WorldWideScience

Sample records for sponsor olympic competition

  1. What can Bilfinger teach Olympic sponsors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Dodds

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilfinger SE (Bilfinger is a leading international engineering and services group (Bilfinger.com, 2015, and was a local sponsor of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The company is accused of paying bribes through its subsidiary company, Mauell, (dw. com, 2015 to public officials in Brazil for contracts related to the 2014 World Cup (Cassin, 2015. The corruption allegations relate to orders to equip security command centers at twelve host cities during the 2014 World Cup in Brazil (dw.com, 2015. Because Brazil hosted the 2014 FIFA World Cup and will host the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, companies need to consider the risks of many international anti-corruption laws, such as Brazil’s anti-corruption law commonly referred as The Clean Companies Act and other applicable anticorruption law like the United States’ Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (Rogers, et. al, 2014. This paper will analyze the Bilfinger case involving corruption activity at the 2014 FIFA World Cup and offer insights for sponsors of the 2016 Summer Olympic Games.

  2. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games Olympic—Intelligence Centre: Lessons Learned from Working with the Olympic Sponsors and the Private Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Wilkinson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reflective discussion that critically describes the role of the Olympic Intelligence Centre (OIC played in the delivery of a safe and secure London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. In particular, it examines how the OIC worked with the Olympic Sponsors and the wider private sector to provide them with the classified intelligence and information they needed to play their role in the safety and security operation effectively. Issues discussed include the cultural, statutory and systemic challenges that had to be overcome; how relationships were built to allay concerns and build trust and confidence; and the process that was put into place to allow the exchange of classified intelligence that supported the Sponsors and private sector in their operation. It details how the OIC worked with Sponsors to allow them in turn to exchange intelligence they held in their systems with the OIC, thus completing the intelligence cycle, enhancing the security operation. The article concludes with an outline of the lessons learned that were deduced through a reflective process and are offered to practitioners for consideration in future intelligence work involving the private sector.

  3. Young elite athletes and social support: coping with competitive and organizational stress in "Olympic" competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, E; Roberts, G C

    2010-08-01

    Elite adolescent sport is a relatively unexplored research field. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how the Norwegian Olympic Youth Team (N=29) experienced competitive and organizational stress during the European Youth Olympic Festival in July 2007 and how they coped with the stressors. Participants were aged 14-17 and competed in handball, track and field, swimming, and judo. We used a qualitative methodology with interviews and open-ended questionnaires. Qualitative content analyses revealed that the athletes experienced competitive stressors because of the size and importance of the competition, and organizational stressors (e.g., housing, lining up for food, and transportation) exacerbated by the extreme heat during the Festival. The elite competitive experience was novel to all and overwhelming for some of the more "inexperienced" athletes. The athletes used cognitive coping strategies to some extent in addition to relying on different types of social support. The findings revealed the need for social support for adolescent athletes, and underlined the importance of a good coach-athlete relationship in order to perform well and enjoy the competitive experience.

  4. The Olympic Games: The Experience of a Lifetime or Simply the Most Important Competition of an Athletic Career?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Dall; Christiansen, Ask Vest; Henriksen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    As a multi-sport event that only takes place every four years and is accompanied by intense media coverage, the Olympic Games are often described by athletes as a defining moment in their careers. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to describe differences in expectations of Olympic...... the goals and expectations of the elite sport system and those of the individual athletes. Data was collected through a qualitative interview study with a pre- and post-Olympic competition design. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we interviewed 14 Danish Olympic debutants about their Olympic goals...... are caught in a very real dilemma between the Olympics as the ―most important competition of their athletic careers‖ and ―the Olympics as the experience of a lifetime.‖ This dilemma is linked to a wide rift between the perspectives and goals of the sport organization and those of the athletes....

  5. Quality of life, coach behaviour and competitive anxiety in Winter Youth Olympic Games participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledochowski, Larissa; Unterrainer, Christine; Ruedl, Gerhard; Schnitzer, Martin; Kopp, Martin

    2012-12-01

    To ensure the highest technical performance, speed, safety, excellent control and to improve competitive performance, a successful regulation of competitive anxiety is necessary. Therefore, it seems crucial to identify factors influencing competitive anxiety of adolescent athletes. Research suggests that people reporting high quality of life are more capable to cope with stressful and challenging situations than others. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of quality of life, the involvement of parents in sports career and coach's leadership behaviour on competitive anxiety in Winter Youth Olympic Games participants. During the first Winter Youth Olympic Games 2012 in Innsbruck/Austria, 662 (316 women) participants completed questionnaires and single items to assess quality of life, coach's leadership behaviour, parental involvement in sports career and competitive anxiety. Multiple regression analysis revealed positive influences of high quality of life and useful coach instruction on competitive anxiety. The relationship between quality of life, coach behaviour and competitive anxiety in young elite athletes competing at the first Winter Youth Olympic Games should be considered in long-term programmes for reducing competitive stress.

  6. Dietary intake at competition in elite Olympic combat sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Berg, Christina M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate elite female (n = 21) and male (n = 47) combat sports athletes' (n = 68; mean age (± SD) 21.3 ± 3.8 years; mean height 177 ± 10.2 cm) dietary intake between weigh-in and the first bout in Olympic combat sports. The data were collected at 6 separate tournaments and measurements included estimated food records, time for recovery, and body weight (BW) at weigh-in and first match. In total, 33 athletes participated in wrestling and taekwondo, sports with extended recovery times, and 35 athletes in judo and boxing, sports with limited recovery time. The results displayed that despite a mean consumption of food and drinks corresponding to 4.2 kg, the athletes only regained an average of 1.9 kg BW during recovery. Water accounted for 86% of the total intake. For each liter of water consumed, athletes gained 0.57 kg BW, when excluding heavy weight athletes (n = 5). Carbohydrate consumption was 5.5 g/kg BW, compared with the recommended 8-10 g/kg BW. In total, one-quarter of the consumed water originated from carbohydrate-rich drinks. Given the average recovery time of 18 (wrestling, taekwondo) versus 8 hr (judo, boxing), the former group consumed twice the amount of water, carbohydrates, protein, and fat as the latter group. In conclusion, a large proportion of the participants did not meet the recovery nutrition guidelines for carbohydrates. In addition, the discrepancy between nutrient intake and weight gain points to the physiological barriers to retaining fluids during a limited recovery time after engaging in weight making practices.

  7. Competitive balance trends in elite table tennis: the Olympic Games and World Championships 1988-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinming; Oh, Taeyeon; Kim, Seungmo; Dickson, Geoff; De Bosscher, Veerle

    2017-09-07

    Competitive balance is important because it enhances outcome uncertainty and therefore it promotes spectator interest, and encourages government investment in a sport. This article analyses the distribution of gold medals, medals, medal points and top eight points amongst nations in table tennis from 1988 to 2016 at the Olympic Games and the World Championships respectively. A normalised version of the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and a coefficient of variation are calculated for each nation's share of these performance indicators. The key findings are that China dominates both events, with successful female players being more dominant than their male counterparts. The competitive balance for gold medals has declined, whilst there is a trend towards improved competitive balance for top eight points for women, suggesting that more teams are featuring in the top eight (but not necessarily the top three) placings. This research has implications for the development of table tennis competitions. Compared to other racket sports, the issue of competitive imbalance in table tennis is particularly thorny, which threatens the long-term development of this sport. Accordingly, some measures are recommended for the International Olympic Committee and the International Table Tennis Federation to propel a more balanced development of international table tennis.

  8. Different competition approaches in a world-class 50-km racewalker during an Olympic year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ezeiza, Josu; Granados, Cristina; Santos-Concejero, Jordan

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this case study was to compare the competition approaches for the Race Walking World Cup and the Olympic Games of a world-class 50-km racewalker. Total training volumes, intensity distribution, performance tests, high altitude stages and the evolution of his haematological values during the season were analysed. The last 12 weeks before the Race Walking World Cup (Approach 1) and the Olympic Games (Approach 2) were used for data analysis. Approach 1 was characterized by lower training volumes (791.7±192.8 min vs. 959.0±120.0 min ES=1.0, large effect) and a higher incidence of high intensity training (ES<0.8, large effect), than Approach 2. Approach 1 resulted in lower blood lactate values at set speeds, better haematological values and a better performance in the Race Walking World Cup than in the Olympic Games (3h47'30'' vs. 3h51'30"). According to the results of this analysis, it seems that a training strategy characterised by a higher incidence of high intensity training and lower volume of work may lead to superior training adaptations and performance in 50-km racewalking. This may help elite racewalkers and their coaches to achieve an optimum performance in their major goal competitions.

  9. Individualised dietary strategies for Olympic combat sports: Acute weight loss, recovery and competition nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Reid; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2017-07-01

    Olympic combat sports separate athletes into weight divisions, in an attempt to reduce size, strength, range and/or leverage disparities between competitors. Official weigh-ins are conducted anywhere from 3 and up to 24 h prior to competition ensuring athletes meet weight requirements (i.e. have 'made weight'). Fighters commonly aim to compete in weight divisions lower than their day-to-day weight, achieved via chronic and acute manipulations of body mass (BM). Although these manipulations may impair health and absolute performance, their strategic use can improve competitive success. Key considerations are the acute manipulations around weigh-in, which differ in importance, magnitude and methods depending on the requirements of the individual combat sport and the weigh-in regulations. In particular, the time available for recovery following weigh-in/before competition will determine what degree of acute BM loss can be implemented and reversed. Increased exercise and restricted food and fluid intake are undertaken to decrease body water and gut contents reducing BM. When taken to the extreme, severe weight-making practices can be hazardous, and efforts have been made to reduce their prevalence. Indeed some have called for the abolition of these practices altogether. In lieu of adequate strategies to achieve this, and the pragmatic recognition of the likely continuation of these practices as long as regulations allow, this review summarises guidelines for athletes and coaches for manipulating BM and optimising post weigh-in recovery, to achieve better health and performance outcomes across the different Olympic combat sports.

  10. Individual flight styles in ski jumping: results obtained during Olympic Games competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmölzer, B; Müller, W

    2005-05-01

    From the physics point of view, the jump length in ski jumping depends on: the in-run velocity v(0), the velocity perpendicular to the ramp v(p0) due to the athlete's jumping force, the lift and drag forces acting during take-off and during the flight, and the weight of the athlete and his equipment. The aerodynamic forces are a function of the flight position and of the equipment features. They are a predominant performance factor and can largely be influenced by the athlete. The field study conducted during the Olympic Games competitions 2002 at Park City (elevation: 2000 m) showed an impressive ability of the Olympic medallists to reproduce their flight style and remarkable differences between different athletes have been found. The aerodynamic forces are proportional to the air density. Elite athletes are able to adapt their flight style to thin air conditions in order to maximise jump length and to keep the flight stable. The effects of flight position variations on the performance have been analysed by means of a computer model which is based on the equations of motion and on wind tunnel data corresponding to the flight positions found in the field. Athletes have to solve extremely difficult optimisation problems within fractions of a second. The computer simulation can be used as a reliable starting point for the improvement of training methods and gives an insight into the "implicit" knowledge of physics that the ski jumping athlete must have available for a good performance.

  11. Characteristics of the early flight phase in the Olympic ski jumping competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, Mikko; Isolehto, Juha; Komi, Paavo; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Müller, Erich; Schwameder, Hermann

    2005-11-01

    Early flight phase (approximately 40 m) of the athletes participating in the final round of the individual large hill ski jumping competition in Salt Lake City Olympics was filmed with two high-speed pan & tilt video cameras. The results showed that jumpers' steady flight position was almost completed within 0.5s. The most significant correlation with the length of the jump was found in the angle between the skis and body (r=.714, p.001 at 1.1s after the take-off). This particular phase seemed to be important because the ski angle of attack was also related to the jumping distance at the same phase. Although the more upright ski position relative to flight path resulted in longer jumping distance, the winner of the competition had significantly lower ski position as compared to the other good jumpers. This may be due to the high altitude (>2000 m) of the ski jumping stadium in this competition. Because of the low air density, the aerodynamic forces were also low and this probably caused less skillful jumpers to lean too much forward at this phase. Maintenance of speed seemed to be emphasized in this particular competition.

  12. Take-off analysis of the Olympic ski jumping competition (HS-106m).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, Mikko; Isolehto, Juha; Komi, Paavo; Schwameder, Hermann; Pigozzi, Fabio; Massazza, Giuseppe

    2009-05-29

    The take-off phase (approximately 6m) of the jumps of all athletes participating in the individual HS-106m hill ski jumping competition at the Torino Olympics was filmed with two high-speed cameras. The high altitude of the Pragelato ski jumping venue (1600m) and slight tail wind in the final jumping round were expected to affect the results of this competition. The most significant correlation with the length of the jump was found in the in-run velocity (r=0.628, pski jumping, and suggests that good jumpers simply had smaller friction between their skis and the in-run tracks and/or the aerodynamic quality of their in-run position was better. Angular velocity of the hip joint of the best jumpers was also correlated with jumping distance (r=0.651, pjumped approximately the same distance. This certainly improves the interests in ski jumping among athletes and spectators. The comparison between the take-off techniques of the best jumpers showed that even though the more marked upper body movement creates higher air resistance, it does not necessarily result in shorter jumping distance if the exposure time to high air resistance is not too long. A comparison between the first and second round jumps of the same jumpers showed that the final results in this competition were at least partly affected by the wind conditions.

  13. The greenhouse of the future: Using a sponsored competition in a capstone course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, R.M.; Baumbauer, D.

    1998-02-18

    Educational objectives of capstone courses such as critical-thinking and problem-solving skills are among the most cited needs in curriculum revitalization efforts. Sponsored competitions present an important vehicle for achieving these educational objectives. Opportunities such as the Greenhouse of the Future Competition provide students a diverse range of critical experiences not easily simulated in traditional classroom settings. The objective of the competition was to provide an opportunity for US university students to conceptualize, design, integrate, fabricate, and demonstrate innovative greenhouse or controlled environment ideas. The students achieved a great sense of accomplishment and satisfaction by converting their ideas into proposals, developing proposals into experiments, tracking the data generated by the experiments and translating that data into a meaningful communication locally and to the scientific community at large. Most of these important learning experiences would have remained as components of the project even if the team had not advanced as the winning entry.

  14. The dynamics of competitive activity performance of the strongest athletes in the world during the Olympic year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabin Muhammad Fahmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper scrutinizes the annual dynamics of competitive activity performance of prize winners in track and field of the Games of the XXXI Olympiad in Rio de Janeiro. The studies performed allow to identify two basic strategies of participation of elite athletes in the competitions. The first implies a strong focus on achieving the best results in major competitions of the year. It is used by most of the strongest athletes in the world. The second focuses the athlete on the effective combination of competitive activity in major competitions of the year (the Olympics and World Championships and in the Diamond League. As shown by the experience of the best sports practice, only a limited number of athletes manage to implement the latter strategy. The methodological approaches to planning competitive activity during the year are identified. The first involves the rational allocation of the optimal number of competitions throughout the year, the second focuses on preparatory competitive activities of a fairly high intensity, and the third involves the use of a small number of competitions in the system of annual training.

  15. Making renewable energy competitive in India: Reducing financing costs via a government-sponsored hedging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooquee, Arsalan Ali; Shrimali, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    In India, a significant barrier to market-competitiveness of renewable energy is a shortage of attractive debt. Domestic debt has high cost, short tenors, and variable interest rates, adding 30% to the cost of renewable energy compared to renewable energy projects elsewhere. Foreign debt is as expensive as domestic debt because it requires costly market-based currency hedging solutions. We investigate a government-sponsored foreign exchange facility as an alternative to reducing hedging costs. Using the geometric Brownian motion (GBM) as a representative stochastic model of the INR–USD foreign exchange rate, we find that the expected cost of providing a currency hedge via this facility is 3.5 percentage points, 50% lower than market. This leads to an up to 9% reduction in the per unit cost of renewable energy. However, this requires the government to manage the risks related to unexpected currency movements appropriately. One option to manage these risks is via a capital buffer; for the facility to obtain India's sovereign rating, the capital buffer would need to be almost 30% of the underlying loan. Our findings have significant policy implications given that the Indian government can use this facility to make renewable energy more competitive and, therefore, hasten its deployment. - Highlights: • We analyze a government-sponsored foreign exchange facility in India. •We use geometric Brownian motion to represent the INR–USD exchange rate. •This facility can reduce the currency hedging costs by 50%. •This facility can reduce the levelized cost of renewable energy by 9%. •The capital buffer to reach India's sovereign rating is 30% of the original loan.

  16. The Effect of Steroid Hormones on the Physical Performance of Boys and Girls During an Olympic Weightlifting Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair; Obminski, Zbigniew; Cook, Christian

    2016-11-01

    To examine the steroid hormone effect on the physical performance of young athletes during an Olympic weightlifting competition. 26 boys and 26 girls were monitored across 2 weightlifting competitions. Pre- and post-competition testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-s) were measured in blood, with pre-event free T (FT) and the free androgen index (FAI) calculated. Body mass (BM) and weightlifting performance were recorded. The boys had a larger BM, superior performance with more T, FT and a higher FAI than girls (p < .01). Although C (32%) and DHEA-s (8%) levels were elevated across competition, no sex differences in hormone reactivity were seen. In boys, DHEA-s correlated with performance (r = .46), but not after controlling for BM (r = .14). For girls, T correlated with performance (r = -0.51) after BM was controlled. The sex differences that emerge during puberty were observable, whereby the boys were larger and stronger with a more anabolic profile than girls. Individual DHEA-s (boys) and T (girls) levels were related to performance, but BM appeared to be acting as a mediating (boys) or suppressing (girls) variable. This adds new insight regarding the hormonal contribution to competitive performance in young athletes.

  17. Anaerobic Capacity Changes of the National Freestyle Wrestlers during the Olympic Qualification Competition Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Ozan; Gönülates, Süleyman; Bayrakdar, Akan; Demirhan, Bilal; Geri, Serdar; Zorba, Erdal

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the national level wrestlers' anaerobic capacity through the preparation and qualification periods for Rio 2016 summer Olympic Games. For this manner, 10 national level freestyle wrestlers' (age 22,10 ± 3,21; weight 64,75 ± 6,34; height 164,31 ± 4,75) anaerobic outputs measured 3 times in three month intervals with…

  18. Indicators of competitive activity of the oarswomen on kayaks at the Olympic distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chychkan O.A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The frame of competitive activity of sportsmen on kayaks different sports qualification on a distance of 500 meters is construed. 20 sportsmen of different sports qualification have been inspected. During competitions were fixed: number paddle boat and a road clearance time of a distance. It is exhibited variances in a level of competitive activity. Competitive activity expediently to value on parameters of a road clearance time of a distance, an amount paddle boat on a distance, roads of a boat for 1 paddle boat, an average velocity of a boat, average rate, average duration paddle boat, an average velocity of a boat in a cycle paddle boat, to factor mechanics.

  19. Changes in Salivary Hormones Concentration during the Preparation and Competition Period in Olympic Weightlifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováč Milan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous hormones are essential for physiological reactions and influence the adaptation to weightlifting training by modulating anabolic and catabolic processes. It seems that testosterone and cortisol are playing a key role in anabolic and catabolic processes in resistance training. Eight elite Czech and Slovak weightlifters volunteered in present study. The testosterone and cortisol were measured in 4 testing sessions over 18 weeks during preparation and competition period. The training protocol consisted of three specific weightlifting exercises. The saliva samples were collected in 4 testing sessions, pre and 5 min, 15 min and 30 min after protocol, respectively. The basal level of salivary testosterone and cortisol remains unchanged during preparation and competition period. Also, acute testosterone response was not observed over the monitored period. However, acute decrease of cortisol were found between pre intervention and post 5 (p ≤ 0.01, 15 (p ≤ 0.01, and 30 min (p ≤ 0.05 during preparation periods. While in competition period was found significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05 only 5 min after testing protocol. The testosterone/cortisol ratio significantly increased during preparation periods (p ≤ 0.01, but not in competition period. Results indicated that the routine assessment of testosterone and cortisol may provide an effective way to monitor acute and chronic adaptive response to weightlifting training. Our results suggest that cortisol, not the testosterone is an important component of adaptation during elite weightlifting training.

  20. Sponsored search engines in competition: advertisers behavior and engines optimal ranking strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Maillé , Patrick; Tuffin , Bruno

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Search engines are essential actors for web browsing. We analyze here the economic competition between search engines earning money from adword auctions. We develop a twolevel game where at the largest time scale search engines decide which allocation rule to implement, between revenue-based and bid-based; and at the lowest time-scale advertisers decide how to split their advertising budget between the two search engines, depending on the benefits this will bring to the...

  1. American Women: Early Pursuit for Olympic Laurels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Paula

    Women were not considered in preliminary discussions concerning the events, designation of participants, competitive attire, and problems relating to amateurism in the first Olympic games. Golf was the first sport in which women participated in the Olympics, and the first woman to achieve Olympic recognition for the United States did so by winning…

  2. MOOD PROFILING DURING OLYMPIC QUALIFYING JUDO COMPETITION: A CASE STUDY TESTING TRANSACTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Stevens

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study investigated relationships between personality, mood states changes, coping strategies, self-set goals, and self-efficacy in an elite judo player. A transactional perspective of psychological responses over time was used to guide data analysis. The ambient mood is proposed to contribute to the interpretation of, and reaction to, events during competition, which lead to subsequent emotional responses. A male international Judo player completed a number of self-report measures before and during a 4-contest tournament. Measures included the EPQ, MCOPE, Brunel Mood Scale, self-set goals, and self-efficacy for goal attainment. State measures were completed after every contest. Results indicated high scores of self-efficacy to achieve performance goals and outcome goals. Pre-competition mood results indicated high scores on the Vigor and Anger subscales with moderate scores for Tension, and zero scores for Depressed mood, a mood profile that remained relatively stable after winning his first two contests. After losing his third contest, he reported symptoms of Depressed mood and indicated using self-blame as coping strategy during the contest. Before the fourth contest, he coped by using planning and increasing effort. These coping strategies were associated with reductions in Depressed mood and increases in Vigor. After finding out his next contest was against a former World Championship bronze medalist, self-set goals became performance and process with no outcome goal. On losing this contest, scores on the Anger and Depression subscales increased sharply, Fatigue scores increased slightly and Tension and Vigor reduced. Self-blame was used as a coping strategy when experiencing unpleasant emotions. Findings suggest that self-blame was associated with negative psychological states comprising depressed mood. Increasing effort and planning were associated with positive psychological states. Collectively, findings emphasize the value of

  3. Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Norman, Jr.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This issue focuses on an economic understanding of the 1984 Olympiad, held in Los Angeles, California. The theme article provides a conceptual introduction focused on the role of scarcity in the giving of awards, allocation mechanisms, competition, consumption versus investment, and private and external benefits of the Olympics. Four instructional…

  4. On a State-Sponsored Sport System in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Zhiwei, Pan

    The gold medal success of China in recent Olympic Games can be traced to the advancement of the state-sponsored sport system (SSSS). While the program was developed initially through socialist ideals, it is more than a centralized government system to monopolize resources for glorified sport performance. Participation in competition is an inherent part of the human condition. Success in athletics is associated with national identity and has economic, social, and cultural implications. Because of this, it is essential that the SSSS adjust and improve to keep pace with other facets of China's quickly changing national reform. In association with emerging economic reform, some sports now receive equal or more funds from private investments compared to government allocation. The state-sponsored sport system must continue to adapt to maintain the Chinese tradition of excellence in competition.

  5. Sport for development and the Olympic Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Academic literature on Olympic education is available in many countries, highlighting the history, concepts, teaching approaches, and many other aspects of this issue. Some authors have identified close links to physical education, whereas other authors of publications about physical education have not mentioned Olympic education at all. This paper begins by outlining key terms in the discussion, and also suggests that the competitive elements usually associated with Olympism might discourage...

  6. The legacy of the Olympics: economic burden or boon?

    OpenAIRE

    Ricketts, Lowell R.; Wolla, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Competition, sportsmanship, and national pride are the foundations of the Olympics, but how much do the Olympics cost the host city and country? What are some of the economic benefits and costs? Is the investment in the Olympics worth it in the end? Read about previous host experiences with the economic side of the Olympics in this month's Page One Economics Newsletter “The Legacy of the Olympics: Economic Burden or Boon?” (see related graph: "Olympics-Related Temporary Increase in Employment...

  7. The Official Report of the Centennial Olympic Games: Atlanta 1996

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    “The Official Report of the Centennial Olympic Games: Atlanta 1996” marked a return to a more sober and traditional form. There were French and English box sets, published in 1997. The work consisted of three volumes (Planning and organizing; The centennial Olympic Games; The competition results). Volume 3 was bilingual. Vol.1 Part I: Prologue the Bid ; Management and organization ; Accomodations ; Accreditation ; Atlanta Olympic broadcasting ; Centennial Olympic park ; Communications.- Vol.1...

  8. System planning of Nagano Olympic Memorial Arena; Naganoshi Olympic kinen arena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omae, Y.; Nakamura, M. [Kume Sekkei Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hayakawa, M.; Kondo, J. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T. [Daidan Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Yosoyama, Y. [Suga Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-05

    Nagano Olympic Memorial Arena, well known as hosting the Speed Skate Competition in 1998 Winter Olympic Game, is the first multi-purpose facility with 400 m long ice-skate rink in Japan. The superior system for saving energy and resources is the main concept of the arena. This system covers not only the Olympic Game but also multi-functional general usage. The world records and the variety of use are the proof of the accomplishment. (author)

  9. China's Economy and the Beijing Olympics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    China will host the 2008 Olympic Summer Games from August 8 to 24, 2008. Most of the events will be held in the vicinity of Beijing, with selected competitions held in Hong Kong, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Tianjin...

  10. Muscle contraction velocity, strength and power output changes following different degrees of hypohydration in competitive olympic combat sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarés, J G; Martínez-Abellán, A; López-Gullón, J M; Morán-Navarro, R; De la Cruz-Sánchez, E; Mora-Rodríguez, R

    2016-01-01

    It is habitual for combat sports athletes to lose weight rapidly to get into a lower weight class. Fluid restriction, dehydration by sweating (sauna or exercise) and the use of diuretics are among the most recurrent means of weight cutting. Although it is difficult to dissuade athletes from this practice due to the possible negative effect of severe dehydration on their health, athletes may be receptive to avoid weight cutting if there is evidence that it could affect their muscle performance. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if hypohydration, to reach a weight category, affects neuromuscular performance and combat sports competition results. We tested 163 (124 men and 39 woman) combat sports athletes during the 2013 senior Spanish National Championships. Body mass and urine osmolality (UOSM) were measured at the official weigh-in (PRE) and 13-18 h later, right before competing (POST). Athletes were divided according to their USOM at PRE in euhydrated (EUH; UOSM 250-700 mOsm · kgH2O(-1)), hypohydrated (HYP; UOSM 701-1080 mOsm · kgH2O(-1)) and severely hypohydrated (S-HYP; UOSM 1081-1500 mOsm · kgH2O(-1)). Athletes' muscle strength, power output and contraction velocity were measured in upper (bench press and grip) and lower body (countermovement jump - CMJ) muscle actions at PRE and POST time-points. At weigh-in 84 % of the participants were hypohydrated. Before competition (POST) UOSM in S-HYP and HYP decreased but did not reach euhydration levels. However, this partial rehydration increased bench press contraction velocity (2.8-7.3 %; p combat sports athletes at weigh-in and not fully reversed in the 13-18 h from weigh-in to competition. Nonetheless, partial rehydration recovers upper and lower body neuromuscular performance in the severely hypohydrated participants. Our data suggest that the advantage of competing in a lower weight category could compensate the declines in neuromuscular performance at the onset of competition

  11. LHC Olympics flex physicists' brains

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Physicists from around the world met at CERN to strengthen their data-deciphering skills at the second LHC Olympics workshop. Physicists gather for the second LHC Olympics workshop. Coinciding with the kick-off of the winter Olympics in Turin, more than 70 physicists gathered at CERN from across the globe for the second LHC Olympics workshop on 9-10 February. Their challenge, however, involved brains rather than brawn. As the switch-on date for the LHC draws near, scientists excited by the project want to test and improve their ability to decipher the unprecedented amount of data that the world's biggest and most powerful particle accelerator is expected to generate. The LHC Olympics is a coordinated effort to do just that, minus the gold, silver and bronze of the athletics competition. 'In some ways, the LHC is not a precision instrument. It gives you the information that something is there but it's hard to untangle and interpret what it is,' said University of Michigan physicist Gordy Kane, who organiz...

  12. Development approaches the formation of management development olympic sports in the region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazonets V.I.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Considered and grounded priority directions of perfection of control the system by modern olympic sport. Expert estimations are resulted on the problems of management the olympic types of sport and his influence on a modern economy. Practice of introduction of foreign experience is investigational in a management olympic sport. Problems, impedimental development of olympic sport in a region, are exposed. It is set that the basic obstacles of eleemosynary activity in Ukraine it is been absence of economic stimuli for encouragement of sponsors and sportsmen. Also absence of standards of eleemosynary and sponsor activity. The necessity of effective support of olympic sport is grounded from the side of local-authority. It is set that the most essential directions of development of olympic motion in a region is development: economic basis, sporting infrastructure, transport infrastructure. Also medical service of sportsmen.

  13. Post-Olympism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    The Olympic ideal and the Olympic Games stand as symbols of global cooperation, international understanding and the bonding fo individuals through the medium of sports. However, throughout the twentieth century, Olympic rhetoric waas often confronted by a different reality. The Games have regularly...... been faced by crises that have threatened the spirit of Olympism and even the Games themselves. Given the many changes that have occurred in the Olympic Games during the past century it seems reasonable to ask if this global event has a future and, if so, what form it might take. Whit this larger issue...

  14. Traveling to Australia for the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M; Leggat, P A

    2000-01-01

    The modern Olympic Games, conducted only once every 4 years since 1900, will be held in Sydney, Australia, from September 15 to October 1, 2000. There will be approximately 35 competition venues, 5 villages, 100 training venues, a media center, and sponsor hospitality areas.1 There will be about 300 events for 28 sports, involving 10,300 athletes from 200 countries, 5,100 team officials, 50,000 volunteers, 15,000 media, a world wide audience of around 3.5 billion viewers and listeners, and up to several hundred-thousand spectators at any one time.1 The Paralympic Games will also be held in Sydney, after the Olympic Games, from October 18 to 29, 2000, with more than 4,000 athletes competing.1 This paper focuses on health and safety issues for travelers to Australia in general, although it makes specific references to advice for visiting Olympic and Paralympic athletes and team staff, who will be traveling to the games. It must be remembered that travel health advice can change, and that travelers should be advised to seek up-to-date travel health advice for Australia closer to their departure.

  15. Olympic Games volunteering genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Tomenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to consider the development of volunteer activity in relation to the Olympic Games. Material & Methods: theoretical scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists on the development of volunteer activities regarding their participation in the Olympic Games are analyzed, considered the main legal documents relating to the Olympic sport. Results: Statistical indicators of participation of volunteers in the Winter and Summer Olympics Games are analyzed and presented. The role and significance of volunteers' activity in the organization and holding of the Olympic Games are revealed. Conclusion: evolution of the volunteer movement, with reference to the Olympic Games, originates from the first games that took place in 1896 in Athens. To date, volunteers are an integral part of the organization and holding of the Olympic Games, their activities help to solve a number of organizational issues, the creation of a corresponding atmosphere and image at a sporting event, largely determine the success of games.

  16. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gulsen, Guler; Holden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental\\ud and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  17. Notational Analysis of European, World, and Olympic BMX Cycling Races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-March, Manuel; Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Doran, Dominic; Romero-Rodríguez, Rubén C; Zabala, Mikel

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe the technical requirements of different tracks where classifying points are disputed for the Olympics as the European continent tracks (E), world championship competitions tracks (W), and Olympic Games track - Beijing, 2008- (O); and 2) to compare and establish differences or similarities between the three previous contexts. The sample used for this study was made of the 8 best qualifying male athletes from each competition (n = 48) during the 2007 and 2008 seasons (pre-Olympic and Olympic years). A descriptive design was used, based on systematic structured observation of the competitions filmed on video, paying attention to the different techniques used (overtaking skills, complete pedalling cycles and registered effort times). The results show that aerial techniques predominate over non aerial techniques on O and W type tracks more than on E tracks by ~20% (p tracks stand out because of the aerial component and greater technical complexity in comparison to E tracks, which has a decisive effect on the way the riders train in relation to the type of championship they aim to compete in. Key pointsEuropean tracks involve more non aerial techniques than world and Olympic tracks, respectively; more non aerial techniques are associated with more pedaling effort time.Bicycle motocross cyclists develop greater values of aerial Techniques in World and Olympic tracks compared with the European tracks and, consequently, reduced non aerial techniques.European tracks involve less technical jumps but more simple jumps. World tracks involve more technical jumps than European and Olympic tracks, but Olympic track jumps, despite being less in number, are more difficult and decisive than the rest.Olympic and World class tracks involve less physical demand than European tracks because of the greater technical requirements and less pedaling cycles.Training should be developed according to the objectives established for each athlete

  18. Planning the International Competition Schedules for the Health of Elite Athletes: A 21-Year Retrospective Study Evaluating the Effectiveness and Economic Impact in an Olympic Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagoni, Anna Maria; Lamberti, Nicola; Carrabre, James E; Litmanen, Hannu; Jeannier, Pierre; Zhukovskaja, Larisa; Dal Follo, Donatella; Zambon, Christel; Resch, Nicole; Manfredini, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The increased number of trips and competitions scheduled in the international agonistic calendars meets commercial demands while acting as a source of stress for the athletes. A model, developed in biathlons to monitor the so-called competition load, revealed an upward trend over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a 21-year period, the effects of the International Biathlon Union's rescheduling of the competitive calendars to control the competition load, as well as its stability over time and the economic impact of this intervention. For each season competition, the load factors from the international agonistic calendar (number of venues/events, competition days/distance) were considered, and the athletes' daily and maximal stress scores were calculated. The calendar rescheduling, which started in 2001, involved the length of competitions, number of resting days and frequency of travels. Data from the period pre (1994-2000) and post (2001-2007) the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015), were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget. The competition load and athletes' daily stress score progressively increased pre, plateaued post and remained stable in follow-up. Their annual variations within the final two periods were significantly lower than in the pre period, in spite of the higher average values. The maximal stress score decreased over time. The direct correlation between most of the competition load factors with the economic budget present in pre was lost in post and follow-up. Similarly, the athletes' daily stress score had a stable trend in post and follow-up, while budget continued to increase. The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget. Furthermore, it uncoupled the relationship between the athlete's effort and federation income.

  19. Planning the International Competition Schedules for the Health of Elite Athletes: A 21-Year Retrospective Study Evaluating the Effectiveness and Economic Impact in an Olympic Sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Malagoni

    Full Text Available The increased number of trips and competitions scheduled in the international agonistic calendars meets commercial demands while acting as a source of stress for the athletes. A model, developed in biathlons to monitor the so-called competition load, revealed an upward trend over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a 21-year period, the effects of the International Biathlon Union's rescheduling of the competitive calendars to control the competition load, as well as its stability over time and the economic impact of this intervention.For each season competition, the load factors from the international agonistic calendar (number of venues/events, competition days/distance were considered, and the athletes' daily and maximal stress scores were calculated. The calendar rescheduling, which started in 2001, involved the length of competitions, number of resting days and frequency of travels. Data from the period pre (1994-2000 and post (2001-2007 the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015, were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget.The competition load and athletes' daily stress score progressively increased pre, plateaued post and remained stable in follow-up. Their annual variations within the final two periods were significantly lower than in the pre period, in spite of the higher average values. The maximal stress score decreased over time. The direct correlation between most of the competition load factors with the economic budget present in pre was lost in post and follow-up. Similarly, the athletes' daily stress score had a stable trend in post and follow-up, while budget continued to increase.The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget. Furthermore, it uncoupled the relationship between the athlete's effort and federation income.

  20. Olympic torch transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    KSC Shuttle Operations Manager Loren J. Shriver (right) transfers the Olympic flame to KSC runner Joanne Maceo's torch at the top of Launch Pad 39A after he carried the Olympic torch to the top of the pad as his contribution to the July 7, 1996 KSC Olympic torch relay effort. Jon Granston of the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games (center) witnesses the exchange. Maceo then carried her lit torch down the concrete hard stand of the pad to pass the flame to another of the 20-member KSC runner team that participated in the KSC relay effort. The Olympic torch arrived at KSC at 1:40 p.m. and traveled a 20-mile course to the pad and then out to the KSC visitor Center. The Space Shuttle Atlantis is behind the trio, poised for the STS-79 mission, with will feature the fourth docking of the shuttle with the Russian Mir space station.

  1. The relevance of Olympic education in today’s societies, countries and school programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Doll-Tepper, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Academic literature on Olympic education is available in many countries, highlighting the history, concepts, teaching approaches, and many other aspects of this issue. Some authors have identified close links to physical education, whereas other authors of publications about physical education have not mentioned Olympic education at all. This paper begins by outlining key terms in the discussion, and also suggests that the competitive elements usually associated with Olympism might discourage...

  2. The Olympic effect

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew K. Rose; Mark M. Spiegel

    2009-01-01

    Economists are skeptical about the economic benefits of hosting "mega-events" such as the Olympic Games or the World Cup, since such activities have considerable cost and seem to yield few tangible benefits. These doubts are rarely shared by policy-makers and the population, who are typically quite enthusiastic about such spectacles. In this paper, we reconcile these positions by examining the economic impact of hosting mega-events like the Olympics; we focus on trade. Using a variety of trad...

  3. Preparedness of general practitioners in Australia for the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Seelan, S Thava

    2002-01-01

    The modern Olympic Games have been conducted only once every 4 years since 1900. They were held in Sydney, Australia, from September 15 to October 1, 2000, with approximately 35 competition venues, 5 villages, 100 training venues, a media center, and sponsor hospitality areas. Roughly 300 events for 28 sports involved 10,300 athletes from 200 countries, 5,100 team officials, 50,000 volunteers, 15,000 media, a worldwide audience of around 3.5 billion viewers and listeners, and up to several hundred thousand spectators at any one time. The Paralympic Games were also held in Sydney after the Olympic Games, from October 18 to October 29, 2000, with more than 4,000 athletes competing. A report detailing possible health advice and requirements for travelers attending the games has been published previously. Good systems of public and private health care operate in Australia, but health care is not free. Australian taxpayers contribute to a national public health system, Medicare, and even this does not necessarily cover all the costs of treatment. Section 3.5 of the Medicare Benefit Scheme refers to "Reciprocal Health Care Agreements," which exist for immediately necessary medical care ("emergency care"). Agreements with Australia cover New Zealand, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, Italy, Malta, and Ireland. Benefits for Italy and Malta may only be available for the first 6 months of a stay. The Australian government covered much of the costs of medical treatment for most team members competing or involved in the Olympic and Paralympic Games, when the Games Village was open. This did not however extend to other visitors, and public hospitals in Australia are not generally geared and staffed to provide timely general practice services.

  4. Comparative analysis of prestart condition of students girls in Olympic and non-Olympic kinds of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Ivaskiene

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It was studied prestart condition of students girls in Olympic and non-Olympic martial arts. With the help of SAN test and Spielberg-Chanin scale during the Championship in Lithuania among students of year 2011 was conducted 54 judo and 48 sambo athletes students girls (n = 102 aged 20.8 + 2.4 years, their sporting career 5.2 + 1.7 years. The hypothesis is not proved that before competition state of representatives of Olympic (judo and non-Olympic (sambo kinds of sport. Getting indexes shown that emotional state of the most of sambo and judo athletes students girls have high level of feeling of well-being, activity and mood. The most of the athletes (72.2% of judo and 64.0% sambo athletes have very low level of situational anxiety.

  5. Olympic Education and Beyond: Olympism and Value Legacies from the Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziefstathiou, Dikaia

    2012-01-01

    This article starts with a discussion on the links between Olympism and education as presented in the early years of the modern Olympic Movement and the ideological vision of its founder, Baron Pierre de Coubertin. Questions about whether that vision can remain as an ideological platform for the Olympic and Paralympic Games are debated in the…

  6. Competition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  7. Competition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  8. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  9. developing of antique olympic plays in a roman period at board of different emperors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko O.G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Researched the questions of development the Ancient Olympic Games, after the capture Greece territory by the Roman army. This condition and development in future fully depended on the social and political phenomena in Roman society preferring more aggressive types of «spectacles». The direction of quickly changing emperors was represented on status of the competitions. Positive relation authorities to competitions brought to achievement the second «bloom» of the Olympic Games in the Roman period.

  10. Perception of special olympics coaches on safety in their training of their special olympics athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Kum Loy

    2009-01-01

    A sport coach, besides providing training to improve an athlete's performance in his/her chosen sport, is also tasked for ensuring that the training and/or competition take place in a safe environment. This ability to factor safe practices is a challenge to any sport coach, especially when the people being coached have intellectual disability (ID). This study aims to explore the perceptions of Special Olympics (SO) sport coaches towards risk factors for injuries and safety issues when they co...

  11. Isaac Newton Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Presents the Isaac Newton Olympics in which students complete a hands-on activity at seven stations and evaluate what they have learned in the activity and how it is related to real life. Includes both student and teacher instructions for three of the activities. (YDS)

  12. Global Initiative of the Special Olympics Movement for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myśliwiec Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mission of the Special Olympics is to provide year-round sports training and competition in a variety (33 of Olympic-type sports for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, giving them continuing opportunities to develop physical fitness, demonstrate courage, experience joy, and participate in sharing of gifts and friendship with their families, other athletes, and their communities. The Special Olympics movement often goes beyond the sports competition formula. During the last few years, the movement has developed many new global initiatives, which expand its former sports activities. They include:

  13. Special Olympics Training Programs around the World...A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaestra, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Two tables present results of an international survey on Special Olympics training programs for the mentally retarded. Table 1 looks at such sports and fiscal aspects of the program as funding, existence of year-round training, and ratio of coaches to athletes. Table 2 reports perceived values of training and competition. (DB)

  14. Legacy, resource mobilisation and the olympic movement | Girginov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been a growing interest in legacies of the Olympic Games focusing on external tangible outcomes, such as the number of sport competitions, participants and jobs created. Little is still known about the equally valuable internal benefits to individuals and organisational capacities of national sport systems.

  15. Olympic emblem guidelines: London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”) by LOCOG and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) creative, marketing and communications personnel, agencies and consultants only who are authorised to use the London 2012 marks. The purpose of these guidelines is to preserve and enhance the value of the Emblem for t...

  16. Reliability of performance of elite Olympic weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Michael R; Kane, Melissa K

    2004-08-01

    There are no published data on the reliability of competitive strength performance, even though it has a pronounced effect on athletes' medal prospects and the ability of coaches and athletes to identify factors that affect competitive performance. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the reliability of elite olympic weightlifters over a series of international weightlifting meets. We obtained official results of international competitions over an 18-month period from 1999 until the 2000 Olympic Games at the International Weightlifting Federation website. The measure of reliability was the typical within-athlete variation, derived as the coefficient of variation (CV) by 2-way analysis of variance of log-transformed weights lifted for the snatch, clean and jerk, and total. The results of this analysis were (a) within-athlete variations were as follows: snatch, 2.7% (95% likely range, 2.4-3.2%); clean and jerk, 2.3% (1.7-3.6%); total weight lifted, 2.5% (2.2-2.9%); (b) men and women: the variation was higher for the women compared with the men in both snatch (ratio of CV, 1.4) and clean and jerk (ratio of CV, 1.5), and for the total weight lifted (ratio of CV, 1.3); and (c) the top 5 athletes were almost always more reliable than the bottom-half athletes. Recent work has shown that the smallest worthwhile performance is about half the within-athlete variation, so coaches and sport scientists should focus on enhancements of as little as 1.2% in total weight lifted for elite olympic weightlifters.

  17. Expansion at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date

  18. NOTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN, WORLD, AND OLYMPIC BMX CYCLING RACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mateo-March

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were 1 to describe the technical requirements of different tracks where classifying points are disputed for the Olympics as the European continent tracks (E, world championship competitions tracks (W, and Olympic Games track - Beijing, 2008- (O; and 2 to compare and establish differences or similarities between the three previous contexts. The sample used for this study was made of the 8 best qualifying male athletes from each competition (n = 48 during the 2007 and 2008 seasons (pre-Olympic and Olympic years. A descriptive design was used, based on systematic structured observation of the competitions filmed on video, paying attention to the different techniques used (overtaking skills, complete pedalling cycles and registered effort times. The results show that aerial techniques predominate over non aerial techniques on O and W type tracks more than on E tracks by ~20% (p < 0.001, pedaling cycles predominate in E vs. W and O by 11.85 and 24.23% respectively (p < 0.05, and effort times predominate in O vs. W and E by 6.50 and 12.94% respectively (p < 0.01. In conclusion, O and W tracks stand out because of the aerial component and greater technical complexity in comparison to E tracks, which has a decisive effect on the way the riders train in relation to the type of championship they aim to compete in

  19. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  20. Constructivist Pedagogies for Olympism Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpan, Ian; McBain, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Olympism as a philosophical concept has been highly contested and challenged for its relevancy in a contemporary world. Some scholars argue that Olympism is simply a relic of the modern age and has little educative and/or social legitimacy. Others argue that despite the criticism and its contested nature it remains one of the most coherent and…

  1. Heineken in the House: Improving Online Media Reputation through Featuring a Sponsored Brand Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, S.; Remmelswaal, P.; Jacobs, S.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more organizations use social media to promote their sponsorships of big events. Heineken has created a major brand community by facilitating the Holland Heineken House during the Olympic Games. This study investigates to what extent featuring a sponsored brand community on social

  2. Physical requirements in Olympic sailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, J; Larsson, B; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female) in a compl......Abstract Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female....... Another group of studies has investigated boardsailing and provided evidence to show that windsurfing requires very high aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Although data exist on other types of sailors, the information is limited, and moreover the profile of the Olympic events has changed markedly over...... the last few years to involve more agile, fast and spectacular yachts. The change of events in Olympic sailing has likely added to physical requirements; however, data on sailors in the modern-type yachts are scarce. The present paper describes the recent developments in Olympic sailing with respect...

  3. Loren Shriver carries Olympic torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    KSC Shuttle Operations Manager Loren J. Shriver proudly displays the Olympic torch that he carried to the top of Launch Pad 39A as his contribution to the July 7, 1996 KSC Olympic torch relay effort. Nineteen other KSC runners also participated in the relay effort at the Center. The Olympic torch arrived at KSC at 1:40 p.m. and traveled a 20-mile course to the pad and then out to the KSC visitor Center. The Space Shuttle Atlantis is behind Shriver, poised for the STS-79 mission, which will feature the fourth docking of the Shuttle with the Russian Mir space station.

  4. Rehabilitation at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.; Middleton, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Rehabilitation work on areas denuded of vegetation during the exploration phase of the Olympic Dam project was used to test various methods for regeneration of vegetation cover in the arid zone. The test work carried out on drill pads and access tracks has indicated that, with adequate site preparation, natural regeneration is the most economical and effective method to ensure post-operational stability of the affected land-forms. An on-going monitoring regime, utilising a computer data base, has been set up to allow year-to-year comparison of rehabilitation effectiveness. The database also provides a catalogue of initial colonising plants and a measure of variations in species diversity with time

  5. 7 CFR 654.11 - Sponsor(s)' responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...&M on land administered by that agency. If project measures benefit both Federal and non-Federal land... § 654.11 Sponsor(s)' responsibility. (a) On non-Federal land, sponsor(s) are responsible for financing and performing without cost to the Federal Government, needed operation and maintenance (O&M) of...

  6. Environmental certification of Lillehammer Youth Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Molnes, Torje Nedland

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis was an initiative of the Lillehammer Youth Olympic Games Organising Committee administration, represented by Tomas Holmestad and Magne Vikøren.The main research question is:Which environmental certification systems can be relevant and applicable to large sports events like the Youth Olympic Games?The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) is an initiative by the International Olympic Committee. The vision of the YOG is to inspire young people, between 15 and 18 years old, around the wor...

  7. Coaches' Training the Special Olympics Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswal, Glenn M.

    1988-01-01

    The article describes the training provided prospective coaches of mentally retarded participants in Special Olympics at Special Olympics International Training Schools. Presentations on Special Olympics, mental retardation, athletic injury prevention, coaching techniques, and specific sports skills instruction are provided as well as direct…

  8. Olympic participation and performance since 1896

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard; Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    Abstract We analyze the decision to participate and Olympic performance at the country level. We use an unbalanced panel of 118 countries over 24 editions of the Olympic Summer Games. The main focus of the paper is on economic, geographic and demographic explanations of Olympic participation and

  9. Sports injuries during the Summer Olympic Games 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Mountjoy, Margo L; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Renström, Per A F H; Aubry, Mark John; Dvorak, Jiri

    2009-11-01

    Standardized assessment of sports injuries provides important epidemiological information and also directions for injury prevention. To analyze the frequency, characteristics, and causes of injuries incurred during the Summer Olympic Games 2008. Descriptive epidemiology study. The chief physicians and/or chief medical officers of the national teams were asked to report daily all injuries newly incurred during the Olympic Games on a standardized injury report form. In addition, injuries were reported daily by the physicians at the medical stations at the different Olympic venues and at the polyclinic in the Olympic Village. Physicians and/or therapists of 92 national teams covering 88% of the 10,977 registered athletes took part in the study. In total, 1055 injuries were reported, resulting in an incidence of 96.1 injuries per 1000 registered athletes. Half of the injuries (49.6%) were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. The most prevalent diagnoses were ankle sprains and thigh strains. The majority (72.5%) of injuries were incurred in competition. One third of the injuries were caused by contact with another athlete, followed by overuse (22%) and noncontact incidences (20%). Injuries were reported from all sports, but their incidence and characteristics varied substantially. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of incurring an injury was highest in soccer, taekwondo, hockey, handball, weightlifting, and boxing (all >or=15% of the athletes) and lowest for sailing, canoeing/kayaking, rowing, synchronized swimming, diving, fencing, and swimming. The data indicate that the injury surveillance system covered almost all of the participating athletes, and the results highlight areas of high risk for sport injury such as the in-competition period, the ankle and thigh, and specific sports. The identification of these factors should stimulate future research and subsequent policy change to prevent injury in

  10. The influence of the program of Olympic education on the level of somatic health and physical training of secondary schools scholars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navtykov A.E.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the program of Olympic education on the level of Olympic knowledge, somatic health and motive preparedness of schoolboys of middle ages was studied. In research 70 students took part 7 classes. The program of course of Olympic education was computer-integrated in extracurricular work of schoolboys. The program is counted on 26 hours. It contained the leadthrough of lectures (12 hours, seminar employments (4 hours, video of lessons (4 hours, спортивно-массовых measures on Olympic subject (3 hours, visit of sporting competitions and meeting with prominent sportsmen. It is set that introduction in the educational process of the program of Olympic education allows considerably to promote the level of knowledge, motivation and practical skills to operate in accordance with ideals and values of olympism. It results in the substantial improvement of physical health and motive preparedness of children.

  11. Talent identification and promotion programmes of Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeyens, Roel; Güllich, Arne; Warr, Chelsea R; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2009-11-01

    The start of a new Olympic cycle offers a fresh chance for individuals and nations to excel at the highest level in sport. Most countries attempt to develop systematic structures to identify gifted athletes and to promote their development in a certain sport. However, forecasting years in advance the next generation of sporting experts and stimulating their development remains problematic. In this article, we discuss issues related to the identification and preparation of Olympic athletes. We provide field-based data suggesting that an earlier onset and a higher volume of discipline-specific training and competition, and an extended involvement in institutional talent promotion programmes, during adolescence need not necessarily be associated with greater success in senior international elite sport. Next, we consider some of the promising methods that have been (recently) presented in the literature and applied in the field. Finally, implications for talent identification and promotion and directions for future research are highlighted.

  12. EXTERNAL BARREL TEMPERATURE OF A SMALL BORE OLYMPIC RIFLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozena Gladyszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on changes in a rifle’s barrel temperature during shooting in a rhythm typical for practitioners of Olympic shooting sports are presented. Walther KK300 (cal. 5.6 mm, a typical rifle often used in Olympic competitions, R50 RWS ammunition and a high speed thermographic camera were used in the study. Altair version 5 software was used to process thermal images and a stationary wavelet transform was applied to denoise signals for all the studied points. It was found that the temperature of the rifle barrel does not exceed 0.3°C after one shot whereas the total temperature increase does not exceed 5°C after taking 40 shots and does not affect the position of the hitting point on a target. In fact, contrary to popular belief, the so-called “warming shots” are not done for barrel heating but for cleaning of remnants in the barrel.

  13. A good name needs to be found: a philosophical investigation of Paralympic and Olympic co-operation

    OpenAIRE

    Waddell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The work of the International Paralympic Committee (and its predecessors) with the International Olympic Committee to establish the Paralympic Games as an event twinned with the Olympic Games has been instrumental in promoting access to competitive sporting opportunities for athletes with disabilities around the globe. This project examines the relationship between these two organizations to illustrate the difficulties that come with maintaining para-sport as an event separate from able-bodie...

  14. Sports injuries and illnesses during the Winter Olympic Games 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Renström, Per; Wilkinson, Mike

    2010-09-01

    Identification of high-risk sports, including their most common and severe injuries and illnesses, will facilitate the identification of sports and athletes at risk at an early stage. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the XXI Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010. All National Olympic Committees' (NOC) head physicians were asked to report daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. In addition, the medical centres at the Vancouver and Whistler Olympic clinics reported daily on all athletes treated for injuries and illnesses. Physicians covering 2567 athletes (1045 females, 1522 males) from 82 NOCs participated in the study. The reported 287 injuries and 185 illnesses resulted in an incidence of 111.8 injuries and 72.1 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of sustaining an injury was highest for bobsleigh, ice hockey, short track, alpine freestyle and snowboard cross (15-35% of registered athletes were affected in each sport). The injury risk was lowest for the Nordic skiing events (biathlon, cross country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined), luge, curling, speed skating and freestyle moguls (less than 5% of registered athletes). Head/cervical spine and knee were the most common injury locations. Injuries were evenly distributed between training (54.0%) and competition (46.0%; p=0.18), and 22.6% of the injuries resulted in an absence from training or competition. In skeleton, figure and speed skating, curling, snowboard cross and biathlon, every 10th athlete suffered from at least one illness. In 113 illnesses (62.8%), the respiratory system was affected. At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games, and 7% of the athletes an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Analyses of injury mechanisms in high-risk Olympic winter

  15. Eclipses and the Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, K. D.; Yau, K. K.

    2000-12-01

    Like returns of Halley's comet the Olympic games occur periodically, though not as regularly in antiquity. Dates were also imprecise due to the chaotic calendars in use. Reported sightings of comets and eclipses can be used with game dates to help fix ancient events. However some reported darkening of the sun, e.g., after Julius Caesar's murder in 44 BC, was due to volcanic eruptions. A red comet, visible in daylight, first appeared during the games that year. It was also seen from China and Korea (Pang, Sciences 31, 30). Phlegon's ``Olympiads" (2nd century) says that Christ's crucifixion was in the 4th year of the 202nd Olympiad (AD 29-33), when a total solar eclipse occurred in the 6th hour. Only the Nov. 24, AD 29 eclipse over Asia Minor can match that, and Joel's prophecy (Acts 2, 14-21) that ``the sun will be turned to darkness and moon to blood." However it conflicts with ``the first day of Passover," as recorded by Mathew, Mark and Luke, i.e., full moon in early spring. Humphreys and Waddington (Nature 306, 743) have suggested meteorological darkening and the April 3, AD 33 lunar eclipse instead. Schaefer has questioned the eclipse's visibility from Jerusalem (31.46N, 35.14E). The six computations he cited gave dissimilar answers due to the imprecise rates of the secular lunar acceleration, and lengthening of the day used (Q.Jl.R.astr.Soc. 31, 53). Lunar laser ranging has since fixed the former at -26"/cen2. Analysis of ancient Chinese solar eclipse records, e.g., the April 21, 899 BC and April 4, AD 368 ``double dawns" over Zheng, has given us a delta T (in sec) = 30t2, where t is centuries before 1800 (Pang, Yau and Chou, in ``Dynamics of Ice Age Earth: A Modern Perspective," 1998). Our computations show that the moon rose over Jerusalem, with 1/3 still in the umbra and the rest in penumbra. Holdover meteorological darkening with long absorption air mass could have help reddened the moon also. Finally the first ``eclipse season" (the Aug. 21 lunar, and

  16. Physiological assessment of Olympic windsurfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Olympic boardsailing is a very demanding endurance sport activity. The main reason for this phenomenon is ascribable to the fact that elite windsurfers use pumping for propulsion during sailing. Pumping is a manoeuvre in which the athlete pulls the sail rhythmically so that it acts as a wing, thus providing the board with additional forward motion especially in light and moderate wind conditions. It has been demonstrated, by using portable metabolimeters, that Olympic boardsailing (Mistral board and the current Olympic board the Neil Pryde RS:X) entails high energy and cardiorespiratory requirements. In elite Olympic board-sailors, by measuring energy costs and cardiorespiratory responses, it was found that (in wind velocity conditions ranging between 4 and 15 m s(-1)) pumping, compared to non-pumping sailing, induced a significant increase in oxygen uptake (VO₂) and heart rate (HR) demands (from 19.2 to 48.4 ml min(-1) kg(-1) and from 110 to 165 beats min(-1), respectively). In general, across studies the aerobic demand, recorded on various windsurf boards (expressed as% VO₂max), was greater than 75%, whilst HR values were greater than 85% of HRmax during actual racing conditions. In conclusion, Olympic class windsurfing can be considered as a high-intensity endurance type of sport that is comparable to other aerobic sporting activities such as rowing. Sail pumping is the crucial factor determining this high intensity of aerobic demand. Moreover, the fact that a typical regatta includes many races over several days implies that particular attention must be paid to the training strategy and the nutritional requirement of this discipline.

  17. A reappraisal of success factors for Olympic cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    Cross-country (XC) skiing has been an Olympic event since the first Winter Games in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Due to more effective training and tremendous improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of Olympic XC-ski races has increased more than that of any other Olympic endurance sport. Moreover, pursuit, mass-start, and sprint races have been introduced. Indeed, 10 of the 12 current Olympic competitions in XC skiing involve mass starts, in which tactics play a major role and the outcome is often decided in the final sprint. Accordingly, reappraisal of the success factors for performance in this context is required. The very high aerobic capacity (VO2max) of many of today's world-class skiers is similar that of their predecessors. At the same time, the new events provide more opportunities to profit from anaerobic capacity, upper-body power, high-speed techniques, and "tactical flexibility." The wide range of speeds and slopes involved in XC skiing requires skiers to continuously alternate between and adapt different subtechniques during a race. This technical complexity places a premium on efficiency. The relative amounts of endurance training performed at different levels of intensity have remained essentially constant during the past 4 decades. However, in preparation for the Sochi Olympics in 2014, XC skiers are performing more endurance training on roller skis on competition-specific terrain, placing greater focus on upper-body power and more systematically performing strength training and skiing at high speeds than previously.

  18. Committees and sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    International Advisory Committee Richard F CastenYale, USA Luiz Carlos ChamonSão Paulo, Brazil Osvaldo CivitareseLa Plata, Argentina Jozsef CsehATOMKI, Hungary Jerry P DraayerLSU, USA Alfredo Galindo-UribarriORNL & UT, USA James J KolataNotre Dame, USA Jorge López UTEP, USA Joseph B NatowitzTexas A & M, USA Ma Esther Ortiz IF-UNAM Stuart PittelDelaware, USA Andrés SandovalIF-UNAM Adam SzczepaniakIndiana, USA Piet Van IsackerGANIL, France Michael WiescherNotre Dame, USA Organizing Committee Libertad Barrón-Palos (Chair)IF-UNAM Roelof BijkerICN-UNAM Ruben FossionICN-UNAM David LizcanoININ Sponsors Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAMInstituto de Física, UNAMInstituto Nacional de Investigaciones NuclearesDivisión de Física Nuclear de la SMFCentro Latinoamericano de Física

  19. Optimizing Olympic Education: A Comprehensive Approach to Understanding and Teaching the Philosophy of Olympism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teetzel, Sarah Jane

    2012-01-01

    Through an examination and clarification of the philosophy of Olympism, this paper analyses the appropriateness of using Olympism as a mechanism of teaching values and intercultural respect through sport to students. From a review of the literature on Olympism, three themes emerged as common to most conceptions: 1) fairness, 2) equality, and 3)…

  20. Chinese response to allergy and asthma in Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Lu, Y; Huang, K; Wang, C; Lu, J; Zhang, C; Zhong, N

    2008-08-01

    China is going to host the Games of the XXIX Olympiad from 8-24 August 2008 in Beijing. The number of athletes and accompanying individuals expected to arrive at China for the Beijing Olympics is estimated at over 10 000 and among them at least 2 000 (20%) are suspected to suffer from respiratory allergies. It is important to monitor the pollen counts and improve air quality in Beijing because Olympic athletes would be exposed to airborne allergens and pollutants during competitions which could hinder peak performance. The main pollen and spore families in Beijing are Artemisia, Ambrosia, Chenopodiaceae and Gramineae. They can reach around 307 000 grains of pollen/1000 m(3) of air in August. Economic development in China is usually linked with worsening of air quality. Due to the adoption of various control measures, the ambient air quality in a number of areas in Beijing has actually improved. The ambient air TSP and SO(2) levels in Beijing have been decreasing in the last decade. However, ambient air NO(x) level has been increasing due to the increased number of motor vehicles. Nevertheless, dedicated medical facilities in Beijing will provide medical services to athletes and delegations from all over the world during the Beijing Olympic Games.

  1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE REPS NUMBER WITHIN TWO TRAINING MACROCYCLES OF THE WEIGHTLIFTING OLYMPIC TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ULĂREANU MARIUS VIOREL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a comparative analysis of the number of repetitions in two training macro-cycles of the weightlifting Olympic team. We have considered that the differences between the number of reps in each training stage of the macro-cycles no. 1 and 2 will influence the performances achieved in competition. This approach has led to the organization of a study group in the weightlifting Olympic team of Romania. The scientific argument is the presentation of the number of reps during the preparation of the weightlifting Olympic team in different mezzo and micro-cycles of training, that, by decreasing the number of reps and increasing the intensity of the effort up to the maximum level from a training micro-cycle to another,contributes to reaching the fitness peak in competitive period within the macro-cycle no.1; also, an optimum number of reps during the training macro-cycle no.2 will make possible to keep the fitness necessary for their turning into good account in the next competition.The study was conducted over a period of two training macro-cycles (04.01-16.08.2008, with a group of 6 athletes, of 17 to 31 years old, whose target of performance was the participation in the EuropeanChampionships (E. C. for Seniors, Lignano – Sabbiadoro, Italy 2008 and the Olympic Games (J.O. in Beijing in 2008. The athletes’ progresses during the training stages and competitions were recorded by means of the statistical-mathematical and plotting methods.The study highlights the number of reps within two training macro-cycles of the weightlifting Olympic team. At the end of the paper we are able to confirm that the differences between the number of reps at each stage of training in the macro-cycles no. 1 and 2 have influenced the performances achieved in competition

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE REPS NUMBER WITHIN TWO TRAINING MACROCYCLES OF THE WEIGHTLIFTING OLYMPIC TEAM

    OpenAIRE

    ULĂREANU MARIUS VIOREL; POTOP VLADIMIR

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a comparative analysis of the number of repetitions in two training macro-cycles of the weightlifting Olympic team. We have considered that the differences between the number of reps in each training stage of the macro-cycles no. 1 and 2 will influence the performances achieved in competition. This approach has led to the organization of a study group in the weightlifting Olympic team of Romania. The scientific argument is the presentation of the number of reps during the ...

  3. The Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houze, Robert A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; McMurdie, Lynn A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Petersen, Walter A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama; Schwaller, Mathew R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Baccus, William [Olympic National Park, Port Angeles, Washington; Lundquist, Jessica D. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Mass, Clifford F. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Nijssen, Bart [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Rutledge, Steven A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; Hudak, David R. [Environment and Climate Change Canada, King City, Ontario, Canada; Tanelli, Simone [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California; Mace, Gerald G. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah; Poellot, Michael R. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota; Lettenmaier, Dennis P. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Zagrodnik, Joseph P. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Rowe, Angela K. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; DeHart, Jennifer C. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Madaus, Luke E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Barnes, Hannah C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2017-10-01

    the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) took place during the 2015-2016 fall-winter season in the vicinity of the mountainous Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The goals of OLYMPEX were to provide physical and hydrologic ground validation for the U.S./Japan Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and, more specifically, to study how precipitation in Pacific frontal systems is modified by passage over coastal mountains. Four transportable scanning dual-polarization Doppler radars of various wavelengths were installed. Surface stations were placed at various altitudes to measure precipitation rates, particle size distributions, and fall velocities. Autonomous recording cameras monitored and recorded snow accumulation. Four research aircraft supplied by NASA investigated precipitation processes and snow cover, and supplemental rawinsondes and dropsondes were deployed during precipitation events. Numerous Pacific frontal systems were sampled, including several reaching "atmospheric river" status, warm and cold frontal systems, and postfrontal convection

  4. Environmental monitoring at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The environmental management and protection program at the Olympic Dam uranium/copper/gold project, Roxby Downs, South Australia, monitors eight major environmental parameters - meteorology, vegetation, mine site rehabilitation, fauna, terrain, soil salinity, hydrogeology and well fields. It came into effect with the approval of the South Australian Government in March 1987. The Great Artesian Basin, one of the world's greatest artesian basins, is the source of the water supply for the project

  5. Jointly Sponsored Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett A. Sondreal; John G. Hendrikson; Thomas A. Erickson

    2009-03-31

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40321 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) supported the performance of a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) with a minimum 50% nonfederal cost share to assist industry in commercializing and effectively applying highly efficient, nonpolluting energy systems that meet the nation's requirements for clean fuels, chemicals, and electricity in the 21st century. The EERC in partnership with its nonfederal partners jointly performed 131 JSRP projects for which the total DOE cost share was $22,716,634 (38%) and the nonfederal share was $36,776,573 (62%). Summaries of these projects are presented in this report for six program areas: (1) resource characterization and waste management, (2) air quality assessment and control, (3) advanced power systems, (4) advanced fuel forms, (5) value-added coproducts, and (6) advanced materials. The work performed under this agreement addressed DOE goals for reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions through efficiency, capture, and sequestration; near-zero emissions from highly efficient coal-fired power plants; environmental control capabilities for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine respirable particulate (PM{sub 2.5}), and mercury; alternative transportation fuels including liquid synfuels and hydrogen; and synergistic integration of fossil and renewable resources.

  6. Disease distribution and medical resources during the Beijing 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Ya; Lan, Ling; Chen, Wei-Na; Zhang, Ai-Ping; Lü, Chao-Ying; Lü, Yan-Wei; Dai, Jian-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Appropriate planning and staffing for medical services at large-scale athletic events is essential to provide for a safe and successful competition. There are few well-documented accounts describing the demand for such services. The present study provided the data from the Beijing 2008 Olympics and Paralympics, with a view to provide the guidance for planning future events. A total of 22 029 and 8046 patients, who received medical care from a physician at an Olympic or Paralympic medical station, were included. The patient proportion among different personnel, various disease proportions at different kinds of venues, and the disease spectrum at specified venues at the Olympics and Paralympics were analyzed. At both games, the patient proportion varied by accreditation status. The staff accounted for the largest number of visits at the Olympics (44.83%) and Paralympics (36.95%), with respiratory diseases the most common. Various disease spectrums were discovered at the different kinds of venues. Surgical diseases were the most frequently listed reason for visits, both at competition and non-competition venues, especially during the Paralympics. The sport-related injuries accounted for a majority of the surgical cases during both games. At training venues, ear nose and throat diseases accounted for the greatest number of visits during both games. During both games, people contracted different diseases at different venues. Adequate surgeons should be designated to offer assistance mostly in trauma situations. Appropriate numbers of physicians in respiratory diseases and otorhinolaryngology is of great importance.

  7. Strength and Conditioning Training by the Danish National Handball Team Before an Olympic Tournament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Hansen, Mikkel R B; Jensen, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    preparation to improve performance and reduce incidence of injuries. The purpose of this case report was to describe and analyze the strength and conditioning (S&C) training performed by the Danish national handball team before the Beijing Olympic Games. Eight weeks of S&C was divided into 5 weeks emphasizing......Kvorning, T, Hansen, MRB, and Jensen, K. Strength and conditioning training by the Danish national handball team before an Olympic tournament. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1759-1765, 2017-The physical demands imposed on national team handball teams during the Olympics imply significant physical......-body muscle strength. This case report may be used as a handy script for handball teams preparing for competition. Detailed and periodized S&C training programs for 8 weeks are provided and can be used by teams ranging from moderately to highly trained....

  8. Gymnastics injury incidence during the 2008, 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games: analysis of prospectively collected surveillance data from 963 registered gymnasts during Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Steffen, Kathrin; Junge, Astrid; Leglise, Michel; Soligard, Torbjørn; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-04-01

    To determine the incidence and characteristics of injuries in female and male gymnastics disciplines (artistic, rhythmic and trampoline) during three Olympic Games with a view to ultimately improving injury prevention. The National Olympic Committee's head physicians and the medical teams of the Local Organising Committee of the Olympic Games reported daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries in artistic, rhythmic and trampoline gymnastics on a standardised report form during the 2008, 2012 and 2016 Summer Olympic Games. During the three Olympic Games, 81 injuries were reported in a total of 963 registered gymnasts, corresponding to an incidence of 84 injuries (95% CI 67 to 102) per 1000 registered gymnasts, with no difference in injury incidence between female and male gymnasts. Thirty-eight per cent of injuries led to time-loss from sport. The most frequent injury location and injury type were the ankle (22%) and sprain (35%), respectively. The most common diagnosis was ankle sprain (14% of all injuries and 23% of time-loss injuries). The injury incidence was highest in female (107±35) and male artistic gymnastics (83±32), followed by female rhythmic gymnastics (73±30), and lower in male (63±69) and female (43±43) trampoline gymnastics. Research should focus on preventing injuries in artistic gymnastics and of the condition of ankle sprain. Injury surveillance studies should be continued during major championships and throughout the entire competitive season as the Olympic Games provides only a snapshot (although an important one). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Mapping wilderness character in Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Tricker; Peter Landres; Jennifer Chenoweth; Roger Hoffman; Scott Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The Olympic Wilderness was established November 16, 1988 when President Ronald Reagan signed the Washington Park Wilderness Act. A total of 876,447 acres or 95% of Olympic National Park (OLYM) was designated as wilderness and became a part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, wherein wilderness character would be preserved. The purpose of this project was to...

  10. Physiological characteristics of an aging Olympic athlete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Fritzdorf, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games.......To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games....

  11. The Special Olympics: Sporting or Social Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carolyn; McDonald, Meghan L.

    2008-01-01

    Storey (2008), in his eloquent and timely critique of the Special Olympics and his call to close it down, focuses on the failure of the Special Olympics to achieve the goal of social integration and sustained social interaction among people with intellectual disabilities and their peers without a disability label. The authors wholeheartedly agree…

  12. Olympic scale of sport-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean du Plessis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games have displaced more than two million people in the last 20 years, disproportionately affecting particular groups such as the homeless, the poor, Roma and African-Americans. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games often leave a negative housing legacy for local populations.

  13. Universality, limits and predictability of gold-medal performances at the olympic games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Radicchi

    Full Text Available Inspired by the Games held in ancient Greece, modern Olympics represent the world's largest pageant of athletic skill and competitive spirit. Performances of athletes at the Olympic Games mirror, since 1896, human potentialities in sports, and thus provide an optimal source of information for studying the evolution of sport achievements and predicting the limits that athletes can reach. Unfortunately, the models introduced so far for the description of athlete performances at the Olympics are either sophisticated or unrealistic, and more importantly, do not provide a unified theory for sport performances. Here, we address this issue by showing that relative performance improvements of medal winners at the Olympics are normally distributed, implying that the evolution of performance values can be described in good approximation as an exponential approach to an a priori unknown limiting performance value. This law holds for all specialties in athletics-including running, jumping, and throwing-and swimming. We present a self-consistent method, based on normality hypothesis testing, able to predict limiting performance values in all specialties. We further quantify the most likely years in which athletes will breach challenging performance walls in running, jumping, throwing, and swimming events, as well as the probability that new world records will be established at the next edition of the Olympic Games.

  14. Team Performance Indicators Explain Outcome during Women’s Basketball Matches at the Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Leicht

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games is the pinnacle international sporting competition with team sport coaches interested in key performance indicators to assist the development of match strategies for success. This study examined the relationship between team performance indicators and match outcome during the women’s basketball tournament at the Olympic Games. Team performance indicators were collated from all women’s basketball matches during the 2004–2016 Olympic Games (n = 156 and analyzed via linear (binary logistic regression and non-linear (conditional interference (CI classification tree statistical techniques. The most parsimonious linear model retained “defensive rebounds”, “field-goal percentage”, “offensive rebounds”, “fouls”, “steals”, and “turnovers” with a classification accuracy of 85.6%. The CI classification tree retained four performance indicators with a classification accuracy of 86.2%. The combination of “field-goal percentage”, “defensive rebounds”, “steals”, and “turnovers” provided the greatest probability of winning (91.1%, while a combination of “field-goal percentage”, “steals”, and “turnovers” provided the greatest probability of losing (96.7%. Shooting proficiency and defensive actions were identified as key team performance indicators for Olympic female basketball success. The development of key defensive strategies and/or the selection of athletes highly proficient in defensive actions may strengthen Olympic match success. Incorporation of non-linear analyses may provide teams with superior/practical approaches for elite sporting success.

  15. Doping in olympic sport: signs of the crisis and ways to overcome it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Platonov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of modern history of the spread of doping in Olympic sport, the IOC’s fight against this negative phenomenon and activities of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA established in 1999 and designed to eradicate doping. It is shown that, despite ever-increasing financial and human resources along with expanded legal capabilities, intensive propaganda efforts, increased volume of testing, severe sanctions, support from reputable international organizations (UN, UNESCO, Council of Europe, the Agency's multi-year activities is not only brought the Olympic sport closer to solving the problem, but also dramatically aggravated and made it dangerous for the credibility and the well-being of the Olympic movement. It is not only and not so much about the competition in elite sport, which has dramatically increased recent years, and socio-political and commercial attractiveness of success at the Olympics, but about fundamentally misguided methodology underlying WADA’s activities, based on neglect of biological, medical and sports sciences’ achievements, and realities of modern elite sports, and drawn up on the ideas of lawyers, economists and “universal managers". The paper outlines in detail outcomes of WADA activities and anti-doping laboratories accredited by the Agency, which manifested themselves in many crisis phenomena moved far beyond the limits of the Olympic sport. Furthermore, the prospects of coming out of the grave crisis developed in this area are delineated.

  16. Olympic Dam - the first decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, A.W.; Wilson, M.A.; Harris, J.

    1988-01-01

    Most aspects of the pre-production phase of the Olympic Dam Project, from commencement of exploration in May 1975 through to commitment to development in December 1985 are documented here. The discovery by Western Mining Corporation Ltd of copper mineralisation on Roxby Downs Station in July 1975 has led to one of the more intensive base-metal exploration programmes undertaken in Australia. Comprehensive exploration, evaluation and feasibility studies between 1975 and 1985 have delineated a probable 450 million tonnes of higher grade ore containing 2.5% copper, 0.8 kg/t uranium oxide, 0.6 g/t gold and 6.0 g/t silver. The total resource is estimated at 2 billion tonnes containing 1.6% copper, 0.6 kg/t uranium oxide, 0.6 g/t gold and 3.5 g/t silver. At 31 December 1985, over 540 km of surface and underground drilling had been completed, comprising over 700 surface drillholes totalling 234 km of core and 218 km of open-hole drilling, and about 900 underground diamond-drillholes totalling 90 km. The Whenan Shaft had been sunk to 500 m and driving on three levels totalled almost 10 km. More than one million tonnes of ore and mullock were raised during development. A pilot treatment plant commissioned on site produced concentrates, matte and blister copper, and ammonium diuranate. Following a technical study of the Olympic Dam Project, completed in March 1985, and a subsequent economic feasibility study, it was announced on 11 June 1985 that the initial project was considered to be commercially viable. On 8 December 1985, the joint venturers, Western Mining Corporation Holdings Ltd (51%) and the BP Group (49%), announced their commitment to the Project. An appendix lists the important events that occurred between January 1986 and December 1987 in bringing Olympic Dam to the production state. 26 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs., ills

  17. Amphibians of Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Amphibians evolved from fishes about 360 million years ago and were the first vertebrates adapted to life on land. The word amphibian means "double life." It refers to the life history of many amphibians, which spend part of their life in water and part on land. There are three major groups of amphibians: salamanders, frogs, and toads, and caecilians. Salamanders, frogs, and toads can be found in Olympic National Park (ONP), but caecilians live only in tropical regions. Many amphibians are generalist predators, eating almost any prey they can fit into their mouths.

  18. Performance evaluation of Olympic weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garhammer, J

    1979-01-01

    The comparison of weights lifted by athletes in different bodyweight categories is a continuing problem for the sport of olympic weightlifting. An objective mechanical evaluation procedure was developed using basic ideas from a model proposed by Ranta in 1975. This procedure was based on more realistic assumptions than the original model and considered both vertical and horizontal bar movements. Utilization of data obtained from film of national caliber lifters indicated that the proposed method was workable, and that the evaluative indices ranked lifters in reasonable order relative to other comparative techniques.

  19. Sponsorship recall and recognition of official sponsors of the 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With escalating interest in sports globally, sport sponsorship has emerged as a platform that provides sponsoring companies with a chance of securing a competitive advantage. Events of high magnitude such as the 2010 FIFA World Cup™, which was the world's largest football event hosted in South Africa (SA), offered ...

  20. Skin manifestations of athletes competing in the summer olympics: what a sports medicine physician should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Jacqueline F; Adams, Brian B; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2012-05-01

    Olympic athletes are vulnerable to traumatic, environmental and infectious skin manifestations. Although dermatological complaints are frequent among Olympians, there is a scarcity of literature that reviews sports-related dermatoses among Olympic athletes. A comprehensive review of PREMEDLINE and MEDLINE searches of all available literature through to January 2011 was conducted, focusing on sports-related dermatological presentations as well as the key words 'Olympic athletes' and 'skin diseases'. Common skin conditions can be harmful and even prohibitive for competition. Common aetiologies of dermatological conditions related to sports include: skin infections with dermatophytes such as tinea pedis and tinea corporis, bacteria such as pitted keratolysis, and folliculitis and viruses such as herpes gladiatorum. Frictional dermatoses occur commonly and include athlete's nodules, jogger's itch, frictional blisters, callosities and talon noir. Trauma can cause haematomas such as auricular haematomas. Due to long training hours in the sun, many endurance athletes experience high levels of UV radiation and a higher risk for both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Pre-existing dermatoses can also be aggravated with practice and competition; in particular, atopic eczema and physical urticarias. Infrequent dermatoses are susceptible to misdiagnosis, delay in treatment and needless biopsies. This review highlights the diagnosis and management of sports-related dermatoses by the following general categories of Olympic sport: endurance, resistance, team sport, and performing arts.

  1. 1948 LONDON OLYMPICS GAMES IN TURKISH PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Özsoy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The 14th Olympic Games in London that could not be held in 1940 and 1944 due to the World War II became a milestone in the history of the Turkish sport with the success of the Turkish wrestlers. The London Olympics in which the Turkish national team got the sixth place among 59 countries by winning 12 medals had widespread media coverage in the Turkish press. The success of the Turkish wrestlers in the Olympics made a nation, which did not enter the war but was exceedingly affected both politically and economically and the face of which did not smile for years burst into joy. That Nasuh Akar won the gold medal in freestyle, Gazanfer Bilge, Celal Atik, and Yaşar Doğu, Greco-roman Mehmet Oktav and Ahmet Kireççi from Mersin won the gold medal in the Olympics was announced under the headlines of “we became world champion” on the front pages of the newspapers. The newspapers sent reporters to London to follow the Olympics and conveyed the developments day by day with photographs. The fixtures of the Turkish wrestlers that ended with a victory were narrated with minute details. Hürriyet newspaper, which sent a photojournalist to London, tripled its circulation with its publications on the Olympics. In this study, the news, commentaries, and photos related to the 1948 London Olympics in Akşam, Cumhuriyet, Hürriyet, Vatan, and Ulus newspapers are examined.

  2. Employer-sponsored pension plans

    OpenAIRE

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.

    2004-01-01

    Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k), in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the re...

  3. 1948 LONDON OLYMPICS GAMES IN TURKISH PRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Selami Özsoy

    2017-01-01

    The 14th Olympic Games in London that could not be held in 1940 and 1944 due to the World War II became a milestone in the history of the Turkish sport with the success of the Turkish wrestlers. The London Olympics in which the Turkish national team got the sixth place among 59 countries by winning 12 medals had widespread media coverage in the Turkish press. The success of the Turkish wrestlers in the Olympics made a nation, which did not enter the war but was exceedingly affected both polit...

  4. How much is too much? (Part 1) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soligard, Torbjørn; Schwellnus, Martin; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Clarsen, Ben; Dijkstra, H. Paul; Gabbett, Tim; Gleeson, Michael; Hägglund, Martin; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Janse van Rensburg, Christa; Khan, Karim M.; Meeusen, Romain; Orchard, John W.; Pluim, Babette M.; Raftery, Martin; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Athletes participating in elite sports are exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendars. Emerging evidence indicates that poor load management is a major risk factor for injury. The International Olympic Committee convened an expert group to review the scientific

  5. Shriver and Granston display Olympic torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    KSC Shuttle Operations Manager Loren J. Shriver (right) proudly displays the Olympic torch that he carried to the top of Launch Pad 39A as his contribution to the July 7 KSC Olympic torch relay effort. To his right is Jon Granston of the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games. Nineteen other KSC runners also participated in the relay effort at the center. The Olympic torch arrived at KSC at 1:40 p.m. and traveled a 20-mile course to the pad and then out to the KSC visitor Center. The Space Shuttle Atlantis is behind Shriver, poised for the STS-79 mission, which will feature the fourth docking of the Shuttle with the Russian Mir space station.

  6. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  7. China's Economy and the Beijing Olympics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    ... in preparation for the international event. China anticipates that the 2008 Olympics will provide both short-term and long-term direct and indirect benefits to its economy, as well as enhance the nation's global image...

  8. NATO, Greece and the 2004 Summer Olympics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brianas, Jason

    2004-01-01

    .... For the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece, the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States and subsequent 11 March 2004 Madrid bombings in Spain complicated an already robust Greek security plan...

  9. Career performance trajectories of Olympic swimmers: benchmarks for talent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sian V; Vandenbogaerde, Tom J; Hopkins, William G

    2014-01-01

    The age-related progression of elite athletes to their career-best performances can provide benchmarks for talent development. The purpose of this study was to model career performance trajectories of Olympic swimmers to develop these benchmarks. We searched the Web for annual best times of swimmers who were top 16 in pool events at the 2008 or 2012 Olympics, from each swimmer's earliest available competitive performance through to 2012. There were 6959 times in the 13 events for each sex, for 683 swimmers, with 10 ± 3 performances per swimmer (mean ± s). Progression to peak performance was tracked with individual quadratic trajectories derived using a mixed linear model that included adjustments for better performance in Olympic years and for the use of full-body polyurethane swimsuits in 2009. Analysis of residuals revealed appropriate fit of quadratic trends to the data. The trajectories provided estimates of age of peak performance and the duration of the age window of trivial improvement and decline around the peak. Men achieved peak performance later than women (24.2 ± 2.1 vs. 22.5 ± 2.4 years), while peak performance occurred at later ages for the shorter distances for both sexes (∼1.5-2.0 years between sprint and distance-event groups). Men and women had a similar duration in the peak-performance window (2.6 ± 1.5 years) and similar progressions to peak performance over four years (2.4 ± 1.2%) and eight years (9.5 ± 4.8%). These data provide performance targets for swimmers aiming to achieve elite-level performance.

  10. Strategic considerations for provider sponsored organizations entering the risk-bearing Medicare market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treash, M; Thomson, K

    1997-01-01

    This article considers Michael Porter's five forces of industry competition as it relates to provider sponsored organizations and asks four important questions on marketing differentiation, quality, size of market, and product/service scope.

  11. Olympic participation and performance since 1896

    OpenAIRE

    Kuper, Gerard; Sterken, Elmer

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the decision to participate and performance at the Modern Olympic Summer Games at the country level. We use an unbalanced panel of 118 countries over all 24 editions of the Summer Games since 1896. The main focus of the paper is on economic, geographic and demographic determinants of Olympic participation and success. We estimate the impact of income per capita, population size, home advantage, and some fixed country factors on participation and success rates. We present separate r...

  12. IMPACTS OF OLYMPICS ON EXPORTS AND TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Wonho Song

    2010-01-01

    There have been debates on the effects of Olympics on economy. Previous studies estimated the direct benefits and costs of Olympic Games, and concluded that the net effects were positive or negative depending on specific assumptions used for evaluations. Recent studies turn attentions to indirect benefits. For example, signaling model by Rose and Spiegel (2010) argues that mega events are the signals of liberalization the country sends, and that the hosting of mega events spurs exports. This ...

  13. The Olympics and harm reduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayser Bengt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’ resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high cost using public money for repression and control, and attempts to shape internationally harmonized legal frameworks to attain its aim. Furthermore, even if for different reasons, both wars seem not to be able to attain their objectives, and possibly lead to more harm to society than they can prevent. The Olympic buzz is mounting and we can expect multiple headlines in the media on doping and anti-doping stories related to this event. In this article we describe current anti-doping policy, reflect on its multiple unplanned consequences, and end with a discussion, if lessons learned from harm reduction experiences in the illicit drugs field could be applied to anti-doping.

  14. Sports Injury and Illness Epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall

    2015-01-01

    Background Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. Aim To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Methods The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Results Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. Conclusions The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. PMID:25425714

  15. Employer-sponsored pension plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k, in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the return to their investment have a preferential tax treatment, i.e. do not enter a tax base. The funds are taxed only when drawn from the account in the form of a pension. This paper aims to present the functioning of 401(k pension plan as the most widely used employer sponsored pension plan in the USA, which is likely, in a modified form, to have an important place within our future reformed pension insurance system.

  16. Business Plan Competitions: An Overview. CELCEE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Nicole

    This document describes business plan competitions sponsored by universities. The idea began in the early 1980s at the University of Texas when Masters in Business Administration (MBA) students created a friendly competitive activity along the lines of the law schools Moot Court competition. Later the competition became national, and then…

  17. Neuromuscular factors related to success in Olympic wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Martínez-Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between maximum dynamic and isometric strength and success in male and female Olympic wrestling. Thirty-five female and thirty-seven male wrestlers were assigned into 4 groups according to their gender and competitive level: men elite (♂ ET, n = 18 and amateur (AT ♂, n = 19 and female elite (♀ ET n = 13 and amateur (AT ♀, n = 22. All subjects underwent assessments of body composition, countermovement jump, maximum dynamic strength test in full squat and bench press exercises and maximum isometric strength test of grip and hip extension. All the neuromuscular markers studied showed significantly higher values in the two elite groups compared to their respective amateur groups results, except the jump height between ♀ET y ♀AT, where no significant differences were detected. The present results suggest that the higher maximum isometric and dynamic strength values, explained in part by the differences in lean mass, will give elite wrestlers a clear advantage during the most frequently used techniques in Olympic wrestling.  Key  Words: bench press; squat; maximum dynamic strength; maximum isometric strength; combat.

  18. Neuromuscular factors related to success in Olympic wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Martínez-Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study was undertaken to determine the relationship between maximum dynamic and isometric strength and success in male and female Olympic wrestling. Thirty-five female and thirty-seven male wrestlers were assigned into 4 groups according to their gender and competitive level: men elite (♂ ET, n = 18 and amateur (AT ♂, n = 19 and female elite (♀ ET n = 13 and amateur (AT ♀, n = 22. All subjects underwent assessments of body composition, countermovement jump, maximum dynamic strength test in full squat and bench press exercises and maximum isometric strength test of grip and hip extension. All the neuromuscular markers studied showed significantly higher values in the two elite groups compared to their respective amateur groups results, except the jump height between ♀ET y ♀AT, where no significant differences were detected. The present results suggest that the higher maximum isometric and dynamic strength values, explained in part by the differences in lean mass, will give elite wrestlers a clear advantage during the most frequently used techniques in Olympic wrestling. Key  Words: bench press; squat; maximum dynamic strength; maximum isometric strength; combat.

  19. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental

  20. An outdoor adventure programme infused with olympic values in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    up interventions are recommended to ensure sustained implementation on and off the sports field. Keywords: Cultural activities; Outdoor adventure; Multicultural; Higher education institutions; Olympism; Olympic values; Team-building.

  1. OUT Success Stories: Renewable Energy at the Olympics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.

    2000-01-01

    Many energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies were featured at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Most of the projects that contributed to the Olympics continue to provide a meaningful demonstration and learning experience for the people of Atlanta

  2. Model-theoretic Optimization Approach to Triathlon Performance Under Comparative Static Conditions – Results Based on The Olympic Games 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fröhlich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Olympic-distance triathlon, time minimization is the goal in all three disciplines and the two transitions. Running is the key to winning, whereas swimming and cycling performance are less significantly associated with overall competition time. A comparative static simulation calculation based on the individual times of each discipline was done. Furthermore, the share of the discipline in the total time proved that increasing the scope of running training results in an additional performance development. Looking at the current development in triathlon and taking the Olympic Games in London 2012 as an initial basis for model-theoretic simulations of performance development, the first fact that attracts attention is that running becomes more and more the crucial variable in terms of winning a triathlon. Run times below 29:00 minutes in Olympic-distance triathlon will be decisive for winning. Currently, cycle training time is definitely overrepresented. The share of swimming is considered optimal.

  3. Lessons from the Olympics : participants' perceptions of the 2000 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of South African athletes at the Olympic Games and to identify the possible factors that could have affected their performances. A sample of 44 participants at the 2000 Olympic Games completed a post-Olympic questionnaire. Although most athletes believed that ...

  4. The Promotion of the Youth Olympic Games: A Greek Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W.; Kantzidou, Eleni D.; Bellar, David; Peterson, Jeffrey; Gilreath, Erin; Surber, Karin

    2011-01-01

    One of the International Olympic Committee's (IOC) objectives is to reignite interest in Olympic sports in the midst of a generation of adolescents who have become increasingly overweight and inactive. In an effort to accomplish this objective, the Youth Olympic Games (YOG) were created, and the inaugural event was held in the summer of 2010. The…

  5. 76 FR 27003 - Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Donna Nemeth, Public Affairs Officer, Olympic National Forest, 360-956-2274... sent to Donna Nemeth, Olympic National Forest, 1835 Black Lake Blvd., SW., Olympia, WA 98512, or by e..., Acting Forest Supervisor, Olympic National Forest. BILLING CODE 3410-11-P ...

  6. The Didactic Engineering for the Math Olympics Teaching: Olympic Situations with Geogebra’s Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Rodrigues Alves Santos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we intend to present a partial cut of a master's research, in which we describe, in a specific way, two phases determined by Didactic Engineering - ED in the context of the Mathematical Olympiads. Thus, we have the stages of preliminary analyzes and the construction of Olympic situations/a priori analysis. We emphasize in an Olympic situation that is described/structured with the support of GeoGebra software. Intervention through the proper exploitation of software provides the learner with opportunities to overcome certain difficulties/obstacles to an understanding or even conceptual construction in geometry. In this sense, the mentioned Olympic situation was experienced by students of the ninth year of elementary education II, from a private school in the state of Ceara, Brazil. The Olympic situation described proposes the possibility of the construction of metric relations in the triangle rectangle, content referring to the area of plane geometry. The ED is presented in this research, as a vision of complementarity that uses the theory of didactic situations - TSD. In this way, the described Olympic situation represents an alternative to classes directed to the math Olympics, their indication and structure, describes elements related to didactic mediation during the teaching and learning process, which emphasize details that make it possible to control and predict the possible student’s actions, as well as, to provide the experience of more significant didactic situations for geometry study in the Olympic context.

  7. Competing Concepts of Culture: Irish Art at the 1924 Paris Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire A. Culleton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Art Competitions formed part of the modern Olympic Games during its early years. From 1912-1948, art contests were featured in Summer Games in Stockholm (1912, Antwerp (1920, Paris (1924, Amsterdam (1928, Los Angeles (1932, Berlin (1936 and London (1948, where artists competed for medals in the categories of painting, architecture, literature, music, and sculpting. Ireland competed in four of those summer games, and a total of thirty-one Irish artists (twenty-one men/ten women, most of them members of the Royal Hibernian Academy or the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art participated in nine separate art contests and submitted forty-three works for competition.

  8. Realizing User-Relevant Conceptual Model for the Ski Jump Venue of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teakles, Andrew; Mo, Ruping; Dierking, Carl F.; Emond, Chris; Smith, Trevor; McLennan, Neil; Joe, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    As was the case for most other Olympic competitions, providing weather guidance for the ski jump and Nordic combined events involved its own set of unique challenges. The extent of these challenges was brought to light before the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics during a series of outflow wind events in the 2008/2009 winter season. The interactions with the race officials during the difficult race conditions brought on by the outflows provided a new perspective on the service delivery requirements for the upcoming Olympic Games. In particular, the turbulent nature of the winds and its impact on the ski jump practice events that season highlighted the need of race officials for nowcasting advice at very short time scales (from 2 min to 1 h) and forecast products tailored to their decision-making process. These realizations resulted in last minute modifications to the monitoring strategy leading up to the Olympic Games and required forecasters' conceptual models for flow within the Callaghan Valley to be downscaled further to reflect the evolution of turbulence at the ski jump site. The SNOW-V10 (Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010) team provided support for these efforts by supplying diagnostic case analyses of important events using numerical weather data and by enhancing the real-time monitoring capabilities at the ski jump venue.

  9. Tangible and Intangible Legacy of the 19th Century Zappas Olympics and their Implications for Contemporary Sport Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaritis George

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As has been shown in the article, the Zappas Olympics generously contributed to the revival of the Olympic Games in the nineteenth century. The course of these competitions has been described, and a brief summary of Zappas’s work, which does not often attract a lot of attention in, for example, Polish academics, has also been made. The fact that the Zappas Olympics mainly enhanced the national identity of the Greeks following Turkish captivity has also been highlighted. The Zappas Olympics allowed the Greeks to become more familiar with sports and fair play. The knowledge that the Greeks acquired from the organization of this event was useful for the organization of the first modern Olympic Games in Athens. These days, material remains of this event serve touristic and cultural functions. The significance of such facilities as the Zappeion and the Panathenaic Stadium have also been underlined. For example, the Zappeion and the Panathenaic Stadium host cultural events and welcome tourists interested in sports history or Greek culture. These are the authorities responsible for touristic policy in Greece and they may decide whether such historic sites and sporting facilities will be included in thematic routes for tourists. According to the authors of the present paper, these sites may effectively compete with mass and recreational attractions in Greece.

  10. Torino 2006. XX Olympic and IX Paralympic Winter Games: the ENT experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succo, G; Crosetti, E; Mattiazzo, A; Riontino, E; Massazza, G

    2008-06-01

    A total of 27 competition days, more than 3000 athletes, over 10,000 components of the Olympic family, 3,500 workers, 2,500 volunteers, an overall business of more than 2 billion Euros. These, in a nutshell, are just a few of the data concerning the XX Olympic and the IX Paralympic Winter Games, Torino, Italy, 2006. Such a huge event, obviously required a meticulously organized medical service to cope with the healthcare of the athletes, official workers and the Olympic family, distributed over a geographic area of approximately 80 km in diameter. An ENT service was organized within the medical service, which was divided between 3 Polyclinics, in which 12 ENT Specialists were on duty. The present report gives an account of the final data concerning the service involved, together with a description of the approach used in the actual organization, with a view to providing useful information for colleagues who will be called upon, for a similar service, in future Olympic Winter Games. The ENT healthcare offered was confirmed to be proportional to the requirements, both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. All the ENT specialists involved, reported having gained an immense store of human experience from having lived the Olympic atmosphere as a volunteer exerting one's own profession. The facilities available in the Polyclinics, which were at a considerable distance from the Hospital, were found to be more than adequate with respect to the pathological conditions and service requested, particularly in 17% of the cases which would otherwise have been sent to a Hospital Outpatient Unit at least 80 km away.

  11. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of an Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Darren McHugh

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the net benefit to Canada of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games. Two particular classes of problems in Olympic CBA are studied in detail. The first is the unique nature of project dependency in an Olympic Games, and this is surmounted by the classification of Olympic-related costs and benefits as "Event-related" or "Infrastructure-related", with rules for handing each in the context of a CBA for an Olympic Games. The second is the estimation of net benefit...

  12. Sociodemographic profile of an Olympic team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D W

    2017-07-01

    To document the distribution of sociodemographic markers (race and relative access to wealth) in athletes participating at the summer and Winter Olympic Games (OGs). Cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological study. Sociodemographic data were collected from publically available resources for all athletes representing four countries (Canada, United States of America, Great Britain and Australia) at the 2014 Sochi Winter OGs and 2016 Rio Summer OGs. The prevalence of white and privately educated athletes were identified for each sport, country, and team with consideration and comparison to the general population. Access indices (i.e. the combined race socio-economic access index [CAI]) were developed to describe the relative distribution of white and privately educated athletes representing each sport, country and team compared to the respective general population. A total of 568 winter and 1643 summer athletes were included in this study. Privately educated athletes constituted 30.3% and 32.7% of winter and summer athletes, respectively; while 94.9% of winter and 81.7% of summer athletes were white. The CAIs of the Canadian, American, British and Australian winter Olympic teams were 0.52, 0.42, 0.61 and 0.45, respectively. The CAIs, for the Canadian, American, British and Australian summer Olympic teams were 0.89, 1.13, 0.82 and 0.83, respectively. Summer and winter sports with the greatest and least racial and socio-economic biases were identified. Racial and socio-economic biases were identified in both summer and winter Olympic sports; predominantly favouring white and privately educated Olympic athletes. These findings prompt further inquiry into barriers for sport-specific participation and advancement, in addition to the practice of providing substantial public resources in support for Olympic sports and athletes. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Global Initiative of the Special Olympics Movement for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Damentko, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Special Olympics is to provide year-round sports training and competition in a variety (33) of Olympic-type sports for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, giving them continuing opportunities to develop physical fitness, demonstrate courage, experience joy, and participate in sharing of gifts and friendship with their families, other athletes, and their communities. The Special Olympics movement often goes beyond the sports competition formula. During the last few years, the movement has developed many new global initiatives, which expand its former sports activities. They include: Coaching excellence and the coaching modelPartnerships with international (regional) sports federationsSports Resources Teams (SRT)Extended quota for high level athletesAthletes Leadership Program (ALPS)Young Athletes ProgramYouth volunteer initiativesUnified Sports ProgramMotor Activity Training ProgramHealthy Athletes Program These initiatives fulfill and expand the existing program, which was launched in 1968 and is the largest sports organization for people with disabilities worldwide, with very important new social, marketing, and developmental aspects of life, going far beyond activities met in other sports organizations. PMID:25964828

  14. Official opening of the Olympic Dam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, A.

    1989-01-01

    This is the text of an address given on November 5, 1988 to mark the commencement of production of copper, uranium, gold and silver from the first stage of the Olympic Dam project at Roxby Downs, South Australia. The huge deposit was discovered in 1975 and years of exploration, underground development, metallurgical testing, planning and establishing the infrastructure followed, at a cost of $750 million. 740 people are now employed at Olympic Dam. The first shipment of copper and uranium oxide left for Sweden at the end of November 1988. The deposit is able to support a much higher production rate as the market for the products, particularly uranium, improves

  15. Lieux de mémoire / sites of memories and the Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2011-01-01

    opportunities for the representation of groups and nations and for the construction of collective memories which are intertwined with political myths and anchored in cultural values and ideologies. In this article, theoretical approaches to sites of memories, collective symbols, and political myths as well...... as the politics and processes of remembering are discussed. The theoretical insights are transferred to the field of sport, in particular to the Olympic Games. Not only the competitions but also the buildings, rituals and ceremonies, the athletes and teams, and the audiences have been used to construct, change...... and revive collective memories. The Games of 1896, the architecture of the Olympic site in Berlin, and the opening ceremony in Sydney in 2000 are used as examples....

  16. Association between Pressure Pain Sensitivity, Performance stability and Overall Performance in Olympic Sailors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Petersen, Pernille Bjørn; Harboe, Gitte Sommer

    2016-01-01

    Background: During sports competitions, the performance of athletes may be negatively affected by persistent stress and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, both of which can be assessed by pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) at the chest bone. Objectives: To test the association between PPS...... and sports performance; does a reduction of an elevated PPS improve performance stability and overall performance in Olympic sailors? Methods: The case study included two male athletes during eight months of observation prior to and during Olympic sailing. The daily PPS self-measurements served as feedback...... guide for persistent stress and ANS dysfunction. Performance stability, overall performance and PPS measure were assessed at three intervals. Results: At baseline, the median PPS was 83, the performance stability was inferior to the mean top 10 competitors, and the overall performance was rank eight...

  17. Association between Pressure Pain Sensitivity, Performance stability and Overall Performance in Olympic Sailors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens Oscar; Ballegaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Background: During sports competitions, the performance of athletes may be negatively affected by persistent stress and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, both of which can be assessed by pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) at the chest bone. Objectives: To test the association between PPS......: r > 0.70; p stress and ANS dysfunction as assessed by PPS on one side and performance stability and overall performance on the other side. Keywords Autonomic nervous system dysfunction; Pressure pain sensitivity; Sports...... and sports performance; does a reduction of an elevated PPS improve performance stability and overall performance in Olympic sailors? Methods: The case study included two male athletes during eight months of observation prior to and during Olympic sailing. The daily PPS self-measurements served as feedback...

  18. From antiquity to Olympic revival: sports and Greek national historiography (nineteenth-twentieth centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouri, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the historiography of Greek sport from the foundation of the Greek state (1830) until 1982 and its links with Greek national history, which also took shape primarily during the nineteenth century. The gradual 'nationalisation' of sport as an element of Greek national character since antiquity corresponded to changes in perceptions of the national past reflected in historiography. The ancient Olympic Games, Byzantine contests and exercises, the competitions of the klephts and armatoloi (militia soldiers) during the Ottoman rule and the modern revival of the Olympic Games were all successively integrated in a national history of sport confirming national continuity and unity. However this particular genre of national historiography did not gain academic recognition until recently. The authors of histories of physical exercise and sport were amateurs or physical education instructors and could not ensure to their work the authority of a separate discipline.

  19. Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing Olympic or Paralympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities.

  20. External barrel temperature of a small bore olympic rifle and shooting precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyszewska, B; Baranowski, P; Mazurek, W; Wozniak, J; Gladyszewski, G

    2013-03-01

    Investigations on changes in a rifle's barrel temperature during shooting in a rhythm typical for practitioners of Olympic shooting sports are presented. Walther KK300 (cal. 5.6 mm), a typical rifle often used in Olympic competitions, R50 RWS ammunition and a high speed thermographic camera were used in the study. Altair version 5 software was used to process thermal images and a stationary wavelet transform was applied to denoise signals for all the studied points. It was found that the temperature of the rifle barrel does not exceed 0.3°C after one shot whereas the total temperature increase does not exceed 5°C after taking 40 shots and does not affect the position of the hitting point on a target. In fact, contrary to popular belief, the so-called "warming shots" are not done for barrel heating but for cleaning of remnants in the barrel.

  1. The Didactic Engineering for the Math Olympics Teaching: Olympic Situations with Geogebra’s Support

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Rodrigues Alves Santos; Francisco Régis Vieira Alves

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we intend to present a partial cut of a master's research, in which we describe, in a specific way, two phases determined by Didactic Engineering - ED in the context of the Mathematical Olympiads. Thus, we have the stages of preliminary analyzes and the construction of Olympic situations/a priori analysis. We emphasize in an Olympic situation that is described/structured with the support of GeoGebra software. Intervention through the proper exploitation of software provides t...

  2. Hockey: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Suggestions for coaching and teaching hockey skills to mentally retarded persons are presented in this guide, one of seven booklets on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs. An introductory section presents an overview of the sport, information on the organization of the training session, and a list of goals, objectives, and…

  3. Olympic Information in the SPORT Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belna, Alison M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Profiles the SPORT database, produced by Sport Information Resource Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, which provides extensive coverage of individual sports including practice, training and equipment, recreation, sports medicine, physical education, sport facilities, and international sport history. Olympic coverage in SPORT, sports sciences, online…

  4. Olympic - Eesti esimene maailmavallutaja? / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Olympic on väga tugeva juhiga, ambitsioonikas ettevõte, mille aktsia hind on kukkunud tasemele, mida võiks pikaajaline investor tasapisi hakata võtma kui head ostukohta. Vt. samas: Tugevad näitajad sisendavad kindlust. Diagramm: Olympicu aktsia

  5. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    less are invited to present their research and results as a paper, in the style typically published by scientific journals. The student is allowed to choose a topic within the broad scope of physics, including cross-over fields such as astro- or biophysics. In 2008 over 2000 papers were submitted and 25 awards were given. In line with 'First Step' is the International Conference for Young Scientists (ICYS) [7]. The conference started in 1994 in Viségrad, Hungary. Here too, the participants present the results of their research, not by submitting a research paper but by giving a presentation to an audience of peers and a jury of specialists. The subjects of the presentations are in physics, mathematics, computer science, environmental sciences, engineering or life sciences. The jury awards the presentations according to the level of the content and the presentation. The last three competitions presented here are younger and did not start within Eastern European countries. The International Olympics of Astrophysics and Astronomy (IOAA) was organized for the second time in Bandung, Indonesia in 2008 and 24 countries participated [8]. As the title of the competition indicates, problems are directed towards theoretical and experimental aspects of astronomy. A little bit older is the European Union Science Olympiad (EUSO) [9]. This started in 2001, but the first competition took place in Dublin, Ireland, in 2003. The last competition was organized in March-April 2009 in Murcia, Spain. This competition addresses younger students, aged 17 years or less. It tries to combine biology, chemistry and physics. Although the problems are formulated in an interdisciplinary way, the students remain specialists, one in physics and the others in biology and chemistry. For even younger students, there is the International Junior Science Olympiad (IJSO) [10]. This competition started in December 2004 on the initiative of Professor Masno Ginting from Indonesia. The last competition took

  6. Who Wins the Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Meghan R. Busse

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.

  7. PATRONIZATION OF GLOBALIZATION IN FRAMEWORK OF OLYMPICS: A LITERATURE PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Khuram shafi; Amer Rajput

    2011-01-01

    A considerable amount of literature has been published on globalization. These studies investigate the globalization with varying contexts. This literature review is an endeavor to investigate globalization in the context of Olympic and sports. This article defines the globalization, discusses Olympic as antecedent of globalization, and explores cultural aspect of globalization in perspective of Olympic. Furthermore, it suggests the future direct to investigate impact of globalization for...

  8. Olympic social responsibility : a challenge for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Bayle, E.

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility, especially in the fields of education, society and peace, is one of the cornerstones of the olympic ideal and strategic vision (contribute to building a better world through sport). The article reviews the literature on organizational social responsibility (OSR) and the relationship between sport/olympism and OSR in order to examine the conditions governing the implementation and success of the International Olympic Committee's strategic vision. Several ways in which th...

  9. Host government directorate: London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic emblem guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”), the London 2012 Paralympic Games Emblem (the “Paralympic Emblem”) and the Dual London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Emblems (“Dual Emblems”) by authorised Host Government Directorate only.

  10. Modern Olympic sport: economic mechanism of self-development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka S.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents characteristics of the Olympic movement as a real self-sufficient socio-economic phenomenon, with its inherent internal mechanism of self-development. There are identified the main problems of improving the mechanism of self-development, the modernization of the distribution of income from the sale of commercial programs between the participants of Olympic sports and enhance the fight against "piracy" marketing. The objectives of the NOC assistance program implemented by "Olympic Solidarity" fund are defined, the structure of expenditures on the IOC "Olympic Solidarity" program implementation are presented.

  11. State-sponsored research on creatine supplements and blood doping in elite Soviet sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinski, Michael I

    2003-01-01

    The former Soviet Union began participating in international sport after World War II and soon achieved a dominant position in the Olympic Games and other competitions. The success of Soviet athletic programs led to charges of unfair practices but, because of secrecy surrounding Soviet research in exercise biochemistry, it has been difficult to substantiate these charges. This article presents previously restricted information regarding the development and use of creatine supplements and blood doping in the USSR. Early work by Olexander Palladin established the role of creatine in muscle function. In the 1970s, Soviet scientists showed that oral creatine supplements improved athletic performance in short, intense activities such as sprints. Subsequent studies in the West substantiated these investigations and have led to the widespread acceptance and use of creatine supplements to enhance muscle function and athletic performance. In addition, however, the Soviet government supported the development of blood doping, which is banned by the International Olympic Committee. Blood doping was pervasive in the USSR in the 1970s and 1980s, and was used by many Soviet athletes in the 1976 and 1980 Olympic Games. Open publication and discussion may help to prevent the abuses that can come from secret scientific research.

  12. Robotics Competitions: An Overview of First© Events and VEX© Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Robotics competitions generate excitement and raise the profile of a robotics program. This article provides an overview of robotics competitions, concentrating on those sponsored by FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) and RECF (Robotics Education and Competition Foundation). FIRST® LEGO® League and VEX® robotics…

  13. Sustainable legacies for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipway, Richard

    2007-05-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games have the unique potential to deliver sustainable sporting, social, cultural, economic and environmental legacies, not just for London as the host city, but for the whole of Britain. This article focuses primarily on the first three of these potential Olympics legacies. The first area explored is the social legacy as it impacts on host communities; second, the potential educational and cultural legacy of the 2012 Games are examined; and finally, there follows an overview of the health benefits that could result from a sustained increase in mass participation in sport, physical activity and exercise. This appraisal is undertaken through a review of existing Olympic literature and examples are drawn from previous summer and winter Games. This preliminary exploration is followed by the identification of some key challenges to be overcome if the opportunities available to a wide and diverse range of stakeholders are to be fully optimized. The article suggests that the 2012 Games can act as a catalyst for sports development throughout Britain, while also assisting with government cross-cutting agendas such as tackling crime, antisocial behaviour, developing healthy and active communities, improving educational attainment, and combating barriers to participation. In doing so, this article argues that priority should be placed at supporting grassroots sport through greater access to sport in the community, and not solely elite level sports development. The article concludes by suggesting that the 2012 Games provide opportunities to deliver real and tangible changes and most importantly, to afford a higher priority to sport, along with the obvious associated health benefits for Britain as a whole. The underlying challenge as we move towards 2012 is to achieve a positive step change in the attitudes towards sport and physical activity in British society. Achieving this would possibly be the greatest legacy of the 2012 Olympic and

  14. THE DYNAMICS OF ATHLETIC PERFORMANCES IN THE SEMIFOND TRIALS FOR THE FINALISTS IN THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina TIFREA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The best results recorded for the 3rd-8th places in the men’s 800m event were obtained in the year 2012, during the Olympic Games from London, when the performance for the 3rd place was below 1:43.00, while the following places have small differences between each other – 8th place obtained 1:43.77. The better and better performances and the increasingly developed show during the great athletic competitions (Olympic Games and the desire to get more information concerning the evolution of the performances in the medium-distance running events, made us choose the present subject. The evolution of the results for the 3rd to 8th places in the Olympic Games, for the medium distance events, has shown an oscillating dynamics from one edition to another, based on multiple factors that cannot always be controlled. The purpose of the present study is to highlight the aspects related to the dynamics of the sportive performance in the medium-distance athletic events during the Olympic Games, as well as to render an as objective and complete opinion as possible, on the evolution of the results for the 3rd to 8th places.

  15. Characteristics of event tourism marketing. Case study: the European youth Olympic festival, Brasov 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herţanu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Event tourism is a very important branch of tourism, not only from the economic point of view, but also as the cultural and social development of a tourism destination. Organizing sporting events is considered, by the managers of tourism destinations, as an improvement strategy regarding the destination image, and as a competitive advantage. This article brings forward the features of event tourism concerning the marketing mix policies and the importance of events in the development of an area. The chosen study case is Brasov County area, which will host, in 201,3 the winter edition of the European Youth Olympic Festival.

  16. Lieux de mémoire / sites of memories and the Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, research about collective memories of groups or nations has increased decisively. At the same time, ‘lieux de mémoire’ have become an issue of heated debates and controversies about the ‘right memories’, which may support political claims or even wars. Sports provide excellent...... as the politics and processes of remembering are discussed. The theoretical insights are transferred to the field of sport, in particular to the Olympic Games. Not only the competitions but also the buildings, rituals and ceremonies, the athletes and teams, and the audiences have been used to construct, change...

  17. Sponsors' participation in conduct and reporting of industry trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Krogsbøll, Lasse T; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Bias in industry-sponsored trials is common and the interpretation of the results can be particularly distorted in favour of the sponsor's product. We investigated sponsors' involvement in the conduct and reporting of industry-sponsored trials.......Bias in industry-sponsored trials is common and the interpretation of the results can be particularly distorted in favour of the sponsor's product. We investigated sponsors' involvement in the conduct and reporting of industry-sponsored trials....

  18. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) General...

  19. Disaster Preparedness: Lessons from the 2002 Salt Lake City Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, Richard A.

    Between February 7 and February 24, 2002, Utah and Salt Lake City hosted the Winter Olympics. Due to the bombing at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta and the emotional fallout that resulted, it was recommended that the Utah Psychological Association and Utah Red Cross plan for such an occurrence and organize a coordinated Disaster Mental Health…

  20. Air pollution, athletic health and performance at the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to briefly review air pollution and its effects on athletes' health and performance and to examine air quality (AQ) at specific Olympic Summer Games between 1964 and 2008. It will focus on any attempts made by the cities hosting these Olympics to improve AQ for the Games and if undertaken, how successful these were. The author had a medical role at five of the seven Olympic Games that will be examined and hence has personal experiences. Information was obtained from the readily accessible official reports of the Olympic Games, relevant published papers and books and the internet. For each of these seven Olympic Games, monitoring AQ was far below current acceptable standards and for the majority, minimal or no data on major pollutants was available. From what can be ascertained, at these Games, AQ varied but was less than optimal in most if not all. Nevertheless, there were few reported or known unfavorable effects on the health of Olympic athletes. To date, there have been few reported consequences of sub-optimal AQ at Olympic Games. The focus on AQ at Olympic Games has gradually increased over the past five decades and is expected to continue into the future.

  1. Delivering the International Olympic Committee's mandate on Youth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is currently planning the historic Youth Olympic Games (YOG), an international mul ti-sport event that will be inaugurated in Singapore in 2010. On the 6t h of July 2007, the establishment of the YOG was approved and will feature 14 to 18 year-old athletes. The purpose of the YOG ...

  2. Systematic review of team Nigeria's performance in olympic games ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participation and winning medals in Olympic Games have become a veritable avenue through which nations attain international visibility. It is also an opportunity for countries to make strong political statement about their advancements in sports. Nigeria performance in recent Olympics has been unimpressive. This work ...

  3. Changing Roles of Women: Participation in Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyonov, Moshe

    1981-01-01

    Investigates whether a country's socioeconomic characteristics influence female participation in the Olympics and other athletics. The author reviews data on women's participation in Olympic teams and in the labor forces worldwide. Economic development and industrialization support women's rising economic status as well as their participation in…

  4. SPONSORING, BRAND VALUE AND SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zauner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing involvement of individuals in social media over the past decade has enabled firms to pursue new avenues in communication and sponsoring activities. Besides general research on either social media or sponsoring, questions regarding the consequences of a joint activity (sponsoring activities in social media remain unexplored. Hence, the present study analyses whether the perceived image of the brand and the celebrity endorser credibility of a top sports team influence the perceived brand value of the sponsoring firm in a social media setting. Moreover, these effects are compared between existing customers and non-customers of the sponsoring firm. Interestingly, perceived celebrity endorser credibility plays no role in forming brand value perceptions in the case of the existing customers. Implications for marketing theory and practice are derived.

  5. Paradigma Baru Sponsor sebagai Mitra Penyelenggaraan Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Evelina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this article is to know why sponsorship only to be viewed as sources of funding to implement the public relation events or marketing communication events. Method used in this article is qualitative method research to be based on observation, library study and content analysis. The result of this research seems that change happened in role of sponsorship from only fund source to become a partner of cooperation (mutual symbiotism between sponsor and event organizer. This article exploring the change of sponsorship concept from only looking for sponsor as an activity of fund mobilitation to become a partnership cooperation between event organizer and sponsor company. The mean of sponsor itself beside the fund supporter, they are also a side who takes mutual benefit from the cooperation. Conclusion, any close relationship (mutual benefit between two sides who take cooperation in event implementation (sponsor and event organiser. 

  6. Antidoping control in Brazil: history, current situation, and prospects for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcos Antonio Pereira dos; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; Ribeiro, Sergio Luiz Galan; Santos, Azenildo Moura

    2014-07-01

    Brazil will soon host two major sporting events: the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Given the importance of antidoping control during these competitions, it is important that the scientific community receive a status update on antidoping control in Brazil. In this brief communication, the authors present the status of antidoping control in Brazil from an historical perspective, both the benefits and difficulties to be faced by antidoping control during these events, and the legacy resulting from the efficacy of the drug testing performed during these competitions.

  7. Biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored global clinical trials in emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Lenio Souza; Martins, Elisabeth Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials placed in countries previously described as emerging regions for clinical research, and potential differences for those placed in Brazil. Data regarding recruitment of subjects for clinical trials were retrieved from www.clinicaltrials.gov on February 2nd 2009. Proportions of sites in each country were compared among emerging countries. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate whether trial placement in Brazil could be predicted by trial location in other countries and/or by trial features. A total of 8,501 trials were then active and 1,170 (13.8%) included sites in emerging countries (i.e., Argentina, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, and South Africa). South Korea and China presented a significantly higher proportion of sites when compared to other countries (pBrazil. Trials involving subjects with less than 15 years of age, those with targeted recruitment of at least 1,000 subjects, and seven sponsors were identified as significant predictors of trial placement in Brazil. No clear direct competition between Brazil and other emerging countries was detected. South Korea showed the higher proportion of sites and ranked third in total number of trials, appearing as a major player in attractiveness for biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials.

  8. Tribulations and achievements: the early history of Olympism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C R

    2001-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century, modern sport had enchanted the people of Argentina. At that time the nation enjoyed a remarkable degree of economic prosperity and embarked on increasing political democratization. These circumstances, along with the fact that the nation was represented from the beginning, in 1894, on the International Olympic Committee seemed to favour Argentina as the spearhead of the diffusion of Olympism throughout South America. However, the country only enjoyed its first official Olympic participation in the Paris Games of 1924 - a few months after the establishment of the Argentine Olympic Committee. This essay explores the reception and diffusion of Olympism in Argentina. It reveals a process of gradual adoption including conflicting views on the relationship between the state and sport, several attempts at institutionalization, international misunderstandings and the role of politics and class.

  9. The Promotion and Perception of the Youth Olympic Games: A Korean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W.; Lee, Don; Surber, Karin; Bellar, David; Petersen, Jeffrey; Ivan, Emese; Kim, Hyeon Jung

    2013-01-01

    The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) was launched in part to reignite interest in Olympic sports in the midst of a generation of increasingly overweight and inactive adolescents. But since the initial announcement of the YOG by the International Olympic Committee in 2007, this new third addition to the Olympic family of events has provoked response from…

  10. Changes in hydration status of elite Olympic class sailors in different climates and the effects of different fluid replacement beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Olympic class sailing poses physiological challenges similar to other endurance sports such as cycling or running, with sport specific challenges of limited access to nutrition and hydration during competition. As changes in hydration status can impair sports performance, examining fluid consumption patterns and fluid/electrolyte requirements of Olympic class sailors is necessary to develop specific recommendations for these elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine if Olympic class sailors could maintain hydration status with self-regulated fluid consumption in cold conditions and the effect of fixed fluid intake on hydration status in warm conditions. Methods In our cold condition study (CCS), 11 elite Olympic class sailors were provided ad libitum access to three different drinks. Crystal Light (control, C); Gatorade (experimental control, G); and customized sailing-specific Infinit (experimental, IN) (1.0:0.22 CHO:PRO), were provided on three separate training days in cold 7.1°C [4.2 – 11.3]. Our warm condition study (WCS) examined the effect of fixed fluid intake (11.5 mL.kg.-1.h-1) of C, G and heat-specific experimental Infinit (INW)(1.0:0.074 CHO:PRO) on the hydration status of eight elite Olympic Laser class sailors in 19.5°C [17.0 - 23.3]. Both studies used a completely random design. Results In CCS, participants consumed 802 ± 91, 924 ± 137 and 707 ± 152 mL of fluid in each group respectively. This did not change urine specific gravity, but did lead to a main effect for time for body mass (p hydration status was maintained by preventing changes in body mass and urine specific gravity. PMID:23432855

  11. Energy diagnosis in industry: case of SAP Olympic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandouidi, Ziwendtaore Frederic

    2007-01-01

    The control of the energy consumption became a crucial problem in the production facilities in Burkina Faso. Energy efficiency is a fact that cannot be ignored in the industrial sector because of the rise unceasingly in the prices of the petroleum. Current reality makes it possible to note the extent of the cost of electricity in our country. The economic pressures in all the sectors of the economic activity, unrestrained competitiveness, the removal of the tariff barriers in the UEMAO member countries caused many difficulties for several companies. SAP Olympic, potential consumer of electrical energy, has difficulties in control and optimize its energy consumption. The importance of this consumption of energy is the subject of great debates at this African Company of Tire. The performances of the old installations of energy are often distant from those obtained with the new installations. If it is relatively easy to carry out new powerful installations, the improvement of the energy consumption of the existing installations requires a study on a case-by-case basis, and it is not always possible to find a solution ensuring the same performances as a new installation. It is necessary to set up rigorous methods of follow-up of the calorific and electric consumption of the equipment in order to have a sufficiently precise energy assessment. The energy diagnosis indeed carries out the most relevant choices for our actions of energy saving [fr

  12. Weather Support for the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Sailing Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Sailing Competitions (referred to as OPSC hereafter were held at Qingdao during August 9–23 and September 7–13 2008, respectively. The Qingdao Meteorological Bureau was the official provider of weather support for the OPSC. Three-dimensional real-time information with high spatial-temporal resolution was obtained by the comprehensive observation system during the OPSC, which included weather radars, wind profile radars, buoys, automated weather stations, and other conventional observations. The refined forecasting system based on MM5, WRF, and statistical modules provided point-specific hourly wind forecasts for the five venues, and the severe weather monitoring and forecasting system was used in short-term forecasts and nowcasts for rainstorms, gales, and hailstones. Moreover, latest forecasting products, warnings, and weather information were communicated conveniently and timely through a synthetic, speedy, and digitalized network system to different customers. Daily weather information briefings, notice boards, websites, and community short messages were the main approaches for regatta organizers, athletes, and coaches to receive weather service products at 8:00 PM of each day and whenever new updates were available. During the period of OPSC, almost one hundred people were involved in the weather service with innovative service concept, and the weather support was found to be successful and helpful to the OPSC.

  13. The Olympic Games of Beijing: Mobility, Environment and New Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental condition of Beijing is characterized by high level of entropy mainly referable to the air pollution that considerably affects the conditions of urban life. The basic idea of this text is to succeed in finding a thread among some building realizations and infrastructures in course of completion and in verifying, also thanks to the use of advanced technologies, the entropic or neghentropic contribution to the actual quality of life in the Chinese capital. The buildings considered useful for an investigation are the following: The Olympic Stadium, destined to entertain about 90 thousand spectators and covered with more than one thousand solar panels to satisfy the whole energetic requirement of the structure and of the surrounding area; the National Aquatic Centre (known as “water cube” inside which competitions of aquatic sports will take place and thanks to the new technologies it will be possible to recycle tons of water a year; the new terminal n.3 of the Beijing Capital Airport, designed by Sir Norman Foster, which will become, with its 66 million passengers, the biggest terminal all over the world. The paper describes the sudden transformations that the Chinese capital is undergoing in the last years, which are contributing to conform its new pattern of world city reshaped to the western model.

  14. Special attention to the weight-control strategies employed by Olympic athletes striving for leanness is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmar, Magnus; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Berglund, Lukas; Berglund, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of body weight and composition is a key priority for elite athletes striving for a competitive advantage. The present investigation was designed to characterize various parameters related to weight control in Olympic competitors. Cross-sectional study. Research unit at a University Hospital. 223 athletes (125 men and 98 women, with only 1 drop-out), all members of the Swedish teams participating in the Olympic Games of 2002 and 2004. Self-reported body weight and height, from which BMI was calculated, variation in weight during the year prior to Olympic competition, and self-reported weight control strategies by questionnaire. The athletes were divided into two groups on the basis of whether their sporting discipline emphasized leanness or not. The athletes participating in disciplines that emphasize leanness demonstrated a lower mean BMI (22.7 +/- 2.7 vs 3.7 +/- 2.3 for nonlean athletes, P athletes. Furthermore, 9.4% of lean athletes reported previously suffering from an eating disorder, in comparison to 2.7% of the nonlean athletes (P athletes in disciplines emphasizing leanness also reported being ill during the prior 3 month period (38.5% vs 21.6%, P athletes participating disciplines that emphasize leanness appear to be suboptimal. Counseling concerning weight control could be used as a tool to prevent illness and enhance performance.

  15. A PROFILE OF OLYMPIC TAEKWONDO COMPETITORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Kazemi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the profile of the Olympic champions and the other competitors who were involved in the Games. The information on each of the athletes was obtained from the "Official Site of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, www.olympics.com/eng/sports/TK" and included weight category, weight, height, age, points obtained, warnings, deduction point, defensive/offensive kicks and punches. One hundred and two athletes competed (54 males and 48 females in the Games. The mean average age and BMI (Body Mass Index of 16 male winners was 24.4 ± 3.3 years and 21.9 ± 2.4 respectively compared to 25.2 ± 4.3 years and 22.8 ± 3.3 for the 38 male non-winners. The mean average age and BMI of the 16 female winners was 23.1 ± 3.9 years and 20.8 ± 2.3 respectively compared to 24.9 ± 4.7 years and 21.3 ± 2.7 for the 32 female non-winners. For all four types of athletes, offensive kicks accounted for at least 52% of the techniques to score a point. Ninety-eight percent of all techniques used to score were kicks. Although not statistically significant, winners overall tended to be younger in age and taller with slightly lower BMI than their weight category average. Taking into account the literature cited in this article, future studies should be designed to examine the relationship between performance and functional variables such as muscle power, muscle endurance, reaction time and aerobic capacity.

  16. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  17. The environment of the Olympic Dam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The Olympic Dam uranium/copper/gold project at Roxby Downs, South Australia, has a harsh environment with high summer temperatures, low rainfall and poor quality soils. There are no natural water courses. The vegetation is dominated by annual grasses in summer and wildflowers in winter. Red kangaroos are the most commonly sighted native mammals. The Fat-tailed Dunnart a nocturnal carniverous marsupial, is found. Eighty three bird species have been recorded. Reptiles are numerous and one amphibian occurs. A vermin eradication program aimed at rabbit control is conducted. ills

  18. Environmental design of the Olympic Dam operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental Design of The Olympic Dam Operations has been required to take into account the Environmental Management Programme as approved by the South Australian Government and radiological protection standards as determined by the Commonwealth of Australia's Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores 1987. The article describes the natural environment, project assessment and infrastructure relating to the environmental design. The radiological standards refer to the control of exposure to radiation above naturally occurring background levels both for employees and for members of the public. 2 tabs., maps

  19. Social networking and the Olympic Movement: social media analysis, opportunities and trends : final report

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Peña, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Table of contents : 1: Introduction. - 2 : Sociodemographic data of social networking sites. - 3 : The Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games on Facebook, Twitter and Orkut. - 4 : Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games communication strategies on Facebook and Twitter. - 5 : Sport organizations social networking strategies : case study analysis. - 6 : Olympic athletes and social media use during a non olympic-period. - 7. The Olympic Games, NBA and FC Barcelona on Facebook : content and fan participa...

  20. Medical care delivery at the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-jun; Wang, Li-dong; Chen, Zhi; Ma, Jun; Dai, Jian-ping

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beijing successfully hosted the 2008 Olympic Games, and the services including medical services were widely appreciated by both participants and visitors. We retrospectively analyzed the quality of the medical services provided to athletes, spectators, VIPs, and the workforce during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The information thus gathered would be useful for planning strategies for managing mass gatherings. METHODS: Medical encounter forms filled during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games were retrospectively reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to characterize the data by accreditation and diagnostic categories. RESULTS: A total of 22 892 medical encounters were documented during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Among them, 10 549 (46.08%) involved the workforce, 3 365 (14.70%) athletes, 3 019 (13.19%) spectators, 585 (2.56%) members of the media, 1 065 (4.65%) VIPs, and 4 309 (18.82%) others. Of the 22 892 cases, physical injury accounted for 27.90% (6 386), respiratory disease 18.21% (4 169), and heat-related illnesses 2.68% (615). CONCLUSIONS: Preparations of the medical service for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games were made for 7 years, and the service provided has been praised worldwide. This study provides valuable information that may be useful for planning medical services for upcoming Olympic Games, including the London 2012 Olympic Games and other mass gatherings. PMID:25215021

  1. Age dependence of Olympic weightlifting ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, D E

    1994-08-01

    There is increasing interest among Masters athletes in standards for comparing performances of competitors of different ages. The goal of this study was to develop one such age-comparison method by examining the age dependence of ability in Olympic-style weightlifting. Previous research on the deterioration of muscular strength and power with increasing age offers only limited guidance toward this goal; therefore, analysis of performance data was required. The variation of weightlifting ability as a function of age was examined by two different methods. First, cross-sectional data corresponding to two separate populations of Masters weightlifters were analyzed in detail. Then, a longitudinal study of 64 U.S. male Masters weightlifters was carried out, with performance versus age curves resulting from the two methods were very similar, reflecting approximately 1.0-1.5% x yr-1 deterioration rates. These curves were characterized by common features regarding the rate of decline of muscular power with increasing age, in apparent agreement with published data regarding Masters sprinters and jumpers. We tentatively conclude that Olympic weightlifting ability in trained subjects undergoes a nonlinear decline with age, in which the second derivative of the performance versus age curve repeatedly changes sign.

  2. Estimating the economic impact of the Sydney Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, John; Crowe, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    This paper employs a multiregional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to examine the effects on the New South Wales and Australian economies of the 2000 Olympics. The Olympics are modelled over a 12-year period from 1994 to 2005, divided into three phases: (i) the Pre-Event phase, 1994 to 1999; (ii) the Event Year, 2000; and (iii) the Post-Event phase, 2001-2005. Construction of the Olympics venues and associated infrastructure is modelled as occurring in the first phase, while the op...

  3. Models for project management in 2016 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, M. J.; Lima, F.; Martins, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Olympic Games are the major sports event on the planet gathering people for all over the world and integrating several kind of resources that need to be managed in order to achieve efficiency and the sustainability of the event. The research question of this paper is “Which project management business model best fit a mega event like the 2016 Olympic Games?” The organizations which participate in the Olympic Games project management in Rio are under the pressure of external scenarios of u...

  4. 2005 Solar Decathlon (Competition Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The 2005 Solar Decathlon Competition Program is distributed to Solar Decathlon visitors, media, sponsors, and the student competitors. It contains basic facts about the Solar Decathlon: what, where, when, who, and how. It is a guide for visitors to the events and workshops. It describes the 10 contests and the technologies used in the houses. It celebrates the accomplishments of the competitors and provides an opportunity for the major sponsors to describe their roles and relay their commitment to the ideals of the Solar Decathlon.

  5. Strategic prospects of non-Olympic sports in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Leonov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify strategic prospects for the development of non-Olympic sports in Ukraine. Materials and Methods: the analysis of literary sources and documents, systems analysis, organizational analysis, marketing tools, SWOT – analysis, organizational modeling, methods of mathematical statistics. 57 representatives of the regional federations of non-Olympic sports participated in the survey. Results: the model of sustainable development of non-Olympic sports is proposed. Objective necessity of the implementation of the results obtained in the practice to the state, branch and regional management in the sphere of physical culture and sports is proven. Conclusions: the livelihoods and development of non-Olympic sport involves the development and application of organizational projects, management of technology, "integrators" of local resources, the study of internal resource of sport movement, the development program funding.

  6. Some Case Studies on How Media Constructs Olympic Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lennartz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During the entire history of the modern Olympic Games, from their renaissance in 1896, when the firsth edition had been heldin Athens and until the Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936, the present paper makes an analyse of the real facts and of thelegends created around them. The sports journal and the other publications are important factors in the distorsion of the realityand keeping the legend. From the athletes heros like Spiridon Louis, the first winner of the marathon and the myth buildaround the way of winning this race , to the story of the 100m won by Jesse Owens at 36 Olympic Games who have been heldin Berlin and the fact that Hitler refused to shake the hand of the Olympic champion, the purpose of this paper is to combat themyths developed since. The facts are substantiated by using the chronological datas, using the notes and minutes of meetings,as well using photographic means.

  7. Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  8. Preliminary timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin D. MacLean; Janet L. Ohmann; Patricia M. Bassett

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1989 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula region of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  9. 77 FR 53168 - Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... view comments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Donna Nemeth, Public Affairs Officer, Olympic National... Supervisor's Office. Dated: August 24, 2012. Amanda McAdams, Acting Forest Supervisor. BILLING CODE 3410-11-P ...

  10. 2013-2014 USGS Lidar: Olympic Peninsula (WA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: USGS Olympic Peninsula Washington LIDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G13PD00849...

  11. Sports injuries and illnesses in the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Aubry, Mark; Grant, Marie-Elaine; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the XXII Olympic Winter Games, held in Sochi in 2014. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the Sochi 2014 medical staff. NOC and Sochi 2014 medical staff reported 391 injuries and 249 illnesses among 2780 athletes from 88 NOCs, equalling incidences of 14 injuries and 8.9 illnesses per 100 athletes over an 18-day period of time. Altogether, 12% and 8% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The percentage of athletes injured was highest in aerial skiing, snowboard slopestyle, snowboard cross, slopestyle skiing, halfpipe skiing, moguls skiing, alpine skiing, and snowboard halfpipe. Thirty-nine per cent of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. Women suffered 50% more illnesses than men. The rate of illness was highest in skeleton, short track, curling, cross-country skiing, figure skating, bobsleigh and aerial skiing. A total of 159 illnesses (64%) affected the respiratory system, and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=145, 58%). Overall, 12% of the athletes incurred at least one injury during the games, and 8% an illness, which is similar to prior Olympic Games. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Sports injuries and illnesses during the London Summer Olympic Games 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Budgett, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri; Jegathesan, Manikavasagam; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Mountjoy, Margo; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Vanhegan, Ivor; Renström, Per A

    2013-05-01

    The Olympic Movement Medical Code encourages all stakeholders to ensure that sport is practised without danger to the health of the athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games of the XXX Olympiad, held in London in 2012. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games' (LOCOG) medical staff. In total, 10 568 athletes (4676 women and 5892 men) from 204 NOCs participated in the study. NOC and LOCOG medical staff reported 1361 injuries and 758 illnesses, equalling incidences of 128.8 injuries and 71.7 illnesses per 1000 athletes. Altogether, 11% and 7% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The risk of an athlete being injured was the highest in taekwondo, football, BMX, handball, mountain bike, athletics, weightlifting, hockey and badminton, and the lowest in archery, canoe slalom and sprint, track cycling, rowing, shooting and equestrian. 35% of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating during competition or training. Women suffered 60% more illnesses than men (86.0 vs 53.3 illnesses per 1000 athletes). The rate of illness was the highest in athletics, beach volleyball, football, sailing, synchronised swimming and taekwondo. A total of 310 illnesses (41%) affected the respiratory system and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=347, 46%). At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games and 7% of the athletes' an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially among sports. Future initiatives should include the development of preventive measures tailored for each specific sport and the

  13. A New Olympic Ring Shaped Antenna for UWB Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saidaiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new Olympic Ring Shaped antenna for UWB applications. The proposed antenna is designed to operate from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz. It consists of a five circular ring shapes form an Olympic ring shape with a partial ground plane. A detail of proposed antenna simulation is done using CST software and measured results are presented and discussed.

  14. The Sochi Olympics, Celebration Capitalism and Homonationalist Pride

    OpenAIRE

    Travers, Ann; Shearman, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In July 2013 the Russian government passed two anti-LGBT laws that drew international criticism. Russia’s impending hosting of the 2014 Winter Olympic Games inspired more sustained international attention to these laws than might have otherwise been the case. In this article, we apply the mutually supporting frameworks of queer/trans necropolitics and celebration capitalism to a content analysis of coverage of the Sochi Olympics in the Advocate and Xtra, the leading LGBT publications in the U...

  15. The toxic torch of the modern Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Heather M; Bannen, Todd; Erickson, Timothy B; Honore, Kierre R

    2003-03-01

    One of the most enduring symbols of the Olympics is the torch or flame, an icon of peace and sportsmanship that has its roots in Ancient Greece. According to the Creed of the Olympics: "The important thing in the Games is not winning, but taking part. The essential thing is not conquering. but fighting well." The modern Olympic Games (1896-2000) have been heavy laden with controversy, as athletes have abused performance enhancing drugs to thrust themselves into the limelight in search of gold. It was not until 1967 that the International Olympic Medical Commission began banning drugs. Full-scale drug testing was instituted in 1972.: Retrospective review of modern summer and winter Olympics Game sources (1896-2002) was done for documentation of drug abuse, drug-related overdoses, and positive drug screens. Data were collected for the type of drug documented. the athlete's name, their country of origin, and Olympic event. Seventy cases were identified. The most common class of agents were steroids (29), followed by stimulants (22), diuretics (7), beta-2 agonists (2), and beta blockers (1). Alcohol and marijuana, while not historically prohibited, have been outlawed by several individual sport federations. Toxicities of these 2 agents were most likely under-reported. Countries of origin of individual athletes included Bulgaria (7), USA (7), Sweden (4), Spain (4), Japan (2), Poland (2), Greece (2), Canada (2), Hungary (2), Russia (2), Austria (2), and Great Britain, Norway, Romania, Armenian, and Latvian, each with 1. The most common Olympic events in which drug abuse was documented were weightlifting (25), trackand field (12), skiing (5), wrestling (5), volleyball (3), modern pentathlon (3), cycling (2), swimming (2), gymnastics (1), and rowing (1). As athletic pressures and financial gains of the Olympic Games heighten, more toxicities are likely to occur despite attempts at restricting performance-enhancing drugs.

  16. Asthma in United States olympic athletes who participated in the 1998 olympic winter games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, J M; Ryan, E J

    2000-08-01

    About one of every 5 athletes who participated in the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta had a past history of asthma, had symptoms that suggested asthma, or took asthma medications. No previous study has determined the prevalence of asthma in all US athletes who participated in an Olympic Winter Games. We sought to determine how many US athletes who participated in the 1998 Olympic Winter Games had a past history of asthma, had symptoms that suggested asthma, or indicated taking a medication used to treat asthma. We evaluated responses to questions that asked about allergic and respiratory diseases in the United States Olympic Committee Medical History Questionnaire that was completed by all 196 athletes who represented the United States at the 1998 Olympic Winter Games in Nagano, Japan. Forty-three (21.9%) of the 196 athletes had a previous diagnosis of asthma, and 36 (18. 4%) recorded use of an asthma medication at some time in the past. Forty-four (22.4%) reported use of an asthma medication, a diagnosis of asthma, or both (our basis for the diagnosis of asthma). Thirty-four (17.4%) of the athletes were currently taking an asthma medication at the time that they completed the questionnaire or indicated that they took these medications on a permanent or semipermanent basis and were considered to have active asthma. Athletes who participated in Nordic combined, cross-country, and short track events had the highest prevalence of having been told that they had asthma or had taken an asthma medication in the past (60.7%) in contrast with only one (2.8%) of the 36 athletes who participated in bobsled, biathlon, luge, and ski jumping. Eighteen (24%) of 75 athletes who participated in alpine, long track, figure skating, snow boarding, and curling had a previous diagnosis of asthma or recorded use of an asthma medication. We conclude that asthma appeared to have been more common in athletes who participated in the 1998 Winter Games than in athletes who participated in

  17. Olympic and world sport: making transnational society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianotti, Richard; Brownell, Susan

    2012-06-01

    This paper introduces the special issue of the British Journal of Sociology on the subject of the transnational aspects of Olympic and world sport. The special issue is underpinned by the perspective that because sport provides a space for the forging of transnational connections and global consciousness, it is increasingly significant within contemporary processes of globalization and the making of transnational society. In this article, we examine in turn eight social scientific themes or problems that are prominent within the special issue: globalization, glocalization, neo-liberal ideologies and policies, transnational society, securitization, global civil society, transnational/global public sphere, and fantasy/imagination. We conclude by highlighting five 'circles' of future research inquiry within world sport that should be explored by social scientists. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  18. Beijing Olympics as an aerosol field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, J.; Knutti, R.

    2009-05-01

    During the 2008 Olympic Summer Games, emission reductions were enforced in Beijing to improve air quality. Here we explore their effect on the regional aerosol load. We compare satellite-retrieved aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of that period with previous years, both in absolute terms and in a neural network approach taking into account the meteorological conditions. A statistically significant reduction of aerosol load is found in Beijing that decreases in magnitude and significance with increasing region size. Locally, the aerosol load (log(AOT)) was about 0.4 to 0.75 standard deviations below the levels expected for the prevailing meteorological situation. The small size of this effect relative to meteorological variability highlights the importance of regional aerosol transport.

  19. Olympic Dam project: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Olympic Dam deposit, South Australia, is estimated to contain at least 2,000 million tonnes of mineralized material, with an average grade of about 1.6% copper, 0.6 Kg/t of uranium oxide and 0.6 g/t of gold. The objective of the project is to extract and process the ore for the production and sale of copper, uranium oxide and the associated gold and silver. Facilities required are an underground mine, an on-site processing plant, associated facilities including a tailings retention system, a town to accommodate up to 9,000 people and other infrastructure. Chapters in the draft E.I.S. contain information on the environment, land use, aboriginal environment, geology, tailings retention system, radiation assessment, project infrastructure, social effects and economic effects

  20. The Political Economy of Federally Sponsored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Ragon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Librarian involvement in the Open Access (OA movement has traditionally focused on access to scholarly publications. Recent actions by the White House have focused attention on access on the data produced from federally sponsored research. Questions have emerged concerning access to the output of federally sponsored research and whether it is a public or private good. Understanding the political battle over access to federally funded research is closely tied to the ownership of the peer review process in higher education and associated revenue streams, and as a result, interest groups seeking to influence government regulation have politicized the issues. As a major funder of research in higher education, policies from the federal government are likely to drive change in research practices at higher education institutions and impact library services. The political economy of federally sponsored research data will shape research enterprises in higher education inspire a number of new services distributed throughout the research life cycle.

  1. Physiological characteristics of an aging Olympic athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybo, Lars; Schmidt, Jakob F; Fritzdorf, Stephen; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (three gold and two bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games. From the age of 19 to 40 yr, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), peak HR, blood lactate, and rowing ergometer performance were assessed annually. During the first years of his elite career (from age 19 to 24), VO2 max increased from 5.5 to approximately 5.9 L · min(-1) (78 mL · min(-1) · kg(-1)) and his average power during 6-min maximal rowing increased from 420 to approximately 460 W. Although his HRmax declined by approximately 20 bpm during the 20-yr period, maximal aerobic power, evaluated both as VO2 max and 6-min test performance, was maintained until the age of 40. Furthermore, peak lactate levels remained unchanged and average power outputs during 10-s, 60-s, and 60-min ergometer tests were all maintained at approximately 800 W, approximately 700 W, and approximately 350 W, respectively, indicating that he was able to preserve both aerobic and anaerobic exercise performances. Echocardiographic analyses revealed a left ventricular mass of 198 g and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter of 5.8 cm. This longitudinal case indicates that until the age of 40 yr, a steady increase in the oxygen pulse may have compensated for the significant decline in the maximal heart frequency. Furthermore, the maintenance of aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities allowed this Olympic athlete to compete at the highest level for almost two decades.

  2. The Olympic and Paralympic Games 2012: literature review of the logistical planning and operational challenges for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enock, K E; Jacobs, J

    2008-11-01

    To undertake a review of the literature relating to public health planning and interventions at previous summer Olympic and Paralympic Games and other relevant major summer sporting events or mass gatherings, with a focus on official publications and peer-reviewed articles. Literature review. A literature review was undertaken using all biomedical databases and a freetext search using Google to widen the search beyond peer-reviewed publications. Search terms used were: Olympics; Paralympics; mass gatherings; mass gathering medicine; sporting events; weather; planning; and organisation. Citations within articles were searched to identify additional references that would inform this review. This literature review concentrates on the public health aspects of population care at mass gatherings, particularly the Olympic and Paralympic Games which are set over several weeks, focusing on surveillance, prevention and health service quality. The literature identified 10 areas of public health planning: public health command centre and communication; surveillance, assessment and control; environmental health and safety; infectious disease outbreaks; implications of weather conditions; health promotion; travel information; economic assessments; public transport and reduction of asthma events; and preparing athletes for potential allergies. The following themes emerged as crucial factors for the success of any public health interventions at Olympic and Paralympic Games: detailed planning of deliverables; pre-identification of critical success factors; management of risk; detailed contingency planning; and full testing of all plans prior to the event. The 2012 Olympic Games will provide an exciting challenge for public health providers and systems. Preparation requires early detailed planning of policies, procedures and on-site health promotion events, in addition to helping to set up the surveillance and monitoring systems that will capture public health activity alongside

  3. 77 FR 26697 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Change of Sponsor Address; Change of Sponsor Name and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... that it has transferred ownership of, and all rights and interest in, abbreviated new animal drug... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510 and 522 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal...

  4. Standardization and validation of the body weight adjustment regression equations in Olympic weightlifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, Heikki; Komi, Paavo V; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2002-02-01

    The problems in comparing the performances of Olympic weightlifters arise from the fact that the relationship between body weight and weightlifting results is not linear. In the present study, this relationship was examined by using a nonparametric curve fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression (LOWESS) on relatively large data sets of the weightlifting results made in top international competitions. Power function formulas were derived from the fitted LOWESS values to represent the relationship between the 2 variables in a way that directly compares the snatch, clean-and-jerk, and total weightlifting results of a given athlete with those of the world-class weightlifters (golden standards). A residual analysis of several other parametric models derived from the initial results showed that they all experience inconsistencies, yielding either underestimation or overestimation of certain body weights. In addition, the existing handicapping formulas commonly used in normalizing the performances of Olympic weightlifters did not yield satisfactory results when applied to the present data. It was concluded that the devised formulas may provide objective means for the evaluation of the performances of male weightlifters, regardless of their body weights, ages, or performance levels.

  5. The German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL Study): design of a mixed-method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to perform at top levels, elite athletes have to both protect and risk their health at the same time. Adolescent elite athletes have the additional challenge of coping with substantial physical, psychological and social transformations. The contradictory phenomenon of protecting and risking the adolescent athletes' health in sports challenges the development of health promotion and protection strategies. The GOAL Study (German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study) analyzes the individual and organizational management of health in adolescent elite sports. Methods/design We combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method study. This allows us to gather a broad range of representative information on squad athletes from all Olympic disciplines as well as in-depth information on four selected Olympic disciplines (artistic gymnastics, biathlon, handball and wrestling). Within the quantitative section we attempt to identify the young athletes' health and nutrition behavior, their subjective health state and their lay health representations, health-related social networks, and structures of medical attendance. 1138 national team level athletes born between 1992 and 1995 from 51 Olympic disciplines responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 61,75%). The qualitative section investigates the meaning and relevance of health and nutrition within the athletes' sports specific surroundings, the impact of biographic backgrounds on individual health behavior, and sports specific cultures of health, nutrition and risk. We interviewed 24 athletes and 28 coaching and medical experts, and carried out 14 multi-day participant observations at training sessions and competitions. Conclusions The studies' results will serve as the basis for developing tailored health promotion strategies to be in cooperation with German elite sports associations. PMID:21627777

  6. The German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL Study: design of a mixed-method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Jochen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to perform at top levels, elite athletes have to both protect and risk their health at the same time. Adolescent elite athletes have the additional challenge of coping with substantial physical, psychological and social transformations. The contradictory phenomenon of protecting and risking the adolescent athletes' health in sports challenges the development of health promotion and protection strategies. The GOAL Study (German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study analyzes the individual and organizational management of health in adolescent elite sports. Methods/design We combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method study. This allows us to gather a broad range of representative information on squad athletes from all Olympic disciplines as well as in-depth information on four selected Olympic disciplines (artistic gymnastics, biathlon, handball and wrestling. Within the quantitative section we attempt to identify the young athletes' health and nutrition behavior, their subjective health state and their lay health representations, health-related social networks, and structures of medical attendance. 1138 national team level athletes born between 1992 and 1995 from 51 Olympic disciplines responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 61,75%. The qualitative section investigates the meaning and relevance of health and nutrition within the athletes' sports specific surroundings, the impact of biographic backgrounds on individual health behavior, and sports specific cultures of health, nutrition and risk. We interviewed 24 athletes and 28 coaching and medical experts, and carried out 14 multi-day participant observations at training sessions and competitions. Conclusions The studies' results will serve as the basis for developing tailored health promotion strategies to be in cooperation with German elite sports associations.

  7. 14 CFR 152.309 - Availability of sponsor's records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the purposes of accounting and audit. (b) The sponsor or planning agency shall allow appropriate FAA... to the sponsor or planning agency. (c) It audit findings have not been resolved, the applicable... sponsor's records. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall allow any authorized representative of the...

  8. 48 CFR 35.017-1 - Sponsoring agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sponsoring agreement or sponsoring agencies' policies and procedures: (1) A statement of the purpose and... of the FFRDC's relationship with its sponsor(s). (3) A provision for the identification of retained earnings (reserves) and the development of a plan for their use and disposition. (4) A prohibition against...

  9. Sponsors, Sponsorship Rates and the Immigration Multiplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, Guillermina; Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews evidence of the extent to which U.S. immigrants utilize the family reunification entitlements of immigration laws. Examines two studies of the immigrant cohort: Jasso and Rosenzweig (1986) and the General Accounting Office report (1988). Provides estimates of the characteristics of U.S. citizen sponsors of immigrant spouses and parents.…

  10. 22 CFR 62.3 - Sponsor eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sponsor eligibility. 62.3 Section 62.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions... visitor program are: (1) United States local, state and federal government agencies; (2) International...

  11. Agency-Sponsored Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, James S.

    1976-01-01

    Sponsors of these programs include nonprofit organizations, proprietary agencies, wholly owned subsidiaries of U.S. corporations, and foreign-based institutions catering to North American students. Problems arising from their non-accredited status are examined and a criterion instrument for evaluating them is developed. (LBH)

  12. Finger Flexor Force Influences Performance in Senior Male Air Pistol Olympic Shooting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mon

    Full Text Available The ability to stabilize the gun is crucial for performance in Olympic pistol shooting and is thought to be related to the shooters muscular strength. The present study examines the relation between performance and finger flexor force as well as shoulder abduction isometric force in senior male air pistol shooting. 46 Spanish national level shooters served as test subjects of the study. Two maximal force tests were carried out recording handgrip and deltoid force data under competition conditions, during the official training time at national Spanish championships. Performance was measured as the total score of 60 shots at competition. Linear regressions were calculated to examine the relations between performance and peak and average finger flexor forces, peak and average finger flexor forces relative to the BMI, peak and average shoulder abduction isometric forces, peak shoulder abduction isometric force relative to the BMI. The connection between performance and other variables such as age, weight, height, BMI, experience in years and training hours per week was also analyzed. Significant correlations were found between performance at competition and average and peak finger flexor forces. For the rest of the force variables no significant correlations were found. Significant correlations were also found between performance at competition and experience as well as training hours. No significant correlations were found between performance and age, weight, height or BMI. The study concludes that hand grip strength training programs are necessary for performance in air pistol shooting.

  13. Mapping the Discipline of the Olympic Games An Author- Cocitation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Warning; Ching Ju Mae Rosie; Kristine Toohey

    2008-01-01

    When most people think about the Olympic Games it is usually in terms of athletic performance. Clearly they are more than that (see Toohey & Veal, 1990). Even the mass media does not confine itself to covering only the sporting angle. For example, symbolism, economic factors, nationalism and politics routinely appear in mass media articles relating to the Olympic Games. There are scholarly journals that are devoted exclusively to the Olympic Games, such as Olympika and the Journal of Olympic ...

  14. Diabetes in the competitive athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, George D; White, Russell D

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common group of metabolic diseases and is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Most patients with diabetes are type 2 (90%); the remaining patients have type 1 disease. Athletes with diabetes range from the athlete participating in various youth sports to the competitive Olympic athlete and present a significant challenge to themselves and the medical staff who care for them on a daily basis. Each sport and the type of exercise have their own effects on diabetes management with numerous factors that significantly affect glucose levels, including stress, level of hydration, the rate of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, and the secretion of counter-regulatory hormones. This article provides a general overview of diabetes mellitus, the effects of exercise on glucose levels, and a detailed review of the potential complications encountered in the management of diabetes in the athlete.

  15. Determinants of olympic fencing performance and implications for strength and conditioning training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony; James, Nic; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Greenhalgh, Andy; Moody, Jeremy; Fulcher, David; Mias, Eduard; Kilduff, Liam

    2014-10-01

    Fencing is one of only a few sports that have featured at every modern Olympic games. Despite this, there is still much the sport science team does not know regarding competition demands and athlete physical characteristics. This review aims to undertake an analysis of the current literature to identify what is known, and questions that must be answered to optimize athlete support in this context. In summary, fencing is an explosive sport requiring energy production predominately from anaerobic sources. Lunging and change-of-direction speed seem vital to performance, and strength and power qualities underpin this. In the elimination rounds, fencers are likely to accumulate high levels of blood lactate, and so high-intensity interval training is recommended to reduce the intolerance to and the accumulation of hydrogen ions. Injury data report the hamstrings as a muscle group that should be strengthened and address imbalances caused by continuous fencing in an asymmetrical stance.

  16. Argumentative processes on a opinion article of the Portuguese Language Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilton Sampaio de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the different types of arguments, considering them central parts of argumentative processes, in opinion articles of the Portuguese Language Olympiad written on the topic “Where I live.” To analyze the arguments in the selected articles we adopted the assumptions of the New Rhetoric (PERELMAN; OLBRECHTS-TYTECA, 2005, associated with the studies of Bakhtin (2003, 2010 and of Souza (2003, 2008, 2009, among others. We selected five articles awarded in different competitions (2008, 2010, 2012, which are in public domain, available on the official site of the Olympics. Most of the articles have their theses made by the arguments that support the actual structure, highlighting the relations of cause/effect and fact/consequence. Based on the established connection between the facts, speakers/ writers seek to understand these relationships and at the same time, explain and justify arguments and controversies involving issues related to their experience in the community.

  17. Restoring the wilderness character of the Elwha River in the Olympic Wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan A. Fox

    2016-01-01

    The Olympic Power Company was formed in 1910 with financing from Chicago investors to lure a pulp mill to Port Angeles, Washington. The Elwha and Glines Canyon dams were built on the Elwha River, most of which runs through the Olympic Wilderness of Olympic National Park.

  18. Disrupting the Rhetoric of the Rings: A Critique of Olympic Idealism in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohe, Geoffery Z.

    2010-01-01

    The Beijing olympics prompted educationalists to develop new curriculum resources. These resources focus on the socio-cultural elements of the games, olympism and olympic values, the moral and ethical aspects of sport and select geographical, historical and social dimensions of traditional and contemporary Chinese culture. Typically produced as…

  19. Determination of Career Planning Profiles of Turkish Athletes Who Are Ranked in the Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulya, Bingol; Cemal, Gundogdu; Sukru, Bingol

    2012-01-01

    This study researched in the level of career planning of Turkish athletes ranked in the Olympics during the time they were active in sports and after they retired. This study which aimed to determine the career planning efficiency of Turkish athletes ranked in the Olympics based on the viewpoints of the athletes holding Olympic degree is scanning…

  20. Educational treasures in Radiology: The Radiology Olympics - striving for gold in Radiology education

    OpenAIRE

    Talanow, Roland

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on Radiology Olympics (www.RadiologyOlympics.com) - a collaboration with the international Radiology community for Radiology education, Radiolopolis (www.Radiolopolis.com). The Radiology Olympics honour the movers and shakers in Radiology education and offer an easy to use platform for educating medical professionals based on Radiology cases.

  1. The economic impact of Olympic tourism: When, who and how much?

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Martin

    2010-01-01

    No Olympics could do without exact measuring. In the 100 m sprint race, milliseconds separate winners from losers. But when it comes to measuring the economic benefits of Olympic tourism, figures vary by several billion. How can we get a grip on the economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympics?

  2. Torino 2006 Winter Olympic Games: highlight on health services organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piat, Simone Chiadò; Minniti, Davide; Traversi, Deborah; Gianino, Maria Michela; Massazza, Giuseppe; Siliquini, Roberta

    2010-10-01

    Mass gatherings require attention toward planning and execution of dedicated medical care. The aims were to describe the organization and provision of medical care in the Torino 2006 Winter Olympic Games in light of the epidemiology of illnesses and injuries among athletes during this event. The organization integrated 18 medical centers operating at Olympic venues, three polyclinics inside the Olympic Villages, and 13 pre-existing Olympic Hospitals. The design was a retrospective study, with review of medical records at Olympic medical facilities. All the athletes who attended any medical center or polyclinic were eligible. The main outcomes included type of injuries and illnesses affecting athletes, incidence of injuries and illnesses by provenance and discipline, and rate of hospital admissions. A total of 330 athletes received medical care and 676 medical encounter forms were documented, with an overall medical utilization rate of 12.66%. Skeleton, snowboard, bobsleigh, and alpine and freestyle skiing had the highest medical attendance rate relative to other disciplines (p athletes, without depleting services to the general population. The risk of severe injury and illness seemed to be low. These data could be useful for planning medical services in future mass gatherings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Olympic Dam operations - environmental management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This is the 3rd Annual Report pertaining to the Olympic Dam Operations Environmental Management Programme and covers the period 1st March, 1989 to 28th February, 1990. The monitoring programe has provided detailed assessment of meteorological data, vegetation, fauna, soil stability, soil salinity, hydrogeology and well-fields both inside and outside the operations area. Mine site rehabilitation is considered to be progressing satisfactorily. Out of the 851 drill pad sites 72% have been rehabilitated to the stage where natural soil stability and plant cover has been achieved. Drill pad sites that have received good rainfall within one year of being ripped have rehabilitated very succesfully. Sites that receive no significant rainfall for more than two years, particularly on dune slopes may require re-ripping before successful regeneration can occur. To improve the drill pad site rehabilitation monitoring programme it is recommended that 200 drill sites be analysed each year. Air emission and solid waste data are also presented. This program is considered to be particularly successful in relation to SO 2 assessment. 90 tabs., 63 figs., ills

  4. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  5. The Complex Dynamics of Sponsored Search Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, Valentin; La Poutré, Han; Bohte, Sander

    This paper provides a comprehensive study of the structure and dynamics of online advertising markets, mostly based on techniques from the emergent discipline of complex systems analysis. First, we look at how the display rank of a URL link influences its click frequency, for both sponsored search and organic search. Second, we study the market structure that emerges from these queries, especially the market share distribution of different advertisers. We show that the sponsored search market is highly concentrated, with less than 5% of all advertisers receiving over 2/3 of the clicks in the market. Furthermore, we show that both the number of ad impressions and the number of clicks follow power law distributions of approximately the same coefficient. However, we find this result does not hold when studying the same distribution of clicks per rank position, which shows considerable variance, most likely due to the way advertisers divide their budget on different keywords. Finally, we turn our attention to how such sponsored search data could be used to provide decision support tools for bidding for combinations of keywords. We provide a method to visualize keywords of interest in graphical form, as well as a method to partition these graphs to obtain desirable subsets of search terms.

  6. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    been published previously. Any kind of reference may be consulted; textbooks and journal articles can be cited. The problems can be downloaded from the webpage of the Ortvay contest (mafihe.elte.hu/ortvay ) in Hungarian and English; on preliminary request the problems can be sent via e-mail. If an institute is represented by several contestants, then a teacher or student acting as local organizer collects the solutions and posts them to the referees. Solutions can be sent by mail, fax or e-mail to the address given on the webpage. The contest is evaluated separately for each university year and the referees reserve the right to withhold or to divide some prizes. Beyond the money prizes for the first, second and third places, honourable mentions and special prizes for outstanding solutions of individual problems can be awarded. The sponsors of the contest are the Students' Foundation of the Faculty of Sciences of Eötvös University and the Roland Eötvös Physical Society. The results are announced in December and the organizers are hoping for even more participants in future contests. Among the winners of the European Union Young Scientists competition which took place in Thessaloniki, Greece in September was Sarah Flannery from Ireland. Sarah had used advanced mathematics to compare two cryptographic systems and proved that a new system for encrypting information on the Internet is as secure and considerably faster than the one currently in use. Three students from Iceland also gained a prize for their work on a distant cluster of hundreds of galaxies, demonstrating the capacities of modern data processing tools and the Internet in the project. The winning entries were selected from 57 projects presented from over 30 countries, and the aim of the contest was to encourage and highlight young people's interest in science by inviting them to play a part in actual research projects. Some of the winners will be able to work on projects at the Joint Research Centre

  7. Injuries and overuse syndromes in competitive and elite bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, J; Marx, G; Knöll, P; Eysel, P; Zarghooni, K; Graf, M; Herren, C; Sobottke, R; Michael, J

    2014-10-01

    Competitive bodybuilding is a weightlifting sport similar to powerlifting, strongman competition and Olympic weightlifting, which aims to increase muscle mass, symmetry, and body definition. Although data regarding rates of injury, overuse syndromes and pain during routine training is available for these other disciplines, it is rare for competitive bodybuilding. The aim of this study was to investigate rates of injury, pain during workouts and/or overuse syndromes, as well as the influence of particular intrinsic and external factors. Data was collected using questionnaires from 71 competitive and elite bodybuilders. The information included training routines and prior injuries. Participants were recruited from bodybuilding clubs in Germany. 45.1% of athletes reported symptoms while training. The overall injury rate was computed to be 0.12 injuries per bodybuilder per year (0.24 injuries per 1 000 h of bodybuilding). Athletes over 40 exhibited higher rates of injury (p=0.029). Other investigated parameters showed no effects. Most injuries occurred in the shoulder, elbow, lumbar spine and knee regions. A large proportion of bodybuilders complained of pain not resulting in interruptions of training/competition. The injury rate is low compared to other weightlifting disciplines such as powerlifting, Olympic weightlifting or strongman competition. In comparison to team or contact sports the injury rate is minimal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  9. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population’s perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind ‘Health Legacies’ that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region’s population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  10. Mortality and causes of death among Croatian male Olympic medalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonić, Vedran; Kozmar, Damir; Počanić, Darko; Jerkić, Helena; Bohaček, Ivan; Letilović, Tomislav

    2017-08-31

    To compare the overall and disease-specific mortality of Croatian male athletes who won one or more Olympic medals representing Yugoslavia from 1948 to 1988 or Croatia from 1992 to 2016, and the general Croatian male population standardized by age and time period. All 233 Croatian male Olympic medalists were included in the study. Information on life duration and cause of death for the Olympic medalists who died before January 1, 2017, was acquired from their families and acquaintances. We asked the families and acquaintances to present medical documentation for the deceased. Data about the overall and disease-specific mortality of the Croatian male population standardized by age and time period were obtained from the Croatian Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Overall and disease-specific standard mortality ratios (SMR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare the mortality rates of athletes and general population. Among 233 Olympic medalists, 57 died before the study endpoint. The main causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (33.3%), neoplasms (26.3%), and external causes (17.6%). The overall mortality of the Olympic medalists was significantly lower than that of general population (SMR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.94, P=0.013). Regarding specific causes of death, athletes' mortality from cardiovascular diseases was significantly reduced (SMR 0.61, 95% CI 0.38-0.93, P=0.021). Croatian male Olympic medalists benefit from lower overall and cardiovascular mortality rates in comparison to the general Croatian male population.

  11. Television and the construction of identity : Barcelona, Olympic host

    OpenAIRE

    Moragas Spà, Miquel de,

    1995-01-01

    This document, originally published as part of the book The Keys of success: the social, sporting, economic and communications impact of Barcelona’92, comes from a larger study that looked at all aspects of television in the Olympics and can be found in its original version, in Miquel de Moragas Spà, Nancy K. Rivenburgh and James F. Larson (1996). Television in the Olympics. London: John Libbey. Aquest document, originalment publicat com a part del llibre Les claus de l'èxit: impactes s...

  12. The IOC's Midas Touch: Summer Olympics and City Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Nitsch; Nicolai Wendland

    2013-01-01

    Hosting a mega-event is a costly activity of short duration. Still, cities frequently compete to become host of all types of events. This paper examines the effect of staging the largest and most important sporting event in the world, the Summer Olympic Games, on the host city. Applying a difference-in-differences methodology, we analyze the rates of population growth of Olympic cities, candidate cities and other large cities in host and candidate countries over the period from 1860 to 2010. ...

  13. Five Rings: Enclosing the London 2012 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan William Gardner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the successive iterations of the fence surrounding the London 2012 Olympic site in Stratford, east London, I demonstrate that during the five periods of enclosure considered, these boundaries have highlighted the London Games’ contested past, present, and future. An examination of the material and discursive constructions of each of these boundaries shows the Janus-faced nature of their relationship to the wider ‘mega-event’. I conclude that though the purpose of such enclosures may initially seem obvious, in actuality they, as parts of a wider assemblage, can act unpredictably both to support and challenge the Olympic brand and its existence in this part of east London.

  14. OLYMPIC AND SPORTS MOVEMENT IN POLAND (1918–1939)

    OpenAIRE

    Vilchkovski, Eduard; Pasichnyk, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    After gaining Poland’s independence in 1918 the government of the country began an active work on the establishment of a national system of physical education for children and youth. Among important aspects of reforming this area was the implementation of an important task – the development of mass sports in the country. In 1919 the Polish Olympic Committee was set up whose task was to popularize the Olympic movement in the country, the representation of Polish sports in Europe and the word, ...

  15. Value of nuclear energy echoes with Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Australia's newest uranium mine, Olympic Dam contains 450 million tonnes of economic ore. It has the capacity to annually produce 45,000 tonnes of uranium oxide, 27,000 ounces of gold and 555,000 ounces of silver. The orebody composition and the deposit-wide mineral zonation pattern represents the end product of a complex evolution of a large breccia pipe system. A brief account is given of the mining and metallurgical operations, along with a list of the long term contracts which cover about 50% of Olympic Dam's initial uranium production. 1 tab., ills

  16. Polities and Olympics: Marking the Milestones and Clarifying the Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak HERGUNER

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a historical overview of how dominant polities have fundamentally shaped the social functions of Olympic Games since the ancient times. Dominant polities’ role in identifying social roles of the Games is explored in light of four polity types. The paper is a historical process research, and findings are reported in a case - oriented historical narrative format based on secondary sources. The paper concludes that different meanings and roles attributed to the same event – ie. Olympics in the study – compliant with the dominant polity type of the era are the evidence for the social construction of the reality.

  17. Olympic dam expansion - a clear future for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.

    2008-01-01

    After BHP Billiton's acquisition of Olympic Dam in northern South Australia in 2005, an important early decision was to undertake a major drilling campaign to better define the resource. Between 2005 and 2007, the drilling almost doubled the resource. BHP Billiton's 2007 annual report indicated the Olympic Dam mineral resource estimate is 7.855 B dry metric tonnes at metal grades of 0.86% Copper, 0.29 kg per tonne Uranium Oxide, 0.3 g/t Gold and 1.6 g/t Silver.

  18. Importance of the First and the Second Russian Olympic Games for development of sports and Olympic movement in the Russian Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Лях-Породько, Олексій

    2014-01-01

    The article reveals and analyses external and internal (nation-wide and regional) factors which have affected the holding of the First Russian Olympic Games of 1913 in Kiev and the Second Russian Olympic Games of 1914 in Riga are analyzed. It was determined that sports activity in the state was considerably stirred up during 1913–1914 years. It was found that the first Russian Olympic Games directly affected development of governmental-public structure of physical training and sports, creatio...

  19. The Olympic Games broadcasted as Interactive Television - New Media new Games?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    or delayed video coverage of the Olympic Games. The Torino Olympic Broadcasting was the first to be filmed entirely in High Definition Television. In the future the use of digital video processing, computer vision, 3D-visualisation and animation techniques allow viewers to watch sports events almost......The Olympic Games is the world´s largest media event and television is the engine that has driven the growth of the Olympic Movement. Increases in broadcast revenue over the past two decades have provided the Olympic Movement with a huge financial base. More networks than ever before broadcast...... the Olympic Games to more countries and territories, with a record number of hours, a significant rise in the total viewing hours, and dramatic increases in live and prime-time coverage. Over 300 channels transmitted 35.000 hours of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. The future of television is digital, which...

  20. Political Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Casey B. Mulligan; Kevin K. Tsui

    2006-01-01

    Political competitiveness - which many interpret as the degree of democracy - can be modeled as a monopolistic competition. All regimes are constrained by the threat of "entry," and thereby seek some combination of popular support and political entry barriers. This simple model predicts that many public policies are unrelated to political competitiveness, and that even unchallenged nondemocratic regimes should tax far short of their Laffer curve maximum. Economic sanctions, odious debt repudi...

  1. DOE-EERC jointly sponsored research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrikson, J.G.; Sondreal, E.A.

    1999-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-93MC30098 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) supported the performance of a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with a minimum 50% nonfederal cost share to assist industry in commercializing and effectively applying efficient, nonpolluting energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting market demands for clean fuels, chemical feedstocks, and electricity in the 21st century. The objective of the JSRP was to advance the deployment of advanced technologies for improving energy efficiency and environmental performance through jointly sponsored research on topics that would not be adequately addressed by the private sector alone. Examples of such topics include the barriers to hot-gas cleaning impeding the deployment of high-efficiency power systems and the search for practical means for sequestering CO{sub 2} generated by fossil fuel combustion. The selection of particular research projects was guided by a combination of DOE priorities and market needs, as provided by the requirement for joint venture funding approved both by DOE and the private sector sponsor. The research addressed many different energy resource and related environmental problems, with emphasis directed toward the EERC's historic lead mission in low-rank coals (LRCs), which represent approximately half of the U.S. coal resources in the conterminous states, much larger potential resources in Alaska, and a major part of the energy base in the former U.S.S.R., East Central Europe, and the Pacific Rim. The Base and JSRP agreements were tailored to the growing awareness of critical environmental issues, including water supply and quality, air toxics (e.g., mercury), fine respirable particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}), and the goal of zero net CO{sub 2} emissions.

  2. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor or...

  3. 14 CFR 151.121 - Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. 151.121 Section 151.121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engineering Proposals § 151.121 Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. Each sponsor must adopt the following...

  4. 17 CFR 229.1104 - (Item 1104) Sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (c) Describe the sponsor's securitization program and state how long the sponsor has been engaged in the securitization of assets. The description must include, to the extent material, a general... material roles and responsibilities in its securitization program, including whether the sponsor or an...

  5. Pop competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Cellino; Anna Soci

    2002-01-01

    Very few economic terms are used as much as competitiveness in economics. This article deals with the different meanings of competitiveness, at the level of a firm, at the level of the local area, and at the level of the country. It analyzes the problems of consistency among the available definitions and among the indicators used to measurecompetitiveness.

  6. Competitiveness factors

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Liliana-Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Porter's theory supports the idea that, despite the globalization of production and trade, the competitive advantage is created in a national framework, nations, through their institutional, natural, cultural, economic characteristics ultimately determining the development of certain economic activities. The factors considered by Porter as determinants for the competitive advantage are grouped in four categories, the linkages between them being important as well

  7. Judging Anomalies at the 2010 Olympics in Men's Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the 2010 Olympic figure skating judges had trouble scoring Plushenko and the transitions program component, and if the International Skating Union's (ISU) "corridor" method flagged the same judging anomalies as the Rasch analyses. A 3-facet (skater by program component by judge) Rasch rating…

  8. The Phenomenon of the Olympic Games. Women in the Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen M., Ed.; Fritz, Harry, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of articles is offered that examines the history and current status of women in the Olympic Games. Included is a brief historical account of women's participation, criteria for adding sports, examination of women's status, and an explanation of rhythmic gymnastics which was recently added for women. (DF)

  9. prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup has raised critical debates relating to the ability of developing countries to successfully host events of this magnitude. Yet some cities in South Africa have indicated an interest in bidding for the Olympic Games in the future, including Cape Town, which was one of the cities ...

  10. Training Personnel and Procedures for Special Olympics Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sue Ellen

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the concept of sports training, a survey was conducted of 170 Special Olympics coaches in Ohio. The survey sought to determine who was responsible for training Special Olympians, their qualifications, and their specific needs and interests concerning preparation for coaching responsibilities. (Author/JDD)

  11. Sustainability as an Input for the Design of Olympic Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu DORALP

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, hosting the Olympic Games has been seen as an opportunity to create urban development. The post-Games use of sport venues, the fulfillment of a city’s housing needs by using Olympic Village buildings and the renewal of transport and other infrastructure that accompanies hosting of the Games may be considered indicators for the success of the International Olympic Games. But the city and its citizen do not benefit from these investments in the design of new structures if that design is not carried out in the light of wellplanned urban development projecting. Local and international studies on sustainability, particularly since the 1980s, have shown that sustainable urbanization is only achievable with sustainable development planning. Therefore economic, social and environmental development needs to be provided. If the last Olympic cities are examined in relation to this aspect, it will be seen that an understanding of such factors is reflected in their development. Throughout the history of the modern Games host cities have considered them as an opportunity for development, but cities are now heading towards the implementation of more sensitive actions for the future generation, social and environmental values with the improvement in the approach of sustainable development.

  12. Preparing for the Olympic Games: Training adaptation in endurance sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, G.J.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    For most elite athletes winning an Olympic gold medal is the ultimate dream. To make this dream come true, in the first place one needs sufficient talent. However next to this talent, several years of training with large amounts of strenuous work is necessary. It is therefore not remarkable that the

  13. Nutrition Needs Assessment of Young Special Olympics Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer C.; Temple, Viviene A.; Anholt, Jane P.; Gaul, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at increased risk for obesity and nutrition-related health concerns, yet there is a paucity of data describing their nutrition status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nutritional challenges of young participants (2-10 years of age) enrolled in Special Olympics Canada (SOC)…

  14. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  15. Dental data of the Athens 2004 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vougiouklakis, G; Tzoutzas, J; Farmakis, E-T; Farmakis, E-E; Antoniadou, M; Mitsea, A

    2008-11-01

    The Athens University, School of Dentistry, accepted the challenge to organize the Dental Health Services in the Athens 2004 Olympic and Paralympic Games in order to provide the best quality of oral health services to the athletes, coaches, escort members and Olympic Village personnel. Data from the whole activity protocol of the Athens 2004 Games Dental Health Services - the reception, admission and treatment protocols, the facilities and the infrastructure, the number of cases treated per specialty and the experience gained - were recorded. During the Olympic Games, there were more than 1400 dental cases in more than 650 patients, elite athletes, escort members, coaches and staff of the Olympic Village. Among them 313 fillings, 100 root canal therapies, 57 mouthguards and 9 dental trauma cases were treated. During the Paralympic Games, there were more than 240 dental cases in more than 220 patients. Among them 73 fillings, 12 root canal therapies, 21 extractions and 3 dental trauma cases were treated. In such events, highly trained dentists are needed and if possible, specialized in operative dentistry or endodontics. The role of team dentist seems to be of great importance.

  16. Olympic Education as a Factor of Socialization of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeeva, Zoya S.; Surinov, Ilya A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is theoretical substantiation and experimental confirmation of importance of the Olympic education as a socialization factor of the preschoolers. To address the study issues, theoretical methods of analysis, generalization and systematization as well as personal and activity approaches were applied. The older preschoolers…

  17. Olympic seljatas oodatud käibe / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Olympic Entertainment Groupi 2007. aasta neljanda kvartali käive oli 799 miljonit krooni. Tänu tugevale aasta lõpule edestas ettevõte nii enda korrigeeritud aastaprognoosi kui ka analüütikute ootusi. Diagramm: Käive. Kommenteerib Indrek Kuivallik

  18. The Olympic movement and the sport of peacemaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Burleson, C.

    2014-01-01

    Sport and peacemaking have evolved. It is no longer the case that the Olympic Games and war games exist in isolation from each other. Increasingly, policymakers, peacekeepers, athletes, development workers, presidents of nations and others combine forces in an "integrated" approach towards peace.

  19. The Olympic legacy: Journal metrics in sports medicine and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joel; Walker, Tom W M; Miller, Stuart; Cobb, Alistair; Thomas, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Systematic analysis of integral aspects within sport enables improvement in performance. One key aspect is the management and prevention of injuries. Bibliometrics is a systematic method for evaluating research output. It may be expected that the quantity and quality of sports injury research over time may strongly correlate with the timing of the Olympic games. This study was conducted to determine the effect of the Olympic legacy on academic sports medicine and evidence to prevent injuries of the face and teeth. A literature search within the PubMed database was undertaken to identify the quantity of literature published annually between 1996 and 2015 in the fields of sports injuries and injury prevention. The top 5 journals publishing in each field were then identified and the change in their impact factor (IF) was investigated. It was seen that, since 1996, there has been an overall increase in the quantity of literature published regarding sports injuries and prevention of sports injuries of 209% and 217%, respectively. Publications regarding facial injuries and dental injuries within sport show an increase of 114% and 71%, respectively. There was an increase in IF since 2000 in almost every journal investigated. A strong, positive correlation is seen among journals publishing on the prevention of sports injuries, showing a median IF increase of 2.8198. No statistical significance was found between Olympic years and the number of publications. Hence, there has been a gradual increase in both the quality and quantity of publications regarding sports injuries since 1996. However, there appears to be no immediate added effect of the "Olympic legacy" following each Olympic games on the quantity or quality of publications in these fields.

  20. Mid-Mountain Clouds at Whistler During the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ruping; Joe, Paul; Isaac, George A.; Gultepe, Ismail; Rasmussen, Roy; Milbrandt, Jason; McTaggart-Cowan, Ron; Mailhot, Jocelyn; Brugman, Melinda; Smith, Trevor; Scott, Bill

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive study of mid-mountain clouds and their impacts on the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics is presented. Mid-mountain clouds were frequently present on the Whistler alpine venue, as identified in an extensive archive of webcam images over a 45-day period from February 5 to March 21, 2010. These clouds posed serious forecast challenges and had significant impacts on some Olympic and Paralympic alpine skiing competitions. Under fair weather conditions, a diurnal upslope (anabatic) flow can work in concert with a diurnal temperature inversion aloft to produce a localized phenomenon known as "Harvey's Cloud" at Whistler. Two detailed case studies in this paper suggest that mid-mountain clouds can also develop in the area as a result of a moist valley flow interacting with a downslope flow descending from the mountaintop. A southerly inflow through the Sea-to-Sky corridor can be channeled by the local topography into a westerly upslope flow toward Whistler Mountain, resulting in orographic clouds on the alpine venue. Under favorable circumstances, these clouds are trapped to the mid-mountain zone by the leeward subsidence of an elevated southerly flow. The presence of the downslope subsidence was manifested by a distinguished dry layer observed on the top of the mid-mountain clouds in both cases. It is the subsidence-induced adiabatic warming that imposes a strong buoyant suppression to trap the mid-mountain cloud. On the other hand, the subsidence-induced dry layer has the potential to trigger evaporative instability to periodically breakup the mid-mountain cloud.

  1. Physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazilian Olympic Wushu (kung-fu) team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Gualano, Bruno; Franchini, Emerson; Batista, Rafael Novaes; Polacow, Viviane Ozores; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine physiological, nutritional, and performance profiles of elite Olympic Wushu (kung-fu) athletes. Ten men and four women elite athletes took part in the study. They completed the following tests: body composition, nutritional assessment, upper-body Wingate Test, vertical jump, lumbar isometric strength, and flexibility. Blood lactate was determined at rest and after the Wingate Test. Blood lactate was also determined during a training session (combat and Taolu training). We found low body fat (men: 9.5 +/- 6.3%; women: 18.0 +/- 4.8%), high flexibility (sit-and-reach-men: 45.5 +/- 6.1 cm; women: 44.0 +/- 6.3 cm), high leg power (vertical jump-men: 37.7 +/- 8.4 cm; women: 32.3 +/- 1.1 cm), high lumbar isometric strength (men: 159 +/- 13 cm; women: 94 +/- 6 cm), moderate arm mean and peak power (Wingate Test-men: 4.1 +/- 0.4 and 5.8 +/- 0.5 Wxkg, respectively; women: 2.5 +/- 0.3 and 3.4 +/- 0.3 W.kg, respectively), and elevated blood lactate after the Wingate Test (men: 10.8 +/- 2.0 mmolxL; women: 10.2 +/- 2.0 mmolxL) and during training (combat: 12.0 +/- 1.8 mmolxL; Taolu: 7.7 +/- 3.3 mmolxL). Men athletes consume a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet, whereas women consume a moderate, high-carbohydrate diet. Energy consumption was markedly variable. In conclusion, Olympic Wushu seems to be a highly anaerobic-dependent combat sport. Low body fat, high flexibility, leg anaerobic power, isometric strength, and moderately high arm anaerobic power seem to be important for successful competitive performance.

  2. Academic investigator-initiated trials and the challenge of sponsor responsibility: the Cologne Sponsor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgias, Christine; Grunow, Andrea; Olderog, Miriam; May, Alexander; Paulus, Ursula

    2012-12-01

    With the amendment to the German Drug Law in 2004, the conduct of clinical trials changed by at least two main aspects: (1) The principles of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) were implemented in the national legislation, and (2) for the first time, the function of the sponsor of a clinical trial and the clinical trial itself have become legally binding definitions. By that, legal differences between industrial and academic clinical trials no longer exist. Clinical trials initiated by investigators have to fulfil the same requirements while the entire sponsor responsibility has to be carried out by the Coordinating Investigator or his institution including implementation of a quality management system according to the GCP. The Cologne Sponsor Model is an effective approach with settings, structures, basic features, action, and reporting lines, as well as funding for clinical trials initiated in an academic environment. The University of Cologne assumes the sponsor responsibility for clinical trials organised by the university researchers according to law. Sponsor's duties are delegated to a central operational unit of the sponsor - the Clinical Trials Center Cologne - which further delegates duties to the Coordinating Investigator. Clinical Trials Center Cologne was established in 2002 to support the performance of clinical trials at the university by offering comprehensive advisory and practical services covering all aspects of study planning and conduct. Furthermore, a specialised division of its quality management department acts as an independent sponsor's Quality Assurance Unit. The Clinical Trials Center Cologne has established a quality management system consisting of different components (1) to enable a reasoned decision to subsequent delegation, (2) for risk-based surveillance of trial conduct (audits, monitoring-checks, and reports), and (3) support and training of the Coordinating Investigator. Double functions of persons and departments in the university

  3. Strategic Bidding Behaviors in Nondecreasing Sponsored Search Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kun Tsung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize the specific results in the sponsored search auctions, most advertisers submit particular bid prices. The bidding behaviors with specific purposes are called as the strategic bidding. However, some strategic bidding behaviors will result in negative effects, such as the elimination of the equilibrium and the payment increase for some advertisers. The bidding behaviors with negative results are termed as the vindictive bidding. We survey four strategic bidding behaviors which include a rational bidding and three vindictive bidding strategies. In this paper, we study the relationship between the effects resulted by the vindictive bidding and the valuations of the vindictive advertisers. In our experiments, the search engine provider (SEP is benefited by all vindictive bidding behaviors, and the increment of the SEP's revenue is proportional to the degree of the vindictiveness. Bidding vindictively without sacrificing the own utility improves the advertiser's utility with high probability. Moreover, we observe that the SEP's revenue is improved by the following situations. First, the vindictive advertiser with low valuation in the keywords with high market value results in more SEP's revenue than that in the keywords with low market value. The second case is to raise the bidding competition between advertisers.

  4. Medical care delivery at the Inaugural Youth Olympic Games Singapore 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Jason Kok Kiong; Tay, Keng Boon; Suresh, Pillai; Schamasch, Patrick; Jegathesan, Manikavasagam; Mountjoy, Margo; Lim, Weng Kee; Lwa, Peng Ju; Wong, Cheong Yoong

    2011-12-01

    Mass gatherings such as the Youth Olympic Games require medical services for large populations with special needs specific to elite competitive youth athletes. The location of the Games in a heavily populated city with dispersed competition venues provides unique challenges. To describe the planning and delivery of medical services and to provide data for future planning. Singapore. One large multipurpose clinic was set up in the Games Village as well as medical posts at competitive venues for 26 sports for onsite coverage. PERIOD OF COVERAGE: 10 August 2010 to 28 August 2010. Participants A total of 1,337 medical encounters ranging from athletes to officials and volunteers who received medical care from a spectrum of medical professionals. measures Number of cases attended to at the Games Village medical centres and the medical posts at the competition venues, utilisation of medical services, and the pattern of these injuries and referral patterns to hospitals. Medical encounters for non-athletes represented 40.9% of the total medical encounters. The rate of heat illnesses was low for athletes at 1.7% (N = 13). The total hospitalisation rate was low at 1.7% (n = 23). Utilisation of onsite pharmacy and physiotherapy services were high at 45.2% (n = 887) and 37.8% (n = 743), respectively, of the encounters for all support services. The dispersed nature of the Games venues provided challenges to the organisation of medical cover for the participants. Organisers in future Games can make use of the data to plan for future Games of a similar nature.

  5. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  6. Tests for the Assessment of Sport-Specific Performance in Olympic Combat Sports: A Systematic Review With Practical Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, Helmi; Negra, Yassine; Bouguezzi, Raja; Capranica, Laura; Franchini, Emerson; Prieske, Olaf; Hbacha, Hamdi; Granacher, Urs

    2018-01-01

    The regular monitoring of physical fitness and sport-specific performance is important in elite sports to increase the likelihood of success in competition. This study aimed to systematically review and to critically appraise the methodological quality, validation data, and feasibility of the sport-specific performance assessment in Olympic combat sports like amateur boxing, fencing, judo, karate, taekwondo, and wrestling. A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, Google-Scholar, and Science-Direct up to October 2017. Studies in combat sports were included that reported validation data (e.g., reliability, validity, sensitivity) of sport-specific tests. Overall, 39 studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. The majority of studies (74%) contained sample sizes sport-specific tests (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.43-1.00). Content validity was addressed in all included studies, criterion validity (only the concurrent aspect of it) in approximately half of the studies with correlation coefficients ranging from r = -0.41 to 0.90. Construct validity was reported in 31% of the included studies and predictive validity in only one. Test sensitivity was addressed in 13% of the included studies. The majority of studies (64%) ignored and/or provided incomplete information on test feasibility and methodological limitations of the sport-specific test. In 28% of the included studies, insufficient information or a complete lack of information was provided in the respective field of the test application. Several methodological gaps exist in studies that used sport-specific performance tests in Olympic combat sports. Additional research should adopt more rigorous validation procedures in the application and description of sport-specific performance tests in Olympic combat sports.

  7. The training of Olympic wrestling coaches: study of the sources of knowledge and essential training contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Martins

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the representation of wrestling coaches regarding the sources of knowledge and the training contents to be adopted during the training process of young wrestlers’ coaches. The study was based on Grossman’s (1990 model of professional knowledge for teaching and followed a qualitative, multiple case study methodology. Following a semi-structured script, six Olympic wrestling experts were interviewed in-depth, trying to identify the sources of knowledge that the coaches used for their training and what didactic-methodological contents they considered essential to play their role as coach. The analysis revealed that the coaches’ sources of professional knowledge were diverse, including academic training and professional experience as the main sources of access to professional knowledge. The coaches also pointed out that their first sources of knowledge were their experiences as competitive athletes. Finally, this study concludes that expert coaches must acquire a profound knowledge of the competition environment, seeking to optimize their influence on athletes, which should extend not only to the sport practice of the youngster – as an athlete – but also at the level of the athlete as a person.

  8. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  9. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  10. Understanding competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    CRESPO, Aranzazu; SEGURA-CAYUELA, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    Using firm level data, we analyze the factors that drive the evolution of the aggregate Unit Labor Costs – the main European competitiveness indicator – in France, Germany, Italy and Spain. The evolution of the aggregate Unit Labor Cost is not driven by the evolution of the firm level Unit Labor Costs, but rather by an important factor for the competitiveness of a country: the reallocation of resources among the firms of the economy. Using the methodology of Hsieh and Klenow (...

  11. REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Krželj-Čolović, Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Individual city and regional authorities in many countries have themselves taken up the issue of “competitiveness” as part of their own economic development agendas: competitiveness has come to be regarded as critical for understanding and promoting local economic performance. Like their national counterparts, regional and city policy-makers have become preoccupied with knowing the relative competitive standing of their local economies compared with others, not just other regions and cities w...

  12. Energy control in industry ''case of SAP Olympic''. ''Pre- energy diagnosis of SAP Olympic: optimization of consumption of electricity and compressed air''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemba, Ouamsibiri Ernest

    2007-01-01

    This document is a report of a training course to graduate university degree in electronic engineering. It tackles the important question of the competitiveness of Burkina Faso societies in the UEMOA zone. The cost of energy is very high for these societies. This situation affects the distribution of their products. In this case the societies have to optimize their energy consumption. A company as SAP Olympic is supplied energy by a primary tension of 15 KV and a contractual demand of 750 kWh. This society works on 24 hours a day, from Monday to Saturday. Its energy consumption raised and was accentuated by the lack of measuring devices, controls, adjustments and monitoring. That is also caused the one's age of the equipment and installations: all that involves over consumptions and thus penalties of going beyond the contractual demand. It would thus be necessary to have an electric diagram, to have numerical analyzers of electricity consumption and to subscribe has a higher power in order to carry out savings of time of maintenance, availability of production, equipment and staff safety and in order to avoid the penalties of going beyond [fr

  13. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Greg; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how sport psychology consultants perceive the challenges they face at the Olympic Games. Post-Olympics semistructured interviews with 11 experienced sport psychology consultants who worked at the London Games were conducted. The interviews were transcribed...... the Olympics (e.g., negotiating one’s role) and Challenges During the Olympics (e.g., dealing with the media). The challenges the sport psychology consultants perceived as important validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions that exist in the literature. The findings extend the knowledge on sport...... psychology consultancy at the Olympic Games by showing individual contextual differences between the consultants’ perceptions and by identifying four SPC roles at the Olympic Games....

  14. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of Muslim footballers towards Ramadan fasting during the London 2012 Olympics: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Abdulaziz; Herrera, Christopher P; Zerguini, Yacine; Almudahka, Fuad; Chamari, Karim

    2016-09-26

    Muslims observe fasting during the month of Ramadan by abstaining from eating and drinking from dawn to sunset. Available literature shows that although several studies have been conducted on athletes to determine the effects of Ramadan fasting in terms of physical fitness and performance, little data are available regarding the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of athletes (particularly footballers) towards Ramadan fasting during high-level competitions. This study explored the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards Ramadan fasting among football players participating in the London 2012 Olympics football tournament. Cross-sectional study. Team training facility. 54 Muslim footballers participating in the London Olympics, 2012 OUTCOME MEASURES: Each participant was asked to complete a pre-validated structured questionnaire to assess knowledge, beliefs and attitudes regarding Ramadan fasting and their intention to fast during London 2012. Of the 54 participating athletes, 21(39%) reported that they intended to fast during Ramadan, but not on a match day. This attitude differed across three teams interviewed -83%, 15% and 0%-showing cross-cultural variation. Overall, there was a lack of knowledge among footballers regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on sleep and performance; around 30% of athletes gave incorrect responses. This knowledge was independent of their decision to fast on non-competition days (p>0.05). This is the first study to describe the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards Ramadan fasting among athletes from Muslim-majority countries participating in a high-level competition. Appropriate knowledge can ensure optimum performance for athletes during Ramadan fasting. Coaches, family members and friends also in possession of this knowledge can provide moral support to the players. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. The Olympic Games as reflection conditions of development Ancient Greek civilization in Hellenism period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko Ol'ga Gennadievna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The author has realized the historical analysis of the Olympic Games at consideration the conditions of Ancient Greek civilization development in Hellenism period. Had presented the division into the periodization of Greek civilization development in which had learned a major changes in the world-view of Hellenes under the A. Macedonian influence, notably: professionalization of sport and gradual fading of ideals, making basis of olympism, and also Christianity following late which results in the decline of the Olympic Games.

  16. The role of media in scheduling strategies in Sergipe in the mobilization of the global-local dialectics from a concrete situation: Olympics/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Mezzaroba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With all the mega sporting events that are happening in Brazil (The 2007 Pan-American Games, The 2013 Confederations Cup, The 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic/Paralympic Games it is possible to visualize a profitable and instigator moment for researches around this topic, concentrating our attention at the 2012 London Olympic Games. The exaltation of the sport phenomenon brought, in this research, the multiple sides through which the media can present itself and join itself with (regarding economy, culture, politics, education etc.. Our objective was to analyze how the media in the state of Sergipe anticipated and gave visibility to the 2012 Olympic Games, building a “sports-media scheduling” strategy, from the mobilization of the global-local dialectic. Characterized as a qualitative study, which has a descriptive-exploratory approach, this research was developed in three areas: print media, digital media and broadcast media – which have highlighted the low effectiveness of the scheduling strategy and the global-local dialectic strategy, whether because of amateurism in journalistic entities, or because of lack of interest, since there were no athletes from Sergipe in the competition.

  17. Verification of an ENSO-Based Long-Range Prediction of Anomalous Weather Conditions During the Vancouver 2010 Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ruping; Joe, Paul I.; Doyle, Chris; Whitfield, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review of the anomalous weather conditions during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games and the efforts to predict these anomalies based on some preceding El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals are presented. It is shown that the Olympic Games were held under extraordinarily warm conditions in February 2010, with monthly mean temperature anomalies of +2.2 °C in Vancouver and +2.8 °C in Whistler, ranking respectively as the highest and the second highest in the past 30 years (1981-2010). The warm conditions continued, but became less anomalous, in March 2010 for the Paralympic Games. While the precipitation amounts in the area remained near normal through this winter, the lack of snow due to warm conditions created numerous media headlines and practical problems for the alpine competitions. A statistical model was developed on the premise that February and March temperatures in the Vancouver area could be predicted using an ENSO signal with considerable lead time. This model successfully predicted the warmer-than-normal, lower-snowfall conditions for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics.

  18. Russia and Its International Image: From Sochi Olympic Games to Annexing Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the change of the Russian Federation’s international image in the light of two significant events: the Olympic Winter Games in 2014 in Sochi and the annexation of Crimea. According to the first hypothesis, one of the main aims for hosting the Olympic Games was to improve the international prestige of Russia. Shortly after the Olympics Russia increased its activity in Eastern Ukraine, which resulted in the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula. Therefore the article is also aimed to investigate whether by annexing Crimea Russia squandered the possible positive effects of hosting the Olympics in terms of its international image.

  19. The level of Olympic knowledge's of schoolboys and young sportsmen of Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiev A.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of Olympic knowledge of young sportsmen of Crimea is explored and it is set that it does not differ from the levels of schoolboys, which do not go in for sports. In experiment took part 642 schoolchildren from 20 educational establishments of Crimea. Creation of the separate system of Olympic education, which would provide the high level of knowledge about Olympic movement, motivation, fixing of types, standards, models of conduct of young sportsmen's, in accordance with Olympic ideals is recommended.

  20. The itinerary of a non-medal olympic athlete: Willy Seewald (*1900 +1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Zarpellon Mazo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the Willy Seewald Olympic sports journey, since the time he started playing sports, through their participation in the Olympic Games in 1924, until the end of his sporting career in the late 1920s. The sources used in this study were interviews, newspapers, magazines, official documents and Seewald family personnel collection. The information extracted and interpreted by document analysis, revealed that Willy Seewald, in addition to practicing a wide range of sports, achieved high performance in Olympic sport Javelin Throw and has shown by his conduct that the Olympic values were incorporated in its habitus.

  1. Cracking the code for maintaining quality training in Olympic distance triathlon: lessons learnt from a squad of elite Scandinavian athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Hansen, Tobias; Holm Beck, Anders; Boyle, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    Objective High-quality training is a key determinant of performance in the Olympic distance triathlon and is potentially influenced by a unique array of context-specific biopsychosocial factors. Our objective was to explore and describe these factors among squad members of a university-based, elite Olympic distance triathlete developmental programme. Method A qualitative investigation using a visual communication tool-assisted focus group and longitudinal semistructured individual interviews was conducted. Responses were solicited from the University of Southern Denmark’s elite triathlon team (n=8), and inductive coding from the focus group formed the basis of questions for the two rounds of individual interviews 11 months apart. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and then analysed thematically. Results Seventeen context-relevant factors were identified and 10 themes emerged, these being ‘the cold weather ritual’, ‘digestive system conditioning’, ‘the curse of the night owl’, ‘the strings attached to sponsorship’, ‘my coach—my rock’, ‘mood maintenance’, ‘the asynchronous training rhythm’, ‘psychological slavery’, ‘the legacy of the asphalt tattoo’ and ‘the tension of family and friends’. Conclusions By reflecting on their personal training vortex, elite triathletes were able to provide context-relevant insights into the maintenance of training quality over the course of a competitive season. Further research is required to elucidate whether and how biopsycholosocial factors can be modified to optimise the achievement of training goals. PMID:29071114

  2. List of Organizing Committees and Sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Organizers DIRECTORS Maria L CalvoPresident of International Commission for Optics, Spain Aram V PapoyanDirector of Institute for Physical Research of NAS, Armenia HEADS OF PROJECT Tigran Dadalyan YSU, Armenia Artsrun MartirosyanIPR, Armenia COORDINATOR Narine GevorgyanIPR, Armenia / ICTP, Italy MANAGERS Paytsar MantashyanIPR, Armenia Karen VardanyanIPR, Armenia INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE Marcis AuzinshLatvia Roland AvagyanArmenia Tapash ChakrabortyCanada Yuri ChilingaryanArmenia Eduard KazaryanArmenia Albert KirakosyanArmenia Radik KostanyanArmenia Avinash PandeyIndia Marat SoskinUkraine INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM COMMITTEE David Sarkisyan (Chair)Armenia Roman AlaverdyanArmenia Dan ApostolRomania Levon AslanyanArmenia Aranya BhattacherjeeIndia Gagik BuniatyanArmenia Vigen ChaltykyanArmenia Roldao Da RochaBrazil Miltcho DanailovItaly Vladimir GerdtRussia Samvel GevorgyanArmenia Gayane GrigoryanArmenia Rafik HakobyanArmenia Takayuki MiyaderaJapan Levon MouradianArmenia Atom MuradyanArmenia Simon RochesterUSA Hayk SarkisyanArmenia Aleksandr VardanyanArmenia LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Narek AghekyanArmenia Anahit GogyanArmenia Melanya GrigoryanArmenia Armen HovhannisyanArmenia Lilit HovhannisyanArmenia Tatevik KhachatryanArmenia Astghik KuzanyanArmenia Satenik KuzanyanArmenia Vladimir LazarevRussia Lilit MantashyanArmenia Hripsime MkrtchyanArmenia Pavel MuzhikyanArmenia Wahi NarsisianArmenia Sahak OrdukhanyanArmenia Anna ReymersArmenia Narine TorosyanArmenia The Symposium was organized by YSU & NAS SPIE Armenian Student Chapter Institute for Physical Research (IPR) of National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University (RAU) LT-PYRKAL cjsc Yerevan State University (YSU) Official Sponsors of the Symposium LT-PYRKAlRussian ArmenianSPIE LT-PYRKAL cjscRussian-Armenian UniversityYSU & NAS SPIE Student Chapter Further sponsors NFSATICTPSCSADevout Generation National Foundation of Science and Advanced TechnologiesThe Abdus Salam International Centre

  3. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City Olympics Venues, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This computer generated perspective image provides a northward looking 'view from space' that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling, and the nearby Snow Basin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City area ski resorts host the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60

  4. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GUTIUM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of interdependence and correlation between competition and competitiveness, and competition’s consequences. The author analysed some authors’ visions on competitiveness, and common features between theories of competition and competitiveness. Using the synthetic indicator elaborated by author has been evaluated the competitiveness of domestic goods on the internal and external market. At the end of this article, the author has developed proposals to increase competitiveness.

  5. Interview: partnering with the industry: the Olympic laboratory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, David A; Barker, Campbell P

    2012-07-01

    David A Cowan and Campbell P Barker speak to Ryan De Vooght-Johnson at Bioanalysis in May 2012 about the partnership between industry and academia for the setup and running of the doping-control laboratory for the London 2012 Olympic Games. David A Cowan is Director of the London 2012 anti-doping laboratory as well as Director of the King's College London Drug Control Centre, the UK's only WADA-accredited anti-doping laboratory, and Head of the Department of Forensic Science and Drug Monitoring. Cowan co-founded the Drug Control Centre in 1978 and became its Director in 1990. He has published extensively in the field of pharmaceutical analysis, especially as it relates to detecting drug administration in sport, and was awarded a personal chair in pharmaceutical toxicology in 1996. Cowan became Head of the Department of Forensic Science and Drug Monitoring at King's College London in 2002. He has served on a number of national and international committees, including the Council of Europe Working Party Investigating Drug Abuse in Sport that led to the first World Anti-Doping Convention, the Laboratory Representative on the International Olympic Committee's Medical Commission, and WADA's Laboratory Accreditation Subcommittee. He is a member of the Crippen Club for Distinguished Toxicologists. In 1998 he was awarded the IOC Trophy for Sport Ethics by the BOA. He was a founding member of the World Association of Anti-Doping Scientists and became its first President serving on its Executive Board between 2001 and 2004. He was a Visiting Laboratory Director at the Salt Lake City Winter Olympic Games 2002, where the first novel erythropoiesis-stimulating protein (NESP) positive was discovered. He was also a senior advisory scientist at both the Turin Winter Olympic Games in 2006 and the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. He was also a member of the IOC Medical Commission for the Sydney Olympic Games in 2000 and the Vancouver Winter Olympic Games in 2010. The Drug Control

  6. Olympic Dam project: assessment of the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    The assessment report on the Environmental Impact Statement produced for the Olympic Dam project is intended to provide the South Australian Government with a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impact of the proposal and to make recommendations concerning the project to be negotiated with the Joint Venturers prior to approval of the EIS. The project involves the mining, processing and sale of products from the copper-uranium ore body at Olympic Dam on the Roxby Downs Station, South Australia. The report includes a description of the proposal, a description of the environment likely to be affected, a discussion of the potential impacts on that environment, a discussion of the adequacy of information presented in the EIS and a discussion of the acceptability of the environmental impacts. The Department has concluded that the pre-design proposal is acceptable on environmental grounds

  7. LHC Olympics Workshop and String Phenomenology 2006 Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gross

    2006-10-01

    This is the final report of the organizers of the String Phenomenolgy program of which the LHC Olympics and the String Phenomenolgy conference were a part. In addition, it includes the list of talks from our website which comprise the online proceedings. The KITP no longer publishes conferences proceedings but rather makes recordings and visuals of all talks available on its website at www.kitp.ucsb.edu Program talks are available at http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/strings06/ Conference talks are are at http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/strings_c06/ and LHC Olympics talks are at http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/lhco_c06/. These talks constitute the proceedings of these meetings.

  8. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tew Garry A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives.

  9. Does Love Influence Athletic Performance? The Perspectives of Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kelly; Hosseini, Cheyenne; Myers, Kelly; Calub, Nina

    2016-06-01

    In this brief report, we provide an initial account of the association between love and athletic performance from the perspective of Olympic athletes. We posit that Romantic Passionate Love (RPL) and athletic performance may both involve the reward-motivation system of the brain. Based on this premise, we explored whether activation in one domain (love) might influence the other (sport). Our investigation was framed using Sternberg's triangular theory of love. Twenty Olympic athletes representing different sports were interviewed at the Games. Most athletes (n = 15) reported that their performance was better while in love; however, qualitative responses suggested that the benefits were correlated with rather than resulting from RPL. Although the athletes were provided with a definition of RPL and affirmed that their relationship met the criteria, interview responses reflected companionate rather than passionate love, suggesting that RPL may be differentially conceptualized across cultures. The study provides preliminary data that may be used to inform and refine future work on this topic.

  10. Management of environmental and radiation data - the Olympic Dam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, B.

    1987-01-01

    In terms of data management the Olympic Dam Project is in a process of transition from investigative studies to operational monitoring. The data management requirements for investigative studies are quite different requirements and indicates the progress taken in this transition, as well as the directions being taken to complete this transition. The environmental and radiation management programs for the Olympic Dam Project have already stored 70 megabytes of data on computer. With the comprehensive monitoring requirements which have been, or are in the process of being established for production operations, the volume of data is increasing. There are six main areas involving environmental and radiation data management: project area environmental monitoring; monitoring of the impact pathway from groundwater extraction for water supply to possible effects on mound springs; radiation levels in the environment; radiation exposures to designated employees; other occupational exposures in the mine; medical records relevant to occupational health

  11. What if Other Species Could Compete in the Olympics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Georgie

    2012-01-01

    To date, the fastest Olympic sprinter is Usain Bolt, who ran 200 m in 19.19 seconds. Would any other animal species on the planet have a chance of beating this man in a race? Children find this kind of question intriguing, and introducing a topic like this is a great way to make biology and mathematics fun. It provides a more practical application…

  12. Normalizing the performances of athletes in Olympic weightlifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R G

    1985-06-01

    A method of comparing the performances of athletes of disparate bodyweights in Olympic weightlifting is developed that is able to accommodate the fact that, of the ten bodyweight classes contested, the lighter nine have upper limits assigned to them while the heaviest has only a lower limit. The results are presented so as to answer the question "What would a given athlete weighing x kilograms total if he were a +110 kg. athlete of the same level of ability?"

  13. Strength training & olympic weigthlifting for children aged 12-15

    OpenAIRE

    Keskinen, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to help adolescent’s children to learn and understand the very basics of Olympic weightlifting and the correct techniques to keep them healthy and safe during their training sessions at the gym. The weightlifting manual consists from 17 small chapters, which will guide the athlete through the world of weightlifting. Some of the chapters are divided into subcategories to make the information more clearly for the young athletes. The manual includes total of t...

  14. Jointly Sponsored Research Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Under this program, which has been in place since Fiscal Year 1990, DOE makes approximately $2.5 million available each year to the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to fund projects that are of current interest to industry but which still involve significant risk, thus requiring some government contribution to offset the risk if the research is to move forward. The program guidelines require that at least 50% of the project funds originate from nonfederal sources. Projects funded under the JSRP often originate under a complementary base program, which funds higher-risk projects. The projects funded in Fiscal Year 1996 addressed a wide range of Fossil Energy interests, including hot-gas filters for advanced power systems; development of cleaner, more efficient processing technologies; development of environmental control technologies; development of environmental remediation and reuse technologies; development of improved analytical techniques; and development of a beneficiation technique to broaden the use of high-sulfur coal. Descriptions and status for each of the projects funded during the past fiscal year are included in Section A of this document, Statement of Technical Progress.

  15. Subcontract Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    DRCPM- ROL USA Missile Command, ATTN: DRCPM-VI Armor Training Devices, ATTN: DRCPM-AR 3 APRO 82-11 FINAL SUBCONTRACT COMPETITION by Wayne V. Zabel Charles...A. Correia "I S The pronouns "he," "his," and "him," when used in this publication, represent both the masculine and feminine genders unless... advertising or by negotiation, shall be made on a competitive basis to the maximum practicable extent." Armed Services Procurement Regul-tion Manual

  16. Team sponsors in community-based health leadership programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tracy Enright; Dinkin, Donna R; Champion, Heather

    2017-05-02

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to share the lessons learned about the role of team sponsors in action-learning teams as part of community-based health leadership development programs. Design/methodology/approach This case study uses program survey results from fellow participants, action learning coaches and team sponsors to understand the value of sponsors to the teams, the roles they most often filled and the challenges they faced as team sponsors. Findings The extent to which the sponsors were perceived as having contributed to the work of the action learning teams varied greatly from team to team. Most sponsors agreed that they were well informed about their role. The roles sponsors most frequently played were to provide the teams with input and support, serve as a liaison to the community and serve as a sounding board, motivator and cheerleader. The most common challenges or barriers team sponsors faced in this role were keeping engaged in the process, adjusting to the role and feeling disconnected from the program. Practical implications This work provides insights for program developers and community foundations who are interested in building the capacity for health leadership by linking community sponsors with emerging leaders engaged in an action learning experience. Originality/value This work begins to fill a gap in the literature. The role of team sponsors has been studied for single organization work teams but there is a void of understanding about the role of sponsors with multi-organizational teams working to improve health while also learning about leadership.

  17. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  18. Evaluating the environmental quality impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: magnetic monitoring of street dust in Beijing Olympic Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingqing; Zhang, Chunxia; Huang, Baochun; Piper, John D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Aggressive traffic intervention and emission control measures implemented during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing created a valuable case study for evaluating the effectiveness of measures for mitigating environmental pollution and protecting public health. Results are reported here for a suite of magnetic and non-magnetic (microscopic, chemical and statistical) methods conducted on street dust deposits and parkland soils around the Olympic Park in Beijing. In both areas magnetic grains with multidomain properties predominate; grain sizes are coarser in the heavy traffic regions and finer in the park areas with evidence for particulate steel dust input in the former case. Traffic is the major source of anthropogenic magnetic particle-induced enhancement of magnetic susceptibility in street dust; however, domestic combustion processes (mainly coal burning) are found to contribute a significant magnetic signature in the urban environment during the winter. Due to the traffic intervention, magnetic compositions in street dust decreases significantly during the Olympic Games. Correlations between magnetic parameters and heavy metal contents prove that magnetic parameters can be used as proxies for heavy metal pollution.

  19. Fluid dynamics of competitive swimming: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, T.; Voorhees, A.; Mark, R.; Mittal, R.

    2004-11-01

    The world of competitive swimming is dynamic. Swimmers today are bigger, stronger and faster than they ever have been. The training regimen of an elite athlete includes not only endless practice of his or her skills, but also a carefully planned diet, strength and endurance training, and hours of mental preparation. Within this framework, researchers from Rutgers and George Washington Universities have teamed with USA Swimming to develop advanced, fluid dynamics based training and analysis tools for current and future Olympic swimmers. The focus of this presentation will be on the objectives, methodologies and early outcomes of DPIV measurements of flow around swimmers. Testing was conducted at the Olympic training center in Colorado Springs and focussed specifically on the dolphin kick, an undulating motion swimmers use at the beginning of a race and after pushing off from the wall during a turn. Movies of flow measurements around swimmers, including Beth Botsford, the 1996 Olympic Gold Medalist in the 100 m backstroke, will be presented.

  20. The thrill of victory and the agony of defeat: spontaneous expressions of medal winners of the 2004 Athens Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Willingham, Bob

    2006-09-01

    Facial behaviors of medal winners of the judo competition at the 2004 Athens Olympic Games were coded with P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen's (1978) Facial Affect Coding System (FACS) and interpreted using their Emotion FACS dictionary. Winners' spontaneous expressions were captured immediately when they completed medal matches, when they received their medal from a dignitary, and when they posed on the podium. The 84 athletes who contributed expressions came from 35 countries. The findings strongly supported the notion that expressions occur in relation to emotionally evocative contexts in people of all cultures, that these expressions correspond to the facial expressions of emotion considered to be universal, that expressions provide information that can reliably differentiate the antecedent situations that produced them, and that expressions that occur without inhibition are different than those that occur in social and interactive settings. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Olympic Casino - meelelahutustööstus, kus kehtib sõjaväekord / Tiina Drui ; interv. Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Drui, Tiina

    2003-01-01

    Olympic Casino personalijuht Tiina Drui ettevõtte personalipoliitikast, töötajate värbamisest ja koolitamisest. Lisad: Olympic Casino põhimõtted; Küsimused, mille abil mõõta töökoha kvaliteeti. Vt. samas: Olympic Casino - 10 aastat täis

  2. 42 CFR 423.401 - General requirements for PDP sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sponsor is organized and licensed under State law as a risk bearing entity eligible to offer health insurance or health benefits coverage in each State in which it offers a prescription drug plan. If not... with State Law and Preemption by Federal Law § 423.401 General requirements for PDP sponsors. (a...

  3. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103 Section 152.103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development with...

  4. 76 FR 2807 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 510 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor AGENCY...) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect a change of sponsor for hemoglobin glutamer-200... ownership of, and all rights and interest in, NADA 141-067 for OXYGLOBIN (hemoglobin glutamer-200) to OPK...

  5. The relationship between absenteeism and employer-sponsored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6This article makes a specific contribution to studies on the use of on-site employer-sponsored ... 7Key words: absenteeism, child care, types of absenteeism, family-friendly practices, employer-sponsored child care ...... models to study the absence-taking process', Journal of Applied Psychology, 74: 300–316. Harrison, D.A. ...

  6. Sponsors of Nebraska Indochinese Refugees: Meeting the Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, William H.; Cramer, Sheran L.

    This report summarizes the response of 80 sponsors of Indochinese refugees in Nebraska to a survey designed to explore their sponsorship experience. Problem solving areas for sponsors and refugees are named as: acculturation, emotional adjustments, communication, health, housing, transportation, employment, and legal, financial and consumer…

  7. Has the London 2012 Olympic Inspire Programme Inspired a Generation? A Realist View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girginov, Vassil

    2016-01-01

    The organisers of the 2012 London Olympics have endeavoured explicitly to use the Games to inspire a generation. This is nothing short of putting the main claim of Olympism to the test, but surprisingly the Inspire project has received virtually no scholarly scrutiny. Using an educationally-informed view of inspiration, this paper interrogates the…

  8. Sports injuries and illnesses during the European Youth Olympic Festival 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Thijs, K.M.; Backx, F.J.G.; Steffen, K.; Brozicevic, V.; Stubbe, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The European Youth Olympic Festival (EYOF) is a biennial sporting event of nine Olympic Summer Sports for talented athletes, aged 13–18 years, from all over Europe. Objective To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the multisport event (14–19 July 2013), with the

  9. Sports injuries and illnesses during the European Youth Olympic Festival 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beijsterveldt, A. M C; Thijs, K. M.; Backx, F. J G; Steffen, K.; Brozičević, V.; Stubbe, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The European Youth Olympic Festival (EYOF) is a biennial sporting event of nine Olympic Summer Sports for talented athletes, aged 13-18 years, from all over Europe.  Objective: To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the multisport event (14-19 July 2013), with the

  10. 75 FR 66064 - Availability of Seats for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... applications for the following vacant seats on the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Marine Business and Industry, and Citizen-at Large. Both a primary and alternate member will be selected...

  11. Role of Special Olympics for Mothers of Adult Athletes with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The role of Special Olympics in the lives of mothers of adult athletes was examined. Forty-six mothers participated in a longitudinal study, completing a parenting stress questionnaire, a measure of their child's maladaptive behavior, and a survey of athlete involvement in Special Olympics at two time periods, 42 months apart. Results confirm that…

  12. London 2012 and beyond: concluding reflections on peacemaking, sport and the Olympic movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Burleson, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games have reinvigorated the debate on Olympic legacies for peace and development. Addressing this debate and building on the articles in this collection, this epilogue argues that the theoretical-conceptual understanding of peace and peacemaking remains poorly

  13. Have the Olympic Games become more migratory? : A comparative historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Jansen (Joost); G.B.M. Engbersen (Godfried)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIt is often believed that the Olympic Games have become more migratory. The number of Olympic athletes representing countries in which they weren’t born is thought to be on the rise. It should, however, be noted that migration in the context of sports is hardly a new phenomenon. In

  14. The Olympic 500-m speed skating; the inner-outer lane difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamst, Richard; Kuper, Gerard H.; Sierksma, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    In 1998, the International Skating Union and the International Olympic Committee decided to skate the 500-m twice during World Single Distances Championships, Olympic Games, and World Cups. The decision was based on a study by the Norwegian statistician N. L. Hjort, who showed that in the period

  15. Olympic tõotab jätkuvat tõusu / Armin Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Armin, 1965-

    2006-01-01

    Olympic Casino suuromanik Armin Karu vastab aripaev.ee lugejate küsimustele. Vt. samas: Raivo Sormunen. Olympicust võib saada kalleim börsifirma. Diagramm: Olympic liigub turuväärtuselt juba Tallinna börsi kalliduselt teise firma kannul

  16. Going the distance: Service delivery for the Danish National swimming team during the Olympics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carsten Hvid

    In this presentation I will outline the service delivery for the Danish National swimming team and provide an example of my work based on mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with an individual swimmer during the Olympics. Being part of the Olympics involves a range of stressors...

  17. Towards the Olympic Games: Guanabara Bay Forecasting System and its Application on the Floating Debris Cleaning Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, F. P.; Marques Da Cruz, L.; Cabral, M. M.; Miranda, T. C.; Garção, H. F.; Oliveira, A. L. S. C.; Carvalho, G. V.; Soares, F.; São Tiago, P. M.; Barmak, R. B.; Rinaldi, F.; dos Santos, F. A.; Da Rocha Fragoso, M.; Pellegrini, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Marine debris is a widespread pollution issue that affects almost all water bodies and is remarkably relevant in estuaries and bays. Rio de Janeiro city will host the 2016 Olympic Games and Guanabara Bay will be the venue for the sailing competitions. Historically serving as deposit for all types of waste, this water body suffers with major environmental problems, one of them being the massive presence of floating garbage. Therefore, it is of great importance to count on effective contingency actions to address this issue. In this sense, an operational ocean forecasting system was designed and it is presently being used by the Rio de Janeiro State Government to manage and control the cleaning actions on the bay. The forecasting system makes use of high resolution hydrodynamic and atmospheric models and a lagragian particle transport model, in order to provide probabilistic forecasts maps of the areas where the debris are most probably accumulating. All the results are displayed on an interactive GIS web platform along with the tracks of the boats that make the garbage collection, so the decision makers can easily command the actions, enhancing its efficiency. The integration of in situ data and advanced techniques such as Lyapunov exponent analysis are also being developed in the system, so to increase its forecast reliability. Additionally, the system also gathers and compiles on its database all the information on the debris collection, including quantity, type, locations, accumulation areas and their correlation with the environmental factors that drive the runoff and surface drift. Combining probabilistic, deterministic and statistical approaches, the forecasting system of Guanabara Bay has been proving to be a powerful tool for the environmental management and will be of great importance on helping securing the safety and fairness of the Olympic sailing competitions. The system design, its components and main results are presented in this paper.

  18. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  19. Better to be red than blue in virtual competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Ioan, Silvia; Zagrean, Leon

    2008-01-01

    In the 2004 Olympic Games, opponents wearing red athletic uniforms were more likely to win against opponents wearing blue uniforms. To investigate whether this color bias extends to the world of virtual competition, we compared the performance of red and blue teams in a popular multiplayer first-person......-shooter (FPS) computer game. For 3 consecutive months, we collected data from a publicly available global statistics server. Outcomes from 1,347 matches played by the top 10 players on the same virtual arena were included. Red teams won 54.9% of matches, and this effect was highly significant. Our data suggest...... that joining the red team may offer a slight advantage over the blue team in virtual competition, and this should be accounted for when designing FPS games. It is likely that "seeing red" may trigger a powerful psychological distractor signal in human aggressive competition that can affect the outcome...

  20. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  1. Measuring competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    J. Peter Neary

    2005-01-01

    An earlier version was presented at the Conference on Macroeconomic Perspectives in Honour of Brendan M. Walsh, held at University College Dublin on 7 October, 2005 This paper reviews alternative approaches to measuring an economy?s cost competitiveness and proposes some new measures inspired by the economic theory of index numbers. The indices provide a theoretical benchmark for estimated real effective exchange rates, but differ from standard measures in that they are based on marginal r...

  2. Optimal Competition : A Benchmark for Competition Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces optimal competition: the best form of competition in an industry that a competition authority can achieve under the information constraint that it cannot observe firms' effciency levels.We show that the optimal competition outcome in an industry becomes more competitive as more

  3. Organization and multidisciplinary work in an olympic high performance centers in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Moreau, DC Dacbsp.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The organization and methodology of providing services to athletes through Olympic high performance centers varies among the National Olympic Committees (NOC. Between NOCs, provider composition and methodology for the delivery of services differs. Services provided typically include sports medicine and sports performance. NOCs may provide service through a university-based system or high performance centers. The United States Olympic Committee (USOC provides services using multiple approaches through a hybrid model that includes three Olympic Training Centers, National Governing Bodies (NGB high performance centers and independent specialty care centers. Some highly developed National Governing Bodies have dedicated high performance training centers that serve only their sport. The model of sports medicine and sports performance programming utilized by the USOC Olympic Training Centers is described in this manuscript.

  4. Political influence on sportsmen’s training system in olympic sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Yessentayev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the place of Olympic sports in modern world; to analyze dynamic of its political, economic and social significance progress. Material: publications on the topic of this article were used as sources of information. Results: we characterized influence of Olympic sports on transformation of views and practical functioning in sphere of elite sportsmen’s training. Main stages of modern Olympic sports’ formation have been regarded. Strategy of elite sports’ development in historical aspect has been presented. Changes in attitude of political leaders, state figures and general population to Olympic Games have been shown. Directions of development and perfection of elite sportsmen’s training national systems have been outlined. Conclusions: recent years, potential of Olympic sports have being reflected in foreign and home policy of many countries. It resulted in drastic changes in spheres of organization, management, financing, material technical and personnel provisioning of sportsmen’s training.

  5. Traveling to Canada for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2009-07-01

    The 21st Winter Olympic Games will be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from February 12 to 28, 2010. Following the Winter Olympic Games, the Winter Paralympic Games will be held from March 12 to 21, 2010. There will be 86 winter sporting events hosted in Vancouver with 5500 athletes staying in two Olympic Villages. Another 2800 members of the media, 25,000 volunteers, and 1 million spectators are expected in attendance. This paper reviews health and safety issues for all travelers to Canada for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games with a specific focus on pre-travel planning, road and transportation safety in British Columbia, natural and environmental hazards, Olympic medical facilities, safety and security, and infectious disease.

  6. Race Pattern of Women’s 100-m Hurdles: Time Analysis of Olympic Hurdle Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Tsiokanos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: For control and effective management of training process in women’s 100-m hurdles event, the coaches, in addition to detailed biomechanical parameters, need also overall, more comprehensive technical parameters, called direct performance descriptors which are used for planning the distribution of an athlete’s efforts over the race. Purpose: The aim of this study was the investigation of the race behavior of elite women sprint hurdlers, on the basis of selected time parameters, and the examination of the existence of a common race pattern in high level hurdle performance. Method: The time data of the race performance between two consecutive Olympic Games were compared. The analyzing subjects consisted of all women 100-m hurdle finalists in Athens 2004 (n = 6 and all women 100-m hurdle finalists (n = 8 and semi-finalists (n = 14 in Beijing 2008. Results: No significant differences were revealed between the two competitions concerning to the means of approach run time, run-in time, intermediate touchdown times, interval times for the hurdle units and the corresponding average velocities. Significant relationship exists between the intermediate times and final performance. The time contribution of the first half of the race to the formation of the final performance is approximately equal to the second one and, generally the standardised time parameters show the existence of a common race pattern in high level hurdle performance. Conclusion: The presented biomechanical data provide coaches and athletes with valuable information about hurdle technique for effective interventions in the training process.

  7. The effects of a three-year integrated Olympic education programme on adolescents' prosocial behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukys, Saulius; Majauskiene, Daiva; Dumciene, Audrone

    2017-04-01

    The concept of Olympic education and its use of moral education to shape the development of personality have received insufficient empirical support. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an integrated Olympic education programme on the development of prosocial behaviour in adolescents. A natural experimental research design was applied in this study. The pre-test sample included 411 adolescents (aged 13-14) who were randomly selected from schools that had begun to apply an integrated Olympic education programme, along with 430 adolescents from schools without an Olympic education programme. The post-test sample included 381 students from schools implementing the Olympic education programme and 402 students from schools without an Olympic education programme. The revised prosocial tendencies measure was administered to the participants at pre- and post-test time points to assess changes in prosocial behaviour and specifically on six types of prosocial behaviour: public, anonymous, dire, emotional, compliant, and altruistic. The analyses showed significant improvements in prosocial behaviour in adolescents from schools that had implemented an integrated Olympic education programme. Changes in prosocial behaviour following the implementation of an integrated Olympic education programme were observed for the compliant, altruistic, and dire types of prosocial behaviour. In conclusion, these findings suggest that an integrated Olympic education programme effectively encourages prosocial behaviour in adolescents. This study expands our understanding of the efficiency of implementing an Olympic education programme in schools. We suggest that future research should investigate the behavioural changes in students of different ages from perspective of both teachers and students.

  8. Effect of Two Different Types of Olympic Rotation Order on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Variables in Men’s Artistic Gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkaouer Bessem

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The rotation sequence-order differs from a gymnast to another according to the draw at the time of the qualifying competitions in men’s artistic gymnastics. Only the six best gymnasts start on the floor exercises, the others could start on any of the other five apparatuses. It has been demonstrated that some gymnastics events are physiologically less taxing than others; hence some gymnasts could experience lower and/or higher levels of cardiovascular and metabolic stress compared to others, depending on the apparatus they start with. In this regard, the objective of this investigation was to compare cardiovascular and metabolic variables between two different types of Olympic rotation-order; one began with the floor exercises and the other began with the pommel horse. Six elite male gymnasts took part in this investigation. Heart rates, synchronized with real-time video acquisition, as well as capillary lactate concentration following each apparatus routine were monitored. Cardiovascular and metabolic stresses were significantly higher when gymnasts started their rotation with the pommel horse in all apparatuses except the pommel horse. The floor exercises’ score was significantly affected when gymnasts ended up their competition on this apparatus. As a conclusion, starting gymnastics’ competition on the floor exercises implicates less cardiovascular and metabolic stress associated with better performance compared with the other rotation order. As a matter of fact, best gymnasts who start on this apparatus could have a slight advantage compared with the other athletes.

  9. Needle-use declarations at the Olympic Games Rio 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Molly; Stuart, Mark Campbell; Gribble, Hannah; Budgett, Richard; Pipe, Andrew

    2017-11-21

    We report on the results of the 'IOC Needle Policy' applied during the course of the Games of the XXXI Summer Olympiad in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The policy was intended to empower physicians to ensure appropriate clinical use of needles within team medical environments, enhance the safety of those responsible for housekeeping services and others in the Olympic environment, and permit documentation of such procedures as an adjunct to the doping control programme. Any needle use required the submission of an 'Injection Declaration Form' to IOC medical officials. All ' Injection Declaration Forms' were reviewed and archived. The declarations provided basic information regarding the nature of the needle use and the product(s) involved, the physician, athlete and respective National Olympic Committee (NOC). The details of the declarations were subsequently categorised. A total of 367 declarations were received from physicians representing 49 NOCs. Needle-use declarations were more common in athletics, gymnastics, football and aquatics. A single product was administered in 60% of the cases, and more than one product was administered in 40%. The majority of declarations indicated the use of local anaesthetics, glucocorticoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics. The introduction of a 'Needle Policy' in the Olympic Games setting was intended to minimise the use of needles by non-physicians, promote evidence-based practice and to deter needle-based doping practices. Declarations were received from 49 of 209 NOCs suggesting either that needle use is minimal among certain teams or opportunities remain to enhance compliance with such policies at future games. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Kinanthropometric profile of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Betancourt, Hamlet; León, Sofia; Deturnel, Yanel; Martínez, Miriam; Echevarría, Ivis; Castillo, María Eugenia; Serviat, Noemí

    2012-04-01

    Athletes' kinanthropometric profiles are widely addressed in the scientific literature. Such profiles are particularly important in volleyball because absolute size contributes a significant percentage of total variance associated with athletic success. As in other team sports, volleyball players' kinanthropometric attributes correlate with the game's tactical demands. From 1992 through 2000, the Cuban women's volleyball team achieved top global performance, winning first place in three successive Summer Olympic Games. Describe the kinanthropometric profiles of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions during 1992-2000 and compare these by position played. Measurements were taken of body composition, somatotype, proportionality and several anthropometric indicators in 41 Cuban women volleyball players, grouped by playing position. All were members of the national team that participated in the Summer Olympic Games in Barcelona (1992), Atlanta (1996) and Sydney (2000). Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all study variables. Analysis of variance was used to compare means for different positions for the variables weight; height; percent adipose, muscle and bone mass; body mass index; and muscle-to-bone ratio. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify anthropometric dimensions differentiating playing positions (center, spiker and setter), using pvolleyball players was balanced mesomorphic (2.7-3.6-2.9). Classified by position, centers (2.9-3.4-3.4) and spikers (2.8-3.6-2.9) presented an average mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype, and setters (2.6-3.7-2.6) were balanced mesomorphic. On assessing Somatotype Attitudinal Mean (SAM), centers and spikers showed more intrapositional homogeneity than that of setters. Centers were significantly taller (187.1±2.5 cm) than players in other positions. Centers' percent adipose tissue mass (28.9±2.7%) was significantly higher than that of setters (24.3±2.7%), who were leanest of all positions. The

  11. Evidence of Aerosol's Influence on Climate from Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Fu, Q.; Huang, J.; Ge, J.; Su, J.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution is a difficult problem during the process of industrialization in most developing countries. In China, the main air pollutants are inhaled aerosol particles. Because of the extremely high loading and rapid development, Beijing became a heavily polluted city, with a population of more than 16 million. The 2008 Olympic Summer Games provided a unique opportunity for the study of climate effects of aerosols due to many measurements taken to fight pollution caused by industrialization and economic growth.Surface temperature is the most intuitive meteorological factor and easy to get. Therefore, aerosol’s radiative effects on regional climate can be known by studying the relationship between aerosols and surface temperature in Beijing city in August 2008. However, many factors can affect the surface temperature and cloud is considered as a very important meteorological element in radiation balance. In order to remove the impact of clouds on surface temperature, here the ground temperature in clear sky days (when cloud cover is less than 2) are selected. Aerosol data from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua shows that aerosol concentration decreased significantly in the area of Olympic venues in August 2008. Meanwhile, the ground-based observation data shows the surface temperature during the day (14LT) and night (02LT) in August 2008 is higher and lower than the mean temperature in August from 2002 to 2008, respectively. It is discovered that the distribution of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical Depth (AOD) in the whole area of Beijing in August of 2003 and 2004 is similar to that in 2008. We chosen four meteorological stations to analyze surface temperature and found that the diurnal changes of surface temperature are consistent with that in August of 2003, 2004 and 2008. Meanwhile, the decrease of AOD in the area of Olympic venues in August 2008 leads to the increase of precipitation

  12. Environmental considerations for the expansion of Olympic Dam, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.

    2002-01-01

    A recent $2 billion expansion at Olympic Dam saw production capacity increased to 200 000 tonnes of copper cathode, 4500 tonnes of UOC, 80,000 ozs of gold and 850 000 ozs of silver from the mining and milling of about 9 million tonnes of ore. The Expansion required the prior preparation and approval of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Design Criteria and Codes of Practice applied during design and construction of the Expansion ensured that no environmental incidents occurred during construction, and implementation of an Environmental Management System has ensured that operation of the expanded facilities continues to have low impacts. (author)

  13. The economic impact of the Olympic Dam development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, L.H.; Trengove, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    The copper-uranium-gold deposit at Olympic Dam on the Roxby Downs Station, South Australia, was discovered in July 1975. Production technology, safety during mining and processing and the nature and extent of government involvement are discussed. Factors influencing the optimal scale of the project are considered and indicative calculations are made of project costs under a range of assumptions. Social issues raised by the project include lease allocation, taxation, infrastructure and the use of indenture agreements. An analysis is undertaken of the project's expected employment and production effects in South Australia using input/output modelling techniques

  14. Environmental considerations for the expansion of Olympic Dam, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.

    2000-01-01

    A recent $A2 billion expansion at Olympic Dam saw production capacity increased to 200,000 tonnes of copper cathode, 4,500 tonnes of UOC, 80,000 ozs of gold and 850,000 ozs of silver from the mining and milling of about 9 million tonnes of ore. The Expansion required the prior preparation and approval of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Design Criteria and Codes of Practice applied during design and construction of the Expansion ensured that no environmental incidents occurred during construction and implementation of an Environmental Management System has ensured that operation of the expanded facilities continues to have low impacts. (author)

  15. International Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Fagerberg

    1988-01-01

    This paper develops and tests a model of differing trends in international competitiveness and economic growth across countries. The model relates the development of market shares at home and abroad to three sets of factors: the ability to compete in technology, the ability to compete in delivery(capacity) and the ability to compete in price. The test, using data for 15 OECD countries for the period 1961-1983, shows that in the medium and long run, factors related to technology and capacity a...

  16. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  17. Alternatives to retaliation in response to state sponsored terrorist attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Paul James

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited We consider a game played between a state sponsor of international terrorism, a terrorist organization and the victim of a terrorist attack. The state sponsor wishes to inflict as much damage to the victim as possible without risking retaliation. The victim state wishes to end these attacks as soon as possible, through non-retaliatory means if possible in order to avoid the penalty associated with retaliation. In this thesis we compare...

  18. The future of competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Gary; Jensen, Boris Brorman; Miessen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to explore the potential of the competition. The question we asked ourselves was if the competition can generate new, relevant and critical ideas within architecture? We organized an idea competition about the architectural competition.......We wanted to explore the potential of the competition. The question we asked ourselves was if the competition can generate new, relevant and critical ideas within architecture? We organized an idea competition about the architectural competition....

  19. Visual Defects in Special Olympics Participants From Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdrowska, Marta; Woodhouse, J Margaret

    2016-03-01

    To describe visual problems among athletes with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and the role of vision in special sports. A cross-sectional observational study. Athletes participating in Special Olympics European Summer Games 2010 in Warsaw attended vision screening by Special Olympics Lions Clubs International Opening Eyes. Coaches were encouraged to bring all athletes to screening without selection; 900 athletes from 52 European countries participated. Standard noninvasive eye examination procedures. Independent variables were age, gender, sport, and country of origin. Eyeglasses wear, presenting visual acuity, refractive error, and ocular health. Testability rates were very high. Findings confirmed high prevalence of ocular/visual defects in people with ID. There was an association between acuity and sport discipline. Few athletes used sports glasses. Screening revealed a lack of eye care even in the most developed nations. The impact of vision on sports activity in athletes with ID is significant. More needs to be done to ensure good vision and safety correction for active people with ID. Better provision and greater awareness of eye care in people with ID is needed in all European societies. Data presented highlight the need for increased awareness of the role of vision in sporting achievements, personal development, and quality of life in active people with ID. Athletes with ID should have easily accessible comprehensive eye care, and when appropriate, corrective and protective glasses. This will require the efficient cooperation of vision specialists, coaches, carers, and athletes themselves.

  20. Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalor, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit was discovered in July 1975. It is located 650 km north-northwest of Adelaide on Roxby Downs Station in South Australia. The first diamond drill hole, RD1, intersected 38 m of 1.05% copper. A further eight holes were drilled with only marginal encouragement to November 1976, when RD10 cored 170 m of 2.12% copper and 0.06% of uranium oxide, thus confirming an economic discovery. The discovery of Olympic Dam is an excellent example applying broad-scale, scientifically based conceptual studies to area selection. Exploration management supported its exploration scientists in testing their ideas with stratigraphic drilling. Geologic modeling, supported by geophysical interpretations and tectonic studies, was used to site the first hole. The discovery also illustrates the persistence required in mineral exploration. The deposit appears to be a new type of stratabound sediment-hosted ore. It has an areal extent exceeding 20 km 2 with vertical thicknesses of mineralization up to 350 m. It is estimated to contain more than 2000 million MT of mineralized material with an average grade of 1.6% copper, 0.06% uranium oxide, and 0.6 g/MT gold. The deposit occurs in middle Proterozoic basement beneath 350 m of unmineralized, flat upper Proterozoic sediments. The sediments comprising the local basement sequence are predominantly sedimentary breccias controlled by a northwest-trending graben

  1. Healthcare Planning for the Olympics in London: A Qualitative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. Methods We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. Findings We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Interpretation Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential. PMID:24647613

  2. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Black

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. METHODS: We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. FINDINGS: We identified five key themes: (1 Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2 Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3 Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4 Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5 Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. INTERPRETATION: Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  3. The Impact of Staging Olympic Games on Real Estate Price in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Tang Xuebing; Yao Yongling

    2012-01-01

    The price of the real estate in many cities of China has been rising up rapidly since a couple of years ago. Particularly, the increasing period is coinciding with the period of economic rising in Beijing. Therefore, many people thank that the higher price is mostly made by holding Olympic Game in 2008. In order to separate Olympic factor and non-Olympic factors, which were supposed to impact the price of real estate in Beijing, Differences-in-Differences (DD) method will be adopted in this p...

  4. Validity of hydration non-invasive indices during the weightcutting and official weigh-in for Olympic combat sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Martínez-Abellán, Alberto; López-Gullón, José María; Morán-Navarro, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G; De la Cruz-Sánchez, Ernesto; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In Olympic combat sports, weight cutting is a common practice aimed to take advantage of competing in weight divisions below the athlete's normal weight. Fluid and food restriction in combination with dehydration (sauna and/or exercise induced profuse sweating) are common weight cut methods. However, the resultant hypohydration could adversely affect health and performance outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine which of the routinely used non-invasive measures of dehydration best track urine osmolality, the gold standard non-invasive test. Immediately prior to the official weigh-in of three National Championships, the hydration status of 345 athletes of Olympic combat sports (i.e., taekwondo, boxing and wrestling) was determined using five separate techniques: i) urine osmolality (UOSM), ii) urine specific gravity (USG), iii) urine color (UCOL), iv) bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and v) thirst perception scale (TPS). All techniques were correlated with UOSM divided into three groups: euhydrated (G1; UOSM 250-700 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), dehydrated (G2; UOSM 701-1080 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), and severely dehydrated (G3; UOSM 1081-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)). We found a positive high correlation between the UOSM and USG (r = 0.89: p = 0.000), although this relationship lost strength as dehydration increased (G1 r = 0.92; G2 r = 0.73; and G3 r = 0.65; p = 0.000). UCOL showed a moderate although significant correlation when considering the whole sample (r = 0.743: p = 0.000) and G1 (r = 0.702: p = 0.000) but low correlation for the two dehydrated groups (r = 0.498-0.398). TPS and BIA showed very low correlation sizes for all groups assessed. In a wide range of pre-competitive hydration status (UOSM 250-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), USG is highly associated with UOSM while being a more affordable and easy to use technique. UCOL is a suitable tool when USG is not available. However, BIA or TPS are not sensitive enough to detect hypohydration at official weight

  5. Wisdom for Building the Project Manager/Project Sponsor Relationship: Partnership for Project Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patton, Nanette; Shechet, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The project sponsor can promote information technology (IT) project success in several ways, yet many projects either have no formally designated project sponsor or the project sponsor is confused about his/her...

  6. The prediction of swimming performance in competition from behavioral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushall, B S; Leet, D

    1979-06-01

    The swimming performances of the Canadian Team at the 1976 Olympic Games were categorized as being improved or worse than previous best times in the events contested. The two groups had been previously assessed on the Psychological Inventories for Competitive Swimmers. A stepwise multiple-discriminant analysis of the inventory responses revealed that 13 test questions produced a perfect discrimination of group membership. The resultant discriminant functions for predicting performance classification were applied to the test responses of 157 swimmers at the 1977 Canadian Winter National Swimming Championships. Using the same performance classification criteria the accuracy of prediction was not better than chance in three of four sex by performance classifications. This yielded a failure to locate a set of behavioral factors which determine swimming performance improvements in elite competitive circumstances. The possibility of sets of factors which do not discriminate between performances in similar environments or between similar groups of swimmers was raised.

  7. Advances in sports nutrition, exercise and medicine: Olympic issues, the legacy and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Carmont, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the run up to the London 2012 Olympics, this editorial introduces the cross-journal article collection Advances in Sports Nutrition, Exercise and Medicine http://www.biomedcentral.com/series/asnem

  8. 77 FR 64797 - Availability of Seats for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... by Friday, December 7, 2012. ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Norma Klein, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, 115 East Railroad Ave., Suite 301, Port Angeles, WA 98362 ( norma.klein...

  9. 77 FR 16813 - Availability of Seat for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    .... ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Norma Klein, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, 115 East Railroad Ave., Suite 301, Port Angeles, WA 98362 ( norma[email protected] ). Completed applications...

  10. “Peace” theme in outcomes of the international olympic congresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda KORKMAZ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pierre de Coubertin’s aim was to start a global movement through the modern Olympic games which encompassed all of the countries and their youth as representatives of their respective countries. The movement that he attempted to create had sport at its core and aimed to educate all youth without discrimination and by this way, he wanted to contribute to make the world a better and peaceful place. To be able to reach his aim, the first one being in 1894, he organized İnternational Olympic Congresses to spread the movement and to plant the philosophic frame of the Olympic movement. The start of the Olympic games resulted as the most important outcome of these congresses. The purpose of this research is to examine, the first one being in 1894 and the last one in Copenhagen in 2009, the ways how the theme of peace was put in place and functioned in the 13 congresses.

  11. Application software GeoniCS when designing the olympic ski runs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin N. Makarov

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available GeoniCS implementation for Olympic mountain skiing routes designing is considered an international standard. This program allows optimizing plan and profiling development. Besides, the author adapted the program for lines engineering protection with special metal mesh.

  12. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Olympic Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Olympic Peninsula project of 2005, totaling approximately 114.59 sq mi: 24.5 for Clallam...

  13. Architectural solutions in terms of Bionic urban environment of Olympic Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Kiba

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The principle of architectural bionics, suitable for Olympic Sochi environment was used for promenade designing. The complex solution includes promenade areas and a ‘winter and summer’ platform.

  14. The Temperament of a City: A Postscript to Post-Olympic Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are two kinds of amazement in art and architecture: one relies on the ingenuity of artifice to arouse a feeling of enchantment, while the other causes an awe-inspiring ecstasy through the shock of the new. Beijing may have won the race in the latter, with spectacles such as the Olympic Games, but does this prove that a new Beijing has been reinvented?This paper examines the two kinds of amazement to examine two pairs of showcase Olympic buildings: 1 Beijing International Airport’s Terminal 3 and the Olympic Tennis Centre and 2 the Olympic Stadium and the CCTV Tower – to ask what they say about Beijing, and its temperament. It also questions whether or not it is possible to reinvent a new city once its temperament has been formed, and in what way this temperament may be related to the creation of public space, or place.

  15. Legal Regulation of Trade Activity during Sochi Preparation of XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Ivneva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the topical issues of legal regulation of social trade relations in the Russian Federation during Sochi preparation and hosting of XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic Games.

  16. Importance of ice for the «White Olympics»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Renkel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organization of any winter Olympic game, often called as «White Olympics», requires interfacing between sports, technology and glaciology. History of the Olympic winter games and the Norwegian figure skater Sonia Henie, first and the only three-time Olympic champion (1928, 1932, 1936 in ladies figure skating, is presented in the article. Leaving the amateurish sport, Henie became a Hollywood star of the ballet on ice. She was introduced to the inventor Frank Zamboni, who created the ice re-surfacer (the ice-cleaning combine to restore the ice on skating rinks. Using the combine by Henie during her tours in the United States served to advertise this machine, and the name Zamboni had become a trademark for machines «Zamboni».

  17. Kristjan Lepik : Olympic puhul on käive olulisem kui kasum / Enn Tosso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tosso, Enn, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Kasiinoketi Olympic Entertainment Group esimese poolaasta kasum oli 97,4 miljonit krooni, mis on 48,4 protsenti vähem kui mullu samal perioodil. Käive kasvas aastaga rohkem kui kolmandiku. Lisa: Tulemused

  18. Olympic Casino trügib pokkeriga jõuliselt turismiturule / Eric Katskowski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Katskowski, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Olympic Casino rahvusvahelisel pokkeriturniiril oli osalejate hulk varasemast märgatavalt suurem. Hasartmängude korraldajate liidu tegevdirektori Tõnis Rüütli hinnangul on tekkinud uus turisminishsh, mida võib nimetada pokkeriturismiks. Diagrammid

  19. Oral cleanliness and gingival health among Special Olympics athletes in Europe and Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez #, Carla; Kaschke, Imke; Perlman, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background Special Olympics athletes, as well as the general population of people with intellectual disabilities, are expected to have poorer gingival health. The aim of the study is to explore the prevalence of gingival signs of inflammation and its relationship to oral cleanliness and age among Special Olympics athletes from Europe and Eurasia. Material and Methods A retrospective longitudinal study was performed with data collected through standardized oral from 15.941 athletes from annual Special Olympics events held in 49 countries, from Europe and Eurasia between 2007 and 2012. The data was analysed descriptively, with One-Way ANOVA test and Chi-Square test. Results The level of significance was predetermined at a p value disability, Special Olympics. PMID:26241452

  20. The Introduction of the Antiochene Olympics: A Proposal for a New Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Remijsen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Malalas' account of games at Antioch, the confusions and doublets reflect his simplification of diverse festivals; the first Olympics there should be dated to A.D. 212 rather than earlier.

  1. Innovative cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator programs in schools: Results from the Student Program for Olympic Resuscitation Training in Schools (SPORTS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Victoria L; Haley, Danielle M; Dugan, Noreen P; Iyer, V Ramesh; Shults, Justine

    2016-07-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates are low. Our study objective was to encourage Philadelphia high school students to develop CPR/AED (automated external defibrillator) training programs and to assess their efficacy. The focus was on developing innovative ways to learn the skills of CPR/AED use, increasing willingness to respond in an emergency, and retention of effective psychomotor resuscitation skills. Health education classes in 15 Philadelphia School District high schools were selected, with one Control and one Study Class per school. Both completed CPR/AED pre- and post-tests to assess cognitive knowledge and psychomotor skills. After pre-tests, both were taught CPR skills and AED use by their health teacher. Study Classes developed innovative programs to learn, teach, and retain CPR/AED skills. The study culminated with Study Classes competing in multiple CPR/AED skills events at the CPR/AED Olympic event. Outcomes included post-tests, Mock Code, and presentation scores. All students' cognitive and psychomotor skills improved with standard classroom education (p<0.001). Competition with other schools at the CPR/AED Olympics and the development of their own student-directed education programs resulted in remarkable retention of psychomotor skill scores in the Study Class (88%) vs the Control Class (79%) (p<0.001). Olympic participants averaged 93.1% on the Mock Code with 10 of 12 schools ≥94%. Students who developed creative and novel methods of teaching and learning resuscitation skills showed outstanding application of these skills in a Mock Code with remarkable psychomotor skill retention, potentially empowering a new generation of effectively trained CPR bystanders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The athlete as a problem in the olympic movement and the approaches to solve it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voropay Sergej Nikolaevich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic problems which pursue a sportsman in olympic sport are considered. Over 30 informative sources of domestic and foreign authors are analysed. The analysis of modern scientific, scientifically-methodical literature and informative information allowed to outline basic problems which appear before modern an olympian: social, psychological, economic, moral, technological. Basic directions and measures of overcoming problems are offered as within the limits of international olympic motion so at regional and national levels.

  3. Migration effects of Olympic siting: A pooled time series cross-sectional analysis of host regions

    OpenAIRE

    Dawn D. Thilmany; Travis J. Lybbert

    2000-01-01

    There has been considerable opposition to the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in the Salt Lake City metro area. This opposition stems primarily from fears of increased population growth due to the international attention. Proponents maintain that the Games will enhance the quality and quantity of jobs in the local economy, mitigating any undesirable impacts. This paper analyzes the experiences of past North American Olympic host regions, rather than the single case of Salt Lake City, to dete...

  4. Sex work and the public health impacts of the 2010 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Kathleen N; Chettiar, Jill; Chan, Keith; Taylor, Matthew; Montaner, Julio Sg; Shannon, Kate

    2012-06-01

    The authors examined the impact of exposure to the 2010 Winter Olympics time period on outcomes measuring disruption of local sex work environments in Vancouver, Canada. The authors conducted a before-and-after study, using multivariable logistic regression, to assess the relationship between exposure to the Olympics period (19 January-14 March 2010) versus the post-Olympics period (1 April-1 July 2010) and outcomes. This study included 207 youth (14+ years) and adult sex workers (SWs) (Olympics: n=107; post-Olympics: n=100). SWs in the two periods were statistically similar, with an overall median age of 33 years (IQR: 28-40), and 106 (51.2%) of indigenous ancestry or ethnic minority. In separate multivariable logistic regression models, the Olympics period remained statistically significantly associated with perceived heightened police harassment of SWs without arrest (adjusted ORs (AOR): 3.95, 95% CIs 1.92 to 8.14), decreased availability of clients (AOR: 1.97, 95% CIs 1.11 to 3.48) and increased difficulty meeting clients due to road closures/construction (AOR: 7.68, 95% CIs 2.46 to 23.98). There were no significantly increased odds in perceived reports of new (0.999), youth (0.536) or trafficked SWs (zero reports) in the Olympic period. To reduce potential adverse public health impacts of enhanced police harassment and displacement of local sex work markets, results suggest that evidence-based public health strategies need to be adopted for host cities of future events (eg, the London 2012 Olympic Games), such as the removal of criminal sanctions targeting sex work and the piloting and rigorous evaluation of safer indoor work spaces.

  5. Simultaneous drag and flow measurements of Olympic skeleton athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yae Eun; Digiulio, David; Peters, Steve; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a static force balance system on a mock section of a bobsled track. Athlete and the sled are placed on the force balance system which is positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. Simultaneous drag force and DPIV velocity field measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position.

  6. Olympic athletes’ job market entry strategies. A typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vilanova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish a typology of job market entry strategies among Olympic athletes. Guided by rational choice theory and social reproduction theory, we conducted a telephone survey among 94 athletes (68 men and 26 women. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify four distinct groups, which we called parallel life strategists, freelance strategists, lifetime athletes, and non-strategists: it’s a job. The results show that athletes from families with greater economic and cultural capital implement career transition strategies further in advance and achieve greater career success and satisfaction. These findings can be used to develop support programs tailored to the needs of athletes according to their profile.

  7. Criminal implication of sponsoring in medicine: legal ramifactions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W.; Theilmann, M.; Bolenz, M.

    2005-01-01

    As a consequence of the so-called ''Heart-Valve-Affair'' in 1994, the German public became aware of the potential criminal significance of industrial sponsoring and third-party financial support in medicine. Since 1997, when the German Anti-Corruption Law came into effect, the penal regulations regarding bribery and benefits for public officers were tightened. Due to the lack of explicit and generally accepted guidelines in combination with regional differences of jurisdiction, there is a lingering uncertainty regarding the criminal aspects of third-party funding and industrial sponsoring. The aim of this review is to summarize the penal and professional implications of third-party funding and sponsoring in medicine including recent aspects of jurisdiction. The currently available recommendations on this issue are introduced. (orig.)

  8. [Criminal implication of sponsoring in medicine: legal ramifactions and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnken, A H; Theilmann, M; Bolenz, M; Günther, R W

    2005-08-01

    As a consequence of the so-called "Heart-Valve-Affair" in 1994, the German public became aware of the potential criminal significance of industrial sponsoring and third-party financial support in medicine. Since 1997, when the German Anti-Corruption Law came into effect, the penal regulations regarding bribery and benefits for public officers were tightened. Due to the lack of explicit and generally accepted guidelines in combination with regional differences of jurisdiction, there is a lingering uncertainty regarding the criminal aspects of third-party funding and industrial sponsoring. The aim of this review is to summarize the penal and professional implications of third-party funding and sponsoring in medicine including recent aspects of jurisdiction. The currently available recommendations on this issue are introduced.

  9. Modelling Emotional and Attitudinal Evaluations of Major Sponsors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Hansen, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    equation model where the drivers are attitudes towards thesponsorship and emotions towards the sponsorship. It is found that the two classes ofvariables describe different aspects of the perception of sponsorships, and that they bothcontribute significantly to the overall value of sponsoring...... for a particular company. In thepresent paper, two cases are shown for two major sponsors. The specified Sponsor ValueModel is estimated by a partial least squares (PLS) method. It is found that the two sponsorsare perceived differently, both in terms of emotional and attitudinal responses. It is also foundthat...... the emotional responses aroused by the sponsorships are at least as important as thoseascribable to attitudinal elements.Key words: Sponsorship, emotional response, attitudes towards sponsorship, structuralequation model...

  10. Marketing Plan for the Helsinki Cocktail Competition 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    The Helsinki Cocktail Competition (HCC) is an event in search of a signature cocktail for the city of Helsinki. It was first organized in 2016 by the creative bartending agency the Son of a Punch. The objective is to organize the event on an annual basis. The HCC is a collaboration between the bars, bartenders and Finland’s major alcohol importers, that operate as the sponsors of the competition. The competition invites all the best cocktail bars of the capital to create a cocktail, that...

  11. Power market competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Unites States the prospect of greater competition in wholesale power market was immediately eclipsed by talk of retail competition. Attempts to move to retail competition have been costly and complex. Prudent public policy and economic analyses suggest that retail competition not be implemented until it can first be demonstrated that effective competition exists in wholesale power markets [it

  12. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  13. Effects of Special Olympics International on social competence in persons with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, E M; Cohen, D J

    1996-02-01

    To evaluate the social and emotional goals of Special Olympics International, specifically whether Special Olympics facilitates social competence and self-esteem in persons with mental retardation. Findings were "triangulated" across three studies on the social competence, adaptation, and self-perceptions of 104 athletes from 1993 Team USA (mean age = 22 years; mean IQ = 59). Study 1 related behavior to athletes' length of time in Special Olympics. Study 2 compared Team USA to an appropriately matched group of non-Special Olympians. Study 3 assessed Team USA before and 4 months after their participation in the World Games held in Salzburg, Austria. Relative to age and IQ, length of time in Special Olympics was the most powerful predictor of social competence. Special Olympics athletes had higher social competence scores and more positive self-perceptions than the comparison group. Team USA's behavioral data remained stable over time, suggesting that high pre-Game scores were not simply a function of parental or athlete pre-Game excitement. Based on the most conservative meaning of triangulation, more support was found linking Special Olympics to social competence than to remaining behavioral domains.

  14. Interagency Pacific marten (Martes caurina) distribution study on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Katie; Howell, Betsy; Morozumi, Connor; Happe, Patti; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Aubry, Keith B.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the Pacific marten (Martes caurina) still occurs on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State. We reviewed recent records of marten observations on the Olympic Peninsula since 1998, and conducted new surveys in undersampled regions of the Olympic Peninsula during summer, 2016. We reviewed evidence of fisher presence from 6 previously reported studies of carnivore distribution and presence on the Olympic Peninsula and conducted new surveys in previously undersampled areas of the Peninsula. We documented five highly reliable records of marten observations on the Pensula since 1988. Further, we established 197 camera stations in search of martens, amassing a total of 17,897 camera-nights of survey efforts in previously undersampled regions. We documented presence of one additional marten during summer 2016. This marten, however, was close to a marten detected in 2015, so it was not clear if it represented a different marten. We concluded that five to six martens have been verified present on the Olympic Peninsula since 1988. Pacific martens appear to be very limited in distribution and at critically low numbers throughout much of their former range on the Olympic Peninsula.

  15. Resident Perceptions of the 2006 Torino Olympic Games, 2002-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO CHITO GUALA,

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous Olympic Games research has been primarily on economic impacts, tourists, and destination image with most being one-off assessments of the Summer Games. Other than Ritchie's landmark study of the Calgary Winter Olympic Games, relatively few research studies on the Winter Olympic Games have been published, and fewer still concerning resident attitudes throughout the full lifecycle of the event, from bidding, preparation, operation, and legacy stages. Residents are in a unique position to evaluate an event's legacy as taxpayers, daily consumers of infrastructure, and as possible leisure consumers of Olympic sport venues. The purpose of this study was to examine Torino residents' perceptions of their city as host of the 2006 Torino Winter Olympic Games from 2002-2007. Results from telephone interviews with Torino residents (n = 900 interviews per year; N = 5,400 are presented to reflect the attitudes of the population toward the 2006 Winter Olympic Games over time. Residents experienced a "rollercoaster" of emotions during the event lifecycle ranging from euphoria once the Games were awarded, to concern over escalating production costs, irritation with inconveniences due to construction, and ultimately pride immediately following the Games. Implications of study findings for event and destination managers are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of fisher (Pekania pennanti) restoration in Olympic National Park and the Olympic Recovery Area: 2014 annual progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Patricia J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kay, Thomas J.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Aubry, Keith B.

    2015-01-01

    With the translocation and release of 90 fishers (Pekania pennanti) from British Columbia to Olympic National Park during 2008–2010, the National Park Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife accomplished the first phase of fisher restoration in Washington State. Beginning in 2013, we initiated a new research project to determine the current status of fishers on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula 3–5 years after the releases and evaluate the short-term success of the restoration program. Objectives of the study are to determine the current distribution of fishers and proportion of the recovery area that is currently occupied by fishers, determine several genetic characteristics of the reintroduced population, and determine reproductive success of the founding animals through genetic studies. During 2014, we continued working with a broad coalition of cooperating agencies, tribes, and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) to collect data on fisher distribution and genetics using noninvasive sampling methods. The primary sampling frame consisted of 157 24-square-kilometer hexagons (hexes) distributed across all major land ownerships within the Olympic Peninsula target survey area. In 2014 we expanded the study by adding 58 more hexes to an expanded study area in response to incidental fisher observations outside of the target area obtained in 2013; 49 hexes were added south and 9 to the east of the target area. During 2014, federal, state, tribal and NGO biologists and volunteers established three baited motion-sensing camera stations, paired with hair snaring devices, in 80 hexes; 69 in the targeted area 11 in the expansion areas. Each paired camera/hair station was left in place for approximately 6 weeks, with three checks on 2-week intervals. We documented fisher presence in 5 of the 80 hexagons, and identified 5 different fishers through a combination of microsatellite DNA analyses and camera detections. All fisher detections were in the target area

  17. Evaluation of fisher (Pekania pennanti) restoration in Olympic National Park and the Olympic Recovery Area: 2015 final annual progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Patricia J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kay, Thomas J.; Pilgrim, Kristie; Schwartz, Michael K; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Aubry, Keith B.

    2016-01-01

    With the translocation and release of 90 fishers (Pekania pennanti) from British Columbia to Olympic National Park during 2008–2010, the National Park Service (NPS) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) accomplished the first phase of fisher restoration in Washington State. Beginning in 2013, we initiated a new research project to determine the current status of fishers on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula 3–8 years after the releases and evaluate the short-term success of the restoration program. Objectives of the study are to determine the current distribution of fishers and proportion of the recovery area that is currently occupied by fishers, determine several genetic characteristics of the reintroduced population, and determine reproductive success of the founding animals through genetic studies. During 2015, we continued working with a broad coalition of cooperating agencies, tribes, and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) to collect data on fisher distribution and genetics using noninvasive sampling methods. The primary sampling frame consisted of 157 24-km2 hexagons (hexes) distributed across all major land ownerships within the Olympic Peninsula target survey area. In 2014 we expanded the study by adding 58 more hexes to an expanded study area in response to incidental fisher observations outside of the target area obtained in 2013; 49 hexes were added south and 9 to the east of the target area. During 2015, Federal, State, Tribal and NGO biologists and volunteers established three Distributioned motion-sensing camera stations, paired with hair snaring devices, in 87 hexes; 75 in the targeted area and 12 in the expansion areas. Each paired camera/hair station was left in place for approximately 6 weeks, with three checks on 2-week intervals. We documented fisher presence in 7 of the 87 hexagons. Four fishers were identified through microsatellite DNA analyses. The 4 identified fishers included 1 of the original founding population of 90

  18. Serum androgen profile and physical performance in women Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Emma; Berglund, Bo; Labrie, Fernand; Carlström, Kjell; Ekström, Lena; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

    2017-09-01

    The role of endogenous androgens for body composition and physical performance in women athletes is still not elucidated. To examine the serum androgen profile in relation to body composition and physical performance in women Olympic athletes and to compare endocrine variables and body composition to controls. Cross-sectional study, conducted between 2011 and 2015 at the Women's Health Research Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm. Swedish women Olympic athletes (n=106) and age-matched and body mass index-matched sedentary controls (n=117) were included in the study. Blood sampling was performed in a rested, fasting state for the measurement of serum androgens and their metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (controls n=100, athletes n=65). The athletes performed standardised performance tests (n=59) (squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ). The athletes demonstrated significantly higher levels of the precursor androgens dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 5-androstene-3β, 17β-diol (5-DIOL) and the metabolite etiocholanolone glucuronide (Etio-G), significantly lower levels of estrone (pathletes. DHEA and lean mass legs explained 66% of the variance in SJ, whereas lean mass explained 52% of the variance in CMJ. The present data suggest that endogenous androgens are associated with a more anabolic body composition and enhanced performance in women athletes. These results are of importance for the current discussion regarding hyperandrogenism in women athletes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Injuries in team sport tournaments during the 2004 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Langevoort, Gijs; Pipe, Andrew; Peytavin, Annie; Wong, Fook; Mountjoy, Margo; Beltrami, Gianfranco; Terrell, Robert; Holzgraefe, Manfred; Charles, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri

    2006-04-01

    Several authors have analyzed the incidence of injuries in a given sport, but only a few have examined the exposure-related incidence of injuries in different types of sports using the same methodology. Analysis of the incidence, circumstances, and characteristics of injuries in different team sports during the 2004 Olympic Games. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. During the 2004 Olympic Games, injuries in 14 team sport tournaments (men's and women's soccer, men's and women's handball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's field hockey, baseball, softball, men's and women's water polo, and men's and women's volleyball) were analyzed. After each match, the physician of the participating teams or the official medical representative of the sport completed a standardized injury report form. The mean response rate was 93%. A total of 377 injuries were reported from 456 matches, an incidence of 0.8 injuries per match (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) or 54 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% confidence interval, 49-60). Half of all injuries affected the lower extremity; 24% involved the head or neck. The most prevalent diagnoses were head contusion and ankle sprain. On average, 78% of injuries were caused by contact with another player. However, a significantly higher percentage of noncontact (57%) versus contact injuries (37%) was expected to prevent the player from participating in his or her sport. Significantly more injuries in male players (46%) versus female players (35%) were expected to result in absence from match or training. The incidence, diagnosis, and causes of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. The risk of injury in different team sports can be compared using standardized methodology. Even if the incidence and characteristics of injuries are not identical in all sports, prevention of injury and promotion of fair play are relevant topics for almost all team sports.

  20. Measuring the regional economic impact of mega-events: what are the benefits of the 2014 Olympics for Sochi?

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The economic benefits of mega-events such as the Olympic Games are much touted but little quantified. This paper first presents a systematisation of the money streams associated with hosting the Olympic Games and then introduces basic concepts from regional economics. On this basis it outlines a general model that could be employed to estimate the regional economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi in 2014.

  1. Is Hosting the Games Enough to Win? A predictive economic model of medal wins at 2014 Winter Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2012-01-01

    An econometric model which has first been estimated on medal wins at Summer Olympics and has predicted 88% of medal distribution at Beijing Games 2008, is revisited for Winter Olympics. After changing some variables to take into account the winter sports specificity, the model is estimated again on all Winter Games since 1964.Then it is used to predict (forecast) the medal distribution per country at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics.

  2. International sports organization in governance and development of Olympic sports [Mezhdunarodnye sportivnye organizacii v upravlenii i razvitii olimpijskikh vidov sporta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazonets V.I.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aspects of development of physical culture and Olympic types of sport are considered from positions of approach of the systems. The structure of the socio-economic system is presented: global, international, national level of administrative mechanism. The basic going is investigational near management. The role of international organizations is certain in a management development of Olympic types of sport. The role of the National Olympic committees which regulate the processes of management development of physical culture and sport a sphere at state level is exposed. The tendencies of bringing in of off-budget facilities Olympic organizations of the separate European countries are marked.

  3. Comparative analysis of competitive activity parameters of amateur boxers high qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Martsiv

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : analyze competitive activity of boxers of high qualifications in different time periods in the development of boxing. Material : 142 analyzed boxing matches at the Olympic Games 2012. Results : present indicators of competitive activity of boxers. Shows the comparative characteristics of the battles that took place under different formulas of competitive activity in different periods of the development of amateur boxing. It is shown that increasing the skills of athletes appear to increase the density of hits in combat. As a result of innovations in the rules of the competition, boxing match was different higher intensity combat, attacking actions began to perform at a higher speed mode. Conclusions : As a result of the transition to the new formula of fighting to increase the density of the match. Also a 3-fold increase in the number of strikes indicator, surviving on target. Increased efficiency factor strikes, which leads to the expansion of effective technical and tactical actions.

  4. 45 CFR 2552.23 - What are a sponsor's program responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's program responsibilities... Sponsor § 2552.23 What are a sponsor's program responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a) Focus Foster... project's service area. (b) Assess in collaboration with other community organizations or utilize existing...

  5. 45 CFR 2551.23 - What are a sponsor's program responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's program responsibilities... Sponsor § 2551.23 What are a sponsor's program responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a) Focus Senior... within the project's service area. (b) Assess in collaboration with other community organizations or...

  6. 45 CFR 2552.25 - What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's administrative... a Sponsor § 2552.25 What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a... delegated to project staff for NSSC program(s) within its control. A full-time project director shall not...

  7. 45 CFR 2551.25 - What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's administrative... Sponsor § 2551.25 What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a) Assume full... program(s) within its control. A full-time project director shall not serve concurrently in another...

  8. 45 CFR 2553.25 - What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's administrative... Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2553.25 What are a sponsor's administrative responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a... delegated to project staff for NSSC program(s) within its control. A full-time project director shall not...

  9. 45 CFR 2553.23 - What are a sponsor's program responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2553.23 What are a sponsor's program responsibilities? A sponsor shall: (a) Focus RSVP resources to have a positive impact on critical human and social needs within the project service... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's program responsibilities...

  10. A Commentary on Literacy Narratives as Sponsors of Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This brief commentary first clarifies Brandt's concept of sponsors of literacy in light of the way the concept has been taken up in writing studies. Then it treats Brandt's methods for handling accounts of literacy learning in comparison with other ways of analyzing biographical material. Finally it takes up Lawrence's argument about literacy…

  11. Tax Exempt Organizations and Commercially Sponsored Scientific Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Consuelo Lauda

    1982-01-01

    Several related tax issues important to both the commercial sponsors and tax-exempt recipients of research funding are addressed: what type of activity qualified as scientific research; how acceptance of commercial funding affects tax-exempt status; and when the receipt of such funding generates a liability for tax on unrelated business income.…

  12. 7 CFR 225.14 - Requirements for sponsor participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 225.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM Sponsor and Site Provisions... Youth Sports Program; and (5) Private nonprofit organizations as defined in § 225.2. (c) General...

  13. A DST Sponsored Workshop on Methods in Behavioural Ecology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A DST Sponsored Workshop on Methods in. Behavioural Ecology. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. 15-29 January 2006. Aimed at Young Teachers and Senior Research Students The course will cover lectures on several aspects of Behavioral ecology including, ...

  14. 22 CFR 42.31 - Family-sponsored immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family-sponsored immigrants. 42.31 Section 42.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.31 Family...

  15. The relationship between absenteeism and employer-sponsored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between absenteeism and employer-sponsored child care. B Anderson, DJ Geldenhuys. Abstract. Given the high loss of revenue due to absenteeism, exploring different ways of managing absenteeism in South African companies, such as family-friendly practices, has become important. Establishing onsite

  16. Highlight: IDRC sponsors Caribbean symposium on impact of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-05-12

    12 mai 2015 ... An IDRC-sponsored symposium exploring the impact of the Internet on economic growth and public service delivery in the Caribbean was held in Saint Andrew, Jamaica, on May 12, 2015. Discussions from the symposium will feed into the 2016 World Development Report: Internet for Development.

  17. Exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Kristine E; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-11-01

    The lack of human data available to inform evidence-based treatment for illness during pregnancy has led to calls for greater inclusion of pregnant women in research, but the extent of their current representation is poorly characterized. Our objective was to measure the current exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials as a baseline for future comparison. We compiled data from studies enrolling women of childbearing potential posted on www.ClinicalTrials.gov between 1 October 2011 and 31 January 2012. The review was limited to open United States-based phase IV interventional studies sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry evaluating treatment of conditions that may be experienced by but are not limited to pregnant women and did not involve a medication classified as potentially teratogenic. If there was no mention of pregnancy in the inclusion or exclusion criteria, we contacted a study representative to confirm that pregnant women could be enrolled. Of 558 qualifying industry-sponsored studies, five (1%) were designed specifically for pregnant women. Of 367 phase IV clinical trials with verified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 348 (95%) excluded pregnant women and 19 (5%) did not. We found the exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials to be common practice. Moving beyond reflexive exclusion and developing thoughtful criteria for inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research would likely advance the evidence base to inform treatment decisions during pregnancy and lead to better health outcomes for women and children.

  18. Media exposure and sponsor recall: Cricket World Cup 2003 | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study into the relationship between media exposure and sponsor recall relating to an international event, namely the Cricket World Cup 2003 (CWC 2003). The application of sponsorship as a communication construct and recall as a media vehicle effect is investigated. Recall has been widely ...

  19. 2007 Solar Decathlon: Powered by the Sun (Competition Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-09-01

    The 2007 Solar Decathlon Competition Program is distributed to Solar Decathlon visitors, media, sponsors, and the student competitors. It contains basic facts about the Solar Decathlon: what, where, when, who, and how. It is a guide for visitors to the events and workshops. It describes the 10 contests and the technologies used in the houses. It celebrates the accomplishments of the competitors and provides an opportunity for the major sponsors to describe their roles and relay their commitment to the ideals of the Solar Decathlon.

  20. Unfulfilled translation opportunities in industry sponsored clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smed, Marie; Getz, Kenneth A

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge generated by site representatives through their participation in clinical trials is valuable for testing new products in use and obtaining final market approval. The leverage of this important knowledge is however challenged as the former direct relationships between in-house staff in the industry and site representatives are changing. The process of clinical trials has increased in complexity over the years, resulting in additional management layers. Besides an increase in internal management layers, sponsors often also outsource various tasks related to clinical trials to a CRO (Contract Research Organization) and thereby adding another link in the relationships between site and sponsor. These changes are intended to optimize the time-consuming and costly trial phases; however, there is a need to study whether valuable knowledge and experience is compromised in the process. Limited research exists on the full range of clinical practice insights obtained by investigators during and after clinical trials and how well these insights are transferred to study sponsors. This study explores the important knowledge-transfer processes between sites and sponsors and to what extent sites' knowledge gained in clinical trials is utilized by the industry. Responses from 451 global investigative site representatives are included in the study. The analysis of the extensive dataset reveals that the current processes of collaboration between sites and the industry restrict the leverage of valuable knowledge gained by physicians in the process of clinical trials. These restrictions to knowledge-transfer between site and sponsor are further challenged if CRO partners are integrated in the trial process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Competition, Values and the Rhythm of Life: Some Reflections on Antiphon, Thucydides and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games had more than a gymnastic significance in ancient Greece, as is best attested by Pindar’s odes. The modern interpretation of Greek culture was first introduced to the notion of the ajgwvn and the concept of the agonistic or competitive, “das Agonale”, by J. Burckhardt. Nietzsche elaborated it further, perceiving the phenomenon of competition as the origin of the fundamental Greek values, especially of justice and truth, and as the prerequisite for any fair evaluation. In Antiphon, the idea of competition runs both through his forensic speeches and philosophical writings. His Tetralogies in particular reveal the competitive dynamics of judicial trials. A judicial procedure is a competition, ajgwnivzesqai, between the truth of facts and the truth of words, which may result in an unjust verdict. In that case injustice has prevailed over justice and truth. What is thus at stake is the truth of facts, ajlhv/qeia tw`n pragmavtwn. Antiphon uses the Olympic and Pythian competitions to elucidate the important decisions and activities in human life, such as education, marriage, and the pursuit of happiness in general. Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War provides not only a description of the historical facts but also their evaluation. The development of military events, which is a competition of actions, ajgw;n e[rgwn, is elucidated by speeches, which frequently occur in antithetic pairs as antilogies, ajgw;n lovgwn. Political competition, however, is not limited to foreign policy but can be seen in the Athenian home politics as well. According to Alcibiades, the Athenian polis could only retain its supremacy through incessant competition, ajgwnizomevnhn aijei;. Nor does Thucydides neglect the Panhellenic significance of the Olympic festival. Aristotle's philosophy, on the other hand, appears to distance itself from competition, being based on rJa/stwvnh, "easiness", and diagwgh, “pastime”. None the less, the

  2. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  3. History and meaning of the Accounting Olympics. First Accounting Olympics held by the Accounting department of the University of Economics - Varna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamena Nedyalkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to show the significance of the accounting Olympics for high school students. They can be use not only to test the level in which the students have mastered the accounting knowledge but as well to ensure they’re much more smooth transition from the high school to the university.

  4. Nonindustry-sponsored preclinical studies on statins yield greater efficacy estimates than industry-sponsored studies: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauth, David; Anglemyer, Andrew; Philipps, Rose; Bero, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Industry-sponsored clinical drug studies are associated with publication of outcomes that favor the sponsor, even when controlling for potential bias in the methods used. However, the influence of sponsorship bias has not been examined in preclinical animal studies. We performed a meta-analysis of preclinical statin studies to determine whether industry sponsorship is associated with either increased effect sizes of efficacy outcomes and/or risks of bias in a cohort of published preclinical statin studies. We searched Medline (January 1966-April 2012) and identified 63 studies evaluating the effects of statins on atherosclerosis outcomes in animals. Two coders independently extracted study design criteria aimed at reducing bias, results for all relevant outcomes, sponsorship source, and investigator financial ties. The I(2) statistic was used to examine heterogeneity. We calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) for each outcome and pooled data across studies to estimate the pooled average SMD using random effects models. In a priori subgroup analyses, we assessed statin efficacy by outcome measured, sponsorship source, presence or absence of financial conflict information, use of an optimal time window for outcome assessment, accounting for all animals, inclusion criteria, blinding, and randomization. The effect of statins was significantly larger for studies sponsored by nonindustry sources (-1.99; 95% CI -2.68, -1.31) versus studies sponsored by industry (-0.73; 95% CI -1.00, -0.47) (p valuefinancial conflict information, use of an optimal time window for outcome assessment, accounting for all animals, inclusion criteria, blinding, and randomization. Possible reasons for the differences between nonindustry- and industry-sponsored studies, such as selective reporting of outcomes, require further study.

  5. Nuclear security at the summer 2004 Olympic Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today announced an unprecedented joint action plan to help ensure a high level of nuclear security at the 2004 Olympic Games. Cooperation between the IAEA, the Greek Atomic Energy Commission and the Greek Olympics Games Security Division to provide expert advice and technical assistance followed a request for assistance from the two Greek authorities to the IAEA last summer. The action plan is designed to protect facilities and materials, to detect illicit trafficking and malicious use of radioactive materials, and to ensure that emergency response forces are effective and efficient. Much of the work in Greece has been undertaken in co-operation with some IAEA Member States - with substantial support provided by the United States and France in the fields of equipment, training and technical advice. The physical protection of the Demokritos nuclear research reactor, in a suburb of Athens, has been upgraded and the security of radioactive sources used at medical and industrial facilities in six Greek cities has been tightened. Radiation detection equipment has been installed at borders and other entry points into Greece, and mobile detection equipment will be deployed elsewhere. Hand-held radiation monitors are being distributed amongst the thousands of security personnel and customs officials who are involved in the security for the Games. The equipment is being deployed to detect radioactive materials that might be used as a weapon by terrorists in a radiological dispersal device, a so-called 'dirty bomb'. Detailed information on the steps that have been taken cannot be disclosed for reasons of security. 'There has been good cooperation with the Greek Atomic Energy Commission and with the other international partners in developing and implementing this work' said Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'We are collectively striving for a high measure of security and the work being undertaken should

  6. [Echocardiographic picture of Polish Olympic Team--Athens 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braksator, Wojciech; Król, Wojciech; Mamcarz, Artur; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Wrzosek, Karol; Dłuzniewski, Mirosław

    2006-01-01

    Echocardiography is the basic, non-invasive diagnostic method in assessment of heart's structure and function in elite athletes. The aim of a study was to assess the heart's structure and function of Olympic-class athletes, enduring intensive training in log-term. An attempt was also made to compare types of physiological heart hypertrophy after extreme physical exercise load depending on gender and sport discipline. 79 athletes (24 women and 55 men) aged 19-37 (median of 26) took part in the study, they represented wide range of sports. In all cases single transthoracic echocardiography was performed. Body surface area was considered for better comparison of outcomes. High percentage of results exceeded echocardiographic norms for general population. In case of LVEDd (left ventricle end diastolic diameter) it was 27.8% of examined, for LA (left atrium) 32.9%, for RV (right ventricle) 84.8%, 53.2% for IVSd (interventricle sept diameter) and 11.4% for Ao (aorta diameter). Some of results exceeded also norms used in sport medicine. In 6.3% examined "sport" norms for IVSd were exceeded and in 19.9% for LV relative wall thickness (RWT). Higher than trace mitral valve insufficiency was observed in 6.3% cases, while in tricuspid valve this fraction reached 25%. Only in males the trace aortic insufficiency was observed (7% of all examined). 53% examined exceeded norm's range for E/A proportion (E/A >2). Significant differences in adaptive heart hypertrophy were observed between men and women and between athletes from sport disciplines with different static exertion load. These differences included both morphology and valve function. (1) Adaptive heart hypertrophy observed in echocardiography in Olympic-class athletes exceeds not only the norms for general population but also norms used in sport medicine. (2) Adaptive heart hypertrophy in female elite athletes leads to more eccentric type of remodelling then in men. (3) High static exertion load in performed sport is

  7. The Procedural Dimension in Extracurricular Competitions: Contributions to Scientific Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho Vargas, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research describes the role of the extracurricular academic competitions skills, focusing on the Olympics of Biological Sciences of Costa Rica, and its effects on promoting the dimension procedure for those students that participated in the III Olympics edition. This study was based mainly on the qualitative approach techniques (ethnographic design: study case; however, some data were analyzed by using quantitative techniques (descriptive design with an exploratory overtone. Sample data consisted of 54 high school finalist students of the A Category, and were surveyed by July 2009, using a checklist in order to record various behaviors. The obtained information was interpreted not only by inferential and described statistics elements, but also using related figures, histograms, and correlation tests and content analysis. It was found that student´s skills were positive affected toward the scientific study of the biodiversity, contestant’s comprehension and execution of scientific protocols are initiated, and several scientific tactics are applied and exercised, the students are guided to consider environmental elements to explain the obtained data. Finally, individual and group level procedural improvements were recorded, identifying different actions linked to build a better Dimension Procedure, and therefore the task of the scientific literacy which is accomplished through these academic competencie

  8. The Procedural Dimension in Extracurricular Competitions: Contributions to Scientific Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Chaves, José

    Full Text Available The research describes the role of the extracurricular academic competitions skills, focusing on the Olympics of Biological Sciences of Costa Rica, and its effects on promoting the dimension procedure for those students that participated in the III Olympics edition. This study was based mainly on the qualitative approach techniques (ethnographic design: study case; however, some data were analyzed by using quantitative techniques (descriptive design with an exploratory overtone. Sample data consisted of 54 high school finalist students of the A Category, and were surveyed by July 2009, using a checklist in order to record various behaviors. The obtained information was interpreted not only by inferential and described statistics elements, but also using related figures, histograms, and correlation tests and content analysis. It was found that student´s skills were positive affected toward the scientific study of the biodiversity, contestant’s comprehension and execution of scientific protocols are initiated, and several scientific tactics are applied and exercised, the students are guided to consider environmental elements to explain the obtained data. Finally, individual and group level procedural improvements were recorded, identifying different actions linked to build a better Dimension Procedure, and therefore the task of the scientific literacy which is accomplished through these academic competencie

  9. Preventing heat illness in the anticipated hot climate of the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakamu, Takeyasu; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R; Endo, Shota; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-09-19

    Amid the effects of global warming, Tokyo has become an increasingly hot city, especially during the summertime. To prepare for the upcoming 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in Tokyo, all participants, including the athletes, staff, and spectators, will need to familiarize themselves with Tokyo's hot and humid summer conditions. This paper uses the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, which estimates the risk of heat illness, to compare climate conditions of sports events in Tokyo with the conditions of the past three Summer Olympics (held in Rio de Janeiro, London, and Beijing) and to subsequently detail the need for establishing appropriate countermeasures. We compared WBGT results from the past three Summer Olympics with the same time periods in Tokyo during 2016. There was almost no time zone where a low risk of heat illness could be expected during the time frame of the upcoming 2020 Tokyo Olympics. We also found that Tokyo had a higher WBGT than any of those previous host cities and is poorly suited for outdoor sporting events. Combined efforts by the official organizers, government, various related organizations, and the participants will be necessary to deal with these challenging conditions and to allow athletes to perform their best, as well as to prevent heat illnesses among staff and spectators. The sporting committees, as well as the Olympic organizing committee, should consider WBGT measurements in determining the venues and timing of the events to better avoid heat illness and facilitate maximum athletic performance.

  10. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jisong; Zhang Yongjie

    2008-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO 2 emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO 2 using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy

  11. Impacts of pollution controls on air quality in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianlin; Tang, Aohan; Liu, Xuejun; Kopsch, Jenny; Fangmeier, Andreas; Goulding, Keith; Zhang, Fusuo

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution has become one of the main environmental concerns in China since the 1980s due to China's rapid economic growth and resultant pollution. However, it is difficult to directly evaluate the anthropogenic contribution to air pollution in China. The 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing provided a unique opportunity for testing the contribution of anthropogenic pollution because of the clean-up controls on air quality in Beijing enforced over the period of the Games. In this case study, we monitored the concentrations of major air pollutants before, during, and after the Olympics at a suburban site in Beijing. Atmospheric concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, NH3, NO2, SO2, and the particulate ions NH4+, NO3-, SO4(2-) Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ all decreased during the Olympic period because of strict emission controls, compared with the same period from 2005 to 2007. For example, the average PM10 concentration (61 microg m(-3)) during the Olympics was only 37% of that (166 microg m(-3)) in the same month (August) from 2005 to 2007. However, just 1 mo and 1 yr after the Games had ended, mean concentrations of these pollutants had increased significantly again. This rapid "recovery' of air pollutant concentrations after the Olympics suggests that China needs to implement long-lasting decreases in its air pollution in Beijing and other major cities.

  12. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jisong [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: js_wub@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy.

  13. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jisong; Zhang, Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy. (author)

  14. RADIATION CONTROL DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE OLYMPIC FACILITIES IN SOCHI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on the organization and results of the provision of the radiation safety in the period of preparation for the Winter Olympic and Paralympic games in Sochi, 2014. The following topics are overviewed in the paper: allocation of land plots for construction of the Olympic facilities; organization of the sanitary surveillance of the imported equipment, construction materials and designs for the construction of the Olympic facilities; putting the Olympic venues into operation. Dose rate of gamma radiation at all land plots, which were allocated for the construction of the Olympic facilities, conformed to the requirements of sanitary regulations. The average dose rate of gamma radiation was 0.11 μSv h-1 in the Coastal cluster and 0.14 μSv h-1 in the Mountain cluster. The radon fluence rate from the ground surface exceeded the prescribed limit of 80 mBq m-2 s-1 only at the land plot allocated for construction of the «House of receiving official delegations «Achipse» and the «House of receiving official delegations «Psekhako» in the Mountain cluster. The maximal value of 188 mBq m-2 s -1 was registered here. The buildings projects for this area included using radon protection measures, which were implemented during the construction.

  15. [Zika Virus - Impact on the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, K; Paul, J

    2016-08-01

    There is an ongoing discussion in the media about the Zika virus and the question of whether or not athletes and visitors will be at risk of an infection during the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. According to an assessment published on 31 May 2016 by the IOC and the WHO, participants and visitors have no reason to panic. However, increasing public pressure has caused the WHO to re-evaluate the current situation, and further recommendations will likely be given before the Olympic Games start. The current facts are as follows: 1) The Olympic Summer Games will be held during the winter months in Brazil, when the appearance of mosquitoes is expected to be low. 2) Extensive use of insecticides every 6 to 8 weeks in Rio de Janeiro and all Olympic venues has almost eradicated the mosquito population. 3) Individual protection of athletes, trainers and visitors is crucial (wearing appropriate clothing with skin coverage, sleeping under mosquito nets, using contact insecticides for clothing and mosquito nets, and applying insect repellents on a regular basis). 4) Pregnant women should avoid travelling to any country with current Zika virus activity. In sum, the risk to incur a Zika virus infection during the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro will likely be comparable to the risk in other countries where cases of Zika virus infections are registered. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Mixing, entropy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices. (comment)

  17. COMPETITION ADVOCACY: CHALLENGE FOR COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolie CARAGANCIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A large variety of different countries conditions requires a modernization of criteria, norms and standards of competition regulation and methods of enforcement. Competition advocacy is a type of complementary activity exercised by antimonopoly authorities additional to enforcement measures, through active cooperation with market, government and civil society actors and increasing the understanding of the benefits of competition. Relevance of article is determined by summarizing the theoretical studies and the present practice of advocacy in the USA and the EU. Originality and practical applications of research are based on empirical studies completed by Moldovan Competition Board.

  18. Relations between BMI, body mass and height, and sports competence among participants of the 2010 Winter Olympic Games: does sport metabolic demand differentiate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanula, Arkadiusz; Roczniok, Robert; Gabryś, Tomasz; Szmatlan-Gabryś, Urszula; Maszczyk, Adam; Pietraszewski, Przemysław

    2013-12-01

    This study characterizes the athletes participating in the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in terms of body height, body mass and BMI. The studied sample consisted of athletes in the top 20 places of each of 14 sports disciplines (1460 cases). Data on the athletes' age, height, body mass, and sports specialization were obtained from the Olympic Games' official website and from the International Ski Federation. The sampled athletes were grouped according to the predominant type of energy metabolism during competition. The anaerobic-glycolytic disciplines, such as cross-country sprint, figure skating, short track, and speed skating (500, 1000 and 1500 m), were found to have the youngest female athletes: 25.0 yr. (SD = 4.7). In the endurance sports (aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic), the female athletes were the oldest, being respectively 28.6 yr. (SD = 4.9) and 28.1 yr. (SD = 4.5) old. In the speed disciplines (anaerobic-alactic), the female athletes were the tallest (M = 172 cm; SD = 8.3). The male athletes in the anaerobic-alactic sports were the tallest (M = 181.8 cm, SD = 6.7) and those in the anaerobic-glycolytic sports were the shortest (M = 179.2 cm, SD = 6.7). The large differences in body mass among the groups of athletes, which appear to be related to the predominant type of metabolism during competition, show that this parameter is partly correlated with the level of sports competence, but only in disciplines where the athletes need larger muscle mass. The largest average values of BMI were found for males and females in the anaerobic-alactic group.

  19. Unfulfilled translation opportunities in industry sponsored clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Marie; Getz, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge generated by site representatives through their participation in clinical trials is valuable for testing new products in use and obtaining final market approval. The leverage of this important knowledge is however challenged as the former direct relationships between in-house staff...... in the industry and site representatives are changing. The process of clinical trials has increased in complexity over the years, resulting in additional management layers. Besides an increase in internal management layers, sponsors often also outsource various tasks related to clinical trials to a CRO (Contract...... Research Organization) and thereby adding another link in the relationships between site and sponsor. These changes are intended to optimize the time-consuming and costly trial phases; however, there is a need to study whether valuable knowledge and experience is compromised in the process. Limited...

  20. FCJ-163 Olympic Trolls: Mainstream Memes and Digital Discord?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tama Leaver

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While the mainstream press have often used the accusation of trolling to cover almost any form of online abuse, the term itself has a long and changing history. In scholarly work, trolling has morphed from a description of newsgroup and discussion board commentators who appeared genuine but were actually just provocateurs, through to contemporary analyses which focus on the anonymity, memes and abusive comments most clearly represented by users of the iconic online image board 4chan, and, at times, the related Anonymous political movement. To explore more mainstream examples of what might appear to be trolling at first glance, this paper analyses the Channel Nine Fail (Ch9Fail Facebook group which formed in protest against the quality of the publicly broadcast Olympic Games coverage in Australia in 2012. While utilising many tools of trolling, such as the use of memes, deliberately provocative humour and language, targeting celebrities, and attempting to provoke media attention, this paper argues that the Ch9Fail group actually demonstrates the increasingly mainstream nature of many online communication strategies once associated with trolls. The mainstreaming of certain activities which have typified trolling highlight these techniques as part of a more banal everyday digital discourse; despite mainstream media presenting trolls are extremist provocateurs, many who partake in trolling techniques are simply ordinary citizens expressing themselves online.

  1. Unsteady Aerodynamics of ``Roll-Tacking'' in Olympic Class Sailboats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, Riley; Williamson, Chk

    2015-11-01

    When tacking a sailboat (turning a boat through the wind during upwind sailing), racers employ a ``roll-tacking'' technique. During a roll-tack, sailors use body weight movements to roll the boat through extreme angles of heel. This contrasts with a flat-tack, where the boat remains upright throughout the turn. The dynamic heeling motion of a roll-tack causes the sail to vigorously sweep through the air, resulting in large-scale vortex shedding and increased propulsion. In this research, we use a characteristic roll-tack motion derived from on-the-water data. On-the-water data is collected from a full-scale Olympic racing boat sailed by a national champion in the Laser sailboat class. Using this data, we run a series of representative experiments in the laboratory. Two dimensional flexible sail extrusions are built using rapid-prototyping and are tested in a three degree-of-freedom (X, Y, and theta) towing tank. Particle Image Velocimetry and force measurements are used to compare vortex dynamics and propulsive forces generated by roll-tacks versus flat-tacks. An increase in thrust observed during roll-tack tests agrees with on-the-water experiments, which show a racing advantage greater than one boatlength when a roll-tack is performed relative to a flat tack.

  2. Home advantage in the Winter Olympics (1908-1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, N J; Nevill, A M; Williams, A M

    2001-02-01

    We obtained indices of home advantage, based on the medals won by competing nations, for each event held at the Winter Olympics from 1908 to 1998. These indices were designed to assess home advantage while controlling for nation strength, changes in the number of medals on offer and the performance of 'non-hosting' nations. Some evidence of home advantage was found in figure skating, freestyle skiing, ski jumping, alpine skiing and short track speed skating. In contrast, little or no home advantage was observed in ice hockey, Nordic combined, Nordic skiing, bobsled, luge, biathlon or speed skating. When all events were combined, a significant home advantage was observed (P = 0.029), although no significant differences in the extent of home advantage were found between events (P > 0.05). When events were grouped according to whether they were subjectively assessed by judges, significantly greater home advantage was observed in the subjectively assessed events (P = 0.037). This was a reflection of better home performances, suggesting that judges were scoring home competitors disproportionately higher than away competitors. Familiarity with local conditions was shown to have some effect, particularly in alpine skiing, although the bobsled and luge showed little or no advantage over other events. Regression analysis showed that the number of time zones and direction of travel produced no discernible trends or differences in performance.

  3. The cross on rings performed by an Olympic champion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo CARRARA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cross is a key skill in Male Artistic Gymnastics rings routines. However, few researches were found about this skill. There is knowledge about the forces needed to perform the cross, or about muscles activation, separately. The aim of this paper was to accomplish a comprehensive research about the biomechanics of cross on rings, in order to obtain a descriptive model about this skill. Therefore, the currently Olympic champion on rings event volunteered in this research. He performed three crosses with the usual apparatus in his training gym. The measurement methods were combined: One digital video camera, one strain gauge in each cable and surface electromyography of nine right shoulder muscles were used. Statistical analyses were performed by parametric and non parametric tests and descriptive statistics. Symmetry values were calculated for shoulder angles and cables of right and left side. Coefficient of variation of muscle activation and co contraction were verified. Within gymnast variability was calculated using biological coefficient of variation (BCV, discretely for kinematic measures. Low variability values of shoulder angles and cable forces were verified and low values of asymmetry as well. Muscle activation varied according to muscle function, while co-contraction values were different among trials. These results pointed out the characteristics of the cross performed by an elite gymnast. Knowledge about the characteristics of cross can inform coaches, practitioners and clinicians how a successful skill should be presented.

  4. Blood lactate concentration at selected of olympic modes weightlifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Goswami, A

    2001-04-01

    This study highlights the blood lactate response of weightlifters (N = 5) in two modes of olympic lifts: Snatch (SN) and Clean & Jerk (CJ), during three types of training namely (1) one repetition lift (ORL), (2) Multiple set session (MSS) and (3) one set session (OSS). In ORL, 30, 40, 50, and 60 kg, each of one repetition only, were lifted with an interval of 5 min between two consecutive loads. Both MSS and OSS consisted of 6 sets of lift: 50% x 6 (i.e. 50% of 1 Repetition Maximum x 6 repetitions), 60% x 5, 70% x 4, 80% x 3, 90% x 2, and 100% x 1. In MSS, 3 to 3.5 min interval was given between two successive sets whereas in OSS the interval was approximately 24 hours. Lactate levels were very low (< 3.5 mM) in ORL. In MSS, lactate reached peak at an intermediate set, but, it was maximum at the first set and then declined gradually in OSS. In most of the cases, however, lactate were significantly higher in CJ than SN. The study concludes that: (a) anaerobic glycolysis is not stimulated considerably when the lifting time is only 4-5 sec, (b) repetition of lift plays more important role, than intensity, in lactate production, (c) CJ is more strenuous than SN for a given %RM.

  5. Validation of instrumentation to monitor dynamic performance of olympic weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruenger, Adam J; Smith, Sarah L; Sands, William A; Leigh, Michael R

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of the Weightlifting Video Overlay System (WVOS) used by coaches and sport biomechanists at the United States Olympic Training Center. Static trials with the bar set at specific positions and dynamic trials of a power snatch were performed. Static and dynamic values obtained by the WVOS were compared with values obtained by tape measure and standard video kinematic analysis. Coordinate positions (horizontal [X] and vertical [Y]) were compared on both ends (left and right) of the bar. Absolute technical error of measurement between WVOS and kinematic values were calculated (0.97 cm [left X], 0.98 cm [right X], 0.88 cm [left Y], and 0.53 cm [right Y]) for the static data. Pearson correlations for all dynamic trials exceeded r = 0.88. The greatest discrepancies between the 2 measuring systems were found to occur when there was twisting of the bar during the performance. This error was probably due to the location on the bar where the coordinates were measured. The WVOS appears to provide accurate position information when compared with standard kinematics; however, care must be taken in evaluating position measurements if there is a significant amount of twisting in the movement. The WVOS appears to be reliable and valid within reasonable error limits for the determination of weightlifting movement technique.

  6. Modelling home advantage in the Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, N J; Nevill, A M; Williams, A M

    2003-06-01

    Home advantage in team games is well proven and the influence of the crowd upon officials' decisions has been identified as a plausible cause. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of home advantage for five event groups selected from the Summer Olympic Games between 1896 and 1996, and put home advantage in team games in context with other sports. The five event groups were athletics and weightlifting (predominantly objectively judged), boxing and gymnastics (predominantly subjectively judged) and team games (involving subjective decisions). The proportion of points won was analysed as a binomial response variable using generalized linear interactive modelling. Preliminary exploration of the data highlighted the need to control for the proportion of competitors entered and to split the analysis pre- and post-war. Highly significant home advantage was found in event groups that were either subjectively judged or rely on subjective decisions. In contrast, little or no home advantage (and even away advantage) was observed for the two objectively judged groups. Officiating system was vital to both the existence and extent of home advantage. Our findings suggest that crowd noise has a greater influence upon officials' decisions than players' performances, as events with greater officiating input enjoyed significantly greater home advantage.

  7. Emergency department visits during an Olympic gold medal television broadcast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Vermeulen, Marian J

    2011-01-01

    Practice pattern variations are often attributed to physician decision-making with no accounting for patient preferences. To test whether a mass media television broadcast unrelated to health was associated with changes in the rate and characteristics of visits for acute emergency care. Time-series analysis of emergency department visits for any reason. Population-based sample of all patients seeking emergency care in Ontario, Canada. The broadcast day was defined as the Olympic men's gold medal ice hockey game final. The control days were defined as the 6 Sundays before and after the broadcast day. A total of 99 447 visits occurred over the 7 Sundays, of which 13 990 occurred on the broadcast day. Comparing the broadcast day with control days, we found no significant difference in the hourly rate of visits before the broadcast (544 vs 537, p = 0.41) or after the broadcast (647 vs 639, p = 0.55). In contrast, we observed a significant reduction in hourly rate of visits during the broadcast (647 vs 783, p television broadcasts can influence patient preferences and thereby lead to a decrease in emergency department visits.

  8. Introduction into the Virtual Olympic Games Framework for online communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents the design of the Virtual Olympic Games Framework (VOGF), a computer application designated for athletics, health care, general well-being, nutrition and fitness, which offers multiple benefits for its participants. A special interest in starting the design of the framework was in exploring how people can connect and participate together using existing computer technologies (i.e. gaming consoles, exercise equipment with computer interfaces, devices of measuring health, speed, force and distance and Web 2.0 applications). A stationary bike set-up offering information to users about their individual health and athletic performances has been considered as a starting model. While this model is in the design stage, some preliminary findings are encouraging, suggesting the potential for various fields: sports, medicine, theories of learning, technologies and cybercultural studies. First, this framework would allow participants to perform a variety of sports and improve their health. Second, this would involve creating an online environment able to store health information and sport performances correlated with accessing multi-media data and research about performing sports. Third, participants could share experiences with other athletes, coaches and researchers. Fourth, this framework also provides support for the research community in their future investigations.

  9. Budget constraints and optimization in sponsored search auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yanwu

    2013-01-01

    The Intelligent Systems Series publishes reference works and handbooks in three core sub-topic areas: Intelligent Automation, Intelligent Transportation Systems, and Intelligent Computing. They include theoretical studies, design methods, and real-world implementations and applications. The series' readership is broad, but focuses on engineering, electronics, and computer science. Budget constraints and optimization in sponsored search auctions takes into account consideration of the entire life cycle of campaigns for researchers and developers working on search systems and ROI maximization

  10. Searching for sponsors for four national rugby teams in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ylönen, Niina

    2017-01-01

    How to get more sponsors to four national rugby teams in Finland? Finnish Rugby Federation and its four national teams are in the need of new long lasting sponsorship deals to fund the national teams’ tournaments in Finland and abroad. Since rugby is quite unknown sports in Finland it faces challenges in getting new sponsorship deals and also its visibility is currently very low. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the current situation of rugby, sponsorship contracts Finnish rugby F...

  11. Redactions in protocols for drug trials: what industry sponsors concealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardsen, Mikkel; Ogden, Michelle; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    Objective To describe the redactions in contemporary protocols for industry-sponsored randomised drug trials with patient relevant outcomes and to evaluate whether there was a legitimate rationale for the redactions. Design Cohort study. Under the Freedom of Information Act, we requested access to trial protocols approved by a research ethics committee in Denmark from October 2012 to March 2013. We received 17 consecutive protocols, which had been redacted before we got them, and nine protocols without redactions. In five additional cases, the companies refused to let the committees give us access, and in three other cases, documents were missing. Participants Not applicable. Setting Not applicable. Main outcome measure Amount and nature of redactions in 22 predefined key protocol variables. Results The redactions were most widespread in those sections of the protocol where there is empirical evidence of substantial problems with the trustworthiness of published drug trials: data analysis, handling of missing data, detection and analysis of adverse events, definition of the outcomes, interim analyses and premature termination of the study, sponsor's access to incoming data while the study is running, ownership to the data and investigators' publication rights. The parts of the text that were redacted differed widely, both between companies and within the same company. Conclusions We could not identify any legitimate rationale for the redactions. The current mistrust in industry-sponsored drug trials can only change if the industry offers unconditional access to its trial protocols and other relevant documents and data.

  12. Evaluation of food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic Games: the opinion of sports nutrition experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni; Burkhart, Sarah J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) from the perspective of sports nutrition experts attending the event. Participants (n = 15) were asked to complete an online survey and rate on a Likert scale menu qualities, food safety, sustainability practices, nutrition labeling, and provision for cultural needs, dietary regimes and specific situations. Open-ended responses were incorporated to explore expert opinion and areas for improvement. Participants rated their overall experience of the food provision as 7.6 out of 10 (range 5 to 10), with the majority (n = 11) rating it greater than 7. The variety, accessibility, presentation, temperature, and freshness of menu items rated as average to good. A below average rating was received for recovery food and beverages, provision of food for traveling to other venues, taking suitable snacks out of the dining hall and provision of food at other venues. However, the variety and accessibility of choices for Ramadan, and provision of post-competition food were rated highly. A number of comments were received about the lack of gluten free and lower energy/fat items. The inclusion of allergens on nutrition labeling was considered more important than nutrient content. While dietetic review of the menu in advance of the OG and PG is clearly a valuable process that has resulted in improvements in the food supply, there are still areas that need to be addressed that are currently not implemented during the event.

  13. EVOLUTIONS OF THE OLYMPIC MOVEMENT UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHANGES ON THE WORLD POLITICAL MAP IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile GRAMA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of sports and politics has had both positive and negative implications over history. Sports competitions or activities have had the intention to bring about change in certain cases. Nationalistic fervor is sometimes linked to victories or losses to some sport on sports fields. Also, new independent countries need to be recognized on international arena, so participating at the Olympic Games, they become more visible and marginalization is broken. National feelings are boosted by some of the finest sports performances. The interwar period took politics to the sporting arena; when governments decided to control the sport and politics became more authoritative and states went on to find new ways to dominate the thinking process and imagination of their citizens. Fascist regimes developed techniques that allowed them to use achievements made in sporting arena to inspire people within their geographical boundaries and impress those beyond these boundaries. A fanatic love with sports was developed and through it, symbols of nationalist socialism were entrenched.

  14. Sport and exercise psychology research and Olympic success: an analytical and correlational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current inquiry was to identify the national origin of scholars who lead the work in the area of Sport and Exercise Psychology, and to examine whether their research output is connected to the Olympic success of their national athletes. Consequently, the two specialised journals with the highest impact factors in this field were examined for the origin of publications throughout 11 years for authors' national affiliations. Subsequently, the link between national research output and Olympic medals was examined. The results revealed that over 50% of the publications originate from Canada, the U.K. and the U.S.A. National research output in Sport and Exercise Psychology was correlated with the number of Olympic medals; the proportion of shared variance was 42% and 57%, respectively, in the two journals. Nevertheless, it is posited that the observed link is primarily due to other factors that ought to be examined in future research.

  15. Predictive Dynamic Simulation of Seated Start-Up Cycling Using Olympic Cyclist and Bicycle Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Jansen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Predictive dynamic simulation is a useful tool for analyzing human movement and optimizing performance. Here it is applied to Olympic-level track cycling. A seven degree-of-freedom, two-legged cyclist and bicycle model was developed using MapleSim. GPOPS-II, a direct collocation optimal control software, was used to solve the optimal control problem for the predictive simulation. The model was validated against ergometer pedaling performed by seven Olympic-level track cyclists from the Canadian team. The simulations produce joint angles and cadence/torque/power similar to experimental results. The results indicate optimal control can be used for predictive simulation with a combined cyclist and bicycle model. Future work needed to more accurately model an Olympic cyclist and a standing start is discussed.

  16. Olympic Diplomacy and the Emerging States: Striving for Influence in the Multipolar World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luša Đana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The world of sports is a reflection of the world of politics. It is becoming increasingly multipolar with the emerging states hosting mega sporting events. Firstly, the article problematizes the concept of multipolarity and, secondly, globalisation by questioning whether the Olympic Games reinforce national identities and promote national interests by using Olympic diplomacy as a soft power tool. In doing so, the article explores the correlation between the changes in international affairs and the hosting of and participation at the Olympic Games by emerging states such as Brazil, China and Russia. The analysis distinguishes globalisation from the role of the nation-state, by highlighting the evident differences between emerging states in terms of hosting the Games, but also takes into consideration geopolitical and geo-economic parameters.

  17. Sprawl and mega-events: Economic growth and recent urban expansion in a city losing its competitive edge (Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new context of contemporary cities, local competitiveness for financial resources has grown more than ever, resulting in cities characterised by important socioeconomic transformations. Earlier studies addressed the relation between urban expansion, socioeconomic development and mega-events only for specific areas and types of urban growth, often overlooking the role of mega-events in fuelling urban sprawl. As the host of the 2004 Olympic Games, Athens, Greece is a paradigmatic example for emerging cities hosting mega-events due to the close interconnection between the Olympics, infrastructure development and urban sprawl. This article connects the latent relationship between economic expansion driven by the Olympic Games and laissez-faire urbanism to the long-term unregulated urban expansion characterising Athens’s development. By providing room for the original wave of sprawl, the resulting socioeconomic context is interpreted as a signal of the weakness of the “competitive city” framework in poorly planned and long-deregulated urban contexts such as Athens. A comprehensive analysis of recent phases of economic growth and discontinuous urban expansion thus provides further insight into understanding sprawl processes in today’s cities, and helps distinguish the morphological patterns and socioeconomic dynamics that characterise urban expansion during sequential cycles of economic expansion and recession.

  18. COMPETITIVENESS AND COMPETITIVE ORIENTATIONS: EVALUATION OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Z. Efimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Education of a competitive student is a strategically significant problem of the system of higher education in modern social and economic conditions. Personal competitiveness and competitive orientations – priority quality of future expert for successful future professional experience.The aim of the present research is to study factors of competitive orientations formation and criteria for evaluation of competitiveness of student’s youth in the Russian society.Methodology and research methods. Results of theoretical researches of Russian and foreign researchers are generalized; secondary analysis of data based on results of sociological researches and analysis of official statistical data are carried out. The results of the sociological survey undertaken in 2017 on the basis of statistical methods were processed and studied by the instrumentality of IBM SPSS Statistics 23 program; 1196 students of institutions of higher and secondary vocational education of the Tyumen region took part.Results and scientific novelty. It is stated that senior students feel themselves more competitive. It is revealed that a quarter of students who took part in the survey, generally men, count themselves competitive. A continuous distance of goal-setting is recorded among these respondents; in every third case they have plans of professional growth for five and more years that allows them to build attractive competitive strategy.The level of the competitiveness is directly connected with such indicators as “social stratum”, “overall life satisfaction”, “self-esteem of health”, “tendency to lead a healthy lifestyle” and “the level of trust in the surrounding people”. Mostly the students oriented on competition look into the future with confidence and optimism.Respondents focused on the competitiveness were more tend to demonstrate their abilities and cause admiration, have a creative approach towards work, be ready for surprises

  19. Inventory of the mosses, liverworts, and lichens of Olympic National Park, Washington- Species list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutten, M.; Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, K.

    2005-01-01

    The identification of non-vascular cryptogam species (lichens, mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) is especially challenging because of their small size, their often microscopic or chemical distinguishing features, and their enormous diversity. Consequently, they are a poorly known component of Olympic National Park, despite their ecological and aesthetic importance. This project is the first attempt at a systematic, comprehensive survey of non-vascular cryptogams in the Park and presents the current species list with descriptions of the substrate and vascular vegetation type where they were observed. The authors strove to collect from as many park environments as feasible, and distributed collections along important environmental gradients in different regions of the park using vascular vegetation as an environmental indicator. They also collected opportunistically when interesting habitats or microhabitats were encountered. Finally, the authors updated the nomenclature in the Park’s previous collection of nonvascular plants. This study identified approximately 13,200 bryophyte and lichen species, adding approximately 425 new species to the Olympic National Park Herbarium. These data, combined with select literature reports and personal data from Martin and Karen Hutten, added more than 350 species to the previously documented Olympic Peninsula lichen and bryophyte list. The authors discuss the list in a local, regional, and global context of rarity, as well as cryptogam conservation and further work needed in Olympic National Park. The improved inventory of Olympic National Park cryptogams represented by this project enables Olympic National Park to protect populations of rare and sensitive species, assess the damage caused by illegal harvest, and contribute information to the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service Sensitive Species Programs.

  20. Impact of the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games on physical activity of rheumatology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müther, Michael; Williamson, Marie; Williamson, Lyn

    2014-10-01

    Lack of physical activity in the general population is one of the biggest health challenges we face. For rheumatology patients, and other patients with chronic disease, exercise is an essential part of disease management. However, very few patients exercise effectively.One of the aspirations of the London 2012 Olympic/Paralympic Games was to catalyze people into long-term physical activity. We surveyed our rheumatology patients at 3 high-profile times in the year after the Olympics. Two hundred fifty-three patients were enrolled within the study; the largest diagnosis subgroup being rheumatoid arthritis (36%). Ninety-five percent of our patients regard exercise as beneficial; 36% still think it does harm. Most common barriers to exercise were pain (53%), tiredness (44%), and lack of time (36%). Forty-five percent exercise daily, mostly just walking. Twnety-seven patients (16%) were motivated by the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games toward physical activity. They were mostly motivated by athletics' individual stories (67%), taking part in a big sports festival (11%) and demonstration of top sporting levels (4%). Eighteen patients in total (7%) increased their amount of exercise in response to the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. There was no difference between patient diagnostic groups. Only a small minority of patients increased their amount of exercise in response to the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The message about the importance of physical exercise to health needs to be clear, unambiguous, and consistent, because a significant number of patients still think that physical activity does harm. Big sporting events such as the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games can be used as an opportunity to remind patients that physical activity does good and is not harmful. Athletes' individual stories could be used in future as part of a strategy to encourage exercise for all patients.

  1. Maximizing the use of Special Olympics International's Healthy Athletes database: A call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; Foley, John T; Temple, Viviene A

    2018-02-01

    There is a critical need for high-quality population-level data related to the health of individuals with intellectual disabilities. For more than 15 years Special Olympics International has been conducting free Healthy Athletes screenings at local, national and international events. The Healthy Athletes database is the largest known international database specifically on the health of people with intellectual disabilities; however, it is relatively under-utilized by the research community. A consensus meeting with two dozen North American researchers, stakeholders, clinicians and policymakers took place in Toronto, Canada. The purpose of the meeting was to: 1) establish the perceived utility of the database, and 2) to identify and prioritize 3-5 specific priorities related to using the Healthy Athletes database to promote the health of individuals with intellectual disabilities. There was unanimous agreement from the meeting participants that this database represents an immense opportunity both from the data already collected, and data that will be collected in the future. The 3 top priorities for the database were deemed to be: 1) establish the representativeness of data collected on Special Olympics athletes compared to the general population with intellectual disabilities, 2) create a scientific advisory group for Special Olympics International, and 3) use the data to improve Special Olympics programs around the world. The Special Olympics Healthy Athletes database includes data not found in any other source and should be used, in partnership with Special Olympics International, by researchers to significantly increase our knowledge and understanding of the health of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Closing ceremonies of the FIRST Southeast Regional robotics competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    At the conclusion of the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition held at the KSC Visitor Complex, KSC Deputy Director for Business Operations Jim Jennings speaks to the teams and other attendees. At left is Gregg Gale, with Walt Disney World, which is the site of the national competition (at EPCOT) April 6-8. Teams of high school students from all over the country tested the limits of their imagination using robots they designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing at the Southeast Regional event, 16 were Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  3. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Gregory; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the challenges sport psychology consultants perceived at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 sport psychology consultants up to six weeks after the London Games. The interviews were transcribed and inductively content......). Furthermore, four different Sport psychology consultant roles during the Olympics could be defined. On the one hand, the reported challenges validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions in the literature. On the other hand, the data identifies individual contextual differences between the consultants...

  4. Medical services at the first Winter Youth Olympic Games 2012 in Innsbruck/Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Cornelia; Schamasch, Patrick; Engebretsen, Lars; Haslinger, Simon; Ruedl, Gerhard; Fink, Christian; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) are a new format designed by the International Olympic Committee. So far no reference data are available regarding the organisation or implementation of the medical services that were needed for the Winter Youth Olympic Games that took place for the first time in Innsbruck 9-24 January 2012. (1) To provide insight into what is needed to prepare for such a complex high level sporting event from a medical perspective, (2) to provide data on medical services for future organising committees and (3) to provide information on different National Olympic Committee (NOC) delegation structures and the consequences of registering a National Olympic Committee Team Physician. A medical information system in the form of a patient data-management system was developed with all involved parties to standardise data collection. All medical encounters occurring at any IYOGOC medical service centre (including physiotherapy and psychology facilities) were tracked and collected in daily reports. Data evaluation was prepared based on different interest groups (Athletes, National Olympic Committees, Workforce, International Olympic Committee and Media) and analysed. 327 medical encounters (42.8% athletes; out of these, 57.9% were accounted to athletes with own NOC team physician) were seen during the YOG 2012. The total number of hospital transports was 27.3%, of which 8.9% were hospitalised with an average length of 1.9 nights. Physiotherapy usage was low with only 19 medical encounters resulting in a referral to physiotherapy accounting for 67 treatments during the entire YOG. Psychological care service was not used at all. The main reason for illnesses was disorders of the respiratory system (28.8%), injuries mostly affected upper extremities (49.6%) and were mostly diagnosed with lacerations and contusions (26.2%). Injury (70.7%) and illness (29.3%) incidences in athletes were slightly lower than previous studies showed. 40.0% of NOC delegations

  5. Historical Way of Sochi Development: From Resort to Olympic Games Host City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Markaryan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article traces historical way of destination development from resort to Winter Olympic Games host city, discloses the unusual method of natural resources use both for resort treatment and winter sports development. The characteristic of unique natural and climatic conditions and curative factors of the resort, such as mineral springs, landscapes, climate, Esto Sadok, Roza Khutor, Krasnaya Ployana, Laura ski resorts is presented. The article analyzes sports facilities and the use of Sochi as a center for athletes’ rehabilitation. The future use of Olympic facilities, both exhibition, shopping and entertainment and business centers is revealed. The zone of international hospitality will enable Sochi to develop as international resort.

  6. Application of Mindfulness and Acceptance Approaches before and during the Olympics: A Scandinavian Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carsten Hvid

    delivery of the Danish elite sport institute (Team Denmark) and in-depth describe mindfulness training, functional behavioral analyses, accept strategies, formulation of personal values, and collaboration with coaches to develop game plans for the specific sailing courses in the bay of Rio during......Being an Olympian or winning a medal at the Olympics is often described as the ultimate goal and highlight of an athlete’s career. Athletes often emphasize Olympic Games as a unique and peak experience, however by many athletes also described as a very stressful event (Pensgaard, 2008). Experiences...

  7. Economic Cost of an Algae Bloom Cleanup in China's 2008 Olympic Sailing Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. H.; Li, L.; Bao, X.; Zhao, L. D.

    2009-07-01

    In the summer of 2008, an algae bloom struck the coast of Qingdao, China, where the 2008 Olympic sailing events were to be held. The bloom was caused by the drift and proliferation of the green algae Enteromorpha (see http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2352/version/1). It lasted for more than 1 month and covered nearly the entire sailing venue. The Enteromorpha bloom was so intense that national and local governments invested a tremendous amount of labor and resources in a cleanup effort in order to achieve Olympic Games standards [Hu and He, 2008].

  8. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Gregory; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    The aim of the study was to explore the challenges sport psychology consultants perceived at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 sport psychology consultants up to six weeks after the London Games. The interviews were transcribed and inductively content......). Furthermore, four different Sport psychology consultant roles during the Olympics could be defined. On the one hand, the reported challenges validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions in the literature. On the other hand, the data identifies individual contextual differences between the consultants...

  9. The Financing of the London Olympics 2012 and its economic effects on the U.K.

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Mohak

    2010-01-01

    The Olympics are being seen as an event that can turn an ordinary city into a world city. The past has shown that hosting the games can make a country have enormous profits or, on the other hand, go into deep losses, and the enormous amounts of money invested in them are evidence of this. This paper aims to examine The United Kingdom’s preparations for the 2012 Olympic Games by focussing on the various costs that are incurred, in particular on the plans for a positive economic legacy, and fin...

  10. Revisiting the Salt Lake City Olympic scandal: Would the outcome be different today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Dodds

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many international sport organizations face bribery scandals resulting from its event bidding process. The International Olympic Committee (IOC faced this type of scandal with the 2002 Olympic Winter Games. Two members of the Salt Lake City Organizing Committee (SLOC faced 15 criminal charges from providing more than US$1.2 million in cash and gifts to entice IOC members to support its bid. Ultimately both SLOC members were acquitted of all charges. Can a new interpretation of the United States’ anti-bribery law, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA, be effective in preventing similar sport scandals?

  11. Radiation doses to members of the public from the Olympic Dam Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, Philip; Green, Steve; Worby, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The Olympic Dam project is a large underground mine with associated processing plant and smelter, producing copper, uranium, gold, and silver, and is located at Roxby Downs in central South Australia. Results from the monitoring of airborne radionuclides have been reviewed to estimate the operational related doses to members of the public living at Olympic Dam village, approximately 4 km south of the edge of the operational area. The results indicate that the doses are very low, with a conservative upper bound on annual effective dose from radon decay products of approximately 20 μSv and approximately 3 μSv per annum from inhalation of radioactive dusts

  12. Reductions of NO2 detected from space during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Boersma, K. F.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Smedt, I.; Kelder, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    During the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Beijing (from 8 August to 17 September), local authorities enforced strong measures to reduce air pollution during the events. To evaluate the direct effect of these measures, we use the tropospheric NO2 column observations from the satellite instruments GOME-2 and OMI. We interpret these data against simulations from the regional chemistry transport model CHIMERE, based on a 2006 emission inventory, and find a reduction of NO2 concentrations of approximately 60% above Beijing during the Olympic period. The air quality measures were especially effective in the Beijing area, but also noticeable in surrounding cities of Tianjin (30% reduction) and Shijiazhuang (20% reduction).

  13. Diversifying evolution of competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A; Engqvist, Leif; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-10-29

    In many species, individuals express phenotypic characteristics that enhance their competitiveness, that is, the ability to acquire resources in competition with others. Moreover, the degree of competitiveness varies considerably across individuals and in time. By means of an evolutionary model, we provide an explanation for this finding. We make the assumption that investment into competitiveness enhances the probability to acquire a high-quality resource, but at the same time reduces the ability of exploiting acquired resources with maximal efficiency. The model reveals that under a broad range of conditions competitiveness either converges to a polymorphic state, where individuals differing in competitive ability stably coexist, or is subject to perpetual transitions between periods of high and low competitiveness. The dynamics becomes even more complex if females can evolve preferences for (or against) competitive males. In extreme cases, such preferences can even drive the population to extinction.

  14. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  15. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 62 - Certification of Responsible Officers and Sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Sponsors A Appendix A to Part 62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES...__. Subscribed and sworn to before me this ______ day of ______, 19__. Notary Public 2. Sponsors. I hereby...__. Notary Public ...

  16. "This program contains advertising": How the timing of sponsorship disclosure influences critical processing of sponsored content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.; van Reijmersdal, E.; Neijens, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure influences the processing of sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure activates persuasion knowledge, which leads to critical processing of the sponsored content, and ultimately negatively affects the

  17. New Product Development. Engineering and Commerce Students Join Forces with a Corporate Sponsor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Josee; Pegna, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical engineering and business student teams developed new products using a corporate sponsor's technology in a simulated business setting. Students learned about product development and venture start-up, and the sponsor gained new applications for its patented technology. (SK)

  18. Diversifying evolution of competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A.; Engqvist, Leif; Weissing, Franz J.

    2014-01-01

    In many species, individuals express phenotypic characteristics that enhance their competitiveness, that is, the ability to acquire resources in competition with others. Moreover, the degree of competitiveness varies considerably across individuals and in time. By means of an evolutionary model, we

  19. Competition in EU banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonghe, Olivier; Diepstraten, Maaike; Schepens, Glenn; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses recent EU-wide movements in bank competition and concentration. We start with a concise overview of the most frequently used competition and concentration measures. Given that different measures may capture different aspects of bank competition, we focus on the differences and

  20. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories of com...

  1. Competition and Innovation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Lowe

    2008-01-01

    Innovation and competition go hand in hand. Innovative markets are competitive markets and innovative companies succeed in them. In the European Commission, as in competition authorities across the world, our focus is on ensuring that this happens in the most efficient and fair manner.

  2. Competition for Assistance Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is EPA policy to promote competition in the award of assistance agreements to the maximum extent practicable.When assistance agreements are awarded competitively, it is EPA policy that the competitive process be fair and open & that no applicant receive

  3. Stricter Employment Protection and Firms' Incentives to Sponsor Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messe, Pierre-Jean; Rouland, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a difference-in-differences approach, combined with propensity score matching, to identify the effect of older workers employment protection on French firms' incentives to sponsor training. Between 1987 and 2008, French firms laying off workers aged over 50 had to pay a tax...... to the unemployment insurance system, known as the Delalande tax. In 1999, the measure was subjected to a reform that increased the tax, but only for large firms. We find that this exogenous increase substantially raised firms' incentives to train workers aged 45–49 but had no impact on the training rates among...

  4. American Medical Association sponsors press conference in home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C G

    1996-01-01

    On September 12, 1996, the American Medical Association, with an educational grant from Hoffmann-La Roche, sponsored a National Press Conference in New York City at the Millenium Broadway Hotel on Times Square. Attended by more than 40 of the nation's top health care correspondents from the leading magazine and newspapers in the country, this conference was designed to promote "The Revolution in Home and Outpatient Care." With an emphasis on new sites and new technologies, speakers from the Academy of Homecare Physicians presented a number of related subjects.

  5. The Race for Sponsored Links: Bidding Patterns for Search Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Zsolt Katona; Miklos Sarvary

    2010-01-01

    Paid placements on search engines reached sales of nearly $11 billion in the United States last year and represent the most rapidly growing form of online advertising today. In its classic form, a search engine sets up an auction for each search word in which competing websites bid for their sponsored links to be displayed next to the search results. We model this advertising market, focusing on two of its key characteristics: (1) the interaction between the list of search results and the lis...

  6. Youth sport specialization: how to manage competition and training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L

    2011-12-01

    A prevailing theory (and practical application) is that elite performance requires early childhood skill development and training across various domains, including sport. Debate continues whether children specializing early (ie, training/competition in a single sport) have true advantage compared with those who sample various sports early and specialize in a single sport later (adolescence). Retrospective data and case studies suggest either model yields elite status depending upon the sport category (ie, situational: ball games, martial arts, fencing; quantitative: track and field, swimming, skiing; or qualitative: gymnastics, diving, figure skating). However, potential risks of early specialization include greater attrition and adverse physical/emotional health outcomes. With the advent of the IOC Youth Olympic Games, increased emphasis on global youth competition has unknown implications but also represents a potential platform for investigation. Modification of youth competition formats should be based upon multidisciplinary research on psychophysiological responses, and technical-tactical behaviors during competition. The assumption that a simple scaled-down approach of adult competitions facilitates the development of technical/tactical skills of youth athletes is not necessarily substantiated with field-based research. Relatively little evidence exists regarding the long-term effects of rigorous training and competitive schedules on children in specific sports. It is clear that more prospective studies are needed to understand the training dose that optimally develops adaptations in youth without inducing dropout, overtraining syndrome, and/or injury. Such an approach should be sport specific as well as gender based. Until such evidence exists, coaches and sport administrators will continue to rely upon their sport-specific dogma to influence programmatic development of our most vulnerable population.

  7. 45 CFR 2553.24 - What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation? 2553.24 Section 2553.24 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... Eligibility and Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2553.24 What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing...

  8. 45 CFR 2551.24 - What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2551.24 What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation? 2551.24 Section 2551.24 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare...

  9. 45 CFR 2552.24 - What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2552.24 What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community participation? 2552.24 Section 2552.24 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare...

  10. Building Strong Bonds with Program Sponsors--Public Relations Ideas To Make It Happen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Lists public relations strategies for child care center directors seeking to cultivate relationships with their program sponsors. Suggests ways to identify a public relations message, make the sponsor part of the child care family, become part of the sponsor's family, give public recognition, and share the children's accomplishments. (JPB)

  11. 42 CFR 423.553 - Effect of leasing of a PDP sponsor's facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of leasing of a PDP sponsor's facilities... Change of Ownership or Leasing of Facilities During Term of Contract § 423.553 Effect of leasing of a PDP sponsor's facilities. (a) General effect of leasing. If a PDP sponsor leases all or part of its facilities...

  12. 5 CFR 792.211 - What is the definition of a Federally sponsored child care center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sponsored child care center? 792.211 Section 792.211 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... sponsored child care center? The term Federally sponsored child care center, for the purposes of this subpart, is a child care center that is located in a building or space that is owned or leased by the...

  13. Increasing the competitiveness of banks

    OpenAIRE

    Badaeva V.; Makukhina Y.

    2017-01-01

    The article examines about the essence of competitiveness of banks, the ways of improving it, competitive advantages and factors which influence the effectiveness and competitiveness of banking institutions.

  14. Influence of Game Evolution and the Phase of Competition on Temporal Game Structure in High-Level Table Tennis Tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jorge Vieira de Mello; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Miyagi, Willian; Malta, Elvis de Souza; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were: a) to investigate the game temporal structure in high-level table tennis competitions; b) to verify the influence of game evolution in international competitions from 2009 to 2012 (World Table Tennis Championships and the Olympic Games) on game temporal structure; c) to compare game temporal structure according to the phase of competition. Comparisons between the three international tournaments demonstrated that rally duration decreased significantly (p table tennis, considering longer rest periods adopted by elite athletes in relation to non-elite athletes, the reduction in rally duration and an increase in rest time over the 2009-2012 period and through the competition phases (quarterfinals to finals).

  15. COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Daniela RIZEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence competitiveness has already started to build its road in the company’s long term strategies. Nonetheless, business executives continue to look for ways to apply information technology strategically to their businesses. Using information managers manage to communicate, to convey their knowledge about markets, competitors, products, services and operations. Even if data and information are all over there are few amounts of managers that realize the importance of them to the success of the business. This article will review competitive forces and competitive information systems strategies for gaining competitive advantages, explain concepts of value chain, value co-opetition (competition and cooperation, and discuss innovation strategy. Co-opetition is a strategy whereby companies cooperate and compete at the same time with their competitors, complementors (i.e. hardware and software businesses, customers, suppliers. The article discuss an important dimension of information system, identifies competitive advantages and enhancing competitive strategies thought information systems.

  16. Change of Landscape Structure before and after Winter Olympic Games in Nagano City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshio; Takeda, Toshiharu

    Recently it is desirable to realize the conservation of biodiversity and to create the city with symbiosis with nature even in local city. In this study, we chose Nagano City which was the site of the Winter Olympic Games as the subject of study, investigated the change of land cover by using Landsat TM data of the year 1985 and 1999 which were before and after the Winter Olympic Games, and grasped the change of landscape structure quantitatively by using landscape indices. As a result, we obtained the following conclusions. The expansion of urban area proceeded rapidly before and after the Winter Olympic Games. The area of artificial land cover in the city planning area has increased by 57%. In the meantime the areas of upland field and paddy field have decreased by 45% and 50% respectively. Therefore, agricultural land changed into urban area remarkably. It was found that the shape of paches of paddy field and upland field especially became small and the inequality of the paches decreased before and after the Winter Olympic Games. It became clear that the fragmentation has occurred in agricultural land such as paddy field, upland field and orchard.

  17. Parent and Athlete Perceptions of Special Olympics Participation: Utility and Danger of Proxy Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Laraine Masters; Bamberger, Katharine T.; Draheim, Angela R.; Kersh, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Participation in athletics has benefits for persons with intellectual disabilities and their parents. Our purposes here were to confirm these benefits and to determine whether reports from athletes and parents were comparable (i.e., to test the validity of proxy responding). We conducted interviews with 34 Special Olympics sailing/kayaking…

  18. Understanding Special Olympics Experiences from the Athlete Perspectives Using Photo-Elicitation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Burnham Riosa, Priscilla; Robinson, Suzanne; Ryan, Stephanie; Tint, Ami; Viecili, Michelle; MacMullin, Jennifer A.; Shine, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities experience challenges to participating in organized sport, despite its known benefits. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of participating in sport (Special Olympics) from the perspectives of athletes with intellectual disabilities. Methods: Five…

  19. Spatial variability in forest growth—climate relationships in the Olympic Mountains, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill M. Nakawatase; David L. Peterson

    2006-01-01

    For many Pacific Northwest forests, little is known about the spatial and temporal variability in tree growth - climate relationships, yet it is this information that is needed to predict how forests will respond to future climatic change. We studied the effects of climatic variability on forest growth at 74 plots in the western and northeastern Olympic Mountains....

  20. Olympic medals: Success predictions for Río-2016 | Sánchez ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medals are the maximum exponent of successful sporting events. One of the most relevant of these sporting events is the Olympic Games, which gathers major athletes and teams from across the world every four years. Predicting the distribution of the medals at these Games is nothing new. As a matter of fact, this practice ...

  1. International BMI Comparison of Children and Youth with Intellectual Disabilities Participating in Special Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; Temple, Viviene A.; Foley, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the BMI status of children and youth with intellectual disabilities by world region, gender and age. A total of 9678 children and youth records were available from the Special Olympics International Health Promotion database after data cleaning (6084 boys and 3594 girls). Children were defined as 8-11 year…

  2. Inner-Outer Lane Advantage in Olympic 1000 Meter Speed Skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamst, Richard; Kuper, Gerard H.; Sierksma, Gerard; Talsma, Bertus G.

    During the Olympic Games and the World Championships Single Distances the 1000m is skated by every skater only one time. However, there may be a difference in skating a 1000m race with a start in the inner and the outer lane that introduces an externality that introduces unfairness. We show that

  3. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  4. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  5. Differences in life expectancy between olympic high jumpers, discus throwers, marathon and 100 meter runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Heidenreich, Jeffrey; Lee-Heidenreich, David; Myers, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that body habitus is associated with survival (life expectancy) time. We sought to determine if survival differed between elite athletes with a range of body types. We hypothesized that the survival would differ between athlete types and that ectomorph athletes would have longer survival than heavier athletes. For each Olympics between 1928 and 1948 we identified the top (up to 20) Olympic male and female finishers in the high jump (HJ), discus throw, marathon, and 100-m run. We determined date of death using internet searches and calculated age-specific expected survival using published US life tables. We adjusted life expectancy for country of origin based on Global Burden of Disease data. We identified a death date for 336 of 429 (78%) Olympic athletes including 229 males (55 marathon, 56 100-m 58 high jump, 60 discus), and 107 females (54 100-m, 25 high jump, 28 discus). Discus throwers were heaviest and marathon runners the lightest and oldest athletes ( p  discus throwers and sprinters ( p  = 0.005). Controlling for weight, reduced the survival benefit of high jumpers over discus throwers, but had little effect on the survival benefit of marathon runners vs. sprinters. Significant differences in long term survival exist for different types of track and field Olympic athletes that were explained in part by weight.

  6. Consumers' attitude towards e-commerce in Post-Olympics Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbonis, P.A.; Laspita, S.

    2005-01-01

    This research was undertaken in Greece immediately following the 2004 Olympic Games, prior to which and during the games, the Greek population had sustained exposure to modern technologies including the Internet. This was an opportune and perhaps unique moment to determine if the Greek population

  7. Retention at Olympic College: A Statistical Report, Fall 1986-Winter 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaker, Jolene

    A study was conducted at Olympic College (OC) in the State of Washington, to investigate the personal and academic characteristics of student dropouts and their reasons for leaving the college. Questionnaires were sent to 500 fall 1986 students who completely withdrew from OC during the term or received all F's, W's, or other unproductive grades…

  8. Stable Water Isotope Climate Archives in Springs from the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 18O and 2H (HDO) compositions are summarized for sampled springs (n = 81) within the Elwha watershed (≈ 692 km2) on the northern Olympic Peninsula. Samples, collected during 2001–2009, of springs (n = 158), precipitation (n = 520), streams (n...

  9. Medical care of the South African Olympic team - the Sydney 2000 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical care of the South African Olympic team - the Sydney 2000 experience. WE Derman. Abstract. SA Sports Medicine Vol.15(3) 2003: 22-25. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  10. Exercise Tiger: assessing the BCM impact of the 2012 Olympics on Canary Wharf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evett, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, collective corporate resilience is studied to see how a culture of sharing information and planning may assist other business communities to prepare for future events. The London 2012 Summer Olympic Games will see huge opportunity for businesses in London, and across Europe, but not without cost. Canary Wharf lies in the heart of London's Docklands and less than three miles from the Olympic Park at Stratford. Purpose-built as a business district, it accommodates a working population of 95,000 people, is home to some of the world's leading brands and has a vibrant retail complex of over 200 shops, bars and restaurants. This business community is preparing for every aspect of the Olympics and, in particular, the disruption the Games will bring. As a private estate, the community resilience approach fostered here is both better defined and finite in terms of those it includes as a result. Preparing together with joint exercises, forums and open communications in a network of trusted partners is yielding collective benefits and lending a stronger voice in the call for more information from official agencies. This paper outlines the benefits of collective planning and reports on the success of Canary Wharf's annual estate-wide business continuity exercise - the first major collective Olympics planning exercise in London.

  11. Residents' Perceived Social-Economic Impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mark; Chen, Li; Lei, Ouyang; Malone, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether the Olympic Games was a catalyst for changes to Beijing residents' quality of life based on social-economic perspectives and how these changes affected their continuous support for the Games. Residents who lived in Beijing 18 months or longer were invited to participate in this survey research (N = 412)…

  12. Highly stocked coniferous stands on the Olympic Peninsula: chemical composition and implications for harvest strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan N. Little; Dale R. Waddell

    1987-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of macronutrients and their distribution within highly stocked, stagnant stands of mixed conifers on the Quilcene Ranger District, Olympic National Forest, northwest Washington. These stands consisted of predominantly three species: western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), coast Douglas-fir (...

  13. The Beijing Olympics and the art of nation-state maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, J.; Pak Lei Chong, G.; Liu, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article maps out how different actors are involved in the promotion and mediation of the Olympics. It looks at the roles of, first, the nation-state, through an analysis of the promotional materials; second, the art world and global companies, through an analysis of the touring exhibition

  14. Mapping human environment connections on the Olympic Peninsula: an atlas of landscape values

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. McLain; L. Cerveny; Paul M. Montesano; André Beaudoin; Guoqing Sun; Hans-Erik Andersen; Michael A. Wulder; S. Rohdy

    2015-01-01

    The advent of computerized mapping has greatly expanded the ability of land managers to map many aspects of ecological systems, such as tree species, soil types, wildlife habitat, air quality, and water conditions. Mapping the social and cultural aspects of ecological systems, however, has proved much more challenging. This atlas uses the Olympic Peninsula in western...

  15. Update on Exercise-Induced Asthma. A Report of the Olympic Exercise Asthma Summit Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, William W.; Joyner, David M.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes results from the Olympic Exercise Asthma Summit Conference, offering the latest on identifying and managing exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Concludes that effective pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment is available, but EIA is underrecognized and underdiagnosed. Physicians should look for it in all patients, including school…

  16. Too Much French? Not Enough French?: The Vancouver Olympics and a Very Canadian Language Ideological Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a language ideological debate that took place in Canadian national newspapers following the opening ceremonies for the 2011 Vancouver Olympics. Reports on the insufficient use of French during the opening ceremonies sparked protest from politicians, official commentators, citizens and online newsreaders alike. Previous…

  17. In the Zone--Bringing Science to the Olympic Games for Students in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Leah; Atkinson, Melissa; Schofield, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Wellcome Trust is running a national engagement and education initiative inspired by the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. "In the Zone" involves sending practical science kits to every UK school and college. Here, we discuss the development of the school activities and how the feedback from pilot schools helped to shape the…

  18. An Experimental High-Resolution Forecast System During the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhot, J.; Milbrandt, J. A.; Giguère, A.; McTaggart-Cowan, R.; Erfani, A.; Denis, B.; Glazer, A.; Vallée, M.

    2014-01-01

    Environment Canada ran an experimental numerical weather prediction (NWP) system during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, consisting of nested high-resolution (down to 1-km horizontal grid-spacing) configurations of the GEM-LAM model, with improved geophysical fields, cloud microphysics and radiative transfer schemes, and several new diagnostic products such as density of falling snow, visibility, and peak wind gust strength. The performance of this experimental NWP system has been evaluated in these winter conditions over complex terrain using the enhanced mesoscale observing network in place during the Olympics. As compared to the forecasts from the operational regional 15-km GEM model, objective verification generally indicated significant added value of the higher-resolution models for near-surface meteorological variables (wind speed, air temperature, and dewpoint temperature) with the 1-km model providing the best forecast accuracy. Appreciable errors were noted in all models for the forecasts of wind direction and humidity near the surface. Subjective assessment of several cases also indicated that the experimental Olympic system was skillful at forecasting meteorological phenomena at high-resolution, both spatially and temporally, and provided enhanced guidance to the Olympic forecasters in terms of better timing of precipitation phase change, squall line passage, wind flow channeling, and visibility reduction due to fog and snow.

  19. Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games event study, 1996. Final report, July 1996--August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amodei, R.; Bard, E.; Brong, B.; Cahoon, F.; Jasper, K.

    1998-11-01

    The Atlanta metropolitan region was the location of one of the most ambitious Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) deployments in the United States. This deployment included several individual projects--a Central Transportation Management Center (TMC), six Traffic Control Centers (TCCs), one Transit Information Center (TIC), The Travel Information Showcase (TIS), and the extension of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) Rail network and the new high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes on I-85 and I-75. The 1996 Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games created a focus for these projects. All of these systems were to be brought on-line in time for the Olympic Games. This report presents the findings of the 1996 Olympic and Paralympic Games Events Study--a compilation of findings of system performance, the benefits realized, and the lessons learned during their operations over the event period. The study assessed the performance of the various Travel Demand Management (TDM) plans employed for Olympic Games traffic management.

  20. Sonography in the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen; Xiang, Dong-ying; Dai, Jian-ping

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of sonography at the polyclinic of the Olympic/Paralympic village during the Olympic/Paralympic Games. We retrospectively reviewed 759 consecutive patients who underwent sonography at the ultrasound division of the polyclinic in the Olympic/Paralympic village from July 20, 2008, to September 20, 2008. Prevalence of emergency sonography after sports injury and non-sports-related urgent conditions during the games was analyzed. The benefit of sonographic services in large sporting events was discussed. There were 759 patients (484 athletes, 101 coaches, 88 team officials, and 86 volunteers; 462 men and 297 women) in the ultrasound division at the polyclinic. The indications for sonography included abdominal pain (315 cases, 41.50%), muskuloskeletal disorders (228 cases, 30.04%), gynecology related (104 cases, 13.70%), cardiac conditions (49 cases, 6.46%), small parts (29 cases, 3.82%), and vascular problems (34 cases, 4.48%). The rates of positive findings on sonography were 46.03% in the abdomen, 70.17% in musculoskeleton, 41.34% in gynecology, 10.20% in the heart, 75.86% in small parts, and 38.24% in vessels, respectively. Sonography plays an important role in the medical services at the polyclinic in the Olympic/Paralympic village. The benefits of sonography in such large sporting events are accuracy, fast result, portability, and noninvasiveness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.