WorldWideScience

Sample records for spoken language ability

  1. The relation of the number of languages spoken to performance in different cognitive abilities in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Findings on the association of speaking different languages with cognitive functioning in old age are inconsistent and inconclusive so far. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of the number of languages spoken to cognitive performance and its interplay with several other markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. Two thousand eight hundred and twelve older adults served as sample for the present study. Psychometric tests on verbal abilities, basic processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were administered. In addition, individuals were interviewed on their different languages spoken on a regular basis, educational attainment, occupation, and engaging in different activities throughout adulthood. Higher number of languages regularly spoken was significantly associated with better performance in verbal abilities and processing speed, but unrelated to cognitive flexibility. Regression analyses showed that the number of languages spoken predicted cognitive performance over and above leisure activities/physical demand of job/gainful activity as respective additional predictor, but not over and above educational attainment/cognitive level of job as respective additional predictor. There was no significant moderation of the association of the number of languages spoken with cognitive performance in any model. Present data suggest that speaking different languages on a regular basis may additionally contribute to the build-up of cognitive reserve in old age. Yet, this may not be universal, but linked to verbal abilities and basic cognitive processing speed. Moreover, it may be dependent on other types of cognitive stimulation that individuals also engaged in during their life course.

  2. Teaching the Spoken Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gillian

    1981-01-01

    Issues involved in teaching and assessing communicative competence are identified and applied to adolescent native English speakers with low levels of academic achievement. A distinction is drawn between transactional versus interactional speech, short versus long speaking turns, and spoken language influenced or not influenced by written…

  3. Spoken Language Understanding Software for Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Alam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a preliminary, work-in-progress Spoken Language Understanding Software (SLUS with tailored feedback options, which uses interactive spoken language interface to teach Iraqi Arabic and culture to second language learners. The SLUS analyzes input speech by the second language learner and grades for correct pronunciation in terms of supra-segmental and rudimentary segmental errors such as missing consonants. We evaluated this software on training data with the help of two native speakers, and found that the software recorded an accuracy of around 70% in law and order domain. For future work, we plan to develop similar systems for multiple languages.

  4. Native language, spoken language, translation and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Melitz; Farid Toubal

    2012-01-01

    We construct new series for common native language and common spoken language for 195 countries, which we use together with series for common official language and linguis-tic proximity in order to draw inferences about (1) the aggregate impact of all linguistic factors on bilateral trade, (2) whether the linguistic influences come from ethnicity and trust or ease of communication, and (3) in so far they come from ease of communication, to what extent trans-lation and interpreters play a role...

  5. The Relationship between Intrinsic Couplings of the Visual Word Form Area with Spoken Language Network and Reading Ability in Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reading plays a key role in education and communication in modern society. Learning to read establishes the connections between the visual word form area (VWFA and language areas responsible for speech processing. Using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC and Granger Causality Analysis (GCA methods, the current developmental study aimed to identify the difference in the relationship between the connections of VWFA-language areas and reading performance in both adults and children. The results showed that: (1 the spontaneous connectivity between VWFA and the spoken language areas, i.e., the left inferior frontal gyrus/supramarginal gyrus (LIFG/LSMG, was stronger in adults compared with children; (2 the spontaneous functional patterns of connectivity between VWFA and language network were negatively correlated with reading ability in adults but not in children; (3 the causal influence from LIFG to VWFA was negatively correlated with reading ability only in adults but not in children; (4 the RSFCs between left posterior middle frontal gyrus (LpMFG and VWFA/LIFG were positively correlated with reading ability in both adults and children; and (5 the causal influence from LIFG to LSMG was positively correlated with reading ability in both groups. These findings provide insights into the relationship between VWFA and the language network for reading, and the role of the unique features of Chinese in the neural circuits of reading.

  6. Spoken language corpora for the nine official African languages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spoken language corpora for the nine official African languages of South Africa. Jens Allwood, AP Hendrikse. Abstract. In this paper we give an outline of a corpus planning project which aims to develop linguistic resources for the nine official African languages of South Africa in the form of corpora, more specifically spoken ...

  7. Professionals' Guidance about Spoken Language Multilingualism and Spoken Language Choice for Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate factors that influence professionals' guidance of parents of children with hearing loss regarding spoken language multilingualism and spoken language choice. Sixteen professionals who provide services to children and young people with hearing loss completed an online survey, rating the importance of…

  8. Direction Asymmetries in Spoken and Signed Language Interpreting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemus, Brenda; Emmorey, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study ("N" =…

  9. Spoken Grammar and Its Role in the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses key issues and considerations for teachers wanting to incorporate spoken grammar activities into their own teaching and also focuses on six common features of spoken grammar, with practical activities and suggestions for teaching them in the language classroom. The hope is that this discussion of spoken grammar and its place…

  10. Deep bottleneck features for spoken language identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Jiang

    Full Text Available A key problem in spoken language identification (LID is to design effective representations which are specific to language information. For example, in recent years, representations based on both phonotactic and acoustic features have proven their effectiveness for LID. Although advances in machine learning have led to significant improvements, LID performance is still lacking, especially for short duration speech utterances. With the hypothesis that language information is weak and represented only latently in speech, and is largely dependent on the statistical properties of the speech content, existing representations may be insufficient. Furthermore they may be susceptible to the variations caused by different speakers, specific content of the speech segments, and background noise. To address this, we propose using Deep Bottleneck Features (DBF for spoken LID, motivated by the success of Deep Neural Networks (DNN in speech recognition. We show that DBFs can form a low-dimensional compact representation of the original inputs with a powerful descriptive and discriminative capability. To evaluate the effectiveness of this, we design two acoustic models, termed DBF-TV and parallel DBF-TV (PDBF-TV, using a DBF based i-vector representation for each speech utterance. Results on NIST language recognition evaluation 2009 (LRE09 show significant improvements over state-of-the-art systems. By fusing the output of phonotactic and acoustic approaches, we achieve an EER of 1.08%, 1.89% and 7.01% for 30 s, 10 s and 3 s test utterances respectively. Furthermore, various DBF configurations have been extensively evaluated, and an optimal system proposed.

  11. Assessing spoken-language educational interpreting: Measuring up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing spoken-language educational interpreting: Measuring up and measuring right. Lenelle Foster, Adriaan Cupido. Abstract. This article, primarily, presents a critical evaluation of the development and refinement of the assessment instrument used to assess formally the spoken-language educational interpreters at ...

  12. Spoken Indian language identification: a review of features and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BAKSHI AARTI

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... sound of that language. These language-specific properties can be exploited to identify a spoken language reliably. Automatic language identification has emerged as a prominent research area in. Indian languages processing. People from different regions of India speak around 800 different languages.

  13. Spoken Persuasive Discourse Abilities of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Catherine; Kirk, Cecilia; Powell, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the performance of adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) during a spoken persuasive discourse task. Persuasive discourse is frequently used in social and academic settings and is of importance in the study of adolescent language. Method: Participants included 8 adolescents with ABI and 8 peers…

  14. Automatic disambiguation of morphosyntax in spoken language corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Parisse , Christophe; Le Normand , Marie-Thérèse

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The use of computer tools has led to major advances in the study of spoken language corpora. One area that has shown particular progress is the study of child language development. Although it is now easy to lexically tag every word in a spoken language corpus, one still has to choose between numerous ambiguous forms, especially with languages such as French or English, where more than 70% of words are ambiguous. Computational linguistics can now provide a fully automa...

  15. Semantic Fluency in Deaf Children Who Use Spoken and Signed Language in Comparison with Hearing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, C. R.; Jones, A.; Fastelli, A.; Atkinson, J.; Botting, N.; Morgan, G.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Deafness has an adverse impact on children's ability to acquire spoken languages. Signed languages offer a more accessible input for deaf children, but because the vast majority are born to hearing parents who do not sign, their early exposure to sign language is limited. Deaf children as a whole are therefore at high risk of language…

  16. Using Spoken Language to Facilitate Military Transportation Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bates, Madeleine; Ellard, Dan; Peterson, Pat; Shaked, Varda

    1991-01-01

    .... In an effort to demonstrate the relevance of SIS technology to real-world military applications, BBN has undertaken the task of providing a spoken language interface to DART, a system for military...

  17. ELSIE: The Quick Reaction Spoken Language Translation (QRSLT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montgomery, Christine

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a prototype, hand-held or body-mounted spoken language translator to assist military and law enforcement personnel in interacting with non-English-speaking people...

  18. "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-08-19

    Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital ("visual") brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4-17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). We find that "visual" cortices of young blind (but not sighted) children respond to sound. Responses to nonlanguage sounds increased between the ages of 4 and 17. By contrast, occipital responses to spoken language were maximal by age 4 and were not related to Braille learning. These findings suggest that occipital plasticity for spoken language is independent of plasticity for Braille and for sound. We conclude that in the absence of visual input, spoken language colonizes the visual system during brain development. Our findings suggest that early in life, human cortex has a remarkably broad computational capacity. The same cortical tissue can take on visual perception and language functions. Studies of plasticity provide key insights into how experience shapes the human brain. The "visual" cortex of adults who are blind from birth responds to touch, sound, and spoken language. To date, all existing studies have been conducted with adults, so little is known about the developmental trajectory of plasticity. We used fMRI to study the emergence of "visual" cortex responses to sound and spoken language in blind children and adolescents. We find that "visual" cortex responses to sound increase between 4 and 17 years of age. By contrast, responses to spoken language are present by 4 years of age and are not related to Braille-learning. These findings suggest that, early in development, human cortex can take on a strikingly wide range of functions. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3511674-08$15.00/0.

  19. Development of a spoken language identification system for South African languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peché, M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the first Spoken Language Identification system developed to distinguish among all eleven of South Africa’s official languages. The PPR-LM (Parallel Phoneme Recognition followed by Language Modeling) architecture...

  20. Assessing spoken-language educational interpreting: Measuring up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    assessment instrument used to assess formally the spoken-language educational interpreters at. Stellenbosch University (SU). Research ..... Is the interpreter suited to the module? Is the interpreter easier to follow? Technical. Microphone technique. Lag. Completeness. Language use. Vocabulary. Role. Personal Objectives ...

  1. IMPACT ON THE INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the impact of the hegemony of English, as a common lingua franca, referred to as a global language, on the indigenous languages spoken in Nigeria. Since English, through the British political imperialism and because of the economic supremacy of English dominated countries, has assumed the ...

  2. Delayed Anticipatory Spoken Language Processing in Adults with Dyslexia—Evidence from Eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettig, Falk; Brouwer, Susanne

    2015-05-01

    It is now well established that anticipation of upcoming input is a key characteristic of spoken language comprehension. It has also frequently been observed that literacy influences spoken language processing. Here, we investigated whether anticipatory spoken language processing is related to individuals' word reading abilities. Dutch adults with dyslexia and a control group participated in two eye-tracking experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to assess whether adults with dyslexia show the typical language-mediated eye gaze patterns. Eye movements of both adults with and without dyslexia closely replicated earlier research: spoken language is used to direct attention to relevant objects in the environment in a closely time-locked manner. In Experiment 2, participants received instructions (e.g., 'Kijk naar de(COM) afgebeelde piano(COM)', look at the displayed piano) while viewing four objects. Articles (Dutch 'het' or 'de') were gender marked such that the article agreed in gender only with the target, and thus, participants could use gender information from the article to predict the target object. The adults with dyslexia anticipated the target objects but much later than the controls. Moreover, participants' word reading scores correlated positively with their anticipatory eye movements. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms by which reading abilities may influence predictive language processing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Auditory and verbal memory predictors of spoken language skills in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Brigitte E; Langereis, Margreet C; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Keuning, Jos; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-10-01

    Large variability in individual spoken language outcomes remains a persistent finding in the group of children with cochlear implants (CIs), particularly in their grammatical development. In the present study, we examined the extent of delay in lexical and morphosyntactic spoken language levels of children with CIs as compared to those of a normative sample of age-matched children with normal hearing. Furthermore, the predictive value of auditory and verbal memory factors in the spoken language performance of implanted children was analyzed. Thirty-nine profoundly deaf children with CIs were assessed using a test battery including measures of lexical, grammatical, auditory and verbal memory tests. Furthermore, child-related demographic characteristics were taken into account. The majority of the children with CIs did not reach age-equivalent lexical and morphosyntactic language skills. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that lexical spoken language performance in children with CIs was best predicted by age at testing, phoneme perception, and auditory word closure. The morphosyntactic language outcomes of the CI group were best predicted by lexicon, auditory word closure, and auditory memory for words. Qualitatively good speech perception skills appear to be crucial for lexical and grammatical development in children with CIs. Furthermore, strongly developed vocabulary skills and verbal memory abilities predict morphosyntactic language skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Word Detection in Sung and Spoken Sentences in Children With Typical Language Development or With Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchou, Clément; Clément, Sylvain; Béland, Renée; Cason, Nia; Motte, Jacques; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that children score better in language tasks using sung rather than spoken stimuli. We examined word detection ease in sung and spoken sentences that were equated for phoneme duration and pitch variations in children aged 7 to 12 years with typical language development (TLD) as well as in children with specific language impairment (SLI ), and hypothesized that the facilitation effect would vary with language abilities. In Experiment 1, 69 children with TLD (7-10 years old) detected words in sentences that were spoken, sung on pitches extracted from speech, and sung on original scores. In Experiment 2, we added a natural speech rate condition and tested 68 children with TLD (7-12 years old). In Experiment 3, 16 children with SLI and 16 age-matched children with TLD were tested in all four conditions. In both TLD groups, older children scored better than the younger ones. The matched TLD group scored higher than the SLI group who scored at the level of the younger children with TLD . None of the experiments showed a facilitation effect of sung over spoken stimuli. Word detection abilities improved with age in both TLD and SLI groups. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis of delayed language abilities in children with SLI , and are discussed in light of the role of durational prosodic cues in words detection.

  5. Word Detection in Sung and Spoken Sentences in Children With Typical Language Development or With Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchou, Clément; Clément, Sylvain; Béland, Renée; Cason, Nia; Motte, Jacques; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported that children score better in language tasks using sung rather than spoken stimuli. We examined word detection ease in sung and spoken sentences that were equated for phoneme duration and pitch variations in children aged 7 to 12 years with typical language development (TLD) as well as in children with specific language impairment (SLI ), and hypothesized that the facilitation effect would vary with language abilities. Method: In Experiment 1, 69 children with TLD (7–10 years old) detected words in sentences that were spoken, sung on pitches extracted from speech, and sung on original scores. In Experiment 2, we added a natural speech rate condition and tested 68 children with TLD (7–12 years old). In Experiment 3, 16 children with SLI and 16 age-matched children with TLD were tested in all four conditions. Results: In both TLD groups, older children scored better than the younger ones. The matched TLD group scored higher than the SLI group who scored at the level of the younger children with TLD . None of the experiments showed a facilitation effect of sung over spoken stimuli. Conclusions: Word detection abilities improved with age in both TLD and SLI groups. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis of delayed language abilities in children with SLI , and are discussed in light of the role of durational prosodic cues in words detection. PMID:26767070

  6. Does textual feedback hinder spoken interaction in natural language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bigot, Ludovic; Terrier, Patrice; Jamet, Eric; Botherel, Valerie; Rouet, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of textual feedback on the content and outcome of spoken interaction with a natural language dialogue system. More specifically, the assumption that textual feedback could disrupt spoken interaction was tested in a human-computer dialogue situation. In total, 48 adult participants, familiar with the system, had to find restaurants based on simple or difficult scenarios using a real natural language service system in a speech-only (phone), speech plus textual dialogue history (multimodal) or text-only (web) modality. The linguistic contents of the dialogues differed as a function of modality, but were similar whether the textual feedback was included in the spoken condition or not. These results add to burgeoning research efforts on multimodal feedback, in suggesting that textual feedback may have little or no detrimental effect on information searching with a real system. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The results suggest that adding textual feedback to interfaces for human-computer dialogue could enhance spoken interaction rather than create interference. The literature currently suggests that adding textual feedback to tasks that depend on the visual sense benefits human-computer interaction. The addition of textual output when the spoken modality is heavily taxed by the task was investigated.

  7. Porting a spoken language identification systen to a new environment.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peche, M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available the carefully selected training data used to construct the system initially. The authors investigated the process of porting a Spoken Language Identification (S-LID) system to a new environment and describe methods to prepare it for more effective use...

  8. Automatic disambiguation of morphosyntax in spoken language corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisse, C; Le Normand, M T

    2000-08-01

    The use of computer tools has led to major advances in the study of spoken language corpora. One area that has shown particular progress is the study of child language development. Although it is now easy to lexically tag every word in a spoken language corpus, one still has to choose between numerous ambiguous forms, especially with languages such as French or English, where more than 70% of words are ambiguous. Computational linguistics can now provide a fully automatic disambiguation of lexical tags. The tool presented here (POST) can tag and disambiguate a large text in a few seconds. This tool complements systems dealing with language transcription and suggests further theoretical developments in the assessment of the status of morphosyntax in spoken language corpora. The program currently works for French and English, but it can be easily adapted for use with other languages. The analysis and computation of a corpus produced by normal French children 2-4 years of age, as well as of a sample corpus produced by French SLI children, are given as examples.

  9. Foreign Language Tutoring in Oral Conversations Using Spoken Dialog Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungjin; Noh, Hyungjong; Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Kyusong; Lee, Gary Geunbae

    Although there have been enormous investments into English education all around the world, not many differences have been made to change the English instruction style. Considering the shortcomings for the current teaching-learning methodology, we have been investigating advanced computer-assisted language learning (CALL) systems. This paper aims at summarizing a set of POSTECH approaches including theories, technologies, systems, and field studies and providing relevant pointers. On top of the state-of-the-art technologies of spoken dialog system, a variety of adaptations have been applied to overcome some problems caused by numerous errors and variations naturally produced by non-native speakers. Furthermore, a number of methods have been developed for generating educational feedback that help learners develop to be proficient. Integrating these efforts resulted in intelligent educational robots — Mero and Engkey — and virtual 3D language learning games, Pomy. To verify the effects of our approaches on students' communicative abilities, we have conducted a field study at an elementary school in Korea. The results showed that our CALL approaches can be enjoyable and fruitful activities for students. Although the results of this study bring us a step closer to understanding computer-based education, more studies are needed to consolidate the findings.

  10. The Child's Path to Spoken Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L.

    A major synthesis of the latest research on early language acquisition, this book explores what gives infants the remarkable capacity to progress from babbling to meaningful sentences, and what inclines a child to speak. The book examines the neurological, perceptual, social, and linguistic aspects of language acquisition in young children, from…

  11. Factors Influencing Verbal Intelligence and Spoken Language in Children with Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Zahra; Keramati, Nasrin; Rohani, Farzaneh; Jalaei, Shohre

    2015-05-01

    To determine verbal intelligence and spoken language of children with phenylketonuria and to study the effect of age at diagnosis and phenylalanine plasma level on these abilities. Cross-sectional. Children with phenylketonuria were recruited from pediatric hospitals in 2012. Normal control subjects were recruited from kindergartens in Tehran. 30 phenylketonuria and 42 control subjects aged 4-6.5 years. Skills were compared between 3 phenylketonuria groups categorized by age at diagnosis/treatment, and between the phenylketonuria and control groups. Scores on Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence for verbal and total intelligence, and Test of Language Development-Primary, third edition for spoken language, listening, speaking, semantics, syntax, and organization. The performance of control subjects was significantly better than that of early-treated subjects for all composite quotients from Test of Language Development and verbal intelligence (Pphenylketonuria subjects.

  12. Prosodic Parallelism – comparing spoken and written language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wiese

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015, this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed.

  13. Phonotactic spoken language identification with limited training data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peche, M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available rates when no Japanese acoustic models are constructed. An increasing amount of Japanese training data is used to train the language classifier of an English-only (E), an English-French (EF), and an English-French-Portuguese PPR system. ple.... Experimental design 3.1. Corpora Because of their role as world languages that are widely spoken in Africa, our initial LID system was designed to distinguish between English, French and Portuguese. We therefore trained phone recognizers and language...

  14. Using Language Sample Analysis to Assess Spoken Language Production in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon F.; Andriacchi, Karen; Nockerts, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This tutorial discusses the importance of language sample analysis and how Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT) software can be used to simplify the process and effectively assess the spoken language production of adolescents. Method: Over the past 30 years, thousands of language samples have been collected from typical…

  15. Spoken English Language Development Among Native Signing Children With Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Kathryn; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Chen Pichler, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Bilingualism is common throughout the world, and bilingual children regularly develop into fluently bilingual adults. In contrast, children with cochlear implants (CIs) are frequently encouraged to focus on a spoken language to the exclusion of sign language. Here, we investigate the spoken English language skills of 5 children with CIs who also have deaf signing parents, and so receive exposure to a full natural sign language (American Sign Language, ASL) from birth, in addition to spoken En...

  16. Spoken Language Understanding Systems for Extracting Semantic Information from Speech

    CERN Document Server

    Tur, Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    Spoken language understanding (SLU) is an emerging field in between speech and language processing, investigating human/ machine and human/ human communication by leveraging technologies from signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence. SLU systems are designed to extract the meaning from speech utterances and its applications are vast, from voice search in mobile devices to meeting summarization, attracting interest from both commercial and academic sectors. Both human/machine and human/human communications can benefit from the application of SLU, usin

  17. Spoken Spanish Language Development at the High School Level: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Communicative approaches to teaching language have emphasized the centrality of oral proficiency in the language acquisition process, but research investigating oral proficiency has been surprisingly limited, yielding an incomplete understanding of spoken language development. This study investigated the development of spoken language at the high…

  18. Students who are deaf and hard of hearing and use sign language: considerations and strategies for developing spoken language and literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Debra; Waddy-Smith, Bettie; Doyle, Jane

    2012-11-01

    There is a core body of knowledge, experience, and skills integral to facilitating auditory, speech, and spoken language development when working with the general population of students who are deaf and hard of hearing. There are additional issues, strategies, and challenges inherent in speech habilitation/rehabilitation practices essential to the population of deaf and hard of hearing students who also use sign language. This article will highlight philosophical and practical considerations related to practices used to facilitate spoken language development and associated literacy skills for children and adolescents who sign. It will discuss considerations for planning and implementing practices that acknowledge and utilize a student's abilities in sign language, and address how to link these skills to developing and using spoken language. Included will be considerations for children from early childhood through high school with a broad range of auditory access, language, and communication characteristics. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken by English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on Asian/Pacific Islander languages spoken by English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Top 10 Most Common Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs:…

  20. Spoken Language Production in Young Adults: Examining Syntactic Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A; Frantz-Kaspar, Megan W; Vigeland, Laura M

    2017-05-24

    In this study, we examined syntactic complexity in the spoken language samples of young adults. Its purpose was to contribute to the expanding knowledge base in later language development and to begin building a normative database of language samples that potentially could be used to evaluate young adults with known or suspected language impairment. Forty adults (mean age = 22 years, 10 months) with typical language development participated in an interview that consisted of 3 speaking tasks: a general conversation about common, everyday topics; a narrative retelling task that involved fables; and a question-and-answer, critical-thinking task about the fables. Each speaker's interview was audio-recorded, transcribed, broken into communication units, coded for main and subordinate clauses, entered into Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (Miller, Iglesias, & Nockerts, 2004), and analyzed for mean length of communication unit and clausal density. Both the narrative and critical-thinking tasks elicited significantly greater syntactic complexity than the conversational task. It was also found that syntactic complexity was significantly greater during the narrative task than the critical-thinking task. Syntactic complexity was best revealed by a narrative task that involved fables. The study offers benchmarks for language development during early adulthood.

  1. Native Language Spoken as a Risk Marker for Tooth Decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, J; Walker, L A; Sanders, B J; Jones, J E; Weddell, J A; Tomlin, A M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dmft, the number of decayed, missing (due to caries), and/ or filled primary teeth, of English-speaking and non-English speaking patients of a hospital based pediatric dental clinic under the age of 72 months to determine if native language is a risk marker for tooth decay. Records from an outpatient dental clinic which met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Patient demographics and dmft score were recorded, and the patients were separated into three groups by the native language spoken by their parents: English, Spanish and all other languages. A total of 419 charts were assessed: 253 English-speaking, 126 Spanish-speaking, and 40 other native languages. After accounting for patient characteristics, dmft was significantly higher for the other language group than for the English-speaking (p0.05). Those patients under 72 months of age whose parents' native language is not English or Spanish, have the highest risk for increased dmft when compared to English and Spanish speaking patients. Providers should consider taking additional time to educate patients and their parents, in their native language, on the importance of routine dental care and oral hygiene.

  2. Pointing and Reference in Sign Language and Spoken Language: Anchoring vs. Identifying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberà, Gemma; Zwets, Martine

    2013-01-01

    In both signed and spoken languages, pointing serves to direct an addressee's attention to a particular entity. This entity may be either present or absent in the physical context of the conversation. In this article we focus on pointing directed to nonspeaker/nonaddressee referents in Sign Language of the Netherlands (Nederlandse Gebarentaal,…

  3. Spoken language development in oral preschool children with permanent childhood deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarant, Julia Z; Holt, Colleen M; Dowell, Richard C; Rickards, Field W; Blamey, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    This article documented spoken language outcomes for preschool children with hearing loss and examined the relationships between language abilities and characteristics of children such as degree of hearing loss, cognitive abilities, age at entry to early intervention, and parent involvement in children's intervention programs. Participants were evaluated using a combination of the Child Development Inventory, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the Preschool Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals depending on their age at the time of assessment. Maternal education, cognitive ability, and family involvement were also measured. Over half of the children who participated in this study had poor language outcomes overall. No significant differences were found in language outcomes on any of the measures for children who were diagnosed early and those diagnosed later. Multiple regression analyses showed that family participation, degree of hearing loss, and cognitive ability significantly predicted language outcomes and together accounted for almost 60% of the variance in scores. This article highlights the importance of family participation in intervention programs to enable children to achieve optimal language outcomes. Further work may clarify the effects of early diagnosis on language outcomes for preschool children.

  4. The Listening and Spoken Language Data Repository: Design and Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradham, Tamala S.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher; Toll, Alice; Hecht, Barbara F.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the Listening and Spoken Language Data Repository (LSL-DR) was to address a critical need for a systemwide outcome data-monitoring program for the development of listening and spoken language skills in highly specialized educational programs for children with hearing loss highlighted in Goal 3b of the 2007 Joint Committee…

  5. Give and take: syntactic priming during spoken language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Snedeker, Jesse

    2008-07-01

    Syntactic priming during language production is pervasive and well-studied. Hearing, reading, speaking or writing a sentence with a given structure increases the probability of subsequently producing the same structure, regardless of whether the prime and target share lexical content. In contrast, syntactic priming during comprehension has proven more elusive, fueling claims that comprehension is less dependent on general syntactic representations and more dependent on lexical knowledge. In three experiments we explored syntactic priming during spoken language comprehension. Participants acted out double-object (DO) or prepositional-object (PO) dative sentences while their eye movements were recorded. Prime sentences used different verbs and nouns than the target sentences. In target sentences, the onset of the direct-object noun was consistent with both an animate recipient and an inanimate theme, creating a temporary ambiguity in the argument structure of the verb (DO e.g., Show the horse the book; PO e.g., Show the horn to the dog). We measured the difference in looks to the potential recipient and the potential theme during the ambiguous interval. In all experiments, participants who heard DO primes showed a greater preference for the recipient over the theme than those who heard PO primes, demonstrating across-verb priming during online language comprehension. These results accord with priming found in production studies, indicating a role for abstract structural information during comprehension as well as production.

  6. Auditory and verbal memory predictors of spoken language skills in children with cochlear implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog, B.E. de; Langereis, M.C.; Weerdenburg, M. van; Keuning, J.; Knoors, H.; Verhoeven, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Large variability in individual spoken language outcomes remains a persistent finding in the group of children with cochlear implants (CIs), particularly in their grammatical development. AIMS: In the present study, we examined the extent of delay in lexical and morphosyntactic spoken

  7. Auditory and verbal memory predictors of spoken language skills in children with cochlear implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog, B.E. de; Langereis, M.C.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Keuning, J.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Large variability in individual spoken language outcomes remains a persistent finding in the group of children with cochlear implants (CIs), particularly in their grammatical development. Aims: In the present study, we examined the extent of delay in lexical and morphosyntactic spoken

  8. Sign Language and Spoken Language for Children With Hearing Loss: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Hamel, Candyce; Stevens, Adrienne; Pratt, Misty; Moher, David; Doucet, Suzanne P; Neuss, Deirdre; Bernstein, Anita; Na, Eunjung

    2016-01-01

    Permanent hearing loss affects 1 to 3 per 1000 children and interferes with typical communication development. Early detection through newborn hearing screening and hearing technology provide most children with the option of spoken language acquisition. However, no consensus exists on optimal interventions for spoken language development. To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of early sign and oral language intervention compared with oral language intervention only for children with permanent hearing loss. An a priori protocol was developed. Electronic databases (eg, Medline, Embase, CINAHL) from 1995 to June 2013 and gray literature sources were searched. Studies in English and French were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were measures of auditory, vocabulary, language, and speech production skills. All data collection and risk of bias assessments were completed and then verified by a second person. Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to judge the strength of evidence. Eleven cohort studies met inclusion criteria, of which 8 included only children with severe to profound hearing loss with cochlear implants. Language development was the most frequently reported outcome. Other reported outcomes included speech and speech perception. Several measures and metrics were reported across studies, and descriptions of interventions were sometimes unclear. Very limited, and hence insufficient, high-quality evidence exists to determine whether sign language in combination with oral language is more effective than oral language therapy alone. More research is needed to supplement the evidence base. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Spoken language interface for a network management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Robert J.

    1999-11-01

    Leaders within the Information Technology (IT) industry are expressing a general concern that the products used to deliver and manage today's communications network capabilities require far too much effort to learn and to use, even by highly skilled and increasingly scarce support personnel. The usability of network management systems must be significantly improved if they are to deliver the performance and quality of service needed to meet the ever-increasing demand for new Internet-based information and services. Fortunately, recent advances in spoken language (SL) interface technologies show promise for significantly improving the usability of most interactive IT applications, including network management systems. The emerging SL interfaces will allow users to communicate with IT applications through words and phases -- our most familiar form of everyday communication. Recent advancements in SL technologies have resulted in new commercial products that are being operationally deployed at an increasing rate. The present paper describes a project aimed at the application of new SL interface technology for improving the usability of an advanced network management system. It describes several SL interface features that are being incorporated within an existing system with a modern graphical user interface (GUI), including 3-D visualization of network topology and network performance data. The rationale for using these SL interface features to augment existing user interfaces is presented, along with selected task scenarios to provide insight into how a SL interface will simplify the operator's task and enhance overall system usability.

  10. Predictors of reading comprehension ability in primary school-aged children who have pragmatic language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Children who have pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI) have difficulties with the use of language in social contexts and show impairments in above-sentence level language tasks. Previous studies have found that typically developing children's reading comprehension (RC) is predicted by reading accuracy and spoken sentence level comprehension (SLC). This study explores the predictive ability of these factors and above-sentence level comprehension (ASLC) on RC skills in a group of CwPLI. Sixty nine primary school-aged CwPLI completed a measure of RC along with measures of reading accuracy, spoken SLC and both visual (pictorially presented) and spoken ASLC tasks. Regression analyses showed that reading accuracy was the strongest predictor of RC. Visual ASLC did not explain unique variance in RC on top of spoken SLC. In contrast, a measure of spoken ASLC explained unique variance in RC, independent from that explained by spoken SLC. A regression model with nonverbal intelligence, reading accuracy, spoken SLC and spoken ASLC as predictors explained 74.2% of the variance in RC. Findings suggest that spoken ASLC may measure additional factors that are important for RC success in CwPLI and should be included in routine assessments for language and literacy learning in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spoken Word Recognition in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Spoken word recognition, during gating, appears intact in specific language impairment (SLI). This study used gating to investigate the process in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders plus language impairment (ALI). Adolescents with ALI, SLI, and typical language development (TLD), matched on nonverbal IQ listened to gated words that varied…

  12. Improving Spoken Language Outcomes for Children With Hearing Loss: Data-driven Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Michael

    2016-02-01

    To assess the effects of data-driven instruction (DDI) on spoken language outcomes of children with cochlear implants and hearing aids. Retrospective, matched-pairs comparison of post-treatment speech/language data of children who did and did not receive DDI. Private, spoken-language preschool for children with hearing loss. Eleven matched pairs of children with cochlear implants who attended the same spoken language preschool. Groups were matched for age of hearing device fitting, time in the program, degree of predevice fitting hearing loss, sex, and age at testing. Daily informal language samples were collected and analyzed over a 2-year period, per preschool protocol. Annual informal and formal spoken language assessments in articulation, vocabulary, and omnibus language were administered at the end of three time intervals: baseline, end of year one, and end of year two. The primary outcome measures were total raw score performance of spontaneous utterance sentence types and syntax element use as measured by the Teacher Assessment of Spoken Language (TASL). In addition, standardized assessments (the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals--Preschool Version 2 (CELF-P2), the Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT), the Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT), and the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation 2 (GFTA2)) were also administered and compared with the control group. The DDI group demonstrated significantly higher raw scores on the TASL each year of the study. The DDI group also achieved statistically significant higher scores for total language on the CELF-P and expressive vocabulary on the EOWPVT, but not for articulation nor receptive vocabulary. Post-hoc assessment revealed that 78% of the students in the DDI group achieved scores in the average range compared with 59% in the control group. The preliminary results of this study support further investigation regarding DDI to investigate whether this method can consistently

  13. Neural stages of spoken, written, and signed word processing in beginning second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Matthew K; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I; Halgren, Eric

    2013-01-01

    WE COMBINED MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHY (MEG) AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) TO EXAMINE HOW SENSORY MODALITY, LANGUAGE TYPE, AND LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY INTERACT DURING TWO FUNDAMENTAL STAGES OF WORD PROCESSING: (1) an early word encoding stage, and (2) a later supramodal lexico-semantic stage. Adult native English speakers who were learning American Sign Language (ASL) performed a semantic task for spoken and written English words, and ASL signs. During the early time window, written words evoked responses in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, and spoken words in left superior temporal cortex. Signed words evoked activity in right intraparietal sulcus that was marginally greater than for written words. During the later time window, all three types of words showed significant activity in the classical left fronto-temporal language network, the first demonstration of such activity in individuals with so little second language (L2) instruction in sign. In addition, a dissociation between semantic congruity effects and overall MEG response magnitude for ASL responses suggested shallower and more effortful processing, presumably reflecting novice L2 learning. Consistent with previous research on non-dominant language processing in spoken languages, the L2 ASL learners also showed recruitment of right hemisphere and lateral occipital cortex. These results demonstrate that late lexico-semantic processing utilizes a common substrate, independent of modality, and that proficiency effects in sign language are comparable to those in spoken language.

  14. Reliability and validity of the C-BiLLT: a new instrument to assess comprehension of spoken language in young children with cerebral palsy and complex communication needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geytenbeek, Joke J; Mokkink, Lidwine B; Knol, Dirk L; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Oostrom, Kim J

    2014-09-01

    In clinical practice, a variety of diagnostic tests are available to assess a child's comprehension of spoken language. However, none of these tests have been designed specifically for use with children who have severe motor impairments and who experience severe difficulty when using speech to communicate. This article describes the process of investigating the reliability and validity of the Computer-Based Instrument for Low Motor Language Testing (C-BiLLT), which was specifically developed to assess spoken Dutch language comprehension in children with cerebral palsy and complex communication needs. The study included 806 children with typical development, and 87 nonspeaking children with cerebral palsy and complex communication needs, and was designed to provide information on the psychometric qualities of the C-BiLLT. The potential utility of the C-BiLLT as a measure of spoken Dutch language comprehension abilities for children with cerebral palsy and complex communication needs is discussed.

  15. Gesture in Multiparty Interaction: A Study of Embodied Discourse in Spoken English and American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Emily P.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an examination of gesture in two game nights: one in spoken English between four hearing friends and another in American Sign Language between four Deaf friends. Analyses of gesture have shown there exists a complex integration of manual gestures with speech. Analyses of sign language have implicated the body as a medium…

  16. How vocabulary size in two languages relates to efficiency in spoken word recognition by young Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A; Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

    2010-09-01

    Research using online comprehension measures with monolingual children shows that speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition are correlated with lexical development. Here we examined speech processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary development in bilingual children learning both Spanish and English (n=26 ; 2 ; 6). Between-language associations were weak: vocabulary size in Spanish was uncorrelated with vocabulary in English, and children's facility in online comprehension in Spanish was unrelated to their facility in English. Instead, efficiency of online processing in one language was significantly related to vocabulary size in that language, after controlling for processing speed and vocabulary size in the other language. These links between efficiency of lexical access and vocabulary knowledge in bilinguals parallel those previously reported for Spanish and English monolinguals, suggesting that children's ability to abstract information from the input in building a working lexicon relates fundamentally to mechanisms underlying the construction of language.

  17. Intervention Effects on Spoken-Language Outcomes for Children with Autism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, L. H.; Kaiser, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although spoken-language deficits are not core to an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, many children with ASD do present with delays in this area. Previous meta-analyses have assessed the effects of intervention on reducing autism symptomatology, but have not determined if intervention improves spoken language. This analysis…

  18. What Comes First, What Comes Next: Information Packaging in Written and Spoken Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Smolka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores similarities and differences in the strategies of structuring information at sentence level in spoken and written language, respectively. In particular, it is concerned with the position of the rheme in the sentence in the two different modalities of language, and with the application and correlation of the end-focus and the end-weight principles. The assumption is that while there is a general tendency in both written and spoken language to place the focus in or close to the final position, owing to the limitations imposed by short-term memory capacity (and possibly by other factors, for the sake of easy processibility, it may occasionally be more felicitous in spoken language to place the rhematic element in the initial position or at least close to the beginning of the sentence. The paper aims to identify differences in the function of selected grammatical structures in written and spoken language, respectively, and to point out circumstances under which initial focus is a convenient alternative to the usual end-focus principle.

  19. Analytic study of the Tadoma method: language abilities of three deaf-blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, C

    1986-09-01

    This study reports on the linguistic abilities of 3 adult deaf-blind subjects. The subjects perceive spoken language through touch, placing a hand on the face of the speaker and monitoring the speaker's articulatory motions, a method of speechreading known as Tadoma. Two of the subjects, deaf-blind since infancy, acquired language and learned to speak through this tactile system; the third subject has used Tadoma since becoming deaf-blind at age 7. Linguistic knowledge and productive language are analyzed, using standardized tests and several tests constructed for this study. The subjects' language abilities prove to be extensive, comparing favorably in many areas with hearing individuals. The results illustrate a relatively minor effect of limited language exposure on eventual language achievement. The results also demonstrate the adequacy of the tactile sense, in these highly trained Tadoma users, for transmitting information about spoken language sufficient to support the development of language and learning to produce speech.

  20. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT TO TEACH SPOKEN RECOUNTS IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Rusnawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menggambarkan penerapan metode Communicative Language Teaching/CLT untuk pembelajaran spoken recount. Penelitian ini menelaah data yang kualitatif. Penelitian ini mengambarkan fenomena yang terjadi di dalam kelas. Data studi ini adalah perilaku dan respon para siswa dalam pembelajaran spoken recount dengan menggunakan metode CLT. Subjek penelitian ini adalah para siswa kelas X SMA Negeri 1 Kuaro yang terdiri dari 34 siswa. Observasi dan wawancara dilakukan dalam rangka untuk mengumpulkan data dalam mengajarkan spoken recount melalui tiga aktivitas (presentasi, bermain-peran, serta melakukan prosedur. Dalam penelitian ini ditemukan beberapa hal antara lain bahwa CLT meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara siswa dalam pembelajaran recount. Berdasarkan pada grafik peningkatan, disimpulkan bahwa tata bahasa, kosakata, pengucapan, kefasihan, serta performa siswa mengalami peningkatan. Ini berarti bahwa performa spoken recount dari para siswa meningkat. Andaikata presentasi ditempatkan di bagian akhir dari langkah-langkah aktivitas, peforma spoken recount para siswa bahkan akan lebih baik lagi. Kesimpulannya adalah bahwa implementasi metode CLT beserta tiga praktiknya berkontribusi pada peningkatan kemampuan berbicara para siswa dalam pembelajaran recount dan bahkan metode CLT mengarahkan mereka untuk memiliki keberanian dalam mengonstruksi komunikasi yang bermakna dengan percaya diri. Kata kunci: Communicative Language Teaching (CLT, recount, berbicara, respon siswa

  1. Expected Test Scores for Preschoolers with a Cochlear Implant Who Use Spoken Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Johanna G.; Geers, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The major purpose of this study was to provide information about expected spoken language skills of preschool-age children who are deaf and who use a cochlear implant. A goal was to provide "benchmarks" against which those skills could be compared, for a given age at implantation. We also examined whether parent-completed…

  2. Research on Spoken Language Processing. Progress Report No. 21 (1996-1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, David B.

    This 21st annual progress report summarizes research activities on speech perception and spoken language processing carried out in the Speech Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Indiana University in Bloomington. As with previous reports, the goal is to summarize accomplishments during 1996 and 1997 and make them readily available. Some…

  3. Effects of Tasks on Spoken Interaction and Motivation in English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrero Pérez, Nubia Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Task based learning (TBL) or Task based learning and teaching (TBLT) is a communicative approach widely applied in settings where English has been taught as a foreign language (EFL). It has been documented as greatly useful to improve learners' communication skills. This research intended to find the effect of tasks on students' spoken interaction…

  4. A Spoken-Language Intervention for School-Aged Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Mello, Melissa; Tempero-Feigles, Robyn; Castignetti, Nancy; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Using a single case design, a parent-mediated spoken-language intervention was delivered to three mothers and their school-aged sons with fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The intervention was embedded in the context of shared storytelling using wordless picture books and targeted three empirically derived…

  5. Developing and Testing EVALOE: A Tool for Assessing Spoken Language Teaching and Learning in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gràcia, Marta; Vega, Fàtima; Galván-Bovaira, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Broadly speaking, the teaching of spoken language in Spanish schools has not been approached in a systematic way. Changes in school practices are needed in order to allow all children to become competent speakers and to understand and construct oral texts that are appropriate in different contexts and for different audiences both inside and…

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES How do doctors learn the spoken language of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-01

    Jul 1, 2009 ... correct language that has been acquired through listening. The Brewsters17 suggest an 'immersion experience' by living with speakers of the language. Ellis included several of their tools, such as loop tapes, as being useful in a consultation when learning a language.15 Others disagree with a purely.

  7. Comparing spoken language treatments for minimally verbal preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rhea; Campbell, Daniel; Gilbert, Kimberly; Tsiouri, Ioanna

    2013-02-01

    Preschoolers with severe autism and minimal speech were assigned either a discrete trial or a naturalistic language treatment, and parents of all participants also received parent responsiveness training. After 12 weeks, both groups showed comparable improvement in number of spoken words produced, on average. Approximately half the children in each group achieved benchmarks for the first stage of functional spoken language development, as defined by Tager-Flusberg et al. (J Speech Lang Hear Res, 52: 643-652, 2009). Analyses of moderators of treatment suggest that joint attention moderates response to both treatments, and children with better receptive language pre-treatment do better with the naturalistic method, while those with lower receptive language show better response to the discrete trial treatment. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Processing Relationships Between Language-Being-Spoken and Other Speech Dimensions in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Charlotte R; Bradlow, Ann R

    2017-12-01

    While indexical information is implicated in many levels of language processing, little is known about the internal structure of the system of indexical dimensions, particularly in bilinguals. A series of three experiments using the speeded classification paradigm investigated the relationship between various indexical and non-linguistic dimensions of speech in processing. Namely, we compared the relationship between a lesser-studied indexical dimension relevant to bilinguals, which language is being spoken (in these experiments, either Mandarin Chinese or English), with: talker identity (Experiment 1), talker gender (Experiment 2), and amplitude of speech (Experiment 3). Results demonstrate that language-being-spoken is integrated in processing with each of the other dimensions tested, and that these processing dependencies seem to be independent of listeners' bilingual status or experience with the languages tested. Moreover, the data reveal processing interference asymmetries, suggesting a processing hierarchy for indexical, non-linguistic speech features.

  9. The effects of sign language on spoken language acquisition in children with hearing loss: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Stevens, Adrienne; Garritty, Chantelle; Moher, David

    2013-12-06

    Permanent childhood hearing loss affects 1 to 3 per 1000 children and frequently disrupts typical spoken language acquisition. Early identification of hearing loss through universal newborn hearing screening and the use of new hearing technologies including cochlear implants make spoken language an option for most children. However, there is no consensus on what constitutes optimal interventions for children when spoken language is the desired outcome. Intervention and educational approaches ranging from oral language only to oral language combined with various forms of sign language have evolved. Parents are therefore faced with important decisions in the first months of their child's life. This article presents the protocol for a systematic review of the effects of using sign language in combination with oral language intervention on spoken language acquisition. Studies addressing early intervention will be selected in which therapy involving oral language intervention and any form of sign language or sign support is used. Comparison groups will include children in early oral language intervention programs without sign support. The primary outcomes of interest to be examined include all measures of auditory, vocabulary, language, speech production, and speech intelligibility skills. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and other quasi-experimental designs that include comparator groups as well as prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Case-control, cross-sectional, case series, and case studies will be excluded. Several electronic databases will be searched (for example, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO) as well as grey literature and key websites. We anticipate that a narrative synthesis of the evidence will be required. We will carry out meta-analysis for outcomes if clinical similarity, quantity and quality permit quantitative pooling of data. We will conduct subgroup analyses if possible according to severity

  10. Predictors of spoken language development following pediatric cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Tinne; Brokx, Jan P L; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Frijns, Johan H M; Peeraer, Louis; Vermeulen, Anneke; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Although deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) are able to develop good language skills, the large variability in outcomes remains a significant concern. The first aim of this study was to evaluate language skills in children with CIs to establish benchmarks. The second aim was to make an estimation of the optimal age at implantation to provide maximal opportunities for the child to achieve good language skills afterward. The third aim was to gain more insight into the causes of variability to set recommendations for optimizing the rehabilitation process of prelingually deaf children with CIs. Receptive and expressive language development of 288 children who received CIs by age five was analyzed in a retrospective multicenter study. Outcome measures were language quotients (LQs) on the Reynell Developmental Language Scales and Schlichting Expressive Language Test at 1, 2, and 3 years after implantation. Independent predictive variables were nine child-related, environmental, and auditory factors. A series of multiple regression analyses determined the amount of variance in expressive and receptive language outcomes attributable to each predictor when controlling for the other variables. Simple linear regressions with age at first fitting and independent samples t tests demonstrated that children implanted before the age of two performed significantly better on all tests than children who were implanted at an older age. The mean LQ was 0.78 with an SD of 0.18. A child with an LQ lower than 0.60 (= 0.78-0.18) within 3 years after implantation was labeled as a weak performer compared with other deaf children implanted before the age of two. Contralateral stimulation with a second CI or a hearing aid and the absence of additional disabilities were related to better language outcomes. The effect of environmental factors, comprising multilingualism, parental involvement, and communication mode increased over time. Three years after implantation, the total multiple

  11. Predictors of Spoken Language Development Following Pediatric Cochlear Implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johan Frijns; prof. Dr. Louis Peeraer; van Wieringen; Ingeborg Dhooge; Vermeulen; Jan Brokx; Tinne Boons; Wouters

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Although deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) are able to develop good language skills, the large variability in outcomes remains a significant concern. The first aim of this study was to evaluate language skills in children with CIs to establish benchmarks. The second aim was to

  12. Brain basis of phonological awareness for spoken language in children and its disruption in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Norton, Elizabeth S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gaab, Nadine; Lieberman, Daniel A; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wolf, Maryanne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2012-04-01

    Phonological awareness, knowledge that speech is composed of syllables and phonemes, is critical for learning to read. Phonological awareness precedes and predicts successful transition from language to literacy, and weakness in phonological awareness is a leading cause of dyslexia, but the brain basis of phonological awareness for spoken language in children is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of phonological awareness using an auditory word-rhyming task in children who were typical readers or who had dyslexia (ages 7-13) and a younger group of kindergarteners (ages 5-6). Typically developing children, but not children with dyslexia, recruited left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when making explicit phonological judgments. Kindergarteners, who were matched to the older children with dyslexia on standardized tests of phonological awareness, also recruited left DLPFC. Left DLPFC may play a critical role in the development of phonological awareness for spoken language critical for reading and in the etiology of dyslexia.

  13. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7 Public... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal...

  14. Birds, primates, and spoken language origins: behavioral phenotypes and neurobiological substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Christopher I; Jarvis, Erich D

    2012-01-01

    Vocal learners such as humans and songbirds can learn to produce elaborate patterns of structurally organized vocalizations, whereas many other vertebrates such as non-human primates and most other bird groups either cannot or do so to a very limited degree. To explain the similarities among humans and vocal-learning birds and the differences with other species, various theories have been proposed. One set of theories are motor theories, which underscore the role of the motor system as an evolutionary substrate for vocal production learning. For instance, the motor theory of speech and song perception proposes enhanced auditory perceptual learning of speech in humans and song in birds, which suggests a considerable level of neurobiological specialization. Another, a motor theory of vocal learning origin, proposes that the brain pathways that control the learning and production of song and speech were derived from adjacent motor brain pathways. Another set of theories are cognitive theories, which address the interface between cognition and the auditory-vocal domains to support language learning in humans. Here we critically review the behavioral and neurobiological evidence for parallels and differences between the so-called vocal learners and vocal non-learners in the context of motor and cognitive theories. In doing so, we note that behaviorally vocal-production learning abilities are more distributed than categorical, as are the auditory-learning abilities of animals. We propose testable hypotheses on the extent of the specializations and cross-species correspondences suggested by motor and cognitive theories. We believe that determining how spoken language evolved is likely to become clearer with concerted efforts in testing comparative data from many non-human animal species.

  15. Birds, primates, and spoken language origins: behavioral phenotypes and neurobiological substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Christopher I.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2012-01-01

    Vocal learners such as humans and songbirds can learn to produce elaborate patterns of structurally organized vocalizations, whereas many other vertebrates such as non-human primates and most other bird groups either cannot or do so to a very limited degree. To explain the similarities among humans and vocal-learning birds and the differences with other species, various theories have been proposed. One set of theories are motor theories, which underscore the role of the motor system as an evolutionary substrate for vocal production learning. For instance, the motor theory of speech and song perception proposes enhanced auditory perceptual learning of speech in humans and song in birds, which suggests a considerable level of neurobiological specialization. Another, a motor theory of vocal learning origin, proposes that the brain pathways that control the learning and production of song and speech were derived from adjacent motor brain pathways. Another set of theories are cognitive theories, which address the interface between cognition and the auditory-vocal domains to support language learning in humans. Here we critically review the behavioral and neurobiological evidence for parallels and differences between the so-called vocal learners and vocal non-learners in the context of motor and cognitive theories. In doing so, we note that behaviorally vocal-production learning abilities are more distributed than categorical, as are the auditory-learning abilities of animals. We propose testable hypotheses on the extent of the specializations and cross-species correspondences suggested by motor and cognitive theories. We believe that determining how spoken language evolved is likely to become clearer with concerted efforts in testing comparative data from many non-human animal species. PMID:22912615

  16. How sensory-motor systems impact the neural organization for language: direct contrasts between spoken and signed language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of sensory-motor systems on the neural organization for language, we conducted an H215O-PET study of sign and spoken word production (picture-naming) and an fMRI study of sign and audio-visual spoken language comprehension (detection of a semantically anomalous sentence) with hearing bilinguals who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Directly contrasting speech and sign production revealed greater activation in bilateral parietal cortex for signing, while speaking resulted in greater activation in bilateral superior temporal cortex (STC) and right frontal cortex, likely reflecting auditory feedback control. Surprisingly, the language production contrast revealed a relative increase in activation in bilateral occipital cortex for speaking. We speculate that greater activation in visual cortex for speaking may actually reflect cortical attenuation when signing, which functions to distinguish self-produced from externally generated visual input. Directly contrasting speech and sign comprehension revealed greater activation in bilateral STC for speech and greater activation in bilateral occipital-temporal cortex for sign. Sign comprehension, like sign production, engaged bilateral parietal cortex to a greater extent than spoken language. We hypothesize that posterior parietal activation in part reflects processing related to spatial classifier constructions in ASL and that anterior parietal activation may reflect covert imitation that functions as a predictive model during sign comprehension. The conjunction analysis for comprehension revealed that both speech and sign bilaterally engaged the inferior frontal gyrus (with more extensive activation on the left) and the superior temporal sulcus, suggesting an invariant bilateral perisylvian language system. We conclude that surface level differences between sign and spoken languages should not be dismissed and are critical for understanding the neurobiology of language

  17. Sentence Recognition in Quiet and Noise by Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users: Relationships to Spoken Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Laurie S; Fisher, Laurel M; Johnson, Karen C; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Grace, Thelma; Niparko, John K

    2016-02-01

    We investigated associations between sentence recognition and spoken language for children with cochlear implants (CI) enrolled in the Childhood Development after Cochlear Implantation (CDaCI) study. In a prospective longitudinal study, sentence recognition percent-correct scores and language standard scores were correlated at 48-, 60-, and 72-months post-CI activation. Six tertiary CI centers in the United States. Children with CIs participating in the CDaCI study. Cochlear implantation. Sentence recognition was assessed using the Hearing In Noise Test for Children (HINT-C) in quiet and at +10, +5, and 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Spoken language was assessed using the Clinical Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL) core composite and the antonyms, paragraph comprehension (syntax comprehension), syntax construction (expression), and pragmatic judgment tests. Positive linear relationships were found between CASL scores and HINT-C sentence scores when the sentences were delivered in quiet and at +10 and +5 dB S/N, but not at 0 dB S/N. At 48 months post-CI, sentence scores at +10 and +5 dB S/N were most strongly associated with CASL antonyms. At 60 and 72 months, sentence recognition in noise was most strongly associated with paragraph comprehension and syntax construction. Children with CIs learn spoken language in a variety of acoustic environments. Despite the observed inconsistent performance in different listening situations and noise-challenged environments, many children with CIs are able to build lexicons and learn the rules of grammar that enable recognition of sentences.

  18. Enriching English Language Spoken Outputs of Kindergartners in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilang, Jeffrey Dawala; Sinwongsuwat, Kemtong

    2012-01-01

    This year is designated as Thailand's "English Speaking Year" with the aim of improving the communicative competence of Thais for the upcoming integration of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2015. The consistent low-level proficiency of the Thais in the English language has led to numerous curriculum revisions and…

  19. Loops of Spoken Language i Danish Broadcasting Corporation News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    with well-edited material, in 1965, to an anchor who hands over to journalists in live feeds from all over the world via satellite, Skype, or mobile telephone, in 2011. The narrative rhythm is faster and sometimes more spontaneous. In this article we will discuss aspects of the use of language and the tempo...

  20. Three-dimensional grammar in the brain: Dissociating the neural correlates of natural sign language and manually coded spoken language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Mostowski, Piotr; Szwed, Marcin; Boguszewski, Paweł M; Marchewka, Artur; Rutkowski, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    In several countries natural sign languages were considered inadequate for education. Instead, new sign-supported systems were created, based on the belief that spoken/written language is grammatically superior. One such system called SJM (system językowo-migowy) preserves the grammatical and lexical structure of spoken Polish and since 1960s has been extensively employed in schools and on TV. Nevertheless, the Deaf community avoids using SJM for everyday communication, its preferred language being PJM (polski język migowy), a natural sign language, structurally and grammatically independent of spoken Polish and featuring classifier constructions (CCs). Here, for the first time, we compare, with fMRI method, the neural bases of natural vs. devised communication systems. Deaf signers were presented with three types of signed sentences (SJM and PJM with/without CCs). Consistent with previous findings, PJM with CCs compared to either SJM or PJM without CCs recruited the parietal lobes. The reverse comparison revealed activation in the anterior temporal lobes, suggesting increased semantic combinatory processes in lexical sign comprehension. Finally, PJM compared with SJM engaged left posterior superior temporal gyrus and anterior temporal lobe, areas crucial for sentence-level speech comprehension. We suggest that activity in these two areas reflects greater processing efficiency for naturally evolved sign language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding the Relationship between Latino Students' Preferred Learning Styles and Their Language Spoken at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Torres, Sonia Enid

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between Latino students' learning styles and their language spoken at home. Results of the study indicated that students who spoke Spanish at home had higher means in the Active Experimentation modality of learning (M = 31.38, SD = 5.70) than students who spoke English (M = 28.08,…

  2. Language mastery, narrative abilities and oral expression abilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of language and language mastery for science learning has been the object of extensive investigation in recent decades, leading to ample recognition. However, specific focus on the role of narrative abilities is still scarce. This work focuses on the relevance of narrative abilities for chemistry learning.

  3. Medical practices display power law behaviors similar to spoken languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, Jonathan D; Crooke, Philip S; Brackney, Christopher R; Kaynar, A Murat; Hotchkiss, John R

    2013-09-04

    Medical care commonly involves the apprehension of complex patterns of patient derangements to which the practitioner responds with patterns of interventions, as opposed to single therapeutic maneuvers. This complexity renders the objective assessment of practice patterns using conventional statistical approaches difficult. Combinatorial approaches drawn from symbolic dynamics are used to encode the observed patterns of patient derangement and associated practitioner response patterns as sequences of symbols. Concatenating each patient derangement symbol with the contemporaneous practitioner response symbol creates "words" encoding the simultaneous patient derangement and provider response patterns and yields an observed vocabulary with quantifiable statistical characteristics. A fundamental observation in many natural languages is the existence of a power law relationship between the rank order of word usage and the absolute frequency with which particular words are uttered. We show that population level patterns of patient derangement: practitioner intervention word usage in two entirely unrelated domains of medical care display power law relationships similar to those of natural languages, and that-in one of these domains-power law behavior at the population level reflects power law behavior at the level of individual practitioners. Our results suggest that patterns of medical care can be approached using quantitative linguistic techniques, a finding that has implications for the assessment of expertise, machine learning identification of optimal practices, and construction of bedside decision support tools.

  4. Spoken Language Activation Alters Subsequent Sign Language Activation in L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T.; Newman, Sharlene D.

    2017-01-01

    A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel…

  5. The Attitudes and Motivation of Children towards Learning Rarely Spoken Foreign Languages: A Case Study from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nofaie, Haifa

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses the attitudes and motivations of two Saudi children learning Japanese as a foreign language (hence JFL), a language which is rarely spoken in the country. Studies regarding children's motivation for learning foreign languages that are not widely spread in their contexts in informal settings are scarce. The aim of the study…

  6. Impact of cognitive function and dysarthria on spoken language and perceived speech severity in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenaughty, Lynda

    , correlation analysis revealed moderate relationships between neuropsychological test scores and speech hesitation measures, within the MSCI group. Slower information processing and poorer memory were significantly correlated with more silent pauses and poorer executive function was associated with fewer filled pauses in the Unfamiliar discourse task. Results have both clinical and theoretical implications. Overall, clinicians should demonstrate caution when interpreting global measures of speech timing and perceptual measures in the absence of information about cognitive ability. Results also have implications for a comprehensive model of spoken language incorporating cognitive, linguistic, and motor variables.

  7. The Beneficial Role of L1 Spoken Language Skills on Initial L2 Sign Language Learning: Cognitive and Linguistic Predictors of M2L2 Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T.; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how language modality (i.e., signed vs. spoken) affects second language outcomes in hearing adults is important both theoretically and pedagogically, as it can determine the specificity of second language (L2) theory and inform how best to teach a language that uses a new modality. The present study investigated which…

  8. Machine Translation Projects for Portuguese at INESC ID's Spoken Language Systems Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Barreiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Language technologies, in particular machine translation applications, have the potential to help break down linguistic and cultural barriers, presenting an important contribution to the globalization and internationalization of the Portuguese language, by allowing content to be shared 'from' and 'to' this language. This article aims to present the research work developed at the Laboratory of Spoken Language Systems of INESC-ID in the field of machine translation, namely the automated speech translation, the translation of microblogs and the creation of a hybrid machine translation system. We will focus on the creation of the hybrid system, which aims at combining linguistic knowledge, in particular semantico-syntactic knowledge, with statistical knowledge, to increase the level of translation quality.

  9. Measuring young children's language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, I; Schaerlaekens, A

    2000-01-01

    This article deals with the new challenges put on language diagnosis, and the growing need for good diagnostic instruments for young children. Particularly for Dutch, the original English Reynell Developmental Language Scales were adapted not only to the Dutch idiom, but some general ameliorations and changes in the original scales resulted in a new instrument named the RTOS. The new instrument was standardized on a large population, and psychometrically evaluated. In communicating the experiences with such a language/cultural/psychometric adaptation, we hope that other language-minority groups will be encouraged to undertake similar adaptations.

  10. Symbolic gestures and spoken language are processed by a common neural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Gannon, Patrick J; Emmorey, Karen; Smith, Jason F; Braun, Allen R

    2009-12-08

    Symbolic gestures, such as pantomimes that signify actions (e.g., threading a needle) or emblems that facilitate social transactions (e.g., finger to lips indicating "be quiet"), play an important role in human communication. They are autonomous, can fully take the place of words, and function as complete utterances in their own right. The relationship between these gestures and spoken language remains unclear. We used functional MRI to investigate whether these two forms of communication are processed by the same system in the human brain. Responses to symbolic gestures, to their spoken glosses (expressing the gestures' meaning in English), and to visually and acoustically matched control stimuli were compared in a randomized block design. General Linear Models (GLM) contrasts identified shared and unique activations and functional connectivity analyses delineated regional interactions associated with each condition. Results support a model in which bilateral modality-specific areas in superior and inferior temporal cortices extract salient features from vocal-auditory and gestural-visual stimuli respectively. However, both classes of stimuli activate a common, left-lateralized network of inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions in which symbolic gestures and spoken words may be mapped onto common, corresponding conceptual representations. We suggest that these anterior and posterior perisylvian areas, identified since the mid-19th century as the core of the brain's language system, are not in fact committed to language processing, but may function as a modality-independent semiotic system that plays a broader role in human communication, linking meaning with symbols whether these are words, gestures, images, sounds, or objects.

  11. Brain Basis of Phonological Awareness for Spoken Language in Children and Its Disruption in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth S.; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Gaab, Nadine; Lieberman, Daniel A.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wolf, Maryanne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Phonological awareness, knowledge that speech is composed of syllables and phonemes, is critical for learning to read. Phonological awareness precedes and predicts successful transition from language to literacy, and weakness in phonological awareness is a leading cause of dyslexia, but the brain basis of phonological awareness for spoken language in children is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of phonological awareness using an auditory word-rhyming task in children who were typical readers or who had dyslexia (ages 7–13) and a younger group of kindergarteners (ages 5–6). Typically developing children, but not children with dyslexia, recruited left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when making explicit phonological judgments. Kindergarteners, who were matched to the older children with dyslexia on standardized tests of phonological awareness, also recruited left DLPFC. Left DLPFC may play a critical role in the development of phonological awareness for spoken language critical for reading and in the etiology of dyslexia. PMID:21693783

  12. Positive Emotional Language in the Final Words Spoken Directly Before Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmüller, Sarah; Egloff, Boris

    2015-01-01

    How do individuals emotionally cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality? DeWall and Baumeister as well as Kashdan and colleagues previously provided support that an increased use of positive emotion words serves as a way to protect and defend against mortality salience of one's own contemplated death. Although these studies provide important insights into the psychological dynamics of mortality salience, it remains an open question how individuals cope with the immense threat of mortality prior to their imminent actual death. In the present research, we therefore analyzed positivity in the final words spoken immediately before execution by 407 death row inmates in Texas. By using computerized quantitative text analysis as an objective measure of emotional language use, our results showed that the final words contained a significantly higher proportion of positive than negative emotion words. This emotional positivity was significantly higher than (a) positive emotion word usage base rates in spoken and written materials and (b) positive emotional language use with regard to contemplated death and attempted or actual suicide. Additional analyses showed that emotional positivity in final statements was associated with a greater frequency of language use that was indicative of self-references, social orientation, and present-oriented time focus as well as with fewer instances of cognitive-processing, past-oriented, and death-related word use. Taken together, our findings offer new insights into how individuals cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality.

  13. Positive Emotional Language in the Final Words Spoken Directly Before Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eHirschmüller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How do individuals emotionally cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality? DeWall and Baumeister as well as Kashdan and colleagues previously provided support that an increased use of positive emotion words serves as a way to protect and defend against mortality salience of one’s own contemplated death. Although these studies provide important insights into the psychological dynamics of mortality salience, it remains an open question how individuals cope with the immense threat of mortality prior to their imminent actual death. In the present research, we therefore analyzed positivity in the final words spoken immediately before execution by 407 death row inmates in Texas. By using computerized quantitative text analysis as an objective measure of emotional language use, our results showed that the final words contained a significantly higher proportion of positive than negative emotion words. This emotional positivity was significantly higher than (a positive emotion word usage base rates in spoken and written materials and (b positive emotional language use with regard to contemplated death and attempted or actual suicide. Additional analyses showed that emotional positivity in final statements was associated with a greater frequency of language use that was indicative of self-references, social orientation, and present-oriented time focus as well as with fewer instances of cognitive-processing, past-oriented, and death-related word use. Taken together, our findings offer new insights into how individuals cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality.

  14. Activating gender stereotypes during online spoken language processing: evidence from Visual World Eye Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyykkönen, Pirita; Hyönä, Jukka; van Gompel, Roger P G

    2010-01-01

    This study used the visual world eye-tracking method to investigate activation of general world knowledge related to gender-stereotypical role names in online spoken language comprehension in Finnish. The results showed that listeners activated gender stereotypes elaboratively in story contexts where this information was not needed to build coherence. Furthermore, listeners made additional inferences based on gender stereotypes to revise an already established coherence relation. Both results are consistent with mental models theory (e.g., Garnham, 2001). They are harder to explain by the minimalist account (McKoon & Ratcliff, 1992) which suggests that people limit inferences to those needed to establish coherence in discourse.

  15. Profiling Pragmatic Ability of Foreign Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Kusevska, Marija; Ivanovska, Biljana; Daskalovska, Nina; Mitkovska, Liljana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the components that foreign language learners need to acquire in order to develop their pragmatic ability. This paper presents a description of phase one of an ongoing research project at Goce Delcev University-Stip, Republic of Macedonia, on developing pragmatic ability of foreign language learners. We first define pragmatic ability; then we discuss data collection instruments and procedures; finally we give outlook of further research. K...

  16. Home language and English language ability in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we analyse data on language ability collected in a new nationally representative household survey, the National Income Dynamics Study, which captures information on reading and writing ability, both in the individual's home language and in English. Two main findings are that self-assessed reading and ...

  17. Auditory-verbal therapy for promoting spoken language development in children with permanent hearing impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan-Jones, Christopher G; White, Jo; Rush, Robert W; Law, James

    2014-03-12

    Congenital or early-acquired hearing impairment poses a major barrier to the development of spoken language and communication. Early detection and effective (re)habilitative interventions are essential for parents and families who wish their children to achieve age-appropriate spoken language. Auditory-verbal therapy (AVT) is a (re)habilitative approach aimed at children with hearing impairments. AVT comprises intensive early intervention therapy sessions with a focus on audition, technological management and involvement of the child's caregivers in therapy sessions; it is typically the only therapy approach used to specifically promote avoidance or exclusion of non-auditory facial communication. The primary goal of AVT is to achieve age-appropriate spoken language and for this to be used as the primary or sole method of communication. AVT programmes are expanding throughout the world; however, little evidence can be found on the effectiveness of the intervention. To assess the effectiveness of auditory-verbal therapy (AVT) in developing receptive and expressive spoken language in children who are hearing impaired. CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, speechBITE and eight other databases were searched in March 2013. We also searched two trials registers and three theses repositories, checked reference lists and contacted study authors to identify additional studies. The review considered prospective randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised studies of children (birth to 18 years) with a significant (≥ 40 dBHL) permanent (congenital or early-acquired) hearing impairment, undergoing a programme of auditory-verbal therapy, administered by a certified auditory-verbal therapist for a period of at least six months. Comparison groups considered for inclusion were waiting list and treatment as usual controls. Two review authors independently assessed titles and abstracts identified from the searches and obtained full-text versions of all potentially

  18. A Spoken Language Intervention for School-Aged Boys with fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Mello, Melissa; Tempero-Feigles, Robyn; Castignetti, Nancy; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Using a single case design, a parent-mediated spoken language intervention was delivered to three mothers and their school-aged sons with fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The intervention was embedded in the context of shared story-telling using wordless picture books and targeted three empirically-derived language support strategies. All sessions were implemented via distance video-teleconferencing. Parent education sessions were followed by 12 weekly clinician coaching and feedback sessions. Data was collected weekly during independent homework and clinician observation sessions. Relative to baseline, mothers increased their use of targeted strategies and dyads increased the frequency and duration of story-related talking. Generalized effects of the intervention on lexical diversity and grammatical complexity were observed. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:27119214

  19. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The "competition" (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest--ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success

  20. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C.M.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The “competition” (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest – ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success

  1. Spoken Lebanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feghali, Maksoud N.

    This book teaches the Arabic Lebanese dialect through topics such as food, clothing, transportation, and leisure activities. It also provides background material on the Arab World in general and the region where Lebanese Arabic is spoken or understood--Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Palestine--in particular. This language guide is based on the phonetic…

  2. Spoken language interaction with model uncertainty: an adaptive human-robot interaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Finale; Roy, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    Spoken language is one of the most intuitive forms of interaction between humans and agents. Unfortunately, agents that interact with people using natural language often experience communication errors and do not correctly understand the user's intentions. Recent systems have successfully used probabilistic models of speech, language and user behaviour to generate robust dialogue performance in the presence of noisy speech recognition and ambiguous language choices, but decisions made using these probabilistic models are still prone to errors owing to the complexity of acquiring and maintaining a complete model of human language and behaviour. In this paper, a decision-theoretic model for human-robot interaction using natural language is described. The algorithm is based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), which allows agents to choose actions that are robust not only to uncertainty from noisy or ambiguous speech recognition but also unknown user models. Like most dialogue systems, a POMDP is defined by a large number of parameters that may be difficult to specify a priori from domain knowledge, and learning these parameters from the user may require an unacceptably long training period. An extension to the POMDP model is described that allows the agent to acquire a linguistic model of the user online, including new vocabulary and word choice preferences. The approach not only avoids a training period of constant questioning as the agent learns, but also allows the agent actively to query for additional information when its uncertainty suggests a high risk of mistakes. The approach is demonstrated both in simulation and on a natural language interaction system for a robotic wheelchair application.

  3. Influence of Spoken Language on the Initial Acquisition of Reading/Writing: Critical Analysis of Verbal Deficit Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Sanchez, Jose Luis; Cuadrado-Gordillo, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the results of a quasi-experimental study of whether there exists a causal relationship between spoken language and the initial learning of reading/writing. The subjects were two matched samples each of 24 preschool pupils (boys and girls), controlling for certain relevant external variables. It was found that there was no…

  4. Semantic Richness and Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss Who Are Developing Spoken Language: A Single Case Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss who are developing spoken language tend to lag behind children with normal hearing in vocabulary knowledge. Thus, researchers must validate instructional practices that lead to improved vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate how semantic richness of instruction…

  5. Semantic Relations Cause Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension When Using Repeated Definite References, Not Pronouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sara A; Boiteau, Timothy W; Almor, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The choice and processing of referential expressions depend on the referents' status within the discourse, such that pronouns are generally preferred over full repetitive references when the referent is salient. Here we report two visual-world experiments showing that: (1) in spoken language comprehension, this preference is reflected in delayed fixations to referents mentioned after repeated definite references compared with after pronouns; (2) repeated references are processed differently than new references; (3) long-term semantic memory representations affect the processing of pronouns and repeated names differently. Overall, these results support the role of semantic discourse representation in referential processing and reveal important details about how pronouns and full repeated references are processed in the context of these representations. The results suggest the need for modifications to current theoretical accounts of reference processing such as Discourse Prominence Theory and the Informational Load Hypothesis.

  6. About Development and Innovation of the Slovak Spoken Language Dialogue System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Juhár

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The research and development of the Slovak spoken language dialogue system (SLDS is described in the paper. The dialogue system is based on the DARPA Communicator architecture and was developed in the period from July 2003 to June 2006. It consists of the Galaxy hub and telephony, automatic speech recognition, text-to-speech, backend, transport and VoiceXML dialogue management and automatic evaluation modules. The dialogue system is demonstrated and tested via two pilot applications, „Weather Forecast“ and „Public Transport Timetables“. The required information is retrieved from Internet resources in multi-user mode through PSTN, ISDN, GSM and/or VoIP network. Some innovation development has been performed since 2006 which is also described in the paper.

  7. Grammatical awareness in the spoken and written language of language-disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, H; Kantor, M; Macnab, J

    1990-12-01

    Experiments examined grammatical judgement, and error-identification deficits in relation to expressive language skills and to morphemic errors in writing. Language-disabled subjects did not differ from language-matched controls on judgement, revision, or error identification. Age-matched controls represented more morphemes in elicited writing than either of the other groups, which were equivalent. However, in spontaneous writing, language-disabled subjects made more frequent morphemic errors than age-matched controls, but language-matched subjects did not differ from either group. Proficiency relative to academic experience and oral language status and to remedial implications are discussed.

  8. Language Outcomes in Deaf or Hard of Hearing Teenagers Who Are Spoken Language Users: Effects of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and Early Confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimperton, Hannah; Kreppner, Jana; Mahon, Merle; Stevenson, Jim; Terlektsi, Emmanouela; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho Ming; Kennedy, Colin R

    This study aimed to examine whether (a) exposure to universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) and b) early confirmation of hearing loss were associated with benefits to expressive and receptive language outcomes in the teenage years for a cohort of spoken language users. It also aimed to determine whether either of these two variables was associated with benefits to relative language gain from middle childhood to adolescence within this cohort. The participants were drawn from a prospective cohort study of a population sample of children with bilateral permanent childhood hearing loss, who varied in their exposure to UNHS and who had previously had their language skills assessed at 6-10 years. Sixty deaf or hard of hearing teenagers who were spoken language users and a comparison group of 38 teenagers with normal hearing completed standardized measures of their receptive and expressive language ability at 13-19 years. Teenagers exposed to UNHS did not show significantly better expressive (adjusted mean difference, 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.26 to 1.05; d = 0.32) or receptive (adjusted mean difference, 0.68; 95% CI, -0.56 to 1.93; d = 0.28) language skills than those who were not. Those who had their hearing loss confirmed by 9 months of age did not show significantly better expressive (adjusted mean difference, 0.43; 95% CI, -0.20 to 1.05; d = 0.35) or receptive (adjusted mean difference, 0.95; 95% CI, -0.22 to 2.11; d = 0.42) language skills than those who had it confirmed later. In all cases, effect sizes were of small size and in favor of those exposed to UNHS or confirmed by 9 months. Subgroup analysis indicated larger beneficial effects of early confirmation for those deaf or hard of hearing teenagers without cochlear implants (N = 48; 80% of the sample), and these benefits were significant in the case of receptive language outcomes (adjusted mean difference, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.38 to 2.71; d = 0.78). Exposure to UNHS did not account for significant

  9. Foreign body aspiration and language spoken at home: 10-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choroomi, S; Curotta, J

    2011-07-01

    To review foreign body aspiration cases encountered over a 10-year period in a tertiary paediatric hospital, and to assess correlation between foreign body type and language spoken at home. Retrospective chart review of all children undergoing direct laryngobronchoscopy for foreign body aspiration over a 10-year period. Age, sex, foreign body type, complications, hospital stay and home language were analysed. At direct laryngobronchoscopy, 132 children had foreign body aspiration (male:female ratio 1.31:1; mean age 32 months (2.67 years)). Mean hospital stay was 2.0 days. Foreign bodies most commonly comprised food matter (53/132; 40.1 per cent), followed by non-food matter (44/132; 33.33 per cent), a negative endoscopy (11/132; 8.33 per cent) and unknown composition (24/132; 18.2 per cent). Most parents spoke English (92/132, 69.7 per cent; vs non-English-speaking 40/132, 30.3 per cent), but non-English-speaking patients had disproportionately more food foreign bodies, and significantly more nut aspirations (p = 0.0065). Results constitute level 2b evidence. Patients from non-English speaking backgrounds had a significantly higher incidence of food (particularly nut) aspiration. Awareness-raising and public education is needed in relevant communities to prevent certain foods, particularly nuts, being given to children too young to chew and swallow them adequately.

  10. Contribution of Spoken Language and Socio-Economic Background to Adolescents' Educational Achievement at Age 16 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy; Rush, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Well-documented associations exist between socio-economic background and language ability in early childhood, and between educational attainment and language ability in children with clinically referred language impairment. However, very little research has looked at the associations between language ability, educational attainment and…

  11. A common neural system is activated in hearing non-signers to process French sign language and spoken French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, Cyril; Jobard, Gael; Vigneau, Mathieu; Beaucousin, Virginie; Razafimandimby, Annick; Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Mellet, Emmanuel; Zago, Laure; Petit, Laurent; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2011-01-15

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the areas activated by signed narratives in non-signing subjects naïve to sign language (SL) and compared it to the activation obtained when hearing speech in their mother tongue. A subset of left hemisphere (LH) language areas activated when participants watched an audio-visual narrative in their mother tongue was activated when they observed a signed narrative. The inferior frontal (IFG) and precentral (Prec) gyri, the posterior parts of the planum temporale (pPT) and of the superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and the occipito-temporal junction (OTJ) were activated by both languages. The activity of these regions was not related to the presence of communicative intent because no such changes were observed when the non-signers watched a muted video of a spoken narrative. Recruitment was also not triggered by the linguistic structure of SL, because the areas, except pPT, were not activated when subjects listened to an unknown spoken language. The comparison of brain reactivity for spoken and sign languages shows that SL has a special status in the brain compared to speech; in contrast to unknown oral language, the neural correlates of SL overlap LH speech comprehension areas in non-signers. These results support the idea that strong relationships exist between areas involved in human action observation and language, suggesting that the observation of hand gestures have shaped the lexico-semantic language areas as proposed by the motor theory of speech. As a whole, the present results support the theory of a gestural origin of language. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting reading ability in teenagers who are deaf or hard of hearing: A longitudinal analysis of language and reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsfold, Sarah; Mahon, Merle; Pimperton, Hannah; Stevenson, Jim; Kennedy, Colin

    2018-04-13

    Deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) children and young people are known to show group-level deficits in spoken language and reading abilities relative to their hearing peers. However, there is little evidence on the longitudinal predictive relationships between language and reading in this population. To determine the extent to which differences in spoken language ability in childhood predict reading ability in D/HH adolescents. and procedures: Participants were drawn from a population-based cohort study and comprised 53 D/HH teenagers, who used spoken language, and a comparison group of 38 normally hearing teenagers. All had completed standardised measures of spoken language (expression and comprehension) and reading (accuracy and comprehension) at 6-10 and 13-19 years of age. and results: Forced entry stepwise regression showed that, after taking reading ability at age 8 years into account, language scores at age 8 years did not add significantly to the prediction of Reading Accuracy z-scores at age 17 years (change in R 2  = 0.01, p = .459) but did make a significant contribution to the prediction of Reading Comprehension z-scores at age 17 years (change in R 2  = 0.17, p skills in middle childhood predict reading comprehension ability in adolescence. Continued intervention to support language development beyond primary school has the potential to benefit reading comprehension and hence educational access for D/HH adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Verbal short-term memory development and spoken language outcomes in deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael S; Kronenberger, William G; Gao, Sujuan; Hoen, Helena M; Miyamoto, Richard T; Pisoni, David B

    2013-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) help many deaf children achieve near-normal speech and language (S/L) milestones. Nevertheless, high levels of unexplained variability in S/L outcomes are limiting factors in improving the effectiveness of CIs in deaf children. The objective of this study was to longitudinally assess the role of verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) capacity as a progress-limiting source of variability in S/L outcomes after CI in children. Longitudinal study of 66 children with CIs for prelingual severe-to-profound hearing loss. Outcome measures included performance on digit span forward (DSF), digit span backward (DSB), and four conventional S/L measures that examined spoken-word recognition (Phonetically Balanced Kindergarten word test), receptive vocabulary (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test ), sentence-recognition skills (Hearing in Noise Test), and receptive and expressive language functioning (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Fourth Edition Core Language Score; CELF). Growth curves for DSF and DSB in the CI sample over time were comparable in slope, but consistently lagged in magnitude relative to norms for normal-hearing peers of the same age. For DSF and DSB, 50.5% and 44.0%, respectively, of the CI sample scored more than 1 SD below the normative mean for raw scores across all ages. The first (baseline) DSF score significantly predicted all endpoint scores for the four S/L measures, and DSF slope (growth) over time predicted CELF scores. DSF baseline and slope accounted for an additional 13 to 31% of variance in S/L scores after controlling for conventional predictor variables such as: chronological age at time of testing, age at time of implantation, communication mode (auditory-oral communication versus total communication), and maternal education. Only DSB baseline scores predicted endpoint language scores on Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and CELF. DSB slopes were not significantly related to any endpoint S/L measures

  14. Spoken language identification based on the enhanced self-adjusting extreme learning machine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albadr, Musatafa Abbas Abbood; Tiun, Sabrina; Al-Dhief, Fahad Taha; Sammour, Mahmoud A M

    2018-01-01

    Spoken Language Identification (LID) is the process of determining and classifying natural language from a given content and dataset. Typically, data must be processed to extract useful features to perform LID. The extracting features for LID, based on literature, is a mature process where the standard features for LID have already been developed using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC), Shifted Delta Cepstral (SDC), the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ending with the i-vector based framework. However, the process of learning based on extract features remains to be improved (i.e. optimised) to capture all embedded knowledge on the extracted features. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is an effective learning model used to perform classification and regression analysis and is extremely useful to train a single hidden layer neural network. Nevertheless, the learning process of this model is not entirely effective (i.e. optimised) due to the random selection of weights within the input hidden layer. In this study, the ELM is selected as a learning model for LID based on standard feature extraction. One of the optimisation approaches of ELM, the Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine (SA-ELM) is selected as the benchmark and improved by altering the selection phase of the optimisation process. The selection process is performed incorporating both the Split-Ratio and K-Tournament methods, the improved SA-ELM is named Enhanced Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine (ESA-ELM). The results are generated based on LID with the datasets created from eight different languages. The results of the study showed excellent superiority relating to the performance of the Enhanced Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine LID (ESA-ELM LID) compared with the SA-ELM LID, with ESA-ELM LID achieving an accuracy of 96.25%, as compared to the accuracy of SA-ELM LID of only 95.00%.

  15. Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Bhatara

    Full Text Available The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts, and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions.

  16. Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschool Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language: Initial Findings from the Early Language and Literacy Acquisition (ELLA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Method: Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed…

  17. Satisfaction with telemedicine for teaching listening and spoken language to children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Gabriella

    2012-07-01

    Auditory-Verbal Therapy (AVT) is an effective early intervention for children with hearing loss. The Hear and Say Centre in Brisbane offers AVT sessions to families soon after diagnosis, and about 20% of the families in Queensland participate via PC-based videoconferencing (Skype). Parent and therapist satisfaction with the telemedicine sessions was examined by questionnaire. All families had been enrolled in the telemedicine AVT programme for at least six months. Their average distance from the Hear and Say Centre was 600 km. Questionnaires were completed by 13 of the 17 parents and all five therapists. Parents and therapists generally expressed high satisfaction in the majority of the sections of the questionnaire, e.g. most rated the audio and video quality as good or excellent. All parents felt comfortable or as comfortable as face-to-face when discussing matters with the therapist online, and were satisfied or as satisfied as face-to-face with their level and their child's level of interaction/rapport with the therapist. All therapists were satisfied or very satisfied with the telemedicine AVT programme. The results demonstrate the potential of telemedicine service delivery for teaching listening and spoken language to children with hearing loss in rural and remote areas of Australia.

  18. Identification of four class emotion from Indonesian spoken language using acoustic and lexical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasyidi, Fatan; Puji Lestari, Dessi

    2018-03-01

    One of the important aspects in human to human communication is to understand emotion of each party. Recently, interactions between human and computer continues to develop, especially affective interaction where emotion recognition is one of its important components. This paper presents our extended works on emotion recognition of Indonesian spoken language to identify four main class of emotions: Happy, Sad, Angry, and Contentment using combination of acoustic/prosodic features and lexical features. We construct emotion speech corpus from Indonesia television talk show where the situations are as close as possible to the natural situation. After constructing the emotion speech corpus, the acoustic/prosodic and lexical features are extracted to train the emotion model. We employ some machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayes, and Random Forest to get the best model. The experiment result of testing data shows that the best model has an F-measure score of 0.447 by using only the acoustic/prosodic feature and F-measure score of 0.488 by using both acoustic/prosodic and lexical features to recognize four class emotion using the SVM RBF Kernel.

  19. Relations Among the Home Language and Literacy Environment and Children's Language Abilities: A Study of Head Start Dual Language Learners and Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kandia; Sandilos, Lia E.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Sawyer, Brook E.; Méndez, Lucía I.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings This study explored the relations between Spanish–English dual language learner (DLL) children's home language and literacy experiences and their expressive vocabulary and oral comprehension abilities in Spanish and in English. Data from Spanish–English mothers of 93 preschool-age Head Start children who resided in central Pennsylvania were analyzed. Children completed the Picture Vocabulary and Oral Comprehension subtests of the Batería III Woodcock–Muñoz and the Woodcock–Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Results revealed that the language spoken by mothers and children and the frequency of mother–child reading at home influenced children's Spanish language abilities. In addition, the frequency with which children told a story was positively related to children's performance on English oral language measures. Practice or Policy The findings suggest that language and literacy experiences at home have a differential impact on DLLs' language abilities in their 2 languages. Specific components of the home environment that benefit and support DLL children's language abilities are discussed. PMID:27429533

  20. Bilateral Versus Unilateral Cochlear Implants in Children: A Study of Spoken Language Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David; Bennet, Lisa; Bant, Sharyn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Although it has been established that bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) offer additional speech perception and localization benefits to many children with severe to profound hearing loss, whether these improved perceptual abilities facilitate significantly better language development has not yet been clearly established. The aims of this study were to compare language abilities of children having unilateral and bilateral CIs to quantify the rate of any improvement in language attributable to bilateral CIs and to document other predictors of language development in children with CIs. Design: The receptive vocabulary and language development of 91 children was assessed when they were aged either 5 or 8 years old by using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (fourth edition), and either the Preschool Language Scales (fourth edition) or the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (fourth edition), respectively. Cognitive ability, parent involvement in children’s intervention or education programs, and family reading habits were also evaluated. Language outcomes were examined by using linear regression analyses. The influence of elements of parenting style, child characteristics, and family background as predictors of outcomes were examined. Results: Children using bilateral CIs achieved significantly better vocabulary outcomes and significantly higher scores on the Core and Expressive Language subscales of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (fourth edition) than did comparable children with unilateral CIs. Scores on the Preschool Language Scales (fourth edition) did not differ significantly between children with unilateral and bilateral CIs. Bilateral CI use was found to predict significantly faster rates of vocabulary and language development than unilateral CI use; the magnitude of this effect was moderated by child age at activation of the bilateral CI. In terms of parenting style, high levels of parental involvement, low amounts of

  1. General language performance measures in spoken and written narrative and expository discourse of school-age children with language learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C M; Windsor, J

    2000-04-01

    Language performance in naturalistic contexts can be characterized by general measures of productivity, fluency, lexical diversity, and grammatical complexity and accuracy. The use of such measures as indices of language impairment in older children is open to questions of method and interpretation. This study evaluated the extent to which 10 general language performance measures (GLPM) differentiated school-age children with language learning disabilities (LLD) from chronological-age (CA) and language-age (LA) peers. Children produced both spoken and written summaries of two educational videotapes that provided models of either narrative or expository (informational) discourse. Productivity measures, including total T-units, total words, and words per minute, were significantly lower for children with LLD than for CA children. Fluency (percent T-units with mazes) and lexical diversity (number of different words) measures were similar for all children. Grammatical complexity as measured by words per T-unit was significantly lower for LLD children. However, there was no difference among groups for clauses per T-unit. The only measure that distinguished children with LLD from both CA and LA peers was the extent of grammatical error. Effects of discourse genre and modality were consistent across groups. Compared to narratives, expository summaries were shorter, less fluent (spoken versions), more complex (words per T-unit), and more error prone. Written summaries were shorter and had more errors than spoken versions. For many LLD and LA children, expository writing was exceedingly difficult. Implications for accounts of language impairment in older children are discussed.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF LANGUAGE USE AND LANGUAGE ATTITUDE ON THE MAINTENANCE OF COMMUNITY LANGUAGES SPOKEN BY MIGRANT STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Amalia Suek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of community languages of migrant students is heavily determined by language use and language attitudes. The superiority of a dominant language over a community language contributes to attitudes of migrant students toward their native languages. When they perceive their native languages as unimportant language, they will reduce the frequency of using that language even though at home domain. Solutions provided for a problem of maintaining community languages should be related to language use and attitudes of community languages, which are developed mostly in two important domains, school and family. Hence, the valorization of community language should be promoted not only in family but also school domains. Several programs such as community language school and community language program can be used for migrant students to practice and use their native languages. Since educational resources such as class session, teachers and government support are limited; family plays significant roles to stimulate positive attitudes toward community language and also to develop the use of native languages.

  3. How Spoken Language Comprehension is Achieved by Older Listeners in Difficult Listening Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Bruce A; Avivi-Reich, Meital; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    Comprehending spoken discourse in noisy situations is likely to be more challenging to older adults than to younger adults due to potential declines in the auditory, cognitive, or linguistic processes supporting speech comprehension. These challenges might force older listeners to reorganize the ways in which they perceive and process speech, thereby altering the balance between the contributions of bottom-up versus top-down processes to speech comprehension. The authors review studies that investigated the effect of age on listeners' ability to follow and comprehend lectures (monologues), and two-talker conversations (dialogues), and the extent to which individual differences in lexical knowledge and reading comprehension skill relate to individual differences in speech comprehension. Comprehension was evaluated after each lecture or conversation by asking listeners to answer multiple-choice questions regarding its content. Once individual differences in speech recognition for words presented in babble were compensated for, age differences in speech comprehension were minimized if not eliminated. However, younger listeners benefited more from spatial separation than did older listeners. Vocabulary knowledge predicted the comprehension scores of both younger and older listeners when listening was difficult, but not when it was easy. However, the contribution of reading comprehension to listening comprehension appeared to be independent of listening difficulty in younger adults but not in older adults. The evidence suggests (1) that most of the difficulties experienced by older adults are due to age-related auditory declines, and (2) that these declines, along with listening difficulty, modulate the degree to which selective linguistic and cognitive abilities are engaged to support listening comprehension in difficult listening situations. When older listeners experience speech recognition difficulties, their attentional resources are more likely to be deployed to

  4. The role of planum temporale in processing accent variation in spoken language comprehension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, P.M.; Noordzij, M.L.; Hagoort, P.

    2012-01-01

    A repetitionsuppression functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of processing two types of acoustic variationspeaker and accentduring spoken sentence comprehension. Recordings were made for two speakers and two accents: Standard Dutch and a

  5. EEG decoding of spoken words in bilingual listeners: from words to language invariant semantic-conceptual representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Mendonça Correia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Spoken word recognition and production require fast transformations between acoustic, phonological and conceptual neural representations. Bilinguals perform these transformations in native and non-native languages, deriving unified semantic concepts from equivalent, but acoustically different words. Here we exploit this capacity of bilinguals to investigate input invariant semantic representations in the brain. We acquired EEG data while Dutch subjects, highly proficient in English listened to four monosyllabic and acoustically distinct animal words in both languages (e.g. ‘paard’-‘horse’. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA was applied to identify EEG response patterns that discriminate between individual words within one language (within-language discrimination and generalize meaning across two languages (across-language generalization. Furthermore, employing two EEG feature selection approaches, we assessed the contribution of temporal and oscillatory EEG features to our classification results. MVPA revealed that within-language discrimination was possible in a broad time-window (~50-620 ms after word onset probably reflecting acoustic-phonetic and semantic-conceptual differences between the words. Most interestingly, significant across-language generalization was possible around 550-600 ms, suggesting the activation of common semantic-conceptual representations from the Dutch and English nouns. Both types of classification, showed a strong contribution of oscillations below 12 Hz, indicating the importance of low frequency oscillations in the neural representation of individual words and concepts. This study demonstrates the feasibility of MVPA to decode individual spoken words from EEG responses and to assess the spectro-temporal dynamics of their language invariant semantic-conceptual representations. We discuss how this method and results could be relevant to track the neural mechanisms underlying conceptual encoding in

  6. Fast mapping semantic features: performance of adults with normal language, history of disorders of spoken and written language, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on a word-learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Gutmann, Michelle L

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to test the word learning abilities of adults with typical language abilities, those with a history of disorders of spoken or written language (hDSWL), and hDSWL plus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (+ADHD). Sixty-eight adults were required to associate a novel object with a novel label, and then recognize semantic features of the object and phonological features of the label. Participants were tested for overt ability (accuracy) and covert processing (reaction time). The +ADHD group was less accurate at mapping semantic features and slower to respond to lexical labels than both other groups. Different factors correlated with word learning performance for each group. Adults with language and attention deficits are more impaired at word learning than adults with language deficits only. Despite behavioral profiles like typical peers, adults with hDSWL may use different processing strategies than their peers. Readers will be able to: (1) recognize the influence of a dual disability (hDSWL and ADHD) on word learning outcomes; (2) identify factors that may contribute to word learning in adults in terms of (a) the nature of the words to be learned and (b) the language processing of the learner.

  7. Distance delivery of a spoken language intervention for school-aged and adolescent boys with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Banasik, Amy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Feigles, Robyn Tempero; Hagerman, Randi; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2018-01-01

    A small randomized group design (N = 20) was used to examine a parent-implemented intervention designed to improve the spoken language skills of school-aged and adolescent boys with FXS, the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability. The intervention was implemented by speech-language pathologists who used distance video-teleconferencing to deliver the intervention. The intervention taught mothers to use a set of language facilitation strategies while interacting with their children in the context of shared story-telling. Treatment group mothers significantly improved their use of the targeted intervention strategies. Children in the treatment group increased the duration of engagement in the shared story-telling activity as well as use of utterances that maintained the topic of the story. Children also showed increases in lexical diversity, but not in grammatical complexity.

  8. How Does the Linguistic Distance between Spoken and Standard Language in Arabic Affect Recall and Recognition Performances during Verbal Memory Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham

    2017-01-01

    The current research examined how Arabic diglossia affects verbal learning memory. Thirty native Arab college students were tested using auditory verbal memory test that was adapted according to the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and developed in three versions: Pure spoken language version (SL), pure standard language version (SA), and…

  9. KANNADA--A CULTURAL INTRODUCTION TO THE SPOKEN STYLES OF THE LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KRISHNAMURTHI, M.G.; MCCORMACK, WILLIAM

    THE TWENTY GRADED UNITS IN THIS TEXT CONSTITUTE AN INTRODUCTION TO BOTH INFORMAL AND FORMAL SPOKEN KANNADA. THE FIRST TWO UNITS PRESENT THE KANNADA MATERIAL IN PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION ONLY, WITH KANNADA SCRIPT GRADUALLY INTRODUCED FROM UNIT III ON. A TYPICAL LESSON-UNIT INCLUDES--(1) A DIALOG IN PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION, (2)…

  10. The role of planum temporale in processing accent variation in spoken language comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, P.M.; Noordzij, M.L.; Hagoort, P.

    2012-01-01

    A repetition–suppression functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of processing two types of acoustic variation—speaker and accent—during spoken sentence comprehension. Recordings were made for two speakers and two accents: Standard Dutch and

  11. Chunk Learning and the Development of Spoken Discourse in a Japanese as a Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the development of spoken discourse among L2 learners of Japanese who received extensive practice on grammatical chunks. Participants in this study were 22 college students enrolled in an elementary Japanese course. They received instruction on a set of grammatical chunks in class through communicative drills and the…

  12. Social inclusion for children with hearing loss in listening and spoken Language early intervention: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu-Sharpe, Gabriella; Phillips, Rebecca L; Davis, Aleisha; Dornan, Dimity; Hogan, Anthony

    2017-03-14

    Social inclusion is a common focus of listening and spoken language (LSL) early intervention for children with hearing loss. This exploratory study compared the social inclusion of young children with hearing loss educated using a listening and spoken language approach with population data. A framework for understanding the scope of social inclusion is presented in the Background. This framework guided the use of a shortened, modified version of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) to measure two of the five facets of social inclusion ('education' and 'interacting with society and fulfilling social goals'). The survey was completed by parents of children with hearing loss aged 4-5 years who were educated using a LSL approach (n = 78; 37% who responded). These responses were compared to those obtained for typical hearing children in the LSAC dataset (n = 3265). Analyses revealed that most children with hearing loss had comparable outcomes to those with typical hearing on the 'education' and 'interacting with society and fulfilling social roles' facets of social inclusion. These exploratory findings are positive and warrant further investigation across all five facets of the framework to identify which factors influence social inclusion.

  13. How appropriate are the English language test requirements for non-UK-trained nurses? A qualitative study of spoken communication in UK hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Carole; Garner, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Non-native speakers of English who hold nursing qualifications from outside the UK are required to provide evidence of English language competence by achieving a minimum overall score of Band 7 on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) academic test. To describe the English language required to deal with the daily demands of nursing in the UK. To compare these abilities with the stipulated levels on the language test. A tracking study was conducted with 4 nurses, and focus groups with 11 further nurses. The transcripts of the interviews and focus groups were analysed thematically for recurrent themes. These findings were then compared with the requirements of the IELTS spoken test. The study was conducted outside the participants' working shifts in busy London hospitals. The participants in the tracking study were selected opportunistically;all were trained in non-English speaking countries. Snowball sampling was used for the focus groups, of whom 4 were non-native and 7 native speakers of English. In the tracking study, each of the 4 nurses was interviewed on four occasions, outside the workplace, and as close to the end of a shift as possible. They were asked to recount their spoken interactions during the course of their shift. The participants in the focus groups were asked to describe their typical interactions with patients, family members, doctors, and nursing colleagues. They were prompted to recall specific instances of frequently-occurring communication problems. All interactions were audio-recorded, with the participants' permission,and transcribed. Nurses are at the centre of communication for patient care. They have to use appropriate registers to communicate with a range of health professionals, patients and their families. They must elicit information, calm and reassure, instruct, check procedures, ask for and give opinions,agree and disagree. Politeness strategies are needed to avoid threats to face. They participate in medical

  14. Deficits in narrative abilities in child British Sign Language users with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Ros; Rowley, Katherine; Mason, Kathryn; Morgan, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This study details the first ever investigation of narrative skills in a group of 17 deaf signing children who have been diagnosed with disorders in their British Sign Language development compared with a control group of 17 deaf child signers matched for age, gender, education, quantity, and quality of language exposure and non-verbal intelligence. Children were asked to generate a narrative based on events in a language free video. Narratives were analysed for global structure, information content and local level grammatical devices, especially verb morphology. The language-impaired group produced shorter, less structured and grammatically simpler narratives than controls, with verb morphology particularly impaired. Despite major differences in how sign and spoken languages are articulated, narrative is shown to be a reliable marker of language impairment across the modality boundaries. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  15. Language Control Abilities of Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festman, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Although all bilinguals encounter cross-language interference (CLI), some bilinguals are more susceptible to interference than others. Here, we report on language performance of late bilinguals (Russian/German) on two bilingual tasks (interview, verbal fluency), their language use and switching habits. The only between-group difference was CLI:…

  16. Brain-based translation: fMRI decoding of spoken words in bilinguals reveals language-independent semantic representations in anterior temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, João; Formisano, Elia; Valente, Giancarlo; Hausfeld, Lars; Jansma, Bernadette; Bonte, Milene

    2014-01-01

    Bilinguals derive the same semantic concepts from equivalent, but acoustically different, words in their first and second languages. The neural mechanisms underlying the representation of language-independent concepts in the brain remain unclear. Here, we measured fMRI in human bilingual listeners and reveal that response patterns to individual spoken nouns in one language (e.g., "horse" in English) accurately predict the response patterns to equivalent nouns in the other language (e.g., "paard" in Dutch). Stimuli were four monosyllabic words in both languages, all from the category of "animal" nouns. For each word, pronunciations from three different speakers were included, allowing the investigation of speaker-independent representations of individual words. We used multivariate classifiers and a searchlight method to map the informative fMRI response patterns that enable decoding spoken words within languages (within-language discrimination) and across languages (across-language generalization). Response patterns discriminative of spoken words within language were distributed in multiple cortical regions, reflecting the complexity of the neural networks recruited during speech and language processing. Response patterns discriminative of spoken words across language were limited to localized clusters in the left anterior temporal lobe, the left angular gyrus and the posterior bank of the left postcentral gyrus, the right posterior superior temporal sulcus/superior temporal gyrus, the right medial anterior temporal lobe, the right anterior insula, and bilateral occipital cortex. These results corroborate the existence of "hub" regions organizing semantic-conceptual knowledge in abstract form at the fine-grained level of within semantic category discriminations.

  17. EVALUATIVE LANGUAGE IN SPOKEN AND SIGNED STORIES TOLD BY A DEAF CHILD WITH A COCHLEAR IMPLANT: WORDS, SIGNS OR PARALINGUISTIC EXPRESSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Takkinen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the use and quality of the evaluative language produced by a bilingual child in a story-telling situation is analysed. The subject, an 11-year-old Finnish boy, Jimmy, is bilingual in Finnish sign language (FinSL and spoken Finnish.He was born deaf but got a cochlear implant at the age of five.The data consist of a spoken and a signed version of “The Frog Story”. The analysis shows that evaluative devices and expressions differ in the spoken and signed stories told by the child. In his Finnish story he uses mostly lexical devices – comments on a character and the character’s actions as well as quoted speech occasionally combined with prosodic features. In his FinSL story he uses both lexical and paralinguistic devices in a balanced way.

  18. Spoken Dialogue Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jokinen, Kristiina

    2009-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in recent years in the development of dialogue systems that support robust and efficient human-machine interaction using spoken language. Spoken dialogue technology allows various interactive applications to be built and used for practical purposes, and research focuses on issues that aim to increase the system's communicative competence by including aspects of error correction, cooperation, multimodality, and adaptation in context. This book gives a comprehensive view of state-of-the-art techniques that are used to build spoken dialogue systems. It provides

  19. Second Language Pragmatic Ability: Individual Differences According to Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Lauren; Cohen, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review research literature on the role that the second language (L2) and foreign language (FL) environments actually play in the development of learners' target language (TL) pragmatic ability, and also to speculate as to the extent to which individual factors can offset the advantages that learners may have by being…

  20. Language and Academic Abilities in Children with Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Evans, Mary Ann; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined receptive language and academic abilities in children with selective mutism (SM; n = 30; M age = 8.8 years), anxiety disorders (n = 46; M age = 9.3 years), and community controls (n = 27; M age = 7.8 years). Receptive language and academic abilities were assessed using standardized tests completed in the laboratory. We found a…

  1. Comprehension of spoken language in non-speaking children with severe cerebral palsy: an explorative study on associations with motor type and disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geytenbeek, J.J.M.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Becher, J.G.; Oostrom, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess spoken language comprehension in non-speaking children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore possible associations with motor type and disability. Method: Eighty-seven non-speaking children (44 males, 43 females, mean age 6y 8mo, SD 2y 1mo) with spastic (54%) or dyskinetic

  2. A Multilingual Approach to Analysing Standardized Test Results: Immigrant Primary School Children and the Role of Languages Spoken in a Bi-/Multilingual Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Gessica

    2014-01-01

    The present study adopts a multilingual approach to analysing the standardized test results of primary school immigrant children living in the bi-/multilingual context of South Tyrol, Italy. The standardized test results are from the Invalsi test administered across Italy in 2009/2010. In South Tyrol, several languages are spoken on a daily basis…

  3. How and When Accentuation Influences Temporally Selective Attention and Subsequent Semantic Processing during On-Line Spoken Language Comprehension: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-qing; Ren, Gui-qin

    2012-01-01

    An event-related brain potentials (ERP) experiment was carried out to investigate how and when accentuation influences temporally selective attention and subsequent semantic processing during on-line spoken language comprehension, and how the effect of accentuation on attention allocation and semantic processing changed with the degree of…

  4. Long-term memory traces for familiar spoken words in tonal languages as revealed by the Mismatch Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiphinich Kotchabhakdi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch negativity (MMN, a primary response to an acoustic change and an index of sensory memory, was used to investigate the processing of the discrimination between familiar and unfamiliar Consonant-Vowel (CV speech contrasts. The MMN was elicited by rare familiar words presented among repetitive unfamiliar words. Phonetic and phonological contrasts were identical in all conditions. MMN elicited by the familiar word deviant was larger than that elicited by the unfamiliar word deviant. The presence of syllable contrast did significantly alter the word-elicited MMN in amplitude and scalp voltage field distribution. Thus, our results indicate the existence of word-related MMN enhancement largely independent of the word status of the standard stimulus. This enhancement may reflect the presence of a longterm memory trace for familiar spoken words in tonal languages.

  5. Let's all speak together! Exploring the masking effects of various languages on spoken word identification in multi-linguistic babble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautreau, Aurore; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the linguistic interference that occurs during speech-in-speech comprehension by combining offline and online measures, which included an intelligibility task (at a -5 dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and 2 lexical decision tasks (at a -5 dB and 0 dB SNR) that were performed with French spoken target words. In these 3 experiments we always compared the masking effects of speech backgrounds (i.e., 4-talker babble) that were produced in the same language as the target language (i.e., French) or in unknown foreign languages (i.e., Irish and Italian) to the masking effects of corresponding non-speech backgrounds (i.e., speech-derived fluctuating noise). The fluctuating noise contained similar spectro-temporal information as babble but lacked linguistic information. At -5 dB SNR, both tasks revealed significantly divergent results between the unknown languages (i.e., Irish and Italian) with Italian and French hindering French target word identification to a similar extent, whereas Irish led to significantly better performances on these tasks. By comparing the performances obtained with speech and fluctuating noise backgrounds, we were able to evaluate the effect of each language. The intelligibility task showed a significant difference between babble and fluctuating noise for French, Irish and Italian, suggesting acoustic and linguistic effects for each language. However, the lexical decision task, which reduces the effect of post-lexical interference, appeared to be more accurate, as it only revealed a linguistic effect for French. Thus, although French and Italian had equivalent masking effects on French word identification, the nature of their interference was different. This finding suggests that the differences observed between the masking effects of Italian and Irish can be explained at an acoustic level but not at a linguistic level.

  6. Language Ability Groups in Bilingual Children: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M Adelaida; Gray, Shelley; Thompson, Marilyn S

    2015-10-01

    Classifying children into two language ability groups, with and without language impairment, may underestimate the number of groups with distinct language ability patterns, or, alternatively, there may be only a single group characterized by a continuum of language performance. The purpose of the current study was to identify the number and characteristics of latent (unobservable) language ability groups in an unclassified sample of predominantly Spanish-speaking children. An unclassified sample of 431 predominantly Spanish-speaking 5- to 7-year-olds learning English participated in the study. The groups were identified on the basis of (a) language sample analyses (semantic, grammatical, and sentence-length measures); (b) language processing tasks (phonological working memory and processing speed measures); and (c) nonverbal cognitive abilities assessed using a standardized measure. All tasks were administered in Spanish. Latent profile analysis was used to examine the number and nature of distinct language ability groups in the unclassified sample. Results indicated that a three-group model best represented the data, characterized by low grammaticality in one group, low phonological working memory in another group, and average skills in a third group. Classifying children into two groups, those with and without language impairment, may lead to misidentification of language impairment.

  7. Musical, language, and reading abilities in early Portuguese readers

    OpenAIRE

    Zuk, Jennifer; Andrade, Paulo E.; Andrade, Olga V. C. A.; Gardiner, Martin; Gaab, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Early language and reading abilities have been shown to correlate with a variety of musical skills and elements of music perception in children. It has also been shown that reading impaired children can show difficulties with music perception. However, it is still unclear to what extent different aspects of music perception are associated with language and reading abilities. Here we investigated the relationship between cognitive-linguistic abilities and a music discrimination task that prese...

  8. Using the readiness potential of button-press and verbal response within spoken language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Stefanie; Wesselmeier, Hendrik; de Ruiter, Jan P; Mueller, Horst M

    2014-07-30

    Even though research in turn-taking in spoken dialogues is now abundant, a typical EEG-signature associated with the anticipation of turn-ends has not yet been identified until now. The purpose of this study was to examine if readiness potentials (RP) can be used to study the anticipation of turn-ends by using it in a motoric finger movement and articulatory movement task. The goal was to determine the preconscious onset of turn-end anticipation in early, preconscious turn-end anticipation processes by the simultaneous registration of EEG measures (RP) and behavioural measures (anticipation timing accuracy, ATA). For our behavioural measures, we used both button-press and verbal response ("yes"). In the experiment, 30 subjects were asked to listen to auditorily presented utterances and press a button or utter a brief verbal response when they expected the end of the turn. During the task, a 32-channel-EEG signal was recorded. The results showed that the RPs during verbal- and button-press-responses developed similarly and had an almost identical time course: the RP signals started to develop 1170 vs. 1190 ms before the behavioural responses. Until now, turn-end anticipation is usually studied using behavioural methods, for instance by measuring the anticipation timing accuracy, which is a measurement that reflects conscious behavioural processes and is insensitive to preconscious anticipation processes. The similar time course of the recorded RP signals for both verbal- and button-press responses provide evidence for the validity of using RPs as an online marker for response preparation in turn-taking and spoken dialogue research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the dimensionality of language ability for young children (4-8 years) from prekindergarten to third grade (n = 915), theorizing that measures of vocabulary and grammar ability will represent a unitary trait across these ages, and to determine whether discourse skills represent an additional source of variance in language ability. Results demonstrated emergent dimensionality of language across development with distinct factors of vocabulary, grammar, and discourse skills by third grade, confirming that discourse skills are an important source of variance in children's language ability and represent an important additional dimension to be accounted for in studying growth in language skills over the course of childhood. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  10. Quarterly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Social Security Retirement and Survivor Claimants (2016-onwards)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for Retirement and Survivor benefits from fiscal...

  11. Yearly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Social Security Retirement and Survivor Claimants (2016 Onwards)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for Retirement and Survivor benefits from federal...

  12. Shy and Soft-Spoken: Shyness, Pragmatic Language, and Socioemotional Adjustment in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Robert J.; Weeks, Murray

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the moderating role of pragmatic language in the relations between shyness and indices of socio-emotional adjustment in an unselected sample of early elementary school children. In particular, we sought to explore whether pragmatic language played a protective role for shy children. Participants were n = 167…

  13. Propositional Density in Spoken and Written Language of Czech-Speaking Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolík, Filip; Stepankova, Hana; Vyhnálek, Martin; Nikolai, Tomáš; Horáková, Karolína; Matejka, Štepán

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Propositional density (PD) is a measure of content richness in language production that declines in normal aging and more profoundly in dementia. The present study aimed to develop a PD scoring system for Czech and use it to compare PD in language productions of older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and control…

  14. How do doctors learn the spoken language of their patients? | Pfaff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with seven doctors who had successfully learned the language of their patients, to determine their experiences and how they had succeeded. Results. All seven doctors used a combination of methods to learn the language. Listening was found to be very important, ...

  15. Talk or Chat? Chatroom and Spoken Interaction in a Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano-Bunce, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study comparing chatroom and face-to-face oral interaction for the purposes of language learning in a tertiary classroom in the United Arab Emirates. It uses transcripts analysed for Language Related Episodes, collaborative dialogues, thought to be externally observable examples of noticing in action. The analysis is…

  16. Task-Oriented Spoken Dialog System for Second-Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Dialog-Based Computer Assisted second-Language Learning (DB-CALL) system using task-oriented dialogue processing technology. The system promotes dialogue with a second-language learner for a specific task, such as purchasing tour tickets, ordering food, passing through immigration, etc. The dialog system plays a role of a…

  17. Spoken English and the question of grammar: the role of the functional model

    OpenAIRE

    Coffin, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    Given the nature of spoken text, the first requirement of an appropriate grammar is its ability to account for stretches of language (including recurring types of text or genres), in addition to clause level patterns. Second, the grammatical model needs to be part of a wider theory of language that recognises the functional nature and educational purposes of spoken text. The model also needs to be designed in a\\ud sufficiently comprehensive way so as to account for grammatical forms in speech...

  18. The Language, Tone and Prosody of Emotions: Neural Substrates and Dynamics of Spoken-Word Emotion Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenthal, Einat; Silbersweig, David A; Stern, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Rapid assessment of emotions is important for detecting and prioritizing salient input. Emotions are conveyed in spoken words via verbal and non-verbal channels that are mutually informative and unveil in parallel over time, but the neural dynamics and interactions of these processes are not well understood. In this paper, we review the literature on emotion perception in faces, written words, and voices, as a basis for understanding the functional organization of emotion perception in spoken words. The characteristics of visual and auditory routes to the amygdala-a subcortical center for emotion perception-are compared across these stimulus classes in terms of neural dynamics, hemispheric lateralization, and functionality. Converging results from neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and lesion studies suggest the existence of an afferent route to the amygdala and primary visual cortex for fast and subliminal processing of coarse emotional face cues. We suggest that a fast route to the amygdala may also function for brief non-verbal vocalizations (e.g., laugh, cry), in which emotional category is conveyed effectively by voice tone and intensity. However, emotional prosody which evolves on longer time scales and is conveyed by fine-grained spectral cues appears to be processed via a slower, indirect cortical route. For verbal emotional content, the bulk of current evidence, indicating predominant left lateralization of the amygdala response and timing of emotional effects attributable to speeded lexical access, is more consistent with an indirect cortical route to the amygdala. Top-down linguistic modulation may play an important role for prioritized perception of emotions in words. Understanding the neural dynamics and interactions of emotion and language perception is important for selecting potent stimuli and devising effective training and/or treatment approaches for the alleviation of emotional dysfunction across a range of neuropsychiatric states.

  19. Yearly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income (Blind & Disabled) (2011-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for ESRD Medicare benefits for federal fiscal years...

  20. Quarterly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Aged Applicants (2014-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Aged benefits for fiscal years 2014 -...

  1. Quarterly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of End Stage Renal Disease Medicare Claimants (2014-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for ESRD Medicare benefits for fiscal years 2014...

  2. Yearly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of End Stage Renal Disease Medicare Claimants (2011-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for ESRD Medicare benefits for federal fiscal year...

  3. Yearly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Social Security Retirement and Survivor Claimants (2011-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for ESRD Medicare benefits from federal fiscal year...

  4. Inter Lingual Influences of Turkish, Serbian and English Dialect in Spoken Gjakovar's Language

    OpenAIRE

    Sindorela Doli Kryeziu; Gentiana Muhaxhiri

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we have tried to clarify the problems that are faced "gege dialect's'' speakers in Gjakova who have presented more or less difficulties in acquiring the standard. Standard language is part of the people language, but increased to the norm according the scientific criteria. From this observation it comes obliviously understandable that standard variation and dialectal variant are inseparable and, as such, they represent a macro linguistic unity. As part of this macro linguistic u...

  5. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test takers'…

  6. Stuttering and Language Ability in Children: Questioning the Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article explains why it is reasonable to question the view that stuttering and language ability in children are linked--the so-called "stuttering-language connection." Method: Studies that focused on syntactic, morphologic, and lexical development in children who stutter (CWS) are examined for evidence to support the following…

  7. Project ASPIRE: Spoken Language Intervention Curriculum for Parents of Low-socioeconomic Status and Their Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suskind, Dana L; Graf, Eileen; Leffel, Kristin R; Hernandez, Marc W; Suskind, Elizabeth; Webber, Robert; Tannenbaum, Sally; Nevins, Mary Ellen

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the impact of a spoken language intervention curriculum aiming to improve the language environments caregivers of low socioeconomic status (SES) provide for their D/HH children with CI & HA to support children's spoken language development. Quasiexperimental. Tertiary. Thirty-two caregiver-child dyads of low-SES (as defined by caregiver education ≤ MA/MS and the income proxies = Medicaid or WIC/LINK) and children aged curriculum designed to improve D/HH children's early language environments. Changes in caregiver knowledge of child language development (questionnaire scores) and language behavior (word types, word tokens, utterances, mean length of utterance [MLU], LENA Adult Word Count (AWC), Conversational Turn Count (CTC)). Significant increases in caregiver questionnaire scores as well as utterances, word types, word tokens, and MLU in the treatment but not the control group. No significant changes in LENA outcomes. Results partially support the notion that caregiver-directed language enrichment interventions can change home language environments of D/HH children from low-SES backgrounds. Further longitudinal studies are necessary.

  8. SPOKEN CORPORA: RATIONALE AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Newman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of electronic corpora now available to researchers, corpora of natural speech are still relatively rare and relatively costly. This paper suggests reasons why spoken corpora are needed, despite the formidable problems of construction. The multiple purposes of such corpora and the involvement of very different kinds of language communities in such projects mean that there is no one single blueprint for the design, markup, and distribution of spoken corpora. A number of different spoken corpora are reviewed to illustrate a range of possibilities for the construction of spoken corpora.

  9. Cross-Sensory Correspondences and Symbolism in Spoken and Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Lexical sound symbolism in language appears to exploit the feature associations embedded in cross-sensory correspondences. For example, words incorporating relatively high acoustic frequencies (i.e., front/close rather than back/open vowels) are deemed more appropriate as names for concepts associated with brightness, lightness in weight,…

  10. Changes to English as an Additional Language Writers' Research Articles: From Spoken to Written Register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyalan, Aylin; Mumford, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The process of writing journal articles is increasingly being seen as a collaborative process, especially where the authors are English as an Additional Language (EAL) academics. This study examines the changes made in terms of register to EAL writers' journal articles by a native-speaker writing centre advisor at a private university in Turkey.…

  11. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals’ parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300–500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633–767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  12. Assessing Spoken Language Competence in Children with Selective Mutism: Using Parents as Test Presenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Evelyn R.; Armstrong, Sharon Lee; Shipon-Blum, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Children with selective mutism (SM) display a failure to speak in select situations despite speaking when comfortable. The purpose of this study was to obtain valid assessments of receptive and expressive language in 33 children (ages 5 to 12) with SM. Because some children with SM will speak to parents but not a professional, another purpose was…

  13. Primary Spoken Language and Neuraxial Labor Analgesia Use Among Hispanic Medicaid Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Paloma; Eosakul, Stanley T; Grobman, William A; Feinglass, Joe; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic women are less likely than non-Hispanic Caucasian women to use neuraxial labor analgesia. It is unknown whether there is a disparity in anticipated or actual use of neuraxial labor analgesia among Hispanic women based on primary language (English versus Spanish). In this 3-year retrospective, single-institution, cross-sectional study, we extracted electronic medical record data on Hispanic nulliparous with vaginal deliveries who were insured by Medicaid. On admission, patients self-identified their primary language and anticipated analgesic use for labor. Extracted data included age, marital status, labor type, delivery provider (obstetrician or midwife), and anticipated and actual analgesic use. Household income was estimated from census data geocoded by zip code. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated for anticipated and actual neuraxial analgesia use. Among 932 Hispanic women, 182 were self-identified as primary Spanish speakers. Spanish-speaking Hispanic women were less likely to anticipate and use neuraxial anesthesia than English-speaking women. After controlling for confounders, there was an association between primary language and anticipated neuraxial analgesia use (adjusted relative risk: Spanish- versus English-speaking women, 0.70; 97.5% confidence interval, 0.53-0.92). Similarly, there was an association between language and neuraxial analgesia use (adjusted relative risk: Spanish- versus English-speaking women 0.88; 97.5% confidence interval, 0.78-0.99). The use of a midwife compared with an obstetrician also decreased the likelihood of both anticipating and using neuraxial analgesia. A language-based disparity was found in neuraxial labor analgesia use. It is possible that there are communication barriers in knowledge or understanding of analgesic options. Further research is necessary to determine the cause of this association.

  14. The language abilities of bilingual children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Cleave, Patricia; Trudeau, Natacha; Thordardottir, Elin; Sutton, Ann; Thorpe, Amy

    2005-08-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have cognitive disabilities resulting from trisomy 21. Language-learning difficulties, especially expressive language problems, are an important component of the phenotype of this population. Many individuals with DS are born into bilingual environments. To date, however, there is almost no information available regarding the capacity of these individuals to acquire more than 1 language. The present study compared the language abilities of 8 children with DS being raised bilingually with those of 3 control groups matched on developmental level: monolingual children with DS (n = 14), monolingual typically developing (TD) children (n = 18), and bilingual TD children (n = 11). All children had at least 100 words in their productive vocabularies but a mean length of utterance of less than 3.5. The bilingual children spoke English and 1 other language and were either balanced bilinguals or English-dominant. English testing was completed for all children using the following: the Preschool Language Scale, Third Edition; language sampling; and the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI). Bilingual children were also tested in the second language using a vocabulary comprehension test, the CDI, and language sampling. Results provided evidence of a similar profile of language abilities in bilingual children as has been documented for monolingual children with DS. There was no evidence of a detrimental effect of bilingualism. That is, the bilingual children with DS scored at least as well on all English tests as their monolingual DS counterparts. Nonetheless, there was considerable diversity in the second-language abilities demonstrated by these individuals with DS. Clinical implications are addressed.

  15. Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschool Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language: Initial Findings From the Early Language and Literacy Acquisition (ELLA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L

    2017-10-05

    The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed measures of oral language, phonological processing, and print knowledge twice at a 6-month interval. A series of repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to compare change across groups. Main effects of time were observed for all variables except phonological recoding. Main effects of group were observed for vocabulary, morphosyntax, phonological memory, and concepts of print. Interaction effects were observed for phonological awareness and concepts of print. Children with hearing loss performed more poorly than children with normal hearing on measures of oral language, phonological memory, and conceptual print knowledge. Two interaction effects were present. For phonological awareness and concepts of print, children with hearing loss demonstrated less positive change than children with normal hearing. Although children with hearing loss generally demonstrated a positive growth in emergent literacy skills, their initial performance was lower than that of children with normal hearing, and rates of change were not sufficient to catch up to the peers over time.

  16. Grammatical number processing and anticipatory eye movements are not tightly coordinated in English spoken language comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eRiordan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of eye movements in world-situated language comprehension have demonstrated that rapid processing of morphosyntactic information – e.g., grammatical gender and number marking – can produce anticipatory eye movements to referents in the visual scene. We investigated how type of morphosyntactic information and the goals of language users in comprehension affected eye movements, focusing on the processing of grammatical number morphology in English-speaking adults. Participants’ eye movements were recorded as they listened to simple English declarative (There are the lions. and interrogative (Where are the lions? sentences. In Experiment 1, no differences were observed in speed to fixate target referents when grammatical number information was informative relative to when it was not. The same result was obtained in a speeded task (Experiment 2 and in a task using mixed sentence types (Experiment 3. We conclude that grammatical number processing in English and eye movements to potential referents are not tightly coordinated. These results suggest limits on the role of predictive eye movements in concurrent linguistic and scene processing. We discuss how these results can inform and constrain predictive approaches to language processing.

  17. Utility of spoken dialog systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The commercial successes of spoken dialog systems in the developed world provide encouragement for their use in the developing world, where speech could play a role in the dissemination of relevant information in local languages. We investigate...

  18. Nuffield Early Language Intervention: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibieta, Luke; Kotecha, Mehul; Skipp, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The Nuffield Early Language Intervention is designed to improve the spoken language ability of children during the transition from nursery to primary school. It is targeted at children with relatively poor spoken language skills. Three sessions per week are delivered to groups of two to four children starting in the final term of nursery and…

  19. Oral narrative context effects on poor readers' spoken language performance: story retelling, story generation, and personal narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T

    2010-04-01

    This investigation explored the effects of oral narrative elicitation context on children's spoken language performance. Oral narratives were produced by a group of 11 children with reading disability (aged between 7;11 and 9;3) and an age-matched control group of 11 children with typical reading skills in three different contexts: story retelling, story generation, and personal narratives. In the story retelling condition, the children listened to a story on tape while looking at the pictures in a book, before being asked to retell the story without the pictures. In the story generation context, the children were shown a picture containing a scene and were asked to make up their own story. Personal narratives were elicited with the help of photos and short narrative prompts. The transcripts were analysed at microstructure level on measures of verbal productivity, semantic diversity, and morphosyntax. Consistent with previous research, the results revealed no significant interactions between group and context, indicating that the two groups of children responded to the type of elicitation context in a similar way. There was a significant group effect, however, with the typical readers showing better performance overall on measures of morphosyntax and semantic diversity. There was also a significant effect of elicitation context with both groups of children producing the longest, linguistically most dense language samples in the story retelling context. Finally, the most significant differences in group performance were observed in the story retelling condition, with the typical readers outperforming the poor readers on measures of verbal productivity, number of different words, and percent complex sentences. The results from this study confirm that oral narrative samples can distinguish between good and poor readers and that the story retelling condition may be a particularly useful context for identifying strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative performance.

  20. Sensitivity to subject-verb agreement in spoken language in children with developmental dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, J; Roeleven, S; Koster, C

    The principle aim of this paper was to investigate sensitivity to subject-verb agreement morphology in children with developmental dyslexia. An auditory grammaticality judgement task was used to compare morphosyntactic abilities of primary school dyslexic children relative to normally developing

  1. Predicting Spanish-English bilingual children's language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Komaroff, Eugene; Rodriguez, Barbara L; Lopez, Lisa M; Scarpino, Shelley E; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the authors investigated factors that affect bilingual children's vocabulary and story recall abilities in their 2 languages. Participants included 191 Latino families and their children, who averaged 59 months of age. Data on parental characteristics and children's exposure to and usage of Spanish and English were collected. The authors assessed children's Spanish and English vocabulary and story recall abilities using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised ( Woodcock, Muñoz-Sandoval, Ruef, & Alvarado, 2005). Sizeable percentages of variation in children's English (R2 = .61) and Spanish (R2 = .55) vocabulary scores were explained by children's exposure to, and usage of, each language and maternal characteristics. Similarly, variations in children's story recall scores in English (R2 = .38) and Spanish (R2 = .19) were also explained by the factors considered in this investigation. However, the authors found that different sets of factors in each category affected children's vocabulary and story recall abilities in each language. Children's exposure to and usage of their two languages as well as maternal characteristics play significant roles in bilingual individuals' language development. The results highlight the importance of gathering detailed sociolinguistic information about bilingual children when these children are involved in research and when they enter the educational system.

  2. Predicting Spanish–English Bilingual Children’s Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Komaroff, Eugene; Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Lopez, Lisa M.; Scarpino, Shelley E.; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors investigated factors that affect bilingual children’s vocabulary and story recall abilities in their 2 languages. Method Participants included 191 Latino families and their children, who averaged 59 months of age. Data on parental characteristics and children’s exposure to and usage of Spanish and English were collected. The authors assessed children’s Spanish and English vocabulary and story recall abilities using subtests of the Woodcock–Muñoz Language Survey—Revised (Woodcock, Muñoz-Sandoval, Ruef, & Alvarado, 2005). Results Sizeable percentages of variation in children’s English (R2 = .61) and Spanish (R2 = .55) vocabulary scores were explained by children’s exposure to, and usage of, each language and maternal characteristics. Similarly, variations in children’s story recall scores in English (R2 = .38) and Spanish (R2 = .19) were also explained by the factors considered in this investigation. However, the authors found that different sets of factors in each category affected children’s vocabulary and story recall abilities in each language. Conclusions Children’s exposure to and usage of their two languages as well as maternal characteristics play significant roles in bilingual individuals’ language development. The results highlight the importance of gathering detailed sociolinguistic information about bilingual children when these children are involved in research and when they enter the educational system. PMID:22337497

  3. Human inferior colliculus activity relates to individual differences in spoken language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Kraus, Nina; Wong, Patrick C M

    2012-03-01

    A challenge to learning words of a foreign language is encoding nonnative phonemes, a process typically attributed to cortical circuitry. Using multimodal imaging methods [functional magnetic resonance imaging-adaptation (fMRI-A) and auditory brain stem responses (ABR)], we examined the extent to which pretraining pitch encoding in the inferior colliculus (IC), a primary midbrain structure, related to individual variability in learning to successfully use nonnative pitch patterns to distinguish words in American English-speaking adults. fMRI-A indexed the efficiency of pitch representation localized to the IC, whereas ABR quantified midbrain pitch-related activity with millisecond precision. In line with neural "sharpening" models, we found that efficient IC pitch pattern representation (indexed by fMRI) related to superior neural representation of pitch patterns (indexed by ABR), and consequently more successful word learning following sound-to-meaning training. Our results establish a critical role for the IC in speech-sound representation, consistent with the established role for the IC in the representation of communication signals in other animal models.

  4. Brain metabolite levels and language abilities in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Catherine; MacMaster, Frank P; Dewey, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    Language acquisition occurs rapidly during early childhood and lays the foundation for future reading success. However, little is known about the brain-language relationships in young children. The goal of this study was to investigate relationships between brain metabolites and prereading language abilities in healthy preschool-aged children. Participants were 67 healthy children aged 3.0-5.4 years scanned on a 3T GE MR750w MRI scanner using short echo proton spectroscopy with a voxel placed in the anterior cingulate gyrus ( n  = 56) and/or near the left angular gyrus ( n  = 45). Children completed the NEPSY-II Phonological Processing and Speeded Naming subtests at the same time as their MRI scan. We calculated glutamate, glutamine, creatine/phosphocreatine, choline, inositol, and NAA concentrations, and correlated these with language skills. In the anterior cingulate, Phonological Processing Scaled Scores were significantly correlated with glutamate, creatine, and inositol concentrations. In the left angular gyrus, Speeded Naming Combined Scaled Scores showed trend correlations with choline and glutamine concentrations. For the first time, we demonstrate relationships between brain metabolites and prereading language abilities in young children. Our results show relationships between language and inositol and glutamate that may reflect glial differences underlying language function, and a relationship of language with creatine. The trend between Speeded Naming and choline is consistent with previous research in older children and adults; however, larger sample sizes are needed to confirm whether this relationship is indeed significant in young children. These findings help understand the brain basis of language, and may ultimately lead to earlier and more effective interventions for reading disabilities.

  5. The Relationship between Creativity, Social Play, and Children's Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Romeo, Lynn; Ciraola, Stephanie; Grushko, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore the interconnectedness between children's creativity, social play, and language abilities. The participants were 225 (109 girls, 116 boys) preschool children, from diverse European American, African American, and Hispanic ethnic heritages. We assessed the children in three ways. First, each child completed the Goodenough…

  6. Child Modifiability as a Predictor of Language Abilities in Deaf Children Who Use American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Peña, Elizabeth D; Morgan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    This research explored the use of dynamic assessment (DA) for language-learning abilities in signing deaf children from deaf and hearing families. Thirty-seven deaf children, aged 6 to 11 years, were identified as either stronger (n = 26) or weaker (n = 11) language learners according to teacher or speech-language pathologist report. All children received 2 scripted, mediated learning experience sessions targeting vocabulary knowledge—specifically, the use of semantic categories that were carried out in American Sign Language. Participant responses to learning were measured in terms of an index of child modifiability. This index was determined separately at the end of the 2 individual sessions. It combined ratings reflecting each child's learning abilities and responses to mediation, including social-emotional behavior, cognitive arousal, and cognitive elaboration. Group results showed that modifiability ratings were significantly better for stronger language learners than for weaker language learners. The strongest predictors of language ability were cognitive arousal and cognitive elaboration. Mediator ratings of child modifiability (i.e., combined score of social-emotional factors and cognitive factors) are highly sensitive to language-learning abilities in deaf children who use sign language as their primary mode of communication. This method can be used to design targeted interventions.

  7. Phonological processing of rhyme in spoken language and location in sign language by deaf and hearing participants: a neurophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, C; Zuinen, T; Bayard, C; Leybaert, J

    2013-06-01

    Sign languages (SL), like oral languages (OL), organize elementary, meaningless units into meaningful semantic units. Our aim was to compare, at behavioral and neurophysiological levels, the processing of the location parameter in French Belgian SL to that of the rhyme in oral French. Ten hearing and 10 profoundly deaf adults performed a rhyme judgment task in OL and a similarity judgment on location in SL. Stimuli were pairs of pictures. As regards OL, deaf subjects' performances, although above chance level, were significantly lower than that of hearing subjects, suggesting that a metaphonological analysis is possible for deaf people but rests on phonological representations that are less precise than in hearing people. As regards SL, deaf subjects scores indicated that a metaphonological judgment may be performed on location. The contingent negative variation (CNV) evoked by the first picture of a pair was similar in hearing subjects in OL and in deaf subjects in OL and SL. However, an N400 evoked by the second picture of the non-rhyming pairs was evidenced only in hearing subjects in OL. The absence of N400 in deaf subjects may be interpreted as the failure to associate two words according to their rhyme in OL or to their location in SL. Although deaf participants can perform metaphonological judgments in OL, they differ from hearing participants both behaviorally and in ERP. Judgment of location in SL is possible for deaf signers, but, contrary to rhyme judgment in hearing participants, does not elicit any N400. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Native-language N400 and P600 predict dissociable language-learning abilities in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhenghan; Beach, Sara D.; Finn, Amy S.; Minas, Jennifer; Goetz, Calvin; Chan, Brian; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2018-01-01

    Language learning aptitude during adulthood varies markedly across individuals. An individual’s native-language ability has been associated with success in learning a new language as an adult. However, little is known about how native-language processing affects learning success and what neural markers of native-language processing, if any, are related to success in learning. We therefore related variation in electrophysiology during native-language processing to success in learning a novel artificial language. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while native English speakers judged the acceptability of English sentences prior to learning an artificial language. There was a trend towards a double dissociation between native-language ERPs and their relationships to novel syntax and vocabulary learning. Individuals who exhibited a greater N400 effect when processing English semantics showed better future learning of the artificial language overall. The N400 effect was related to syntax learning via its specific relationship to vocabulary learning. In contrast, the P600 effect size when processing English syntax predicted future syntax learning but not vocabulary learning. These findings show that distinct neural signatures of native-language processing relate to dissociable abilities for learning novel semantic and syntactic information. PMID:27737775

  9. Native-language N400 and P600 predict dissociable language-learning abilities in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhenghan; Beach, Sara D; Finn, Amy S; Minas, Jennifer; Goetz, Calvin; Chan, Brian; Gabrieli, John D E

    2017-04-01

    Language learning aptitude during adulthood varies markedly across individuals. An individual's native-language ability has been associated with success in learning a new language as an adult. However, little is known about how native-language processing affects learning success and what neural markers of native-language processing, if any, are related to success in learning. We therefore related variation in electrophysiology during native-language processing to success in learning a novel artificial language. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while native English speakers judged the acceptability of English sentences prior to learning an artificial language. There was a trend towards a double dissociation between native-language ERPs and their relationships to novel syntax and vocabulary learning. Individuals who exhibited a greater N400 effect when processing English semantics showed better future learning of the artificial language overall. The N400 effect was related to syntax learning via its specific relationship to vocabulary learning. In contrast, the P600 effect size when processing English syntax predicted future syntax learning but not vocabulary learning. These findings show that distinct neural signatures of native-language processing relate to dissociable abilities for learning novel semantic and syntactic information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Language Ability of Young English Language Learners: Definition, Configuration, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    In this study I examined the dimensionality of the latent ability underlying language use that is needed to fulfill the demands young learners face in English-medium instructional environments, where English is used as the means of instruction for teaching subject matters. Previous research on English language use by school-age children provided…

  11. Language Ability and Adjustment: Western Expatriates in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Although the standard of English proficiency is rising in China, using English in conversations with Chinese host nationals may be difficult. Therefore, proficiency in the Chinese language, may promote the adjustment of foreign business expatriates in China. To test this proposition, a mail survey...... was directed to Western business expatriates assigned to China. Controlling for the time expatriates had spent in China, results showed that their language ability had a positive association with their sociocultural adjustment. Not surprisingly, this positive relationship was strongest for interaction...

  12. Early use of orthographic information in spoken word recognition: Event-related potential evidence from the Korean language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Youan; Choi, Sungmook; Lee, Yoonhyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study examines whether orthographic information is used during prelexical processes in spoken word recognition by investigating ERPs during spoken word processing for Korean words. Differential effects due to orthographic syllable neighborhood size and sound-to-spelling consistency on P200 and N320 were evaluated by recording ERPs from 42 participants during a lexical decision task. The results indicate that P200 was smaller for words whose orthographic syllable neighbors are large in number rather than those that are small. In addition, a word with a large orthographic syllable neighborhood elicited a smaller N320 effect than a word with a small orthographic syllable neighborhood only when the word had inconsistent sound-to-spelling mapping. The results provide support for the assumption that orthographic information is used early during the prelexical spoken word recognition process. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. A randomized trial comparison of the effects of verbal and pictorial naturalistic communication strategies on spoken language for young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreibman, Laura; Stahmer, Aubyn C

    2014-05-01

    Presently there is no consensus on the specific behavioral treatment of choice for targeting language in young nonverbal children with autism. This randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness of a verbally-based intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to a pictorially-based behavioral intervention, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the acquisition of spoken language by young (2-4 years), nonverbal or minimally verbal (≤9 words) children with autism. Thirty-nine children were randomly assigned to either the PRT or PECS condition. Participants received on average 247 h of intervention across 23 weeks. Dependent measures included overall communication, expressive vocabulary, pictorial communication and parent satisfaction. Children in both intervention groups demonstrated increases in spoken language skills, with no significant difference between the two conditions. Seventy-eight percent of all children exited the program with more than 10 functional words. Parents were very satisfied with both programs but indicated PECS was more difficult to implement.

  14. Improving working memory in children with low language abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni eHolmes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether working memory training is effective in enhancing verbal memory in children with low language abilities (LLA. Cogmed Working Memory Training was completed by a community sample of children aged 8 to 11 years with LLA and a comparison group with matched nonverbal abilities and age-typical language performance. Short-term memory, working memory, language and IQ were assessed before and after training. Significant and equivalent post-training gains were found in visuo-spatial short-term memory in both groups. Exploratory analyses across the sample established that low verbal IQ scores were strongly and highly specifically associated with greater gains in verbal STM, and that children with higher verbal IQs made greater gains in visuo-spatial short-term memory following training.. This provides preliminary evidence that intensive working memory training may be effective for enhancing the weakest aspects of STM in children with low verbal abilities, and may also be of value in developing compensatory strategies.

  15. Children’s recall of words spoken in their first and second language:Effects of signal-to-noise ratio and reverberation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eHurtig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception runs smoothly and automatically when there is silence in the background, but when the speech signal is degraded by background noise or by reverberation, effortful cognitive processing is needed to compensate for the signal distortion. Previous research has typically investigated the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and reverberation time in isolation, whilst few have looked at their interaction. In this study, we probed how reverberation time and SNR influence recall of words presented in participants’ first- (L1 and second-language (L2. A total of 72 children (10 years old participated in this study. The to-be-recalled wordlists were played back with two different reverberation times (0.3 and 1.2 sec crossed with two different SNRs (+3 dBA and +12 dBA. Children recalled fewer words when the spoken words were presented in L2 in comparison with recall of spoken words presented in L1. Words that were presented with a high SNR (+12 dBA improved recall compared to a low SNR (+3 dBA. Reverberation time interacted with SNR to the effect that at +12 dB the shorter reverberation time improved recall, but at +3 dB it impaired recall. The effects of the physical sound variables (SNR and reverberation time did not interact with language.

  16. Second language pragmatic ability: Individual differences according to environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Wyner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to review research literature on the role that the second language (L2 and foreign language (FL environments actually play in the development of learners’ target language (TL pragmatic ability, and also to speculate as to the extent to which individual factors can offset the advantages that learners may have by being in the L2 context while they are learning. The paper starts by defining pragmatics and by problematizing this definition. Then, attention is given to research literature dealing with the learning of pragmatics in an L2 context compared to an FL context. Next, studies on the role of pragmatic transfer are considered, with subsequent attention given to the literature on the incidence of pragmatic transfer in FL as opposed to L2 contexts. Finally, selected studies on the role of motivation in the development of pragmatic ability are examined. In the discussion section, a number of pedagogical suggestions are offered: the inclusion of pragmatics in teacher development, the use of authentic pragmatics materials, motivating learners to be more savvy about pragmatics, and supporting learners in accepting or challenging native-speaker norms. Suggestions as to further research in the field are also offered.

  17. Language spoken at home and the association between ethnicity and doctor-patient communication in primary care: analysis of survey data for South Asian and White British patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Kara; Abel, Gary; Burt, Jenni

    2016-03-03

    To investigate if language spoken at home mediates the relationship between ethnicity and doctor-patient communication for South Asian and White British patients. We conducted secondary analysis of patient experience survey data collected from 5870 patients across 25 English general practices. Mixed effect linear regression estimated the difference in composite general practitioner-patient communication scores between White British and South Asian patients, controlling for practice, patient demographics and patient language. There was strong evidence of an association between doctor-patient communication scores and ethnicity. South Asian patients reported scores averaging 3.0 percentage points lower (scale of 0-100) than White British patients (95% CI -4.9 to -1.1, p=0.002). This difference reduced to 1.4 points (95% CI -3.1 to 0.4) after accounting for speaking a non-English language at home; respondents who spoke a non-English language at home reported lower scores than English-speakers (adjusted difference 3.3 points, 95% CI -6.4 to -0.2). South Asian patients rate communication lower than White British patients within the same practices and with similar demographics. Our analysis further shows that this disparity is largely mediated by language. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Musical, language, and reading abilities in early Portuguese readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Jennifer; Andrade, Paulo E; Andrade, Olga V C A; Gardiner, Martin; Gaab, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Early language and reading abilities have been shown to correlate with a variety of musical skills and elements of music perception in children. It has also been shown that reading impaired children can show difficulties with music perception. However, it is still unclear to what extent different aspects of music perception are associated with language and reading abilities. Here we investigated the relationship between cognitive-linguistic abilities and a music discrimination task that preserves an ecologically valid musical experience. 43 Portuguese-speaking students from an elementary school in Brazil participated in this study. Children completed a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of assessments. The music task was presented live in the music classroom, and children were asked to code sequences of four sounds on the guitar. Results show a strong relationship between performance on the music task and a number of linguistic variables. A principle component analysis of the cognitive-linguistic battery revealed that the strongest component (Prin1) accounted for 33% of the variance and Prin1 was significantly related to the music task. Highest loadings on Prin1 were found for reading measures such as Reading Speed and Reading Accuracy. Interestingly, 22 children recorded responses for more than four sounds within a trial on the music task, which was classified as Superfluous Responses (SR). SR was negatively correlated with a variety of linguistic variables and showed a negative correlation with Prin1. When analyzing children with and without SR separately, only children with SR showed a significant correlation between Prin1 and the music task. Our results provide implications for the use of an ecologically valid music-based screening tool for the early identification of reading disabilities in a classroom setting.

  19. Musical, language and reading abilities in early Portuguese readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eZuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Early language and reading abilities have been shown to correlate with a variety of musical skills and elements of music perception in children. It has also been shown that reading impaired children can show difficulties with music perception. However, it is still unclear to what extent different aspects of music perception are associated with language and reading abilities. Here we investigated the relationship between cognitive-linguistic abilities and a music discrimination task that preserves an ecologically valid musical experience. Forty-three Portuguese-speaking students from an elementary school in Brazil participated in this study. Children completed a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of assessments. The music task was presented live in the music classroom, and children were asked to code sequences of four sounds on the guitar. Results show a strong relationship between performance on the music task and a number of linguistic variables. A Principle Component Analysis of the cognitive-linguistic battery revealed that the strongest component (Prin1 accounted for 33% of the variance and Prin1 was significantly related to the music task. Highest loadings on Prin1 were found for reading measures such as Reading Speed and Reading Accuracy. Interestingly, twenty-two children recorded responses for more than four sounds within a trial on the music task, which was classified as Superfluous Responses (SR. SR was negatively correlated with a variety of linguistic variables and showed a negative correlation with Prin1. When analyzing children with and without SR separately, only children with SR showed a significant correlation between Prin1 and the music task. Our results provide implications for the use of an ecologically valid music-based screening tool for the early identification of reading disabilities in a classroom setting.

  20. Metaphorically speaking: cognitive abilities and the production of figurative language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E; Silvia, Paul J

    2013-02-01

    Figurative language is one of the most common expressions of creative behavior in everyday life. However, the cognitive mechanisms behind figures of speech such as metaphors remain largely unexplained. Recent evidence suggests that fluid and executive abilities are important to the generation of conventional and creative metaphors. The present study investigated whether several factors of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of intelligence contribute to generating these different types of metaphors. Specifically, the roles of fluid intelligence (Gf), crystallized intelligence (Gc), and broad retrieval ability (Gr) were explored. Participants completed a series of intelligence tests and were asked to produce conventional and creative metaphors. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the contribution of the different factors of intelligence to metaphor production. For creative metaphor, there were large effects of Gf (β = .45) and Gr (β = .52); for conventional metaphor, there was a moderate effect of Gc (β = .30). Creative and conventional metaphors thus appear to be anchored in different patterns of abilities: Creative metaphors rely more on executive processes, whereas conventional metaphors primarily draw from acquired vocabulary knowledge.

  1. The role of early language abilities on math skills among Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Xitao; Cheung, Sum Kwing; Meng, Yaxuan; Cai, Zhihui; Hu, Bi Ying

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of early language abilities in the development of math skills among Chinese K-3 students. About 2000 children in China, who were on average aged 6 years, were assessed for both informal math (e.g., basic number concepts such as counting objects) and formal math (calculations including addition and subtraction) skills, language abilities and nonverbal intelligence. Correlation analysis showed that language abilities were more strongly associated with informal than formal math skills, and regression analyses revealed that children's language abilities could uniquely predict both informal and formal math skills with age, gender, and nonverbal intelligence controlled. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between children's language abilities and formal math skills was partially mediated by informal math skills. The current findings indicate 1) Children's language abilities are of strong predictive values for both informal and formal math skills; 2) Language abilities impacts formal math skills partially through the mediation of informal math skills.

  2. Infant statistical-learning ability is related to real-time language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Jill; Shoaib, Amber; Thompson, Abbie; Estes, Katharine Graf

    2018-03-01

    Infants are adept at learning statistical regularities in artificial language materials, suggesting that the ability to learn statistical structure may support language development. Indeed, infants who perform better on statistical learning tasks tend to be more advanced in parental reports of infants' language skills. Work with adults suggests that one way statistical learning ability affects language proficiency is by facilitating real-time language processing. Here we tested whether 15-month-olds' ability to learn sequential statistical structure in artificial language materials is related to their ability to encode and interpret native-language speech. Specifically, we tested their ability to learn sequential structure among syllables (Experiment 1) and words (Experiment 2), as well as their ability to encode familiar English words in sentences. The results suggest that infants' ability to learn sequential structure among syllables is related to their lexical-processing efficiency, providing continuity with findings from children and adults, though effects were modest.

  3. Phonological awareness development in children with and without spoken language difficulties: A 12-month longitudinal study of German-speaking pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Blanca; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill

    2017-10-01

    There is strong empirical evidence that English-speaking children with spoken language difficulties (SLD) often have phonological awareness (PA) deficits. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinally if this is also true of pre-school children speaking German, a language that makes extensive use of derivational morphemes which may impact on the acquisition of different PA levels. Thirty 4-year-old children with SLD were assessed on 11 PA subtests at three points over a 12-month period and compared with 97 four-year-old typically developing (TD) children. The TD-group had a mean percentage correct of over 50% for the majority of tasks (including phoneme tasks) and their PA skills developed significantly over time. In contrast, the SLD-group improved their PA performance over time on syllable and rhyme, but not on phoneme level tasks. Group comparisons revealed that children with SLD had weaker PA skills, particularly on phoneme level tasks. The study contributes a longitudinal perspective on PA development before school entry. In line with their English-speaking peers, German-speaking children with SLD showed poorer PA skills than TD peers, indicating that the relationship between SLD and PA is similar across these two related but different languages.

  4. Distinguish Spoken English from Written English: Rich Feature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiufeng

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at the feature analysis of four expository essays (Text A/B/C/D) written by secondary school students with a focus on the differences between spoken and written language. Texts C and D are better written compared with the other two (Texts A&B) which are considered more spoken in language using. The language features are…

  5. Interlanguage Dissimilarity Enhances the Decline of Thinking Ability during Foreign Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yohtaro; Noda, Akiko

    1995-01-01

    Examines whether the "foreign language effect", that is, a temporary decline of thinking ability during foreign language processing, is larger when similarity between a foreign language and a native language is less. The results of two divided-attention experiments indicate that this effect was larger when the native tongue was less…

  6. Reply to David Kemmerer's "a critique of Mark D. Allen's 'the preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit'".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark D; Owens, Tyler E

    2008-07-01

    Allen [Allen, M. D. (2005). The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit. Brain and Language, 95, 255-264] presents evidence from a single patient, WBN, to motivate a theory of lexical processing and representation in which syntactic information may be encoded and retrieved independently of semantic information. In his critique, Kemmerer argues that because Allen depended entirely on preposition-based verb subcategory violations to test WBN's knowledge of correct argument structure, his results, at best, address a "strawman" theory. This argument rests on the assumption that preposition subcategory options are superficial syntactic phenomena which are not represented by argument structure proper. We demonstrate that preposition subcategory is in fact treated as semantically determined argument structure in the theories that Allen evaluated, and thus far from irrelevant. In further discussion of grammatically relevant versus irrelevant semantic features, Kemmerer offers a review of his own studies. However, due to an important design shortcoming in these experiments, we remain unconvinced. Reemphasizing the fact the Allen (2005) never claimed to rule out all semantic contributions to syntax, we propose an improvement in Kemmerer's approach that might provide more satisfactory evidence on the distinction between the kinds of relevant versus irrelevant features his studies have addressed.

  7. Age and amount of exposure to a foreign language during childhood: behavioral and ERP data on the semantic comprehension of spoken English by Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Nakamura, Naoko; Hoshino, Takahiro; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-06-01

    Children's foreign-language (FL) learning is a matter of much social as well as scientific debate. Previous behavioral research indicates that starting language learning late in life can lead to problems in phonological processing. Inadequate phonological capacity may impede lexical learning and semantic processing (phonological bottleneck hypothesis). Using both behavioral and neuroimaging data, here we examine the effects of age of first exposure (AOFE) and total hours of exposure (HOE) to English, on 350 Japanese primary-school children's semantic processing of spoken English. Children's English proficiency scores and N400 event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were analyzed in multiple regression analyses. The results showed (1) that later, rather than earlier, AOFE led to higher English proficiency and larger N400 amplitudes, when HOE was controlled for; and (2) that longer HOE led to higher English proficiency and larger N400 amplitudes, whether AOFE was controlled for or not. These data highlight the important role of amount of exposure in FL learning, and cast doubt on the view that starting FL learning earlier always produces better results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  8. A Mother Tongue Spoken Mainly by Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Reviews what is known about Esperanto as a home language and first language. Recorded cases of Esperanto-speaking families are known since 1919, and in nearly all of the approximately 350 families documented, the language is spoken to the children by the father. The data suggests that this "artificial bilingualism" can be as successful…

  9. Developing the Writing Ability of Intermediate Language Learners by Blogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hajiannejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the widespread use of blogs during recent years, the present study explored how blogging can affect the writing skill of Iranian language learners. Besides, the learners' perception of blogging was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively to see whether learners showed enthusiasm to blogging and how it motivated them to write. Two intermediate English classes were selected as the Control and Experimental Groups. Six writing topics were selected and were assigned to both groups. The writing activities in the Control Group were done on paper-based method while the Blogging Group used a selected website to do so. To evaluate the writing activities, four criteria were taken into account: a length of the writing activities, b use of verb forms, c use of articles, and d use of prepositions. Based on the results of the chi-square tests, in terms of the frequency of missed articles and prepositions the performances of both groups were significantly different. Also the compositions in the Blogging Group were longer than those of the Control Group. However, the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the learners' perception towards blogging revealed that students believed blogging had encouraged them to write more accurately. They also considered that blogging had remarkably improved their writing ability as compared to the time they did not use blogging.

  10. Quarterly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Blind and Disabled Applicants (2014-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Blind and Disabled benefits for fiscal...

  11. Social Security Administration - Quarterly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Blind and Disabled Applicants (2016-onwards)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Blind and Disabled benefits from fiscal...

  12. A Scalable Tool for Assessing Children's Language Abilities within a Narrative Context: The NAP (Narrative Assessment Protocol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Bowles, Ryan; Pence, Khara; Gosse, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of children's spoken narratives represents a potentially informative approach to language assessment within early childhood settings. Yet, narrative assessment is not readily amenable to at-scale use given the time needed to collect, transcribe, and analyze a child's narrative sample and the lack of consensus regarding what aspects of…

  13. Training to Improve Language Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvalson, Erin M.; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) have brought with them hearing ability for many prelingually deafened children. Advances in CI technology have brought not only hearing ability but speech perception to these same children. Concurrent with the development of speech perception has come spoken language development, and one goal now is that prelingually deafened CI recipient children will develop spoken language capabilities on par with those of normal hearing (NH) children. This goal has not been met pure...

  14. Pathways Into Literacy: The Role of Early Oral Language Abilities and Family Risk for Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H; Zee, Marjolein; Maassen, Ben; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of early oral language and family risk for dyslexia in the two developmental pathways toward reading comprehension, through word reading and through oral language abilities. The sample contained 237 children (164 at family risk for dyslexia) from the Dutch Dyslexia Program. Longitudinal data were obtained on seven occasions when children were between 4 and 12 years old. The relationship between early oral language ability and reading comprehension at the age of 12 years was mediated by preliteracy skills and word-decoding ability for the first pathway and by later language abilities for the second pathway. Family risk influenced literacy development through its subsequent relations with preliteracy skills, word decoding, and reading comprehension. Although performance on language measures was often lower for the family-risk group than for the no-family-risk group, family risk did not have a specific relation with either early or later oral language abilities.

  15. Spoken word recognition in young tone language learners: Age-dependent effects of segmental and suprasegmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiyi; Zhou, Peng; Singh, Leher; Gao, Liqun

    2017-02-01

    The majority of the world's languages rely on both segmental (vowels, consonants) and suprasegmental (lexical tones) information to contrast the meanings of individual words. However, research on early language development has mostly focused on the acquisition of vowel-consonant languages. Developmental research comparing sensitivity to segmental and suprasegmental features in young tone learners is extremely rare. This study examined 2- and 3-year-old monolingual tone learners' sensitivity to vowels and tones. Experiment 1a tested the influence of vowel and tone variation on novel word learning. Vowel and tone variation hindered word recognition efficiency in both age groups. However, tone variation hindered word recognition accuracy only in 2-year-olds, while 3-year-olds were insensitive to tone variation. Experiment 1b demonstrated that 3-year-olds could use tones to learn new words when additional support was provided, and additionally, that Tone 3 words were exceptionally difficult to learn. Experiment 2 confirmed a similar pattern of results when children were presented with familiar words. This study is the first to show that despite the importance of tones in tone languages, vowels maintain primacy over tones in young children's word recognition and that tone sensitivity in word learning and recognition changes between 2 and 3years of age. The findings suggest that early lexical processes are more tightly constrained by variation in vowels than by tones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Utah State University: Cross-Discipline Training through the Graduate Studies Program in Auditory Learning & Spoken Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, K. Todd

    2010-01-01

    Since 1946, Utah State University (USU) has offered specialized coursework in audiology and speech-language pathology, awarding the first graduate degrees in 1948. In 1965, the teacher training program in deaf education was launched. Over the years, the Department of Communicative Disorders and Deaf Education (COMD-DE) has developed a rich history…

  17. A Pilot Study of Telepractice for Teaching Listening and Spoken Language to Mandarin-Speaking Children with Congenital Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Telepractice provides an alternative form of auditory-verbal therapy (eAVT) intervention through videoconferencing; this can be of immense benefit for children with hearing loss, especially those living in rural or remote areas. The effectiveness of eAVT for the language development of Mandarin-speaking preschoolers with hearing loss was…

  18. Infant ability to tell voices apart rests on language experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, E.K.; Westrek, E.S.M.; Nazzi, T.; Cutler, A.

    2011-01-01

    A visual fixation study tested whether 7-month-olds can discriminate between different talkers. The infants were first habituated to talkers producing sentences in either a familiar or unfamiliar language, then heard test sentences from previously unheard speakers, either in the language used for

  19. Active Learning: A Prerequisite for Language Development in the Mixed Ability Class (MAC) of Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Meenakshi Harraw

    2011-01-01

    Engineering students tend to pay more attention to their core subject classes rather than on an English language class. They all come from different social and academic backgrounds and their knowledge of English language varies from one another. A mixed ability group throws many challenges to an English language teacher teaching to a grown up or…

  20. Infant Statistical-Learning Ability Is Related to Real-Time Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Jill; Shoaib, Amber; Thompson, Abbie; Estes, Katharine Graf

    2018-01-01

    Infants are adept at learning statistical regularities in artificial language materials, suggesting that the ability to learn statistical structure may support language development. Indeed, infants who perform better on statistical learning tasks tend to be more advanced in parental reports of infants' language skills. Work with adults suggests…

  1. Mixed-Ability Foreign Language Teaching and the Communicative Approach. The Pupil's Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Gerard M.

    The communicative approach is the most appropriate for teaching foreign languages to mixed-ability classes, because traditional grammar-translation, audiolingual, and audiovisual approaches to language instruction focusing largely on correctness of form and language use have appeal for only the most able learners and require abstraction of the…

  2. Connecting Language Proficiency to (Self-Reported) Teaching Ability: A Review and Analysis of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faez, Farahnaz; Karas, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a review and analysis of current research examining the connection between teacher language proficiency and their self-reported beliefs about their pedagogical abilities. Generally speaking, (English) language teachers require an advanced level of proficiency in order to be successful language teachers, but pedagogical skills…

  3. Right-Hemispheric Cortical Contributions to Language Ability in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; Ragnehed, Mattias; McAllister, Anita; Lundberg, Peter; Engstrom, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the correlation between individual linguistic ability based on performance levels and their engagement of typical and atypical language areas in the brain. Eighteen healthy subjects between 21 and 64 years participated in language ability tests, and subsequent functional MRI scans measuring brain activity in response…

  4. Inferential language use by school-aged boys with fragile X syndrome: Effects of a parent-implemented spoken language intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sarah; McDuffie, Andrea; Banasik, Amy; Tempero Feigles, Robyn; Thurman, Angela John; Abbeduto, Leonard

    This study examined the impact of a distance-delivered parent-implemented narrative language intervention on the use of inferential language during shared storytelling by school-aged boys with fragile X syndrome, an inherited neurodevelopmental disorder. Nineteen school-aged boys with FXS and their biological mothers participated. Dyads were randomly assigned to an intervention or a treatment-as-usual comparison group. Transcripts from all pre- and post-intervention sessions were coded for child use of prompted and spontaneous inferential language coded into various categories. Children in the intervention group used more utterances that contained inferential language than the comparison group at post-intervention. Furthermore, children in the intervention group used more prompted inferential language than the comparison group at post-intervention, but there were no differences between the groups in their spontaneous use of inferential language. Additionally, children in the intervention group demonstrated increases from pre- to post-intervention in their use of most categories of inferential language. This study provides initial support for the utility of a parent-implemented language intervention for increasing the use of inferential language by school aged boys with FXS, but also suggests the need for additional treatment to encourage spontaneous use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. SPOKEN BAHASA INDONESIA BY GERMAN STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Sudipa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the spoken ability for German students using Bahasa Indonesia (BI. They have studied it for six weeks in IBSN Program at Udayana University, Bali-Indonesia. The data was collected at the time the students sat for the mid-term oral test and was further analyzed with reference to the standard usage of BI. The result suggests that most students managed to express several concepts related to (1 LOCATION; (2 TIME; (3 TRANSPORT; (4 PURPOSE; (5 TRANSACTION; (6 IMPRESSION; (7 REASON; (8 FOOD AND BEVERAGE, and (9 NUMBER AND PERSON. The only problem few students might encounter is due to the influence from their own language system called interference, especially in word order.

  6. Generating Inferences from Written and Spoken Language: A Comparison of Children with Visual Impairment and Children with Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Pring, Linda

    2006-01-01

    The two experiments reported here investigated the ability of sighted children and children with visual impairment to comprehend text and, in particular, to draw inferences both while reading and while listening. Children were assigned into "comprehension skill" groups, depending on the degree to which their reading comprehension skill was in line…

  7. Simultaneous perception of a spoken and a signed language: The brain basis of ASL-English code-blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Jill; McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Code-blends (simultaneous words and signs) are a unique characteristic of bimodal bilingual communication. Using fMRI, we investigated code-blend comprehension in hearing native ASL-English bilinguals who made a semantic decision (edible?) about signs, audiovisual words, and semantically equivalent code-blends. English and ASL recruited a similar fronto-temporal network with expected modality differences: stronger activation for English in auditory regions of bilateral superior temporal cortex, and stronger activation for ASL in bilateral occipitotemporal visual regions and left parietal cortex. Code-blend comprehension elicited activity in a combination of these regions, and no cognitive control regions were additionally recruited. Furthermore, code-blends elicited reduced activation relative to ASL presented alone in bilateral prefrontal and visual extrastriate cortices, and relative to English alone in auditory association cortex. Consistent with behavioral facilitation observed during semantic decisions, the findings suggest that redundant semantic content induces more efficient neural processing in language and sensory regions during bimodal language integration. PMID:26177161

  8. Czech spoken in Bohemia and Moravia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šimáčková, Š.; Podlipský, V.J.; Chládková, K.

    2012-01-01

    As a western Slavic language of the Indo-European family, Czech is closest to Slovak and Polish. It is spoken as a native language by nearly 10 million people in the Czech Republic (Czech Statistical Office n.d.). About two million people living abroad, mostly in the USA, Canada, Austria, Germany,

  9. A Temporary Decline of Thinking Ability during Foreign Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yohtaro; Noda, Akiko

    1993-01-01

    A divided-attention experiment with 24 college students who were native speakers of Japanese speaking English and 16 English-Japanese bilingual students speaking Japanese confirm the prediction that performance in a thinking task declines when a concurrent linguistic task in a foreign language is required. (SLD)

  10. ON THE TEST ABILITY OF THEORIES OF LANGUAGE EVOLUTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theories of the evolution of human language express by their very nature claims of a historical sort: claims about why, when ... natural or man-made records of these evolutionary events etc. - is generally seen as .... determine which account within a set of alternative adaptive explanations is the correct one. Nonadaptationist ...

  11. Active Learning: A Prerequisite for Language Development in the Mixed Ability Class (MAC of Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Harraw Verma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineering students tend to pay more attention to their core subject classes rather than on an English language class. They all come from different social and academic backgrounds and their knowledge of English language varies from one another. A mixed ability group throws many challenges to an English language teacher teaching to a grown up or rather adult group of learners who always pre-define their interests and needs. The primary and the most important challenge in front of the language teacher teaching engineering students is - how to promote active learning in MAC situation? A language teacher to overcome the problems of a mixed ability classroom and promote active learning needs to adopt a number of strategies. The paper studies the MAC situation in an English language classroom of engineering students and makes an attempt to re-define methods for active learning a prerequisite for language development in an engineering classroom.

  12. The role of early language abilities on math skills among Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xitao; Cheung, Sum Kwing; Cai, Zhihui; Hu, Bi Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the role of early language abilities in the development of math skills among Chinese K-3 students. About 2000 children in China, who were on average aged 6 years, were assessed for both informal math (e.g., basic number concepts such as counting objects) and formal math (calculations including addition and subtraction) skills, language abilities and nonverbal intelligence. Methodology Correlation analysis showed that language abilities were more strongly associated with informal than formal math skills, and regression analyses revealed that children’s language abilities could uniquely predict both informal and formal math skills with age, gender, and nonverbal intelligence controlled. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between children’s language abilities and formal math skills was partially mediated by informal math skills. Results The current findings indicate 1) Children’s language abilities are of strong predictive values for both informal and formal math skills; 2) Language abilities impacts formal math skills partially through the mediation of informal math skills. PMID:28749950

  13. The role of early language abilities on math skills among Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of early language abilities in the development of math skills among Chinese K-3 students. About 2000 children in China, who were on average aged 6 years, were assessed for both informal math (e.g., basic number concepts such as counting objects and formal math (calculations including addition and subtraction skills, language abilities and nonverbal intelligence.Correlation analysis showed that language abilities were more strongly associated with informal than formal math skills, and regression analyses revealed that children's language abilities could uniquely predict both informal and formal math skills with age, gender, and nonverbal intelligence controlled. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between children's language abilities and formal math skills was partially mediated by informal math skills.The current findings indicate 1 Children's language abilities are of strong predictive values for both informal and formal math skills; 2 Language abilities impacts formal math skills partially through the mediation of informal math skills.

  14. Immigrant-Native Substitutability: The Role of Language Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Ethan G. Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Wage evidence suggests that immigrant workers are imperfectly substitutable for native-born workers with similar education and experience. Using U.S. Censuses and recent American Community Survey data, I ask to what extent differences in language skills drive this. I find they are important. I estimate that the response of immigrants' relative wages to immigration is concentrated among immigrants with poor English skills. Similarly, immigrants who arrive at young ages, as adults, both have st...

  15. Genetic and environmental influences on Chinese language and reading abilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the etiology of individual differences in Chinese language and reading skills in 312 typically developing Chinese twin pairs aged from 3 to 11 years (228 pairs of monozygotic twins and 84 pairs of dizygotic twins; 166 male pairs and 146 female pairs. Children were individually given tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary, phonological memory, tone awareness, syllable and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming, morphological awareness and orthographic skills, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. All analyses controlled for the effects of age. There were moderate to substantial genetic influences on word reading, tone awareness, phonological memory, morphological awareness and rapid automatized naming (estimates ranged from .42 to .73, while shared environment exerted moderate to strong effects on receptive vocabulary, syllable and rhyme awareness and orthographic skills (estimates ranged from .35 to .63. Results were largely unchanged when scores were adjusted for nonverbal reasoning as well as age. Findings of this study are mostly similar to those found for English, a language with very different characteristics, and suggest the universality of genetic and environmental influences across languages.

  16. Prosodic Awareness and Punctuation Ability in Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Lindsay; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2018-01-01

    We examined the relationship between two metalinguistic tasks: prosodic awareness and punctuation ability. Specifically, we investigated whether adults' ability to punctuate was related to the degree to which they are aware of and able to manipulate prosody in spoken language. English-speaking adult readers (n = 115) were administered a receptive…

  17. Phonological working memory and its relationship with language abilities in children with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haresabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many studies have demonstrated a close relationship between phonological working memory and language abilities in normal children and children with language developmental disorders, such as those with cochlear implants. A review of these studies would clarify communication and learning in such children and provide more comprehensive information regarding their education and treatment. In this study, the characteristics of phonological working memory and its relationship with language abilities in children with cochlear implants was examined.Recent Findings: In this study, the authors studied the characteristics of phonological working memory and its relationship with language abilities of children with cochlear implants. These studies showed that in addition to demographic variables, phonological working memory is a factor that affects language development in children with cochlear implants. Children with cochlear implants typically have a shorter memory span.Conclusion: It is thought that the deficiency in primary auditory sensory input and language stimulation caused by difficulties in the processing and rehearsal of auditory information in phonological working memory is the main cause of the short memory span in such children. Conversely, phonological working memory problems may have adverse effects on the language abilities in such children. Therefore, to provide comprehensive and appropriate treatment for children with cochlear implants, the reciprocal relationship between language abilities and phonological working memory should be considered.

  18. Investigating eye movement patterns, language, and social ability in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Steven D; Linnell, Karina J; Heaton, Pamela

    2014-05-01

    Although all intellectually high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display core social and communication deficits, some develop language within a normative timescale and others experience significant delays and subsequent language impairment. Early attention to social stimuli plays an important role in the emergence of language, and reduced attention to faces has been documented in infants later diagnosed with ASD. We investigated the extent to which patterns of attention to social stimuli would differentiate early and late language onset groups. Children with ASD (mean age = 10 years) differing on language onset timing (late/normal) and a typically developing comparison group completed a task in which visual attention to interacting and noninteracting human figures was mapped using eye tracking. Correlations on visual attention data and results from tests measuring current social and language ability were conducted. Patterns of visual attention did not distinguish typically developing children and ASD children with normal language onset. Children with ASD and late language onset showed significantly reduced attention to salient social stimuli. Associations between current language ability and social attention were observed. Delay in language onset is associated with current language skills as well as with specific eye-tracking patterns.

  19. LANGUAGE POLICIES PURSUED IN THE AXIS OF OTHERING AND IN THE PROCESS OF CONVERTING SPOKEN LANGUAGE OF TURKS LIVING IN RUSSIA INTO THEIR WRITTEN LANGUAGE / RUSYA'DA YASAYAN TÜRKLERİN KONUSMA DİLLERİNİN YAZI DİLİNE DÖNÜSTÜRÜLME SÜRECİ VE ÖTEKİLESTİRME EKSENİNDE İZLENEN DİL POLİTİKALARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Kaan YALÇIN (M.A.H.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Language is an object realized in two ways; spokenlanguage and written language. Each language can havethe characteristics of a spoken language, however, everylanguage can not have the characteristics of a writtenlanguage since there are some requirements for alanguage to be deemed as a written language. Theserequirements are selection, coding, standardization andbecoming widespread. It is necessary for a language tomeet these requirements in either natural or artificial wayso to be deemed as a written language (standardlanguage.Turkish language, which developed as a singlewritten language till 13th century, was divided intolanguages as West Turkish and North-East Turkish bymeeting the requirements of a written language in anatural way. Following this separation and through anatural process, it showed some differences in itself;however, the policy of converting the spoken language ofeach Turkish clan into their written language -the policypursued by Russia in a planned way- turned Turkish,which came to 20th century as a few written languagesinto20 different written languages. Implementation ofdiscriminatory language policies suggested by missionerssuch as Slinky and Ostramov to Russian Government,imposing of Cyrillic alphabet full of different andunnecessary signs on each Turkish clan by force andothering activities of Soviet boarding schools opened hadconsiderable effects on the said process.This study aims at explaining that the conversionof spoken languages of Turkish societies in Russia intotheir written languages did not result from a naturalprocess; the historical development of Turkish languagewhich is shaped as 20 separate written languages onlybecause of the pressure exerted by political will; and how the Russian subjected language concept -which is thememory of a nation- to an artificial process.

  20. Reduced sensitivity to context in language comprehension: A characteristic of Autism Spectrum Disorders or of poor structural language ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Melanie; Nadig, Aparna

    2018-01-01

    We present two experiments examining the universality and uniqueness of reduced context sensitivity in language processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), as proposed by the Weak Central Coherence account (Happé & Frith, 2006, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(1), 25). That is, do all children with ASD exhibit decreased context sensitivity, and is this characteristic specific to ASD versus other neurodevelopmental conditions? Experiment 1, conducted in English, was a comparison of children with ASD with normal language and their typically-developing peers on a picture selection task where interpretation of sentential context was required to identify homonyms. Contrary to the predictions of Weak Central Coherence, the ASD-normal language group exhibited no difficulty on this task. Experiment 2, conducted in German, compared children with ASD with variable language abilities, typically-developing children, and a second control group of children with Language Impairment (LI) on a sentence completion task where a context sentence had to be considered to produce the continuation of an ambiguous sentence fragment. Both ASD-variable language and LI groups exhibited reduced context sensitivity and did not differ from each other. Finally, to directly test which factors contribute to reduced context sensitivity, we conducted a regression analysis for each experiment, entering nonverbal IQ, structural language ability, and autism diagnosis as predictors. For both experiments structural language ability emerged as the only significant predictor. These convergent findings demonstrate that reduced sensitivity to context in language processing is linked to low structural language rather than ASD diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  2. Influence of hearing loss and cognitive abilities on language development in CHARGE Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vesseur, Annemarie; Langereis, Margreet; Free, Rolien; Snik, Ad; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Mylanus, Emmanuel

    Hearing loss and cognitive delay are frequently occurring features in CHARGE syndrome that may contribute to impaired language development. However, not much is known about language development in patients with CHARGE syndrome. In this retrospective study, hearing loss, cognitive abilities, and

  3. Perceptions and Problems of English Language and Communication Abilities: A Final Check on Thai Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajprasit, Krich; Pratoomrat, Panadda; Wang, Tuntiga

    2015-01-01

    English language and communication abilities are an essential part of the global engineering community. However, non-native English speaking engineers and students tend to be unable to master these skills. This study aims to gauge the perceived levels of their general English language proficiency, to explore their English communicative problems,…

  4. The Role of Language Ability in Young Children's Cooperation during Play and Collaborative Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriens-van Hoogdalem, Anne-Greth; de Haan, Dorian M. P.; Boom, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Language and metacommunication are assumed to be important for accomplishing a high level of cooperation in social play. Research to date, however, does not address the relationship of language ability and metacommunication to the complexity of cooperation. This study investigated this relationship by observing 24 four- and five-year-old…

  5. Screening for Language Delay: Growth Trajectories of Language Ability in Low- and High-Performing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Marianne; Hagtvet, Bente; Hulme, Charles; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the stability and growth of preschool language skills and explores latent class analysis as an approach for identifying children at risk of language impairment. Method: The authors present data from a large-scale 2-year longitudinal study, in which 600 children were assessed with a language-screening tool…

  6. Orthographic Facilitation in Chinese Spoken Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…

  7. Spoken and Written Communication: Are Five Vowels Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Gerry

    The comparatively small vowel inventory of Bantu languages leads young Bantu learners to produce "undifferentiations," so that, for example, the spoken forms of "hat,""hut,""heart" and "hurt" sound the same to a British ear. The two criteria for a non-native speaker's spoken performance are…

  8. Language Outcomes in Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing: The Role of Language Ability Before Hearing Aid Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daub, Olivia; Bagatto, Marlene P; Johnson, Andrew M; Cardy, Janis Oram

    2017-11-09

    Early auditory experiences are fundamental in infant language acquisition. Research consistently demonstrates the benefits of early intervention (i.e., hearing aids) to language outcomes in children who are deaf and hard of hearing. The nature of these benefits and their relation with prefitting development are, however, not well understood. This study examined Ontario Infant Hearing Program birth cohorts to explore predictors of performance on the Preschool Language Scale-Fourth Edition at the time of (N = 47) and after (N = 19) initial hearing aid intervention. Regression analyses revealed that, before the hearing aid fitting, severity of hearing loss negatively predicted 19% and 10% of the variance in auditory comprehension and expressive communication, respectively. After hearing aid fitting, children's standard scores on language measures remained stable, but they made significant improvement in their progress values, which represent individual skills acquired on the test, rather than standing relative to same-age peers. Magnitude of change in progress values was predicted by a negative interaction of prefitting language ability and severity of hearing loss for the Auditory Comprehension scale. These findings highlight the importance of considering a child's prefitting language ability in interpreting eventual language outcomes. Possible mechanisms of hearing aid benefit are discussed. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5538868.

  9. Genetic and Environmental Links between Natural Language Use and Cognitive Ability in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Caitlin F.; Edelson, Lisa R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2017-01-01

    Although the phenotypic correlation between language and nonverbal cognitive ability is well-documented, studies examining the etiology of the covariance between these abilities are scant, particularly in very young children. The goal of this study was to address this gap in the literature by examining the genetic and environmental links between…

  10. Language Abilities, Reading Acquisition, and Developmental Dyslexia: A Discussion of Hypothetical and Observed Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Diane J.

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated Frith's 3-phase model of reading acquisition with 300 children in 2 cohorts who were followed from kindergarten through grade 3. Varying relationships were found among global language abilities, word recognition abilities, and reading comprehension depending on grade level. Implications for the study and treatment of…

  11. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  12. Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment: Differences and Similarities in Pragmatic Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Pernille; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2009-01-01

    Pragmatically related abilities were studied in three clinical groups of children from 5 to 11 years of age; children with cerebral palsy (CP; n = 10), children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH; n = 10) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI; n = 10), in order to explore pragmatic abilities within each group. A range of…

  13. Relations among the Home Language and Literacy Environment and Children's Language Abilities: A Study of Head Start Dual Language Learners and Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kandia; Sandilos, Lia E.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Sawyer, Brook E.; Méndez, Lucía I.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study explored the relations between Spanish-English dual language learner (DLL) children's home language and literacy experiences and their expressive vocabulary and oral comprehension abilities in Spanish and in English. Data from Spanish-English mothers of 93 preschool-age Head Start children who resided in central…

  14. Discourse before gender: An event-related brain potential study on the interplay of semantic and syntactic information during spoken language understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, C.M.; Berkum, J.J.A. van; Hagoort, P.

    2000-01-01

    A study is presented on the effects of discourse-semantic and lexical-syntactic information during spoken sentence processing. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were registered while subjects listened to discourses that ended in a sentence with a temporary syntactic ambiguity. The prior

  15. Deficits in Narrative Abilities in Child British Sign Language Users with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Ros; Rowley, Katherine; Mason, Kathryn; Morgan, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This study details the first ever investigation of narrative skills in a group of 17 deaf signing children who have been diagnosed with disorders in their British Sign Language development compared with a control group of 17 deaf child signers matched for age, gender, education, quantity, and quality of language exposure and non-verbal…

  16. The semantic associative ability in preschoolers with different age of language onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Di Giacomo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to verify the semantic associative abilities in children with different language onset times: early, typical, and delayed talkers. The study was conducted on the sample of 74 preschool children who performed a Perceptual Associative Task, in order to evaluate the ability to link concepts by four associative strategies (function, part/whole, contiguity, and superordinate strategies. The results evidenced that the children with delayed language onset performed significantly better than the children with early language production. No difference was found between typical and delayed language groups. Our results showed that the children with early language onset presented weakness in the flexibility of elaboration of the concepts. The typical and delayed language onset groups overlapped performance in the associative abilities. The time of language onset appeared to be a predictive factor in the use of semantic associative strategies; the early talkers might present a slow pattern of conceptual processing, whereas the typical and late talkers may have protective factors.

  17. The role of language ability and self-regulation in the development of inattentive-hyperactive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Isaac T; Bates, John E; Staples, Angela D

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has found associations but not established mechanisms of developmental linkage between language ability and inattentive-hyperactive (I-H) behavior problems. The present study examined whether self-regulation mediates the effect of language ability on later I-H behavior problems among young children (N = 120) assessed at 30, 36, and 42 months of age. Cross-lagged panel models tested the direction of effect between language ability and self-regulation and longitudinal effects of language ability on later I-H problems mediated by self-regulation. Language ability was measured by children's scores on the receptive and expressive language subtests of the Differential Ability Scales. Self-regulation was measured by three behavioral tasks requiring inhibitory control. I-H problems were reported by parents and secondary caregivers. Language ability predicted later self-regulation as measured by all three tasks. There was no association, however, between self-regulation and later language ability, suggesting that the direction of effect was stronger from language ability to later self-regulation. Moreover, the effect of language ability on later I-H behavior problems was mediated by children's self-regulation in one of the tasks (for secondary caregivers' but not parents' ratings). Findings suggest that language deficits may explain later I-H behavior problems via their prediction of poorer self-regulatory skills.

  18. Emergent name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M; Zucker, Tricia A; McGinty, Anita S

    2009-01-01

    The 2 studies reported in this manuscript collectively address 3 aims: (a) to characterize the name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment (LI), (b) to identify those emergent literacy skills that are concurrently associated with name-writing abilities, and (c) to compare the name-writing abilities of children with LI to those of their typical language (TL) peers. Fifty-nine preschool-age children with LI were administered a battery of emergent literacy and language assessments, including a task in which the children were asked to write their first names. A subset of these children (n=23) was then compared to a TL-matched sample to characterize performance differences. Results showed that the name-writing abilities of preschoolers with LI were associated with skills in alphabet knowledge and print concepts. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that only alphabet knowledge uniquely contributed to the variance in concurrent name-writing abilities. In the matched comparison, the TL group demonstrated significantly more advanced name-writing representations than the LI group. Children with LI lag significantly behind their TL peers in name-writing abilities. Speech-language pathologists are encouraged to address the print-related skills of children with LI within their clinical interventions.

  19. The Influence of Diglossia on Different Types of Phonological Abilities in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Ibrahim A.; Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of "diglossia", a characteristic of the Arabic language, on the development of phonological abilities in the spoken and the literary language forms. Participants were 571 children from 10 grade levels (1-7, 9, 11 and 12), which were recruited from 10 schools by taking into account two important…

  20. Language abilities of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis: A preliminary group and case investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Caroline H S; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2013-02-04

    Language impairments are reported in multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, the majority of studies have evaluated language differences between relapsing-remitting (RR) and chronic progressive (CP) clinical courses. Neurologists have distinguished two progressive courses of MS: primary progressive (PP) MS and secondary progressive (SP) MS. Recent evidence suggests that cognitive performance profiles may provide a means of differentiating between the clinical courses of RR, SP, and PPMS. With this in mind, a deviation of language profiles between sub-types is predicted. The purpose of this study is to profile the language abilities of five participants with PPMS. Five participants with PPMS participated in this investigation. The participants were assessed using the Neurosensory Center Comprehensive Examination for Aphasia (NCCEA), the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and the Test of Language Competence-Expanded (TLC-E). Data analysis consisted of (a) comparison of the total scores achieved by the PPMS participants and a group of 26 age-matched controls on the NCCEA, BNT, and TLC-E, and (b) case studies to individually profile the language abilities of the five participants with PPMS. Comparison of the NCCEA, BNT, and TLC-E total scores of the participants with PPMS and the control group did not indicate significant differences between the two groups. Case-by-case analysis revealed deficits in meta-linguistic abilities in two participants. The results provide preliminary evidence to suggest that, although patients with PPMS may have preserved general language abilities, some individuals may present with mild impairments in high-level linguistic abilities.

  1. Language and memory abilities of internationally adopted children from China: evidence for early age effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcenserie, Audrey; Genesee, Fred

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if internationally adopted (IA) children from China (M = 10;8) adopted by French-speaking families exhibit lags in verbal memory in addition to lags in verbal abilities documented in previous studies (Gauthier & Genesee, 2011). Tests assessing verbal and non-verbal memory, language, non-verbal cognitive ability, and socio-emotional development were administered to thirty adoptees. Their results were compared to those of thirty non-adopted monolingual French-speaking children matched on age, gender, and socioeconomic status. The IA children scored significantly lower than the controls on language, verbal short-term memory, verbal working memory, and verbal long-term memory. No group differences were found on non-verbal memory, non-verbal cognitive ability, and socio-emotional development, suggesting language-specific difficulties. Despite extended exposure to French, adoptees may experience language difficulties due to limitations in verbal memory, possibly as a result of their delayed exposure to that language and/or attrition of the birth language.

  2. Assessment of communication abilities in multilingual children: Language rights or human rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2018-02-01

    Communication involves a sender, a receiver and a shared code operating through shared rules. Breach of communication results from disruption to any of these basic components of a communicative chain, although assessment of communication abilities typically focuses on senders/receivers, on two assumptions: first, that their command of features and rules of the language in question (the code), such as sounds, words or word order, as described in linguists' theorisations, represents the full scope of linguistic competence; and second, that languages are stable, homogeneous entities, unaffected by their users' communicative needs. Bypassing the role of the code in successful communication assigns decisive rights to abstract languages rather than to real-life language users, routinely leading to suspected or diagnosed speech-language disorder in academic and clinical assessment of multilingual children's communicative skills. This commentary reflects on whether code-driven assessment practices comply with the spirit of Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

  3. Investigating the role of language attitudes for perception abilities using reaction times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Danish and Swedish are mutually intelligible to a certain extent, but it has been shown that adult Danes confronted with spoken Swedish recognise more items than adult Swedes who are confronted with spoken Danish. However, this asymmetry was not confirmed for illiterate Danish and Swedish

  4. Putative sex differences in verbal abilities and language cortex: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Mikkel

    2009-03-01

    This review brings together evidence from a diverse field of methods for investigating sex differences in language processing. Differences are found in certain language-related deficits, such as stuttering, dyslexia, autism and schizophrenia. Common to these is that language problems may follow from, rather than cause the deficit. Large studies have been conducted on sex differences in verbal abilities within the normal population, and a careful reading of the results suggests that differences in language proficiency do not exist. Early differences in language acquisition show a slight advantage for girls, but this gradually disappears. A difference in language lateralization of brain structure and function in adults has also been suggested, perhaps following size differences in the corpus callosum. Neither of these claims is substantiated by evidence. In addition, overall results from studies on regional grey matter distribution using voxel-based morphometry, indicate no consistent differences between males and females in language-related cortical regions. Language function in Wada tests, aphasia, and in normal ageing also fails to show sex differentiation.

  5. Precursors to language in preterm infants: speech perception abilities in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Language development in infants born very preterm is often compromised. Poor language skills have been described in preschoolers and differences between preterms and full terms, relative to early vocabulary size and morphosyntactical complexity, have also been identified. However, very few data are available concerning early speech perception abilities and their predictive value for later language outcomes. An overview of the results obtained in a prospective study exploring the link between early speech perception abilities and lexical development in the second year of life in a population of very preterm infants (≤32 gestation weeks) is presented. Specifically, behavioral measures relative to (a) native-language recognition and discrimination from a rhythmically distant and a rhythmically close nonfamiliar languages, and (b) monosyllabic word-form segmentation, were obtained and compared to data from full-term infants. Expressive vocabulary at two test ages (12 and 18 months, corrected age for gestation) was measured using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Behavioral results indicated that differences between preterm and control groups were present, but only evident when task demands were high in terms of language processing, selective attention to relevant information and memory load. When responses could be based on acquired knowledge from accumulated linguistic experience, between-group differences were no longer observed. Critically, while preterm infants responded satisfactorily to the native-language recognition and discrimination tasks, they clearly differed from full-term infants in the more challenging activity of extracting and retaining word-form units from fluent speech, a fundamental ability for starting to building a lexicon. Correlations between results from the language discrimination tasks and expressive vocabulary measures could not be systematically established. However, attention time to novel words in the word segmentation

  6. Language abilities of children who stutter: a meta-analytical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntourou, Katerina; Conture, Edward G; Lipsey, Mark W

    2011-08-01

    To identify, integrate, and summarize evidence from empirical studies of the language abilities of children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). Candidate studies were identified through electronic databases, the tables of contents of speech-language journals, and reference lists of relevant articles and literature reviews. The 22 included studies met the following criteria: studied both children who did and did not stutter between ages 2;0 (years;months) and 8;0, and reported norm-referenced language measures and/or measures from spontaneous language samples amenable to effect size calculation. Data were extracted using a coding manual and were assessed by application of general and specialized analytical software. Mean difference effect size was estimated using Hedges's g (Hedges, 1982). Findings indicated that CWS scored significantly lower than CWNS on norm-referenced measures of overall language (Hedges's g = -0.48), receptive (Hedges's g = -0.52) and expressive vocabulary (Hedges's g = -0.41), and mean length of utterance (Hedges's g = -0.23). Present findings were taken to suggest that children's language abilities are potentially influential variables associated with childhood stuttering.

  7. Concentrated Language Encounter Instruction Model III in Reading and Creative Writing Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promnont, Piyapong; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2015-01-01

    The research is aimed to study the development of eleventh grade students' reading, creative writing abilities, satisfaction taught through the concentrated language encounter instruction method, CLE model III. One experimental group time series design was used, and the data was analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures, t-test for one-group…

  8. Youth Citizenship at the End of Primary School: The Role of Language Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidhof, Bram B. F.; ten Dam, Geert T. M.; Dijkstra, A. B.; van de Werfhorst, H. G.

    2017-01-01

    Schools are expected to fulfil different types of goals, including citizenship development. An important question is to what extent schools can simultaneously promote different learning outcomes. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between language ability and youth citizenship. Using a representative sample of 2429 grade 6 pupils (age…

  9. Commentary on "Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability": Implications for Child Language Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This commentary responds to the implications for child language intervention of Catts and Kamhi's (2017) call to move from viewing reading comprehension as a single ability to recognizing it as a complex constellation of reader, text, and activity. Method: Reading comprehension, as Catts and Kamhi explain, is very complicated. In this…

  10. Precursors of Language Ability and Academic Performance: An Intergenerational, Longitudinal Study of At-Risk Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Lisa; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    The current investigation examined whether inter-generational transfer of risk could be revealed through mothers' and preschool-aged children's expressive language, and whether continuity of risk persisted in these children's academic abilities, 3 years later. Participating families were drawn from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project, a…

  11. Perceived Changes in the English Language Ability of Freshmen at a University in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, James

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates possible changes in students' English language ability by means of a questionnaire administered to 18 experienced university teachers. The questionnaire measures changes in six domains: grammar, reading, listening, speaking, writing, and attitudes. The results of the questionnaire indicate that over the last decade a…

  12. Story Retelling and Language Ability in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy and Speech Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Ann; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on retelling ability and cognition is limited in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and speech impairment. Aims: To explore the impact of expressive and receptive language, narrative discourse dimensions (Narrative Assessment Profile measures), auditory and visual memory, theory of mind (ToM) and non-verbal cognition on the…

  13. Semantic abilities in children with pragmatic language impairment: the case of picture naming skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Hermans, S.I.A.; Cuperus, J.; Jansonius, K.; Verhoeven, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. Method: 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically

  14. Semantic Abilities in Children With Pragmatic Language Impairment: The Case of Picture Naming Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Hermans, S.I.A.; Cuperus, J.M.; Jansonius-Schultheiss, K.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. Method: 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically

  15. Diagnosing academic language ability : An analysis of the Test of Academic Literacy for Postgraduate Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, Anna; Weideman, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Following the observation that a large number of postgraduate students may not possess an adequate level of academic language ability to complete their studies successfully, this study investigates postgraduate students' strengths and weaknesses in academic literacy, with a specific focus on

  16. Perceptual Training of Second-Language Vowels: Does Musical Ability Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarvand Mokari, Payam; Werner, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    The present study attempts to extend the research on the effects of phonetic training on the production and perception of second-language (L2) vowels. We also examined whether success in learning L2 vowels through high-variability intensive phonetic training is related to the learners' general musical abilities. Forty Azerbaijani learners of…

  17. Inferential Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Pernille; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the ability to make inferences in three groups of children ranging from 5;2 to 10;9 years: 10 children with cerebral palsy (CP), 10 children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH) and 10 children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI). The relationship between inferential and literal…

  18. Vocabulary Knowledge and Morphological Awareness in Chinese as a Heritage Language (CHL) Reading Comprehension Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haomin; Koda, Keiko

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the role of vocabulary knowledge and morphological awareness in reading comprehension ability of Chinese as a heritage language (CHL) learners. One hundred ninety five CHL students participated in this study and completed a series of measures including two sets of vocabulary knowledge (one consisting of items pertaining to…

  19. The Effect of Virtual Language Learning Method on Writing Ability of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshsima, Hooshang; Sayadi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of virtual language learning method on Iranian intermediate EFL learners writing ability. The study was conducted with 20 English Translation students at Chabahar Maritime University who were assigned into two groups, control and experimental, after ensuring of their homogeneity by administering a TOEFL…

  20. Orthographic effects in spoken word recognition: Evidence from Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qingqing; Damian, Markus F

    2017-06-01

    Extensive evidence from alphabetic languages demonstrates a role of orthography in the processing of spoken words. Because alphabetic systems explicitly code speech sounds, such effects are perhaps not surprising. However, it is less clear whether orthographic codes are involuntarily accessed from spoken words in languages with non-alphabetic systems, in which the sound-spelling correspondence is largely arbitrary. We investigated the role of orthography via a semantic relatedness judgment task: native Mandarin speakers judged whether or not spoken word pairs were related in meaning. Word pairs were either semantically related, orthographically related, or unrelated. Results showed that relatedness judgments were made faster for word pairs that were semantically related than for unrelated word pairs. Critically, orthographic overlap on semantically unrelated word pairs induced a significant increase in response latencies. These findings indicate that orthographic information is involuntarily accessed in spoken-word recognition, even in a non-alphabetic language such as Chinese.

  1. Discriminating Down Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome based on language ability*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Sterling, Audra M.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the receptive and expressive language profiles of verbally expressive children and adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS) and those with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and examined the extent to which these profiles reliably differentiate the diagnostic groups. A total of twenty-four verbal participants with DS (mean age: 12 years), twenty-two verbal participants with FXS (mean age: 12 years), and twenty-seven participants with typical development (TD; mean age=4 years) completed standardized measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary and grammar, as well as a conversational language sample. Study results indicate that there are distinct DS and FXS language profiles, which are characterized by differences in grammatical ability. The diagnostic groups were not differentiated based on vocabulary performance. This study supports the existence of unique language profiles associated with DS and FXS. PMID:23217297

  2. Community health center provider and staff's Spanish language ability and cultural awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Arshiya A; Benitez, Amanda; Locklin, Cara A; Campbell, Amanda; Schaefer, Cynthia T; Heuer, Loretta J; Lee, Sang Mee; Solomon, Marla C; Quinn, Michael T; Burnet, Deborah L; Chin, Marshall H

    2014-05-01

    Many community health center providers and staff care for Latinos with diabetes, but their Spanish language ability and awareness of Latino culture are unknown. We surveyed 512 Midwestern health center providers and staff who managed Latino patients with diabetes. Few respondents had high Spanish language (13%) or cultural awareness scores (22%). Of respondents who self-reported 76-100% of their patients were Latino, 48% had moderate/low Spanish language and 49% had moderate/low cultural competency scores. Among these respondents, 3% lacked access to interpreters and 27% had neither received cultural competency training nor had access to training. Among all respondents, Spanish skills and Latino cultural awareness were low. Respondents who saw a significant number of Latinos had good access to interpretation services but not cultural competency training. Improved Spanish-language skills and increased access to cultural competency training and Latino cultural knowledge are needed to provide linguistically and culturally tailored care to Latino patients.

  3. Community Health Center Provider and Staff’s Spanish Language Ability and Cultural Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Arshiya A.; Benitez, Amanda; Locklin, Cara A.; Campbell, Amanda; Schaefer, Cynthia T.; Heuer, Loretta J.; Mee Lee, Sang; Solomon, Marla C.; Quinn, Michael T.; Burnet, Deborah L.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2014-01-01

    Many community health center providers and staff care for Latinos with diabetes, but their Spanish language ability and awareness of Latino culture are unknown. We surveyed 512 Midwestern health center providers and staff who managed Latino patients with diabetes. Few respondents had high Spanish language (13%) or cultural awareness scores (22%). Of respondents who self-reported 76–100% of their patients were Latino, 48% had moderate/low Spanish language and 49% had moderate/low cultural competency scores. Among these respondents, 3% lacked access to interpreters and 27% had neither received cultural competency training nor had access to training. Among all respondents, Spanish skills and Latino cultural awareness were low. Respondents who saw a significant number of Latinos had good access to interpretation services but not cultural competency training. Improved Spanish-language skills and increased access to cultural competency training and Latino cultural knowledge are needed to provide linguistically and culturally tailored care to Latino patients. PMID:24858866

  4. Discriminating Down Syndrome and Fragile X syndrome based on language ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth H; Sterling, Audra M; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study compared the receptive and expressive language profiles of verbally expressive children and adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS) and those with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and examined the extent to which these profiles reliably differentiate the diagnostic groups. A total of twenty-four verbal participants with DS (mean age: 12 years), twenty-two verbal participants with FXS (mean age: 12 years), and twenty-seven participants with typical development (TD; mean age = 4 years) completed standardized measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary and grammar, as well as a conversational language sample. Study results indicate that there are distinct DS and FXS language profiles, which are characterized by differences in grammatical ability. The diagnostic groups were not differentiated based on vocabulary performance. This study supports the existence of unique language profiles associated with DS and FXS.

  5. Commentary on "Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability": Implications for Child Language Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A

    2017-04-20

    This commentary responds to the implications for child language intervention of Catts and Kamhi's (2017) call to move from viewing reading comprehension as a single ability to recognizing it as a complex constellation of reader, text, and activity. Reading comprehension, as Catts and Kamhi explain, is very complicated. In this commentary, I consider how comprehension has been taught and the directions in which it is moving. I consider how speech-language pathologists (SLPs), with their distinctive expertise and resources, can contribute to effective reading comprehension instruction. I build from Catts and Kamhi's emphasis on the importance of context and knowledge, using the approaches of staying on topic, close reading, and incorporating quality features of intervention. I consider whether and how SLPs should treat language skills and comprehension strategies to achieve noticeable changes in their students' reading comprehension. Within this multidimensional view of reading comprehension, SLPs can make strategic, meaningful contributions to improving the reading comprehension of students with language impairments.

  6. Verbal ability and language outcome following traumatic brain injury in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Louise M; Anderson, Vicki; Barton, Sarah; Babl, Franz E; Catroppa, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    To investigate language outcomes of TBI in preschool-aged children. Competent early language skills are pivotal for the future development of literacy skills. While previous research has reported that traumatic brain injury (TBI) places children at risk of language impairments, the majority of these studies have been conducted with school-aged children. Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Children aged 4 to 6 years who had sustained a mild (N = 19) or moderate/severe (N = 16) TBI prior to 3 years of age and a control group (N = 20) of typically developing children matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. The Wechsler Preschool and Primary School Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition, measured Verbal IQ. The Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool version and the Bus Story Test measured language skills. More severely injured children displayed greater impairments in verbal intellectual abilities and language skills compared with children with mild TBI and uninjured children. Children with mild TBI performed similarly to children in the control group. Language appears vulnerable to TBI and should be investigated as a matter of course in clinical assessments of TBI recovery.

  7. Narrative skills in deaf children who use spoken English: Dissociations between macro and microstructural devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, -A C; Toscano, E; Botting, N; Marshall, C-R; Atkinson, J R; Denmark, T; Herman, -R; Morgan, G

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has highlighted that deaf children acquiring spoken English have difficulties in narrative development relative to their hearing peers both in terms of macro-structure and with micro-structural devices. The majority of previous research focused on narrative tasks designed for hearing children that depend on good receptive language skills. The current study compared narratives of 6 to 11-year-old deaf children who use spoken English (N=59) with matched for age and non-verbal intelligence hearing peers. To examine the role of general language abilities, single word vocabulary was also assessed. Narratives were elicited by the retelling of a story presented non-verbally in video format. Results showed that deaf and hearing children had equivalent macro-structure skills, but the deaf group showed poorer performance on micro-structural components. Furthermore, the deaf group gave less detailed responses to inferencing probe questions indicating poorer understanding of the story's underlying message. For deaf children, micro-level devices most strongly correlated with the vocabulary measure. These findings suggest that deaf children, despite spoken language delays, are able to convey the main elements of content and structure in narrative but have greater difficulty in using grammatical devices more dependent on finer linguistic and pragmatic skills. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive abilities underlying second-language vocabulary acquisition in an early second-language immersion education context: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolay, Anne-Catherine; Poncelet, Martine

    2013-08-01

    First-language (L1) and second-language (L2) lexical development has been found to be strongly associated with phonological processing abilities such as phonological short-term memory (STM), phonological awareness, and speech perception. Lexical development also seems to be linked to attentional and executive skills such as auditory attention, flexibility, and response inhibition. The aim of this four-wave longitudinal study was to determine to what extent L2 vocabulary acquired through the particular school context of early L2 immersion education is linked to the same cognitive abilities. A total of 61 French-speaking 5-year-old kindergartners who had just been enrolled in English immersion classes were administered a battery of tasks assessing these three phonological processing abilities and three attentional/executive skills. Their English vocabulary knowledge was measured 1, 2, and 3 school years later. Multiple regression analyses showed that, among the assessed phonological processing abilities, phonological STM and speech perception, but not phonological awareness, appeared to underlie L2 vocabulary acquisition in this context of an early L2 immersion school program, at least during the first steps of acquisition. Similarly, among the assessed attentional/executive skills, auditory attention and flexibility, but not response inhibition, appeared to be involved during the first steps of L2 vocabulary acquisition in such an immersion school context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving English Language Ability of Children Aged 4-5 Years Old by Using Creative Dance

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    Sabila Nur Masturah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know about how to improve English language ability of children aged 4-5 years old by using creative dance. The subjects of this research were seven children in group A at Bilingual Kindergarten Rumah Pelangi Pondok Bambu, East Jakarta. This research was held during April-June, 2016. The method used is classroom action research proposed by Kemmis and Taggart in two cycles. Each cycle consists of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The children’s English language ability was still low. The presentation of success dealt between the researcher and collaborator was 71%. The result of data analysis of pre-research was 42,1%. After being given the action, the percentage increased to 61,87%. The data got from the first cycle has not achieved its target, so the researcher conducted the second cycle. The result was 80,41%. Based on the result in the second cycle, the hypothesis is proved. Qualitatively, it is also admitted that the children’s English language ability could improve their creative movement.source language using the incorrect grammatical, the sentence is vague, the idea is not coherent and many pungtuations.

  10. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Hearing Loss Using Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids Compared to Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Shina-August, Ella; Meilijson, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized the profile of pragmatic abilities among 24 children with hearing loss (HL) aged 6.3-9.4 years, 13 using hearing aids (HAs) and 11 using cochlear implants (CIs), in comparison to those of 13 hearing children with similar chronological and language ages. All the children with HL used spoken language, attended regular…

  11. Lexical Diversity and Omission Errors as Predictors of Language Ability in the Narratives of Sequential Spanish-English Bilinguals: A Cross-Language Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peggy F.; Walden, Patrick R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the utility of language sample analysis for evaluating language ability in school-age Spanish-English sequential bilingual children. Specifically, the relative potential of lexical diversity and word/morpheme omission as predictors of typical or atypical language status was evaluated. Method: Narrative samples were…

  12. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Chinese EFL teachers' knowledge of basic language constructs and their self-perceived teaching abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Joshi, R Malatesha; Dixon, L Quentin; Huang, Liyan

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the knowledge and skills of basic language constructs among elementary school teachers who were teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in China. Six hundred and thirty in-service teachers completed the adapted Reading Teacher Knowledge Survey. Survey results showed that English teachers' self-perceived ability to teach vocabulary was the highest and self-perceived ability to teach reading to struggling readers was the lowest. Morphological knowledge was positively correlated with teachers' self-perceived teaching abilities, and it contributed unique variance even after controlling for the effects of ultimate educational attainment and years of teaching. Findings suggest that elementary school EFL teachers in China, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language constructs, but less able to demonstrate explicit knowledge of other skills, especially sub-lexical units (e.g., phonemic awareness and morphemes). The high self-perceived ability of teaching vocabulary and high scores on syllable counting reflected the focus on larger units in the English reading curriculum.

  14. Teaching Spoken Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1976-01-01

    The need to teach students speaking skills in Spanish, and to choose among the many standard dialects spoken in the Hispanic world (as well as literary and colloquial speech), presents a challenge to the Spanish teacher. Some phonetic considerations helpful in solving these problems are offered. (CHK)

  15. Language-Building Activities and Interaction Variations with Mixed-Ability ESL University Learners in a Content-Based Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna Dimas, Héctor Manuel; Ruíz Castellanos, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of both language-building activities and a variety of teacher/student interaction patterns increase both oral language participation and content learning in a course of manual therapy with mixed-language ability students. In this article, the researchers describe their collaboration in a content-based course in English with English…

  16. The relationship between language and spatial ability an analysis of spatial language for reconstructing the solving of spatial tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Mizzi, Angel

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates how different fifth-grade students solve spatial-verbal tasks and the role of language in this process. Based on a synthesis of theoretical foundations and methodological issues for supporting the relationship between spatial ability and language, this present study examines and classifies strategies used by students as well as the obstacles they encounter when solving spatial tasks in the reconstruction method. Contents Theoretical Framework Design and Implementation Results and Discussion from the Inductive Data Analyses Target Groups Scholars and students of mathematics education Teachers of mathematics in primary and secondary schools About the Author Angel Mizzi works as a research assistant and lecturer at the University of Duisburg-Essen, where he has successfully completed his PhD studies in mathematics education.

  17. Remember dax? Relations between children's cross-situational word learning, memory, and language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A; DeBrock, Catherine A

    2017-04-01

    Learning new words is a difficult task. Children are able to resolve the ambiguity of the task and map words to referents by tracking co-occurrence probabilities across multiple moments in time, a behavior termed cross-situational word learning (CSWL). Although we observe developments in CSWL abilities across childhood, the cognitive processes that drive individual and developmental change have yet to be identified. This research tested a developmental systems account by examining whether multiple cognitive systems co-contribute to children's CSWL. The results of two experiments revealed that multiple cognitive domains, such as memory and language abilities, are likely to drive the development of CSWL above and beyond children's age. The results also revealed that memory abilities are likely to be particularly important above and beyond other cognitive abilities. These findings have implications for theories and computational models of CSWL, which typically do not account for individual children's cognitive capacities or changes in cognitive capacities across time.

  18. Phonological Analysis of University Students’ Spoken Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Herlina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of discourse is the study of using language in actual use. In this article, the writer is trying to investigate the phonological features, either segmental or supra-segmental, in the spoken discourse of Indonesian university students. The data were taken from the recordings of 15 conversations by 30 students of Bina Nusantara University who are taking English Entrant subject (TOEFL –IBT. Finally, the writer is in opinion that the students are still influenced by their first language in their spoken discourse. This results in English with Indonesian accent. Even though it does not cause misunderstanding at the moment, this may become problematic if they have to communicate in the real world.  

  19. Sign language ability in young deaf signers predicts comprehension of written sentences in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Kathy N; Hoshooley, Jennifer; Joanisse, Marc F

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the robust correlation between American Sign Language (ASL) and English reading ability in 51 young deaf signers ages 7;3 to 19;0. Signers were divided into 'skilled' and 'less-skilled' signer groups based on their performance on three measures of ASL. We next assessed reading comprehension of four English sentence structures (actives, passives, pronouns, reflexive pronouns) using a sentence-to-picture-matching task. Of interest was the extent to which ASL proficiency provided a foundation for lexical and syntactic processes of English. Skilled signers outperformed less-skilled signers overall. Error analyses further indicated greater single-word recognition difficulties in less-skilled signers marked by a higher rate of errors reflecting an inability to identify the actors and actions described in the sentence. Our findings provide evidence that increased ASL ability supports English sentence comprehension both at the levels of individual words and syntax. This is consistent with the theory that first language learning promotes second language through transference of linguistic elements irrespective of the transparency of mapping of grammatical structures between the two languages.

  20. Sign language ability in young deaf signers predicts comprehension of written sentences in English.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy N Andrew

    Full Text Available We investigated the robust correlation between American Sign Language (ASL and English reading ability in 51 young deaf signers ages 7;3 to 19;0. Signers were divided into 'skilled' and 'less-skilled' signer groups based on their performance on three measures of ASL. We next assessed reading comprehension of four English sentence structures (actives, passives, pronouns, reflexive pronouns using a sentence-to-picture-matching task. Of interest was the extent to which ASL proficiency provided a foundation for lexical and syntactic processes of English. Skilled signers outperformed less-skilled signers overall. Error analyses further indicated greater single-word recognition difficulties in less-skilled signers marked by a higher rate of errors reflecting an inability to identify the actors and actions described in the sentence. Our findings provide evidence that increased ASL ability supports English sentence comprehension both at the levels of individual words and syntax. This is consistent with the theory that first language learning promotes second language through transference of linguistic elements irrespective of the transparency of mapping of grammatical structures between the two languages.

  1. Inflectional and derivational morphological spelling abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eCritten

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI are known to have difficulties with spelling but the factors which underpin these difficulties, are a matter of debate. The present study investigated the impact of oral language and literacy on the bound morpheme spelling abilities of children with SLI. Thirty-three children with SLI (9-10 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA and one for language and spelling age (LA (aged 6-8 years were given dictated spelling tasks of 24 words containing inflectional morphemes and 18 words containing derivational morphemes. There were no significant differences between the SLI group and their LA matches in accuracy or error patterns for inflectional morphemes. By contrast when spelling derivational morphemes the SLI group was less accurate and made proportionately more omissions and phonologically implausible errors than both control groups. Spelling accuracy was associated with phonological awareness and reading; reading performance significantly predicted the ability to spell both inflectional and derivational morphemes. The particular difficulties experienced by the children with SLI for derivational morphemes are considered in relation to reading and oral language.

  2. Inflectional and derivational morphological spelling abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critten, Sarah; Connelly, Vincent; Dockrell, Julie E.; Walter, Kirsty

    2014-01-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) are known to have difficulties with spelling but the factors that underpin these difficulties, are a matter of debate. The present study investigated the impact of oral language and literacy on the bound morpheme spelling abilities of children with SLI. Thirty-three children with SLI (9–10 years) and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language and spelling age (LA) (aged 6–8 years) were given dictated spelling tasks of 24 words containing inflectional morphemes and 18 words containing derivational morphemes. There were no significant differences between the SLI group and their LA matches in accuracy or error patterns for inflectional morphemes. By contrast when spelling derivational morphemes the SLI group was less accurate and made proportionately more omissions and phonologically implausible errors than both control groups. Spelling accuracy was associated with phonological awareness and reading; reading performance significantly predicted the ability to spell both inflectional and derivational morphemes. The particular difficulties experienced by the children with SLI for derivational morphemes are considered in relation to reading and oral language. PMID:25221533

  3. Attainment of students’ conception in magnetic fields by using of direct observation and symbolic language ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desy Fatmaryanti, Siska; Suparmi; Sarwanto; Ashadi

    2017-11-01

    This study focuses on description attainment of students’ conception in the magnetic field. The conception was based by using of direct observation and symbolic language ability. The method used is descriptive quantitative research. The subject of study was about 86 students from 3 senior high school at Purworejo. The learning process was done by guided inquiry model. During the learning, students were required to actively investigate the concept of a magnetic field around a straight wire electrical current Data retrieval was performed using an instrument in the form of a multiple choice test reasoned and observation during the learning process. There was four indicator of direct observation ability and four indicators of symbolic language ability to grouping category of students conception. The results of average score showed that students conception about the magnitude more better than the direction of magnetic fields in view of symbolic language. From the observation, we found that students could draw the magnetic fields line not from a text book but their direct observation results. They used various way to get a good accuracy of observation results. Explicit recommendations are presented in the discussion section at the end of this paper.

  4. Why do preschool language abilities correlate with later reading? A twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Language acquisition is predictive of successful reading development, but the nature of this link is poorly understood. A sample of 7,179 twin pairs was assessed on parent-report measures of syntax and vocabulary at ages 2, 3, and 4 years and on teacher assessments of reading achievement (RA) at ages 7, 9, and 10 years. These measures were used to construct latent factors of early language ability (LA) and RA in structural equation model-fitting analyses. The phenotypic correlation between LA and RA (r = .40) was primarily due to shared environmental influences that contribute to familial resemblance. These environmental influences on LA and RA overlapped substantially (rC = .62). Genetic influences made a significant but smaller contribution to the phenotypic correlation between LA and RA, and showed moderate overlap (rA = .36). There was also evidence for a direct causal influence of LA on RA. The association between early language and later reading is underpinned by common environmental and genetic influences. The effects of some risk factors on RA may be mediated by language. The results provide a foundation for more fine-grained studies that examine links between specific measures of language, reading, genes, and environments.

  5. The Left, The Better: White-Matter Brain Integrity Predicts Foreign Language Imitation Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Lucía; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2017-08-01

    Speech imitation is crucial for language acquisition and second-language learning. Interestingly, large individual differences regarding the ability in imitating foreign-language sounds have been observed. The origin of this interindividual diversity remains unknown, although it might be partially explained by structural predispositions. Here we correlated white-matter structural properties of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) with the performance of 52 German-speakers in a Hindi sentence- and word-imitation task. First, a manual reconstruction was performed, permitting us to extract the mean values along the three branches of the AF. We found that a larger lateralization of the AF volume toward the left hemisphere predicted the performance of our participants in the imitation task. Second, an automatic reconstruction was carried out, allowing us to localize the specific region within the AF that exhibited the largest correlation with foreign language imitation. Results of this reconstruction also showed a left lateralization trend: greater fractional anisotropy values in the anterior half of the left AF correlated with the performance in the Hindi-imitation task. From the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that foreign language imitation aptitude is tested using a more ecological imitation task and correlated with DTI tractography, using both a manual and an automatic method. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Do children with specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders benefit from the presence of orthography when learning new spoken words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Dockrell, Julie E; Patel, Nita; Charman, Tony; Lindsay, Geoff

    2015-06-01

    This experiment investigated whether children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and typically developing children benefit from the incidental presence of orthography when learning new oral vocabulary items. Children with SLI, children with ASD, and typically developing children (n=27 per group) between 8 and 13 years of age were matched in triplets for age and nonverbal reasoning. Participants were taught 12 mappings between novel phonological strings and referents; half of these mappings were trained with orthography present and half were trained with orthography absent. Groups did not differ on the ability to learn new oral vocabulary, although there was some indication that children with ASD were slower than controls to identify newly learned items. During training, the ASD, SLI, and typically developing groups benefited from orthography to the same extent. In supplementary analyses, children with SLI were matched in pairs to an additional control group of younger typically developing children for nonword reading. Compared with younger controls, children with SLI showed equivalent oral vocabulary acquisition and benefit from orthography during training. Our findings are consistent with current theoretical accounts of how lexical entries are acquired and replicate previous studies that have shown orthographic facilitation for vocabulary acquisition in typically developing children and children with ASD. We demonstrate this effect in SLI for the first time. The study provides evidence that the presence of orthographic cues can support oral vocabulary acquisition, motivating intervention approaches (as well as standard classroom teaching) that emphasize the orthographic form. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Higher language ability is related to angular gyrus activation increase during semantic processing, independent of sentence incongruency

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    Helene eVan Ettinger-Veenstra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task - which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency - employing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that there is no evidence found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation.

  8. Japanese-English language equivalence of the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument among Japanese-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Laura E.; McCurry, Susan; Rhoads, Kristoffer; Masaki, Kamal; White, Lon; Borenstein, Amy R.; Larson, Eric B.; Crane, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) was designed for use in cross-cultural studies of Japanese and Japanese-American elderly in Japan and the United States. The measurement equivalence in Japanese and English has not been confirmed in prior studies. Methods We analyzed the 40 CASI items for differential item functioning (DIF) related to test language, as well as self-reported proficiency with written Japanese, age, and educational attainment in two large epidemiologic studies of Japanese-American elderly: the Kame Project (n=1,708) and the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS; n=3,148). DIF was present if the demographic groups differed in the probability of success on an item, controlling for their underlying cognitive functioning ability. Results While 7 CASI items had DIF related to language of testing in Kame (registration of one item; recall of one item; similes; judgment; repeating a phrase; reading and performing a command; and following a 3-step instruction), the impact of DIF on participants’ scores was minimal. Mean scores for Japanese and English speakers in Kame changed by language. In HAAS, there were not enough participants tested in Japanese to assess DIF related to test language. In both studies, DIF related to written Japanese proficiency, age, and educational attainment had minimal impact. Conclusions To the extent that DIF could be assessed, the CASI appeared to meet the goal of measuring cognitive function equivalently in Japanese and English. Stratified data collection would be needed to confirm this conclusion. DIF assessment should be used in other studies with multiple language groups to confirm that measures function equivalently or if not, to form scores that account for DIF. PMID:18947456

  9. Language Non-Selective Activation of Orthography during Spoken Word Processing in Hindi-English Sequential Bilinguals: An Eye Tracking Visual World Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Niharika

    2014-01-01

    Previous psycholinguistic studies have shown that bilinguals activate lexical items of both the languages during auditory and visual word processing. In this study we examined if Hindi-English bilinguals activate the orthographic forms of phonological neighbors of translation equivalents of the non target language while listening to words either…

  10. Physical aggression and language ability from 17 to 72 months: cross-lagged effects in a population sample.

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    Lisa-Christine Girard

    Full Text Available Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children's sex.Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD (N = 2, 057 were assessed longitudinally from 17 to 72 months via parent reports and standardized assessments.The cross-lagged models revealed modest reciprocal associations between physical aggression and language performance from 17 to 41 months but not thereafter.Significant associations between physical aggression and poor language ability are minimal and limited to the period when physical aggression and language performance are both substantially increasing. During that period parenting behaviours may play an important role in supporting language ability while reducing the frequency of physical aggression. Further studies are needed that utilize multiple assessments of physical aggression, assess multiple domains of language abilities, and that examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviours between 12 and 48 months.

  11. Accessing the spoken word

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Jerry; Renals, Steve; Bird, Steven; de Jong, Franciska; Federico, Marcello; Fleischhauer, Carl; Kornbluh, Mark; Lamel, Lori; Oard, Douglas W; Stewart, Claire; Wright, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Spoken-word audio collections cover many domains, including radio and television broadcasts, oral narratives, governmental proceedings, lectures, and telephone conversations. The collection, access, and preservation of such data is stimulated by political, economic, cultural, and educational needs. This paper outlines the major issues in the field, reviews the current state of technology, examines the rapidly changing policy issues relating to privacy and copyright, and presents issues relati...

  12. The Impact of First and Second Languages on Azerbaijani EFL Learners’ Writing Ability

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    Mansour Shabani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a debate whether or not the learners’ first language (L1 can facilitate the process of learning foreign language. Since foreign language writing (FL is a complicated process, it seems that the role of the learners’ L1 and its effect on FL writing is of great importance in this regard. The present study aimed at investigating the role of Azerbaijani EFL learners’ L1 and L2 (Persian on their FL writing. To meet the purposes of the study, 30 female EFL upper-intermediate students were selected (through running an OPT, who were native speakers of Azerbaijani, with Persian as their L2 and official language of Iranian context. The data were collected through running three writing sessions (in which the participants wrote three essays in each session using Azerbaijani as L1, Persian as L2, and direct writing using the think-aloud protocol, through which they were asked to report their thoughts loudly to record using a tape recorder. In addition, a survey was used to ask their perceptions towards each writing task. The analysis of the data obtained from the evaluation of learners’ writings indicated that the mere use of their L1 or L2 in foreign language writing was by no means helpful for them and they performed better on direct writing task in comparison with the two other ones. It was also found that the majority of the learners (70% had difficulty in generating their ideas using Azerbaijani as their L1. In addition, nearly 77% of them claimed that even in direct writing mode, they made use of their L2 (Persian on the occasions they could not find a proper word or phrase in English. As the implications of the study, it seems that the present study can bring helpful insights for both FL teachers and learners about the roles that Azerbaijani and Persian languages play as the students’ L1 and L2 in FL writing. Keywords: Writing ability, first language, second language, foreign language

  13. The language spoken at home and disparities in medical and dental health, access to care, and use of services in US children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Glenn; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C

    2008-06-01

    Fifty-five million Americans speak a non-English primary language at home, but little is known about health disparities for children in non-English-primary-language households. Our study objective was to examine whether disparities in medical and dental health, access to care, and use of services exist for children in non-English-primary-language households. The National Survey of Childhood Health was a telephone survey in 2003-2004 of a nationwide sample of parents of 102 353 children 0 to 17 years old. Disparities in medical and oral health and health care were examined for children in a non-English-primary-language household compared with children in English- primary-language households, both in bivariate analyses and in multivariable analyses that adjusted for 8 covariates (child's age, race/ethnicity, and medical or dental insurance coverage, caregiver's highest educational attainment and employment status, number of children and adults in the household, and poverty status). Children in non-English-primary-language households were significantly more likely than children in English-primary-language households to be poor (42% vs 13%) and Latino or Asian/Pacific Islander. Significantly higher proportions of children in non-English-primary-language households were not in excellent/very good health (43% vs 12%), were overweight/at risk for overweight (48% vs 39%), had teeth in fair/poor condition (27% vs 7%), and were uninsured (27% vs 6%), sporadically insured (20% vs 10%), and lacked dental insurance (39% vs 20%). Children in non-English-primary-language households more often had no usual source of medical care (38% vs 13%), made no medical (27% vs 12%) or preventive dental (14% vs 6%) visits in the previous year, and had problems obtaining specialty care (40% vs 23%). Latino and Asian children in non-English-primary-language households had several unique disparities compared with white children in non-English-primary-language households. Almost all disparities

  14. Grammar tests increase the ability to lateralize language function in the Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Curtiss, Susan; Walshaw, Particia; Siddarth, Prabha; Benjamin, Chris; Moseley, Brian D; Vigil, Celia; Jones, Michael; Eliashiv, Dawn; Bookheimer, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Grammar is a core component of the language system, yet it is rarely assessed during the Wada (intracarotid amobarbital) test. It is hypothesized that adding grammar tests to the recovery phase of the Wada test will increase our ability to lateralize language function. Sixteen individuals (nine females, fifteen right-handed, mean age 38.4 years, SD=10.7) with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy participated in the study. On EEG ten patients had seizures originating in the left hemisphere (LH), five in the right hemisphere (RH), and one was insufficiently lateralized. We included only patients who were LH-dominant on the standard test in the encoding phase of the Wada test. In the recovery phase of Wada testing the participants underwent evaluation with a standard language and a new test of grammar, the CYCLE-N. Ten patients underwent bilateral injections, six unilateral (one RH, five LH). As expected, injection in the LH decreased language performance to a greater extent than injection to the RH on both tests. However, the CYCLE-N produced more profound language deficits in the injected LH compared to the RH (p=0.01), whereas the standard tests did not cause such pronounced differences (p=0.2). The results suggest that the standard tests did not significantly differentiate the effects of the injections and the CYCLE-N, for the most part, did. Our results are of particular relevance to patients who are too obtunded to speak in the encoding phase. In sum, the CYCLE-N may be helpful in assessing hemispheric dominance for language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-Assessment on Iranian Foreign Language Learners’ Oral Performance Ability: A Case Study

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    Roghayeh Hooshangi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Self-assessment, as one type of alternative assessment, with the increased attention to learner-centered curricula, needs analysis, and learner autonomy has gained popularity in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of self-assessment on Javanroodian Foreign Language (Kordestan Learners’ Oral Performance ability. Methods: The assessment program involved training, practice, videotaping, feedback, assessment and discussion. Twenty English as a foreign language students of foreign language institutes in Javanrood participated in the study. They were divided into experimental and control group, based on the results of English oral performance pre-tests. The research instrument consisted of a self- assessment checklist containing subcategories related to the organization of the presentation, content, linguistic factors (vocabulary use, grammatical rules and pronunciation and interaction with the audience. It was developed as a result of interviewing participants and their teachers and then adapting results based on the results of reviewing available checklists in the literature. The data was collected by the experimental group members' self-assessments of their 6 oral performances and the teacher's assessment of their performances. Results: The obtained data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential methods.Results indicated that participating in self- assessment process had positive effect on learners' oral performance ability. Discussion: Results will have implications for policy makers, material designers and developers, teachers and learners. It will also open up the doors of introducing new trends in assessment to teachers and learners.

  16. Pinpointing the classifiers of English language writing ability: A discriminant function analysis approach

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    Mohammad Ali Shams

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available     The major aim of this paper was to investigate the validity of language and intelligence factors for classifying Iranian English learners` writing performance. Iranian participants of the study took three tests for grammar, breadth, and depth of vocabulary, and two tests for verbal and narrative intelligence. They also produced a corpus of argumentative writings in answer to IELTS specimen. Several runs of discriminant function analyses were used to examine the classifying power of the five variables for discriminating between low and high ability L2 writers. The results revealed that among language factors, depth of vocabulary (collocational knowledge produces the best discriminant function. In general, narrative intelligence was found to be the most reliable predictor for membership in low or high groups. It was also found that, among the five sub-abilities of narrative intelligence, emplotment carries the highest classifying value. Finally, the applications and implications of the results for second language researchers, cognitive scientists, and applied linguists were discussed.Â

  17. Lexical diversity and omission errors as predictors of language ability in the narratives of sequential Spanish-English bilinguals: a cross-language comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peggy F; Walden, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the utility of language sample analysis for evaluating language ability in school-age Spanish-English sequential bilingual children. Specifically, the relative potential of lexical diversity and word/morpheme omission as predictors of typical or atypical language status was evaluated. Narrative samples were obtained from 48 bilingual children in both of their languages using the suggested narrative retell protocol and coding conventions as per Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; Miller & Iglesias, 2008) software. An additional lexical diversity measure, VocD, was also calculated. A series of logistical hierarchical regressions explored the utility of the number of different words, VocD statistic, and word and morpheme omissions in each language for predicting language status. Omission errors turned out to be the best predictors of bilingual language impairment at all ages, and this held true across languages. Although lexical diversity measures did not predict typical or atypical language status, the measures were significantly related to oral language proficiency in English and Spanish. The results underscore the significance of omission errors in bilingual language impairment while simultaneously revealing the limitations of lexical diversity measures as indicators of impairment. The relationship between lexical diversity and oral language proficiency highlights the importance of considering relative language proficiency in bilingual assessment.

  18. Evaluating Corpus Literacy Training for Pre-Service Language Teachers: Six Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Julian; Helt, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Corpus literacy is the ability to use corpora--large, principled databases of spoken and written language--for language analysis and instruction. While linguists have emphasized the importance of corpus training in teacher preparation programs, few studies have investigated the process of initiating teachers into corpus literacy with the result…

  19. Sign language: an international handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.

    2012-01-01

    Sign language linguists show here that all the questions relevant to the linguistic investigation of spoken languages can be asked about sign languages. Conversely, questions that sign language linguists consider - even if spoken language researchers have not asked them yet - should also be asked of

  20. Comparison between students’ academic performance and their abilities in written English language skills: A Tanzanian perspective

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    Sotco Claudius Komba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the study which sought to compare between the students’ academic performance and their abilities in written English Language Skills. The study was conducted at the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA, Tanzania. The respondents were 358 finalists from six degree programmes selected randomly out of the 20 degree programmes at the university. The findings indicated that there was a statistically significant positive relationship between the students’ abilities in the English Writing Skills Test (EWST and their University GPAs (r=314, p< 0.01. However, the content analysis of the EWST essays showed that the students had serious problems in spelling, using appropriate forms of adjectives, punctuation marks, simple present tense, recognizing passive voice and using relative pronouns and prepositions.

  1. Individual differences in language ability are related to variation in word recognition, not speech perception: Evidence from eye-movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Bob; Munson, Cheyenne; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined speech perception deficits associated with individual differences in language ability contrasting auditory, phonological or lexical accounts by asking if lexical competition is differentially sensitive to fine-grained acoustic variation. Methods 74 adolescents with a range of language abilities (including 35 impaired) participated in an experiment based on McMurray, Tanenhaus and Aslin (2002). Participants heard tokens from six 9-step Voice Onset Time (VOT) continua spanning two words (beach/peach, beak/peak, etc), while viewing a screen containing pictures of those words and two unrelated objects. Participants selected the referent while eye-movements to each picture were monitored as a measure of lexical activation. Fixations were examined as a function of both VOT and language ability. Results Eye-movements were sensitive to within-category VOT differences: as VOT approached the boundary, listeners made more fixations to the competing word. This did not interact with language ability, suggesting that language impairment is not associated with differential auditory sensitivity or phonetic categorization. Listeners with poorer language skills showed heightened competitors fixations overall, suggesting a deficit in lexical processes. Conclusions Language impairment may be better characterized by a deficit in lexical competition (inability to suppress competing words), rather than differences phonological categorization or auditory abilities. PMID:24687026

  2. Aspects of speech-language abilities are influenced by MECP2 mutation type in girls with Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Downs, Jenny; Girdler, Sonya; Ciccone, Natalie; Leonard, Helen

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates relationships between methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) mutation type and speech-language abilities in girls with Rett syndrome. Cross-sectional data on 766 girls, aged 15 years and under, with genetically confirmed Rett syndrome was obtained from the Australian Rett Syndrome Database (ARSD) (n = 244) and the International Rett Syndrome Phenotype Database (InterRett) (n = 522). Relationships between MECP2 mutation type and age of regression in speech-language abilities, and the level of speech-language abilities before and after this regression were investigated. The females had a median age of 4.95 years in the ARSD and 5.25 years in InterRett. The majority (89%, 685/766) acquired speech-language abilities in the form of babble or words at some point in time. Of those who acquired babble or words, 85% (581/685) experienced a regression in these abilities. Those with a p.Arg133Cys mutation were the most likely to use one or more words, prior to (RRR = 3.45; 95% CI 1.15-10.41) and after (RRR = 5.99; 95% CI 2.00-17.92), speech-language regression. Girls with Rett syndrome vary in their use of speech and language, and in their experience of speech-language regression and these variations are partly explained by genotype. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Disruption of structural covariance networks for language in autism is modulated by verbal ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, Megha; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Evans, Alan C; Singh, Nandini C

    2016-03-01

    The presence of widespread speech and language deficits is a core feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). These impairments have often been attributed to altered connections between brain regions. Recent developments in anatomical correlation-based approaches to map structural covariance offer an effective way of studying such connections in vivo. In this study, we employed such a structural covariance network (SCN)-based approach to investigate the integrity of anatomical networks in fronto-temporal brain regions of twenty children with ASD compared to an age and gender-matched control group of twenty-two children. Our findings reflected large-scale disruption of inter and intrahemispheric covariance in left frontal SCNs in the ASD group compared to controls, but no differences in right fronto-temporal SCNs. Interhemispheric covariance in left-seeded networks was further found to be modulated by verbal ability of the participants irrespective of autism diagnosis, suggesting that language function might be related to the strength of interhemispheric structural covariance between frontal regions. Additionally, regional cortical thickening was observed in right frontal and left posterior regions, which was predicted by decreasing symptom severity and increasing verbal ability in ASD. These findings unify reports of regional differences in cortical morphology in ASD. They also suggest that reduced left hemisphere asymmetry and increased frontal growth may not only reflect neurodevelopmental aberrations but also compensatory mechanisms.

  4. Semantic abilities in children with pragmatic language impairment: the case of picture naming skills.

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    Ketelaars, Mieke Pauline; Hermans, Suzanne Irene Alphonsus; Cuperus, Juliane; Jansonius, Kino; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-02-01

    The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically developing children completed receptive vocabulary, picture naming, and definition tasks. The PLI group scored lower on the receptive vocabulary and picture naming tasks. Word length and frequency affected naming accuracy in both groups. Children with PLI showed higher numbers of semantic errors, nonrelated errors, and omissions and circumlocutions. The error-type distribution differed between groups: PLI children showed disproportionate levels of nonrelated errors. In the definition task, PLI children showed lower information accuracy for accurately named pictures and comparable accuracy for incorrectly named pictures. Qualitative analysis suggested a high incidence of pragmatically inappropriate definitions for the PLI group. Naming accuracy for both groups improved equally after giving semantic cues. These findings suggest a deficit in object identification and/or naming selection. It might be premature to conclude that children with PLI show normal semantic abilities. The results are largely consistent with a general language delay; however, there is also some evidence of a qualitative difference between both groups.

  5. Neural oscillatory mechanisms during novel grammar learning underlying language analytical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepinska, Olga; Pereda, Ernesto; Caspers, Johanneke; Schiller, Niels O

    2017-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the initial phases of novel grammar learning on a neural level, concentrating on mechanisms responsible for individual variability between learners. Two groups of participants, one with high and one with average language analytical abilities, performed an Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) task consisting of learning and test phases. During the task, EEG signals from 32 cap-mounted electrodes were recorded and epochs corresponding to the learning phases were analysed. We investigated spectral power modulations over time, and functional connectivity patterns by means of a bivariate, frequency-specific index of phase synchronization termed Phase Locking Value (PLV). Behavioural data showed learning effects in both groups, with a steeper learning curve and higher ultimate attainment for the highly skilled learners. Moreover, we established that cortical connectivity patterns and profiles of spectral power modulations over time differentiated L2 learners with various levels of language analytical abilities. Over the course of the task, the learning process seemed to be driven by whole-brain functional connectivity between neuronal assemblies achieved by means of communication in the beta band frequency. On a shorter time-scale, increasing proficiency on the AGL task appeared to be supported by stronger local synchronisation within the right hemisphere regions. Finally, we observed that the highly skilled learners might have exerted less mental effort, or reduced attention for the task at hand once the learning was achieved, as evidenced by the higher alpha band power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of Spoken and Written Japanese Did Not Protect Japanese-American Men From Cognitive Decline in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhl, Jonathan C.; Erosheva, Elena A.; Gibbons, Laura E.; McCurry, Susan M.; Rhoads, Kristoffer; Nguyen, Viet; Arani, Keerthi; Masaki, Kamal; White, Lon

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Spoken bilingualism may be associated with cognitive reserve. Mastering a complicated written language may be associated with additional reserve. We sought to determine if midlife use of spoken and written Japanese was associated with lower rates of late life cognitive decline. Methods. Participants were second-generation Japanese-American men from the Hawaiian island of Oahu, born 1900–1919, free of dementia in 1991, and categorized based on midlife self-reported use of spoken and written Japanese (total n included in primary analysis = 2,520). Cognitive functioning was measured with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scored using item response theory. We used mixed effects models, controlling for age, income, education, smoking status, apolipoprotein E e4 alleles, and number of study visits. Results. Rates of cognitive decline were not related to use of spoken or written Japanese. This finding was consistent across numerous sensitivity analyses. Discussion. We did not find evidence to support the hypothesis that multilingualism is associated with cognitive reserve. PMID:20639282

  7. Language Use, Language Ability, and Language Development: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1984 (Vol. 45 Nos. 1 through 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 32 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) textual relations within the written and spoken modes; (2) the construction of stance in conflict narrative; (3) the relational base theory of phrase…

  8. The Effect of Virtual Language Learning Method on Writing Ability of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effect of virtual language learning method on Iranian intermediate EFL learners writing ability. The study was conducted with 20 English Translation students at Chabahar Maritime University who were assigned into two groups, control and experimental, after ensuring of their homogeneity by administering a TOEFL proficiency. The participants of the experimental group received virtual learning i.e. sending PowerPoint through their e-mails. The participants of the experimental group did not have to attend the classes, however they had to study the PowerPoint and send the assigned task on the mentioned deadline. A writing posttest was administered to find the impacts of both methods. A paired sample t-test and an independent sample t-test were run to analyze the posttest scores using SPSS. The findings of the study indicated that both groups showed some improvements in terms of their writing ability since the obtained p value of both groups were 0.000 which is smaller than 0.05. However using virtual method appeared to be a more fruitful tool since the mean score of the experimental group (12.75 was much higher than the mean score of the control group (9.8. Keywords: writing ability; virtual learning; product approach; process approach; virtual environment

  9. Word frequencies in written and spoken English based on the British National Corpus

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    Leech, Geoffrey; Wilson, Andrew (All Of Lancaster University)

    2014-01-01

    Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English is a landmark volume in the development of vocabulary frequency studies. Whereas previous books have in general given frequency information about the written language only, this book provides information on both speech and writing. It not only gives information about the language as a whole, but also about the differences between spoken and written English, and between different spoken and written varieties of the language. The frequencies are derived from a wide ranging and up-to-date corpus of English: the British Na

  10. Basic Numeracy Abilities of Xhosa Reception Year Students in South Africa: Language Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feza, Nosisi Nellie

    2016-01-01

    Language in mathematics learning and teaching has a significant role in influencing performance. Literature on language in mathematics learning has evolved from language as a barrier to language as a cultural tool, and recently more research has argued for use of home language as an instructional tool in mathematics classrooms. However, the…

  11. Music and early language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability - one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development.

  12. Music and Early Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability – one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development. PMID:22973254

  13. Predicting bilingual Spanish–English children’s phonological awareness abilities from their preschool English and Spanish oral language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish–English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children’s 2 years in Head Start for a total of four measurement occasions. Phonological awareness was assessed during the spring of children’s kindergarten year. Results indicated that English receptive vocabulary at the end of preschool predicted English phonological awareness abilities in kindergarten, whereas Spanish vocabulary was observed to have a negative predictive relationship with children’s English phonological awareness abilities. However, after controlling for English vocabulary, Spanish vocabulary no longer had an effect on English phonological awareness. Broad receptive language abilities in English and Spanish did not predict later English phonological awareness skills. PMID:23258945

  14. On the Role of Cognitive Abilities in Second Language Vowel Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarvand Mokari, Payam; Werner, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the role of different cognitive abilities-inhibitory control, attention control, phonological short-term memory (PSTM), and acoustic short-term memory (AM)-in second language (L2) vowel learning. The participants were 40 Azerbaijani learners of Standard Southern British English. Their perception of L2 vowels was tested through a perceptual discrimination task before and after five sessions of high-variability phonetic training. Inhibitory control was significantly correlated with gains from training in the discrimination of L2 vowel pairs. However, there were no significant correlations between attention control, AM, PSTM, and gains from training. These findings suggest the potential role of inhibitory control in L2 phonological learning. We suggest that inhibitory control facilitates the processing of L2 sounds by allowing learners to ignore the interfering information from L1 during training, leading to better L2 segmental learning.

  15. Tone language speakers and musicians share enhanced perceptual and cognitive abilities for musical pitch: evidence for bidirectionality between the domains of language and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Hutka, Stefanie; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Psychophysiological evidence suggests that music and language are intimately coupled such that experience/training in one domain can influence processing required in the other domain. While the influence of music on language processing is now well-documented, evidence of language-to-music effects have yet to be firmly established. Here, using a cross-sectional design, we compared the performance of musicians to that of tone-language (Cantonese) speakers on tasks of auditory pitch acuity, music perception, and general cognitive ability (e.g., fluid intelligence, working memory). While musicians demonstrated superior performance on all auditory measures, comparable perceptual enhancements were observed for Cantonese participants, relative to English-speaking nonmusicians. These results provide evidence that tone-language background is associated with higher auditory perceptual performance for music listening. Musicians and Cantonese speakers also showed superior working memory capacity relative to nonmusician controls, suggesting that in addition to basic perceptual enhancements, tone-language background and music training might also be associated with enhanced general cognitive abilities. Our findings support the notion that tone language speakers and musically trained individuals have higher performance than English-speaking listeners for the perceptual-cognitive processing necessary for basic auditory as well as complex music perception. These results illustrate bidirectional influences between the domains of music and language.

  16. Tone language speakers and musicians share enhanced perceptual and cognitive abilities for musical pitch: evidence for bidirectionality between the domains of language and music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin M Bidelman

    Full Text Available Psychophysiological evidence suggests that music and language are intimately coupled such that experience/training in one domain can influence processing required in the other domain. While the influence of music on language processing is now well-documented, evidence of language-to-music effects have yet to be firmly established. Here, using a cross-sectional design, we compared the performance of musicians to that of tone-language (Cantonese speakers on tasks of auditory pitch acuity, music perception, and general cognitive ability (e.g., fluid intelligence, working memory. While musicians demonstrated superior performance on all auditory measures, comparable perceptual enhancements were observed for Cantonese participants, relative to English-speaking nonmusicians. These results provide evidence that tone-language background is associated with higher auditory perceptual performance for music listening. Musicians and Cantonese speakers also showed superior working memory capacity relative to nonmusician controls, suggesting that in addition to basic perceptual enhancements, tone-language background and music training might also be associated with enhanced general cognitive abilities. Our findings support the notion that tone language speakers and musically trained individuals have higher performance than English-speaking listeners for the perceptual-cognitive processing necessary for basic auditory as well as complex music perception. These results illustrate bidirectional influences between the domains of music and language.

  17. Enhancing the metalinguistic abilities of pre-service teachers via coursework targeting language structure knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Caralyn J; McNeill, Brigid C; Everatt, John

    2016-04-01

    Low metalinguistic knowledge of pre-service and in-service teachers is likely to restrict the provision of evidence-based literacy instruction in the classroom. Despite such concerns, relatively few studies have examined the effects of teacher preparation coursework in building pre-service teachers' language structure knowledge. This study examined the effects of 7 h of language structure coursework, delivered over 7 weeks, on 121 New Zealand pre-service teachers in their initial year of study. Changes in participants' phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and orthographic knowledge were tracked across the teaching period. The impact of the coursework for participants who presented with strong spelling (n = 24) and poor spelling (n = 24) ability was also compared. The cohort demonstrated significant gains across all measures. Strong spellers responded more favourably to the teaching than poor spellers, even when accounting for initial levels of meta-linguistic knowledge. Implications for the development of teacher preparation programmes that enhance the provision of effective literacy instruction are discussed.

  18. A genome-wide association study for reading and language abilities in two population cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, M; Evans, D M; Hansell, N K; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G; Wright, M J; Bates, T C

    2013-08-01

    Candidate genes have been identified for both reading and language, but most of the heritable variance in these traits remains unexplained. Here, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of two large cohorts: population samples of Australian twins and siblings aged 12-25 years (n = 1177 from 538 families), and a younger cohort of children of the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and their Children (aged 8 and 9 years; maximum n = 5472). Suggestive association was indicated for reading measures and non-word repetition (NWR), with the greatest support found for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pseudogene, ABCC13 (P = 7.34 × 10(-8)), and the gene, DAZAP1 (P = 1.32 × 10(-6)). Gene-based analyses showed significant association (P reading and spelling with genes CD2L1, CDC2L2 and RCAN3 in two loci on chromosome 1. Some support was found for the same SNPs having effects on both reading skill and NWR, which is compatible with behavior genetic evidence for influences of reading acquisition on phonological-task performance. The results implicate novel candidates for study in additional cohorts for reading and language abilities. © 2013 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  19. Spoken word recognition without a TRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition—including visual word recognition—have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

  20. Evaluating the spoken English proficiency of graduates of foreign medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, J R; van Zanten, M; McKinley, D W; Gary, N E

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather additional evidence for the validity and reliability of spoken English proficiency ratings provided by trained standardized patients (SPs) in high-stakes clinical skills examination. Over 2500 candidates who took the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates' (ECFMG) Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) were studied. The CSA consists of 10 or 11 timed clinical encounters. Standardized patients evaluate spoken English proficiency and interpersonal skills in every encounter. Generalizability theory was used to estimate the consistency of spoken English ratings. Validity coefficients were calculated by correlating summary English ratings with CSA scores and other external criterion measures. Mean spoken English ratings were also compared by various candidate background variables. The reliability of the spoken English ratings, based on 10 independent evaluations, was high. The magnitudes of the associated variance components indicated that the evaluation of a candidate's spoken English proficiency is unlikely to be affected by the choice of cases or SPs used in a given assessment. Proficiency in spoken English was related to native language (English versus other) and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The pattern of the relationships, both within assessment components and with external criterion measures, suggests that valid measures of spoken English proficiency are obtained. This result, combined with the high reproducibility of the ratings over encounters and SPs, supports the use of trained SPs to measure spoken English skills in a simulated medical environment.

  1. A Comparison between Written and Spoken Narratives in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia…

  2. Error detection in spoken human-machine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahmer, E.; Swerts, M.; Theune, Mariet; Weegels, M.

    Given the state of the art of current language and speech technology, errors are unavoidable in present-day spoken dialogue systems. Therefore, one of the main concerns in dialogue design is how to decide whether or not the system has understood the user correctly. In human-human communication,

  3. Automated Scoring of L2 Spoken English with Random Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Abe, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to assess second language (L2) spoken English using automated scoring techniques. Automated scoring aims to classify a large set of learners' oral performance data into a small number of discrete oral proficiency levels. In automated scoring, objectively measurable features such as the frequencies of lexical and…

  4. Flipper: An Information State Component for Spoken Dialogue Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maat, Mark; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Vilhjálmsson, Hannes; Kopp, Stefan; Marsella, Stacy; Thórisson, Kristinn

    This paper introduces Flipper, an specification language and interpreter for Information State Update rules that can be used for developing spoken dialogue systems and embodied conversational agents. The system uses XML-templates to modify the information state and to select behaviours to perform.

  5. Pair Counting to Improve Grammar and Spoken Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    English language learners are often more grammatically accurate in writing than in speaking. As students focus on meaning while speaking, their spoken fluency comes at a cost: their grammatical accuracy decreases. The author wanted to find a way to help her students improve their oral grammar; that is, she wanted them to focus on grammar while…

  6. The Link between Vocabulary Knowledge and Spoken L2 Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the vast numbers of articles devoted to vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language, few studies address the contribution of lexical knowledge to spoken fluency. The present article begins with basic definitions of the temporal characteristics of oral fluency, summarizing L1 research over several decades, and then presents fluency…

  7. Phonological Interference in the Spoken English Performance of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper sets out to examine the phonological interference in the spoken English performance of the Izon speaker. It emphasizes that the level of interference is not just as a result of the systemic differences that exist between both language systems (Izon and English) but also as a result of the interlanguage factors such ...

  8. An Analysis of Spoken Grammar: The Case for Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Corpus-based grammars, notably "Cambridge Grammar of English," give explicit information on the forms and use of native-speaker grammar, including spoken grammar. Native-speaker norms as a necessary goal in language teaching are contested by supporters of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF); however, this article argues for the inclusion of selected…

  9. Automated Metadata Extraction for Semantic Access to Spoken Word Archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Heeren, W.F.L.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Nijholt, Antinus; Ruiz Miyares, L.; Alvarez Silva, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Archival practice is shifting from the analogue to the digital world. A specific subset of heritage collections that impose interesting challenges for the field of language and speech technology are spoken word archives. Given the enormous backlog at audiovisual archives of unannotated materials and

  10. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  11. Lexical and Grammatical Abilities in Deaf Italian Preschoolers: The Role of Duration of Formal Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated language development in deaf Italian preschoolers with hearing parents, taking into account the duration of formal language experience (i.e., the time elapsed since wearing a hearing aid and beginning language education) and different methods of language education. Twenty deaf children were matched with 20 hearing children for age and…

  12. Lipreading Ability and Its Cognitive Correlates in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…

  13. Ability to solve riddles in patients with speech and language impairments after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Successful riddle solving requires recognition of the meaning of words, attention, concentration, memory, connectivity and analysis of riddle content, and sufficiently developed associative thinking. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the ability to solve riddles in stroke patients who do or do not have speech and language disorders (SLDs, to determine the presence of SLDs in relation to the lesion localization, as well as to define the relationship between riddle-solving and functional impairment of a body side. Methods. The sample consisted of 88 patients. The data used included age, sex, educational level, time of stroke onset, presence of an SLD, lesion localization, and functional damage of the body side. The patients were presented with a task of solving 10 riddles. Results. A significant SLD was present in 38.60% of the patients. Brain lesions were found distributed at 46 different brain sites. Patients with different lesion localization had different success in solving riddles. Patients with perisylvian cortex brain lesions, or patients with Wernicke and global aphasia, had the poorest results. The group with SLDs had an average success of solved riddles of 26.76% (p = 0.000. The group with right-sided functional impairments had average success of 37.14%, and the group with functional impairments of the left side of the body 56.88% (p = 0.002. Conclusion. Most patients with SLDs had a low ability of solving riddles. Most of the patients with left brain lesions and perisylvian cortex damage demonstrated lower ability in solving riddles in relation to patients with right hemisphere lesions.

  14. Support for improving reading ability of a student, literate in a foreign language

    OpenAIRE

    Begić, Emina

    2014-01-01

    Many children are being educated in a foreign or second language due to the migration of their families, happening for different reasons. The acquisition of a second language at an early stage and literacy in a second language are paths to bilingualism. In Slovenia, children of immigrants, who decide to stay in the country permanently, are being educated in Slovene, which is the language of the environment and represents a second language to them. Children of immigrants, who stay in Slovenia...

  15. Syntactic and Story Structure Complexity in the Narratives of High- and Low-Language Ability Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Peristeri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although language impairment is commonly associated with the autism spectrum disorder (ASD, the Diagnostic Statistical Manual no longer includes language impairment as a necessary component of an ASD diagnosis (American Psychiatric Association, 2013. However, children with ASD and no comorbid intellectual disability struggle with some aspects of language whose precise nature is still outstanding. Narratives have been extensively used as a tool to examine lexical and syntactic abilities, as well as pragmatic skills in children with ASD. This study contributes to this literature by investigating the narrative skills of 30 Greek-speaking children with ASD and normal non-verbal IQ, 16 with language skills in the upper end of the normal range (ASD-HL, and 14 in the lower end of the normal range (ASD-LL. The control group consisted of 15 age-matched typically-developing (TD children. Narrative performance was measured in terms of both microstructural and macrostructural properties. Microstructural properties included lexical and syntactic measures of complexity such as subordinate vs. coordinate clauses and types of subordinate clauses. Macrostructure was measured in terms of the diversity in the use of internal state terms (ISTs and story structure complexity, i.e., children's ability to produce important units of information that involve the setting, characters, events, and outcomes of the story, as well as the characters' thoughts and feelings. The findings demonstrate that high language ability and syntactic complexity pattern together in ASD children's narrative performance and that language ability compensates for autistic children's pragmatic deficit associated with the production of Theory of Mind-related ISTs. Nevertheless, both groups of children with ASD (high and low language ability scored lower than the TD controls in the production of Theory of Mind-unrelated ISTs, modifier clauses and story structure complexity.

  16. Code-switched English pronunciation modeling for Swahili spoken term detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, N

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate modeling strategies for English code-switched words as found in a Swahili spoken term detection system. Code switching, where speakers switch language in a conversation, occurs frequently in multilingual environments, and typically...

  17. THE BASIC SPECIFICITY OF THE ABILITY OF VARIED ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUMS TO ENHANCE ENGLISH LEARNERS' CAPACITY TO DEVELOP NECESSARY SKILLS TO COMMUNICATE USING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wayne Hendershot; Nutprapha K. Dennis; Suchada Chaiwiwattrakul; Ratirot Phiphitphakdee

    2017-01-01

    Inasmuch as the goal of teaching English to non-native English speakers should be focused on enhancing English learners’ ability to develop skills necessary for efficient and effective use of the English language in communication within their daily lives as well as within the context of educational, employment, governmental, and business related issues, the materials and resources used by the teacher to provide said English learners with enhanced ability to develop necessary skills for the us...

  18. Code-switched English Pronunciation Modeling for Swahili Spoken Term Detection (Pub Version, Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-03

    resourced Languages, SLTU 2016, 9-12 May 2016, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Code-switched English Pronunciation Modeling for Swahili Spoken Term Detection Neil...Abstract We investigate modeling strategies for English code-switched words as found in a Swahili spoken term detection system. Code switching...et al. / Procedia Computer Science 81 ( 2016 ) 128 – 135 Our research focuses on pronunciation modeling of English (embedded language) words within

  19. Sensitivity to audio-visual synchrony and its relation to language abilities in children with and without ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Giulia; Tenenbaum, Elena J; McCormick, Carolyn; Blossom, Megan; Amso, Dima; Sheinkopf, Stephen J

    2018-01-13

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often accompanied by deficits in speech and language processing. Speech processing relies heavily on the integration of auditory and visual information, and it has been suggested that the ability to detect correspondence between auditory and visual signals helps to lay the foundation for successful language development. The goal of the present study was to examine whether young children with ASD show reduced sensitivity to temporal asynchronies in a speech processing task when compared to typically developing controls, and to examine how this sensitivity might relate to language proficiency. Using automated eye tracking methods, we found that children with ASD failed to demonstrate sensitivity to asynchronies of 0.3s, 0.6s, or 1.0s between a video of a woman speaking and the corresponding audio track. In contrast, typically developing children who were language-matched to the ASD group, were sensitive to both 0.6s and 1.0s asynchronies. We also demonstrated that individual differences in sensitivity to audiovisual asynchronies and individual differences in orientation to relevant facial features were both correlated with scores on a standardized measure of language abilities. Results are discussed in the context of attention to visual language and audio-visual processing as potential precursors to language impairment in ASD. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Speech processing relies heavily on the integration of auditory and visual information, and it has been suggested that the ability to detect correspondence between auditory and visual signals helps to lay the foundation for successful language development. The goal of the present study was to explore whether children with ASD process audio-visual synchrony in ways comparable to their typically developing peers, and the relationship between preference for synchrony and language ability. Results showed that there are

  20. CONVERTING RETRIEVED SPOKEN DOCUMENTS INTO TEXT USING AN AUTO ASSOCIATIVE NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SANGEETHA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper frames a novel methodology for spoken document information retrieval to the spontaneous speech corpora and converting the retrieved document into the corresponding language text. The proposed work involves the three major areas namely spoken keyword detection, spoken document retrieval and automatic speech recognition. The keyword spotting is concerned with the exploit of the distribution capturing capability of the Auto Associative Neural Network (AANN for spoken keyword detection. It involves sliding a frame-based keyword template along the audio documents and by means of confidence score acquired from the normalized squared error of AANN to search for a match. This work benevolences a new spoken keyword spotting algorithm. Based on the match the spoken documents are retrieved and clustered together. In speech recognition step, the retrieved documents are converted into the corresponding language text using the AANN classifier. The experiments are conducted using the Dravidian language database and the results recommend that the proposed method is promising for retrieving the relevant documents of a spoken query as a key and transform it into the corresponding language.

  1. Language Ability of Students with Emotional Disturbance: Discrepancies between Teacher Ratings and Direct Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jason C.; Hollo, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Language impairment often goes unidentified in students with behavioral disorders, perhaps in part because different forms of problem behavior deflect adult attention from more subtle language deficits. Therefore, attention to teachers' perception of students' language and behavioral performance is merited. The present study examines agreement…

  2. Putative sex differences in verbal abilities and language cortex: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

      This review brings together evidence from a diverse field of methods for investigating sex differences in language processing. Differences are found in certain language-related deficits, such as stuttering, dyslexia, autism and schizophrenia. Common to these is that language problems may follow...

  3. The Impact of First and Second Languages on Azerbaijani EFL Learners' Writing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Mansour; Tahriri, Abdorreza; Ardebili, Samaneh Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    There has always been a debate whether or not the learners' first language (L1) can facilitate the process of learning foreign language. Since foreign language writing (FL) is a complicated process, it seems that the role of the learners' L1 and its effect on FL writing is of great importance in this regard. The present study aimed at…

  4. Online Speaking Strategy Assessment for Improving Speaking Ability in the Area of Language for Specific Purposes: The Case of Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee; Prapphal, Kanchana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in strategies used in an online language for specific purposes (LSP) speaking test in tourism with two proficiency groups of students, and to investigate the strategies that should be used for low-proficiency students to improve their LSP speaking ability. The Web-based Speaking Test in…

  5. Linguistic and Cognitive Abilities in Children with Specific Language Impairment as Compared to Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Jeannette

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the question as to whether and how the linguistic and other cognitive abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ from those of children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA). To this end, 27 Dutch-speaking elementary-school-age children with SLI, 27 age-matched children with HFA, and a control group…

  6. Linguistic and other cognitive abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment as compared to children with High-Functioning Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeffer, J.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the question as to whether and how the linguistic and other cognitive abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ from those of children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA). To this end, 27 Dutch-speaking elementary-school-age children with SLI, 27

  7. Listening Comprehension and Recall Abilities in Adolescents with Language-Learning Disabilities and without Disabilities for Social Studies Lectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Lonergan, Jeannene M.; Liles, Betty Z.; Anderson, Angela M.

    1998-01-01

    Listening comprehension and recall abilities for social studies lectures were examined and compared in 20 adolescent males with language-learning disabilities (LLD) and in 29 controls. Regardless of lecture type (comparison or causatory expository discourse structures) or question type (literal or inferential comprehension), the performance of the…

  8. Relative Effects of Explicit and Implicit Feedback: The Role of Working Memory Capacity and Language Analytic Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of two cognitive factors (i.e. working memory capacity [WMC] and language analytic ability [LAA]) in the extent to which L2 learners benefit from two different types of feedback (i.e. explicit correction and recasts). Forty-eight adult native speakers of English, who had no previous exposure to…

  9. The Impact of Academic Self-Efficacy, Acculturation Difficulties, and Language Abilities on Procrastination Behavior in Chinese International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowinger, Robert Jay; He, Zhaomin; Lin, Miranda; Chang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of academic self-efficacy, acculturation difficulties, and language abilities on procrastination behavior using a convenience sample of 264 Chinese international students studying at three public universities in the United States. While there were no significant mean gender differences on any of the measures, results…

  10. Phonological Memory, Attention Control, and Musical Ability: Effects of Individual Differences on Rater Judgments of Second Language Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Talia; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how listener judgments of second language speech relate to individual differences in listeners' phonological memory, attention control, and musical ability. Sixty native English listeners (30 music majors, 30 nonmusic majors) rated 40 nonnative speech samples for accentedness, comprehensibility, and fluency. The listeners were…

  11. The Efficacy of Written Corrective Feedback and Language Analytic Ability on Chinese Learners' Explicit and Implicit Knowledge of English Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Xiao, Hailing

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an 8-week study that investigated the differential effects of two written corrective feedback (CF) options on 92 low-intermediate EFL students' explicit and implicit knowledge of English articles and the extent to which language analytic ability might influence the effect of written CF. The study used a…

  12. Use of Communication Strategies by Tourism-Oriented EFL Learners in Relation to Gender and Perceived Language Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Intaraprasert, Channarong

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the relationship of gender, perceived language ability with communication strategy use by tourism-oriented EFL learners studying at the universities in the Southwest China to improve and maintain their oral communication in English. The Communication Strategy Questionnaire was used for data collection, and the…

  13. Children's Biological Givens, Stress Responses, Language and Cognitive Abilities and Family Background after Entering Kindergarten in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Eira; Sajaniemi, Nina K.; Alijoki, Alisa; Nislin, Mari A.

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to investigate stress response regulation, temperament, cognitive and language abilities and family SES in children who entered kindergarten before two years of age. Whilst childrens stress regulatory systems are vulnerable to environmental influences little is known about how temperament and family characteristics impact on stress…

  14. Preservice Teacher and Interpreter American Sign Language Abilities: Self-Evaluations and Evaluations of Deaf Students' Narrative Renditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S; Scheetz, Nanci A

    2015-01-01

    In deaf education , the sign language skills of teacher and interpreter candidates are infrequently assessed; when they are, formal measures are commonly used upon preparation program completion, as opposed to informal measures related to instructional tasks. Using an informal picture storybook task, the authors investigated the receptive and expressive narrative sign language skills of 10 teacher and interpreter candidates in a university preparation program. The candidates evaluated signed renditions of two signing children, as well as their own expressive renditions, using the Signed Reading Fluency Rubric (Easterbrooks & Huston, 2008) at the completion of their fifth sign language course. Candidates' evaluations were compared overall and across 12 sign language indicators to ratings of two university program professors. Some variation existed across ratings for individual indicators, but generally the candidates were aware of and could accurately rate their own abilities and those of two signing children.

  15. User-Centred Design for Chinese-Oriented Spoken English Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Pan, Yingxin; Li, Chen; Zhang, Zengxiu; Shi, Qin; Chu, Wenpei; Liu, Mingzhuo; Zhu, Zhiting

    2016-01-01

    Oral production is an important part in English learning. Lack of a language environment with efficient instruction and feedback is a big issue for non-native speakers' English spoken skill improvement. A computer-assisted language learning system can provide many potential benefits to language learners. It allows adequate instructions and instant…

  16. The differential item functioning and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test for five language groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: For a number of years, eliminating a language component in testing by using nonverbal cognitive tests has been proposed as a possible solution to the effect of groups’ languages (mother tongues or first languages on test performance. This is particularly relevant in South Africa with its 11 official languages.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the differential item functioning (DIF and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test (the PiB/SpEEx Observance test [401] for five South African language groups.Motivation for study: Cultural and language group sensitive tests can lead to unfair discrimination and is a contentious workplace issue in South Africa today. Misconceptions about psychometric testing in industry can cause tests to lose credibility if industries do not use a scientifically sound test-by-test evaluation approach.Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a quasi-experimental design and factor analytic and logistic regression techniques to meet the research aims. The study used a convenience sample drawn from industry and an educational institution.Main findings: The main findings of the study show structural equivalence of the test at a holistic level and nonsignificant DIF effect sizes for most of the comparisons that the researcher made.Practical/managerial implications: This research shows that the PIB/SpEEx Observance Test (401 is not completely language insensitive. One should see it rather as a language-reduced test when people from different language groups need testing.Contribution/value-add: The findings provide supporting evidence that nonverbal cognitive tests are plausible alternatives to verbal tests when one compares people from different language groups.

  17. Vývoj sociální kognice českých neslyšících dětí — uživatelů českého znakového jazyka a uživatelů mluvené češtiny: adaptace testové baterie : Development of Social Cognition in Czech Deaf Children — Czech Sign Language Users and Czech Spoken Language Users: Adaptation of a Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hudáková

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the process of an adaptation of a set of tasks for testing theory-of-mind competencies, Theory of Mind Task Battery, for the use with the population of Czech Deaf children — both users of Czech Sign Language as well as those using spoken Czech.

  18. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  19. Syntax and reading comprehension: a meta-analysis of different spoken-syntax assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimo, Danielle; Lund, Emily; Sapp, Alysha

    2017-12-18

    Syntax is a language skill purported to support children's reading comprehension. However, researchers who have examined whether children with average and below-average reading comprehension score significantly different on spoken-syntax assessments report inconsistent results. To determine if differences in how syntax is measured affect whether children with average and below-average reading comprehension score significantly different on spoken-syntax assessments. Studies that included a group comparison design, children with average and below-average reading comprehension, and a spoken-syntax assessment were selected for review. Fourteen articles from a total of 1281 reviewed met the inclusionary criteria. The 14 articles were coded for the age of the children, score on the reading comprehension assessment, type of spoken-syntax assessment, type of syntax construct measured and score on the spoken-syntax assessment. A random-effects model was used to analyze the difference between the effect sizes of the types of spoken-syntax assessments and the difference between the effect sizes of the syntax construct measured. There was a significant difference between children with average and below-average reading comprehension on spoken-syntax assessments. Those with average and below-average reading comprehension scored significantly different on spoken-syntax assessments when norm-referenced and researcher-created assessments were compared. However, when the type of construct was compared, children with average and below-average reading comprehension scored significantly different on assessments that measured knowledge of spoken syntax, but not on assessments that measured awareness of spoken syntax. The results of this meta-analysis confirmed that the type of spoken-syntax assessment, whether norm-referenced or researcher-created, did not explain why some researchers reported that there were no significant differences between children with average and below

  20. Language and emotional abilities in children with Williams syndrome and children with autism spectrum disorder: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Agnès Lacroix,1 Nawelle Famelart,2 Michèle Guidetti2 1Department of Psychology, Center for Research in Psychology, Cognition, and Communication, University of Rennes 2, Rennes, 2CLLE, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UT2J, France Abstract: Williams syndrome (WS is a genetic disease with a relatively homogeneous profile: relatively well-preserved language, impaired cognitive activities, and hypersociability. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD refers to a group of individuals with impairments in aspects of communication and a particular pattern of language acquisition. Although ASD and WS are polar opposites when it comes to communication abilities (language and emotion and social behavior, comparisons between WS and ASD are still rare in the literature. ASD and WS are both associated with general language and developmental delays. Difficulties in social interaction and general pragmatic difficulties are reported in both ASD and WS, but are more pervasive in ASD. Regarding facial emotion recognition, the two syndromes differ markedly in sensitivity to human faces. Despite the heterogeneity of these two groups, only a few studies with children have paid sufficient attention to participant recruitment and study design. A number of aspects need to be taken into account (eg, small age range, homogeneity of the subgroups, matching with typically developing children if scientific results are to inform the design of intervention programs for children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD and WS. Keywords: neurodevelopmental disorders, facial emotion recognition, linguistic abilities, pragmatic abilities, emotions

  1. Towards Adaptive Spoken Dialog Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In Monitoring Adaptive Spoken Dialog Systems, authors Alexander Schmitt and Wolfgang Minker investigate statistical approaches that allow for recognition of negative dialog patterns in Spoken Dialog Systems (SDS). The presented stochastic methods allow a flexible, portable and  accurate use.  Beginning with the foundations of machine learning and pattern recognition, this monograph examines how frequently users show negative emotions in spoken dialog systems and develop novel approaches to speech-based emotion recognition using hybrid approach to model emotions. The authors make use of statistical methods based on acoustic, linguistic and contextual features to examine the relationship between the interaction flow and the occurrence of emotions using non-acted  recordings several thousand real users from commercial and non-commercial SDS. Additionally, the authors present novel statistical methods that spot problems within a dialog based on interaction patterns. The approaches enable future SDS to offer m...

  2. Associations between the size of the amygdala in infancy and language abilities during the preschool years in normally developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Choe, Myong-sun; Flax, Judy; Grant, P Ellen; Benasich, April A

    2010-02-01

    Recently, structural MRI studies in children have been used to examine relations between brain volume and behavioral measures. However, most of these studies have been done in children older than 2 years of age. Obtaining volumetric measures in infants is considerably more difficult, as structures are less well defined and largely unmyelinated, making segmentation challenging. Moreover, it is still unclear whether individual anatomic variation across development, in healthy, normally developing infants, is reflected in the configuration and function of the mature brain and, as importantly, whether variation in infant brain structure might be related to later cognitive and linguistic abilities. In this longitudinal study, using T1 structural MRI, we identified links between amygdala volume in normally developing, naturally sleeping, 6-month infants and their subsequent language abilities at 2, 3 and 4 years. The images were processed and manually segmented using Cardviews to extract volumetric measures. Intra-rater reliability for repeated segmentation was 87.73% of common voxel agreement. Standardized language assessments were administered at 6 and 12 months and at 2, 3 and 4 years. Significant and consistent correlations were found between amygdala size and language abilities. Children with larger right amygdalae at 6 months had lower scores on expressive and receptive language measures at 2, 3, and 4 years. Associations between amygdala size and language outcomes have been reported in children with autism. The findings presented here extend this association to normally developing children, supporting the idea that the amygdalae might play an important but as yet unspecified role in mediating language acquisition. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Developing a corpus of spoken language variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Lesley; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia Beckford

    2003-10-01

    We are developing a novel, searchable corpus as a research tool for investigating phonetic and phonological phenomena across various speech styles. Five speech styles have been well studied independently in previous work: reduced (casual), careful (hyperarticulated), citation (reading), Lombard effect (speech in noise), and ``motherese'' (child-directed speech). Few studies to date have collected a wide range of styles from a single set of speakers, and fewer yet have provided publicly available corpora. The pilot corpus includes recordings of (1) a set of speakers participating in a variety of tasks designed to elicit the five speech styles, and (2) casual peer conversations and wordlists to illustrate regional vowels. The data include high-quality recordings and time-aligned transcriptions linked to text files that can be queried. Initial measures drawn from the database provide comparison across speech styles along the following acoustic dimensions: MLU (changes in unit duration); relative intra-speaker intensity changes (mean and dynamic range); and intra-speaker pitch values (minimum, maximum, mean, range). The corpus design will allow for a variety of analyses requiring control of demographic and style factors, including hyperarticulation variety, disfluencies, intonation, discourse analysis, and detailed spectral measures.

  4. Metapragmatic explicitation ability in children with typical language development: development and validation of a novel clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anna; Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Speech-language practitioners recognise the importance of metapragmatic (MP) ability (the ability to explicitly reflect on pragmatic rules) in therapy for children with pragmatic and social communication difficulties. There is inconclusive evidence in the literature regarding both the development of metapragmatic ability in children with typical language and the expected levels of explicitation (reflection on pragmatic behaviours) in children's metapragmatic descriptions. The main purposes of this study were to investigate the reliability of a novel task of metapragmatic awareness (the Assessment of Metapragmatics or AMP) and to investigate typical developmental trends of metapragmatic ability and metapragmatic explicitation using the AMP task. Analysis of pooled data from 40 children with typical language development aged between six and eleven years and 48 children with communication impairments indicated that the AMP task had satisfactory internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. For children with typical language development, there was no relationship between gender and metapragmatic ability as measured by AMP. There was a linear relationship between age and AMP task scores and between age and explicitation. The scoring system used in the AMP task was sensitive to age-related changes in metapragmatic ability in a normative sample. The sophistication of metapragmatic awareness (explicitation) also increased with age. At age six years, children demonstrated metapragmatic awareness in their responses to 74% of AMP stimuli items; this increased to 95% of AMP items at ages 10-11 years. The AMP is a reliable measure of development in MP explicitation for children with satisfactory face validity in terms of acceptability to communication professionals and to child participants. From age six, children have some awareness of pragmatic acts and can identify and relate linguistic cues or pragmatic rules in atypical interactions of the type depicted in the AMP. The

  5. English Second-Language Learners in Preschool: Profile Effects in Their English Abilities and the Role of Home Language Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Kirova, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) Determine the English proficiency of English second-language learners (ELLs) at the end of preschool as referenced to monolingual norms, and in particular, to determine if they showed an asynchronous profile, that is, approached monolingual norms more closely for some linguistic sub-skills than…

  6. Individual Differences in Sequence Learning Ability and Second Language Acquisition in Early Childhood and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granena, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    Language aptitude has been hypothesized as a factor that can compensate for postcritical period effects in language learning capacity. However, previous research has primarily focused on instructed contexts and rarely on acquisition-rich learning environments where there is a potential for massive amounts of input. In addition, the studies…

  7. Narrative abilities of monolingual and bilingual children with and without language impairment: implications for clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, T.D.; Leseman, P.P.M.; Timmermeister, M.; Wijnen, F.N.K.; Blom, W.B.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding and expressing a narrative's macro-structure is relatively independent of experience in a specific language. A narrative task is therefore assumed to be a less biased method of language assessment for bilingual children than many other norm-referenced tests and may thus be

  8. The Ability of Children with Language Impairment to Recognize Emotion Conveyed by Facial Expression and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Matthew P.; Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie; Nelson, Donna; Allen, Jillean

    2005-01-01

    The emotion understanding of children with language impairment (LI) was examined in two studies employing emotion-recognition tasks selected to minimize reliance on language skills. Participants consisted of 43 children with LI and 43 typically developing, age-matched peers, sampled from the age ranges of 5 to 8 and 9 to 12 years. In the first…

  9. Narrative Abilities of Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment: Implications for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Tessel; Leseman, Paul; Timmermeister, Mona; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding and expressing a narrative's macro-structure is relatively independent of experience in a specific language. A narrative task is therefore assumed to be a less biased method of language assessment for bilingual children than many other norm-referenced tests and may thus be particularly valuable to identify language…

  10. Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: Evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of nonword repetition performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4–5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. Educational objectives The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence

  11. Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of nonword repetition performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-12-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4-5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence of concomitant language

  12. Auditory sensory memory and language abilities in former late talkers: a mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossheinrich, Nicola; Kademann, Stefanie; Bruder, Jennifer; Bartling, Juergen; Von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated whether (a) a reduced duration of auditory sensory memory is found in late talking children and (b) whether deficits of sensory memory are linked to persistent difficulties in language acquisition. Former late talkers and children without delayed language development were examined at the age of 4 years and 7 months using mismatch negativity (MMN) with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 500 ms and 2000 ms. Additionally, short-term memory, language skills, and nonverbal intelligence were assessed. MMN mean amplitude was reduced for the ISI of 2000 ms in former late talking children both with and without persistent language deficits. In summary, our findings suggest that late talkers are characterized by a reduced duration of auditory sensory memory. However, deficits in auditory sensory memory are not sufficient for persistent language difficulties and may be compensated for by some children.

  13. Foreign Language Teaching and Higher Education in Algeria Reconsidering the Pragmatic Ability as a Teaching Goal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Lebbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, important strides have been made toward recognizing the development of pragmatic competence as a less peripheral component of foreign Language proficiency. Current research questions have extended beyond the confines of how important is integrating pragmatics in Language syllabi to addressing issues like what strategies, techniques and kind(s of instruction should be implemented for a more sustained pragmatic competence. The contribution of the present paper is threefold; First, revisiting the different Pragmatics developmental models that proved thriving and productive in other-than-Algerian- Foreign Language contexts. Second, reviewing third year students’ (Department of English and Literature, University of Batna, Algeria perception of the place the pragmatic objective holds in their oral and written courses syllabi and, finally, making a case for a more pragmatics-oriented language teaching at the university level, not only by an explicit instructed learning but by situating pragmatics at the heart of Foreign Language Teaching.

  14. Language abilities in preschool-aged siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders – preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD observed among relatives of people affected with autism are referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP. Among the components of BAP are language and communication skills. Research to date on these skills amongst the relatives of individuals with ASD is inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available about preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD. Participants and procedure Eighty-six children aged 4 years and 6 months – 6 years and 11 months took part in the study (32 girls and 54 boys. They were divided into four groups: siblings of children with autism (S/ASD, high-functioning children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (HF/ASD, siblings of children with Down syndrome (S/DS and siblings of typically developing children (Controls, C. Communication and language skills were tested using the Vocabulary Test for Children (TSD. It was used to assess two kinds of verbal skills: receptive language (passive and expressive language (active. Results No differences were observed in expressive lanquage or receptive language between siblings of children with ASD and siblings of children with DS as well as typically developing children. In terms of receptive language and general communication skills, siblings of children with ASD scored higher than high functioning children with ASD. High functioning children with ASD displayed difficulties with receptive language, expressive language, general language and communication skills. Conclusions The results suggest that siblings of children with ASD do not display deficits in communication and language skills. It is however important to note that due to a small sample size this study should be considered as preliminary.

  15. The differential item functioning and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test for five language groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2011-10-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the differential item functioning (DIF and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test (the PiB/SpEEx Observance test [401] for five South African language groups. Motivation for study: Cultural and language group sensitive tests can lead to unfair discrimination and is a contentious workplace issue in South Africa today. Misconceptions about psychometric testing in industry can cause tests to lose credibility if industries do not use a scientifically sound test-by-test evaluation approach. Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a quasi-experimental design and factor analytic and logistic regression techniques to meet the research aims. The study used a convenience sample drawn from industry and an educational institution. Main findings: The main findings of the study show structural equivalence of the test at a holistic level and nonsignificant DIF effect sizes for most of the comparisons that the researcher made. Practical/managerial implications: This research shows that the PIB/SpEEx Observance Test (401 is not completely language insensitive. One should see it rather as a language-reduced test when people from different language groups need testing. Contribution/value-add: The findings provide supporting evidence that nonverbal cognitive tests are plausible alternatives to verbal tests when one compares people from different language groups.

  16. Relation between language experiences in preschool classrooms and children's kindergarten and fourth-grade language and reading abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David K; Porche, Michelle V

    2011-01-01

    Indirect effects of preschool classroom indexes of teacher talk were tested on fourth-grade outcomes for 57 students from low-income families in a longitudinal study of classroom and home influences on reading. Detailed observations and audiotaped teacher and child language data were coded to measure content and quantity of verbal interactions in preschool classrooms. Preschool teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary during free play predicted fourth-grade reading comprehension and word recognition (mean age=9; 7), with effects mediated by kindergarten child language measures (mean age=5; 6). In large group preschool settings, teachers' attention-getting utterances were directly related to later comprehension. Preschool teachers' correcting utterances and analytic talk about books, and early support in the home for literacy predicted fourth-grade vocabulary, as mediated by kindergarten receptive vocabulary. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Do Infants Born Very Premature and Who Have Very Low Birth Weight Catch Up With Their Full Term Peers in Their Language Abilities by Early School Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Emily

    2018-01-22

    This study examined the extent to which children born preterm (peers in terms of their language abilities at early school age (≥ 5 to peers. However, preterm infants did not score significantly worse than their peers on their pragmatics (p = .19). Children born VPT and who have VLBW perform worse than their peers on their total language, receptive language, expressive language, phonological awareness, and grammar abilities by early school age. This information is important for speech-language pathologists to consider as children born prematurely reach school age.

  18. Language and reading instruction in early years' classrooms: the knowledge and self-rated ability of Australian teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Hannah L; Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Goldfeld, Sharon R

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to investigate the level of knowledge of language constructs in a cohort of Australian teachers and to examine their self-rated ability and confidence in that knowledge. Seventy-eight teachers from schools across the Australian state of Victoria completed a questionnaire which included items from existing measures, as well as newly developed items. Consistent with a number of earlier Australian and international studies, teachers' explicit and implicit knowledge of basic linguistic constructs was limited and highly variable. A statistically significant correlation was found between (1) total self-rated ability and (2) years since qualification and experience teaching the early years of primary school; however, no relationship was found between self-rated ability and overall performance on knowledge items. Self-rated ability to teach phonemic awareness and phonics had no relationship with demonstrated knowledge in these areas. Teachers were most likely to rate their ability to teach skills including spelling, phonics, comprehension or vocabulary as either moderate or very good. This was despite most respondents demonstrating limited knowledge and stating that they did not feel confident answering questions about their knowledge in these areas. The findings from this study confirm that in the field of language and literacy instruction, there is a gap between the knowledge that is theoretically requisite, and therefore expected, and the actual knowledge of many teachers. This finding challenges current pre-service teacher education and in-service professional learning.

  19. Recognizing Young Readers' Spoken Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…

  20. Correlative Conjunctions in Spoken Texts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poukarová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2 (2017), s. 305-315 ISSN 0021-5597 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01116S Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : correlative conjunctions * spoken Czech * cohesion Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics http://www.juls.savba.sk/ediela/jc/2017/2/jc17-02.pdf

  1. Profiles of Receptive and Expressive Language Abilities in Males with Comorbid Fragile X Syndrome and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara T.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Brown, W. Ted

    2011-01-01

    Receptive and expressive language profiles were examined for a group of verbal male children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome along with varying degrees of autism symptoms. A categorical approach for assigning autism diagnostic classification, based upon the combined use of the ADI-R and ADOS, and a continuous approach for representing autism symptom severity, based upon ADOS severity scores, were utilized in two separate sets of analyses. All analyses controlled for nonverbal IQ and chronological age. Nonverbal IQ accounted for significant variance in all language outcomes with large effect sizes. Results of the categorical analyses failed to reveal an effect of diagnostic group (FXS+AUT, FXS-No AUT) on standardized language test performance. Results of the continuous analyses revealed a negative relationship between autism symptom severity and all of the standardized language measures. Implications for representing autism symptoms in FXS research are considered. PMID:22264110

  2. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Verbal-linguistic ability of children with speech and language disorders in Primorsko- karst region

    OpenAIRE

    Berginc, Moira

    2017-01-01

    In the last years, the studies regarding people with speech and language disorders are focused on child development. Consequently, a growing need has emerged for more accurate diagnosis and precise objective speech therapy. Because of this, the demand for more accurate assessment tests is increasing. As nowadays the Slovenian area is characterized by the lack of standardized and non-standardized tests for speech and language development in children, we would need a comprehensive test covering...

  4. The relationship between spoken English proficiency and participation in higher education, employment and income from two Australian censuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Helen L; Mcleod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Fuller, Gail

    2018-04-01

    Proficiency in the language of the country of residence has implications for an individual's level of education, employability, income and social integration. This paper explores the relationship between the spoken English proficiency of residents of Australia on census day and their educational level, employment and income to provide insight into multilingual speakers' ability to participate in Australia as an English-dominant society. Data presented are derived from two Australian censuses i.e. 2006 and 2011 of over 19 million people. The proportion of Australians who reported speaking a language other than English at home was 21.5% in the 2006 census and 23.2% in the 2011 census. Multilingual speakers who also spoke English very well were more likely to have post-graduate qualifications, full-time employment and high income than monolingual English-speaking Australians. However, multilingual speakers who reported speaking English not well were much less likely to have post-graduate qualifications or full-time employment than monolingual English-speaking Australians. These findings provide insight into the socioeconomic and educational profiles of multilingual speakers, which will inform the understanding of people such as speech-language pathologists who provide them with support. The results indicate spoken English proficiency may impact participation in Australian society. These findings challenge the "monolingual mindset" by demonstrating that outcomes for multilingual speakers in education, employment and income are higher than for monolingual speakers.

  5. Training to improve language outcomes in cochlear implant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Ingvalson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implants (CI have brought with them hearing ability for many prelingually deafened children. Advances in CI technology have brought not only hearing ability but speech perception to these same children. Concurrent with the development of speech perception has come spoken language development, bringing with it the hopes that prelingually deafened CI recipient children will develop spoken language capabilities on par with those of normal hearing (NH children. Unfortunately, this has not been the case, and many CI recipient children lag behind their NH peers with large variability in outcomes. It is likely that CI recipient children struggle to develop spoken language at NH-like levels because they have deficits in both auditory and cognitive skills that underlie the development of language. Fortunately, both the auditory and cognitive training literature indicate an improvement of auditory and cognitive functioning following training. It therefore stands to reason that if training improves the auditory and cognitive skills that support language learning, language development itself should also improve. In the present manuscript we will review the auditory and cognitive training and their potential impact on speech outcomes with an emphasis on the speech perception literature.

  6. Whole-brain functional connectivity during acquisition of novel grammar: Distinct functional networks depend on language learning abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepinska, Olga; de Rover, Mischa; Caspers, Johanneke; Schiller, Niels O

    2017-03-01

    In an effort to advance the understanding of brain function and organisation accompanying second language learning, we investigate the neural substrates of novel grammar learning in a group of healthy adults, consisting of participants with high and average language analytical abilities (LAA). By means of an Independent Components Analysis, a data-driven approach to functional connectivity of the brain, the fMRI data collected during a grammar-learning task were decomposed into maps representing separate cognitive processes. These included the default mode, task-positive, working memory, visual, cerebellar and emotional networks. We further tested for differences within the components, representing individual differences between the High and Average LAA learners. We found high analytical abilities to be coupled with stronger contributions to the task-positive network from areas adjacent to bilateral Broca's region, stronger connectivity within the working memory network and within the emotional network. Average LAA participants displayed stronger engagement within the task-positive network from areas adjacent to the right-hemisphere homologue of Broca's region and typical to lower level processing (visual word recognition), and increased connectivity within the default mode network. The significance of each of the identified networks for the grammar learning process is presented next to a discussion on the established markers of inter-individual learners' differences. We conclude that in terms of functional connectivity, the engagement of brain's networks during grammar acquisition is coupled with one's language learning abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Language Usage, Language Ability, and Language Development: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," March through June 1977 (Vol. 37 No. 9-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 17 titles deal with the following topics: oral language characteristics of college freshmen; the language development of a modern day "wild child"; children's understanding of relational terms; the relationship of…

  8. Ragnar Rommetveit's Approach to Everyday Spoken Dialogue from Within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Sabine; O'Connell, Daniel C

    2016-04-01

    The following article presents basic concepts and methods of Ragnar Rommetveit's (born 1924) hermeneutic-dialogical approach to everyday spoken dialogue with a focus on both shared consciousness and linguistically mediated meaning. He developed this approach originally in his engagement of mainstream linguistic and psycholinguistic research of the 1960s and 1970s. He criticized this research tradition for its individualistic orientation and its adherence to experimental methodology which did not allow the engagement of interactively established meaning and understanding in everyday spoken dialogue. As a social psychologist influenced by phenomenological philosophy, Rommetveit opted for an alternative conceptualization of such dialogue as a contextualized, partially private world, temporarily co-established by interlocutors on the basis of shared consciousness. He argued that everyday spoken dialogue should be investigated from within, i.e., from the perspectives of the interlocutors and from a psychology of the second person. Hence, he developed his approach with an emphasis on intersubjectivity, perspectivity and perspectival relativity, meaning potential of utterances, and epistemic responsibility of interlocutors. In his methods, he limited himself for the most part to casuistic analyses, i.e., logical analyses of fictitious examples to argue for the plausibility of his approach. After many years of experimental research on language, he pursued his phenomenologically oriented research on dialogue in English-language publications from the late 1980s up to 2003. During that period, he engaged psycholinguistic research on spoken dialogue carried out by Anglo-American colleagues only occasionally. Although his work remained unfinished and open to development, it provides both a challenging alternative and supplement to current Anglo-American research on spoken dialogue and some overlap therewith.

  9. Criteria for the segmentation of spoken input into individual utterances

    OpenAIRE

    Mast, Marion; Maier, Elisabeth; Schmitz, Birte

    1995-01-01

    This report describes how spoken language turns are segmented into utterances in the framework of the verbmobil project. The problem of segmenting turns is directly related to the task of annotating a discourse with dialogue act information: an utterance can be characterized as a stretch of dialogue that is attributed one dialogue act. Unfortunately, this rule in many cases is insufficient and many doubtful cases remain. We tried to at least reduce the number of unclear cases by providing a n...

  10. Early preschool processing abilities predict subsequent reading outcomes in bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Pérez-Castelló, Josep A; Rigo-Carratalà, Eduard; Adrover-Roig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) have severe language difficulties without showing hearing impairments, cognitive deficits, neurological damage or socio-emotional deprivation. However, previous studies have shown that children with SLI show some cognitive and literacy problems. Our study analyses the relationship between preschool cognitive and linguistic abilities and the later development of reading abilities in Spanish-Catalan bilingual children with SLI. The sample consisted of 17 bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI and 17 age-matched controls. We tested eight distinct processes related to phonological, attention, and language processing at the age of 6 years and reading at 8 years of age. Results show that bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI show significantly lower scores, as compared to typically developing peers, in phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming (RAN), together with a lower outcome in tasks measuring sentence repetition and verbal fluency. Regarding attentional processes, bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI obtained lower scores in auditory attention, but not in visual attention. At the age of 8 years Spanish-Catalan children with SLI had lower scores than their age-matched controls in total reading score, letter identification (decoding), and in semantic task (comprehension). Regression analyses identified both phonological awareness and verbal fluency at the age of 6 years to be the best predictors of subsequent reading performance at the age of 8 years. Our data suggest that language acquisition problems and difficulties in reading acquisition in bilingual children with SLI might be related to the close interdependence between a limitation in cognitive processing and a deficit at the linguistic level. After reading this article, readers will be able to: identify their understanding of the relation between language difficulties and reading outcomes; explain how processing

  11. Why Dose Frequency Affects Spoken Vocabulary in Preschoolers With Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul J; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E; Warren, Steven F; Gardner, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    In an earlier randomized clinical trial, daily communication and language therapy resulted in more favorable spoken vocabulary outcomes than weekly therapy sessions in a subgroup of initially nonverbal preschoolers with intellectual disabilities that included only children with Down syndrome (DS). In this reanalysis of the dataset involving only the participants with DS, we found that more therapy led to larger spoken vocabularies at posttreatment because it increased children's canonical syllabic communication and receptive vocabulary growth early in the treatment phase.

  12. Glioblastoma in hemihydranencephaly: preoperative and postoperative language ability of the right hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Juliane; Jehna, Margit; Larsen, Naomi; Synowitz, Michael; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-07-01

    We present the first case report describing a craniotomy for a glioblastoma in a patient with hemihydranencephaly (HHE). Ten years ago our patient had average cognitive and language functions, indicating very good adaption of his single right hemisphere. Due to the tumour he developed a deceleration, deficits in language functions and mild impairments of basic cognitive functions. Further neuroplastic reorganisations of his right hemisphere in response to the tumour growth are discussed. The favourable postoperative outcome supported the decision for careful tumour resection in this patient with HHE.

  13. Investigating Raters' Development of Rating Ability on a Second Language Speaking Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the extent to which raters coming from diverse backgrounds exhibited different levels of rating ability while scoring speaking performances. The study also aimed to examine how raters with different backgrounds could develop their rating ability over time. For this purpose, raters' background…

  14. How specific is second language-learning ability? A twin study exploring the contributions of first language achievement and intelligence to second language achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimfeld, K; Dale, P S; Plomin, R

    2015-09-22

    Learning a second language is crucially important in an increasingly global society, yet surprisingly little is known about why individuals differ so substantially in second language (SL) achievement. We used the twin design to assess the nature, nurture and mediators of individual differences in SL achievement. For 6263 twin pairs, we analyzed scores from age 16 UK-wide standardized tests, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). We estimated genetic and environmental influences on the variance of SL for specific languages, the links between SL and English and the extent to which the links between SL and English are explained by intelligence. All SL measures showed substantial heritability, although heritability was nonsignificantly lower for German (36%) than the other languages (53-62%). Multivariate genetic analyses indicated that a third of genetic influence in SL is shared with intelligence, a third with English independent of intelligence and a further third is unique to SL.

  15. Brain white matter structure and language ability in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Matthew; Dewey, Deborah; Lebel, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Brain alterations are associated with reading and language difficulties in older children, but little research has investigated relationships between early language skills and brain white matter structure during the preschool period. We studied 68 children aged 3.0-5.6 years who underwent diffusion tensor imaging and participated in assessments of Phonological Processing and Speeded Naming. Tract-based spatial statistics and tractography revealed relationships between Phonological Processing and diffusion parameters in bilateral ventral white matter pathways and the corpus callosum. Phonological Processing was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy and negatively correlated with mean diffusivity. The relationships observed in left ventral pathways are consistent with studies in older children, and demonstrate that structural markers for language performance are apparent as young as 3 years of age. Our findings in right hemisphere areas that are not as commonly found in adult studies suggest that young children rely on a widespread network for language processing that becomes more specialized with age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Language ability of children with and without a history of stuttering: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Amy; Eadie, Patricia; Block, Susan; Mensah, Fiona; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to determine whether the communication and language skills of children who have a history of stuttering are different from children who do not have a history of stuttering at ages 2-5 years. This study utilizes data from the Early Language in Victoria Study (ELVS), a longitudinal study with a community sample of 1910 children recruited in Melbourne, Australia, as well as a concurrent study examining the onset and progression of stuttering. Participants with a history of stuttering (n = 181) and a control group without a history of stuttering (n = 1438) were identified according to the established protocol of these two existing studies. The stuttering group scored higher than the non-stuttering group on all of the communication and language outcomes measured. The group differences were statistically significant on four of the seven measures and these findings were maintained when potentially confounding factors were controlled for. Importantly, the children with a history of stuttering, as a group, and the control group without a history of stuttering demonstrated developmentally-appropriate early communication and language skills.

  17. Word Learning during Reading: Effects of Language Ability in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Margaret S.; Wagovich, Stacy A.; Manfra, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Most vocabulary growth during the school-age years occurs incidentally. However, little is understood about the influence of language skills on word knowledge growth during reading. Using a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design, we examined incidental word learning through reading, considering the presence/absence of supportive context and…

  18. Narrative abilities, memory and attention in children with a specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinmeijer, I.; Scheper, A.R.; Jong, J. de

    2012-01-01

    Background: While narrative tasks have proven to be valid measures for detecting language disorders, measuring communicative skills and predicting future academic performance, research into the comparability of different narrative tasks has shown that outcomes are dependent on the type of task used.

  19. Evidence for the Decreasing Impact of Cognitive Ability on Second Language Development as Proficiency Increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Ellen J.; Sanz, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether the role of working memory capacity varies over the course of second language (L2) morphosyntactic development. Eighty-seven beginning, intermediate, and advanced university L2 Spanish learners completed two nonverbal tasks measuring executive function (EF) and phonological working memory (PWM) in their native…

  20. Narrative Abilities, Memory and Attention in Children with a Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duinmeijer, Iris; de Jong, Jan; Scheper, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Background: While narrative tasks have proven to be valid measures for detecting language disorders, measuring communicative skills and predicting future academic performance, research into the comparability of different narrative tasks has shown that outcomes are dependent on the type of task used. Although many of the studies detecting task…

  1. Influence of schooling on language abilities of adults without linguistic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ellen Cristina Siqueira; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    2009-01-01

    In order to properly assess language, sociodemographic variables that can influence the linguistic performance of individuals with or without linguistic disorders need to be taken into account. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of schooling and age on the results from the Montreal Toulouse (Modified MT Beta-86) language assessment test among individuals without linguistic disorders. Cross-sectional study carried out between March 2006 and August 2007 in the Speech, Language and Hearing Pathology Department of Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, Brazil. Eighty volunteers were selected. Schooling was stratified into three bands: A (1-4 years), B (5-8 years) and C (nine years and over). The age range was from 17 to 80 years. All the subjects underwent the Montreal Toulouse (Modified MT Beta-86) language assessment protocol. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to schooling levels, in the tasks of oral comprehension, reading, graphical comprehension, naming, lexical availability, dictation, graphical naming of actions and number reading. Statistically significant age-related differences in dictation and lexical availability tasks were observed. The Montreal Toulouse (Modified MT Beta-86) test seems to be sensitive to variations in schooling and age. These variables should be taken into account when this test is used for assessing patients with brain damage.

  2. Early Hearing Loss and Language Abilities in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis; Hall, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although many children with Down syndrome experience hearing loss, there has been little research to investigate its impact on speech and language development. Studies that have investigated the association give inconsistent results. These have often been based on samples where children with the most severe hearing impairments have…

  3. Deaf Children Attending Different School Environments: Sign Language Abilities and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf…

  4. Discriminating Down Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome Based on Language Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Sterling, Audra M.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the receptive and expressive language profiles of verbally expressive children and adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS) and those with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and examined the extent to which these profiles reliably differentiate the diagnostic groups. A total of twenty-four verbal participants with DS (mean age: 12 years),…

  5. Profiles of Receptive and Expressive Language Abilities in Boys with Comorbid Fragile X Syndrome and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Brown, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined receptive and expressive language profiles for a group of verbal male children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome along with varying degrees of autism symptoms. A categorical approach for assigning autism diagnostic classification, based on the combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview--Revised and the Autism…

  6. Testing Comprehension Abilities in Users of British Sign Language Following Cva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, J.; Marshall, J.; Woll, B.; Thacker, A.

    2005-01-01

    Recent imaging (e.g., MacSweeney et al., 2002) and lesion (Hickok, Love-Geffen, & Klima, 2002) studies suggest that sign language comprehension depends primarily on left hemisphere structures. However, this may not be true of all aspects of comprehension. For example, there is evidence that the processing of topographic space in sign may be…

  7. Why Is an Application of Multiple Intelligences Theory Important for Language Learning and Teaching Speaking Ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonma, Malai; Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee

    2014-01-01

    This article calls for a strong need to propose the theoretical framework of the Multiple Intelligences theory (MI) and provide a suitable answer of the doubt in part of foreign language teaching. The article addresses the application of MI theory following various sources from Howard Gardner and the authors who revised this theory for use in the…

  8. Influence of schooling on language abilities of adults without linguistic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Cristina Siqueira Soares

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In order to properly assess language, sociodemographic variables that can influence the linguistic performance of individuals with or without linguistic disorders need to be taken into account. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of schooling and age on the results from the Montreal Toulouse (Modified MT Beta-86 language assessment test among individuals without linguistic disorders. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study carried out between March 2006 and August 2007 in the Speech, Language and Hearing Pathology Department of Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Eighty volunteers were selected. Schooling was stratified into three bands: A (1-4 years, B (5-8 years and C (nine years and over. The age range was from 17 to 80 years. All the subjects underwent the Montreal Toulouse (Modified MT Beta-86 language assessment protocol. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in relation to schooling levels, in the tasks of oral comprehension, reading, graphical comprehension, naming, lexical availability, dictation, graphical naming of actions and number reading. Statistically significant age-related differences in dictation and lexical availability tasks were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The Montreal Toulouse (Modified MT Beta-86 test seems to be sensitive to variations in schooling and age. These variables should be taken into account when this test is used for assessing patients with brain damage.

  9. Written Language Ability in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che-Ming; Ko, Hui-Chen; Chen, Yen-An; Tsou, Yung-Ting; Chao, Wei-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To examine narrative writing in cochlear implant (CI) children and understand the factors associated with unfavorable outcomes. Materials and Methods. Forty-five CI children in grades 2-6 participated in this study. They received CIs at 4.1 ± 2.1 years of age and had used them for 6.5 ± 2.7 years. A story-writing test was conducted and scored on 4 subscales: Total Number of Words, Words per Sentence, Morphosyntax, and Semantics. Scores more than 1.5 SD lower than the mean of the normal-hearing normative sample were considered problematic. Language and speech skills were examined. Results. Significantly more implanted students were problematic on "Total Number of Words" (p < 0.001), "Words per Sentence" (p = 0.049), and "Semantics" (p < 0.001). Poorer receptive language and auditory performance were independently associated with problematic "Total Number of Words" (R (2) = 0.489) and "Semantics" (R (2) = 0.213), respectively. "Semantics" problem was more common in lower graders (grades 2-4) than in higher graders (grades 5-6; p = 0.016). Conclusion. Implanted children tend to write stories that are shorter, worse-organized, and without a plot, while formulating morphosyntactically correct sentences. Special attention is required on their auditory and language performances, which could lead to written language problems.

  10. Written Language Ability in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Ming Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine narrative writing in cochlear implant (CI children and understand the factors associated with unfavorable outcomes. Materials and Methods. Forty-five CI children in grades 2–6 participated in this study. They received CIs at 4.1 ± 2.1 years of age and had used them for 6.5 ± 2.7 years. A story-writing test was conducted and scored on 4 subscales: Total Number of Words, Words per Sentence, Morphosyntax, and Semantics. Scores more than 1.5 SD lower than the mean of the normal-hearing normative sample were considered problematic. Language and speech skills were examined. Results. Significantly more implanted students were problematic on “Total Number of Words” (p<0.001, “Words per Sentence” (p=0.049, and “Semantics” (p<0.001. Poorer receptive language and auditory performance were independently associated with problematic “Total Number of Words” (R2=0.489 and “Semantics” (R2=0.213, respectively. “Semantics” problem was more common in lower graders (grades 2–4 than in higher graders (grades 5-6; p=0.016. Conclusion. Implanted children tend to write stories that are shorter, worse-organized, and without a plot, while formulating morphosyntactically correct sentences. Special attention is required on their auditory and language performances, which could lead to written language problems.

  11. Spontaneous Gesture Production and Lexical Abilities in Children with Specific Language Impairment in a Naming Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Manuela; Majorano, Marinella

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the role that cospeech gestures play in lexical production in preschool-age children with expressive specific language impairment (E-SLI). Method: Fifteen preschoolers with E-SLI and 2 groups of typically developing (TD) children matched for chronological age (n = 15, CATD group) and for…

  12. Perception and Lexicon Labeling Ability on a Child with Language Delay Diagnosed As Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Psycholinguistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmani Nur Indah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the semantics acquisition of a child with language delay diagnosed as autistic spectrum disorder (ASD. The research problem is on how the child acquired the ability to comprehend meaning. It aims at answering the questions on how the child identified lexical meanings and how he labeled targeted lexicons of his first language. The approach employed in this research is descriptive qualitative to get adequate explanation on a specific language phenomenon, namely semantics acquisition. Its design is case study with the type neo-ethnographic. As the data collection method, it uses participant observation of longitudinal study considering that the research subject has familial relation with the researcher. The data analysis shows that the semantic acquisition of the research subject has complexity in vocabulary enrichment. The research subject often performs echolalic speech when he is asked to identify or label certain object given. The typical idiosyncratic speech is shown by the unique feature of limited syllable and prosody. In general, his ability to identify lexical meanings is far exceeding his ability to label objects. He also has sensitivity to perceive the non-verbal symbol performed by the people he knows well. The use of verbal language supported by non-verbal language facilitates his perception. He finds it difficult to comprehend the lexicons having similar sound as he assumes that one lexicon represents one object which typically belongs to concrete object. In addition, the ability of the research subject in labeling objects cannot be developed easily because of his difficulty in expressing ideas through words. To pronounce the words correctly, he shows high anxiety by lowering down his speech. In selecting the lexicon he also finds it hard to use pronoun, to label homonyms and to apply both polysemy and hyponym. Accordingly, he tends to communicate only to fulfill his needs by asking things, asking the

  13. A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

  14. Time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition: evidence from ERP analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjing; Guo, Jingjing; Zhou, Fengying; Shu, Hua

    2011-06-01

    Evidence from event-related potential (ERP) analyses of English spoken words suggests that the time course of English word recognition in monosyllables is cumulative. Different types of phonological competitors (i.e., rhymes and cohorts) modulate the temporal grain of ERP components differentially (Desroches, Newman, & Joanisse, 2009). The time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition could be different from that of English due to the differences in syllable structure between the two languages (e.g., lexical tones). The present study investigated the time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition using ERPs to record brain responses online while subjects listened to spoken words. During the experiment, participants were asked to compare a target picture with a subsequent picture by judging whether or not these two pictures belonged to the same semantic category. The spoken word was presented between the two pictures, and participants were not required to respond during its presentation. We manipulated phonological competition by presenting spoken words that either matched or mismatched the target picture in one of the following four ways: onset mismatch, rime mismatch, tone mismatch, or syllable mismatch. In contrast to the English findings, our findings showed that the three partial mismatches (onset, rime, and tone mismatches) equally modulated the amplitudes and time courses of the N400 (a negative component that peaks about 400ms after the spoken word), whereas, the syllable mismatched words elicited an earlier and stronger N400 than the three partial mismatched words. The results shed light on the important role of syllable-level awareness in Chinese spoken word recognition and also imply that the recognition of Chinese monosyllabic words might rely more on global similarity of the whole syllable structure or syllable-based holistic processing rather than phonemic segment-based processing. We interpret the differences in spoken word

  15. Trajectories of pragmatic and nonliteral language development in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Elisabeth M; Nelson, Keith E

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulties with understanding pragmatic language and also nonliteral language. However, little is understood about the development of these two language domains. The current study examines pragmatic and nonliteral language development in 69 typically developing (TD) children and 27 children with ASD, ages 5-12 years. For both groups, performance on pragmatic language and nonliteral language scores on the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language increased significantly with chronological age, vocabulary, syntax, and theory of mind abilities both for children with ASD and TD children. Based on a cross-sectional trajectory analysis, the children with ASD showed slower rates of development with chronological age relative to TD children for both the pragmatic language and nonliteral language subtests. However, the groups did not show significant differences in the rate of development for either pragmatic language or nonliteral language abilities with regard to their vocabulary abilities or TOM abilities. It appears that children with ASD may reach levels of pragmatic language that are in line with their current levels of basic language abilities. Both basic language abilities and theory of mind abilities may aid in the development of pragmatic language and nonliteral language abilities. After reading this article, the reader will understand: (1) the relation between basic language abilities (vocabulary and syntax) and advanced language abilities (pragmatic and nonliteral language), (2) how the cross-sectional trajectory analysis differs from traditional group matching studies, and (3) how pragmatic and nonliteral language development for children with autism shows both similarities and differences compared to typically developing children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Serbian heritage language schools in the Netherlands through the eyes of the parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmen, Andrej

    It is difficult to find the exact number of other languages spoken besides Dutch in the Netherlands. A study showed that a total of 96 other languages are spoken by students attending Dutch primary and secondary schools. The variety of languages spoken shows the growth of linguistic diversity in the

  17. Reading Words or Pictures: Eye Movement Patterns in Adults and Children Differ by Age Group and Receptive Language Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Licong; Wang, Yifang; Sun, Yadong

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the differences in the degree of attention given to Chinese print and pictures by children and adults when they read picture books with and without Chinese words. We used an eye tracker from SensoMotoric Instruments to record the visual fixations of the subjects. The results showed that the adults paid more attention to Chinese print and looked at the print sooner than the children did. The stronger the children's receptive language abilities were, the less time it took them to view the pictures. All participants spent the same amount of time looking at the pictures whether Chinese words were present or absent.

  18. Reading Words or Pictures: Eye Movement Patterns in Adults and Children Differ by Age Group and Receptive Language Ability

    OpenAIRE

    An, Licong; Wang, Yifang; Sun, Yadong

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the differences in the degree of attention given to Chinese print and pictures by children and adults when they read picture books with and without Chinese words. We used an eye tracker from SensoMotoric Instruments to record the visual fixations of the subjects. The results showed that the adults paid more attention to Chinese print and looked at the print sooner than the children did. The stronger the children’s receptive language abilities were, the less...

  19. No effects of anodal transcranial direct stimulation on language abilities in early rehabilitation of post-stroke aphasic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanowska, K E; Leśniak, M; Seniów, J B; Członkowska, A

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that an increased level of stroke-affected left hemisphere cortical (especially frontal) excitability is associated with better language improvement in aphasic patients. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS), increasing cortical activity, may facilitate perilesional left hemisphere recruitment to subserve language processing and enhance effects of behavioural therapy. The aim of the study (randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled) was to evaluate the effectiveness of repeated A-tDCS over Broca area as a strategy to enhance aphasia recovery during early post-stroke rehabilitation. Thirty-seven participants with moderate or severe aphasia were randomized to receive 15 consecutive daily sessions of A-tDCS (1 mA, 10 min; experimental group, n = 18) or sham stimulation (1 mA, 25 s; control group, n = 19) followed by language therapy. Effects of tDCS were assessed using the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, performed before and after the rehabilitation, and three months later. The results did not confirm a positive impact of repeated A-tDCS, preceding language therapy, on language abilities in our patients. Although both groups improved after the therapy, there were no statistically significant differences between groups in either short-term or long-term tDCS effects. Effect sizes for the experimental group, at post-treatment and the 3-month follow-up, were slightly higher than in controls but insufficient to infer any beneficial influence of the applied intervention. The findings do not support A-tDCS functional benefits during early rehabilitation of post-stroke aphasia. Further research is needed to explore the effectiveness of this kind of neuromodulation.

  20. Linguistic adaptations during spoken and multimodal error resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, S; Bernard, J; Levow, G A

    1998-01-01

    Fragile error handling in recognition-based systems is a major problem that degrades their performance, frustrates users, and limits commercial potential. The aim of the present research was to analyze the types and magnitude of linguistic adaptation that occur during spoken and multimodal human-computer error resolution. A semiautomatic simulation method with a novel error-generation capability was used to collect samples of users' spoken and pen-based input immediately before and after recognition errors, and at different spiral depths in terms of the number of repetitions needed to resolve an error. When correcting persistent recognition errors, results revealed that users adapt their speech and language in three qualitatively different ways. First, they increase linguistic contrast through alternation of input modes and lexical content over repeated correction attempts. Second, when correcting with verbatim speech, they increase hyperarticulation by lengthening speech segments and pauses, and increasing the use of final falling contours. Third, when they hyperarticulate, users simultaneously suppress linguistic variability in their speech signal's amplitude and fundamental frequency. These findings are discussed from the perspective of enhancement of linguistic intelligibility. Implications are also discussed for corroboration and generalization of the Computer-elicited Hyperarticulate Adaptation Model (CHAM), and for improved error handling capabilities in next-generation spoken language and multimodal systems.

  1. Differential ability and attainment in language and arithmetic of Dutch primary school pupils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Driessen, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Background. In pre-school and primary education pupils differ in many abilities and competences (‘giftedness’). Yet mainstream educational practice seems rather homogeneous in providing age-based or grade-class subject matter approaches. Aims. To clarify whether pupils scoring initially at high

  2. Psychopathy and the ability to read the "language of the eyes": divergence in the psychopathy construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Asle M; Hansen, Anita L; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Laberg, Jon Christian

    2014-12-01

    The capacity to interpret others people's behavior and mental states is a vital part of human social communication. This ability, also called mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM), may also serve as a protective factor against aggression and antisocial behavior. This study investigates the relationship between two measures of psychopathy (clinical assessment and self-report) and the ability to identify mental states from photographs of the eye region. The participants in the study were 92 male inmates at Bergen prison, Norway. The results showed some discrepancy in connection to assessment methodology. For the self-report (SRP-III), we found an overall negative association between mental state discrimination and psychopathy, while for the clinical instrument (PCL-R) the results were more mixed. For Factor 1 psychopathic traits (interpersonal and affective), we found positive associations with discrimination of neutral mental states, but not with the positive or negative mental states. Factor 2 traits (antisocial lifestyle) were found to be negatively associated with discrimination of mental states. The results from this study demonstrate a heterogeneity in the psychopathic construct where psychopathic traits related to an antisocial and impulsive lifestyle are associated with lower ability to recognize others' mental states, while interpersonal and affective psychopathic traits are associated with a somewhat enhanced ability to recognize others' emotional states. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Do Infants Born Very Premature and Who Have Very Low Birth Weight Catch up with Their Full Term Peers in Their Language Abilities by Early School Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the extent to which children born preterm (language abilities at early school age (= 5 to < 9 years). Method: A systematic literature search identified empirical studies that fit the inclusion…

  4. Temporal processing as a base for language universals: cross-linguistic comparisons on sequencing abilities with some implications for language therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelag, Elzbieta; Szymaszek, Aneta; Aksamit-Ramotowska, Agnieszka; Fink, Martina; Ulbrich, Pamela; Wittmann, Marc; Pöppel, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    The study sets the stage for temporal information processing as a fundamental basis of human cognition and a novel neurorehabilitation method. We focus on auditory perception of temporal order and address the following questions: (1) do subjects' age, gender, hearing status and cognitive functioning influence temporal ordering abilities; (2) are there any differences between Polish and German subjects on these abilities? 86 Polish and 82 German subjects aged from 20 to 69 years were classified into 5 age groups. Subjects identified the order of two 1-ms clicks presented monaurally in rapid succession. The temporal order threshold (i.e. the minimum temporal gap required to report the stimulus order at 75% correctness) was assessed for each individual. There were no differences between Polish and German subjects on temporal ordering. In both samples, a significant prolongation of temporal-order threshold was observed in subjects older than 60 years of age. Temporal processing was relatively resistant to subjects' hearing status, but it depended on cognitive competence. Thus, it is not chronological age as such but cognitive competence that may explain age-related decreases of temporal acuity. Furthermore, potential effects of age or gender are robust against the language background as no differences were observed between Polish and German subjects. We propose the existence of a neural mechanism underlying the perception of rapid changes in non-verbal acoustic features which constitute a frame for speech perception in many languages. This finding may be important with respect to future applications of temporal training in speech therapy programs designed for patients with receptive language disorders of different etiologies.

  5. Introducing Spoken Dialogue Systems into Intelligent Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Heinroth, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Introducing Spoken Dialogue Systems into Intelligent Environments outlines the formalisms of a novel knowledge-driven framework for spoken dialogue management and presents the implementation of a model-based Adaptive Spoken Dialogue Manager(ASDM) called OwlSpeak. The authors have identified three stakeholders that potentially influence the behavior of the ASDM: the user, the SDS, and a complex Intelligent Environment (IE) consisting of various devices, services, and task descriptions. The theoretical foundation of a working ontology-based spoken dialogue description framework, the prototype implementation of the ASDM, and the evaluation activities that are presented as part of this book contribute to the ongoing spoken dialogue research by establishing the fertile ground of model-based adaptive spoken dialogue management. This monograph is ideal for advanced undergraduate students, PhD students, and postdocs as well as academic and industrial researchers and developers in speech and multimodal interactive ...

  6. Disentangling the effects of working memory, language, parental education, and non-verbal intelligence on children's mathematical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Violeta; Fuentes, Luis J; Castillo, Alejandro; Diamantopoulou, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that children's performance in mathematical abilities is influenced by several factors such as working memory (WM), verbal ability, intelligence, and socioeconomic status. The present study explored the contribution of those factors to mathematical performance taking a componential view of both WM and mathematics. We explored the existing relationship between different WM components (verbal and spatial) with tasks that make differential recruitment of the central executive, and simple and complex mathematical skills in a sample of 102 children in grades 4-6. The main findings point to a relationship between the verbal WM component and complex word arithmetic problems, whereas language and non-verbal intelligence were associated with knowledge of quantitative concepts and arithmetic ability. The spatial WM component was associated with the subtest Series, whereas the verbal component was with the subtest Concepts. The results also suggest a positive relationship between parental educational level and children's performance on Quantitative Concepts. These findings suggest that specific cognitive skills might be trained in order to improve different aspects of mathematical ability.

  7. Family Ratings of Communication Largely Reflect Expressive Language and Conversation-Level Ability in People With Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucetola, Robert; Tabor Connor, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    Family ratings of communication and social interactions represent an important source of information about people with aphasia. Because of the reliance on family/partner ratings as an outcome measure in many aphasia treatment studies and in the clinic, there is a great need for the validation of commonly used family/partner rating measures, and a better understanding of predictors of family ratings of communication. The communication ability of 130 individuals with aphasia due to neurologic illness was rated by family members/partners on the Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI; Lomas et al., 1989). Information on aphasia severity, mood, quality of life, nonverbal cognitive functioning, and various demographic factors was collected. Principal component analysis confirmed a 2-factor model best represents the relationships among CETI rating items, and this model largely consists of a conversation-level ability factor. Family ratings were largely predicted by the patient's expressive (not receptive) language but also patient self-perceived quality of communication life. Family/partners typically rate the effectiveness of communication based largely on expressive language, despite the fact that other aspects of the aphasia (e.g., listening comprehension) are as important for everyday communication.

  8. Developmental Steps in Metaphorical Language Abilities: The Influence of Age, Gender, Cognitive Flexibility, Information Processing Speed, and Analogical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Deckert, Matthias; Schmöger, Michaela; Schaunig-Busch, Ines; Formann, Anton K; Auff, Eduard

    2017-12-01

    Metaphor is a specific type of figurative language that is used in various important fields such as in the work with children in clinical or teaching contexts. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental course, developmental steps, and possible cognitive predictors regarding metaphor processing in childhood and early adolescence. One hundred sixty-four typically developing children (7-year-olds, 9-year-olds) and early adolescents (11-year-olds) were tested for metaphor identification, comprehension, comprehension quality, and preference by the Metaphoric Triads Task as well as for analogical reasoning, information processing speed, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure. Metaphor identification and comprehension consecutively increased with age. Eleven-year-olds showed significantly higher metaphor comprehension quality and preference scores than seven- and nine-year-olds, whilst these younger age groups did not differ. Age, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, information processing speed, analogical reasoning, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure significantly predicted metaphor comprehension. Metaphorical language ability shows an ongoing development and seemingly changes qualitatively at the beginning of early adolescence. These results can possibly be explained by a greater synaptic reorganization in early adolescents. Furthermore, cognitive flexibility under time pressure and information processing speed possibly facilitate the ability to adapt metaphor processing strategies in a flexible, quick, and appropriate way.

  9. Lexical and semantic ability in groups of children with cochlear implants, language impairment and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfkvist, Ulrika; Almkvist, Ove; Lyxell, Björn; Tallberg, Ing-Mari

    2014-02-01

    Lexical-semantic ability was investigated among children aged 6-9 years with cochlear implants (CI) and compared to clinical groups of children with language impairment (LI) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as to age-matched children with normal hearing (NH). In addition, the influence of age at implantation on lexical-semantic ability was investigated among children with CI. 97 children divided into four groups participated, CI (n=34), LI (n=12), ASD (n=12), and NH (n=39). A battery of tests, including picture naming, receptive vocabulary and knowledge of semantic features, was used for assessment. A semantic response analysis of the erroneous responses on the picture-naming test was also performed. The group of children with CI exhibited a naming ability comparable to that of the age-matched children with NH, and they also possessed a relevant semantic knowledge of certain words that they were unable to name correctly. Children with CI had a significantly better understanding of words compared to the children with LI and ASD, but a worse understanding than those with NH. The significant differences between groups remained after controlling for age and non-verbal cognitive ability. The children with CI demonstrated lexical-semantic abilities comparable to age-matched children with NH, while children with LI and ASD had a more atypical lexical-semantic profile and poorer sizes of expressive and receptive vocabularies. Dissimilar causes of neurodevelopmental processes seemingly affected lexical-semantic abilities in different ways in the clinical groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TAPS - An automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application

  11. TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application

  12. High-level language ability in healthy individuals and its relationship with verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, Malin; Longoni, Francesca; Einald, Christina; Hallberg, Lina; Kurt, Gabriella; Larsson, Kajsa; Nilsson, Tina; Hartelius, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate healthy subjects' performance on a clinical test of high-level language (HLL) and how it is related to demographic characteristics and verbal working memory (VWM). One hundred healthy subjects (20-79 years old) were assessed with the Swedish BeSS test (Laakso, Brunnegård, Hartelius, & Ahlsén, 2000) and two digit span tasks. Relationships between the demographic variables, VWM and BeSS were investigated both with bivariate correlations and multiple regression analysis. The results present the norms for BeSS. The correlations and multiple regression analysis show that demographic variables had limited influence on test performance. Measures of VWM were moderately related to total BeSS score and weakly to moderately correlated with five of the seven subtests. To conclude, education has an influence on the test as a whole but measures of VWM stood out as the most robust predictor of HLL.

  13. Why is an Application of Multiple Intelligences Theory Important for Language Learning and Teaching Speaking Ability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malai Boonma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article calls for a strong need to propose the theoretical framework of the Multiple Intelligences theory (MI and provide a suitable answer of the doubt in part of foreign language teaching. The article addresses the application of MI theory following various sources from Howard Gardner and the authors who revised this theory for using in the field of the English speaking improvement domain. In other word, this article combines and summarizes appropriate elements for the person on how to start teaching with this theory. The article also describes sequences and implication of the theory into practice. MI theory with the description of eight intelligences characteristic is presented. Following is the parts of activities catering and the processes of teaching with MI are provided. This article ends with the reviews of the ways for assessment and examples of lesson plan integrated with MI theory.

  14. Performance of children with social communication disorder on the Happé Strange Stories: Physical and mental state responses and relationship to language ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; McBean, Kirsty; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Nash, Marysia; Law, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether a modified scoring method was useful for examining the ability of children with social communication disorder (CwSCD) to understand non-literal language and use mental state responses on the Happé Strange Stories (HSS) task. CwSCD and a control group of children with typical language development (CwTLD) completed 10 of the original HSS. CwSCD scored significantly lower on the HSS task than did CwTLD and were much less likely to produce mental state responses. There was a high level of inter-rater reliability (Weighted Kappa=0.907) across data from both groups. HSS performance and language ability correlated significantly for CwSCD. A regression model with age, nonverbal intelligence, receptive and expressive language as predictors explained 55.2% of the variance in HSS ability for CwSCD. The results suggest that the HSS have potential to be used as a clinical assessment to investigate high-level language and ability to infer intent in CwSCD. Readers will be able to describe a modified scoring method for the Happé Strange Stories task. Readers will be able to identify areas of impairment for children with social communication disorder. Readers will identify how these areas of impairment have an effect on ability to understand non-literal language and produce mental state responses on the Happé Strange Stories task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How Do Raters Judge Spoken Vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how raters come to their decisions when judging spoken vocabulary. Segmental rating was introduced to quantify raters' decision-making process. It is hoped that this simulated study brings fresh insight to future methodological considerations with spoken data. Twenty trainee raters assessed five Chinese…

  16. Development and Relationships Between Phonological Awareness, Morphological Awareness and Word Reading in Spoken and Standard Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Schiff

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the development of and the relationship between foundational metalinguistic skills and word reading skills in Arabic. It compared Arabic-speaking children’s phonological awareness (PA, morphological awareness, and voweled and unvoweled word reading skills in spoken and standard language varieties separately in children across five grade levels from childhood to adolescence. Second, it investigated whether skills developed in the spoken variety of Arabic predict reading in the standard variety. Results indicate that although individual differences between students in PA are eliminated toward the end of elementary school in both spoken and standard language varieties, gaps in morphological awareness and in reading skills persisted through junior and high school years. The results also show that the gap in reading accuracy and fluency between Spoken Arabic (SpA and Standard Arabic (StA was evident in both voweled and unvoweled words. Finally, regression analyses showed that morphological awareness in SpA contributed to reading fluency in StA, i.e., children’s early morphological awareness in SpA explained variance in children’s gains in reading fluency in StA. These findings have important theoretical and practical contributions for Arabic reading theory in general and they extend the previous work regarding the cross-linguistic relevance of foundational metalinguistic skills in the first acquired language to reading in a second language, as in societal bilingualism contexts, or a second language variety, as in diglossic contexts.

  17. Reading Words or Pictures: Eye Movement Patterns in Adults and Children Differ by Age Group and Receptive Language Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licong An

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the differences in the degree of attention given to Chinese print and pictures by children and adults when they read picture books with and without Chinese words. We used an eye tracker from SensoMotoric Instruments to record the visual fixations of the subjects. The results showed that the adults paid more attention to Chinese print and looked at the print sooner than the children did. The stronger the children’s receptive language abilities were, the less time it took them to view the pictures. All participants spent the same amount of time looking at the pictures whether Chinese words were present or absent.

  18. Language discrimination by Java sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Erico; Uozumi, Midori

    2006-07-01

    Java sparrows (Padda oryzivora) were trained to discriminate English from Chinese spoken by a bilingual speaker. They could learn discrimination and showed generalization to new sentences spoken by the same speaker and those spoken by a new speaker. Thus, the birds distinguished between English and Chinese. Although auditory cues for the discrimination were not specified, this is the first evidence that non-mammalian species can discriminate human languages.

  19. Speech and language abilities of children with the familial form of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac Marijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS, which encompasses Shprintzen syndrome, DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndrome, is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans with an estimated incidence of approximately 1/4000 per live births. After Down syndrome, it is the second most common genetic syndrome associated with congenital heart malformations. The mode of inheritance of the 22q11.2DS is autosomal dominant. In approximately 72 - 94% of the cases the deletion has occurred de novo, while in 6 to 28% of patients deletion was inherited from a parent. As a part of a multidisciplinary study we examined the speech and language abilities of members of two families with inherited form of 22q11.2DS. The presence of 22q11.2 microdeletion was revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. In one family we detected 1.5 Mb 22q11.2 microdeletion, while in the other family we found 3Mb microdeletion. Patients from both families showed delays in cognitive, socio-emotional, speech and language development. Furthermore, we found considerable variability in the phenotypic characteristics of 22q11.2DS and the degree of speech-language pathology not only between different families with 22q11.2 deletion, but also among members of the same family. In addition, we detected no correlation between the phenotype and the size of 22q11.2 microdeletion.

  20. [The language of the unconscious].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geets, W

    1975-05-01

    The concept of consciousness, separate from that of vigilance, can be defined as the immediate knowledge of motor-perceptual activities on the cognitive assimilation of the real duration. The linguistic theories distinguish in the language first of all linguistic competence, it is grouping of signs or linguistic knowledge of the group, which one can compare to phenomenon of automatism, and secondly the spoken language or linguistic performance, a creative individual and voluntary act. The observation of aphasics and of a certain partial temporal epileptics permits to dissociate these two forms of language. That of the consciousness linked to the immediate observation of the self by ones' self could only be the creative word. The unconscious listener, separated from real time, without real creative ability, could only be the "-echo-souvenir" of the conscient person.

  1. Digital Language Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, András

    2013-01-01

    Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

  2. Digital language death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Kornai

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide.

  3. Multiclausal Utterances Aren't Just for Big Kids: A Framework for Analysis of Complex Syntax Production in Spoken Language of Preschool- and Early School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Karen Barako; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Complex syntax production emerges shortly after the emergence of two-word combinations in oral language and continues to develop through the school-age years. This article defines a framework for the analysis of complex syntax in the spontaneous language of preschool- and early school-age children. The purpose of this article is to provide…

  4. Language Development in Children with Language Disorders: An Introduction to Skinner's Verbal Behavior and the Techniques for Initial Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Laura Baylot; Bicard, David F.

    2009-01-01

    Language development in typically developing children has a very predictable pattern beginning with crying, cooing, babbling, and gestures along with the recognition of spoken words, comprehension of spoken words, and then one word utterances. This predictable pattern breaks down for children with language disorders. This article will discuss…

  5. Investigating L2 Spoken English through the Role Play Learner Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Andrea; Pedrazzini, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    We describe an exploratory study carried out within the University of Milan, Department of English the aim of which was to analyse features of the spoken English of first-year Modern Languages undergraduates. We compiled a learner corpus, the "Role Play" corpus, which consisted of 69 role-play interactions in English carried out by…

  6. Between Syntax and Pragmatics: The Causal Conjunction Protože in Spoken and Written Czech

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermáková, Anna; Komrsková, Zuzana; Kopřivová, Marie; Poukarová, Petra

    -, 25.04.2017 (2017), s. 393-414 ISSN 2509-9507 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01116S Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : Causality * Discourse marker * Spoken language * Czech Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs41701-017-0014-y.pdf

  7. Why Dose Frequency Affects Spoken Vocabulary in Preschoolers with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul J.; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E.; Warren, Steven F.; Gardner, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In an earlier randomized clinical trial, daily communication and language therapy resulted in more favorable spoken vocabulary outcomes than weekly therapy sessions in a subgroup of initially nonverbal preschoolers with intellectual disabilities that included only children with Down syndrome (DS). In this reanalysis of the dataset involving only…

  8. Webster's word power better English grammar improve your written and spoken English

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Betty

    2014-01-01

    With questions and answer sections throughout, this book helps you to improve your written and spoken English through understanding the structure of the English language. This is a thorough and useful book with all parts of speech and grammar explained. Used by ELT self-study students.

  9. Monitoring the Performance of Human and Automated Scores for Spoken Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Zechner, Klaus; Sun, Yu

    2018-01-01

    As automated scoring systems for spoken responses are increasingly used in language assessments, testing organizations need to analyze their performance, as compared to human raters, across several dimensions, for example, on individual items or based on subgroups of test takers. In addition, there is a need in testing organizations to establish…

  10. Language-Building Activities and Variations in Interaction With Mixed-Ability ESL University Learners in a Content-Based Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Manuel Serna Dimas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of both language-building activities and a variety of teacher/student interaction patterns increase both oral language participation and content learning in a course of manual therapy with mixed-language ability students. In this article, the researchers describe their collaboration in a content-based course in English with English as a second language learners. The data gathered through lesson plans, sociograms, and student feedback cards showed an increase of students’ involvement in class activities since their concern was to be able to diagnose and treat their future patients’ physical condition through a structured interview for which both careful language elaboration and therapist/patient interaction were essential.

  11. Complex sentences in sign languages: Modality, typology, discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Herrmann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Sign language grammars, just like spoken language grammars, generally provide various means to generate different kinds of complex syntactic structures including subordination of complement clauses, adverbial clauses, or relative clauses. Studies on various sign languages have revealed that sign

  12. Reading the Surface: Body Language and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Andrejevic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role played by body language in recent examples of popular culture and political news coverage as a means of highlighting the poten-tially deceptive haracter of speech and promising to bypass it altogether. It situ-ates the promise of "visceral literacy" - the alleged ability to read inner emotions and dispositions - within emerging surveillance practices and the landscapes of risk they navigate. At the same time, it describes portrayals of body language analysis as characteristic of an emerging genre of "securitainment" that instructs viewers in monitoring techniques as it entertains and informs them. Body lan-guage ends up caught in the symbolic impasse it sought to avoid: as soon as it is portrayed as a language that can be learned and consciously "spoken" it falls prey to the potential for deceit. The article's conclusion considers the way in which emerging technologies attempt to address this impasse, bypassing the attempt to infer underlying signification altogether.

  13. The languages of the world

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzner, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    ... on populations and the numbers of people speaking each language. Features include: * * * * * nearly 600 languages identified as to where they are spoken and the family to which they belong over 200 languages individually described, with sample passages and English translation fascinating insights into the history and development of individual languages a...

  14. Information Structure in Sign Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Pfau, R.; Féry, C.; Ishihara, S.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates that the Information Structure notions Topic and Focus are relevant for sign languages, just as they are for spoken languages. Data from various sign languages reveal that, across sign languages, Information Structure is encoded by syntactic and prosodic strategies, often

  15. Stability in Chinese and Malay heritage languages as a source of divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, S.; Moro, F.; Braunmüller, K.; Höder, S.; Kühl, K.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses Malay and Chinese heritage languages as spoken in the Netherlands. Heritage speakers are dominant in another language and use their heritage language less. Moreover, they have qualitatively and quantitatively different input from monolinguals. Heritage languages are often

  16. Stability in Chinese and Malay heritage languages as a source of divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, S.; Moro, F.R.; Braunmüller, K.; Höder, S.; Kühl, K.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Malay and Chinese heritage languages as spoken in the Netherlands. Heritage speakers are dominant in another language and use their heritage language less. Moreover, they have qualitatively and quantitatively different input from monolinguals. Heritage languages are often

  17. Speech-Language Pathologists' Perceptions of the Importance and Ability to Use Assistive Technology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dawaideh, Ahmad Mousa

    2013-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) frequently work with people with severe communication disorders who require assistive technology (AT) for communication. The purpose of this study was to investigate the SLPs perceptions of the importance of and ability level required for using AT, and the relationship of AT with gender, level of education,…

  18. Attitudes of Palestinian Undergraduate Students towards Native and Non-Native English Language Teachers and Their Relation to Students' Listening Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafi, Jamal Subhi Ismail; Qabaja, Ziad Mohammed Mahmoud; Al-Kar, Hibah Jabir Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the attitudes of Palestinian undergraduate students towards native and non-native English language teachers and their relation to students' listening ability. To achieve this purpose and to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses, the researchers adopted both the descriptive and inferential…

  19. Do Infants Born Very Premature and Who Have Very Low Birth Weight Catch up with Their Full Term Peers in Their Language Abilities by Early School Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the extent to which children born preterm (< 37 weeks) and/or who have low birth weight (< 2,500 g) catch up with their full term peers in terms of their language abilities at early school age (= 5 to < 9 years). Method: A systematic literature search identified empirical studies that fit the inclusion…

  20. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  1. Who can communicate with whom? Language experience affects infants' evaluation of others as monolingual or multilingual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Casey E; Onishi, Kristine H; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2015-01-01

    Adults recognize that people can understand more than one language. However, it is unclear whether infants assume other people understand one or multiple languages. We examined whether monolingual and bilingual 20-month-olds expect an unfamiliar person to understand one or more than one language. Two speakers told a listener the location of a hidden object using either the same or two different languages. When different languages were spoken, monolinguals looked longer when the listener searched correctly, bilinguals did not; when the same language was spoken, both groups looked longer for incorrect searches. Infants rely on their prior language experience when evaluating the language abilities of a novel individual. Monolingual infants assume others can understand only one language, although not necessarily the infants' own; bilinguals do not. Infants' assumptions about which community of conventions people belong to may allow them to recognize effective communicative partners and thus opportunities to acquire language, knowledge, and culture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Auditory and Visual Priming on the Identification of Spoken Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeno, Sumi

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the effects of preceding contextual stimuli, either auditory or visual, on the identification of spoken target words. Fifty-one participants (29% males, 71% females; mean age = 24.5 years, SD = 8.5) were divided into three groups: no context, auditory context, and visual context. All target stimuli were spoken words masked with white noise. The relationships between the context and target stimuli were as follows: identical word, similar word, and unrelated word. Participants presented with context experienced a sequence of six context stimuli in the form of either spoken words or photographs. Auditory and visual context conditions produced similar results, but the auditory context aided word identification more than the visual context in the similar word relationship. We discuss these results in the light of top-down processing, motor theory, and the phonological system of language.

  3. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...

  4. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The pragmatic language abilities of children with ADHD following a play-based intervention involving peer-to-peer interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Munro, Natalie; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Docking, Kimberley

    2013-08-01

    Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly experience significant pragmatic language deficits which put them at risk of developing emotional and social difficulties. This study aimed to examine the pragmatic language exhibited in a peer-to-peer interaction between the children with ADHD and their playmates following a pilot play-based intervention. Participants were children (aged 5-11 years) diagnosed as having ADHD (n = 14) and their self-selected typically-developing playmate. Pragmatic language was measured using the Pragmatic Protocol (PP) and the Structured Multidimensional Assessment Profiles (S-MAPs). Children's structural language was also screened and compared against their pragmatic language skills pre-post play-based intervention. The pragmatic language of children with ADHD improved significantly from pre-post intervention as measured by both the PP and S-MAPs. Both children with and without structural language difficulties improved significantly from pre- to post-intervention using S-MAPs; only children with structural language difficulties improved significantly using PP. The findings support the notion that pragmatic skills may improve following a play-based intervention that is characterized by didactic social interaction. As pragmatic language is a complex construct, it is proposed that clinicians and researchers reconsider the working definition of pragmatic language and the operationalization thereof in assessments.

  6. Guest Comment: Universal Language Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Bruce Arne

    1979-01-01

    Explains that reading English among Scientists is almost universal, however, there are enormous problems with spoken English. Advocates the use of Esperanto as a viable alternative, and as a language requirement for graduate work. (GA)

  7. Moving conceptualizations of language and literacy in SLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    and conceptualizations of language and literacy in research on (second) language acquisition. When examining children’s first language acquisition, spoken language has been the primary concern in scholarship: a child acquires oral language first and written language follows later, i.e. language precedes literacy....... On the other hand, many second or foreign language learners learn mostly through written language or learn spoken and written language at the same time. Thus the connections between spoken and written (and visual) modalities, i.e. between language and literacy, are complex in research on language acquisition......Moving conceptualizations of language and literacy in SLA In this colloquium, we aim to problematize the concepts of language and literacy in the field that is termed “second language” research and seek ways to critically connect the terms. When considering current day language use for example...

  8. Interferência da língua falada na escrita de crianças: processos de apagamento da oclusiva dental /d/ e da vibrante final /r/ Interference of the spoken language on children's writing: cancellation processes of the dental occlusive /d/ and final vibrant /r/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socorro Cláudia Tavares de Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a influência da língua falada na escrita de crianças em relação aos fenômenos do cancelamento da dental /d/ e da vibrante final /r/. Elaboramos e aplicamos um instrumento de pesquisa em alunos do Ensino Fundamental em escolas de Fortaleza. Para a análise dos dados obtidos, utilizamos o software SPSS. Os resultados nos revelaram que o sexo masculino e as palavras polissílabas são fatores que influenciam, de forma parcial, a realização da variável dependente /no/ e que os verbos e o nível de escolaridade são elementos condicionadores para o cancelamento da vibrante final /r/.The present study aims to investigate the influence of the spoken language in children's writing in relation to the phenomena of cancellation of dental /d/ and final vibrant /r/. We elaborated and applied a research instrument to children from primary school in Fortaleza. We used the software SPSS to analyze the data. The results showed that the male sex and the words which have three or more syllable are factors that influence, in part, the realization of the dependent variable /no/ and that verbs and level of education are conditioners elements for the cancellation of the final vibrant /r/.

  9. Book review. Neurolinguistics. An Introduction to Spoken Language Processing and its Disorders, John Ingram. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics) (2007). xxi + 420 pp., ISBN 978-0-521-79640-8 (pb)

    OpenAIRE

    Schiller, N.O.

    2009-01-01

    The present textbook is one of the few recent textbooks in the area of neurolinguistics and will be welcomed by teachers of neurolinguistic courses as well as researchers interested in the topic. Neurolinguistics is a huge area, and the boundaries between psycho- and neurolinguistics are not sharp. Often the term neurolinguistics is used to refer to research involving neuropsychological patients suffering from some sort of language disorder or impairment. Also, the term neuro- rather than psy...

  10. Assessment of English language learners: using parent report on first language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Emmerzael, Kristyn; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining information on both languages of English language learners for assessment can be a challenge in a multilingual context. It is often difficult or impossible to observe a child's first language directly due to the absence of resources available in every language spoken. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a parent questionnaire on the first language development of English language learners that is not specific to a particular language/cultural group: the Alberta Language and Development Questionnaire (ALDeQ), and (2) to test how well scores on the ALDeQ differentiated between English language learners with typical development and those with language impairment. Participants were 139 typically developing children and 29 children with language impairment, aged 69 months with 18 months of exposure to English through preschool or school, on average. The ALDeQ consists of four sections: early milestones, current first language abilities, behaviour patterns and activity preferences, and family history. ALDeQ total scores are proportions calculated across all sections. t-test analyses revealed robust between-group differences for ALDeQ total scores, and for each section score, with medium to very large effect sizes. Linear discriminant function analysis showed the ALDeQ total scores to be a significant and moderate discriminator between the typically developing and language impaired group, but with better specificity than sensitivity. The early milestones section scores emerged as the strongest discriminator among the four section scores. Parent responses showed that both the typically developing and language-impaired groups included children experiencing first language loss, but nevertheless, the current first language abilities section was the second strongest between-group discriminator. The ALDeQ would be useful to speech-language pathologists for obtaining information on English language learners' first language development, in particular where

  11. The Impact of Nonverbal Ability on Prevalence and Clinical Presentation of Language Disorder: Evidence from a Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Gooch, Debbie; Wray, Charlotte; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Vamvakas, George; Pickles, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of "specific" language impairment traditionally required nonverbal IQ to be within normal limits, often resulting in restricted access to clinical services for children with lower NVIQ. Changes to DSM-5 criteria for language disorder removed this NVIQ requirement. This study sought to delineate the impact of varying…

  12. Syllable Frequency and Spoken Word Recognition: An Inhibitory Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alvarez, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Angeles

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that syllables play a relevant role in lexical access in Spanish, a shallow language with a transparent syllabic structure. Syllable frequency has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on visual word recognition in Spanish. However, no study has examined the syllable frequency effect on spoken word recognition. The present study tested the effect of the frequency of the first syllable on recognition of spoken Spanish words. A sample of 45 young adults (33 women, 12 men; M = 20.4, SD = 2.8; college students) performed an auditory lexical decision on 128 Spanish disyllabic words and 128 disyllabic nonwords. Words were selected so that lexical and first syllable frequency were manipulated in a within-subject 2 × 2 design, and six additional independent variables were controlled: token positional frequency of the second syllable, number of phonemes, position of lexical stress, number of phonological neighbors, number of phonological neighbors that have higher frequencies than the word, and acoustical durations measured in milliseconds. Decision latencies and error rates were submitted to linear mixed models analysis. Results showed a typical facilitatory effect of the lexical frequency and, importantly, an inhibitory effect of the first syllable frequency on reaction times and error rates. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. A Case Study of the Process of Learning Standard Written English: An Interactive Classroom-Based Action Research of the Influences of Students' Language Background on Their Ability to Learn Standard Written English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis-Wisseh, Ruth D.

    2011-01-01

    This case study, conducted in the context of an interactive classroom-based action research, has examined the process by which Language 1 (L1-native speakers of English) and Language 2 (L2-non-native speakers of English) students develop the ability to acquire the standard written form of the English language. The dissertation was designed to…

  14. Inuit Sign Language: a contribution to sign language typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, J.; Baker, A.; Pfau, R.

    2011-01-01

    Sign language typology is a fairly new research field and typological classifications have yet to be established. For spoken languages, these classifications are generally based on typological parameters; it would thus be desirable to establish these for sign languages. In this paper, different

  15. Implications of Hegel's Theories of Language on Second Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the implications of Hegel's theories of language on second language (L2) teaching. Three among the various concepts in Hegel's theories of language are selected. They are the crucial role of intersubjectivity; the primacy of the spoken over the written form; and the importance of the training of form or grammar. Applying…

  16. The construct equivalence and item bias of the pib/SpEEx conceptualisation-ability test for members of five language groups in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to determine whether the Potential Index Batteries/Situation Specific Evaluation Expert (PIB/SpEEx conceptualisation (100 ability test displays construct equivalence and item bias for members of five selected language groups in South Africa. The sample consisted of a non-probability convenience sample (N = 6 261 of members of five language groups (speakers of Afrikaans, English, North Sotho, Setswana and isiZulu working in the medical and beverage industries or studying at higher-educational institutions. Exploratory factor analysis with target rotations confrmed the PIB/SpEEx 100’s construct equivalence for the respondents from these five language groups. No evidence of either uniform or non-uniform item bias of practical signifcance was found for the sample.

  17. Linguistic Landscape and Minority Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the linguistic landscape of two streets in two multilingual cities in Friesland (Netherlands) and the Basque Country (Spain) where a minority language is spoken, Basque or Frisian. The paper analyses the use of the minority language (Basque or Frisian), the state language (Spanish or Dutch) and English as an international…

  18. A model of the mechanisms of language extinction and revitalization strategies to save endangered languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Valijärvi, Riitta-Liisa; Goldstein, Richard A

    2010-02-01

    Why and how have languages died out? We have devised a mathematical model to help us understand how languages go extinct. We use the model to ask whether language extinction can be prevented in the future and why it may have occurred in the past. A growing number of mathematical models of language dynamics have been developed to study the conditions for language coexistence and death, yet their phenomenological approach compromises their ability to influence language revitalization policy. In contrast, here we model the mechanisms underlying language competition and look at how these mechanisms are influenced by specific language revitalization interventions, namely, private interventions to raise the status of the language and thus promote language learning at home, public interventions to increase the use of the minority language, and explicit teaching of the minority language in schools. Our model reveals that it is possible to preserve a minority language but that continued long-term interventions will likely be necessary. We identify the parameters that determine which interventions work best under certain linguistic and societal circumstances. In this way the efficacy of interventions of various types can be identified and predicted. Although there are qualitative arguments for these parameter values (e.g., the responsiveness of children to learning a language as a function of the proportion of conversations heard in that language, the relative importance of conversations heard in the family and elsewhere, and the amplification of spoken to heard conversations of the high-status language because of the media), extensive quantitative data are lacking in this field. We propose a way to measure these parameters, allowing our model, as well as others models in the field, to be validated.

  19. Language Use of Frisian Bilingual Teenagers on Social Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Faber, L.; Van de Velde, H.; van der Meer, C.; Klinkenberg, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Frisian, a minority language spoken in the Dutch province of Fryslân, on social media by Frisian teenagers. Frisian is the mother tongue of 54% of the 650,000 inhabitants and is predominantly a spoken language: 64% of the Frisian population can speak it well, while

  20. Predicting user mental states in spoken dialogue systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas, Zoraida; Griol, David; López-Cózar, Ramón

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we propose a method for predicting the user mental state for the development of more efficient and usable spoken dialogue systems. This prediction, carried out for each user turn in the dialogue, makes it possible to adapt the system dynamically to the user needs. The mental state is built on the basis of the emotional state of the user and their intention, and is recognized by means of a module conceived as an intermediate phase between natural language understanding and the dialogue management in the architecture of the systems. We have implemented the method in the UAH system, for which the evaluation results with both simulated and real users show that taking into account the user's mental state improves system performance as well as its perceived quality.