______, 19__. Notary Public 2. Sponsors. I hereby...__. Notary Public ...

  11. "This program contains advertising": How the timing of sponsorship disclosure influences critical processing of sponsored content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.; van Reijmersdal, E.; Neijens, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure influences the processing of sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure activates persuasion knowledge, which leads to critical processing of the sponsored content, and ultimately negatively affects the

  12. New Product Development. Engineering and Commerce Students Join Forces with a Corporate Sponsor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Josee; Pegna, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical engineering and business student teams developed new products using a corporate sponsor's technology in a simulated business setting. Students learned about product development and venture start-up, and the sponsor gained new applications for its patented technology. (SK)

  13. Process for treating biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2018-04-10

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  14. Process for treating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-08-11

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  15. Biomass resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangco, V.M.; Sethi, P.S. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The biomass resources in California which have potential for energy conversion were assessed and characterized through the project funded by the California Energy Commission and the US Department of Energy`s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program (WRBEP). The results indicate that there is an abundance of biomass resources as yet untouched by the industry due to technical, economic, and environmental problems, and other barriers. These biomass resources include residues from field and seed crops, fruit and nut crops, vegetable crops, and nursery crops; food processing wastes; forest slash; energy crops; lumber mill waste; urban wood waste; urban yard waste; livestock manure; and chaparral. The estimated total potential of these biomass resource is approximately 47 million bone dry tons (BDT), which is equivalent to 780 billion MJ (740 trillion Btu). About 7 million BDT (132 billion MJ or 124 trillion Btu) of biomass residue was used for generating electricity by 66 direct combustion facilities with gross capacity of about 800 MW. This tonnage accounts for only about 15% of the total biomass resource potential identified in this study. The barriers interfering with the biomass utilization both in the on-site harvesting, collection, storage, handling, transportation, and conversion to energy are identified. The question whether these barriers present significant impact to biomass {open_quotes}availability{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes} remains to be answered.

  16. Biomass in the production of electricity in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo Marín, Cayetano

    2005-01-01

    The generation of electricity using biomass began in Spain in the mid-1990s. In this paper, we examine the combustible products used in the generation of this type of electricity, the legal framework protecting its production, the evolution of the installed power and its territorial distribution, the environmental impact of biomass as a renewable energy, the energy policy supporting this technology and the problems for the development of biomass as a energy source in Spain.

  17. Torrefaction of biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    occurring even at biomass torrefied at 300 deg. C. Thus it cannot be concluded if pellets of torrefied materials can be stored outside or not. Due to the fact that the densification process will also have big influence on this property and full scale testing with more materials is required before this can be concluded. Densification of torrefied material was tested in both bench scale as well as lab scale pellet presses and revealed larger challenges than expected. Torrefied material reveals a much higher friction, internal between particles as well as external with the die surface, than untreated biomass does and requires thus higher amounts of energy to compress and push through the dies. Moreover, due to that the chemistry of the binding agents in the biomass is altered by the heat treatment, it is also more challenging to produce pellets with high quality. Elevated die temperatures of above {approx}190 deg. C and usage of lubricating additives such as rape seed oil was shown to clearly improve the pelletisation properties, but more research and optimisation is necessary in the future. While grindability and moisture uptake are important for the usage and storage at the power plants, the densification of torrefied is important for the transport to the plant as it is necessary for increasing the energy density. Due to that devolatilization creates cavities in the material the energy density on a volume bases (GJ/m{sup 3}) is actually lowered during torrefaction. But the remaining torrefied biomass material does have a higher energy density on a mass basis (GJ/kg), and therefore subsequent densification by pelletisation will significantly increase it energy density above that of not treated biomass also on a volume bases. Due to the fact that transport of solid fuels on ships is limited by volume rather that mass, this property is important for the economics of the supply chain. (LN)

  18. Accelerating the commercialization of biomass energy generation within New York State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proakis, G.J. [New York State Technology Enterprise Corp., Rome, NY (United States); Vasselli, J.J. [Syracuse Research Corp., North Syracuse, NY (United States); Neuhauser, E. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States); Volk, T.A. [State University of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A significant obstacle to establishing a commercially viable, self-sustaining willow biomass industry is the initial capital investment required to establish the crop. One approach to overcoming this challenge is an incentive program to reduce the initial capital investment costs for landowners. This study quantifies the start-up investment costs, economic development impact, and environmental pollution reduction benefits associated with the creation of a biomass energy industry in New York State. The study recommends the creation of a state-sponsored revolving loan fund that would be used by landowners to finance the cost of establishing willow biomass crops. (author)

  19. Stricter Employment Protection and Firms' Incentives to Sponsor Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messe, Pierre-Jean; Rouland, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a difference-in-differences approach, combined with propensity score matching, to identify the effect of older workers employment protection on French firms' incentives to sponsor training. Between 1987 and 2008, French firms laying off workers aged over 50 had to pay a tax...... to the unemployment insurance system, known as the Delalande tax. In 1999, the measure was subjected to a reform that increased the tax, but only for large firms. We find that this exogenous increase substantially raised firms' incentives to train workers aged 45–49 but had no impact on the training rates among...

  20. American Medical Association sponsors press conference in home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C G

    1996-01-01

    On September 12, 1996, the American Medical Association, with an educational grant from Hoffmann-La Roche, sponsored a National Press Conference in New York City at the Millenium Broadway Hotel on Times Square. Attended by more than 40 of the nation's top health care correspondents from the leading magazine and newspapers in the country, this conference was designed to promote "The Revolution in Home and Outpatient Care." With an emphasis on new sites and new technologies, speakers from the Academy of Homecare Physicians presented a number of related subjects.

  1. The Race for Sponsored Links: Bidding Patterns for Search Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Zsolt Katona; Miklos Sarvary

    2010-01-01

    Paid placements on search engines reached sales of nearly $11 billion in the United States last year and represent the most rapidly growing form of online advertising today. In its classic form, a search engine sets up an auction for each search word in which competing websites bid for their sponsored links to be displayed next to the search results. We model this advertising market, focusing on two of its key characteristics: (1) the interaction between the list of search results and the lis...

  2. 45 CFR 2553.24 - What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation? 2553.24 Section 2553.24 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... Eligibility and Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2553.24 What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing...

  3. 45 CFR 2551.24 - What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2551.24 What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation? 2551.24 Section 2551.24 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare...

  4. 45 CFR 2552.24 - What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2552.24 What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation? 2552.24 Section 2552.24 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare...

  5. Building Strong Bonds with Program Sponsors--Public Relations Ideas To Make It Happen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Lists public relations strategies for child care center directors seeking to cultivate relationships with their program sponsors. Suggests ways to identify a public relations message, make the sponsor part of the child care family, become part of the sponsor's family, give public recognition, and share the children's accomplishments. (JPB)

  6. 42 CFR 423.553 - Effect of leasing of a PDP sponsor's facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of leasing of a PDP sponsor's facilities... Change of Ownership or Leasing of Facilities During Term of Contract § 423.553 Effect of leasing of a PDP sponsor's facilities. (a) General effect of leasing. If a PDP sponsor leases all or part of its facilities...

  7. 5 CFR 792.211 - What is the definition of a Federally sponsored child care center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sponsored child care center? 792.211 Section 792.211 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... sponsored child care center? The term Federally sponsored child care center, for the purposes of this subpart, is a child care center that is located in a building or space that is owned or leased by the...

  8. Putney Basketville Site Biomass CHP Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, Randolph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Center for Program Analysis developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The Putney, Vermont, Basketville site, formerly the location of a basket-making facility and a paper mill andwoolen mill, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. Biomass combined heat and power (CHP) was selected as the technology due to nearby loads, including Putney Paper and Landmark College.

  9. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-05-01

    In summary, stoker-fired boilers that cofire or switch to biomass fuel may potentially have to deal with ash behavior issues such as production of different concentrations and quantities of fine particulate or aerosols and ash-fouling deposition. Stoker boiler operators that are considering switching to biomass and adding potential infrastructure to accommodate the switch may also at the same time be looking into upgrades that will allow for generating additional power for sale on the grid. This is the case for the feasibility study being done currently for a small (<1-MW) stoker facility at the North Dakota State Penitentiary, which is considering not only the incorporation of a lower-cost biomass fuel but also a refurbishing of the stoker boiler to burn slightly hotter with the ability to generate more power and sell excess energy on the grid. These types of fuel and boiler changes can greatly affect ash behavior issues.

  10. Reports of research programs in the field of reactor safety sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    Investigations on the safety of Light Water Reactors (LWR) being performed in the framework of his research program on reactor safety (RS-projects) are sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT). Objective of this program is to investigate in greater detail the safety margins of nuclear power plants and their systems and the further development of safety technology. Besides the investigations of LWR tasks also projects on the safety of advanced reactors are sponsored by the BMFT. The individual reports are classified according to the research program on the safety of LWRs 1977-1980 of the BMFT. Another table of contents uses the same classification system as applied in the nuclear safety index of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities) and the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). The reports are arranged in the sequence of their project numbers. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  12. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  13. Energetische Verwertung von Biomasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Etwa 0,1% der Solarenergie wandeln sich durch Photosynthese aus dem Kohlendioxid der Luft in Biomasse um. Die Biomassen sind als Festbrennstoff nutzbar oder zu gasförmigen Brennstoffen weiterverarbeitbar. Zwei Arten von Biomassen sind zu unterscheiden: Anfallende Biomasse

  14. Fuel Pellets from Biomass. Processing, Bonding, Raw Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang

    The depletion of fossil fuels and the need to reduce green house gas emissions has resulted in a strong growth of biomass utilization for heat and power production. Attempts to overcome the poor handling properties of biomass, i.e. its low bulk density and inhomogeneous structure, have resulted...

  15. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  16. Biomass burning in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, V.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the direct biomass burning practices in India. The review pertains to fire practices in forest, agricultural fields, grasslands, households, and industry. In forest land, extent of controlled burning for regeneration and fire prevention is estimated based on the forest statistics. The biomass burned annually due to accidental fires and for shifting cultivation is quantified based on a few earlier studies. In the case of household and small-scale industries, the biomass burned is quantified by extrapolating past data on energy consumption. In addition to wood and crop residues, the use of dungcakes and charcoal is also accounted for in calculating the total amount of biofuels burned annually. Wherever possible, regional and seasonal variations in the biomass burning practices are highlighted. This exercise has led to improve the current estimates of biomass burned annually in India. The factors influencing the impact of National Programme on Improved Cookstoves (NPIC) in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions are discussed

  17. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniuk, J. R.; Wang, J.; Root, T. W.; Scott, C. T.; Klingenberg, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained using torque rheometry agree with those obtained using other rheometric methods, but torque rheometry can be used at much larger solids concentration (weight fractions of insoluble solids greater than 0.2). Yield stresses decrease with severity of hydrolysis, decrease when water-soluble polymers are added (for nonhydrolyzed biomass), and increase with particle length. Experimental results are qualitatively consistent with those obtained from particle-level simulations.

  18. Remarks on energetic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Paul; Pelletier, Georges

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a study of energy biomass by considering its three main sources (forest, agriculture and wastes) and three energy needs (heat, fuel for transports, electricity) in the French national context. After having recalled the various uses of biomass (animal feeding, energy production, materials, chemical products), the authors discuss the characteristics of biomass with respect to other energy sources. Then, they analyse and discuss the various energy needs which biomass could satisfy: heat production (in industry, in the residential and office building sector), fuel for transports, electricity production. They assess and discuss the possible biomass production of its three main sources: forest, agriculture, and wastes (household, agricultural and industrial wastes). They also discuss the opportunities for biogas production and for second generation bio-fuel production

  19. Jointly Sponsored Research Program on Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2013-12-31

    several criteria. Using the deployment of the federal funding with industrial participation as a performance criterion, over the course of the program, the copsonsors contributed more dollars than the federal funds. As stated earlier, a little more than half of the funding for the Program was derived from industrial partners. The industrial partners also enthusiastically supported the research and development activities with cash contribution of $4,710,372.67, nearly 65% of the required cost share. Work on all of the tasks proposed under the Cooperative Agreement has been completed. This report summarizes and highlights the results from the Program. Under the Cooperative Agreement Program, energy-related tasks emphasized petroleum processing, upgrading and characterization, coal and biomass beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils using microbial fuel cells, development of processes and sorbents for emissions reduction and recovery of water from power plant flue gas, and biological carbon capture and reuse. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental impacts associated with energy production and utilization. Technologies being brought to commercialization as a result of the funds provided by the Cooperative Agreement contribute to the overall goals of the USDOE and the nation. Each has broad applicability both within the United States and abroad, thereby helping to enhance the

  20. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Gasification with gas turbine/engine for power plants; Incl. English lang. appendix of 24 p. titled 'Status of large-scale biomass gasification for power production'; Inventering av framtidens el och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Foergasning med gasturbin/motor foer kraftvaerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldheim, Lars; Larsson, Eva K. (TPS Termiska Processer, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This subproject is limited to applications with gas turbines or engines from approximately 1 MWe and firing of gas in a boiler either as indirect cofiring or as separate firing of gas from waste gasification. Gasification with gas engine, BIG-ICE (Biomass Integrated Gasification Internal-Combustion Engine) is realized in approximately 10 plants in Europe between 1 and 7 MWe. The gas needs to be cleaned from particles and tar before it is fed to the engine. A number of different gasifiers and gas cleaning technologies are applied in these prototypes, and in certain cases a second generation is being built. Gas engines from GE Jenbacher are most common, but there are also other producers with engines for low-calorific-value gas. The exhausts from engines must, unlike gas turbines, be cleaned catalytically, but emissions of hydrocarbons in particular are still higher than from gas turbines. It is possible to increase the electricity generation by applying a 'bottoming cycle' in the form of a steam or an ORC cycle. Such a plant with ORC has been started in Austria this year. During the 1990's expectations were high concerning the development of biomass gasification with gas turbine in a combined cycle BIG-CC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) towards commercialisation. Two demonstration plants were built for the same gas turbine model, Siemens SGT 100 (earlier Typhoon); Vaernamo with pressurised gasification and ARBRE in Eggborough, England, with atmospheric gasification. The atmospheric technology has basically the same demands on gas cleaning as in the engine application, but downstream the gas is compressed to the pressure required by the gas turbine. In pressurised gasification, the gasifier pressure is set by the gas turbine. The gas is not cooled below 350-400 deg C and is cleaned in a high-temperature filter. Despite successful demonstration in Vaernamo, no more plants have been built. The ARBRE plant was never put into regular

  1. Biomass gasification for the production of methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanou, Pavlina

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is very promising as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources because it is a renewable source that contains carbon, an essential building block for gaseous and liquid fuels. Methane is the main component of natural gas, which is a fuel used for heating, power generation and

  2. Effects of sponsorship disclosure timing on the processing of sponsored content: a study on the effectiveness of European disclosure regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Neijens, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure affects viewers’ processing of sponsored content, and whether a disclosure influences the persuasive effect of the sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure enhances the recognition of sponsored

  3. "Food company sponsors are kind, generous and cool": (mis)conceptions of junior sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2011-09-05

    Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103) to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Most children (68%) could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47%) of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P sport performance (86% and 76%, respectively). Around one-third of children reported liking the company more after receiving these rewards. Children's high recall of food and beverage company sport sponsors and their positive attitudes towards these sponsors and their promotions is concerning as this is likely to be linked to children's food preferences and consumption. Limiting children's exposure to this marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition.

  4. "Food company sponsors are kind, generous and cool": (Misconceptions of junior sports players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Lesley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Methods Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103 to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Results Most children (68% could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47% of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P Conclusions Children's high recall of food and beverage company sport sponsors and their positive attitudes towards these sponsors and their promotions is concerning as this is likely to be linked to children's food preferences and consumption. Limiting children's exposure to this marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition.

  5. Biomass energy in the making; La biomasse: une energie en devenir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-07-01

    Wood, straw, agricultural residues, organic wastes, biomass is everywhere you look. But the efficient use of this source of green electricity - the world's second largest renewable energy source - requires optimization of biomass collection and combustion processes. Biomass is back on the political agenda. In mid-June of this year, the French government gave this renewable energy a boost by selecting twenty-two projects to generate power and heat with biomass. The plants, to be commissioned by 2010, will be located in eleven different regions and will consume energy from organic plant matter. The power generated will be bought at a firm price of 128 euros per megawatt-hour. Most of the fuel will come from forest and paper industry waste, but straw and even grape pomace will be used in some cases. The plants will have a combined generating capacity of 300 MWh, raising France's installed biomass capacity to a total of 700 MWe. A drop of water in the ocean in the overall scheme of France's electricity. It is true that France has long neglected biomass. In 2004, electricity generated from biological resources represented a mere 1.74 TWhe in France, just 0.3% of its power consumption. This will rise to 0.6% once the new plants have come on line. The trend is the same in all of the EU's 27 member states, according to Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Communities: the amount of electricity generated from biomass (including biogas, municipal waste and wood) has practically doubled in six years, rising from 40 to 80 TWhe between 2000 and 2005. This is an improvement, but it still only represents 2.5% of the electricity supplied to Europeans. On a global scale, biomass contributes just 1% of total electric power generation. Yet biomass is an energy resource found all over the world, whether as agricultural waste, wood chips, or dried treatment plant sludge, to name but a few. Biomass power plants have managed to gain a foothold mainly in

  6. Perceived credibility of a "neutral" abortion-related message and its sponsor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafora, M; Pasadeos, Y

    1986-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of a high- versus low-credibility sponsor on the perceived credibility of an abortion-related message. Three groups of subjects read a message that had been evaluated as "neutral" by officials of both "pro-life" and "pro-choice" groups. Sponsorship of the message was varied among the three groups (no sponsor; pro-life sponsor; pro-choice sponsor). Subjects rated the credibility of the message and credibility of the sponsor and also indicated their own attitudes toward abortion. Pro-life and pro-choice subjects did not differ in their perception of the nonsponsored message. The signature of a high-credibility sponsor improved the message's perceived credibility; however, the signature of a low-credibility sponsor did not diminish the message's credibility.

  7. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay R. Gunderson; Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2002-05-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low-volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher-volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early with biomass fuels compared to design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the boiler, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value, which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior.

  8. The biomass energy market in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In 2001, it was estimated that the Finnish biomass market was in excess of 235 million dollars. The development of renewable energy, with special emphasis on biomass, was supported by the development of an energy strategy by the government of Finland. The installed capacity of biomass in Finland in 2002 was 1400 megawatt electrical (MWe). Extensive use of combined heat and power (CHP) is made in Finland, and district heating (DH) systems using biomass are gaining in popularity. Wood-based biomass technologies, retrofits to fluidized bed combustion, and wood procurement technologies were identified as the best opportunities for Canadian companies interested in operating in Finland. A country with high standards, Finland seems to look favorably on new innovative solutions. Joint ventures with Finnish companies might be an excellent way for Canadian companies to gain a foothold in Finland and expand into the European Union, the Nordic countries, the Baltic, Russia and the Central and Eastern European markets. It was further noted that Finland is one of the leading exporters of biomass technology in the world. The document provided quick facts, examined opportunities, and looked at key players. 19 refs., 4 tabs

  9. The biomass file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As biomass represents the main source of renewable energy to reach the 23 per cent objective in terms of energy consumption by 2020, a first article gives a synthetic overview of its definition, its origins, its possible uses, its share in the French energy mix, its role by 2020, strengths and weaknesses for its development, the growth potential of its market, and its implications in terms of employment. A second article outlines the assets of biomass, indicates the share of some crops in biomass energy production, and discusses the development of new resources and the possible energy valorisation of various by-products. Interviews about biomass market and development perspectives are proposed with representatives of institutions, energy industries and professional bodies concerned with biomass development and production. Other articles comments the slow development of biomass-based cogeneration, the coming into operation of a demonstration biomass roasting installation in Pau (France), the development potential of biogas in France, the project of bio natural gas vehicles in Lille, and the large development of biogas in Germany

  10. Torrefaction of biomass for power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti

    amounts of energy is needed to pulverize the straw to a size where a good burn out can be obtained. Also the large alkali and chlorine content in straw often induce severe chlorine rich deposit formation on super heaters. The chlorine rich deposits are corrosive and to prevent high superheater corrosion...... and the superheating can be done without an exposure of alkali rich flue gas on superheaters. A potential pretreatment process is to use a ball mill with an integrated torrefaction process. The char produced is very fragile and can be easily pulverized down to a size where a high burn out is obtained. The present Ph...... of feedstock type, temperature and residence time on the product yields and particle size reductions. The laboratory set up was used to investigate the torrefaction properties of Danish wheat straw and spruce chips. A standard experimental procedure was developed based on initial experiments which evaluated...

  11. Employer-sponsored health insurance and the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Benjamin; Schwab, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    During prime working years, women have higher expected healthcare expenses than men. However, employees' insurance rates are not gender-rated in the employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) market. Thus, women may experience lower wages in equilibrium from employers who offer health insurance to their employees. We show that female employees suffer a larger wage gap relative to men when they hold ESI: our results suggest this accounts for roughly 10% of the overall gender wage gap. For a full-time worker, this pay gap due to ESI is on the order of the expected difference in healthcare expenses between women and men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Government-sponsored microfinance program: Joint liability vs. individual liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Kusum Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY is a government-sponsored microfinance program. The scheme is based on four features: group lending with joint liability, progressive lending, back-ended subsidy, and social capital. We propose a new model of SGSY having these features: group lending with individual liability, progressive lending, back-ended subsidy, and social capital. “Joint liability” clause of the existing model is replaced with individual liability in the new model. The paper shows that problem of adverse selection is removed in both models, i.e. in “SGSY with group lending and joint liability” and “SGSY with group lending and individual liability.” The problem of “moral hazard” is more severe in the existing model of SGSY compared with the proposed model of SGSY. Borrowers are also benefitted from participation in the proposed scheme of SGSY than that in the existing model of SGSY.

  13. Assessing the Financial Condition of Provider-Sponsored Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of health plans sponsored by provider organizations, with respect to plans generating strong positive cash flow relative to plans generating weaker cash flow. A secondary aim was to assess their capital adequacy. The study identified 24 provider-sponsored health plans (PSHPs) with an average positive cash flow margin from 2011 through 2013 at or above the top 75th percentile, defined as "strong cash flow PSHPs:" This group was compared with 72 PSHPs below the 75th percentile, defined as "weak cash flow PSHPs:" Atlantic Information Services Directory of Health Plans was used to identify the PSHPs. Financial ratios were computed from 2013 National Association of Insurance Commissioners Financial Filings. The study conducted a t test mean comparison between strong and weak cash flow PSHPs across an array of financial performance and capital adequacy measures. In 2013, the strong cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin ratio of 6.6%. Weak cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin of -0.4%. The net worth capital position of both groups was more than 4.5 times authorized capital. The operational analysis shows that strong cash-flow margin PSHPs are managing their medical costs to achieve this position. Although their medical loss ratio increased by almost 300 basis points from 2011 to 2013, it was still statistically significantly lower than the weaker cash flow PSHP group (P<.001). In terms of capital adequacy, both strong and weak cash-flow margin PSHP groups possessed sufficient capital to ensure the viability of these plans.

  14. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    sustainable carbon sink will be developed. Clean energy production from biomass (such as ethanol, biodiesel, producer gas, bio-methane) could be viable option to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Electricity generation from biomass is increasing throughout the world. Co-firing of biomass with coal and biomass combustion in power plant and CHP would be a viable option for clean energy development. Biomass can produce less emission in the range of 14% to 90% compared to emission from fossil for electricity generation. Therefore, biomass could play a vital role for generation of clean energy by reducing fossil energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The main barriers to expansion of power generation from biomass are cost, low conversion efficiency and availability of feedstock. Internationalization of external cost in power generation and effective policies to improve energy security and carbon dioxide reduction is important to boost up the bio-power. In the long run, bio-power will depend on technological development and on competition for feedstock with food production and arable land use.

  16. Technical challenges and opportunities in cogasification of coal and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagpinder Singh Brar; Kaushlendra Singh; John. Zondlo

    2013-01-01

    Biomass gasification manufacturers are beginning to market 5 to 100 kW capacity gasifiers (e.g., Community Power Corporation (CPC), Littleton, CO and gasifier experimenters kit (GEK), AllPower Labs, Berkeley, CA) for producing electricity and synthetic gas (syngas). These gasifiers operate at 900 to 1000 °C, consuming 1.3 kg of biomass per hour for every kW...

  17. Institutional opportunities and constraints to biomass development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, R.; Finnell, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines a number of institutional opportunities and constraints applicable to biomass as well as other renewable energy technologies. Technological progress that improves performance or increases system efficiencies can open doors to deployment; however, market success depends on overcoming the institutional challenges that these technologies will face. It can be far more difficult to put into place the necessary institutional mechanisms which will drive these commercialization efforts. The keys to the successful implementation of energy technologies and, in particular, biomass power technologies, are issues that can be categorized as: (1) regulatory; (2) financial; (3) infrastructural; and (4) perceptual. (author)

  18. Biomass_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biomass data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  19. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...

  20. Biomass: a growing role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.; Rosillo-Calle, F.; Woods, J.

    2006-01-01

    In 2006, an article in the journal Renewable Energy World discussed the sustainability of biofuels, their potential to contribute to the global energy demand, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and their impact on biodiversity and land use. The essence of the present paper is to contribute to the aforesaid discussion under the sub-headings of (a) biomass production potentials and the importance of technological development and crops to satisfy this potential; (b) critical aspects for the development of biomass on a large scale for energy production; (c) overview of current developments to ensure the environmentally-friendliness of biomass through the development of safeguards and (d) sustainable international bioenergy trade as a driver to develop the potential of biomass. (author)

  1. 2007 Biomass Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Program is actively working with public and private partners to meet production and technology needs. With the corn ethanol market growing steadily, researchers are unlocking the potential of non-food biomass sources, such as switchgrass and forest and agricultural residues. In this way, the Program is helping to ensure that cost-effective technologies will be ready to support production goals for advanced biofuels.

  2. Change of the ash melting behaviour of biomass-mix-pellets by addition of kaolin; Veraenderung des Ascheschmelzverhaltens von Biomasse-Mischpellets durch Zudosierung von Kaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappler, Uta [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung; Wenghoefer, Volker; Pude, Ralf [Bonn Univ., Landwirtschaftliche Fakultaet, Rheinbach (Germany). Forschungsbereich Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years, the design of solid biofuels for small combustion plants < 50 kW has become an important topic of biomass research. The European Union, for example, is sponsoring the European 'MixBioPells' project that is mainly supported by the German Biomass Research Center (DBFZ) in Leipzig. From 2010 until late 2012, the Agency of Renewable Resources (FNR) sponsored the 'C4-Kompakt' project in Germany. The aim of the project, which was executed by the University of Bonn/Center for Renewable Resources, was the development of mixed pellets with a minimum miscanthus content of 50%wt. First combustion tests showed increased fouling and slagging of pellet combustion. This problem, however, can be overcome by deliberate adding of inorganic additives (kaolin). (orig.)

  3. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass energy is emerging as a real option for satisfying power needs in developing countries. Experience has shown improvements in GDP are directly linked to increased consumption of energy. Biomass energy can also be environmentally and developmentally beneficial where it will be both grown and used. Biomass production can offset deforestation, reduce soil erosion, increase rural employment, and stimulate development. Moreover, when biomass is grown renewably there is no net buildup of atmospheric carbon. Issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries are discussed. An integrated biomass energy system is dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, supportive of rural development, and environmentally beneficial, adapted to local conditions; takes advantage of by- and co-products and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in Southwest China indicates that biomass could be grown and converted to electricity at costs lower than alternatives and yield an internal rate of return of about 15%. The IRR based on a social and environmental benefits are substantial and investment in the facility is well-justified. However, assessing biomass energy systems is exceedingly complex. Considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementation requires considerations of energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. The conclusion that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal

  4. Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelton, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  5. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  7. Biomass Burning Emissions from Fire Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.

  8. Biomass gasification in Europe - status and perspectives; Vergasung von Biomasse in Europa - Stand und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkelbach, L.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification of biomass is a promising option, especially in the fields of waste management and power generation, but there are considerable economic and technical problems that must be solved first. A critical analysis of biomass gasification in Europe today shows that this technology is not marketable today and cannot contribute to environmentally acceptable power supply on a short-term basis. (orig) [Deutsch] Von allen Moeglichkeiten einer energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse stellt die Technik der Vergasung insbesondere in den Bereichen Abfallentsorgung und Stromerzeugung eine vielversprechende Option dar. Einer weiteren Verbreitung dieser Technik stehen allerdings erhebliche wirtschaftliche und technische Probleme entgegen. Die kritische Analyse der derzeitigen Gegebenheiten der Biomassevergasung in Europa fuehrt zu dem Schluss, dass diese Technik noch nicht unmittelbar vor der Mrkteinfuehrung steht und somit kurzfristig keinen merklichen Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energieversorgung in Europa leisten kann. (orig)

  9. 75 FR 15401 - Information Collection; Online Registration for FSA-sponsored Events and Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Description of Information Collection Title: Online Registration for FSA-sponsored... respondents and make hotel reservations and other special arrangements as necessary. Estimate of Annual Burden...

  10. Strategic Bidding Behaviors in Nondecreasing Sponsored Search Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kun Tsung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize the specific results in the sponsored search auctions, most advertisers submit particular bid prices. The bidding behaviors with specific purposes are called as the strategic bidding. However, some strategic bidding behaviors will result in negative effects, such as the elimination of the equilibrium and the payment increase for some advertisers. The bidding behaviors with negative results are termed as the vindictive bidding. We survey four strategic bidding behaviors which include a rational bidding and three vindictive bidding strategies. In this paper, we study the relationship between the effects resulted by the vindictive bidding and the valuations of the vindictive advertisers. In our experiments, the search engine provider (SEP is benefited by all vindictive bidding behaviors, and the increment of the SEP's revenue is proportional to the degree of the vindictiveness. Bidding vindictively without sacrificing the own utility improves the advertiser's utility with high probability. Moreover, we observe that the SEP's revenue is improved by the following situations. First, the vindictive advertiser with low valuation in the keywords with high market value results in more SEP's revenue than that in the keywords with low market value. The second case is to raise the bidding competition between advertisers.

  11. Provider-Sponsored Health Plans: Lessons Learned over Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breon, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare's movement to value-based care is causing health systems across the country to consider whether owning or partnering with a health plan could benefit their organizations. Although organizations have different reasons for wanting to enter the insurance business, potential benefits include improving care quality, lowering costs, managing population health, expanding geographic reach, and diversifying the organization's revenue stream. However, the challenges and risks of owning a health plan are formidable: Assuming 100 percent financial risk for a patient population requires considerable financial resources, as well as competencies that are wholly different from those needed to run a hospital or physician group. For Spectrum Health, an integrated, not-for-profit health system based in Grand Rapids, Michigan, owning a health plan has been vital to fulfilling its mission of improving the health of the communities it serves, as well as its value proposition of providing highquality care at lower costs. This article weighs the pros and cons of operating a health plan; explores key business factors and required competencies that organizations need to consider when deciding whether to buy, build, or partner; examines the current environment for provider-sponsored health plans; and shares some of the lessons Spectrum Health has learned over three decades of running its health plan, Priority Health.

  12. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO 2 , to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world's present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case

  13. Solid biomass barometer 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually warm temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. The first 4 countries are Germany (11.690 Mtoe), France (9.223 Mtoe), Sweden (8.165 Mtoe) and Finland (7.476 Mtoe) and when the production is relative to the population the first 4 countries become: Finland (1.391 toe/inhab.), Sweden (0.867 toe/inhab.), Latvia (0.784 toe/inhab.) and Estonia (0.644 toe/inhab.). Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing, to reach 72.800 TWh at the end of 2011, it means +2.6% compared to 2010. The energy policy of various states concerning solid biomass is analyzed

  14. Biomass and waste management. Chances, risks, perspectives; Biomasse und Abfallwirtschaft. Chancen, Risiken, Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, K.; Burth, M.; Wallmann, R. (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    The meeting ''Biomass and waste management'' dealt with the following topics: Biodegradable wastes, their collection and sorting, cooperation with agriculture, waste processing, fermentation, biogas, thermal treatments,power generation, use as fertilizers, economics, ecology, fees, national and international waste market. (uke)

  15. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  16. Biomass Deconstruction and Recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng

    reflections of plant species, tissue or organ types, genetic traits and environment. Effects of cultivar type, anatomical distribution, chemical composition, fertilizer level and growth year have been observed during in vitro and in vivo trials. A similar approach is here taken to further investigate: 1). How...... as an important parameter affecting the bio-degradability during enzymatic saccharification. The leaf fraction (leaf blade and sheath), which contributes up to 50 % of the whole wheat straw on a weight basis, is more degradable than the stem fraction via a biochemical process. Water was used to assess...... level of different biomasses. The knowledge on wheat straw biomass gained from this thesis work may be translated to more focused plant breeding research for 2G ethanol production, and the Copenhagen HTS platform is an ideal tool for screening large biomass sample set. The success of lignocellulosic...

  17. Evaluating a biomass resource: The TVA region-wide biomass resource assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Wood is an alterative fuel for electric power generation at coal-fired plants in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Short rotation wood energy crops (SRWC) could provide a source of this woody biomass. However, the economic and supply structures of SRWC markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of SRWC biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas and coal. In this study we project the cost and supply of short-rotation woody biomass for the TVA region -- a 276 county area that includes all of Tennessee and portions of 10 contiguous states in the southeastern United States. Projected prices and quantities of SRWC are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region. expected SRWC yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curve of SRWC biomass that is projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of SRWC production. Finally, we show the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of SRWC biomass. In particular, we examine the separate impacts of varying SRWC production yields

  18. Biomass living energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Any energy source originating from organic matter is biomass, which even today is the basic source of energy for more than a quarter of humanity. Best known for its combustible properties, biomass is also used to produce biofuels. This information sheet provides also information on the electricity storage from micro-condensers to hydroelectric dams, how to save energy facing the increasing of oil prices and supply uncertainties, the renewable energies initiatives of Cork (Ireland) and the Switzerland european energy hub. (A.L.B.)

  19. Biomass stoves in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    and analyzed in this session. Experimental results regarding the performance of biomass combustion stoves and the effects of real-life practices in terms of thermal efficiency, particulate and gaseous emissions will be addressed. This research is based on the development of a new testing approach that combines...... laboratory and field measurements established in the context of the implications of the upcoming eco-design directive. The communication will cover technical aspects concerning the operating performance of different types of biomass stoves and building envelopes, in order to map the ongoing opportunities...

  20. Corporate sponsored education initiatives on board the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Ian T.; Durham, Alyson S.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Brod, Lawrence B.; Durham, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes the creation of a corporate sponsored ``Lecture from Space'' program on board the International Space Station (ISS) with funding coming from a host of new technology and marketing spin-offs. This program would meld existing education initiatives in NASA with new corporate marketing techniques. Astronauts in residence on board the ISS would conduct short ten to fifteen minute live presentations and/or conduct interactive discussions carried out by a teacher in the classroom. This concept is similar to a program already carried out during the Neurolab mission on Shuttle flight STS-90. Building on that concept, the interactive simulcasts would be broadcast over the Internet and linked directly to computers and televisions in classrooms worldwide. In addition to the live broadcasts, educational programs and demonstrations can be recorded in space, and marketed and sold for inclusion in television programs, computer software, and other forms of media. Programs can be distributed directly into classrooms as an additional presentation supplement, as well as over the Internet or through cable and broadcast television, similar to the Canadian Discovery Channel's broadcasts of the Neurolab mission. Successful marketing and advertisement can eventually lead to the creation of an entirely new, privately run cottage industry involving the distribution and sale of educationally related material associated with the ISS that would have the potential to become truly global in scope. By targeting areas of expertise and research interest in microgravity, a large curriculum could be developed using space exploration as a unifying theme. Expansion of this concept could enhance objectives already initiated through the International Space University to include elementary and secondary school students. The ultimate goal would be to stimulate interest in space and space related sciences in today's youth through creative educational marketing initiatives while at the