I Nengah Sudipa
Full Text Available This article investigates the spoken ability for German students using Bahasa Indonesia (BI. They have studied it for six weeks in IBSN Program at Udayana University, Bali-Indonesia. The data was collected at the time the students sat for the mid-term oral test and was further analyzed with reference to the standard usage of BI. The result suggests that most students managed to express several concepts related to (1 LOCATION; (2 TIME; (3 TRANSPORT; (4 PURPOSE; (5 TRANSACTION; (6 IMPRESSION; (7 REASON; (8 FOOD AND BEVERAGE, and (9 NUMBER AND PERSON. The only problem few students might encounter is due to the influence from their own language system called interference, especially in word order.
Schillingmann, Lars; Ernst, Jessica; Keite, Verena; Wrede, Britta; Meyer, Antje S; Belke, Eva
In language production research, the latency with which speakers produce a spoken response to a stimulus and the onset and offset times of words in longer utterances are key dependent variables. Measuring these variables automatically often yields partially incorrect results. However, exact measurements through the visual inspection of the recordings are extremely time-consuming. We present AlignTool, an open-source alignment tool that establishes preliminarily the onset and offset times of words and phonemes in spoken utterances using Praat, and subsequently performs a forced alignment of the spoken utterances and their orthographic transcriptions in the automatic speech recognition system MAUS. AlignTool creates a Praat TextGrid file for inspection and manual correction by the user, if necessary. We evaluated AlignTool's performance with recordings of single-word and four-word utterances as well as semi-spontaneous speech. AlignTool performs well with audio signals with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio, requiring virtually no corrections. For audio signals of lesser quality, AlignTool still is highly functional but its results may require more frequent manual corrections. We also found that audio recordings including long silent intervals tended to pose greater difficulties for AlignTool than recordings filled with speech, which AlignTool analyzed well overall. We expect that by semi-automatizing the temporal analysis of complex utterances, AlignTool will open new avenues in language production research.
Blake, Helen L; Mcleod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Fuller, Gail
Proficiency in the language of the country of residence has implications for an individual's level of education, employability, income and social integration. This paper explores the relationship between the spoken English proficiency of residents of Australia on census day and their educational level, employment and income to provide insight into multilingual speakers' ability to participate in Australia as an English-dominant society. Data presented are derived from two Australian censuses i.e. 2006 and 2011 of over 19 million people. The proportion of Australians who reported speaking a language other than English at home was 21.5% in the 2006 census and 23.2% in the 2011 census. Multilingual speakers who also spoke English very well were more likely to have post-graduate qualifications, full-time employment and high income than monolingual English-speaking Australians. However, multilingual speakers who reported speaking English not well were much less likely to have post-graduate qualifications or full-time employment than monolingual English-speaking Australians. These findings provide insight into the socioeconomic and educational profiles of multilingual speakers, which will inform the understanding of people such as speech-language pathologists who provide them with support. The results indicate spoken English proficiency may impact participation in Australian society. These findings challenge the "monolingual mindset" by demonstrating that outcomes for multilingual speakers in education, employment and income are higher than for monolingual speakers.
Schaefer, Blanca; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill
There is strong empirical evidence that English-speaking children with spoken language difficulties (SLD) often have phonological awareness (PA) deficits. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinally if this is also true of pre-school children speaking German, a language that makes extensive use of derivational morphemes which may impact on the acquisition of different PA levels. Thirty 4-year-old children with SLD were assessed on 11 PA subtests at three points over a 12-month period and compared with 97 four-year-old typically developing (TD) children. The TD-group had a mean percentage correct of over 50% for the majority of tasks (including phoneme tasks) and their PA skills developed significantly over time. In contrast, the SLD-group improved their PA performance over time on syllable and rhyme, but not on phoneme level tasks. Group comparisons revealed that children with SLD had weaker PA skills, particularly on phoneme level tasks. The study contributes a longitudinal perspective on PA development before school entry. In line with their English-speaking peers, German-speaking children with SLD showed poorer PA skills than TD peers, indicating that the relationship between SLD and PA is similar across these two related but different languages.
Full Text Available This article sketches out the main features of the German system of regional participation in the EU decision-making process with the aim of identifying the key strengths and weaknesses of that system. The author will be examining whether the model currently in place allows for a sufficiently rapid and effective response to the EU decision-making process, and whether there is a sufficiently balanced representation of regional and federal interests at the EU level. The article will also contain a proposal as to how the German model of regional participation in the EU decision-making process could be further improved.
Feghali, Maksoud N.
This book teaches the Arabic Lebanese dialect through topics such as food, clothing, transportation, and leisure activities. It also provides background material on the Arab World in general and the region where Lebanese Arabic is spoken or understood--Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Palestine--in particular. This language guide is based on the phonetic…
Enzenberger, N.; Fichtner, W.; Rentz, O.
Local citizen participation schemes like the German 'Buergerwindparks' (citizen wind farm) have been an important vehicle to develop the wind energy business to its present state of market maturity. This article discusses ownership as an integrated part of the economic project design for renewable energy projects. Different forms of local citizen participation are differentiated and strategic aspects related to the entrepreneurial decision of involving local citizens are highlighted. Then, the focus will be on a description of different role models for local citizen-financed wind energy projects. The paper also explains the evolution of two new role models: the merger of existing project companies to larger citizen-owned project portfolio companies and the role of closed-end wind funds as a new equity provision approach. Finally, the role of local citizen participation schemes in different market phases is discussed. (author)
Ф О Трунов
Full Text Available Staying Somalia in a state of instability is a serious threat for the security of the international community, including countries and institutions of the West. At the modern period, its key element is the activity of the international terrorist structure Al Shabab. Germany and its EU partners face with the problem of the revitalization of Al Shabab terrorists. The methodological basis of the paper is the theories of armed conflicts resolution and the con-struction of armed forces (at the example of the Somalian national army. The key research methods are the event-analyses and the comparative analyses. The aim of the article is the research of the German approach to resolving the “Somali problem”. In this regard, the first task is to study the previous experience of Germany in counteracting with in-stability in Somalia in the 1990-s and since the late 2000-s. (in the framework of counteracting piracy. The second task, on the solution of which is paid the main attention in the article, is the research of complex usage by Germany of its political, military and economic tools for the weakening of Al Shabab. The article studies German participation in the EU mission for the reform of the security sector of Somali. At this base, the article concludes about the military participation of Germany in the struggle with the international terrorism. The article covers the course, problems and prospects of using the national army of Somalia for fighting against Al-Shabab in the south, as well as separatist currents in the northern part of the country. The paper researches German promotion in restoring the structures of power in the country and the process of federalization as the key direction of the stabilization in Somalia. The article covers the features of German economic participation in the decision of deep internal Somali problems, which mainly led to the appearance and strengthening of the Al Shabab positions. The research paper concludes about
Colin, C; Zuinen, T; Bayard, C; Leybaert, J
Sign languages (SL), like oral languages (OL), organize elementary, meaningless units into meaningful semantic units. Our aim was to compare, at behavioral and neurophysiological levels, the processing of the location parameter in French Belgian SL to that of the rhyme in oral French. Ten hearing and 10 profoundly deaf adults performed a rhyme judgment task in OL and a similarity judgment on location in SL. Stimuli were pairs of pictures. As regards OL, deaf subjects' performances, although above chance level, were significantly lower than that of hearing subjects, suggesting that a metaphonological analysis is possible for deaf people but rests on phonological representations that are less precise than in hearing people. As regards SL, deaf subjects scores indicated that a metaphonological judgment may be performed on location. The contingent negative variation (CNV) evoked by the first picture of a pair was similar in hearing subjects in OL and in deaf subjects in OL and SL. However, an N400 evoked by the second picture of the non-rhyming pairs was evidenced only in hearing subjects in OL. The absence of N400 in deaf subjects may be interpreted as the failure to associate two words according to their rhyme in OL or to their location in SL. Although deaf participants can perform metaphonological judgments in OL, they differ from hearing participants both behaviorally and in ERP. Judgment of location in SL is possible for deaf signers, but, contrary to rhyme judgment in hearing participants, does not elicit any N400. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wattie, Nick; Tietjens, Maike; Cobley, Stephen; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph; Kurz, Dietrich
Relative age describes a youth's age within their age group cohort. Compared to relatively younger peers, relatively older youth in an annual age group cohort have been found more likely to be selected to sports teams, and to receive higher grades in education. This study examined the influence of youth sport participants' relative age on participation and dropout. Using data from the 1995 German Youth Sport Survey (N total=2612), comparisons (stratified by gender and sport type) were made between the relative age of current and former participants. Analyses also considered the type of school youths were enrolled in while exploring the influence of relative age on sport participations. No relative age effects for dropout emerged among males in team or individual sport contexts. Female dropouts were more likely to be relatively older (Q1, OR adjusted: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.34-0.80; Q2, OR adjusted: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36-0.84; Q3, OR adjusted: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39-0.89), an effect that was mirrored among 'artistic' sport participants. Boys and girls in schools that were for children of higher academic proficiency were more likely to be currently participating in sport. Findings suggest that relative age-related dropout effects may be context sensitive and different for males and females. For the most part, relative age did not appear to have any relationship with dropout in this sample, with some notable exceptions for females. Overall, factors such as the type of school youths were enrolled in appear to be a more salient influence on sport participation than relative age.
Full Text Available One of the main assumptions on how democracy can be achieved puts faith on the positive effects of the direct engagement of the citizens themselves. Urban planning has adapted to this idea in many countries. With the acceptance of the principal of subsidiarity, political participation of the cit-izens in decision processes has become a key idea for the further development for the European Uni¬on. The support for participatory forms of politics and planning were underpinned by a large desire in the European societies. The example of Germany shows that forms of direct democracy had major im¬pacts on urban planning. The analysis of the overall trend of the last two decades and of some selected examples however rises important questions. Framed by a sociological look on the new social and political conditions of German cities, it shows that the basic argument that more participation leads to more democratic grounding of planning can be questioned. In result, the review of the Ger¬man cases shows that in a ‘post-democracy’ (Crouch 2004, urban planning is confronted with a different meaning of participation.
Varieties of German are spoken all over the world, some of which have been maintained for prolonged periods of time. As a result, these transplanted varieties often show traces of the ongoing language contact as specific to their particular context. This thesis explores one such transplanted German language variety – Springbok- German – as spoken by a small subset of German Lutherans in South Africa. Specifically, this study takes as its focus eight rural German communities acr...
Gooskens, C.S.; Kürschner, Sebastian; van Bezooijen, R.
This paper reports on the intelligibility of spoken Low German and Standard German for speakers of Dutch. Two aspects are considered. First, the relative potential for intelligibility of the Low German variety of Bremen and the High German variety of Modern Standard German for speakers of Dutch is
Full Text Available Quality assurance and labeling play an important and increasing role in firms’ marketing strategies. In almost all cases, a price incentive has been stressed as the major incentive for firms to participate in such schemes. We argue here that important non-price incentives for participation in quality labeling may exist, too. In German retailing, it can be observed that discount retailers are listing more and more foods with quality labels. Processors may then participate in voluntary quality labeling in order to enter the large and growing market of discount retailers. The price-premium versus the market-entry hypothesis are analyzed theo-retically. We investigate then in an empirical hedonic pricing model for the German fruit juice market and for participation in the quality label of the Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft (DLG which of the two hypotheses is consistent with the data. There is strong support for the market-entry hypothesis
Considerable progress has been made in recent years in the development of dialogue systems that support robust and efficient human-machine interaction using spoken language. Spoken dialogue technology allows various interactive applications to be built and used for practical purposes, and research focuses on issues that aim to increase the system's communicative competence by including aspects of error correction, cooperation, multimodality, and adaptation in context. This book gives a comprehensive view of state-of-the-art techniques that are used to build spoken dialogue systems. It provides
Mau, W; Thiele, K; Lamprecht, J
Positive therapeutic effects on the work force participation derived from international clinical trials may not be directly transferable to the community based care in Germany. Therefore recent changes of data regarding sick leave (SL), work disability pension (WDP) and employment from the social insurance and from the national database of the German collaborative arthritis centers were analyzed covering a time period of at least 10 years. Health insurance data showed a steeper decline in the average duration of SL caused by rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared with all other diseases. In RA patients from the collaborative arthritis centers the mean duration of SL was much more reduced than the average duration of SL for members of the compulsory health insurance. The proportion of gainfully employed RA patients in collaborative arthritis centers has particularly increased in women. According to data from the pension insurance fund less incident cases of WDP due to RA, AS, and SLE have been observed than WDP caused by all other diseases. Thus different nationwide data show positive changes of the work force participation of individuals suffering from inflammatory rheumatic diseases in Germany.
Holmberg, Anders; Rijkhoff, Jan
The Germanic branch of Indo-European consists of three main groups (Ruhlen 1987: 327):- East Germanic: Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian (all extinct);- North Germanic (or: Scandinavian): Runic (extinct), Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese;- West Germanic: German, Yiddish, Luxembourgeois......, Dutch, Afrikaans, Frisian, English.Here we will only consider the languages that are currently spoken in geographical Europe. Thus Afrikaans, which is spoken in South Africa, and the extinct languages Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian, and Runic will not be taken into account (but see e.g. König & van der...
Full Text Available The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015, this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed.
The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…
Lipski, John M.
The need to teach students speaking skills in Spanish, and to choose among the many standard dialects spoken in the Hispanic world (as well as literary and colloquial speech), presents a challenge to the Spanish teacher. Some phonetic considerations helpful in solving these problems are offered. (CHK)
Issues involved in teaching and assessing communicative competence are identified and applied to adolescent native English speakers with low levels of academic achievement. A distinction is drawn between transactional versus interactional speech, short versus long speaking turns, and spoken language influenced or not influenced by written…
Kessler, Eva-Marie; Schwender, Clemens; Bowen, Catherine E
We investigated the portrayal of older people's social participation on TV advertisements according to a set of theoretically meaningful indicators from communication science and gerontology. We examined a representative sample of 656 prime-time advertisements broadcast for a period of 2 weeks in 2005 in Germany. Five percent of the advertisements featured at least one older character. Each of the characters in the subsample was rated according to role prominence, viewer-character distance, employment status, openness to experience, social interactions, and loneliness. This portrayal was compared with the portrayal of younger characters appearing in the same commercials and with the portrayal of younger characters in commercials without an older character according to the same indicators. 4.5% of the characters were rated 60 years or older. Older characters were disproportionately featured in major roles, depicted as employed and open to new experience. Furthermore, older characters were most often depicted within intergenerational and nonfamily contexts. Older characters were kept at a greater camera distance than younger characters in "young commercials." Although rare, when older characters did appear, they were depicted as socially engaged. We compare this portrayal with real-world gerontological evidence and age stereotypes and discuss how the portrayal might affect viewers.
Goldman, Jerry; Renals, Steve; Bird, Steven; de Jong, Franciska; Federico, Marcello; Fleischhauer, Carl; Kornbluh, Mark; Lamel, Lori; Oard, Douglas W; Stewart, Claire; Wright, Richard
Spoken-word audio collections cover many domains, including radio and television broadcasts, oral narratives, governmental proceedings, lectures, and telephone conversations. The collection, access, and preservation of such data is stimulated by political, economic, cultural, and educational needs. This paper outlines the major issues in the field, reviews the current state of technology, examines the rapidly changing policy issues relating to privacy and copyright, and presents issues relati...
Full Text Available Due to social and political change the process of young citizens’ political socialization was put on a new basis in West European democracies over the last decades. In this article we discuss some aspects of this development and show their consequences. We analyse empirical findings from Germany, focussing on the relevant social factors which influence the individual propensity to participate in politics. The impact of the financial and economic crisis in Europe on political attitudes will also be considered, taking in account sociological aspects. Based on the empirical findings we discuss implications for civic education. In contrast to many discussions in literature about this issue, in which the focus is on the need to put the various influences of political socialization into a broader context, we argue that the parental social background is the crucial upstream factor, prior to e.g. civic education. The conclusion indicates that a group‐specific educational approach, taking into account the social background, is the most promising one for reaching the normative goal of civic education: Politically self‐determined citizens. Aufgrund der sozialen und politischen Veränderungen ist die politische Sozialisation Jugendlicher in den Westeuropäischen Demokratien auf eine neue Grundlage gestellt worden. In diesem Beitrag diskutieren wir Aspekte dieser Entwicklung und zeigen, welche Folgen sich aus diesen ergeben. Wir analysieren empirische Befunde aus Deutschland mit dem Schwerpunkt auf die Frage, welche sozialen Faktoren relevant sind für die individuelle politische Partizipationsbereitschaft. Der Einfluss der Finanz‐ und Wirtschaftskrise in Europa auf politische Einstellungen wird dabei ebenfalls betrachtet. Dies geschieht unter Berücksichtigung der soziologischen Aspekte. Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse Fragen wir nach den Folgen für die politische Bildung. Im Gegensatz zu dem in der Literatur häufig vertretenen Ansatz, die politische
Full Text Available Despite the abundance of electronic corpora now available to researchers, corpora of natural speech are still relatively rare and relatively costly. This paper suggests reasons why spoken corpora are needed, despite the formidable problems of construction. The multiple purposes of such corpora and the involvement of very different kinds of language communities in such projects mean that there is no one single blueprint for the design, markup, and distribution of spoken corpora. A number of different spoken corpora are reviewed to illustrate a range of possibilities for the construction of spoken corpora.
Johannessen, Janne Bondi; Salmons, Joseph C.; Westergaard, Marit; Anderssen, Merete; Arnbjörnsdóttir, Birna; Allen, Brent; Pierce, Marc; Boas, Hans C.; Roesch, Karen; Brown, Joshua R.; Putnam, Michael; Åfarli, Tor A.; Newman, Zelda Kahan; Annear, Lucas; Speth, Kristin
This book presents new empirical findings about Germanic heritage varieties spoken in North America: Dutch, German, Pennsylvania Dutch, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, West Frisian and Yiddish, and varieties of English spoken both by heritage speakers and in communities after language shift. The volume focuses on three critical issues underlying the notion of ‘heritage language’: acquisition, attrition and change. The book offers theoretically-informed discussions of heritage language processe...
Full Text Available The commercial successes of spoken dialog systems in the developed world provide encouragement for their use in the developing world, where speech could play a role in the dissemination of relevant information in local languages. We investigate...
Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena
The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia…
In Monitoring Adaptive Spoken Dialog Systems, authors Alexander Schmitt and Wolfgang Minker investigate statistical approaches that allow for recognition of negative dialog patterns in Spoken Dialog Systems (SDS). The presented stochastic methods allow a flexible, portable and accurate use. Beginning with the foundations of machine learning and pattern recognition, this monograph examines how frequently users show negative emotions in spoken dialog systems and develop novel approaches to speech-based emotion recognition using hybrid approach to model emotions. The authors make use of statistical methods based on acoustic, linguistic and contextual features to examine the relationship between the interaction flow and the occurrence of emotions using non-acted recordings several thousand real users from commercial and non-commercial SDS. Additionally, the authors present novel statistical methods that spot problems within a dialog based on interaction patterns. The approaches enable future SDS to offer m...
Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory
Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…
Roč. 68, č. 2 (2017), s. 305-315 ISSN 0021-5597 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01116S Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : correlative conjunctions * spoken Czech * cohesion Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics http://www.juls.savba.sk/ediela/jc/2017/2/jc17-02.pdf
Le Bigot, Ludovic; Terrier, Patrice; Jamet, Eric; Botherel, Valerie; Rouet, Jean-Francois
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of textual feedback on the content and outcome of spoken interaction with a natural language dialogue system. More specifically, the assumption that textual feedback could disrupt spoken interaction was tested in a human-computer dialogue situation. In total, 48 adult participants, familiar with the system, had to find restaurants based on simple or difficult scenarios using a real natural language service system in a speech-only (phone), speech plus textual dialogue history (multimodal) or text-only (web) modality. The linguistic contents of the dialogues differed as a function of modality, but were similar whether the textual feedback was included in the spoken condition or not. These results add to burgeoning research efforts on multimodal feedback, in suggesting that textual feedback may have little or no detrimental effect on information searching with a real system. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The results suggest that adding textual feedback to interfaces for human-computer dialogue could enhance spoken interaction rather than create interference. The literature currently suggests that adding textual feedback to tasks that depend on the visual sense benefits human-computer interaction. The addition of textual output when the spoken modality is heavily taxed by the task was investigated.
Therefore, this paper examined vowel insertion in the spoken French of 50 Ijebu Undergraduate French Learners (IUFLs) in Selected Universities in South West of Nigeria. The data collection for this study was through tape-recording of participants' production of 30 sentences containing both French vowel and consonant ...
Moran, Catherine; Kirk, Cecilia; Powell, Emma
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the performance of adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) during a spoken persuasive discourse task. Persuasive discourse is frequently used in social and academic settings and is of importance in the study of adolescent language. Method: Participants included 8 adolescents with ABI and 8 peers…
Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K
We tested whether formal volunteering, in terms of its associations with mental health, compensates for the absence of major work and family roles among older adults or rather complements such roles among both younger and older adults. Two cross-sectional samples of younger (aged 18-42 years, N = 2,346) and older (aged 56-75 years, N = 1,422) German adults were used. We regressed mental health indicators on control variables, 2 indicators of formal volunteering (participation in voluntary organizations and volunteer work), and their interactions with employment/partnership status. Participation in voluntary organizations was associated with higher positive affect, higher life satisfaction, and fewer depressive symptoms in younger adults. In older adults, it was related to higher life satisfaction only among working individuals, although the difference from nonworking individuals was not significant. Volunteer work was associated with higher positive affect in both age groups. In younger adults, it had no relation to life satisfaction and depressive symptoms. In older adults, it was related to higher life satisfaction among nonworking individuals and to fewer depressive symptoms among those without a steady partner. Volunteer work but not participation in voluntary organizations yielded compensatory effects on mental health among older adults.
Brimo, Danielle; Lund, Emily; Sapp, Alysha
-average reading comprehension, but the syntax construct, awareness or knowledge, did. Thus, when selecting how to measure syntax among school-age children, researchers and practitioners should evaluate whether they are measuring children's awareness of spoken syntax or knowledge of spoken syntax. Other differences, such as participant diagnosis and the format of items on the spoken-syntax assessments, also were discussed as possible explanations for why researchers found that children with average and below-average reading comprehension did not score significantly differently on spoken-syntax assessments. © 2017 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Schweitzer, Aparna; Akmatov, Manas K; Kindler, Florentina; Kemmling, Yvonne; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Krause, Gérard; Pessler, Frank
In this pilot study within the Pretest 2 phase of the German National Cohort, we aimed to (1) test the hypothesis that distance and duration of travel to a study centre may affect participation rates and participants' satisfaction and (2) to obtain data that would help to select recruitment areas around the study centre Hannover with the greatest projected participation rate for the main study. Mixed urban/suburban environment in Northern Germany with approximately 600,000 inhabitants. 4 recruitment areas with divergent estimated mean distances (range, 7-40 km) and duration of travel to the study centre Hannover were selected. 1050 men and women (ratio, 1:1), aged 20-69 years, were randomly selected from the population registries of the 4 recruitment areas and invited by mail to participate in the Pretest 2 study programme at the study centre Hannover, covering a variety of questionnaire-based and physical assessments. 166 individuals participated (16%). All 166 participants completed a travel questionnaire containing 5 items relating to travel duration and satisfaction, amounting to a participation rate of 100% in the questionnaire-based part of the study. Participation rates in the Pretest 2 programme at the study centre Hannover by area ranged from 11% (area farthest from the study centre, estimated median distance 38 km) to 18% (nearest area, 2 km). The odds of non-participation were highest in the area farthest from the study centre (adjusted OR 2.06; p=0.01; CI 1.28 to 3.32). Nonetheless, 97% of participants were satisfied with travel duration. Increasing distance was associated with a lower participation rate. However, acceptance of duration of travel was high, irrespective of distance or duration. Thus, recruiting in farther away locations may select individuals with a greater frustration tolerance for travel to the study centre, perhaps due to a greater interest in participating in health-oriented studies and thus different health-related behaviour
Introducing Spoken Dialogue Systems into Intelligent Environments outlines the formalisms of a novel knowledge-driven framework for spoken dialogue management and presents the implementation of a model-based Adaptive Spoken Dialogue Manager(ASDM) called OwlSpeak. The authors have identified three stakeholders that potentially influence the behavior of the ASDM: the user, the SDS, and a complex Intelligent Environment (IE) consisting of various devices, services, and task descriptions. The theoretical foundation of a working ontology-based spoken dialogue description framework, the prototype implementation of the ASDM, and the evaluation activities that are presented as part of this book contribute to the ongoing spoken dialogue research by establishing the fertile ground of model-based adaptive spoken dialogue management. This monograph is ideal for advanced undergraduate students, PhD students, and postdocs as well as academic and industrial researchers and developers in speech and multimodal interactive ...
Smith, Maia P; Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger
Physical activity (PA) protects against most noncommunicable diseases and has been associated with decreased risk of allergic phenotype, which is increasing worldwide. However, the association is not always present; furthermore it is not clear whether it is strongest for asthma, rhinitis, symptoms of these, or atopic sensitization; which sex is most affected; or whether it can be explained by either avoidance of sport or exacerbation of symptoms by exercise. Interventions are thus difficult to target. PA was measured by one-week accelerometry in 1137 Germans (mean age 15.6 years, 47% boys) from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, and modeled as a correlate of allergic symptoms, sensitization, or reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or rhinitis. 8.3% of children had asthma, of the remainder 7.9% had rhinitis, and of the remainder 32% were sensitized to aero-allergens (atopic). 52% were lung-healthy controls. Lung-healthy boys and girls averaged 46.4 min and 37.8 min moderate-to-vigorous PA per day, of which 14.6 and 11.4 min was vigorous. PA in allergic girls was not altered, but boys with asthma got 13% less moderate and 29% less vigorous PA, and those with rhinitis with 13% less moderate PA, than lung-healthy boys. Both sexes participated comparably in sport (70 to 84%). Adolescents with wheezing (up to 68%, in asthma) and/or nose/eye symptoms (up to 88%, in rhinitis) were no less active. We found that asthma and rhinitis, but not atopy, were independently associated with low PA in boys, but not in girls. These results indicate that allergic boys remain a high-risk group for physical inactivity even if they participate comparably in sport. Research into the link between PA and allergy should consider population-specific and sex-specific effects, and clinicians, parents, and designers of PA interventions should specifically address PA in allergic boys to ensure full participation.
Aug 2, 2011 ... Theorising the Intersection of Public Policy and. Personal Lives through the Lens of. 'Participation'. Nana Akua Anyidoho*. Abstract. The continued interest in political economy-inspired perspectives on economic and social policies is an attempt to understand policymakers as human beings who are ...
Zhao, Jingjing; Guo, Jingjing; Zhou, Fengying; Shu, Hua
Evidence from event-related potential (ERP) analyses of English spoken words suggests that the time course of English word recognition in monosyllables is cumulative. Different types of phonological competitors (i.e., rhymes and cohorts) modulate the temporal grain of ERP components differentially (Desroches, Newman, & Joanisse, 2009). The time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition could be different from that of English due to the differences in syllable structure between the two languages (e.g., lexical tones). The present study investigated the time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition using ERPs to record brain responses online while subjects listened to spoken words. During the experiment, participants were asked to compare a target picture with a subsequent picture by judging whether or not these two pictures belonged to the same semantic category. The spoken word was presented between the two pictures, and participants were not required to respond during its presentation. We manipulated phonological competition by presenting spoken words that either matched or mismatched the target picture in one of the following four ways: onset mismatch, rime mismatch, tone mismatch, or syllable mismatch. In contrast to the English findings, our findings showed that the three partial mismatches (onset, rime, and tone mismatches) equally modulated the amplitudes and time courses of the N400 (a negative component that peaks about 400ms after the spoken word), whereas, the syllable mismatched words elicited an earlier and stronger N400 than the three partial mismatched words. The results shed light on the important role of syllable-level awareness in Chinese spoken word recognition and also imply that the recognition of Chinese monosyllabic words might rely more on global similarity of the whole syllable structure or syllable-based holistic processing rather than phonemic segment-based processing. We interpret the differences in spoken word
The aim of the study was to investigate how raters come to their decisions when judging spoken vocabulary. Segmental rating was introduced to quantify raters' decision-making process. It is hoped that this simulated study brings fresh insight to future methodological considerations with spoken data. Twenty trainee raters assessed five Chinese…
Yoder, Paul J; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E; Warren, Steven F; Gardner, Elizabeth
In an earlier randomized clinical trial, daily communication and language therapy resulted in more favorable spoken vocabulary outcomes than weekly therapy sessions in a subgroup of initially nonverbal preschoolers with intellectual disabilities that included only children with Down syndrome (DS). In this reanalysis of the dataset involving only the participants with DS, we found that more therapy led to larger spoken vocabularies at posttreatment because it increased children's canonical syllabic communication and receptive vocabulary growth early in the treatment phase.
Maia P Smith
Full Text Available Physical activity (PA protects against most noncommunicable diseases and has been associated with decreased risk of allergic phenotype, which is increasing worldwide. However, the association is not always present; furthermore it is not clear whether it is strongest for asthma, rhinitis, symptoms of these, or atopic sensitization; which sex is most affected; or whether it can be explained by either avoidance of sport or exacerbation of symptoms by exercise. Interventions are thus difficult to target.PA was measured by one-week accelerometry in 1137 Germans (mean age 15.6 years, 47% boys from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, and modeled as a correlate of allergic symptoms, sensitization, or reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or rhinitis.8.3% of children had asthma, of the remainder 7.9% had rhinitis, and of the remainder 32% were sensitized to aero-allergens (atopic. 52% were lung-healthy controls. Lung-healthy boys and girls averaged 46.4 min and 37.8 min moderate-to-vigorous PA per day, of which 14.6 and 11.4 min was vigorous. PA in allergic girls was not altered, but boys with asthma got 13% less moderate and 29% less vigorous PA, and those with rhinitis with 13% less moderate PA, than lung-healthy boys. Both sexes participated comparably in sport (70 to 84%. Adolescents with wheezing (up to 68%, in asthma and/or nose/eye symptoms (up to 88%, in rhinitis were no less active.We found that asthma and rhinitis, but not atopy, were independently associated with low PA in boys, but not in girls. These results indicate that allergic boys remain a high-risk group for physical inactivity even if they participate comparably in sport. Research into the link between PA and allergy should consider population-specific and sex-specific effects, and clinicians, parents, and designers of PA interventions should specifically address PA in allergic boys to ensure full participation.
Luther, J.; Meyer, V.; Kuhlicke, C.; Scheuer, S.; Unnerstall, H.
ended in September 2011, focussing on the participatory aspects in one of the German case studies (the Mulde River in Saxony). In short, different map users such as strategic planners, emergency managers or the (affected) public require different maps, with varying information density and complexity. The purpose of participation may therefore have a substantive rationale (i.e. improving the content, including local knowledge) or a more instrumental rationale (i.e. building trust, raising awareness, increasing legitimacy). The degree to which both rationales are accommodated depends on the project objectives and determines the participants and process type. In the Mulde case study, both the process of collaborating with each other and considering the (local) knowledge and different experiences as well as the results were highly appreciated. Hazard and risk maps are thus not an end-product that could be complemented e.g. by emergency management information on existing or planned defences, evacuation routes, assembly points, but they should be embedded into a participatory maintenance/updating framework. Map visualisation could be enhanced by using more common and/or self-explanatory symbols, text and a limited number of colour grades for hazard and risk information. Keywords: Flood mapping, hazard and risk maps, participation, risk communication, flood risk awareness, emergency management
Putnam, Michael T.; Lipski, John
In this field note we discuss findings from pilot research on a variety of heritage German spoken in the Northeastern Province of Misiones of Argentina. Based on sociolinguistic field interviews with 25 consultants possessing varying degrees of proficiency in the language, we show that this variant of heritage German does in fact occasionally…
This paper investigates the online presence of Low German, a minority language spoken in northern Germany, as well as several other European regional and minority languages. In particular, this article presents the results of two experiments, one involving "Wikipedia" and one involving "Twitter," that assess whether and to…
Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne
The purpose of this research was to investigate factors that influence professionals' guidance of parents of children with hearing loss regarding spoken language multilingualism and spoken language choice. Sixteen professionals who provide services to children and young people with hearing loss completed an online survey, rating the importance of…
This study examined the effects of preceding contextual stimuli, either auditory or visual, on the identification of spoken target words. Fifty-one participants (29% males, 71% females; mean age = 24.5 years, SD = 8.5) were divided into three groups: no context, auditory context, and visual context. All target stimuli were spoken words masked with white noise. The relationships between the context and target stimuli were as follows: identical word, similar word, and unrelated word. Participants presented with context experienced a sequence of six context stimuli in the form of either spoken words or photographs. Auditory and visual context conditions produced similar results, but the auditory context aided word identification more than the visual context in the similar word relationship. We discuss these results in the light of top-down processing, motor theory, and the phonological system of language.
Sender, Johannes F.; Lucas, Edward R.
Germany has invited the Royal Danish Navy to participate in training missions and exercises on board German submarines. This brief examines the benefits and challenges of this proposed cooperation for both Denmark and NATO more broadly.......Germany has invited the Royal Danish Navy to participate in training missions and exercises on board German submarines. This brief examines the benefits and challenges of this proposed cooperation for both Denmark and NATO more broadly....
Full Text Available In this paper we describe a preliminary, work-in-progress Spoken Language Understanding Software (SLUS with tailored feedback options, which uses interactive spoken language interface to teach Iraqi Arabic and culture to second language learners. The SLUS analyzes input speech by the second language learner and grades for correct pronunciation in terms of supra-segmental and rudimentary segmental errors such as missing consonants. We evaluated this software on training data with the help of two native speakers, and found that the software recorded an accuracy of around 70% in law and order domain. For future work, we plan to develop similar systems for multiple languages.
Šimáčková, Š.; Podlipský, V.J.; Chládková, K.
As a western Slavic language of the Indo-European family, Czech is closest to Slovak and Polish. It is spoken as a native language by nearly 10 million people in the Czech Republic (Czech Statistical Office n.d.). About two million people living abroad, mostly in the USA, Canada, Austria, Germany,
Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Breit-Smith, Allison; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.
Research Findings: Artfulness is rarely considered as an indicator of quality in young children's spoken narratives. Although some studies have examined artfulness in the narratives of children 5 and older, no studies to date have focused on the artfulness of preschoolers' oral narratives. This study examined the artfulness of fictional spoken…
Reviews what is known about Esperanto as a home language and first language. Recorded cases of Esperanto-speaking families are known since 1919, and in nearly all of the approximately 350 families documented, the language is spoken to the children by the father. The data suggests that this "artificial bilingualism" can be as successful…
This article addresses key issues and considerations for teachers wanting to incorporate spoken grammar activities into their own teaching and also focuses on six common features of spoken grammar, with practical activities and suggestions for teaching them in the language classroom. The hope is that this discussion of spoken grammar and its place…
Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R.
This study examined the temporal dynamics of spoken word recognition in noise and background speech. In two visual-world experiments, English participants listened to target words while looking at four pictures on the screen: a target (e.g. "candle"), an onset competitor (e.g. "candy"), a rhyme competitor (e.g.…
Huettig, Falk; Brouwer, Susanne
It is now well established that anticipation of upcoming input is a key characteristic of spoken language comprehension. It has also frequently been observed that literacy influences spoken language processing. Here, we investigated whether anticipatory spoken language processing is related to individuals' word reading abilities. Dutch adults with dyslexia and a control group participated in two eye-tracking experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to assess whether adults with dyslexia show the typical language-mediated eye gaze patterns. Eye movements of both adults with and without dyslexia closely replicated earlier research: spoken language is used to direct attention to relevant objects in the environment in a closely time-locked manner. In Experiment 2, participants received instructions (e.g., 'Kijk naar de(COM) afgebeelde piano(COM)', look at the displayed piano) while viewing four objects. Articles (Dutch 'het' or 'de') were gender marked such that the article agreed in gender only with the target, and thus, participants could use gender information from the article to predict the target object. The adults with dyslexia anticipated the target objects but much later than the controls. Moreover, participants' word reading scores correlated positively with their anticipatory eye movements. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms by which reading abilities may influence predictive language processing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This study examined the development of spoken discourse among L2 learners of Japanese who received extensive practice on grammatical chunks. Participants in this study were 22 college students enrolled in an elementary Japanese course. They received instruction on a set of grammatical chunks in class through communicative drills and the…
Nobile, Hélène; Bergmann, Manuela M; Moldenhauer, Jennifer; Borry, Pascal
Reliable participation and sustained retention rates are crucial in longitudinal studies involving human subjects and biomaterials. Understanding the decision to enroll is an essential step to develop adequate strategies promoting long-term participation. Semi-structured interviews were implemented with newly recruited and long-term participants randomly drawn from two ongoing longitudinal studies with a biobank component in Germany. Iterative qualitative content analysis was applied to the transcribed interviews. Participants (n = 31) expressed their decision to enroll or remain in the study as the result of the complex interplay of individual factors, institutional cues, study-related features, and societal dynamics. Different forms of trust were identified as central within the elements used to explain participation and could be compared to Dibben, Morris, and Lean's dynamic model of interpersonal trust. Given these high levels of trust, an investigation of the morality of the trustful relationship at stake between participants and research(ers) is warranted. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available The study of discourse is the study of using language in actual use. In this article, the writer is trying to investigate the phonological features, either segmental or supra-segmental, in the spoken discourse of Indonesian university students. The data were taken from the recordings of 15 conversations by 30 students of Bina Nusantara University who are taking English Entrant subject (TOEFL –IBT. Finally, the writer is in opinion that the students are still influenced by their first language in their spoken discourse. This results in English with Indonesian accent. Even though it does not cause misunderstanding at the moment, this may become problematic if they have to communicate in the real world.
Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S.; Grainger, Jonathan
How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition—including visual word recognition—have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349
Rosset, Sophie; Garnier-Rizet, Martine; Devillers, Laurence; Natural Interaction with Robots, Knowbots and Smartphones : Putting Spoken Dialog Systems into Practice
These proceedings presents the state-of-the-art in spoken dialog systems with applications in robotics, knowledge access and communication. It addresses specifically: 1. Dialog for interacting with smartphones; 2. Dialog for Open Domain knowledge access; 3. Dialog for robot interaction; 4. Mediated dialog (including crosslingual dialog involving Speech Translation); and, 5. Dialog quality evaluation. These articles were presented at the IWSDS 2012 workshop.
Kyle Tran Myhre
Full Text Available In "Dust," spoken word poet Kyle "Guante" Tran Myhre crafts a multi-vocal exploration of the connections between the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II and the current struggles against xenophobia in general and Islamophobia specifically. Weaving together personal narrative, quotes from multiple voices, and "verse journalism" (a term coined by Gwendolyn Brooks, the poem seeks to bridge past and present in order to inform a more just future.
Jacques Melitz; Farid Toubal
We construct new series for common native language and common spoken language for 195 countries, which we use together with series for common official language and linguis-tic proximity in order to draw inferences about (1) the aggregate impact of all linguistic factors on bilateral trade, (2) whether the linguistic influences come from ethnicity and trust or ease of communication, and (3) in so far they come from ease of communication, to what extent trans-lation and interpreters play a role...
Full Text Available Background: Insufficient patient recruitment can impair the conduct of clinical trials substantially, not least because a significant number of eligible patients decline trial participation. Though barriers and motivational factors have been worked out for patients with cancer or chronic diseases, little is known about primary care patients’ perceptions towards trial participation when visiting their family practitioner (FP with acute uncomplicated conditions. This study aims to assess primary care patients’ motivation and barriers to participate in trials, and to identify factors that optimize patient recruitment in future trials.Methods: This study was embedded in a drug trial comparing two treatment strategies for women with uncomplicated urinary tract infection in primary care. Semi-structured telephone interviews both with trial participants and decliners were conducted. The interview guideline focused on patients’ personal motivational or hampering factors. Further topics were study theme, FPs’ role, randomization, trial procedures, and potential motivational factors or barriers presumed to be relevant for other patients. Transcripts were analyzed by summarizing content analysis.Results: 20 interviews with trial participants and 5 interviews with trial decliners were conducted. Results show various reasons for trial participation from three categories: personal aspects, trial related aspects and patient-physician-relationship. A relevant trial topic and perceived personal benefit promotes participation as well as the wish to support research in general. Additionally, a maximum of safety concerning symptom relief reassures patients significantly. Trust in the FP plays also an important role in the decision process. Trial decliners show strong individual treatment preferences, which, together with individual reasons, lead to trial refusals.Conclusions: To optimize recruitment conditions for further clinical trials on acute and common
Mst. Moriam, Quadir
This study discusses motivation and strategy use of university students to learn spoken English in Bangladesh. A group of 355 (187 males and 168 females) university students participated in this investigation. To measure learners' degree of motivation a modified version of questionnaire used by Schmidt et al. (1996) was administered. Participants reported their strategy use on a modified version of SILL, the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning, version 7.0 (Oxford, 1990). In order to fin...
Harrison, Michelle Anne
This article examines the current situation of regional language bilingual primary education in Alsace and contends that the regional language presents a special case in the context of France. The language comprises two varieties: Alsatian, which traditionally has been widely spoken, and Standard German, used as the language of reference and…
Cornillie, Frederik; Baten, Kristof; De Hertog, Dirk
This paper reports on the potential of Oral Elicited Imitation (OEI) as a format for output practice, building on an analysis of picture-matching and spoken data collected from 36 university-level learners of German as a second language (L2) in a web-based assessment task inspired by Input Processing (VanPatten, 2004). The design and development…
The only book on the market to specifically address its audience, Recording Voiceover is the comprehensive guide for engineers looking to understand the aspects of capturing the spoken word.Discussing all phases of the recording session, Recording Voiceover addresses everything from microphone recommendations for voice recording to pre-production considerations, including setting up the studio, working with and directing the voice talent, and strategies for reducing or eliminating distracting noise elements found in human speech.Recording Voiceover features in-depth, specific recommendations f
Brøndsted, Tom; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Larsen, Lars Bo
This paper addresses the problem of information and service accessibility in mobile devices with limited resources. A solution is developed and tested through a prototype that applies state-of-the-art Distributed Speech Recognition (DSR) and knowledge-based Information Retrieval (IR) processing...... for spoken query answering. For the DSR part, a configurable DSR system is implemented on the basis of the ETSI-DSR advanced front-end and the SPHINX IV recognizer. For the knowledge-based IR part, a distributed system solution is developed for fast retrieval of the most relevant documents, with a text...
Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua
Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…
Nicodemus, Brenda; Emmorey, Karen
Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study ("N" =…
The comparatively small vowel inventory of Bantu languages leads young Bantu learners to produce "undifferentiations," so that, for example, the spoken forms of "hat,""hut,""heart" and "hurt" sound the same to a British ear. The two criteria for a non-native speaker's spoken performance are…
This article reviews chronometric and neuroimaging evidence on attention to spoken word planning, using the WEAVER++ model as theoretical framework. First, chronometric studies on the time to initiate vocal responding and gaze shifting suggest that spoken word planning may require some attention,
Carter, Ronald; McCarthy, Michael
This article synthesises progress made in the description of spoken (especially conversational) grammar over the 20 years since the authors published a paper in this journal arguing for a re-thinking of grammatical description and pedagogy based on spoken corpus evidence. We begin with a glance back at the 16th century and the teaching of Latin…
Inegbeboh, Bridget O.
Female students have been discriminated against right from birth in their various cultures and this affects the way they perform in Spoken English class, and how they rate themselves. They have been conditioned to believe that the male gender is superior to the female gender, so they leave the male students to excel in spoken English, while they…
Assessing spoken-language educational interpreting: Measuring up and measuring right. Lenelle Foster, Adriaan Cupido. Abstract. This article, primarily, presents a critical evaluation of the development and refinement of the assessment instrument used to assess formally the spoken-language educational interpreters at ...
Spoken language corpora for the nine official African languages of South Africa. Jens Allwood, AP Hendrikse. Abstract. In this paper we give an outline of a corpus planning project which aims to develop linguistic resources for the nine official African languages of South Africa in the form of corpora, more specifically spoken ...
This article aims at the feature analysis of four expository essays (Text A/B/C/D) written by secondary school students with a focus on the differences between spoken and written language. Texts C and D are better written compared with the other two (Texts A&B) which are considered more spoken in language using. The language features are…
Brouwer, S.; Mitterer, H.; Huettig, F.
In two eye-tracking experiments we examined whether wider discourse information helps the recognition of reduced pronunciations (e.g., 'puter') more than the recognition of canonical pronunciations of spoken words (e.g., 'computer'). Dutch participants listened to sentences from a casual speech corpus containing canonical and reduced target words. Target word recognition was assessed by measuring eye fixation proportions to four printed words on a visual display: the target, a "reduced form" ...
Video is becoming a prevalent medium for e-learning. Lecture videos contain text information in both the presentation slides and lecturer's speech. This paper examines the relative utility of automatically recovered text from these sources for lecture video retrieval. To extract the visual information, we automatically detect slides within the videos and apply optical character recognition to obtain their text. Automatic speech recognition is used similarly to extract spoken text from the recorded audio. We perform controlled experiments with manually created ground truth for both the slide and spoken text from more than 60 hours of lecture video. We compare the automatically extracted slide and spoken text in terms of accuracy relative to ground truth, overlap with one another, and utility for video retrieval. Results reveal that automatically recovered slide text and spoken text contain different content with varying error profiles. Experiments demonstrate that automatically extracted slide text enables higher precision video retrieval than automatically recovered spoken text.
Larsen, Lars Bo
This work is centred on the methods and problems associated with defining and measuring the usability of Spoken Dialogue Systems (SDS). The starting point is the fact that speech based interfaces has several times during the last 20 years fallen short of the high expectations and predictions held...... by industry, researchers and analysts. Several studies in the literature of SDS indicate that this can be ascribed to a lack of attention from the speech technology community towards the usability of such systems. The experimental results presented in this work are based on a field trial with the OVID home...... model roughly explains 50% of the observed variance in the user satisfaction based on measures of task success and speech recognition accuracy, a result similar to those obtained at AT&T. The applied methods are discussed and evaluated critically....
Full Text Available A key problem in spoken language identification (LID is to design effective representations which are specific to language information. For example, in recent years, representations based on both phonotactic and acoustic features have proven their effectiveness for LID. Although advances in machine learning have led to significant improvements, LID performance is still lacking, especially for short duration speech utterances. With the hypothesis that language information is weak and represented only latently in speech, and is largely dependent on the statistical properties of the speech content, existing representations may be insufficient. Furthermore they may be susceptible to the variations caused by different speakers, specific content of the speech segments, and background noise. To address this, we propose using Deep Bottleneck Features (DBF for spoken LID, motivated by the success of Deep Neural Networks (DNN in speech recognition. We show that DBFs can form a low-dimensional compact representation of the original inputs with a powerful descriptive and discriminative capability. To evaluate the effectiveness of this, we design two acoustic models, termed DBF-TV and parallel DBF-TV (PDBF-TV, using a DBF based i-vector representation for each speech utterance. Results on NIST language recognition evaluation 2009 (LRE09 show significant improvements over state-of-the-art systems. By fusing the output of phonotactic and acoustic approaches, we achieve an EER of 1.08%, 1.89% and 7.01% for 30 s, 10 s and 3 s test utterances respectively. Furthermore, various DBF configurations have been extensively evaluated, and an optimal system proposed.
Koeritzer, Margaret A.; Rogers, Chad S.; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Peelle, Jonathan E.
Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine how background noise, linguistic properties of spoken sentences, and listener abilities (hearing sensitivity and verbal working memory) affect cognitive demand during auditory sentence comprehension. Method: We tested 30 young adults and 30 older adults. Participants heard lists of sentences in…
Kwon, Youan; Choi, Sungmook; Lee, Yoonhyoung
This study examines whether orthographic information is used during prelexical processes in spoken word recognition by investigating ERPs during spoken word processing for Korean words. Differential effects due to orthographic syllable neighborhood size and sound-to-spelling consistency on P200 and N320 were evaluated by recording ERPs from 42 participants during a lexical decision task. The results indicate that P200 was smaller for words whose orthographic syllable neighbors are large in number rather than those that are small. In addition, a word with a large orthographic syllable neighborhood elicited a smaller N320 effect than a word with a small orthographic syllable neighborhood only when the word had inconsistent sound-to-spelling mapping. The results provide support for the assumption that orthographic information is used early during the prelexical spoken word recognition process. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Damian, Markus F; Dorjee, Dusana; Stadthagen-Gonzalez, Hans
Although it is relatively well established that access to orthographic codes in production tasks is possible via an autonomous link between meaning and spelling (e.g., Rapp, Benzing, & Caramazza, 1997), the relative contribution of phonology to orthographic access remains unclear. Two experiments demonstrated persistent repetition priming in spoken and written single-word responses, respectively. Two further experiments showed priming from spoken to written responses and vice versa, which is interpreted as reflecting a role of phonology in constraining orthographic access. A final experiment showed priming from spoken onto written responses even when participants engaged in articulatory suppression during writing. Overall, the results support the view that access to orthography codes is accomplished via both the autonomous link between meaning and spelling and an indirect route via phonology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on health inequalities still focus mostly on adults. Research about social disparities and health in children is slowly increasing, also in Germany, but these studies are mostly restricted to individual social variables derived from the parents to determine social class. This paper analyses the data of the medical check-up prior to school enrolment to determine differences concerning overweight, participation in health check-ups and immunization; it includes individual social variables but also regional variables describing the social environment of the children. Methods The dataset includes 9,353 children who started school in 2004 in Munich, Germany. Three dependent variables are included (i.e. overweight, health check-ups, vaccinations. The individual level social variables are: children's sex, mother tongue of the parents, Kindergarten visit. On the small scale school district level, two regional social variables could be included as well, i.e. percentage of single-parent households, percentage of households with low educational level. Associations are assessed by cross tables and regression analyses. The regional level variables are included by multilevel analyses. Results The analyses indicate that there is a large variation between the school districts concerning the three dependent variables, and that there is no district with very 'problematic values' for all three of them (i.e. high percentage of overweight, low levels of health check-ups and vaccinations. Throughout the bivariate and multivariate analyses, the mother tongue of the children's parents shows the most pronounced association with these dependent variables; i.e. children growing up in non-German-speaking families tend to be more overweight and don't visit preventive check-ups as often as children of German-speaking parents. An opposite association can be seen concerning vaccinations. Regional level influences are present as well, but they are
Thothathiri, Malathi; Snedeker, Jesse
Syntactic priming during language production is pervasive and well-studied. Hearing, reading, speaking or writing a sentence with a given structure increases the probability of subsequently producing the same structure, regardless of whether the prime and target share lexical content. In contrast, syntactic priming during comprehension has proven more elusive, fueling claims that comprehension is less dependent on general syntactic representations and more dependent on lexical knowledge. In three experiments we explored syntactic priming during spoken language comprehension. Participants acted out double-object (DO) or prepositional-object (PO) dative sentences while their eye movements were recorded. Prime sentences used different verbs and nouns than the target sentences. In target sentences, the onset of the direct-object noun was consistent with both an animate recipient and an inanimate theme, creating a temporary ambiguity in the argument structure of the verb (DO e.g., Show the horse the book; PO e.g., Show the horn to the dog). We measured the difference in looks to the potential recipient and the potential theme during the ambiguous interval. In all experiments, participants who heard DO primes showed a greater preference for the recipient over the theme than those who heard PO primes, demonstrating across-verb priming during online language comprehension. These results accord with priming found in production studies, indicating a role for abstract structural information during comprehension as well as production.
Shen, Wei; Qu, Qingqing; Ni, Aiping; Zhou, Junyi; Li, Xingshan
We investigated the time course of morphological processing during spoken word recognition using the printed-word paradigm. Chinese participants were asked to listen to a spoken disyllabic compound word while simultaneously viewing a printed-word display. Each visual display consisted of three printed words: a semantic associate of the first constituent of the compound word (morphemic competitor), a semantic associate of the whole compound word (whole-word competitor), and an unrelated word (distractor). Participants were directed to detect whether the spoken target word was on the visual display. Results indicated that both the morphemic and whole-word competitors attracted more fixations than the distractor. More importantly, the morphemic competitor began to diverge from the distractor immediately at the acoustic offset of the first constituent, which was earlier than the whole-word competitor. These results suggest that lexical access to the auditory word is incremental and morphological processing (i.e., semantic access to the first constituent) that occurs at an early processing stage before access to the representation of the whole word in Chinese.
Paul, Rhea; Campbell, Daniel; Gilbert, Kimberly; Tsiouri, Ioanna
Preschoolers with severe autism and minimal speech were assigned either a discrete trial or a naturalistic language treatment, and parents of all participants also received parent responsiveness training. After 12 weeks, both groups showed comparable improvement in number of spoken words produced, on average. Approximately half the children in each group achieved benchmarks for the first stage of functional spoken language development, as defined by Tager-Flusberg et al. (J Speech Lang Hear Res, 52: 643-652, 2009). Analyses of moderators of treatment suggest that joint attention moderates response to both treatments, and children with better receptive language pre-treatment do better with the naturalistic method, while those with lower receptive language show better response to the discrete trial treatment. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Lauren B. Collister
Full Text Available Twenty listeners were exposed to spoken and sung passages in English produced by three trained vocalists. Passages included representative words extracted from a large database of vocal lyrics, including both popular and classical repertoires. Target words were set within spoken or sung carrier phrases. Sung carrier phrases were selected from classical vocal melodies. Roughly a quarter of all words sung by an unaccompanied soloist were misheard. Sung passages showed a seven-fold decrease in intelligibility compared with their spoken counterparts. The perceptual mistakes occurring with vowels replicate previous studies showing the centralization of vowels. Significant confusions are also evident for consonants, especially voiced stops and nasals.
Bendig, Ina; Betz, Emma; Huth, Thorsten
Researchers have observed that in spoken German, the conjunctions "weil" and "obwohl" commonly occur with verb-second (V2) instead of verb-final (V[subscript f]) word order (Gaumann, 1983; Gänthner, 1993, 1996; Uhmann, 1998). Current findings document that this syntactic variant of "weil/obwohl-structures" has an…
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth / For Parents / Rubella (German Measles) ... Call the Doctor Print en español Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3- ...
Qu, Qingqing; Damian, Markus F
Extensive evidence from alphabetic languages demonstrates a role of orthography in the processing of spoken words. Because alphabetic systems explicitly code speech sounds, such effects are perhaps not surprising. However, it is less clear whether orthographic codes are involuntarily accessed from spoken words in languages with non-alphabetic systems, in which the sound-spelling correspondence is largely arbitrary. We investigated the role of orthography via a semantic relatedness judgment task: native Mandarin speakers judged whether or not spoken word pairs were related in meaning. Word pairs were either semantically related, orthographically related, or unrelated. Results showed that relatedness judgments were made faster for word pairs that were semantically related than for unrelated word pairs. Critically, orthographic overlap on semantically unrelated word pairs induced a significant increase in response latencies. These findings indicate that orthographic information is involuntarily accessed in spoken-word recognition, even in a non-alphabetic language such as Chinese.
Bates, Madeleine; Ellard, Dan; Peterson, Pat; Shaked, Varda
.... In an effort to demonstrate the relevance of SIS technology to real-world military applications, BBN has undertaken the task of providing a spoken language interface to DART, a system for military...
The objective of this effort was to develop a prototype, hand-held or body-mounted spoken language translator to assist military and law enforcement personnel in interacting with non-English-speaking people...
Full Text Available As an experienced teacher of advanced learners of English I am deeply aware of recurrent problems which these learners experience as regards grammatical accuracy. In this paper, I focus on researching inaccuracies in the use of verbal categories. I draw the data from a spoken learner corpus LINDSEI_CZ and analyze the performance of 50 advanced (C1–C2 learners of English whose mother tongue is Czech. The main method used is Computer-aided Error Analysis within the larger framework of Learner Corpus Research. The results reveal that the key area of difficulty is the use of tenses and tense agreements, and especially the use of the present perfect. Other error-prone aspects are also described. The study also identifies a number of triggers which may lie at the root of the problems. The identification of these triggers reveals deficiencies in the teaching of grammar, mainly too much focus on decontextualized practice, use of potentially confusing rules, and the lack of attempt to deal with broader notions such as continuity and perfectiveness. Whilst the study is useful for the teachers of advanced learners, its pedagogical implications stretch to lower levels of proficiency as well.
Cooper, Angela; Bradlow, Ann R.
Prior research has demonstrated that listeners are sensitive to changes in the indexical (talker-specific) characteristics of speech input, suggesting that these signal-intrinsic features are integrally encoded in memory for spoken words. Given that listeners frequently must contend with concurrent environmental noise, to what extent do they also encode signal-extrinsic details? Native English listeners’ explicit memory for spoken English monosyllabic and disyllabic words was assessed as a fu...
Parisse , Christophe; Le Normand , Marie-Thérèse
International audience; The use of computer tools has led to major advances in the study of spoken language corpora. One area that has shown particular progress is the study of child language development. Although it is now easy to lexically tag every word in a spoken language corpus, one still has to choose between numerous ambiguous forms, especially with languages such as French or English, where more than 70% of words are ambiguous. Computational linguistics can now provide a fully automa...
Nippold, Marilyn A; Frantz-Kaspar, Megan W; Vigeland, Laura M
In this study, we examined syntactic complexity in the spoken language samples of young adults. Its purpose was to contribute to the expanding knowledge base in later language development and to begin building a normative database of language samples that potentially could be used to evaluate young adults with known or suspected language impairment. Forty adults (mean age = 22 years, 10 months) with typical language development participated in an interview that consisted of 3 speaking tasks: a general conversation about common, everyday topics; a narrative retelling task that involved fables; and a question-and-answer, critical-thinking task about the fables. Each speaker's interview was audio-recorded, transcribed, broken into communication units, coded for main and subordinate clauses, entered into Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (Miller, Iglesias, & Nockerts, 2004), and analyzed for mean length of communication unit and clausal density. Both the narrative and critical-thinking tasks elicited significantly greater syntactic complexity than the conversational task. It was also found that syntactic complexity was significantly greater during the narrative task than the critical-thinking task. Syntactic complexity was best revealed by a narrative task that involved fables. The study offers benchmarks for language development during early adulthood.
Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.
From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered
Eisenberg, Laurie S; Fisher, Laurel M; Johnson, Karen C; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Grace, Thelma; Niparko, John K
We investigated associations between sentence recognition and spoken language for children with cochlear implants (CI) enrolled in the Childhood Development after Cochlear Implantation (CDaCI) study. In a prospective longitudinal study, sentence recognition percent-correct scores and language standard scores were correlated at 48-, 60-, and 72-months post-CI activation. Six tertiary CI centers in the United States. Children with CIs participating in the CDaCI study. Cochlear implantation. Sentence recognition was assessed using the Hearing In Noise Test for Children (HINT-C) in quiet and at +10, +5, and 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Spoken language was assessed using the Clinical Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL) core composite and the antonyms, paragraph comprehension (syntax comprehension), syntax construction (expression), and pragmatic judgment tests. Positive linear relationships were found between CASL scores and HINT-C sentence scores when the sentences were delivered in quiet and at +10 and +5 dB S/N, but not at 0 dB S/N. At 48 months post-CI, sentence scores at +10 and +5 dB S/N were most strongly associated with CASL antonyms. At 60 and 72 months, sentence recognition in noise was most strongly associated with paragraph comprehension and syntax construction. Children with CIs learn spoken language in a variety of acoustic environments. Despite the observed inconsistent performance in different listening situations and noise-challenged environments, many children with CIs are able to build lexicons and learn the rules of grammar that enable recognition of sentences.
Slote, Joseph; Strand, Julia F
Models of spoken word recognition typically make predictions that are then tested in the laboratory against the word recognition scores of human subjects (e.g., Luce & Pisoni Ear and Hearing, 19, 1-36, 1998). Unfortunately, laboratory collection of large sets of word recognition data can be costly and time-consuming. Due to the numerous advantages of online research in speed, cost, and participant diversity, some labs have begun to explore the use of online platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) to source participation and collect data (Buhrmester, Kwang, & Gosling Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 3-5, 2011). Many classic findings in cognitive psychology have been successfully replicated online, including the Stroop effect, task-switching costs, and Simon and flanker interference (Crump, McDonnell, & Gureckis PLoS ONE, 8, e57410, 2013). However, tasks requiring auditory stimulus delivery have not typically made use of AMT. In the present study, we evaluated the use of AMT for collecting spoken word identification and auditory lexical decision data. Although online users were faster and less accurate than participants in the lab, the results revealed strong correlations between the online and laboratory measures for both word identification accuracy and lexical decision speed. In addition, the scores obtained in the lab and online were equivalently correlated with factors that have been well established to predict word recognition, including word frequency and phonological neighborhood density. We also present and analyze a method for precise auditory reaction timing that is novel to behavioral research. Taken together, these findings suggest that AMT can be a viable alternative to the traditional laboratory setting as a source of participation for some spoken word recognition research.
Werfel, Krystal L.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Method: Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed…
Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca
Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital ("visual") brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4-17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). We find that "visual" cortices of young blind (but not sighted) children respond to sound. Responses to nonlanguage sounds increased between the ages of 4 and 17. By contrast, occipital responses to spoken language were maximal by age 4 and were not related to Braille learning. These findings suggest that occipital plasticity for spoken language is independent of plasticity for Braille and for sound. We conclude that in the absence of visual input, spoken language colonizes the visual system during brain development. Our findings suggest that early in life, human cortex has a remarkably broad computational capacity. The same cortical tissue can take on visual perception and language functions. Studies of plasticity provide key insights into how experience shapes the human brain. The "visual" cortex of adults who are blind from birth responds to touch, sound, and spoken language. To date, all existing studies have been conducted with adults, so little is known about the developmental trajectory of plasticity. We used fMRI to study the emergence of "visual" cortex responses to sound and spoken language in blind children and adolescents. We find that "visual" cortex responses to sound increase between 4 and 17 years of age. By contrast, responses to spoken language are present by 4 years of age and are not related to Braille-learning. These findings suggest that, early in development, human cortex can take on a strikingly wide range of functions. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3511674-08$15.00/0.
Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M
Visual cues to the individual segments of speech and to sentence prosody guide speech recognition. The present study tested whether visual suprasegmental cues to the stress patterns of words can also constrain recognition. Dutch listeners use acoustic suprasegmental cues to lexical stress (changes in duration, amplitude, and pitch) in spoken-word recognition. We asked here whether they can also use visual suprasegmental cues. In two categorization experiments, Dutch participants saw a speaker say fragments of word pairs that were segmentally identical but differed in their stress realization (e.g., 'ca-vi from cavia "guinea pig" vs. 'ka-vi from kaviaar "caviar"). Participants were able to distinguish between these pairs from seeing a speaker alone. Only the presence of primary stress in the fragment, not its absence, was informative. Participants were able to distinguish visually primary from secondary stress on first syllables, but only when the fragment-bearing target word carried phrase-level emphasis. Furthermore, participants distinguished fragments with primary stress on their second syllable from those with secondary stress on their first syllable (e.g., pro-'jec from projector "projector" vs. 'pro-jec from projectiel "projectile"), independently of phrase-level emphasis. Seeing a speaker thus contributes to spoken-word recognition by providing suprasegmental information about the presence of primary lexical stress.
Jessica Ann Obermeyer
Methods: Ten native English speaking healthy elderly participants between the ages of 50 and 80 were recruited. Exclusionary criteria included neurological disease/injury, history of learning disability, uncorrected hearing or vision impairment, history of drug/alcohol abuse and presence of cognitive decline (based on Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test. Spoken and written discourse was analyzed for micro linguistic measures including total words, percent correct information units (CIUs; Nicholas & Brookshire, 1993 and percent complete utterances (CUs; Edmonds, et al. 2009. CIUs measure relevant and informative words while CUs focus at the sentence level and measure whether a relevant subject and verb and object (if appropriate are present. Results: Analysis was completed using Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test due to small sample size. Preliminary results revealed that healthy elderly people produced significantly more words in spoken retellings than written retellings (p=.000; however, this measure contrasted with %CIUs and %CUs with participants producing significantly higher %CIUs (p=.000 and %CUs (p=.000 in written story retellings than in spoken story retellings. Conclusion: These findings indicate that written retellings, while shorter, contained higher accuracy at both a word (CIU and sentence (CU level. This observation could be related to the ability to revise written text and therefore make it more concise, whereas the nature of speech results in more embellishment and “thinking out loud,” such as comments about the task, associated observations about the story, etc. We plan to run more participants and conduct a main concepts analysis (before conference time to gain more insight into modality differences and implications.
Gruhl, Jonathan C.; Erosheva, Elena A.; Gibbons, Laura E.; McCurry, Susan M.; Rhoads, Kristoffer; Nguyen, Viet; Arani, Keerthi; Masaki, Kamal; White, Lon
Objectives. Spoken bilingualism may be associated with cognitive reserve. Mastering a complicated written language may be associated with additional reserve. We sought to determine if midlife use of spoken and written Japanese was associated with lower rates of late life cognitive decline. Methods. Participants were second-generation Japanese-American men from the Hawaiian island of Oahu, born 1900–1919, free of dementia in 1991, and categorized based on midlife self-reported use of spoken and written Japanese (total n included in primary analysis = 2,520). Cognitive functioning was measured with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scored using item response theory. We used mixed effects models, controlling for age, income, education, smoking status, apolipoprotein E e4 alleles, and number of study visits. Results. Rates of cognitive decline were not related to use of spoken or written Japanese. This finding was consistent across numerous sensitivity analyses. Discussion. We did not find evidence to support the hypothesis that multilingualism is associated with cognitive reserve. PMID:20639282
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.
Miller, S; Ptok, M
German is a genuine verb-second (V2) language. For V2 languages it is assumed that all sentence structures can be derived from the underlying subordinate clause structure via the movement of individual components. The acquisition of German V2 structures represents a critical step in German first language acquisition and is usually mastered at the age of 3 years. However, not all children succeed in filtering the necessary information from the spoken input in order to acquire this key component of German syntax. Use of canonical sentence structures alone is not a confirmation of a successful V2 acquisition. Moreover, this structure often represents some kind of interim grammar. Only the use of complementizer phrase (CP)-related structures, such as wh-questions or topicalizations of objects is a real indication of a successful V2 acquisition.
Antonella Del Rosso
Every year CERN welcomes thousands of pupils from schools worldwide for a half-day visit to the Laboratory. However, since 2011 about ten selected students from Germany have been given the opportunity to experience CERN in much greater depth. They are fully sponsored by the German Ministry of Education and supported by an organising structure at TU Dresden - the Dresden University of Technology - led by Michael Kobel. It’s an investment that's paying off in Germany. The German teachers who participated in the “Netzwerk Teilchenwelt” project, at CERN last week. “Netzwerk Teilchenwelt” is a project that involves 23 German universities, the DESY Laboratory, several schools and, of course, CERN. Launched in 2010 with a contribution from the German Ministry for Science and Research of about 1 million euros over three years, the project has so far involved over 4,000 students and 500 teachers. “Thanks to this project, both pupils...
Bonin, Patrick; Chalard, Marylène; Méot, Alain; Fayol, Michel
The influence of nine variables on the latencies to write down or to speak aloud the names of pictures taken from Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) was investigated in French adults. The major determinants of both written and spoken picture naming latencies were image variability, image agreement and age of acquisition. To a lesser extent, name agreement was also found to have an impact in both production modes. The implications of the findings for theoretical views of both spoken and written picture naming are discussed.
... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use ...
Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Rommers, Joost; Maris, Eric
Two major components form the basis of spoken word production: the access of conceptual and lexical/phonological information in long-term memory, and motor preparation and execution of an articulatory program. Whereas the motor aspects of word production have been well characterized as reflected in alpha-beta desynchronization, the memory aspects have remained poorly understood. Using magnetoencephalography, we investigated the neurophysiological signature of not only motor but also memory aspects of spoken-word production. Participants named or judged pictures after reading sentences. To probe the involvement of the memory component, we manipulated sentence context. Sentence contexts were either constraining or nonconstraining toward the final word, presented as a picture. In the judgment task, participants indicated with a left-hand button press whether the picture was expected given the sentence. In the naming task, they named the picture. Naming and judgment were faster with constraining than nonconstraining contexts. Alpha-beta desynchronization was found for constraining relative to nonconstraining contexts pre-picture presentation. For the judgment task, beta desynchronization was observed in left posterior brain areas associated with conceptual processing and in right motor cortex. For the naming task, in addition to the same left posterior brain areas, beta desynchronization was found in left anterior and posterior temporal cortex (associated with memory aspects), left inferior frontal cortex, and bilateral ventral premotor cortex (associated with motor aspects). These results suggest that memory and motor components of spoken word production are reflected in overlapping brain oscillations in the beta band. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Agato, Alvin
We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5years. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied ("old") compared to novel ("new") words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified "new" words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken "new" words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with "old"/"new" recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to "old" words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to "new" Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for "new" words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering "old" words. A larger response when identifying "new" words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of "old" words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a "sensory echo" that aids recollection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study investigated the topics of participants’ spoken expressionin an English camp and how the topics were discussed.A case study was applied as the research design. Data were gained from focus-group interviews, observation, and questionnaire. The results showed that the participants talked about various topics, which could be categorized into two types i.e. guided topics and situational topics. Guided topics were discussed by the participants in guided conditions. On the other hand, situational topics appeared naturally with respect to the situation. The data also indicated that the activeness and confidence of the participants to talk in English gradually increasedduring the English camp. The findings suggested that English campsbeheld regularly as they can boost the participants’ English speaking skill.
McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce
Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have…
Yip, Michael C. W.
The present study examined the role of positional probability of syllables played in recognition of spoken word in continuous Cantonese speech. Because some sounds occur more frequently at the beginning position or ending position of Cantonese syllables than the others, so these kinds of probabilistic information of syllables may cue the locations…
Adesope, Olusola O.; Nesbit, John C.
An animated concept map represents verbal information in a node-link diagram that changes over time. The goals of the experiment were to evaluate the instructional effects of presenting an animated concept map concurrently with semantically equivalent spoken narration. The study used a 2 x 2 factorial design in which an animation factor (animated…
assessment instrument used to assess formally the spoken-language educational interpreters at. Stellenbosch University (SU). Research ..... Is the interpreter suited to the module? Is the interpreter easier to follow? Technical. Microphone technique. Lag. Completeness. Language use. Vocabulary. Role. Personal Objectives ...
This paper presents two chatbot systems, ALICE and. Elizabeth, illustrating the dialogue knowledge representation and pattern matching techniques of each. We discuss the problems which arise when using the. Corpus of Spoken Afrikaans (Korpus Gesproke Afrikaans) to retrain the ALICE chatbot system with human ...
Krahmer, E.; Swerts, M.; Theune, Mariet; Weegels, M.
Given the state of the art of current language and speech technology, errors are unavoidable in present-day spoken dialogue systems. Therefore, one of the main concerns in dialogue design is how to decide whether or not the system has understood the user correctly. In human-human communication,
The Black Arts Movement of the 1960s and 1970s, hip hop of the 1980s and early 1990s, and spoken word poetry have each attempted to initiate the dialogical process outlined by Paulo Freire as necessary in overturning oppression. Each art form has done this by critically engaging with the world and questioning dominant systems of power. However,…
Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Abe, Mariko
The purpose of the present study is to assess second language (L2) spoken English using automated scoring techniques. Automated scoring aims to classify a large set of learners' oral performance data into a small number of discrete oral proficiency levels. In automated scoring, objectively measurable features such as the frequencies of lexical and…
ter Maat, Mark; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Vilhjálmsson, Hannes; Kopp, Stefan; Marsella, Stacy; Thórisson, Kristinn
This paper introduces Flipper, an specification language and interpreter for Information State Update rules that can be used for developing spoken dialogue systems and embodied conversational agents. The system uses XML-templates to modify the information state and to select behaviours to perform.
English language learners are often more grammatically accurate in writing than in speaking. As students focus on meaning while speaking, their spoken fluency comes at a cost: their grammatical accuracy decreases. The author wanted to find a way to help her students improve their oral grammar; that is, she wanted them to focus on grammar while…
Canisius, S.V.M.; van den Bosch, A.; Decadt, B.; Hoste, V.; De Pauw, G.
We describe the development of a Dutch memory-based shallow parser. The availability of large treebanks for Dutch, such as the one provided by the Spoken Dutch Corpus, allows memory-based learners to be trained on examples of shallow parsing taken from the treebank, and act as a shallow parser after
In spite of the vast numbers of articles devoted to vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language, few studies address the contribution of lexical knowledge to spoken fluency. The present article begins with basic definitions of the temporal characteristics of oral fluency, summarizing L1 research over several decades, and then presents fluency…
Discusses comparative analysis of spoken and written versions of a narrative to demonstrate that features which have been identified as characterizing oral discourse are also found in written discourse and that the written short story combines syntactic complexity expected in writing with features which create involvement expected in speaking.…
Full Text Available the carefully selected training data used to construct the system initially. The authors investigated the process of porting a Spoken Language Identification (S-LID) system to a new environment and describe methods to prepare it for more effective use...
van der Werff, Laurens Bastiaan
This thesis introduces a novel framework for the evaluation of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) transcripts in an Spoken Document Retrieval (SDR) context. The basic premise is that ASR transcripts must be evaluated by measuring the impact of noise in the transcripts on the search results of a
This paper sets out to examine the phonological interference in the spoken English performance of the Izon speaker. It emphasizes that the level of interference is not just as a result of the systemic differences that exist between both language systems (Izon and English) but also as a result of the interlanguage factors such ...
This thesis addressed the spoken production of complex numerals for time and space. The production of complex numerical expressions like those involved in telling time (e.g., 'quarter to four') or producing house numbers (e.g., 'two hundred forty-five') has been almost completely ignored. Yet, adult
Tabossi, Patrizia; Fanari, Rachele; Wolf, Kinou
This study investigates recognition of spoken idioms occurring in neutral contexts. Experiment 1 showed that both predictable and non-predictable idiom meanings are available at string offset. Yet, only predictable idiom meanings are active halfway through a string and remain active after the string's literal conclusion. Experiment 2 showed that…
Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.
Reports an error in "Context and spoken word recognition in a novel lexicon" by Kathleen Pirog Revill, Michael K. Tanenhaus and Richard N. Aslin ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 2008[Sep], Vol 34, 1207-1223). Figure 9 was inadvertently duplicated as Figure 10. Figure 9 in the original article was correct.…
Corpus-based grammars, notably "Cambridge Grammar of English," give explicit information on the forms and use of native-speaker grammar, including spoken grammar. Native-speaker norms as a necessary goal in language teaching are contested by supporters of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF); however, this article argues for the inclusion of selected…
de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Heeren, W.F.L.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Nijholt, Antinus; Ruiz Miyares, L.; Alvarez Silva, M.R.
Archival practice is shifting from the analogue to the digital world. A specific subset of heritage collections that impose interesting challenges for the field of language and speech technology are spoken word archives. Given the enormous backlog at audiovisual archives of unannotated materials and
Weber, A.C.; Cutler, A.
Six eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name (pencil, given target
This article examines the impact of the hegemony of English, as a common lingua franca, referred to as a global language, on the indigenous languages spoken in Nigeria. Since English, through the British political imperialism and because of the economic supremacy of English dominated countries, has assumed the ...
Apr 12, 2018 ... sound of that language. These language-specific properties can be exploited to identify a spoken language reliably. Automatic language identification has emerged as a prominent research area in. Indian languages processing. People from different regions of India speak around 800 different languages.
Havas, Viktória; Taylor, Jsh; Vaquero, Lucía; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Davis, Matthew H
We studied the initial acquisition and overnight consolidation of new spoken words that resemble words in the native language (L1) or in an unfamiliar, non-native language (L2). Spanish-speaking participants learned the spoken forms of novel words in their native language (Spanish) or in a different language (Hungarian), which were paired with pictures of familiar or unfamiliar objects, or no picture. We thereby assessed, in a factorial way, the impact of existing knowledge (schema) on word learning by manipulating both semantic (familiar vs unfamiliar objects) and phonological (L1- vs L2-like novel words) familiarity. Participants were trained and tested with a 12-hr intervening period that included overnight sleep or daytime awake. Our results showed (1) benefits of sleep to recognition memory that were greater for words with L2-like phonology and (2) that learned associations with familiar but not unfamiliar pictures enhanced recognition memory for novel words. Implications for complementary systems accounts of word learning are discussed.
Grant, Lynn E.
This article outlines criteria to define a figurative idiom, and then compares the frequent figurative idioms identified in two sources of spoken American English (academic and contemporary) to their frequency in spoken British English. This is done by searching the spoken part of the British National Corpus (BNC), to see whether they are frequent…
Tao, Hongyin; McCarthy, Michael J.
Reexamines the notion of non-restrictive relative clauses (NRRCs) in light of spoken corpus evidence, based on analysis of 692 occurrences of non-restrictive "which"-clauses in British and American spoken English data. Reviews traditional conceptions of NRRCs and recent work on the broader notion of subordination in spoken grammar.…
transforms Germanness into more of a lived experience of the territorially grounded, emplaced German society, opening up more space to migrants to become-German. In the conclusion, I consider how this potential opening up of Germanness continues to be threatened by concomitant developments, including...
Kowal, Sabine; O'Connell, Daniel C
The following article presents basic concepts and methods of Ragnar Rommetveit's (born 1924) hermeneutic-dialogical approach to everyday spoken dialogue with a focus on both shared consciousness and linguistically mediated meaning. He developed this approach originally in his engagement of mainstream linguistic and psycholinguistic research of the 1960s and 1970s. He criticized this research tradition for its individualistic orientation and its adherence to experimental methodology which did not allow the engagement of interactively established meaning and understanding in everyday spoken dialogue. As a social psychologist influenced by phenomenological philosophy, Rommetveit opted for an alternative conceptualization of such dialogue as a contextualized, partially private world, temporarily co-established by interlocutors on the basis of shared consciousness. He argued that everyday spoken dialogue should be investigated from within, i.e., from the perspectives of the interlocutors and from a psychology of the second person. Hence, he developed his approach with an emphasis on intersubjectivity, perspectivity and perspectival relativity, meaning potential of utterances, and epistemic responsibility of interlocutors. In his methods, he limited himself for the most part to casuistic analyses, i.e., logical analyses of fictitious examples to argue for the plausibility of his approach. After many years of experimental research on language, he pursued his phenomenologically oriented research on dialogue in English-language publications from the late 1980s up to 2003. During that period, he engaged psycholinguistic research on spoken dialogue carried out by Anglo-American colleagues only occasionally. Although his work remained unfinished and open to development, it provides both a challenging alternative and supplement to current Anglo-American research on spoken dialogue and some overlap therewith.
German wind power technology is widely regarded as being ahead of its competitors worldwide. Combine this technology with production in China and a renowned designer and you should get a competitive product. (orig.)
This paper has two closely related goals. The more "global" one is to present an overview of the variation conceming verb particles across the Germanic languages (see e.g. den Dikken 1995; Haiden 2005; Mclntyre 2007 and many others), and the more "local" one is to use some of this variation data...... to argue for Yiddish being an SOV-language like German and Dutch rather than an SVO-language like English and the Scandinavian languages....
Irakliy D. Gvazava
Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations
Roxbury, Tracy; McMahon, Katie; Copland, David A
Evidence for the brain mechanisms recruited when processing concrete versus abstract concepts has been largely derived from studies employing visual stimuli. The tasks and baseline contrasts used have also involved varying degrees of lexical processing. This study investigated the neural basis of the concreteness effect during spoken word recognition and employed a lexical decision task with a novel pseudoword condition. The participants were seventeen healthy young adults (9 females). The stimuli consisted of (a) concrete, high imageability nouns, (b) abstract, low imageability nouns and (c) opaque legal pseudowords presented in a pseudorandomised, event-related design. Activation for the concrete, abstract and pseudoword conditions was analysed using anatomical regions of interest derived from previous findings of concrete and abstract word processing. Behaviourally, lexical decision reaction times for the concrete condition were significantly faster than both abstract and pseudoword conditions and the abstract condition was significantly faster than the pseudoword condition (p word recognition. Significant activity was also elicited by concrete words relative to pseudowords in the left fusiform and left anterior middle temporal gyrus. These findings confirm the involvement of a widely distributed network of brain regions that are activated in response to the spoken recognition of concrete but not abstract words. Our findings are consistent with the proposal that distinct brain regions are engaged as convergence zones and enable the binding of supramodal input.
Gisladottir, Rosa S; Bögels, Sara; Levinson, Stephen C
Everyday conversation requires listeners to quickly recognize verbal actions, so-called speech acts , from the underspecified linguistic code and prepare a relevant response within the tight time constraints of turn-taking. The goal of this study was to determine the time-course of speech act recognition by investigating oscillatory EEG activity during comprehension of spoken dialog. Participants listened to short, spoken dialogs with target utterances that delivered three distinct speech acts (Answers, Declinations, Pre-offers). The targets were identical across conditions at lexico-syntactic and phonetic/prosodic levels but differed in the pragmatic interpretation of the speech act performed. Speech act comprehension was associated with reduced power in the alpha/beta bands just prior to Declination speech acts, relative to Answers and Pre-offers. In addition, we observed reduced power in the theta band during the beginning of Declinations, relative to Answers. Based on the role of alpha and beta desynchronization in anticipatory processes, the results are taken to indicate that anticipation plays a role in speech act recognition. Anticipation of speech acts could be critical for efficient turn-taking, allowing interactants to quickly recognize speech acts and respond within the tight time frame characteristic of conversation. The results show that anticipatory processes can be triggered by the characteristics of the interaction, including the speech act type.
Rosa S. Gisladottir
Full Text Available Everyday conversation requires listeners to quickly recognize verbal actions, so-called speech acts, from the underspecified linguistic code and prepare a relevant response within the tight time constraints of turn-taking. The goal of this study was to determine the time-course of speech act recognition by investigating oscillatory EEG activity during comprehension of spoken dialog. Participants listened to short, spoken dialogs with target utterances that delivered three distinct speech acts (Answers, Declinations, Pre-offers. The targets were identical across conditions at lexico-syntactic and phonetic/prosodic levels but differed in the pragmatic interpretation of the speech act performed. Speech act comprehension was associated with reduced power in the alpha/beta bands just prior to Declination speech acts, relative to Answers and Pre-offers. In addition, we observed reduced power in the theta band during the beginning of Declinations, relative to Answers. Based on the role of alpha and beta desynchronization in anticipatory processes, the results are taken to indicate that anticipation plays a role in speech act recognition. Anticipation of speech acts could be critical for efficient turn-taking, allowing interactants to quickly recognize speech acts and respond within the tight time frame characteristic of conversation. The results show that anticipatory processes can be triggered by the characteristics of the interaction, including the speech act type.
Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of spoken document retrieval under noisy conditions by incorporating sound selection of a basic unit and an output form of a speech recognition system. Syllable fragment is combined with a confusion network in a spoken document retrieval task. After selecting an appropriate syllable fragment, a lattice is converted into a confusion network that is able to minimize the word error rate instead of maximizing the whole sentence recognition rate. A vector space model is adopted in the retrieval task where tf-idf weights are derived from the posterior probability. The confusion network with syllable fragments is able to improve the mean of average precision (MAP score by 0.342 and 0.066 over one-best scheme and the lattice.
Mast, Marion; Maier, Elisabeth; Schmitz, Birte
This report describes how spoken language turns are segmented into utterances in the framework of the verbmobil project. The problem of segmenting turns is directly related to the task of annotating a discourse with dialogue act information: an utterance can be characterized as a stretch of dialogue that is attributed one dialogue act. Unfortunately, this rule in many cases is insufficient and many doubtful cases remain. We tried to at least reduce the number of unclear cases by providing a n...
Oviatt, S; Bernard, J; Levow, G A
Fragile error handling in recognition-based systems is a major problem that degrades their performance, frustrates users, and limits commercial potential. The aim of the present research was to analyze the types and magnitude of linguistic adaptation that occur during spoken and multimodal human-computer error resolution. A semiautomatic simulation method with a novel error-generation capability was used to collect samples of users' spoken and pen-based input immediately before and after recognition errors, and at different spiral depths in terms of the number of repetitions needed to resolve an error. When correcting persistent recognition errors, results revealed that users adapt their speech and language in three qualitatively different ways. First, they increase linguistic contrast through alternation of input modes and lexical content over repeated correction attempts. Second, when correcting with verbatim speech, they increase hyperarticulation by lengthening speech segments and pauses, and increasing the use of final falling contours. Third, when they hyperarticulate, users simultaneously suppress linguistic variability in their speech signal's amplitude and fundamental frequency. These findings are discussed from the perspective of enhancement of linguistic intelligibility. Implications are also discussed for corroboration and generalization of the Computer-elicited Hyperarticulate Adaptation Model (CHAM), and for improved error handling capabilities in next-generation spoken language and multimodal systems.
Full Text Available Prior research has demonstrated that listeners are sensitive to changes in the indexical (talker-specific characteristics of speech input, suggesting that these signal-intrinsic features are integrally encoded in memory for spoken words. Given that listeners frequently must contend with concurrent environmental noise, to what extent do they also encode signal-extrinsic details? Native English listeners’ explicit memory for spoken English monosyllabic and disyllabic words was assessed as a function of consistency versus variation in the talker’s voice (talker condition and background noise (noise condition using a delayed recognition memory paradigm. The speech and noise signals were spectrally-separated, such that changes in a simultaneously presented non-speech signal (background noise from exposure to test would not be accompanied by concomitant changes in the target speech signal. The results revealed that listeners can encode both signal-intrinsic talker and signal-extrinsic noise information into integrated cognitive representations, critically even when the two auditory streams are spectrally non-overlapping. However, the extent to which extra-linguistic episodic information is encoded alongside linguistic information appears to be modulated by syllabic characteristics, with specificity effects found only for monosyllabic items. These findings suggest that encoding and retrieval of episodic information during spoken word processing may be modulated by lexical characteristics.
Parisse, C; Le Normand, M T
The use of computer tools has led to major advances in the study of spoken language corpora. One area that has shown particular progress is the study of child language development. Although it is now easy to lexically tag every word in a spoken language corpus, one still has to choose between numerous ambiguous forms, especially with languages such as French or English, where more than 70% of words are ambiguous. Computational linguistics can now provide a fully automatic disambiguation of lexical tags. The tool presented here (POST) can tag and disambiguate a large text in a few seconds. This tool complements systems dealing with language transcription and suggests further theoretical developments in the assessment of the status of morphosyntax in spoken language corpora. The program currently works for French and English, but it can be easily adapted for use with other languages. The analysis and computation of a corpus produced by normal French children 2-4 years of age, as well as of a sample corpus produced by French SLI children, are given as examples.
Carmichael, Lesley; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia Beckford
We are developing a novel, searchable corpus as a research tool for investigating phonetic and phonological phenomena across various speech styles. Five speech styles have been well studied independently in previous work: reduced (casual), careful (hyperarticulated), citation (reading), Lombard effect (speech in noise), and ``motherese'' (child-directed speech). Few studies to date have collected a wide range of styles from a single set of speakers, and fewer yet have provided publicly available corpora. The pilot corpus includes recordings of (1) a set of speakers participating in a variety of tasks designed to elicit the five speech styles, and (2) casual peer conversations and wordlists to illustrate regional vowels. The data include high-quality recordings and time-aligned transcriptions linked to text files that can be queried. Initial measures drawn from the database provide comparison across speech styles along the following acoustic dimensions: MLU (changes in unit duration); relative intra-speaker intensity changes (mean and dynamic range); and intra-speaker pitch values (minimum, maximum, mean, range). The corpus design will allow for a variety of analyses requiring control of demographic and style factors, including hyperarticulation variety, disfluencies, intonation, discourse analysis, and detailed spectral measures.
"German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.
Microporous materials have a wide range of important applications in separation, gas adsorption, ion-exchange and catalysis. Open-framework germanates are a family of microporous compounds and are of particular interest. This thesis focuses on the synthesis and characterization of new open-framework germanates as well as introducing the transition-metal nickel into germanate structures. One new microporous germanosilicate, SU-78 and four new open-framework germanates, SU-74, SU-75, SU-69 and ...
Brennan-Jones, Christopher G; White, Jo; Rush, Robert W; Law, James
relevant articles. Articles were independently assessed by two review authors for design and risk of bias. In addition to outcome data, a range of variables related to participant groups and outcomes were documented. Of 2233 titles and abstracts searched, only 13 abstracts appeared to meet inclusion criteria. All 13 full-text articles were excluded following independent evaluation by two review authors (CGBJ and JW), as they did not meet the inclusion criteria related to the research design. Thus, no studies are included in this review. This review confirms the lack of well-controlled studies addressing the use of AVT as an intervention for promoting spoken language development in children with permanent hearing impairments. Whilst lack of evidence does not necessarily imply lack of effect, it is at present not possible for conclusions to be drawn as to the effectiveness of this intervention in treating children with permanent hearing impairments.
On 3 October 1990 the division of Germany into two states came to an end. The. German Democratic Republic (GDR) acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany and in doing so ceased to exist. This epoch-making event took place peacefully and in agreement with all Germany's friends, allies and European neighbours.
Ravid, Dorit; Zilberbuch, Shoshana
This study examined the distribution of two Hebrew nominal structures-N-N compounds and denominal adjectives-in spoken and written texts of two genres produced by 90 native-speaking participants in three age groups: eleven/twelve-year-olds (6th graders), sixteen/seventeen-year-olds (11th graders), and adults. The two constructions are later linguistic acquisitions, part of the profound lexical and syntactic changes that occur in language development during the school years. They are investigated in the context of learning how modality (speech vs. writing) and genre (biographical vs. expository texts) affect the production of continuous discourse. Participants were asked to speak and write about two topics, one biographical, describing the life of a public figure or of a friend; and another, expository, discussing one of ten topics such as the cinema, cats, or higher academic studies. N-N compounding was found to be the main device of complex subcategorization in Hebrew discourse, unrelated to genre. Denominal adjectives are a secondary subcategorizing device emerging only during the late teen years, a linguistic resource untapped until very late, more restricted to specific text types than N-N compounding, and characteristic of expository writing. Written texts were found to be denser than spoken texts lexically and syntactically as measured by number of novel N-N compounds and denominal adjectives per clause, and in older age groups this difference was found to be more pronounced. The paper contributes to our understanding of how the syntax/lexicon interface changes with age, modality and genre in the context of later language acquisition.
Davidson, Kathryn; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Chen Pichler, Deborah
Bilingualism is common throughout the world, and bilingual children regularly develop into fluently bilingual adults. In contrast, children with cochlear implants (CIs) are frequently encouraged to focus on a spoken language to the exclusion of sign language. Here, we investigate the spoken English language skills of 5 children with CIs who also have deaf signing parents, and so receive exposure to a full natural sign language (American Sign Language, ASL) from birth, in addition to spoken En...
Full Text Available In August 1914 the majority of German Jews expressed their patriotic approval of the war and their loyalty to the German state. They identified with Germany, and a large number signed up voluntarily for military service at the front. The Jewish population in Germany affirmed the war not least because it was directed against Russia, the harshest adversary of the Jews. This paper concentrates on the first acts of war conducted by the German military forces during the German occupation of Belgium; it examines whether and in what way German-Jewish Intellectuals perceived Germany’s violation of Belgian neutrality and the new feature of war as a war against a civilian population. The first part examines autobiographical sources to reconstruct the experiences and the perception of German Jewish soldiers, German military rabbis, and other German Jewish witnesses to the war. The second part then analyzes the coverage of German Jewish newspapers regarding the warfare against Belgium; and, finally, the third and last part scrutinizes the commentaries of German Jewish intellectuals and socialist Jews [Jewish socialists?] regarding the German war against Belgium.
Boulet, J R; van Zanten, M; McKinley, D W; Gary, N E
The purpose of this study was to gather additional evidence for the validity and reliability of spoken English proficiency ratings provided by trained standardized patients (SPs) in high-stakes clinical skills examination. Over 2500 candidates who took the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates' (ECFMG) Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) were studied. The CSA consists of 10 or 11 timed clinical encounters. Standardized patients evaluate spoken English proficiency and interpersonal skills in every encounter. Generalizability theory was used to estimate the consistency of spoken English ratings. Validity coefficients were calculated by correlating summary English ratings with CSA scores and other external criterion measures. Mean spoken English ratings were also compared by various candidate background variables. The reliability of the spoken English ratings, based on 10 independent evaluations, was high. The magnitudes of the associated variance components indicated that the evaluation of a candidate's spoken English proficiency is unlikely to be affected by the choice of cases or SPs used in a given assessment. Proficiency in spoken English was related to native language (English versus other) and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The pattern of the relationships, both within assessment components and with external criterion measures, suggests that valid measures of spoken English proficiency are obtained. This result, combined with the high reproducibility of the ratings over encounters and SPs, supports the use of trained SPs to measure spoken English skills in a simulated medical environment.
Spoken language understanding (SLU) is an emerging field in between speech and language processing, investigating human/ machine and human/ human communication by leveraging technologies from signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence. SLU systems are designed to extract the meaning from speech utterances and its applications are vast, from voice search in mobile devices to meeting summarization, attracting interest from both commercial and academic sectors. Both human/machine and human/human communications can benefit from the application of SLU, usin
Full Text Available rates when no Japanese acoustic models are constructed. An increasing amount of Japanese training data is used to train the language classifier of an English-only (E), an English-French (EF), and an English-French-Portuguese PPR system. ple.... Experimental design 3.1. Corpora Because of their role as world languages that are widely spoken in Africa, our initial LID system was designed to distinguish between English, French and Portuguese. We therefore trained phone recognizers and language...
Full Text Available It is well known that the pitch of the voice tends to decline over the course of a spoken utterance. Ladd (2008 showed that there is also a tendency for the pitch range of spoken utterances to shrink as the pitch of the voice declines. Motivated by this work, two studies are reported that test for the existence of “late phrase compression” in music where the interval size tends to decline toward the end of a phrase. A study of 39,863 phrases from notated Germanic folksongs shows the predicted decline in interval size. However, a second study of 10,985 phrases from Chinese folksongs shows a reverse relationship. In fact, the interval behaviors in Chinese and Germanic folksongs provide marked contrasts: Chinese phrases are dominated by relatively large intervals, but begin with small intervals and end with medium-small intervals. Germanic phrases are dominated by relatively medium intervals, but begin with large intervals and end with small intervals. In short, late phrase interval compression is not evident cross-culturally.
Participation of the public in licensing procedures for large-scale projects has been an item of discussion since the sixties in the legal sciences and on the political level. The introduction of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) as a legal requirement in EC law and its implementation in practice was the occasion to once again investigate the principle of participation of the public in the current legal framework. The study in hand reviews the legal provisions found in administrative law, constitutional law and European Community law governing the right of participation of the public and also takes a look at the situation in practice. The results show both the legal status and conditions of enforcement as prevailing after the coming into force in 1989 of the Act on Performance of an EIA, as well as inadequacies and deficits in the current legal framework. (orig.) [de
Sergei V. Evteev
Full Text Available Department of German is one of the oldest language departments at MGIMO. Since its foundation in 1944 the military experienced teachers of the department, most of whom were native speakers, have begun to develop a unique method of teaching the German language, thereby revolutionize learning this foreign language. The first steps made under the supervision of the Department of Antonina V. Celica. The department refused to conventional time and is still used in universities such as the Moscow Linguistic University, separate teaching phonetics, grammar and vocabulary, which was due to the specific objectives set for the teaching staff: prepare for short term specialists in international relations, active Germanspeaking. The department can be proud of its graduates, many of whom continue his career in the walls of native high school. Many graduates have dedicated their lives to serving the State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Sarant, Julia Z; Holt, Colleen M; Dowell, Richard C; Rickards, Field W; Blamey, Peter J
This article documented spoken language outcomes for preschool children with hearing loss and examined the relationships between language abilities and characteristics of children such as degree of hearing loss, cognitive abilities, age at entry to early intervention, and parent involvement in children's intervention programs. Participants were evaluated using a combination of the Child Development Inventory, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the Preschool Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals depending on their age at the time of assessment. Maternal education, cognitive ability, and family involvement were also measured. Over half of the children who participated in this study had poor language outcomes overall. No significant differences were found in language outcomes on any of the measures for children who were diagnosed early and those diagnosed later. Multiple regression analyses showed that family participation, degree of hearing loss, and cognitive ability significantly predicted language outcomes and together accounted for almost 60% of the variance in scores. This article highlights the importance of family participation in intervention programs to enable children to achieve optimal language outcomes. Further work may clarify the effects of early diagnosis on language outcomes for preschool children.
Penka, S; Heimann, H; Heinz, A; Schouler-Ocak, M
In Germany, the public system of addiction treatment is used less by migrants with addictive disorders than by their non-migrant counterparts. To date, the literature has focused primarily on language, sociocultural factors, and residence status when discussing access barriers to this part of the health care system. However, little attention has been paid to cultural differences in explanatory models of addictive behaviour. This is surprising when we consider the important role played by popular knowledge in a population's perceptions of and responses to illnesses, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. In the present study, we examined explanatory models of addictive behaviour and of mental disorders in 124 native German und Russian-German youth and compared these models to those observed in an earlier study of 144 German and Turkish youth. We employed the free listing technique German and to compile the terms that participating subjects used to describe addictive behaviour. Subsequently, we examined how a subset of our study population assigned these terms to the respective disorders by means of the pile sort method. Although the explanatory models used by the German and Russian-German youth in our study were surprisingly similar, those employed by Turkish youth did not make any fundamental distinction between illegal and legal drugs (e.g. alcohol and nicotine). German and Russian-German youth regarded eating disorders as "embarrassing" or "disgraceful", but Turkish youth did not. Unlike our German and Russian-German subjects, the Turkish youth did not classify eating disorders as being addictive in nature. Moreover, medical concepts crucial to a proper understanding of dependence disorders (e.g. the term "physical dependence") were characterised by almost half of our Turkish subjects as useless in describing addictions. These findings show that it is impossible to translate medical or everyday concepts of disease and treatment properly into a different
González-Alvarez, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Angeles
Research has shown that syllables play a relevant role in lexical access in Spanish, a shallow language with a transparent syllabic structure. Syllable frequency has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on visual word recognition in Spanish. However, no study has examined the syllable frequency effect on spoken word recognition. The present study tested the effect of the frequency of the first syllable on recognition of spoken Spanish words. A sample of 45 young adults (33 women, 12 men; M = 20.4, SD = 2.8; college students) performed an auditory lexical decision on 128 Spanish disyllabic words and 128 disyllabic nonwords. Words were selected so that lexical and first syllable frequency were manipulated in a within-subject 2 × 2 design, and six additional independent variables were controlled: token positional frequency of the second syllable, number of phonemes, position of lexical stress, number of phonological neighbors, number of phonological neighbors that have higher frequencies than the word, and acoustical durations measured in milliseconds. Decision latencies and error rates were submitted to linear mixed models analysis. Results showed a typical facilitatory effect of the lexical frequency and, importantly, an inhibitory effect of the first syllable frequency on reaction times and error rates. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available This paper explores the auditory lexical access of mono-morphemic compounds in Chinese as a way of understanding the role of orthography in the recognition of spoken words. In traditional Chinese linguistics, a compound is a word written with two or more characters whether or not they are morphemic. A monomorphemic compound may either be a binding word, written with characters that only appear in this one word, or a non-binding word, written with characters that are chosen for their pronunciation but that also appear in other words. Our goal was to determine if this purely orthographic difference affects auditory lexical access by conducting a series of four experiments with materials matched by whole-word frequency, syllable frequency, cross-syllable predictability, cohort size, and acoustic duration, but differing in binding. An auditory lexical decision task (LDT found an orthographic effect: binding words were recognized more quickly than non-binding words. However, this effect disappeared in an auditory repetition and in a visual LDT with the same materials, implying that the orthographic effect during auditory lexical access was localized to the decision component and involved the influence of cross-character predictability without the activation of orthographic representations. This claim was further confirmed by overall faster recognition of spoken binding words in a cross-modal LDT with different types of visual interference. The theoretical and practical consequences of these findings are discussed.
Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.
Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M
A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The "competition" (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest--ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success
Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C.M.
A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The “competition” (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest – ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success
Rohrbach, Jens Martin
Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only
This article reports on differences and similarities between Japanese and Korean learners of German at a summer course of the University of Hamburg. A survey was conducted with the intention of gaining insights into the profiles, motivation, and difficulties which Japanese and Koreans possess when learning German and language-learning strategies. A questionnaire was administered to 15 Japanese students and 14 Korean students who participated in the summer course held at the University of ...
Augurzky, Petra; Kotchoubey, Boris
In spoken language, prosodic boundaries contribute to the way we understand sentences on-line. The present experiment used ERPs to investigate whether the informativity of prosodic boundaries depends on the availability of other linguistic cues. To this end, we examined the interplay between verb information, case and prosody in German verb-second structures. Unlike previous studies, unambiguous verb information signaled transitivity (a two-argument structure) before reaching potential arguments. Participants listened to sentences containing a succession of two noun phrases (NPs) that were either temporarily ambiguous or unambiguous. Ambiguous NPs were locally compatible with both an argument reading and a modifier reading. Sentences were presented with an early prosodic boundary typical of an argument reading or a late prosodic boundary typical of a modifier reading. Our findings suggest that the brain considers multiple cues for determining the argument status of an NP. In the presence of unambiguous cues like case or verb information, prosodic information plays a relatively minor role than when prosody is the only unambiguous cue. Contrary to previous studies, a mismatch between prosody and argument status was reflected by a late positive complex (LPC) without a preceding N400. Thus, unlike in previous studies, prosody did not affect early processing phases of argument integration, but a later well-formedness evaluation. For ambiguous sentences, prosodic boundaries triggered reanalysis processes reflected by the LPC. Our results suggest that cognitive processes related to prosody can be modulated by the availability of other linguistic information types, thus paving the way for neurolinguistic investigations of cross-linguistic differences in prosodic effects on sentence comprehension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jesse, Alexandra; Poellmann, Katja; Kong, Ying-Yee
Purpose: We used an eye-tracking technique to investigate whether English listeners use suprasegmental information about lexical stress to speed up the recognition of spoken words in English. Method: In a visual world paradigm, 24 young English listeners followed spoken instructions to choose 1 of 4 printed referents on a computer screen (e.g.,…
Grant, Lynn E.
This study investigates the frequency and functions of "just" in British academic spoken English. It adopts the meanings of "just" established by Lindemann and Mauranen, 2001, taken from the occurrences of "just" across five speech events in the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English (MICASE) to see if they also apply to occurrences of "just"…
Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015
The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on Asian/Pacific Islander languages spoken by English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Top 10 Most Common Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs:…
Spoken word poetry is a means of engaging young people with a genre that has often been much maligned in classrooms all over the world. This interview with the Australian spoken word poet Luka Lesson explores issues that are of pressing concern to poetry education. These include the idea that engagement with poetry in schools can be enhanced by…
Bradham, Tamala S.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher; Toll, Alice; Hecht, Barbara F.
Purpose: The purpose of the Listening and Spoken Language Data Repository (LSL-DR) was to address a critical need for a systemwide outcome data-monitoring program for the development of listening and spoken language skills in highly specialized educational programs for children with hearing loss highlighted in Goal 3b of the 2007 Joint Committee…
Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine
Communicative approaches to teaching language have emphasized the centrality of oral proficiency in the language acquisition process, but research investigating oral proficiency has been surprisingly limited, yielding an incomplete understanding of spoken language development. This study investigated the development of spoken language at the high…
Roč. 68, č. 2 (2017), s. 229-237 ISSN 0021-5597 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01116S Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : spoken languge * spoken corpus * tag question * responze word Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics http://www.juls.savba.sk/ediela/jc/2017/2/jc17-02.pdf
Hoog, B.E. de; Langereis, M.C.; Weerdenburg, M. van; Keuning, J.; Knoors, H.; Verhoeven, L.
BACKGROUND: Large variability in individual spoken language outcomes remains a persistent finding in the group of children with cochlear implants (CIs), particularly in their grammatical development. AIMS: In the present study, we examined the extent of delay in lexical and morphosyntactic spoken
Hoog, B.E. de; Langereis, M.C.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Keuning, J.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
Background: Large variability in individual spoken language outcomes remains a persistent finding in the group of children with cochlear implants (CIs), particularly in their grammatical development. Aims: In the present study, we examined the extent of delay in lexical and morphosyntactic spoken
Students' activities in the learning process are very important to indicate the quality of learning process. One of which is spoken activity. This study was intended to analyze the elementary school students' spoken activities and their responses in joining Math learning process by peer-tutoring. Descriptive qualitative design was piloted by means…
Sirc, Geoffrey; Sutton, Terri
In June 2008, the Department of English at the University of Minnesota partnered with the Minnesota Spoken Word Association to inaugurate an outreach literacy program for local high-school students and teachers. The four-day institute, named "In Da Tradition," used spoken word and hip hop to teach academic and creative writing to core-city…
Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi; Popescu-Belis, Andrei
. To obtain a data set with spoken post-editing information, we use the French version of TED talks as the source texts submitted to MT, and the spoken English counterparts as their corrections, which are submitted to an ASR system. We experiment with various levels of artificial ASR noise and also...
Vrieland, Seán D.
Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto-Germanic, an......Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto......-Germanic, and speaks for Gothic and Gutnish preserving the original Proto-Germanic meaning of the etymon. These semantics provide a missing link for connecting Pro-to-Germanic *lambiz- with PIE *h₁él-n-/*h₁l-ón- ‘red deer’....
Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas
The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.
Full Text Available The western Indo-European vocabulary in Baltic and Slavic is the result of an Indo-European substratum which contained an older non-Indo-European layer and was part of the Corded Ware horizon. The numbers show that a considerable part of the vocabulary was borrowed after the split between Baltic and Slavic, which came about when their speakers moved westwards north and south of the Pripet marshes. Germanic and Balto-Slavic were never contiguous Indo-European dialects at any stage of their prehistory.
The author proposes some comments on the content of the Energiewende, i.e. the definition of the energy transition in Germany which aims at producing and consuming a green energy, without carbon nor nuclear. He comments the German energy mix for 2010 in terms of electricity production per origin (nuclear, coal and lignite, gas, oil, wind, solar photovoltaic, other renewable sources) and of installed capacities per origin. He notices that gas and coal still have a major weight in this mix, and discusses the content of a scenario based 100 per cent renewable energies as it has been studied by the Fraunhofer Institute, notably in terms of production level and of costs
Aabo, Tom; Ploeen, Rasmus
Previous studies find a monotonic positive relationship between a firm’s internationalization and its foreign exchange hedging. We argue that high levels of internationalization can reduce the need for foreign exchange hedging through diversification (e.g. sales to several markets) and operational...... hedging (matching of cash flows and operational flexibility). We employ multivariate regression analysis and find an inverse U-shape relationship (“humpback”) for large listed non-financial German firms. Foreign exchange hedging activity peaks when half of sales (or long-term assets) is outside Europe. We...
Barker, Bruce O.; Garrett, Sandy
Describes the German by Satellite program broadcast by Oklahoma State University to small rural high schools. Outlines school costs for program participation and equipment purchases. Lists program strengths and weaknesses identified in a survey of administrators in 30 participating schools. (SV)
Phelan, P.F.; Keddy, C.; Beugelsdojk, T.J.
Several robotic systems have been developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to handle radioactive material. Because of safety considerations, the robotic system must be under direct human supervision and interactive control continuously. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a voice-recognition system that permits this control, yet allows the robot to perform complex preprogrammed manipulations without the operator's intervention. To provide better interactive control, we connected to the robot's control computer, a speech synthesis unit, which provides audible feedback to the operator. Thus upon completion of a task or if an emergency arises, an appropriate spoken message can be reported by the control computer. The training programming and operation of this commercially available system are discussed, as are the practical problems encountered during operations
David J. Gunkel
Full Text Available With the advent of spoken dialogue systems (SDS, communication can no longer be considered a human-to-human transaction. It now involves machines. These mechanisms are not just a medium through which human messages pass, but now occupy the position of the other in social interactions. But the development of robust and efficient conversational agents is not just an engineering challenge. It also depends on research in human conversational behavior. It is the thesis of this paper that communication studies is best situated to respond to this need. The paper argues: 1 that research in communication can supply the information necessary to respond to and resolve many of the open problems in SDS engineering, and 2 that the development of SDS applications can provide the discipline of communication with unique opportunities to test extant theory and verify experimental results. We call this new area of interdisciplinary collaboration “computational interpersonal communication” (CIC
Callejas, Zoraida; Griol, David; López-Cózar, Ramón
In this paper we propose a method for predicting the user mental state for the development of more efficient and usable spoken dialogue systems. This prediction, carried out for each user turn in the dialogue, makes it possible to adapt the system dynamically to the user needs. The mental state is built on the basis of the emotional state of the user and their intention, and is recognized by means of a module conceived as an intermediate phase between natural language understanding and the dialogue management in the architecture of the systems. We have implemented the method in the UAH system, for which the evaluation results with both simulated and real users show that taking into account the user's mental state improves system performance as well as its perceived quality.
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we propose a method for predicting the user mental state for the development of more efficient and usable spoken dialogue systems. This prediction, carried out for each user turn in the dialogue, makes it possible to adapt the system dynamically to the user needs. The mental state is built on the basis of the emotional state of the user and their intention, and is recognized by means of a module conceived as an intermediate phase between natural language understanding and the dialogue management in the architecture of the systems. We have implemented the method in the UAH system, for which the evaluation results with both simulated and real users show that taking into account the user's mental state improves system performance as well as its perceived quality.
Shen, Wei; Qu, Qingqing; Tong, Xiuhong
The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which phonological information mediates the visual attention shift to printed Chinese words in spoken word recognition by using an eye-movement technique with a printed-word paradigm. In this paradigm, participants are visually presented with four printed words on a computer screen, which include a target word, a phonological competitor, and two distractors. Participants are then required to select the target word using a computer mouse, and the eye movements are recorded. In Experiment 1, phonological information was manipulated at the full-phonological overlap; in Experiment 2, phonological information at the partial-phonological overlap was manipulated; and in Experiment 3, the phonological competitors were manipulated to share either fulloverlap or partial-overlap with targets directly. Results of the three experiments showed that the phonological competitor effects were observed at both the full-phonological overlap and partial-phonological overlap conditions. That is, phonological competitors attracted more fixations than distractors, which suggested that phonological information mediates the visual attention shift during spoken word recognition. More importantly, we found that the mediating role of phonological information varies as a function of the phonological similarity between target words and phonological competitors.
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.
The following curriculum units comprise this course book: (1) Germans in a New Home, (2) Contributions of the Germans in Wisconsin, (3) A Letter to Germany, (4) Germans Come to Kingston, (5) First a Soldier, Then a Man of the Church (about Heinrich von Rohr), (6) A Visiting German, and (7) Germans and Music. Each unit begins with a reading of…
Nuclear law is still relevant and topical. The nuclear power phase-out in response to the nuclear accident of Fukushima and the turnaround in German energy policy raise new legal issues. In several lectures of practioners and scientists the 14th German Nuclear Law Symposium examined questions regarding the retrofitting of nuclear power plants, their decommissioning and disposal, the current developements in the European nuclear and radiation protection law and the search for a final nuclear waste repository. The nuclear law provides examples for central challenges of administrative law, such as the independence of authorities and the protection of third parties. The discussions between the almost 150 participants are documented in several reports.
Rikke Frank Jørgensen
Full Text Available This article presents the findings from a qualitative study of the German Wikipedia community, focusing on how people engaged with Wikipedia make sense of norms, collaborative practices and means of regulation within the community. The study highlights the strong focus on the quality of the end-product (the encyclopedia in the German community, stressing that article quality is seen as more important than the wiki-process as such. As the community has grown, an increasing number of rules and mechanisms have been deployed to resolve various issues and conflicts, however the interviewees do not perceive Wikipedia as being bureaucratic, but rather describe it as a “rule-governed anarchy”. The findings suggest that people contribute for a variety of reasons, yet point to reactions from and interactions with fellow Wikipedians as one of the strongest motivational drivers for participation.
Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Tyler, Lorraine K
Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning [Marslen-Wilson, W. D. Functional parallelism in spoken word-recognition. Cognition, 25, 71-102, 1987]. We examined these potential interactions in an fMRI study by presenting participants with words and pseudowords for lexical decision. In a factorial design, we manipulated (a) cohort competition (high/low competitive cohorts which vary the number of competing word candidates) and (b) the word's semantic properties (high/low imageability). A previous behavioral study [Tyler, L. K., Voice, J. K., & Moss, H. E. The interaction of meaning and sound in spoken word recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7, 320-326, 2000] showed that imageability facilitated word recognition but only for words in high competition cohorts. Here we found greater activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45, 47) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47) with increased cohort competition, an imageability effect in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus/angular gyrus (BA 39), and a significant interaction between imageability and cohort competition in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus/middle temporal gyrus (BA 21, 22). In words with high competition cohorts, high imageability words generated stronger activity than low imageability words, indicating a facilitatory role of imageability in a highly competitive cohort context. For words in low competition cohorts, there was no effect of imageability. These results support the behavioral data in showing that selection processes do not rely solely on bottom-up acoustic-phonetic cues but rather that the semantic properties of candidate words facilitate discrimination between competitors.
Courtin, Cyril; Jobard, Gael; Vigneau, Mathieu; Beaucousin, Virginie; Razafimandimby, Annick; Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Mellet, Emmanuel; Zago, Laure; Petit, Laurent; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the areas activated by signed narratives in non-signing subjects naïve to sign language (SL) and compared it to the activation obtained when hearing speech in their mother tongue. A subset of left hemisphere (LH) language areas activated when participants watched an audio-visual narrative in their mother tongue was activated when they observed a signed narrative. The inferior frontal (IFG) and precentral (Prec) gyri, the posterior parts of the planum temporale (pPT) and of the superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and the occipito-temporal junction (OTJ) were activated by both languages. The activity of these regions was not related to the presence of communicative intent because no such changes were observed when the non-signers watched a muted video of a spoken narrative. Recruitment was also not triggered by the linguistic structure of SL, because the areas, except pPT, were not activated when subjects listened to an unknown spoken language. The comparison of brain reactivity for spoken and sign languages shows that SL has a special status in the brain compared to speech; in contrast to unknown oral language, the neural correlates of SL overlap LH speech comprehension areas in non-signers. These results support the idea that strong relationships exist between areas involved in human action observation and language, suggesting that the observation of hand gestures have shaped the lexico-semantic language areas as proposed by the motor theory of speech. As a whole, the present results support the theory of a gestural origin of language. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper frames a novel methodology for spoken document information retrieval to the spontaneous speech corpora and converting the retrieved document into the corresponding language text. The proposed work involves the three major areas namely spoken keyword detection, spoken document retrieval and automatic speech recognition. The keyword spotting is concerned with the exploit of the distribution capturing capability of the Auto Associative Neural Network (AANN for spoken keyword detection. It involves sliding a frame-based keyword template along the audio documents and by means of confidence score acquired from the normalized squared error of AANN to search for a match. This work benevolences a new spoken keyword spotting algorithm. Based on the match the spoken documents are retrieved and clustered together. In speech recognition step, the retrieved documents are converted into the corresponding language text using the AANN classifier. The experiments are conducted using the Dravidian language database and the results recommend that the proposed method is promising for retrieving the relevant documents of a spoken query as a key and transform it into the corresponding language.
Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Spieler, Daniel H.
When identifying spoken words, older listeners may have difficulty resolving lexical competition or may place a greater weight on factors like lexical frequency. To obtain information about age differences in the time course of spoken word recognition, young and older adults’ eye movements were monitored as they followed spoken instructions to click on objects displayed on a computer screen. Older listeners were more likely than younger listeners to fixate high-frequency displayed phonological competitors. However, degradation of auditory quality in younger listeners does not reproduce this result. These data are most consistent with an increased role for lexical frequency with age. PMID:21707175
Leech, Geoffrey; Wilson, Andrew (All Of Lancaster University)
Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English is a landmark volume in the development of vocabulary frequency studies. Whereas previous books have in general given frequency information about the written language only, this book provides information on both speech and writing. It not only gives information about the language as a whole, but also about the differences between spoken and written English, and between different spoken and written varieties of the language. The frequencies are derived from a wide ranging and up-to-date corpus of English: the British Na
State secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar.On 21 February, Professor Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, State Secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, came to CERN. He visited the ALICE and ATLAS experiments and the computing centre before meeting the CERN's Director-General, some German physicists and members of the top management. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Peter Frankenberg, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, signing an agreement on education. In the background: Sigurd Lettow, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, and Karl-Heinz Meisel, Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Prof. Peter Frankenberg, visited CERN on 23 February. He was accompanied by the Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe, Prof. Karl-Heinz Meisel, and b...
Wachtlin, Bianka; Turinsky, Yvonne; Herrmann, Frank; Schaefer, Blanca
The aim was to explore PA skills German-speaking preschool children with cochlea implants (CIs) and how these skills may be related to their speech and language skills. Three monolingual German-speaking pre-school children aged 5;04-6;01 with bilateral CIs were tested. Their cognitive, speech and language skills were assessed. Six subtests of a standardized PA test battery were administered (i.e. rhyme identification, rhyme production; phoneme identification- input and -output; phoneme blending-input and -output). All three children showed distinctive PA profiles. One boy, who had no spoken language deficits, struggled to complete the rhyme tasks but performed well on three phoneme tasks. However, he showed a discrepancy between expressive and receptive phoneme blending skills, scoring poorly on the expressive subtest. The second boy, who displayed grammar comprehension and expressive vocabulary difficulties, showed a mixed profile, with a below average performance on rhyme production. The girl who had significant speech and language deficits scored below average on all six PA subtests. PA profiles in children with CI vary considerably and PA testing should include a range of different PA tasks. The assumed link between spoken language deficits and PA difficulties shown in children with normal hearing could be confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Freiburg monosyllabic test has a word inventory based on the word frequency in written sources from the 19th century, the distribution of which is not even between the test lists. The median distributions of word frequency ranking in contemporary language of nine test lists deviate significantly from the overall median of all 400 monosyllables. Lists 1, 6, 9, 10, and 17 include significantly more very rarely used words; lists 2, 3, 5, and 15, include significantly more very frequently used words. Compared with the word frequency in the contemporary spoken German language, about 45 % of the test words are practically no longer used. Due to this high proportion of extremely rarely or no longer used words, the word inventory is no longer representative of the contemporary German language-neither for the written, nor for the spoken language. Highly educated persons with a large vocabulary are thereby favored. The reference values for normal-hearing persons should therefore be reevaluated.
Cai, Zhenguang G; Gilbert, Rebecca A; Davis, Matthew H; Gaskell, M Gareth; Farrar, Lauren; Adler, Sarah; Rodd, Jennifer M
Speech carries accent information relevant to determining the speaker's linguistic and social background. A series of web-based experiments demonstrate that accent cues can modulate access to word meaning. In Experiments 1-3, British participants were more likely to retrieve the American dominant meaning (e.g., hat meaning of "bonnet") in a word association task if they heard the words in an American than a British accent. In addition, results from a speeded semantic decision task (Experiment 4) and sentence comprehension task (Experiment 5) confirm that accent modulates on-line meaning retrieval such that comprehension of ambiguous words is easier when the relevant word meaning is dominant in the speaker's dialect. Critically, neutral-accent speech items, created by morphing British- and American-accented recordings, were interpreted in a similar way to accented words when embedded in a context of accented words (Experiment 2). This finding indicates that listeners do not use accent to guide meaning retrieval on a word-by-word basis; instead they use accent information to determine the dialectic identity of a speaker and then use their experience of that dialect to guide meaning access for all words spoken by that person. These results motivate a speaker-model account of spoken word recognition in which comprehenders determine key characteristics of their interlocutor and use this knowledge to guide word meaning access. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Klein, Eva M; Brähler, Elmar; Dreier, Michael; Reinecke, Leonard; Müller, Kai W; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E
The Perceived Stress Scale Cohen (J Health Soc Behav 24:385-96, 1983) is a widely and well-established self-report scale measuring perceived stress. However, the German version of the PSS-10 has not yet been validated. Thus, the purposes of this representative study were to psychometrically evaluate the PSS-10, and to provide norm values for the German population. The PSS-10 and standardized scales of depression, anxiety, fatigue, procrastination and life satisfaction were administered to a representative, randomly selected German community sample consisting of 1315 females and 1148 male participants in the age range from 14 to 90 years. The results demonstrated a good internal consistency and construct validity. Perceived stress was consistently associated with depression, anxiety, fatigue, procrastination and reduced life satisfaction. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a bi-dimensional structure with two related latent factors. Regarding demographic variables, women reported a higher level of stress than men. Perceived stress decreased with higher education, income and employment status. Older and married participants felt less stressed than younger and unmarried participants. The PSS-10 is a reliable, valid and economic instrument for assessing perceived stress. As psychological stress is associated with an increased risk of diseases, identifying subpopulations with higher levels of stress is essential. Due to the dependency of the perceived stress level on demographic variables, particularly age and sex, differentiated norm values are needed, which are provided in this paper.
Full Text Available This article introduces the first Spoken Language Identification system developed to distinguish among all eleven of South Africa’s official languages. The PPR-LM (Parallel Phoneme Recognition followed by Language Modeling) architecture...
Full Text Available We investigate modeling strategies for English code-switched words as found in a Swahili spoken term detection system. Code switching, where speakers switch language in a conversation, occurs frequently in multilingual environments, and typically...
Adank, P.M.; Noordzij, M.L.; Hagoort, P.
A repetitionsuppression functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of processing two types of acoustic variationspeaker and accentduring spoken sentence comprehension. Recordings were made for two speakers and two accents: Standard Dutch and a
Full Text Available government information and services. Our interviews, focus group discussions and surveys revealed that Lwazi, a telephone-based spoken dialog system, could greatly support current South African government efforts to effectively connect citizens to available...
Rudolf, C.; Micliuc, D. M.; Nedeloni, M. D.; Birtarescu, E.; Varga, A.
The difficulties of the reconstruction era, following World War I had been increased by the cessation of some activities in the industrial centres of the Banat Highland. For instance, the copper mines were closed in 1921, the Romanian state forbidding the extraction of this ore. Only in Ocna de Fier a special dispensation had been given. The copper mines from Moldova Nouă, Sasca Montană, Ciclova, Dognecea had also been shut down. This fact caused the acid reaction of some writers. We recall that one of the main ways for improving the material condition, embraced by the ethnic Germans, was working abroad. Many German workers of the Banat Highland had emigrated, taking up an offer of well-paid work during the crisis years: 1929-1933. The miners of the Banat Highland, especially those of German origin, travelled to the areas rich in iron ore and coal of France, namely Alsace and Loraine. Considering that German was spoken there by a significant percentage of the population, the integration into the new working environment did not represent a problem.
Wegener, Signy; Wang, Hua-Chen; de Lissa, Peter; Robidoux, Serje; Nation, Kate; Castles, Anne
There is an established association between children's oral vocabulary and their word reading but its basis is not well understood. Here, we present evidence from eye movements for a novel mechanism underlying this association. Two groups of 18 Grade 4 children received oral vocabulary training on one set of 16 novel words (e.g., 'nesh', 'coib'), but no training on another set. The words were assigned spellings that were either predictable from phonology (e.g., nesh) or unpredictable (e.g., koyb). These were subsequently shown in print, embedded in sentences. Reading times were shorter for orally familiar than unfamiliar items, and for words with predictable than unpredictable spellings but, importantly, there was an interaction between the two: children demonstrated a larger benefit of oral familiarity for predictable than for unpredictable items. These findings indicate that children form initial orthographic expectations about spoken words before first seeing them in print. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/jvpJwpKMM3E. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, Sungjin; Noh, Hyungjong; Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Kyusong; Lee, Gary Geunbae
Although there have been enormous investments into English education all around the world, not many differences have been made to change the English instruction style. Considering the shortcomings for the current teaching-learning methodology, we have been investigating advanced computer-assisted language learning (CALL) systems. This paper aims at summarizing a set of POSTECH approaches including theories, technologies, systems, and field studies and providing relevant pointers. On top of the state-of-the-art technologies of spoken dialog system, a variety of adaptations have been applied to overcome some problems caused by numerous errors and variations naturally produced by non-native speakers. Furthermore, a number of methods have been developed for generating educational feedback that help learners develop to be proficient. Integrating these efforts resulted in intelligent educational robots — Mero and Engkey — and virtual 3D language learning games, Pomy. To verify the effects of our approaches on students' communicative abilities, we have conducted a field study at an elementary school in Korea. The results showed that our CALL approaches can be enjoyable and fruitful activities for students. Although the results of this study bring us a step closer to understanding computer-based education, more studies are needed to consolidate the findings.
Van Engen, Kristin J; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Smiljanic, Rajka
Extensive research shows that inter-talker variability (i.e., changing the talker) affects recognition memory for speech signals. However, relatively little is known about the consequences of intra-talker variability (i.e. changes in speaking style within a talker) on the encoding of speech signals in memory. It is well established that speakers can modulate the characteristics of their own speech and produce a listener-oriented, intelligibility-enhancing speaking style in response to communication demands (e.g., when speaking to listeners with hearing impairment or non-native speakers of the language). Here we conducted two experiments to examine the role of speaking style variation in spoken language processing. First, we examined the extent to which clear speech provided benefits in challenging listening environments (i.e. speech-in-noise). Second, we compared recognition memory for sentences produced in conversational and clear speaking styles. In both experiments, semantically normal and anomalous sentences were included to investigate the role of higher-level linguistic information in the processing of speaking style variability. The results show that acoustic-phonetic modifications implemented in listener-oriented speech lead to improved speech recognition in challenging listening conditions and, crucially, to a substantial enhancement in recognition memory for sentences.
Remington, Robert J.
Leaders within the Information Technology (IT) industry are expressing a general concern that the products used to deliver and manage today's communications network capabilities require far too much effort to learn and to use, even by highly skilled and increasingly scarce support personnel. The usability of network management systems must be significantly improved if they are to deliver the performance and quality of service needed to meet the ever-increasing demand for new Internet-based information and services. Fortunately, recent advances in spoken language (SL) interface technologies show promise for significantly improving the usability of most interactive IT applications, including network management systems. The emerging SL interfaces will allow users to communicate with IT applications through words and phases -- our most familiar form of everyday communication. Recent advancements in SL technologies have resulted in new commercial products that are being operationally deployed at an increasing rate. The present paper describes a project aimed at the application of new SL interface technology for improving the usability of an advanced network management system. It describes several SL interface features that are being incorporated within an existing system with a modern graphical user interface (GUI), including 3-D visualization of network topology and network performance data. The rationale for using these SL interface features to augment existing user interfaces is presented, along with selected task scenarios to provide insight into how a SL interface will simplify the operator's task and enhance overall system usability.
Spoken dialog systems have the potential to offer highly intuitive user interfaces, as they allow systems to be controlled using natural language. However, the complexity inherent in natural language dialogs means that careful testing of the system must be carried out from the very beginning of the design process. This book examines how user models can be used to support such early evaluations in two ways: by running simulations of dialogs, and by estimating the quality judgments of users. First, a design environment supporting the creation of dialog flows, the simulation of dialogs, and the analysis of the simulated data is proposed. How the quality of user simulations may be quantified with respect to their suitability for both formative and summative evaluation is then discussed. The remainder of the book is dedicated to the problem of predicting quality judgments of users based on interaction data. New modeling approaches are presented, which process the dialogs as sequences, and which allow knowl...
Carson, J; Walker, L A; Sanders, B J; Jones, J E; Weddell, J A; Tomlin, A M
The purpose of this study was to assess dmft, the number of decayed, missing (due to caries), and/ or filled primary teeth, of English-speaking and non-English speaking patients of a hospital based pediatric dental clinic under the age of 72 months to determine if native language is a risk marker for tooth decay. Records from an outpatient dental clinic which met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Patient demographics and dmft score were recorded, and the patients were separated into three groups by the native language spoken by their parents: English, Spanish and all other languages. A total of 419 charts were assessed: 253 English-speaking, 126 Spanish-speaking, and 40 other native languages. After accounting for patient characteristics, dmft was significantly higher for the other language group than for the English-speaking (p0.05). Those patients under 72 months of age whose parents' native language is not English or Spanish, have the highest risk for increased dmft when compared to English and Spanish speaking patients. Providers should consider taking additional time to educate patients and their parents, in their native language, on the importance of routine dental care and oral hygiene.
Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert
Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…
resourced Languages, SLTU 2016, 9-12 May 2016, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Code-switched English Pronunciation Modeling for Swahili Spoken Term Detection Neil...Abstract We investigate modeling strategies for English code-switched words as found in a Swahili spoken term detection system. Code switching...et al. / Procedia Computer Science 81 ( 2016 ) 128 – 135 Our research focuses on pronunciation modeling of English (embedded language) words within
Given the nature of spoken text, the first requirement of an appropriate grammar is its ability to account for stretches of language (including recurring types of text or genres), in addition to clause level patterns. Second, the grammatical model needs to be part of a wider theory of language that recognises the functional nature and educational purposes of spoken text. The model also needs to be designed in a\\ud sufficiently comprehensive way so as to account for grammatical forms in speech...
Thomauske, B.; Viehl, E.
The Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz, AtG) is the legal basis for the disposal of radioactive waste. In the framework of the plan approval procedure it requires the presentation of the plan to the public, followed by a hearing. According to the AtG, the plan approval authority is the hearing authority as well. In Lower Saxony with the sites of the Konrad mine and the Gorleben salt dome, the ministery of Environmental (NMU) is the authority. The plan approval authority has to discuss the objections with the applicant and those, who raised them. The enquiry for the Konrad repository project lasted from September 25 th , 1992 to March 06 th , 1993. Outside the plan approval procedure, the information of the public is a necessary part of site investigation activities
Liu, Meihua; Li, Mingming
The present research examined the changes in Chinese university students' motivation to learn German during a 16-week semester. Analyses of the data showed that both at the beginning and toward the end of the semester, the participants held (fairly) positive attitudes towards German, were motivated to learn the language mainly for integrative and…
Miwa, Kazuhisa; Terai, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Yosuke
Cognitive load theory (CLT) distinguishes three types of cognitive loads: intrinsic, extraneous, and germane, of which the latter is generally imposed in learning activities. To examine the nature of germane cognitive load, the participants engaged in 8-by-8 Reversi games against computerized opponents. The experimental results indicated that…
Full Text Available Human behaviour in various circumstances mirrors the corresponding brain connectivity patterns, which are suitably represented by functional brain networks. While the objective analysis of these networks by graph theory tools deepened our understanding of brain functions, the multi-brain structures and connections underlying human social behaviour remain largely unexplored. In this study, we analyse the aggregate graph that maps coordination of EEG signals previously recorded during spoken communications in two groups of six listeners and two speakers. Applying an innovative approach based on the algebraic topology of graphs, we analyse higher-order topological complexes consisting of mutually interwoven cliques of a high order to which the identified functional connections organise. Our results reveal that the topological quantifiers provide new suitable measures for differences in the brain activity patterns and inter-brain synchronisation between speakers and listeners. Moreover, the higher topological complexity correlates with the listener's concentration to the story, confirmed by self-rating, and closeness to the speaker's brain activity pattern, which is measured by network-to-network distance. The connectivity structures of the frontal and parietal lobe consistently constitute distinct clusters, which extend across the listener's group. Formally, the topology quantifiers of the multi-brain communities exceed the sum of those of the participating individuals and also reflect the listener's rated attributes of the speaker and the narrated subject. In the broader context, the presented study exposes the relevance of higher topological structures (besides standard graph measures for characterising functional brain networks under different stimuli.
Auditory-Verbal Therapy (AVT) is an effective early intervention for children with hearing loss. The Hear and Say Centre in Brisbane offers AVT sessions to families soon after diagnosis, and about 20% of the families in Queensland participate via PC-based videoconferencing (Skype). Parent and therapist satisfaction with the telemedicine sessions was examined by questionnaire. All families had been enrolled in the telemedicine AVT programme for at least six months. Their average distance from the Hear and Say Centre was 600 km. Questionnaires were completed by 13 of the 17 parents and all five therapists. Parents and therapists generally expressed high satisfaction in the majority of the sections of the questionnaire, e.g. most rated the audio and video quality as good or excellent. All parents felt comfortable or as comfortable as face-to-face when discussing matters with the therapist online, and were satisfied or as satisfied as face-to-face with their level and their child's level of interaction/rapport with the therapist. All therapists were satisfied or very satisfied with the telemedicine AVT programme. The results demonstrate the potential of telemedicine service delivery for teaching listening and spoken language to children with hearing loss in rural and remote areas of Australia.
Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligibility of English consonants and vowels produced by Chinese-native (CN), and Korean-native (KN) students enrolled in American universities. METHOD 16 English-native (EN), 32 CN, and 32 KN speakers participated in this study. The intelligibility of 16 American English consonants and 16 vowels spoken by native and nonnative speakers of English was evaluated by EN listeners. All nonnative speakers also completed a survey of their language backgrounds. RESULTS Although the intelligibility of consonants and diphthongs for nonnative speakers was comparable to that of native speakers, the intelligibility of monophthongs was significantly lower for CN and KN speakers than for EN speakers. Sociolinguistic factors such as the age of arrival in the United States and daily use of English, as well as a linguistic factor, difference in vowel space between native (L1) and nonnative (L2) language, partially contributed to vowel intelligibility for CN and KN groups. There was no significant correlation between the length of U.S. residency and phoneme intelligibility. CONCLUSION Results indicated that the major difficulty in phonemic production in English for Chinese and Korean speakers is with vowels rather than consonants. This might be useful for developing training methods to improve English intelligibility for foreign students in the United States.
Full Text Available The mastery of speaking skills in English has become a major requisite in engineering industry. Engineers are expected to possess speaking skills for executing their routine activities and career prospects. The article focuses on the experimental study conducted to improve English spoken proficiency of Indian engineering students using task-based approach. Tasks are activities that concentrates on the learners in providing the main context and focus for learning. Therefore, a task facilitates the learners to use language rather than to learn it. This article further explores the pivotal role played by the pedagogical intervention in enabling the learners to improve their speaking skill in L2. The participants of the study chosen for control and experimental group were first year civil engineering students comprising 38 in each group respectively. The vital tool used in the study is oral communicative tasks administered to the experimental group. The oral communicative tasks enabled the students to think and generate sentences on their own orally. The‘t’ Test was computed to compare the performance of the students in control and experiment groups.The results of the statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant level of improvement in the oral proficiency of the experimental group.
Devereux, Barry J; Taylor, Kirsten I; Randall, Billi; Geertzen, Jeroen; Tyler, Lorraine K
Understanding spoken words involves a rapid mapping from speech to conceptual representations. One distributed feature-based conceptual account assumes that the statistical characteristics of concepts' features--the number of concepts they occur in (distinctiveness/sharedness) and likelihood of co-occurrence (correlational strength)--determine conceptual activation. To test these claims, we investigated the role of distinctiveness/sharedness and correlational strength in speech-to-meaning mapping, using a lexical decision task and computational simulations. Responses were faster for concepts with higher sharedness, suggesting that shared features are facilitatory in tasks like lexical decision that require access to them. Correlational strength facilitated responses for slower participants, suggesting a time-sensitive co-occurrence-driven settling mechanism. The computational simulation showed similar effects, with early effects of shared features and later effects of correlational strength. These results support a general-to-specific account of conceptual processing, whereby early activation of shared features is followed by the gradual emergence of a specific target representation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Cognitive Science published by Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Lewis, Gwyneth; Poeppel, David
Do visual representations contribute to spoken word recognition? We examine, using MEG, the effects of sublexical and lexical variables at superior temporal (ST) areas and the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) compared with that of word imageability at visual cortices. Embodied accounts predict early modulation of visual areas by imageability--concurrently with or prior to modulation of pMTG by lexical variables. Participants responded to speech stimuli varying continuously in imageability during lexical decision with simultaneous MEG recording. We employed the linguistic variables in a new type of correlational time course analysis to assess trial-by-trial activation in occipital, ST, and pMTG regions of interest (ROIs). The linguistic variables modulated the ROIs during different time windows. Critically, visual regions reflected an imageability effect prior to effects of lexicality on pMTG. This surprising effect supports a view on which sensory aspects of a lexical item are not a consequence of lexical activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described.…
Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard
The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grades...... that, in late Proto-Germanic, became predictable from the phonotactic structure of the root....
Aleksandra Valeryevna Filippova
The present article regards Aspekte 1 coursebook of German as a foreign language in the context of the gender policy initiated at the end of the last century by sociolinguists and by the representatives of the so called feminist criticism of the German language. This policy has been carried out up to date, and, according to many sociological and linguistic research, it is aimed at destructing gender stereotypes in teaching and reference materials. The use of this policy is conditioned by the ...
The concept of "participation" and the demand for the use of "participative methods" in human, healthcare, nursing and gerontological research as well as the corresponding fields of practice are in great demand; however, the targets and organization of "participation" are not always sufficiently explicated. The working group on critical gerontology of the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics uses this phenomenon as an opportunity for positioning and develops a catalogue of criteria for reflection and assessment of participation of elderly people in science and practice, which can also be considered a stimulus for further discussions.
Magnuson, James S.; Mirman, Daniel; Luthra, Sahil; Strauss, Ted; Harris, Harlan D.
Human perception, cognition, and action requires fast integration of bottom-up signals with top-down knowledge and context. A key theoretical perspective in cognitive science is the interactive activation hypothesis: forward and backward flow in bidirectionally connected neural networks allows humans and other biological systems to approximate optimal integration of bottom-up and top-down information under real-world constraints. An alternative view is that online feedback is neither necessary nor helpful; purely feed forward alternatives can be constructed for any feedback system, and online feedback could not improve processing and would preclude veridical perception. In the domain of spoken word recognition, the latter view was apparently supported by simulations using the interactive activation model, TRACE, with and without feedback: as many words were recognized more quickly without feedback as were recognized faster with feedback, However, these simulations used only a small set of words and did not address a primary motivation for interaction: making a model robust in noise. We conducted simulations using hundreds of words, and found that the majority were recognized more quickly with feedback than without. More importantly, as we added noise to inputs, accuracy and recognition times were better with feedback than without. We follow these simulations with a critical review of recent arguments that online feedback in interactive activation models like TRACE is distinct from other potentially helpful forms of feedback. We conclude that in addition to providing the benefits demonstrated in our simulations, online feedback provides a plausible means of implementing putatively distinct forms of feedback, supporting the interactive activation hypothesis. PMID:29666593
James S. Magnuson
Full Text Available Human perception, cognition, and action requires fast integration of bottom-up signals with top-down knowledge and context. A key theoretical perspective in cognitive science is the interactive activation hypothesis: forward and backward flow in bidirectionally connected neural networks allows humans and other biological systems to approximate optimal integration of bottom-up and top-down information under real-world constraints. An alternative view is that online feedback is neither necessary nor helpful; purely feed forward alternatives can be constructed for any feedback system, and online feedback could not improve processing and would preclude veridical perception. In the domain of spoken word recognition, the latter view was apparently supported by simulations using the interactive activation model, TRACE, with and without feedback: as many words were recognized more quickly without feedback as were recognized faster with feedback, However, these simulations used only a small set of words and did not address a primary motivation for interaction: making a model robust in noise. We conducted simulations using hundreds of words, and found that the majority were recognized more quickly with feedback than without. More importantly, as we added noise to inputs, accuracy and recognition times were better with feedback than without. We follow these simulations with a critical review of recent arguments that online feedback in interactive activation models like TRACE is distinct from other potentially helpful forms of feedback. We conclude that in addition to providing the benefits demonstrated in our simulations, online feedback provides a plausible means of implementing putatively distinct forms of feedback, supporting the interactive activation hypothesis.
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the unfamiliar stressed prosody on spoken Thai word perception in the pre-attentive processing of the brain evaluated by the N2a and brain wave oscillatory activity. EEG recording was obtained from eleven participants, who were instructed to ignore the sound stimuli while watching silent movies. Results showed that prosody of unfamiliar stress word perception elicited N2a component and the quantitative EEG analysis found that theta and delta wave powers were principally generated in the frontal area. It was possible that the unfamiliar prosody with different frequencies, duration and intensity of the sound of Thai words induced highly selective attention and retrieval of information from the episodic memory of the pre-attentive stage of speech perception. This brain electrical activity evidence could be used for further study in the development of valuable clinical tests to evaluate the frontal lobe function in speech perception.
Before the archives of the East German state were opened in the early 1990s the rising of June 1953 had already been well documented, largely on the basis of eyewitness reports and the East German press. It was thought that up to 372,000 workers took strike action, and that many of these participated, along with several hundred thousand others, in marches, rallies, occupations and other forms of direct action. Much was known about the sequence of events, the demands voiced, and about some of ...
Arkhireyskyi, D. V.
Full Text Available Highlights the life of Alexander Klein, a descendant of German colonists, Makhno’s active insurgency. Analyzed the possible reasons for his joining the group of anarchists Huliaipole. Participating of O. Kleyn in detachments of the Black household troops in southern Ukraine on verge of 1917–1918 is examined. The battle way of insurgent in the soldiery formings of army of N. Makhno is traced. His participating in all the most important campaigns and battle of insurgent army inclusive to the day of death in August 1921 lights up. The most interesting events of revolutionary war, this insurgent commander took part in which, are considered. Confirmed A. Kleyn loyalty, in spite of his national belonging, and the ideals of the Makhnovist insurgency.
Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menggambarkan penerapan metode Communicative Language Teaching/CLT untuk pembelajaran spoken recount. Penelitian ini menelaah data yang kualitatif. Penelitian ini mengambarkan fenomena yang terjadi di dalam kelas. Data studi ini adalah perilaku dan respon para siswa dalam pembelajaran spoken recount dengan menggunakan metode CLT. Subjek penelitian ini adalah para siswa kelas X SMA Negeri 1 Kuaro yang terdiri dari 34 siswa. Observasi dan wawancara dilakukan dalam rangka untuk mengumpulkan data dalam mengajarkan spoken recount melalui tiga aktivitas (presentasi, bermain-peran, serta melakukan prosedur. Dalam penelitian ini ditemukan beberapa hal antara lain bahwa CLT meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara siswa dalam pembelajaran recount. Berdasarkan pada grafik peningkatan, disimpulkan bahwa tata bahasa, kosakata, pengucapan, kefasihan, serta performa siswa mengalami peningkatan. Ini berarti bahwa performa spoken recount dari para siswa meningkat. Andaikata presentasi ditempatkan di bagian akhir dari langkah-langkah aktivitas, peforma spoken recount para siswa bahkan akan lebih baik lagi. Kesimpulannya adalah bahwa implementasi metode CLT beserta tiga praktiknya berkontribusi pada peningkatan kemampuan berbicara para siswa dalam pembelajaran recount dan bahkan metode CLT mengarahkan mereka untuk memiliki keberanian dalam mengonstruksi komunikasi yang bermakna dengan percaya diri. Kata kunci: Communicative Language Teaching (CLT, recount, berbicara, respon siswa
Rodica Teodora BIRIŞ
Full Text Available In the last years more and more words from English entered in German language, which ledto the formation of a colloquial language called "Denglisch" from "Deutsch - German" and"Englisch - English". Denglisch differs from the Anglicisms through the fact that here are observedsyntactic and morphological rules of the German language, which proves the power of Germangrammar.In the article below we follow the areas where the colloquial language is used morefrequently and how it is used by German speakers. Denglisch is fought by the German linguists,who recommended the use of English words, only if there is not a similar term in German.
Certain complex verbs in Dutch, German, and Swiss German do not undergo verb movement. The suggestion to be made in this article is that these ‘‘immobile'' verbs have to fulfill both the requirements imposed on complex verbs of the V° type (=verbs with non-separable prefixes) and the requirements...... imposed on complex verbs of the V* type (=verbs with separable prefixes). This results in such verbs being morphologically unexceptional, i.e., having a full set of forms but syntactically peculiar (‘‘immobile''), i.e., they can only occur in their base position. Any movement is incompatible with either...... frequent type with only one prefix-like part (e.g., German bauchreden/Dutch buikspreken ‘to ventriloquize'). This analysis will try to account not only for the data discussed in Haider (1993) and Koopman (1995) but also for the following: - why immobile verbs include verbs with only one prefix-like part...
Full Text Available This research is descriptive study of registers found in spoken and written communication. The type of this research is Descriptive Qualitative Research. In this research, the data of the study is register in spoken and written communication that are found in a book entitled "Communicating! Theory and Practice" and from internet. The data can be in the forms of words, phrases and abbreviation. In relation with method of collection data, the writer uses the library method as her instrument. The writer relates it to the study of register in spoken and written communication. The technique of analyzing the data using descriptive method. The types of register in this term will be separated into formal register and informal register, and identify the meaning of register.
Rogers, Elizabeth A; Fine, Sarah C; Handley, Margaret A; Davis, Hodari B; Kass, James; Schillinger, Dean
To examine the reach, efficacy, and adoption of The Bigger Picture, a type 2 diabetes (T2DM) social marketing campaign that uses spoken-word public service announcements (PSAs) to teach youth about socioenvironmental conditions influencing T2DM risk. A nonexperimental pilot dissemination evaluation through high school assemblies and a Web-based platform were used. The study took place in San Francisco Bay Area high schools during 2013. In the study, 885 students were sampled from 13 high schools. A 1-hour assembly provided data, poet performances, video PSAs, and Web-based platform information. A Web-based platform featured the campaign Web site and social media. Student surveys preassembly and postassembly (knowledge, attitudes), assembly observations, school demographics, counts of Web-based utilization, and adoption were measured. Descriptive statistics, McNemar's χ 2 test, and mixed modeling accounting for clustering were used to analyze data. The campaign included 23 youth poet-created PSAs. It reached >2400 students (93% self-identified non-white) through school assemblies and has garnered >1,000,000 views of Web-based video PSAs. School participants demonstrated increased short-term knowledge of T2DM as preventable, with risk driven by socioenvironmental factors (34% preassembly identified environmental causes as influencing T2DM risk compared to 83% postassembly), and perceived greater personal salience of T2DM risk reduction (p < .001 for all). The campaign has been adopted by regional public health departments. The Bigger Picture campaign showed its potential for reaching and engaging diverse youth. Campaign messaging is being adopted by stakeholders.
Full Text Available The contribution of cooperative learning (CL in promoting second and foreign language learning has been widely acknowledged. Little scholarly attention, however, has been given to revealing how this teaching method works and promotes learners’ improved communicative competence. This qualitative case study explores the important role that individual accountability in CL plays in giving English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners in Indonesia the opportunity to use the target language of English. While individual accountability is a principle of and one of the activities in CL, it is currently under studied, thus little is known about how it enhances EFL learning. This study aims to address this gap by conducting a constructivist grounded theory analysis on participant observation, in-depth interview, and document analysis data drawn from two secondary school EFL teachers, 77 students in the observed classrooms, and four focal students. The analysis shows that through individual accountability in CL, the EFL learners had opportunities to use the target language, which may have contributed to the attainment of communicative competence—the goal of the EFL instruction. More specifically, compared to the use of conventional group work in the observed classrooms, through the activities of individual accountability in CL, i.e., performances and peer interaction, the EFL learners had more opportunities to use spoken English. The present study recommends that teachers, especially those new to CL, follow the preset procedure of selected CL instructional strategies or structures in order to recognize the activities within individual accountability in CL and understand how these activities benefit students.
To assess the effects of data-driven instruction (DDI) on spoken language outcomes of children with cochlear implants and hearing aids. Retrospective, matched-pairs comparison of post-treatment speech/language data of children who did and did not receive DDI. Private, spoken-language preschool for children with hearing loss. Eleven matched pairs of children with cochlear implants who attended the same spoken language preschool. Groups were matched for age of hearing device fitting, time in the program, degree of predevice fitting hearing loss, sex, and age at testing. Daily informal language samples were collected and analyzed over a 2-year period, per preschool protocol. Annual informal and formal spoken language assessments in articulation, vocabulary, and omnibus language were administered at the end of three time intervals: baseline, end of year one, and end of year two. The primary outcome measures were total raw score performance of spontaneous utterance sentence types and syntax element use as measured by the Teacher Assessment of Spoken Language (TASL). In addition, standardized assessments (the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals--Preschool Version 2 (CELF-P2), the Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT), the Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT), and the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation 2 (GFTA2)) were also administered and compared with the control group. The DDI group demonstrated significantly higher raw scores on the TASL each year of the study. The DDI group also achieved statistically significant higher scores for total language on the CELF-P and expressive vocabulary on the EOWPVT, but not for articulation nor receptive vocabulary. Post-hoc assessment revealed that 78% of the students in the DDI group achieved scores in the average range compared with 59% in the control group. The preliminary results of this study support further investigation regarding DDI to investigate whether this method can consistently
Purpose: The current study sought to investigate the separate effects of dysarthria and cognitive status on global speech timing, speech hesitation, and linguistic complexity characteristics and how these speech behaviors impose on listener impressions for three connected speech tasks presumed to differ in cognitive-linguistic demand for four carefully defined speaker groups; 1) MS with cognitive deficits (MSCI), 2) MS with clinically diagnosed dysarthria and intact cognition (MSDYS), 3) MS without dysarthria or cognitive deficits (MS), and 4) healthy talkers (CON). The relationship between neuropsychological test scores and speech-language production and perceptual variables for speakers with cognitive deficits was also explored. Methods: 48 speakers, including 36 individuals reporting a neurological diagnosis of MS and 12 healthy talkers participated. The three MS groups and control group each contained 12 speakers (8 women and 4 men). Cognitive function was quantified using standard clinical tests of memory, information processing speed, and executive function. A standard z-score of ≤ -1.50 indicated deficits in a given cognitive domain. Three certified speech-language pathologists determined the clinical diagnosis of dysarthria for speakers with MS. Experimental speech tasks of interest included audio-recordings of an oral reading of the Grandfather passage and two spontaneous speech samples in the form of Familiar and Unfamiliar descriptive discourse. Various measures of spoken language were of interest. Suprasegmental acoustic measures included speech and articulatory rate. Linguistic speech hesitation measures included pause frequency (i.e., silent and filled pauses), mean silent pause duration, grammatical appropriateness of pauses, and interjection frequency. For the two discourse samples, three standard measures of language complexity were obtained including subordination index, inter-sentence cohesion adequacy, and lexical diversity. Ten listeners
Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45......Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45...
Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)
A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous.......g., lobe) faster than words with consistent rhymes where the vowel has a less typical spelling (e.g., loaf). The present study extends previous literature by showing that auditory word recognition is affected by orthographic regularities at different grain sizes, just like written word recognition...... and spelling. The theoretical and methodological implications for future research in spoken word recognition are discussed....
Kempf, Franz R.
Suggests the following methods for improving university-level German language education curricula: reduce skill-development time through immersion programs, adopt Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache as the proficiency standard for advanced students, and include literature from a variety of liberal arts disciplines in the reading materials for…
Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Correia Da Silva, L.
German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows than UK and US firms.However, on a published profits basis, the pattern is reversed.Company law provisions and accounting policies account for these conflicting results.A partial adjustment model is used to estimate the implicit target
The first full-time professorship for urology at a German university was established in 1937 and in 1942, a rare teaching qualification (Habilitation) for urology was granted, both at the prestigious Berlin University. At the same time, nearly a third of all physicians who worked in the field of urology were classified as "non-Aryan" according to Nazi race laws and were forced out of their profession and their homeland. Many of them committed suicide or, if they refused to flee, were murdered in concentration camps. German urologists also contributed to compulsory sterilization of men according to the "law for the prevention of hereditarily diseased offspring" between 1934 and 1945. Historical sources on the history of urology in Nazi Germany were reviewed and analyzed. These include textbooks and medical journals from the 1930s and 1940s, as well as files from different state and university archives. For urologists, the changing political environment in Germany after 1933 offered possibilities to assert their personal and professional interests. Unfortunately, in many cases, moral principles were thrown overboard, and physicians advanced their own careers and the specialty of urology at the expense of their patients and their Jewish colleagues. Under national socialism, German urologists backed Nazi health and race policies and in exchange gained further professionalization for their specialty, including university positions and increased independence from surgery. Only in recent years has this chapter of German urology's past become a topic of debate among members of the professional society.
Rodica Teodora BIRIŞ
In the last years more and more words from English entered in German language, which ledto the formation of a colloquial language called "Denglisch" from "Deutsch - German" and"Englisch - English". Denglisch differs from the Anglicisms through the fact that here are observedsyntactic and morphological rules of the German language, which proves the power of Germangrammar.In the article below we follow the areas where the colloquial language is used morefrequently and how it is used by German s...
Hampton, L. H.; Kaiser, A. P.
Background: Although spoken-language deficits are not core to an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, many children with ASD do present with delays in this area. Previous meta-analyses have assessed the effects of intervention on reducing autism symptomatology, but have not determined if intervention improves spoken language. This analysis…
This paper investigates the competition effects of the entry of Vattenfall into the German electricity market. While the competition authorities supported the entry by approving Vattenfall's acquisition of three regional utilities, other market participants raised concerns over the emergence of an upcoming oligopoly in the German market for power generation. We contrast the efficiency hypothesis postulating pro-competitive effects of mergers with the market power hypothesis postulating anti-competitive effects. For the analysis of the two opposing hypotheses, we use an event study approach to the stock prices of Vattenfall's competitors in the German market. While we find no empirical evidence for increased market power in the German electricity market due to Vattenfall's mergers, there is some indication for efficiency increases. We therefore cannot oppose the view of the competition authorities predicting an overall positive effect for consumers as a result of Vattenfall's entry into the German electricity market. (author)
direct result of the successful German submarine operations in the North Atlantic during 1939–1942. The first German .... The presence of Japanese and German warships in the Southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans was ..... sailed at great speed from the equator in order to arrive off Cape Town for the commencement of the.
This dictionary is supplement to the monograph ''Surfactants in Consumer Products'' edited by Professor Dr. J. Falbe. It comprises approximately 3.200 keywords of the chemistry, technology and applications of surfactants in English/German and German/English. In the monograph the physical-chemical principles of action of the surfactants, their production and their application in laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents and cleaning agents as well as in cosmetics and toiletries are discussed. The technological aspects of application and formulation along with those of production and manufacturing processes are illustrated. Ecological and toxicological questions are probed in depth. Finally, important economic data concerning this branch of industry as well as an attempt to provide a perspective with regard to the future of the surfactant market round out the picture.
Krischel, M; Moll, F; Fangerau, H
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (German Urological Association), established in 1907, was a German-Austrian medical society in which Jewish physicians held important positions. When the Nazis seized power in 1933, the Austrian Hans Rubritius was president of the society. The non-German presidency and the exclusion of Jewish colleagues from the professional society and medical practice led to a halt of the society's activities. At the same time in the mid 1930s, German urologists founded the Gesellschaft Reichsdeutscher Urologen (Association of Reichs-German Urologists) whose members aligned themselves with Nazi health policies and in turn received professional and personal benefits.
Marshall, C. R.; Jones, A.; Fastelli, A.; Atkinson, J.; Botting, N.; Morgan, G.
Background: Deafness has an adverse impact on children's ability to acquire spoken languages. Signed languages offer a more accessible input for deaf children, but because the vast majority are born to hearing parents who do not sign, their early exposure to sign language is limited. Deaf children as a whole are therefore at high risk of language…
Chehr Azad, Mohammad Hassan; Farrokhi, Farahman; Zohrabi, Mohammad
The current study was an attempt to investigate the effects of different corrective feedback (CF) conditions on Iranian EFL learners' spoken accuracy and fluency (AF) and the trade-off between them. Consequently, four pre-intermediate intact classes were randomly selected as the control, delayed explicit metalinguistic CF, extensive recast, and…
Nava, Andrea; Pedrazzini, Luciana
We describe an exploratory study carried out within the University of Milan, Department of English the aim of which was to analyse features of the spoken English of first-year Modern Languages undergraduates. We compiled a learner corpus, the "Role Play" corpus, which consisted of 69 role-play interactions in English carried out by…
A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous studies demonstrated this by manipulating…
Kirk, Karen Iler; Prusick, Lindsay; French, Brian; Gotch, Chad; Eisenberg, Laurie S; Young, Nancy
Under natural conditions, listeners use both auditory and visual speech cues to extract meaning from speech signals containing many sources of variability. However, traditional clinical tests of spoken word recognition routinely employ isolated words or sentences produced by a single talker in an auditory-only presentation format. The more central cognitive processes used during multimodal integration, perceptual normalization, and lexical discrimination that may contribute to individual variation in spoken word recognition performance are not assessed in conventional tests of this kind. In this article, we review our past and current research activities aimed at developing a series of new assessment tools designed to evaluate spoken word recognition in children who are deaf or hard of hearing. These measures are theoretically motivated by a current model of spoken word recognition and also incorporate "real-world" stimulus variability in the form of multiple talkers and presentation formats. The goal of this research is to enhance our ability to estimate real-world listening skills and to predict benefit from sensory aid use in children with varying degrees of hearing loss. American Academy of Audiology.
Yip, Michael C.
Two word-spotting experiments were conducted to examine the question of whether native Cantonese listeners are constrained by phonotactics information in spoken word recognition of Chinese words in speech. Because no legal consonant clusters occurred within an individual Chinese word, this kind of categorical phonotactics information of Chinese…
Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony
Spoken word recognition, during gating, appears intact in specific language impairment (SLI). This study used gating to investigate the process in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders plus language impairment (ALI). Adolescents with ALI, SLI, and typical language development (TLD), matched on nonverbal IQ listened to gated words that varied…
Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko
When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…
Rigler, Hannah; Farris-Trimble, Ashley; Greiner, Lea; Walker, Jessica; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McMurray, Bob
This study investigated the developmental time course of spoken word recognition in older children using eye tracking to assess how the real-time processing dynamics of word recognition change over development. We found that 9-year-olds were slower to activate the target words and showed more early competition from competitor words than…
Singh, Anne-Marie; Marcus, Nadine; Ayres, Paul
Two experiments involving 125 grade-10 students learning about commerce investigated strategies to overcome the transient information effect caused by explanatory spoken text. The transient information effect occurs when learning is reduced as a result of information disappearing before the learner has time to adequately process it, or link it…
Montgomery, James W.; Polunenko, Anzhela; Marinellie, Sally A.
The role of phonological short-term memory (PSTM), attentional resource capacity/allocation, and processing speed on children's spoken narrative comprehension was investigated. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) completed a digit span task (PSTM), concurrent verbal processing and storage (CPS) task (resource capacity/allocation), auditory-visual…
Full Text Available The paper explores similarities and differences in the strategies of structuring information at sentence level in spoken and written language, respectively. In particular, it is concerned with the position of the rheme in the sentence in the two different modalities of language, and with the application and correlation of the end-focus and the end-weight principles. The assumption is that while there is a general tendency in both written and spoken language to place the focus in or close to the final position, owing to the limitations imposed by short-term memory capacity (and possibly by other factors, for the sake of easy processibility, it may occasionally be more felicitous in spoken language to place the rhematic element in the initial position or at least close to the beginning of the sentence. The paper aims to identify differences in the function of selected grammatical structures in written and spoken language, respectively, and to point out circumstances under which initial focus is a convenient alternative to the usual end-focus principle.
Pitt, Mark A.
One account of how pronunciation variants of spoken words (center-> "senner" or "sennah") are recognized is that sublexical processes use information about variation in the same phonological environments to recover the intended segments [Gaskell, G., & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (1998). Mechanisms of phonological inference in speech perception.…
Nicholas, Johanna G.; Geers, Ann E.
Purpose: The major purpose of this study was to provide information about expected spoken language skills of preschool-age children who are deaf and who use a cochlear implant. A goal was to provide "benchmarks" against which those skills could be compared, for a given age at implantation. We also examined whether parent-completed…
Pisoni, David B.
This 21st annual progress report summarizes research activities on speech perception and spoken language processing carried out in the Speech Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Indiana University in Bloomington. As with previous reports, the goal is to summarize accomplishments during 1996 and 1997 and make them readily available. Some…
Ben-David, Boaz M.; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Reingold, Eyal M.; Schneider, Bruce A.
Purpose: To use eye tracking to investigate age differences in real-time lexical processing in quiet and in noise in light of the fact that older adults find it more difficult than younger adults to understand conversations in noisy situations. Method: Twenty-four younger and 24 older adults followed spoken instructions referring to depicted…
Leonard, Matthew K; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I; Halgren, Eric
WE COMBINED MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHY (MEG) AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) TO EXAMINE HOW SENSORY MODALITY, LANGUAGE TYPE, AND LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY INTERACT DURING TWO FUNDAMENTAL STAGES OF WORD PROCESSING: (1) an early word encoding stage, and (2) a later supramodal lexico-semantic stage. Adult native English speakers who were learning American Sign Language (ASL) performed a semantic task for spoken and written English words, and ASL signs. During the early time window, written words evoked responses in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, and spoken words in left superior temporal cortex. Signed words evoked activity in right intraparietal sulcus that was marginally greater than for written words. During the later time window, all three types of words showed significant activity in the classical left fronto-temporal language network, the first demonstration of such activity in individuals with so little second language (L2) instruction in sign. In addition, a dissociation between semantic congruity effects and overall MEG response magnitude for ASL responses suggested shallower and more effortful processing, presumably reflecting novice L2 learning. Consistent with previous research on non-dominant language processing in spoken languages, the L2 ASL learners also showed recruitment of right hemisphere and lateral occipital cortex. These results demonstrate that late lexico-semantic processing utilizes a common substrate, independent of modality, and that proficiency effects in sign language are comparable to those in spoken language.
Kolářová, V.; Kolář, Jan; Mikulová, M.
Roč. 107, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-38 ISSN 0032-6585 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : written Czech * spoken Czech * verbal nouns Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pralin.2017.107.issue-1/pralin-2017-0002/pralin-2017-0002. xml
Full Text Available This study addressed the development of and the relationship between foundational metalinguistic skills and word reading skills in Arabic. It compared Arabic-speaking children’s phonological awareness (PA, morphological awareness, and voweled and unvoweled word reading skills in spoken and standard language varieties separately in children across five grade levels from childhood to adolescence. Second, it investigated whether skills developed in the spoken variety of Arabic predict reading in the standard variety. Results indicate that although individual differences between students in PA are eliminated toward the end of elementary school in both spoken and standard language varieties, gaps in morphological awareness and in reading skills persisted through junior and high school years. The results also show that the gap in reading accuracy and fluency between Spoken Arabic (SpA and Standard Arabic (StA was evident in both voweled and unvoweled words. Finally, regression analyses showed that morphological awareness in SpA contributed to reading fluency in StA, i.e., children’s early morphological awareness in SpA explained variance in children’s gains in reading fluency in StA. These findings have important theoretical and practical contributions for Arabic reading theory in general and they extend the previous work regarding the cross-linguistic relevance of foundational metalinguistic skills in the first acquired language to reading in a second language, as in societal bilingualism contexts, or a second language variety, as in diglossic contexts.
Bernsen, Niels Ole; And Others
Presents principles of dialog cooperativity derived from a corpus of task-oriented spoken human-machine dialog. Analyzes the "corpus" to produce a set of dialog design principles intended to prevent users from having to initiate clarification and repair metacommunication that the system would not understand. Proposes a "more…
Čermáková, Anna; Komrsková, Zuzana; Kopřivová, Marie; Poukarová, Petra
-, 25.04.2017 (2017), s. 393-414 ISSN 2509-9507 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01116S Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : Causality * Discourse marker * Spoken language * Czech Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs41701-017-0014-y.pdf
Jones, Christian; Carter, Ronald
This article reports on mixed methods classroom research carried out at a British university. The study investigates the effectiveness of two different explicit teaching frameworks, Illustration--Interaction--Induction (III) and Present--Practice--Produce (PPP) used to teach the same spoken discourse markers (DMs) to two different groups of…
Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Rommers, J.; Maris, E.G.G.
Two major components form the basis of spoken word production: the access of conceptual and lexical/phonological information in long-term memory, and motor preparation and execution of an articulatory program. Whereas the motor aspects of word production have been well characterized as reflected in
Yoder, Paul J.; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E.; Warren, Steven F.; Gardner, Elizabeth
In an earlier randomized clinical trial, daily communication and language therapy resulted in more favorable spoken vocabulary outcomes than weekly therapy sessions in a subgroup of initially nonverbal preschoolers with intellectual disabilities that included only children with Down syndrome (DS). In this reanalysis of the dataset involving only…
Möller, S.; Smeele, P.; Boland, H.; Krebber, J.
In the present paper, we investigate the validity and reliability of de-facto evaluation standards, defined for measuring or predicting the quality of the interaction with spoken dialogue systems. Two experiments have been carried out with a dialogue system for controlling domestic devices. During
Shantha, S.; Mekala, S.
The mastery of speaking skills in English has become a major requisite in engineering industry. Engineers are expected to possess speaking skills for executing their routine activities and career prospects. The article focuses on the experimental study conducted to improve English spoken proficiency of Indian engineering students using task-based…
Carrero Pérez, Nubia Patricia
Task based learning (TBL) or Task based learning and teaching (TBLT) is a communicative approach widely applied in settings where English has been taught as a foreign language (EFL). It has been documented as greatly useful to improve learners' communication skills. This research intended to find the effect of tasks on students' spoken interaction…
Devereux, Barry J.; Taylor, Kirsten I.; Randall, Billi; Geertzen, Jeroen; Tyler, Lorraine K.
Understanding spoken words involves a rapid mapping from speech to conceptual representations. One distributed feature-based conceptual account assumes that the statistical characteristics of concepts' features--the number of concepts they occur in ("distinctiveness/sharedness") and likelihood of co-occurrence ("correlational…
KRISHNAMURTHI, M.G.; MCCORMACK, WILLIAM
THE TWENTY GRADED UNITS IN THIS TEXT CONSTITUTE AN INTRODUCTION TO BOTH INFORMAL AND FORMAL SPOKEN KANNADA. THE FIRST TWO UNITS PRESENT THE KANNADA MATERIAL IN PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION ONLY, WITH KANNADA SCRIPT GRADUALLY INTRODUCED FROM UNIT III ON. A TYPICAL LESSON-UNIT INCLUDES--(1) A DIALOG IN PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION, (2)…
Shaw, Emily P.
This dissertation is an examination of gesture in two game nights: one in spoken English between four hearing friends and another in American Sign Language between four Deaf friends. Analyses of gesture have shown there exists a complex integration of manual gestures with speech. Analyses of sign language have implicated the body as a medium…
Barberà, Gemma; Zwets, Martine
In both signed and spoken languages, pointing serves to direct an addressee's attention to a particular entity. This entity may be either present or absent in the physical context of the conversation. In this article we focus on pointing directed to nonspeaker/nonaddressee referents in Sign Language of the Netherlands (Nederlandse Gebarentaal,…
Miller, Jon F.; Andriacchi, Karen; Nockerts, Ann
Purpose: This tutorial discusses the importance of language sample analysis and how Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT) software can be used to simplify the process and effectively assess the spoken language production of adolescents. Method: Over the past 30 years, thousands of language samples have been collected from typical…
Al-Surmi, Mansoor Ali
TV shows, especially soap operas and sitcoms, are usually considered by ESL practitioners as a source of authentic spoken conversational materials presumably because they reflect the linguistic features of natural conversation. However, practitioners might be faced with the dilemma of how to evaluate whether such conversational materials reflect…
Magimairaj, Beula M.; Montgomery, James W.
Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…
Adank, P.M.; Noordzij, M.L.; Hagoort, P.
A repetition–suppression functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of processing two types of acoustic variation—speaker and accent—during spoken sentence comprehension. Recordings were made for two speakers and two accents: Standard Dutch and
With questions and answer sections throughout, this book helps you to improve your written and spoken English through understanding the structure of the English language. This is a thorough and useful book with all parts of speech and grammar explained. Used by ELT self-study students.
Baker, Kimberly F.; Montgomery, Allen A.; Abramson, Ruth
The perception and the cerebral lateralization of spoken emotions were investigated in children and adolescents with high-functioning forms of autism (HFFA), and age-matched typically developing controls (TDC). A dichotic listening task using nonsense passages was used to investigate the recognition of four emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, and…
Yu, Ping; Pan, Yingxin; Li, Chen; Zhang, Zengxiu; Shi, Qin; Chu, Wenpei; Liu, Mingzhuo; Zhu, Zhiting
Oral production is an important part in English learning. Lack of a language environment with efficient instruction and feedback is a big issue for non-native speakers' English spoken skill improvement. A computer-assisted language learning system can provide many potential benefits to language learners. It allows adequate instructions and instant…
Kolářová, V.; Kolář, Jan; Mikulová, M.
Roč. 107, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-38 ISSN 0032-6585 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : written Czech * spoken Czech * verbal nouns Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pralin.2017.107.issue-1/pralin-2017-0002/pralin-2017-0002.xml
de Hoog, Brigitte E; Langereis, Margreet C; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Keuning, Jos; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo
Large variability in individual spoken language outcomes remains a persistent finding in the group of children with cochlear implants (CIs), particularly in their grammatical development. In the present study, we examined the extent of delay in lexical and morphosyntactic spoken language levels of children with CIs as compared to those of a normative sample of age-matched children with normal hearing. Furthermore, the predictive value of auditory and verbal memory factors in the spoken language performance of implanted children was analyzed. Thirty-nine profoundly deaf children with CIs were assessed using a test battery including measures of lexical, grammatical, auditory and verbal memory tests. Furthermore, child-related demographic characteristics were taken into account. The majority of the children with CIs did not reach age-equivalent lexical and morphosyntactic language skills. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that lexical spoken language performance in children with CIs was best predicted by age at testing, phoneme perception, and auditory word closure. The morphosyntactic language outcomes of the CI group were best predicted by lexicon, auditory word closure, and auditory memory for words. Qualitatively good speech perception skills appear to be crucial for lexical and grammatical development in children with CIs. Furthermore, strongly developed vocabulary skills and verbal memory abilities predict morphosyntactic language skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Mello, Melissa; Tempero-Feigles, Robyn; Castignetti, Nancy; Abbeduto, Leonard
Using a single case design, a parent-mediated spoken-language intervention was delivered to three mothers and their school-aged sons with fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The intervention was embedded in the context of shared storytelling using wordless picture books and targeted three empirically derived…
Full Text Available Students’ activities in the learning process are very important to indicate the quality of learning process. One of which is spoken activity. This study was intended to analyze the elementary school students’ spoken activities and their responses in joining Math learning process by peer-tutoring. Descriptive qualitative design was piloted by means of implementing the qualitative approach and case study. Further, the data were collected from observation, field note, interview, and questionnaire that were administered to 24 fifth-graders of First State Elementary School of Kunjang, Kediri, East Java Indonesia. The design was that four students were recruited as the tutors; while the rest was subdivided into four different groups. The data taken from the observation and questionnaire were analyzed descriptively which were later categorized into various categories starting from poor category to the excellent one. The data collected from the interview were analyzed through the interactive model, data reduction, data exposing, and summation. The findings exhibited that the tutors’ spoken activities covering: questioning, answering, explaining, discussing, and presenting, were improved during three meetings and sharply developed in general. In addition, the students’ spoken activities that engaged some groups were considered good. Besides, there was a linear and positive interconnectedness between tutors’ activity and their groups’ activities.
Gozali, Imelda; Harjanto, Ignatius
The need to improve the spoken English of kindergarten students in an international preschool in Surabaya prompted this Classroom Action Research (CAR). It involved the implementation of Form-Focused Instruction (FFI) strategy coupled with Corrective Feedback (CF) in Grammar lessons. Four grammar topics were selected, namely Regular Plural form,…
Elich, Matthew; And Others
Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…
Gràcia, Marta; Vega, Fàtima; Galván-Bovaira, Maria José
Broadly speaking, the teaching of spoken language in Spanish schools has not been approached in a systematic way. Changes in school practices are needed in order to allow all children to become competent speakers and to understand and construct oral texts that are appropriate in different contexts and for different audiences both inside and…
Yip, Michael C. W.
Previous experimental psycholinguistic studies suggested that the probabilistic phonotactics information might likely to hint the locations of word boundaries in continuous speech and hence posed an interesting solution to the empirical question on how we recognize/segment individual spoken word in speech. We investigated this issue by using…
Wang, Zhen; Zechner, Klaus; Sun, Yu
As automated scoring systems for spoken responses are increasingly used in language assessments, testing organizations need to analyze their performance, as compared to human raters, across several dimensions, for example, on individual items or based on subgroups of test takers. In addition, there is a need in testing organizations to establish…
Basbagi, R. Ragip
This study develops and provides a sample implementation of a seminar for the "Comparative Country Knowledge" course taught in the German Language Teaching departments of Turkish universities. The study was conducted with the participation of forty-seven 1st year students attending a German Language Teaching department. As part of the…
Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva
The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation....
The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...
Despite intense study as an attractive model for adjustment to slower worldwide growth and increasing competition from low-wage producers, the sources of German institutional comparative advantage remain controversial, particularly with regard to the role of the national state. This paper argues that the national state plays a key -- though mainly indirect -- role in supporting the modernization of industry. On the one hand, the national regulation of labor markets has discouraged price compe...
non-lethal in equal measure. In many ways, Germany’s Bundeswehr (military) construct and participation in various conflicts mirror contemporary just...war theory and postmodern warfare, while its military concept lacks the necessary postmodern balance. The Bundeswehr stands in stark contrast to...the United States. The Bundeswehr is only employed for the purposes of defending German citizens where the United States military can be employed to
Brockmann, A.; Erning, D.; Helle, N.; Schreiber, G.A.
The fourth German Conference on Food Irradiation was held from 6th through 7th April 1994. Some seventy participants from the industry, scientific research, consumer organizations and supervising authorities discussed the pros and cons of the procedure and updated themselves on the latest governmental regulations, irradiation techniques, possibilities of detecting irradiated food and the results of official supervisory measures. The papers read at the meeting are summarized in this volume. (orig./vhe) [de
Uhlig, Constantin E; Böhringer, Daniel; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Seitz, Berthold; Schmidt, Hartmut
The aim of this study was to characterize postmortem organ donation attitudes in various German cohorts. Employees of 2 German cities and 2 German university hospitals, employees of a German automobile enterprise, and members of a German Medical Society were administered a questionnaire about postmortem organ and tissue donation attitudes. Demographic data and general attitudes were questioned and focused on: I) willingness to donate organs, II) holding a donor card, and III) having discussed the topic with the family. Of 5291 participants, 65.2% reported favoring postmortem organ donation. Missing negative experiences, the idea that donation is helpful, a non-medical professional environment, excellent general health, gender, agreement with the brain-death paradigm, and age significantly influenced the participants' attitudes. Participants were more likely to possess donor cards and had discussed more often with family members if they agreed with the brain-death paradigm and considered donation to be helpful. Males and older participants were the most likely to neglect donor cards, and Catholics, Protestants, and participants with poor health were the least likely to donate organs. Interest in receiving more information was expressed by 38.1% and 50.6% of participants refusing donation of all or of specific organs, respectively, and suggested the internet (60.0%) and family doctors (35.0%) as preferred sources of information. Public campaigns in Germany should focus on males and older people as regards donor cards, and females, younger, and religiously affiliated persons as regards the general willingness to donate organs postmortem.
Simovska, Venka; Bruun Jensen, Bjarne
and society. It then describes different forms, modes or qualities of participation and proposes a specific model of facilitating participatory work with young people - the IVAC approach (Investigation-Vision-Action-Change). The concept of action, types of actions aimed at initiating change and corresponding...... types of knowledge necessary to equip young people to participate in meaningful ways are outlined before some dilemmas, challenges and participatory issues are considered. Regardless of the level or scope of participation, it is imperative that participation of young people in decision...
Full Text Available Eye-tracking findings suggest people prefer to ground their spoken language comprehension by focusing on recently-seen events more than anticipating future events: When the verb in NP1-VERB-ADV-NP2 sentences was referentially ambiguous between a recently depicted and an equally plausible future clipart action, listeners fixated the target of the recent action more often at the verb than the object that hadn't yet been acted upon. We examined whether this inspection preference generalizes to real-world events, and whether it is (vs. isn't modulated by how often people see recent and future events acted out. In a first eye-tracking study, the experimenter performed an action (e.g., sugaring pancakes, and then a spoken sentence either referred to that action or to an equally plausible future action (e.g., sugaring strawberries. At the verb, people more often inspected the pancakes (the recent target than the strawberries (the future target, thus replicating the recent-event preference with these real-world actions. Adverb tense, indicating a future versus past event, had no effect on participants' visual attention. In a second study we increased the frequency of future actions such that participants saw 50/50 future and recent actions. During the verb people mostly inspected the recent action target, but subsequently they began to rely on tense, and anticipated the future target more often for future than past tense adverbs. A corpus study showed that the verbs and adverbs indicating past versus future actions were equally frequent, suggesting long-term frequency biases did not cause the recent-event preference. Thus, (a recent real-world actions can rapidly influence comprehension (as indexed by eye gaze to objects, and (b people prefer to first inspect a recent action target (vs. an object that will soon be acted upon, even when past and future actions occur with equal frequency. A simple frequency-of-experience account cannot accommodate these
Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom...
The article presents another approach to individual motivation--participative management--which concerns an emotional rather than financial commitment to the job through involvement and job satisfaction. The author favors within this approach: employee participation in decision-making, entitlement to information, and the establishment of…
Thomauske, Bruno; Moloney, Barry; Charlier, Frank
Full text of publication follows: Experience of decommissioning across the world has allowed the nuclear industry to develop and enhance most of the technologies required for safe and efficient dismantling of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). One strategic challenge confronting the industry now is how to scale up implementation to address the burgeoning demand for dismantling of full size NPPs during the period 2016-2040. The German decommissioning programme will provide early evidence of whether the European industry can rise to this strategic challenge. It is widely reported in the media that German utilities will spend some Euro 30-40 Bn decommissioning NPPs during the next 25 years. In total, 22 NPPs will progress through the typical three stage programme encompassing post operations, dismantling and site clearance, with a peak occurring in the 2020's. Politically, immediate dismantling is strongly preferred as the strategy for the NPPs, so there will be a surge in decommissioning expenditure starting as soon as 2017. A critical issue is whether the German nuclear industry has sufficient capacity to deliver the programme, and where utilities may seek participation by other European companies. Innovation may be required, perhaps at a non-technical level. The circumstances of the German market require a thorough understanding. While the market is apparently open and receptive to international participation, three factors make it hard for foreign companies to penetrate. The political and regulatory environment is tough and for many foreign companies difficult to understand quickly. Utilities are mostly pursuing self-perform decommissioning strategies to preserve employment for their skilled workforce, limiting scope for some contractors. Finally, an innovative and highly experienced German nuclear industry can present formidable competition. Yet, this industry does not possess all the capacity needed for the utilities' programmes. Risks for new entrants can
Termos, Mohamad Hani
The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology that increases student performance and promotes active learning. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes, where students' first spoken language is not English.…
Samsø, Denmark's Renewable Energy Island since 1997, is world renowned for being self-sufficient in renewable energy and for having achieved energy self-sufficiency and CO2 neutrality through successful processes of public participation. In this article I seek to show how these processes of public...... participation so central to the Renewable Energy Island project can be better understood as instances of material participation motivated first and foremost by a concern for the future of the island as a 'liveable' community; a community in which jobs and institutions are not constantly threatening to disappear...
Schreibman, Laura; Stahmer, Aubyn C
Presently there is no consensus on the specific behavioral treatment of choice for targeting language in young nonverbal children with autism. This randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness of a verbally-based intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to a pictorially-based behavioral intervention, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the acquisition of spoken language by young (2-4 years), nonverbal or minimally verbal (≤9 words) children with autism. Thirty-nine children were randomly assigned to either the PRT or PECS condition. Participants received on average 247 h of intervention across 23 weeks. Dependent measures included overall communication, expressive vocabulary, pictorial communication and parent satisfaction. Children in both intervention groups demonstrated increases in spoken language skills, with no significant difference between the two conditions. Seventy-eight percent of all children exited the program with more than 10 functional words. Parents were very satisfied with both programs but indicated PECS was more difficult to implement.
Full Text Available Speech perception runs smoothly and automatically when there is silence in the background, but when the speech signal is degraded by background noise or by reverberation, effortful cognitive processing is needed to compensate for the signal distortion. Previous research has typically investigated the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and reverberation time in isolation, whilst few have looked at their interaction. In this study, we probed how reverberation time and SNR influence recall of words presented in participants’ first- (L1 and second-language (L2. A total of 72 children (10 years old participated in this study. The to-be-recalled wordlists were played back with two different reverberation times (0.3 and 1.2 sec crossed with two different SNRs (+3 dBA and +12 dBA. Children recalled fewer words when the spoken words were presented in L2 in comparison with recall of spoken words presented in L1. Words that were presented with a high SNR (+12 dBA improved recall compared to a low SNR (+3 dBA. Reverberation time interacted with SNR to the effect that at +12 dB the shorter reverberation time improved recall, but at +3 dB it impaired recall. The effects of the physical sound variables (SNR and reverberation time did not interact with language.
Hindel, R.; Fleige, H.
In the area of the German Federal Republic, 6,300 soil samples of 526 soil profiles were examined for the concentrations of lead, copper, zinc, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, mercury, antimony, arsenic and lithium. The soil profiles were selected so that the prevailing loose and solid rock floors of the German Federal Republic were represented. The analysis data of these samples formed the basis for the calculation of average geogenic heavy metal concentrations in the soils of the German Federal Republic. (orig.) [de
This paper discusses general political and economic issues in Nawuriland during and after German colonialism. The paper argues that the legacies of German colonialism are still largely seen and felt in Nawuriland especially in plantation projects, land and chieftaincy.
Biesold, H.; Friederichs, H.G.; Pretzsch, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Dept. International Programmes, Berlin (Germany); Deville-Cavelin, G.; Lhomme, V.; Rutschkowsky, N.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dept. International Relations, 92 - Clamart (France); Bazyka, D.; Chabanyuk, V.; Seleznev, A. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany)
- Purpose: The main purpose of the French-German Initiative is to assist in the collection and validation of the existing data in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia for developing a reliable and objective basis useful for the planning of counter-measures, for information of the public, and for future work. - Coordination: GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit), supported in programme 3 by SBI (Strahlenbiologisches Institut der Universitaet Muenchen) and IRSN (Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire) are coordinating the projects on the Western side. The CC (Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology) as Eastern coordinator is also the beneficiary. German Support by Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU), Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke (VDEW) e.V.; French Support by Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire (IRSN), Electricite de France (EdF). - Programmes: Three scientific and technical co-operation programmes are financed with a total budget of about 6 million Euro within the frame work of the French- German Initiative: Programme 1: SARCOPHAGUS: Safety of the Chernobyl 'Sarcophagus', Programme 2: RADIOECOLOGY: Study of the radioecological consequences of the accident,Programme 3: HEALTH: Study of health effects. - Background: At the IAEA conference in Vienna in April 1996 - 10 years after the Chernobyl accident - the French and German Environment Ministers jointly announced their co-operation initiative with the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia over scientific programmes concerning the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster. Numerous scientific studies have been conducted in the affected republics of the former USSR with and without the participation of international organisations, but largely with insufficient real co-ordination. For some of the studies, results have never been publicly documented. There are still incoherent or even contradictory reports on the
Osman Ümit Özen
Full Text Available There are 27 municipal libraries including the Central Public Library in Munich. The other important libraries in the city are Bayern State National Library, Maximillian University Library, a technical highschool library and the "Deutsches Musuem" Library. All these libraries are financed locally. The author introduces these libraries briefly and compares German libraries with Turkish libraries. He concludes that although theoretically there are not distinctive differences, in practice, buildings and their layout are better in Germany where more variety of services are offered. In Turkey standardization has not been realized yet. Turkey needs to computerize and network to improve the services offered in an efficient way.
The book of abstracts contains abstracts of 171 papers read at the German Radiological Congress in Berlin as well as abstracts of two papers not read for lack of time. Further, there are 31 brief descriptions of the scientific exhibition. Subjects: Diagnosis of gall bladder diseases and inflammatory diseases of the large intestine; hyperthermia and irradiation in tumour therapy; nuclear methods in the diagnosis of growing and displacing processes, skeletal diseases, thromboses, embolisms, gastrointestinal and liver affections; new techniques and methods, diagnostics of the spinal tract; radiooncology; carcinoma of the ovaries; diagnostics and therapy of tumours of the lungs; computerized tomography; angiography; ultrasonic diagnosis. (MG) [de
changes and developments in business practice, the article argues that board practices in the two systems effectively blur the structural distinction, and that board organization is converging in practice. It thereby contributes to the broader debates on functionality and comparative corporate law......Board structure is an important component of the individual governance of firms, and the appropriateness of the various models is one of the most debated issues in corporate governance today. A comparison of the Nordic and German approaches to the structure of corporate boards reveals stark...
. Simulation makes those reforms comparable over time and across countries. Results show that the profile of the German scheme is changing from "general family" towards "dual-earner" support. Furthermore, the recent reforms make the German scheme converge towards the Swedish leave scheme. The recent reforms....... Microsimulation helps to overcome these problems. It compares policy options - actual reforms or reform plans - simultaneously and provides a comparable measure: the disposable income of model families. This article uses a type-case approach to investigate recent reforms of the German parental leave benefit...... introduce a new concept of fairness and a focus on gender equality to German family policies....
Vanderlinden, Lisa K
This ethnographic study uses the lens of ethnic difference to examine the experience of infertility and the cultural politics of belonging in modern Germany. The data are derived from participant observation and interviews conducted with forty-one ethnic Germans and thirty-three German Turks undergoing biomedical treatment for infertility at a fertility clinic in Berlin (1998-2000). Through their illness narratives, men and women symbolically link their loss of biological parenthood to losses in other life arenas, such as gender identity, social status and cultural acceptance. Results reveal that while both German Turks and ethnic Germans experience disruption and social suffering from their inability to conform to procreative norms, German Turkish sufferers exhibit higher levels of distress, which directly relates to their dual stigma as outsiders in both German Turkish culture and mainstream German culture. The findings suggest that the tensions surrounding individual reproductive practices are reflective of larger national tensions regarding the constitution of the body politic in an increasingly multicultural Germany.
Kovelman, Ioulia; Norton, Elizabeth S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gaab, Nadine; Lieberman, Daniel A; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wolf, Maryanne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E
Phonological awareness, knowledge that speech is composed of syllables and phonemes, is critical for learning to read. Phonological awareness precedes and predicts successful transition from language to literacy, and weakness in phonological awareness is a leading cause of dyslexia, but the brain basis of phonological awareness for spoken language in children is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of phonological awareness using an auditory word-rhyming task in children who were typical readers or who had dyslexia (ages 7-13) and a younger group of kindergarteners (ages 5-6). Typically developing children, but not children with dyslexia, recruited left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when making explicit phonological judgments. Kindergarteners, who were matched to the older children with dyslexia on standardized tests of phonological awareness, also recruited left DLPFC. Left DLPFC may play a critical role in the development of phonological awareness for spoken language critical for reading and in the etiology of dyslexia.
Nielsen, Hans Frede
of English orthography in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries spelling conventions often came to serve as guidelines for proper pronunciation, a notion that was rejected, however, by elocutionists before and just after 1800. It was only with the introduction of compulsory education in the latter half...... of the nineteenth century and with the establishment of the "great public boarding-schools" in particular, that a non-localized spoken standard based on educated southern speech came into being. "Public School English" had become a class dialect, and under the name of "Received Pronunciation" (a term devised......The beginnings of a spoken standard in England go back to late Middle English and early Modern English times, where southern speech and especially the idiom of the Court, London and the Home Counties acquired prestige beyond that of other regional dialects. With the increasing stabilization...
Vornik, Lana A; Sharman, Stefanie J; Garry, Maryanne
We investigated whether the sociolinguistic information delivered by spoken, accented postevent narratives would influence the misinformation effect. New Zealand subjects listened to misleading postevent information spoken in either a New Zealand (NZ) or North American (NA) accent. Consistent with earlier research, we found that NA accents were seen as more powerful and more socially attractive. We found that accents per se had no influence on the misinformation effect but sociolinguistic factors did: both power and social attractiveness affected subjects' susceptibility to misleading postevent suggestions. When subjects rated the speaker highly on power, social attractiveness did not matter; they were equally misled. However, when subjects rated the speaker low on power, social attractiveness did matter: subjects who rated the speaker high on social attractiveness were more misled than subjects who rated it lower. There were similar effects for confidence. These results have implications for our understanding of social influences on the misinformation effect.
Vaughn, Charlotte R; Bradlow, Ann R
While indexical information is implicated in many levels of language processing, little is known about the internal structure of the system of indexical dimensions, particularly in bilinguals. A series of three experiments using the speeded classification paradigm investigated the relationship between various indexical and non-linguistic dimensions of speech in processing. Namely, we compared the relationship between a lesser-studied indexical dimension relevant to bilinguals, which language is being spoken (in these experiments, either Mandarin Chinese or English), with: talker identity (Experiment 1), talker gender (Experiment 2), and amplitude of speech (Experiment 3). Results demonstrate that language-being-spoken is integrated in processing with each of the other dimensions tested, and that these processing dependencies seem to be independent of listeners' bilingual status or experience with the languages tested. Moreover, the data reveal processing interference asymmetries, suggesting a processing hierarchy for indexical, non-linguistic speech features.
Soleymani, Zahra; Keramati, Nasrin; Rohani, Farzaneh; Jalaei, Shohre
To determine verbal intelligence and spoken language of children with phenylketonuria and to study the effect of age at diagnosis and phenylalanine plasma level on these abilities. Cross-sectional. Children with phenylketonuria were recruited from pediatric hospitals in 2012. Normal control subjects were recruited from kindergartens in Tehran. 30 phenylketonuria and 42 control subjects aged 4-6.5 years. Skills were compared between 3 phenylketonuria groups categorized by age at diagnosis/treatment, and between the phenylketonuria and control groups. Scores on Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence for verbal and total intelligence, and Test of Language Development-Primary, third edition for spoken language, listening, speaking, semantics, syntax, and organization. The performance of control subjects was significantly better than that of early-treated subjects for all composite quotients from Test of Language Development and verbal intelligence (Pphenylketonuria subjects.
Kirk, Karen Iler; Prusick, Lindsay; French, Brian; Gotch, Chad; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Young, Nancy
Under natural conditions, listeners use both auditory and visual speech cues to extract meaning from speech signals containing many sources of variability. However, traditional clinical tests of spoken word recognition routinely employ isolated words or sentences produced by a single talker in an auditory-only presentation format. The more central cognitive processes used during multimodal integration, perceptual normalization and lexical discrimination that may contribute to individual varia...
Maldonado Torres, Sonia Enid
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between Latino students' learning styles and their language spoken at home. Results of the study indicated that students who spoke Spanish at home had higher means in the Active Experimentation modality of learning (M = 31.38, SD = 5.70) than students who spoke English (M = 28.08,…
Kemmerer, David; Tranel, Daniel; Manzel, Ken
We describe a brain-damaged subject, RR, who manifests superior written over spoken naming of concrete entities from a wide range of conceptual domains. His spoken naming difficulties are due primarily to an impairment of lexical-phonological processing, which implies that his successful written naming does not depend on prior access to the sound structures of words. His performance therefore provides further support for the "orthographic autonomy hypothesis," which maintains that written word production is not obligatorily mediated by phonological knowledge. The case of RR is especially interesting, however, because for him the dissociation between impaired spoken naming and relatively preserved written naming is significantly greater for two categories of unique concrete entities that are lexicalised as proper nouns-specifically, famous faces and famous landmarks-than for five categories of nonunique (i.e., basic level) concrete entities that are lexicalised as common nouns-specifically, animals, fruits/vegetables, tools/utensils, musical instruments, and vehicles. Furthermore, RR's predominant error types in the oral modality are different for the two types of stimuli: omissions for unique entities vs. semantic errors for nonunique entities. We consider two alternative explanations for RR's extreme difficulty in producing the spoken forms of proper nouns: (1) a disconnection between the meanings of proper nouns and the corresponding word nodes in the phonological output lexicon; or (2) damage to the word nodes themselves. We argue that RR's combined behavioural and lesion data do not clearly adjudicate between the two explanations, but that they favour the first explanation over the second.
S. Shantha; S. Mekala
The mastery of speaking skills in English has become a major requisite in engineering industry. Engineers are expected to possess speaking skills for executing their routine activities and career prospects. The article focuses on the experimental study conducted to improve English spoken proficiency of Indian engineering students using task-based approach. Tasks are activities that concentrates on the learners in providing the main context and focus for learning. Therefore, a task facilitates...
Wimmer, Eva; Rothweiler, Monika; Penke, Martina
For children with sensorineural hearing loss the ability to understand wh-questions might be particularly challenging because they often have only restricted access to spoken language input during optimal periods of language acquisition. In previous research it has been suggested that this restricted input during critical stages in language acquisition might lead to syntactic deficits that persist into adolescence. In this study we want to pursue this issue by investigating the comprehension of wh-questions in German children with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. We report results of a who-question comprehension task in a group of 21 3- to 4-year-old German hard-of-hearing children compared to a group of age-matched children with normal hearing. The group data and individual performance patterns suggest that the syntactic comprehension difficulties observed in some, but not all, of the children with hearing loss reflect a delay in the acquisition of who-question comprehension rather than a persistent syntactic deficit. Follow-up data elicited from a subgroup of children confirm this supposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Janse, Esther; Jesse, Alexandra
Many older listeners report difficulties in understanding speech in noisy situations. Working memory and other cognitive skills may modulate older listeners' ability to use context information to alleviate the effects of noise on spoken-word recognition. In the present study, we investigated whether verbal working memory predicts older adults' ability to immediately use context information in the recognition of words embedded in sentences, presented in different listening conditions. In a phoneme-monitoring task, older adults were asked to detect as fast and as accurately as possible target phonemes in sentences spoken by a target speaker. Target speech was presented without noise, with fluctuating speech-shaped noise, or with competing speech from a single distractor speaker. The gradient measure of contextual probability (derived from a separate offline rating study) affected the speed of recognition. Contextual facilitation was modulated by older listeners' verbal working memory (measured with a backward digit span task) and age across listening conditions. Working memory and age, as well as hearing loss, were also the most consistent predictors of overall listening performance. Older listeners' immediate benefit from context in spoken-word recognition thus relates to their ability to keep and update a semantic representation of the sentence content in working memory.
Zamuner, Tania S; Moore, Charlotte; Desmeules-Trudel, Félix
To understand speech, listeners need to be able to decode the speech stream into meaningful units. However, coarticulation causes phonemes to differ based on their context. Because coarticulation is an ever-present component of the speech stream, it follows that listeners may exploit this source of information for cues to the identity of the words being spoken. This research investigates the development of listeners' sensitivity to coarticulation cues below the level of the phoneme in spoken word recognition. Using a looking-while-listening paradigm, adults and 2- and 3-year-old children were tested on coarticulation cues that either matched or mismatched the target. Both adults and children predicted upcoming phonemes based on anticipatory coarticulation to make decisions about word identity. The overall results demonstrate that coarticulation cues are a fundamental component of children's spoken word recognition system. However, children did not show the same resolution as adults of the mismatching coarticulation cues and competitor inhibition, indicating that children's processing systems are still developing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen; Zhang, Qin; Guo, Chunyan
In the present study, two experiments were carried out to investigate the time course of spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese using both event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral measures. To address the hypothesis that there is an early phonological processing stage independent of semantics during spoken word recognition, a unimodal word-matching paradigm was employed, in which both prime and target words were presented auditorily. Experiment 1 manipulated the phonological relations between disyllabic primes and targets, and found an enhanced P2 (200-270 ms post-target onset) as well as a smaller early N400 to word-initial phonological mismatches over fronto-central scalp sites. Experiment 2 manipulated both phonological and semantic relations between monosyllabic primes and targets, and replicated the phonological mismatch-associated P2, which was not modulated by semantic relations. Overall, these results suggest that P2 is a sensitive electrophysiological index of early phonological processing independent of semantics in Mandarin Chinese spoken word recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Juan Manuel Montero
Full Text Available We describe the work on infusion of emotion into a limited-task autonomous spoken conversational agent situated in the domestic environment, using a need-inspired task-independent emotion model (NEMO. In order to demonstrate the generation of affect through the use of the model, we describe the work of integrating it with a natural-language mixed-initiative HiFi-control spoken conversational agent (SCA. NEMO and the host system communicate externally, removing the need for the Dialog Manager to be modified, as is done in most existing dialog systems, in order to be adaptive. The first part of the paper concerns the integration between NEMO and the host agent. The second part summarizes the work on automatic affect prediction, namely, frustration and contentment, from dialog features, a non-conventional source, in the attempt of moving towards a more user-centric approach. The final part reports the evaluation results obtained from a user study, in which both versions of the agent (non-adaptive and emotionally-adaptive were compared. The results provide substantial evidences with respect to the benefits of adding emotion in a spoken conversational agent, especially in mitigating users’ frustrations and, ultimately, improving their satisfaction.
Lutfi, Syaheerah Lebai; Fernández-Martínez, Fernando; Lorenzo-Trueba, Jaime; Barra-Chicote, Roberto; Montero, Juan Manuel
We describe the work on infusion of emotion into a limited-task autonomous spoken conversational agent situated in the domestic environment, using a need-inspired task-independent emotion model (NEMO). In order to demonstrate the generation of affect through the use of the model, we describe the work of integrating it with a natural-language mixed-initiative HiFi-control spoken conversational agent (SCA). NEMO and the host system communicate externally, removing the need for the Dialog Manager to be modified, as is done in most existing dialog systems, in order to be adaptive. The first part of the paper concerns the integration between NEMO and the host agent. The second part summarizes the work on automatic affect prediction, namely, frustration and contentment, from dialog features, a non-conventional source, in the attempt of moving towards a more user-centric approach. The final part reports the evaluation results obtained from a user study, in which both versions of the agent (non-adaptive and emotionally-adaptive) were compared. The results provide substantial evidences with respect to the benefits of adding emotion in a spoken conversational agent, especially in mitigating users' frustrations and, ultimately, improving their satisfaction.
Wiseheart, Rebecca; Altmann, Lori J P
Individuals with dyslexia demonstrate syntactic difficulties on tasks of language comprehension, yet little is known about spoken language production in this population. To investigate whether spoken sentence production in college students with dyslexia is less proficient than in typical readers, and to determine whether group differences can be attributable to cognitive differences between groups. Fifty-one college students with and without dyslexia were asked to produce sentences from stimuli comprising a verb and two nouns. Verb types varied in argument structure and morphological form and nouns varied in animacy. Outcome measures were precision (measured by fluency, grammaticality and completeness) and efficiency (measured by response times). Vocabulary and working memory tests were also administered and used as predictors of sentence production performance. Relative to non-dyslexic peers, students with dyslexia responded significantly slower and produced sentences that were significantly less precise in terms of fluency, grammaticality and completeness. The primary predictors of precision and efficiency were working memory, which differed between groups, and vocabulary, which did not. College students with dyslexia were significantly less facile and flexible on this spoken sentence-production task than typical readers, which is consistent with previous studies of school-age children with dyslexia. Group differences in performance were traced primarily to limited working memory, and were somewhat mitigated by strong vocabulary. © 2017 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Lestari, Dessi Puji; Furui, Sadaoki
Recognition errors of proper nouns and foreign words significantly decrease the performance of ASR-based speech applications such as voice dialing systems, speech summarization, spoken document retrieval, and spoken query-based information retrieval (IR). The reason is that proper nouns and words that come from other languages are usually the most important key words. The loss of such words due to misrecognition in turn leads to a loss of significant information from the speech source. This paper focuses on how to improve the performance of Indonesian ASR by alleviating the problem of pronunciation variation of proper nouns and foreign words (English words in particular). To improve the proper noun recognition accuracy, proper-noun specific acoustic models are created by supervised adaptation using maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR). To improve English word recognition, the pronunciation of English words contained in the lexicon is fixed by using rule-based English-to-Indonesian phoneme mapping. The effectiveness of the proposed method was confirmed through spoken query based Indonesian IR. We used Inference Network-based (IN-based) IR and compared its results with those of the classical Vector Space Model (VSM) IR, both using a tf-idf weighting schema. Experimental results show that IN-based IR outperforms VSM IR.
Goh, Winston D; Yap, Melvin J; Lau, Mabel C; Ng, Melvin M R; Tan, Luuan-Chin
A large number of studies have demonstrated that semantic richness dimensions [e.g., number of features, semantic neighborhood density, semantic diversity , concreteness, emotional valence] influence word recognition processes. Some of these richness effects appear to be task-general, while others have been found to vary across tasks. Importantly, almost all of these findings have been found in the visual word recognition literature. To address this gap, we examined the extent to which these semantic richness effects are also found in spoken word recognition, using a megastudy approach that allows for an examination of the relative contribution of the various semantic properties to performance in two tasks: lexical decision, and semantic categorization. The results show that concreteness, valence, and number of features accounted for unique variance in latencies across both tasks in a similar direction-faster responses for spoken words that were concrete, emotionally valenced, and with a high number of features-while arousal, semantic neighborhood density, and semantic diversity did not influence latencies. Implications for spoken word recognition processes are discussed.
Jones, -A C; Toscano, E; Botting, N; Marshall, C-R; Atkinson, J R; Denmark, T; Herman, -R; Morgan, G
Previous research has highlighted that deaf children acquiring spoken English have difficulties in narrative development relative to their hearing peers both in terms of macro-structure and with micro-structural devices. The majority of previous research focused on narrative tasks designed for hearing children that depend on good receptive language skills. The current study compared narratives of 6 to 11-year-old deaf children who use spoken English (N=59) with matched for age and non-verbal intelligence hearing peers. To examine the role of general language abilities, single word vocabulary was also assessed. Narratives were elicited by the retelling of a story presented non-verbally in video format. Results showed that deaf and hearing children had equivalent macro-structure skills, but the deaf group showed poorer performance on micro-structural components. Furthermore, the deaf group gave less detailed responses to inferencing probe questions indicating poorer understanding of the story's underlying message. For deaf children, micro-level devices most strongly correlated with the vocabulary measure. These findings suggest that deaf children, despite spoken language delays, are able to convey the main elements of content and structure in narrative but have greater difficulty in using grammatical devices more dependent on finer linguistic and pragmatic skills. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liptow, H. [GTZ, Eschborn (Germany)
This paper presents a summary of German efforts in support of implementing the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Following the Rio conference, the task of supporting outreach efforts was given to the GTZ since that is its general function, and within the context of German Technical Co-operation (TC), a program was implemented. Their initial effort was directed at helping implement inventory studies in target countries, including studies of options for reducing emissions. Once a level of information and factual knowledge was in place, they presented the type of technical support which Germany could offer in meeting the needs envisioned to achieve reduced emissions, in the form of technical co-operation. Experiences are discussed for the cases of a number of different participating countries.
Strech, D; Reimann, S
In physician rating sites (PRS), patients are able to share their experiences and indicate their satisfaction in qualitative and quantitative form. This information should support other patients in the search for a suitable physician and can serve as a form of anonymous feedback for physicians. Medical association representatives are often concerned that such reviews primarily aim at defamation. Furthermore, there are various aspects of medical work that cannot be adequately evaluated solely through the patients. In the United States of America, the majority of such previous reviews were shown to be positive. It has yet to be examined in the German and English speaking regions where distinct criteria presently allow patients to express their satisfaction through PRS. Based on the systematic review of patient satisfaction questionnaires, a set of criteria was created that represents the dimensions of patient satisfaction. German and English language physician rating sites were systematically researched using the Internet search machines "Google" and "Yahoo". The identified PRS were then evaluated with the help of the aforementioned set of criteria. In order to survey the tendency of the amount and content of reviews, a stratified sample of members of the Panel Doctor's Association in Hamburg and Thuringia was generated. A total of 298 randomly selected physicians were searched for in 6 German-language PRS regarding potential reviews. Some of the key features of the relation-ship between physicians and patients, such as medical competence, information, and consultation, were surveyed by more than three-fourths of the German-speaking PRS; however, other features such as communication were only sampled by one. As opposed to formal points of view, office facilities and organisation were assessed by all PRS. General reviews on treatment success and satisfaction were displayed in more than half of the reviews. Between 75% and 98% of physicians from the random sampling
Ueno, Taiji; Saito, Satoru
Caplan and colleagues have recently explained paired-associate learning and serial-order learning with a single-mechanism computational model by assuming differential degrees of isolation. Specifically, two items in a pair can be grouped together and associated to positional codes that are somewhat isolated from the rest of the items. In contrast, the degree of isolation among the studied items is lower in serial-order learning. One of the key predictions drawn from this theory is that any variables that help chunking of two adjacent items into a group should be beneficial to paired-associate learning, more than serial-order learning. To test this idea, the role of visual representations in memory for spoken verbal materials (i.e., imagery) was compared between two types of learning directly. Experiment 1 showed stronger effects of word concreteness and of concurrent presentation of irrelevant visual stimuli (dynamic visual noise: DVN) in paired-associate memory than in serial-order memory, consistent with the prediction. Experiment 2 revealed that the irrelevant visual stimuli effect was boosted when the participants had to actively maintain the information within working memory, rather than feed it to long-term memory for subsequent recall, due to cue overloading. This indicates that the sensory input from irrelevant visual stimuli can reach and affect visual representations of verbal items within working memory, and that this disruption can be attenuated when the information within working memory can be efficiently supported by long-term memory for subsequent recall.
Strand, Julia F; Sommers, Mitchell S
Much research has explored how spoken word recognition is influenced by the architecture and dynamics of the mental lexicon (e.g., Luce and Pisoni, 1998; McClelland and Elman, 1986). A more recent question is whether the processes underlying word recognition are unique to the auditory domain, or whether visually perceived (lipread) speech may also be sensitive to the structure of the mental lexicon (Auer, 2002; Mattys, Bernstein, and Auer, 2002). The current research was designed to test the hypothesis that both aurally and visually perceived spoken words are isolated in the mental lexicon as a function of their modality-specific perceptual similarity to other words. Lexical competition (the extent to which perceptually similar words influence recognition of a stimulus word) was quantified using metrics that are well-established in the literature, as well as a statistical method for calculating perceptual confusability based on the phi-square statistic. Both auditory and visual spoken word recognition were influenced by modality-specific lexical competition as well as stimulus word frequency. These findings extend the scope of activation-competition models of spoken word recognition and reinforce the hypothesis (Auer, 2002; Mattys et al., 2002) that perceptual and cognitive properties underlying spoken word recognition are not specific to the auditory domain. In addition, the results support the use of the phi-square statistic as a better predictor of lexical competition than metrics currently used in models of spoken word recognition. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Bobb, Susan C; Kroll, Judith F; Jackson, Carrie N
The present study asked whether or not the apparent insensitivity of second language (L2) learners to grammatical gender violations reflects an inability to use grammatical information during L2 lexical processing. Native German speakers and English speakers with intermediate to advanced L2 proficiency in German performed a translation-recognition task. On critical trials, an incorrect translation was presented that either matched or mismatched the grammatical gender of the correct translation. Results show interference for native German speakers in conditions in which the incorrect translation matched the gender of the correct translation. Native English speakers, regardless of German proficiency, were insensitive to the gender mismatch. In contrast, these same participants were correctly able to assign gender to critical items. These findings suggest a dissociation between explicit knowledge and the ability to use that information under speeded processing conditions and demonstrate the difficulty of L2 gender processing at the lexical level.
Sander, Anne E; Admiraal, Wilfried
While multilingualism itself is a widely analyzed topic, a study about multilingualism at German schools abroad is so far unique. This quantitative study investigates the differences in the size of German expressive and receptive vocabulary between monolingual and multilingual students, aged between 5 and 11 years. A cohort of 65 multilingual…
Looking for a way to make German language study more relevant and to step out of the conventional classroom setting, I introduced Facebook (FB) as a learning platform to my intermediate German students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The students took part in a film competition. A FB group was created and the films were uploaded. The…
This article presents information about the history of the German language and makes pertinent suggestions for teaching German as a Foreign Language. The reasoning for such an approach is presented, along with supportive new empirical data and a related professional directive. A selected survey of historical, explanatory points from the literature…
Kügler, Frank; Smolibocki, Bernadett; Arnold, Denis
This paper presents newly developed guidelines for prosodic annotation of German as a consensus system agreed upon by German intonologists. The DIMA system is rooted in the framework of autosegmental-metrical phonology. One important goal of the consensus is to make exchanging data between groups...
The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…
Provides background information on German rap artists and bands and discusses how to implement the music in various classroom situations at all levels. Highlights some of the available material on German rap music and provides information on how to locate rap texts, information, and other material via the Internet and other sources. (Author/VWL)
Rippley, LaVern J.
The present-day status of language instruction at St. Olaf College is viewed in the perspective of past requirements at the college. Reasons for student interest in German, the most popular modern language, focus on the influence of family ties with speakers of Norwegian. A discussion of methods of teaching German literature in translation is…
This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…
Andres, C.; Betzer, A.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.
Abstract: German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows, but a higher proportion of their published profits than UK and US firms. We estimate partial adjustment models and report two major findings. First, German firms base their dividend decisions on cash flows rather than published
Andres, C.; Betzer, A.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.
German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows, but a higher proportion of their published profits than UK and US firms. We estimate partial adjustment models and report two major findings. First, German firms base their dividend decisions on cash flows rather than published earnings as
Describes a course in German film offered by the Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures at the University of Illinois. A sample syllabus is given, which includes a list of the films and textbooks used, as well as a selective listing of films available in the United States. (CFM)
Correia Da Silva, L.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that the dividend policy of German firms is more flexible than the one of their Anglo-American counterparts.This paper analyses the decision to change the dividend for a panel of 221 German firms from 1984 to 1994.The choice of the period of study is motivated by the fact
Examines three current textbooks for German as a foreign language with regard to their coverage of Switzerland as a German-speaking nation. Concludes by suggesting that pluricentric German language textbooks for beginners are rare. (Author/VWL)
Diana Olegovna Dushkova
Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.
"German General Staff Officer Education and Current Challenges" examines the institutional education of German General Staff Officers, as experienced by the author, and offers a "Conceptual Competency...
Krupp-Schleußner, Valerie; Lehmann-Wermser, Andreas
Does extended music education during primary school foster long-term musical participation? What other factors contribute to long-term musical participation? In our study on "Impacts and Long-Term Effects of Musical Participation," we investigate how the German programme "An Instrument for Every Child (JeKi)," which fosters the…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore how contemporary German psychiatrists think about religiosity/spirituality (ReS in regard to their therapies. We conducted an anonymous survey among the clinical staff of psychiatry and psychotherapy departments in German university hospitals and faith-based clinics in the same cities. Two main instruments were used, the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL and the questionnaire from Curlin et al. “Religion and Spirituality in Medicine: Physicians’ Perspectives.” A total of 123 psychiatrists participated in this survey. However, due to incomplete responses, only 99 questionnaires from psychiatrists were analyzed. Results show that German psychiatrists positively experience the influence of ReS on patients’ mental health. Psychiatrists’ own ReS significantly influenced their interpretation of the effect of ReS on psychiatric patients as well as their attitude toward ReS in the clinical setting. The more religious psychiatrists are, the more they tend to observe a positive influence of ReS on mental health. In light of these results, psychiatrists should be aware of their own religious/spiritual characteristics and also reconsider their assumptions about professional neutrality and value openness. Furthermore, training programs on religious/spiritual issues and effective teamwork with chaplains are recommended.
Biesold, H.; Friederichs, H.G.; Pretzsch, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, GRS, Schwertnergasse 1, D - 50667 Koeln (Germany); Deville-Cavelin, G.; Lhomme, V.; Rutschkowsky, N.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, B.P. 17, F - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Bazyka, D.; Chabanyuk, V.; Seleznev, A. [Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, Department Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Chernobylsk (Ukraine); Kellerer, A.M. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut der Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany)
Three scientific and technical co-operation programmes are financed with a total budget of about 6 million EURO within the framework of the French-German initiative: - Programme 1 - SARCOPHAGUS, referring to the safety of the Chernobyl 'SARCOPHAGUS'; - Programme 2 - RADIOECOLOGY, concerning the study of the radioecological consequences of the accident; - Programme 3 - HEALTH regarding the study of health effects. At the IAEA conference in Vienna in April 1996 - 10 years after the Chernobyl accident - the French and German Environment Ministers jointly announced their co-operation initiative with the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia over scientific programmes concerning the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster. Numerous scientific studies have been conducted in the affected republics of the former USSR with and without the participation of international organisations, but largely with insufficient real coordination. For some of the studies, results have never been publicly documented. There are still incoherent or even contradictory reports on the ecological and medical consequences of the accident. The main purpose of the French-German initiative is to assist in the collection and validation of the existing data in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia for developing a reliable and objective basis useful for the planning of counter-measures, for information of the public, and for future work. GRS supported in program 3 by SBI (Strahlenbiologisches Institut der Universitaet Muenchen) and IRSN are coordinating the projects on the Western side. The CC (Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, Department Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety) as Eastern coordinator is also the beneficiary.
Lee, Eunmi; Baumann, Klaus
The purpose of this study was to explore how contemporary German psychiatrists think about religiosity/spirituality (ReS) in regard to their therapies. We conducted an anonymous survey among the clinical staff of psychiatry and psychotherapy departments in German university hospitals and faith-based clinics in the same cities. Two main instruments were used, the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) and the questionnaire from Curlin et al. "Religion and Spirituality in Medicine: Physicians' Perspectives." A total of 123 psychiatrists participated in this survey. However, due to incomplete responses, only 99 questionnaires from psychiatrists were analyzed. Results show that German psychiatrists positively experience the influence of ReS on patients' mental health. Psychiatrists' own ReS significantly influenced their interpretation of the effect of ReS on psychiatric patients as well as their attitude toward ReS in the clinical setting. The more religious psychiatrists are, the more they tend to observe a positive influence of ReS on mental health. In light of these results, psychiatrists should be aware of their own religious/spiritual characteristics and also reconsider their assumptions about professional neutrality and value openness. Furthermore, training programs on religious/spiritual issues and effective teamwork with chaplains are recommended.
Kuczera, B.; Fritz, P.
Full text: The present German energy policy is based on the phase-out of nuclear electricity generation, which means that the last of the currently operating eighteen German nuclear power plants will run until about 2022. While the plants will be shut down one after the other, decommissioning will start together with interim storage of the radioactive waste. The safe waste disposal in a final repository is planned to start around 2030 and may take another two decades, i.e., in Germany nuclear competence is further needed, at least until the mid of this century. Against this background, a high-ranking commission under the direction of the Federal Ministry of Economy and Technology evaluated the publicly funded nuclear safety related research and development (R and D) activities in Germany. One of the recommendations made by the commission was the foundation of a Competence Network on Nuclear Technology for an optimum coordination of the remaining nuclear activities including aspects of future human resources in this area. This Network was established in March 2000 with the following member institutions: Research Centre Juelich, Research Centre Karlsruhe, Research Centre Rossendorf and the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) in Munich and their neighbouring Technical Universities. The strategic objectives of the Competence Network include: Trend investigations on job development and on university education capacities in the nuclear technology sector; Enhanced cooperation of the Research Centres with universities in the nuclear field and support of international education initiatives (e.g. ENEN, WNU); Coordination and bundling of the activities in publicly funded reactor safety and waste management R and D programmes; Support of qualified young scientists and engineers (pre-doctoral students) - also by third-party funds; Participation in and collaboration with international projects and activities for advancements of international nuclear safety
After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in
De Knop Sabine
Full Text Available Several studies have described the semantic uses of German posture verbs, but only few have dealt with German placement verbs. The present study wants to make up for this gap. Starting from a collection of examples from the core corpora of the Digitales Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache (DWDS and some former studies on posture verbs, it first describes the variety of the most common German placement verbs stellen (‘to put upright’, legen (‘to lay down’, setzen (‘to set’ and stecken (‘to stick’.
Roncaglia-Denissen, M Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Heine, Angela; Vuust, Peter; Kotz, Sonja A
As language rhythm relies partly on general acoustic properties, such as intensity and duration, mastering two languages with distinct rhythmic properties (i.e., stress position) may enhance musical rhythm perception. We investigated whether competence in a second language (L2) with different rhythmic properties than a L1 affects musical rhythm aptitude. Turkish early (TELG) and late learners (TLLG) of German were compared to German late L2 learners of English (GLE) regarding their musical rhythmic aptitude. While Turkish and German present distinct linguistic rhythm and metric properties, German and English are rather similar in this regard. To account for inter-individual differences, we measured participants' short-term and working memory (WM) capacity, melodic aptitude, and time they spent listening to music. Both groups of Turkish L2 learners of German perceived rhythmic variations significantly better than German L2 learners of English. No differences were found between early and late learners' performance. Our findings suggest that mastering two languages with different rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythm perception, providing further evidence of shared cognitive resources between language and music.
Roncaglia-Denissen, M. Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Heine, Angela; Vuust, Peter; Kotz, Sonja A.
As language rhythm relies partly on general acoustic properties, such as intensity and duration, mastering two languages with distinct rhythmic properties (i.e., stress position) may enhance musical rhythm perception. We investigated whether competence in a second language (L2) with different rhythmic properties than a L1 affects musical rhythm aptitude. Turkish early (TELG) and late learners (TLLG) of German were compared to German late L2 learners of English (GLE) regarding their musical rhythmic aptitude. While Turkish and German present distinct linguistic rhythm and metric properties, German and English are rather similar in this regard. To account for inter-individual differences, we measured participants' short-term and working memory (WM) capacity, melodic aptitude, and time they spent listening to music. Both groups of Turkish L2 learners of German perceived rhythmic variations significantly better than German L2 learners of English. No differences were found between early and late learners' performance. Our findings suggest that mastering two languages with different rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythm perception, providing further evidence of shared cognitive resources between language and music. PMID:24065946
Full Text Available Spoken words are highly variable. A single word may never be uttered the same way twice. As listeners, we regularly encounter speakers of different ages, genders, and accents, increasing the amount of variation we face. How listeners understand spoken words as quickly and adeptly as they do despite this variation remains an issue central to linguistic theory. We propose that learned acoustic patterns are mapped simultaneously to linguistic representations and to social representations. In doing so, we illuminate a paradox that results in the literature from, we argue, the focus on representations and the peripheral treatment of word-level phonetic variation. We consider phonetic variation more fully and highlight a growing body of work that is problematic for current theory: Words with different pronunciation variants are recognized equally well in immediate processing tasks, while an atypical, infrequent, but socially-idealized form is remembered better in the long-term. We suggest that the perception of spoken words is socially-weighted, resulting in sparse, but high-resolution clusters of socially-idealized episodes that are robust in immediate processing and are more strongly encoded, predicting memory inequality. Our proposal includes a dual-route approach to speech perception in which listeners map acoustic patterns in speech to linguistic and social representations in tandem. This approach makes novel predictions about the extraction of information from the speech signal, and provides a framework with which we can ask new questions. We propose that language comprehension, broadly, results from the integration of both linguistic and social information.
Strauß, Antje; Kotz, Sonja A; Scharinger, Mathias; Obleser, Jonas
Slow neural oscillations (~1-15 Hz) are thought to orchestrate the neural processes of spoken language comprehension. However, functional subdivisions within this broad range of frequencies are disputed, with most studies hypothesizing only about single frequency bands. The present study utilizes an established paradigm of spoken word recognition (lexical decision) to test the hypothesis that within the slow neural oscillatory frequency range, distinct functional signatures and cortical networks can be identified at least for theta- (~3-7 Hz) and alpha-frequencies (~8-12 Hz). Listeners performed an auditory lexical decision task on a set of items that formed a word-pseudoword continuum: ranging from (1) real words over (2) ambiguous pseudowords (deviating from real words only in one vowel; comparable to natural mispronunciations in speech) to (3) pseudowords (clearly deviating from real words by randomized syllables). By means of time-frequency analysis and spatial filtering, we observed a dissociation into distinct but simultaneous patterns of alpha power suppression and theta power enhancement. Alpha exhibited a parametric suppression as items increasingly matched real words, in line with lowered functional inhibition in a left-dominant lexical processing network for more word-like input. Simultaneously, theta power in a bilateral fronto-temporal network was selectively enhanced for ambiguous pseudowords only. Thus, enhanced alpha power can neurally 'gate' lexical integration, while enhanced theta power might index functionally more specific ambiguity-resolution processes. To this end, a joint analysis of both frequency bands provides neural evidence for parallel processes in achieving spoken word recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xu, Jiang; Gannon, Patrick J; Emmorey, Karen; Smith, Jason F; Braun, Allen R
Symbolic gestures, such as pantomimes that signify actions (e.g., threading a needle) or emblems that facilitate social transactions (e.g., finger to lips indicating "be quiet"), play an important role in human communication. They are autonomous, can fully take the place of words, and function as complete utterances in their own right. The relationship between these gestures and spoken language remains unclear. We used functional MRI to investigate whether these two forms of communication are processed by the same system in the human brain. Responses to symbolic gestures, to their spoken glosses (expressing the gestures' meaning in English), and to visually and acoustically matched control stimuli were compared in a randomized block design. General Linear Models (GLM) contrasts identified shared and unique activations and functional connectivity analyses delineated regional interactions associated with each condition. Results support a model in which bilateral modality-specific areas in superior and inferior temporal cortices extract salient features from vocal-auditory and gestural-visual stimuli respectively. However, both classes of stimuli activate a common, left-lateralized network of inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions in which symbolic gestures and spoken words may be mapped onto common, corresponding conceptual representations. We suggest that these anterior and posterior perisylvian areas, identified since the mid-19th century as the core of the brain's language system, are not in fact committed to language processing, but may function as a modality-independent semiotic system that plays a broader role in human communication, linking meaning with symbols whether these are words, gestures, images, sounds, or objects.
Pyykkönen, Pirita; Hyönä, Jukka; van Gompel, Roger P G
This study used the visual world eye-tracking method to investigate activation of general world knowledge related to gender-stereotypical role names in online spoken language comprehension in Finnish. The results showed that listeners activated gender stereotypes elaboratively in story contexts where this information was not needed to build coherence. Furthermore, listeners made additional inferences based on gender stereotypes to revise an already established coherence relation. Both results are consistent with mental models theory (e.g., Garnham, 2001). They are harder to explain by the minimalist account (McKoon & Ratcliff, 1992) which suggests that people limit inferences to those needed to establish coherence in discourse.
The purpose of this empirical research is to investigate the relationship between web-based learning time and academic achievement in German. 36 learners of L3 German with L1 Turkish and L2 English from Vocational High School of Kahta at Adiyaman University were the participants of this study. The empirical process of the study continued 6 weeks…
Zhang, Qingfang; Wang, Cheng
The effects of word frequency (WF) and syllable frequency (SF) are well-established phenomena in domain such as spoken production in alphabetic languages. Chinese, as a non-alphabetic language, presents unique lexical and phonological properties in speech production. For example, the proximate unit of phonological encoding is syllable in Chinese but segments in Dutch, French or English. The present study investigated the effects of WF and SF, and their interaction in Chinese written and spoken production. Significant facilitatory WF and SF effects were observed in spoken as well as in written production. The SF effect in writing indicated that phonological properties (i.e., syllabic frequency) constrain orthographic output via a lexical route, at least, in Chinese written production. However, the SF effect over repetitions was divergent in both modalities: it was significant in the former two repetitions in spoken whereas it was significant in the second repetition only in written. Due to the fragility of the SF effect in writing, we suggest that the phonological influence in handwritten production is not mandatory and universal, and it is modulated by experimental manipulations. This provides evidence for the orthographic autonomy hypothesis, rather than the phonological mediation hypothesis. The absence of an interaction between WF and SF showed that the SF effect is independent of the WF effect in spoken and written output modalities. The implications of these results on written production models are discussed.
Full Text Available The effects of word frequency and syllable frequency are well-established phenomena in domain such as spoken production in alphabetic languages. Chinese, as a non-alphabetic language, presents unique lexical and phonological properties in speech production. For example, the proximate unit of phonological encoding is syllable in Chinese but segments in Dutch, French or English. The present study investigated the effects of word frequency and syllable frequency, and their interaction in Chinese written and spoken production. Significant facilitatory word frequency and syllable frequency effects were observed in spoken as well as in written production. The syllable frequency effect in writing indicated that phonological properties (i.e., syllabic frequency constrain orthographic output via a lexical route, at least, in Chinese written production. However, the syllable frequency effect over repetitions was divergent in both modalities: it was significant in the former two repetitions in spoken whereas it was significant in the second repetition only in written. Due to the fragility of the syllable frequency effect in writing, we suggest that the phonological influence in handwritten production is not mandatory and universal, and it is modulated by experimental manipulations. This provides evidence for the orthographic autonomy hypothesis, rather than the phonological mediation hypothesis. The absence of an interaction between word frequency and syllable frequency showed that the syllable frequency effect is independent of the word frequency effect in spoken and written output modalities. The implications of these results on written production models are discussed.
a part of contesting a public office. According to Schreiber and Elbeshausen, civil servants can react in different ways whenever their identities are up for discussion: 1. They can struggle to maintain a monopoly of knowledge and practice in an effort to protect the practice field, e.g. against outside...... theories, methods and knowledge. 2. They can adopt a laissez-faire approach and provide the public with what they want, whereby their relationship is commercialised. 3. They can engage in dialogues with the public to jointly negotiate what functions they are expected to perform (2005, pp. 15......–16). In Scandinavian public libraries, the latter has been the case. During recent decades, citizens have gained more possibilities than ever before to participate in co-creating activities regarding public libraries’ raison d’être. Thereby, they enter realms that were previously reserved for professional...
Easton, Phyllis; Entwistle, Vikki A; Williams, Brian
Low literacy is a significant problem across the developed world. A considerable body of research has reported associations between low literacy and less appropriate access to healthcare services, lower likelihood of self-managing health conditions well, and poorer health outcomes. There is a need to explore the previously neglected perspectives of people with low literacy to help explain how low literacy can lead to poor health, and to consider how to improve the ability of health services to meet their needs. Two stage qualitative study. In-depth individual interviews followed by focus groups to confirm analysis and develop suggestions for service improvements. A purposive sample of 29 adults with English as their first language who had sought help with literacy was recruited from an Adult Learning Centre in the UK. Over and above the well-documented difficulties that people with low literacy can have with the written information and complex explanations and instructions they encounter as they use health services, the stigma of low literacy had significant negative implications for participants' spoken interactions with healthcare professionals.Participants described various difficulties in consultations, some of which had impacted negatively on their broader healthcare experiences and abilities to self-manage health conditions. Some communication difficulties were apparently perpetuated or exacerbated because participants limited their conversational engagement and used a variety of strategies to cover up their low literacy that could send misleading signals to health professionals. Participants' biographical narratives revealed that the ways in which they managed their low literacy in healthcare settings, as in other social contexts, stemmed from highly negative experiences with literacy-related stigma, usually from their schooldays onwards. They also suggest that literacy-related stigma can significantly undermine mental wellbeing by prompting self
Examination of the arguments in favor of the nuclear deal with West Germany and the resulting program suggests that revisions of both are in order to make them more compatible with Brazil's national interests. The deficiencies of current policy appear to be too weighty and numerous to be ignored. Sooner or later the government will have to move toward adjusting its nuclear agreement with West Germany, if not for the reasons discussed here then for lack of capital. Current estimates of the nuclear package lie in the range of $25 to $30 billion, compared to an initial projection of about $5 billion. The deal has become so expensive that it would draw capital from the hydropower and alcohol programs essential for the short and medium-term energy needs of the country. Mr. Krugman feels the Brazilian government should hold off on further nuclear contracts. And it should thoroughly reassess what Brazil's nuclear energy and technology requirements are and how to meet them. There are indications that the reassessment process is already underway. As long as the German nuclear industry depends on the sale of technology to Brazil, the Brazilian government will have considerable bargaining power to enforce further changes in the deal. If this power is used wisely, the result could be cooperation between the two countries toward nuclear options that are consistent with Brazil's energy and development needs
Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd
In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.
Waste generated in German nuclear facilities is exhaustively and selectively manage through a system adapted to the waste's characteristics. The management of the waste ensures that the impact on the workers, population and the environment is acceptable. This is done through a detailed documentation and quality assurance program which applies not only to radioactive waste but also to cleanable material used within a licensed practice. In Germany the producer is responsible for the waste generated in a licensed facility and is therefore responsible for the correct disposal, which depends on the waste's characteristics. Since the waste producer requires a license for all activities involving radioactive substances, the atomic authority is continuously informed and can therefore monitor the producer for compliance with the regulations. The use and disposal of all material in a licensed practice is documented and can therefore be traced by the authorities. Clearance is seen in Germany as the best way of managing non-radioactive material in a licensed practice. Germany has developed clearance procedures which guarantee that after clearance the radiological impact is negligible. (author)
The first key statement of this paper runs like this: The situation of power supply in Germany basically is good. However, two qualifications should be added: The current situation is still good. Power outages as a consequence of power plant failures of the kind experienced in other countries must not be expected to occur in Germany. German utilities work hard to offer this assurance also for the future. This is where politics comes in with the need to guarantee reliable framework conditions. After deregulation of the electricity market, reregulation resulting from government interventions is becoming potentially more and more problematic. Energy issues remain at the top of the political agenda, e.g. with the amendment to the Power Economy Act. This is a matter involving a variety of questions and projects on the part of legislators which require delicate handling because, in addition to the prices to be paid by consumers, they also involve as the most important factor the continuity of supply. Nuclear power today covers a major part of our baseload supply, in addition to lignite and hard coal which are used mainly in the medium-load range. Supported by the findings of recent studies, such as the dena Study, the Prognos and EWI Energy Report, the problem is how to replace this share reliably, in a way protecting the climate and economically viable, in line with the political conditions stipulating residual electricity outputs of nuclear power plants. Other countries can be seen to pursue different policies in using nuclear power. (orig.)
Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd
In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative 'Nanotechnologie erobert Maerkte' (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society
This paper summarizes research and development activities in the field of computerized operator support systems, self-powered detectors, boiling diagnostic and loose part detection systems in the German Democratic Republic
Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark
The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.
Knaut, Andreas; Paschmann, Martin
Restricted participation in sequential markets may cause high price volatility and welfare losses. In this paper we therefore analyze the drivers of restricted participation in the German intraday auction which is a short-term electricity market with quarter-hourly products. Applying a fundamental electricity market model with 15-minute temporal resolution, we identify the lack of sub-hourly market coupling being the most relevant driver of restricted participation. We derive a proxy for price volatility and find that full market coupling may trigger quarter-hourly price volatility to decrease by a factor close to four.
Eckart, W U
German malaria research during the colonial period took place between medical and political interests. In the field of zoological and clinical research of malaria Germany was not a pioneer. Nevertheless, Robert Koch forced by impressive Italian results tried to participate in malaria research on the field of acquired malaria immunity and by optimizing the therapeutic doses of quinine in German New Guinea. In the German Cameroons, on the other hand, the fight against malaria was completely dominated by racial and political arguments. The paper tries to shed light on this dichotomy, which turned out to be not very productive.
Garley, Matthew E.
The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…
The German Sea Rescue Service (GSRS) history, organisation and operations are presented. The institution was founded in 1865 to provide sea rescue services for the German coasts in the North Sea and in the Baltic Sea. Its fleet counts 61 vessels based in 54 stations of the service. In 2001, the rescue crafts were called for assistance 2428 times and 207 lives were saved. The service is supported by voluntary donations.
Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel; Leismann, Tobias; Drees, Birgit
Prior to 2007, there was no coherent federal approach to conceptualise and fund security research in Germany. This changed with the initiation of the national program for civil security research, managed by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Over the course of only four years a continuous build-up of national capacities on civil security was established to better protect German citizens, commodities and infrastructures against terrorism, organised crime and the effects of man-made and natural disasters.
Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...
Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver
German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural......, but represents a separate attitudinal meaning dimension. Moreover, the findings support that both prenuclear and nuclear fundamental frequency (F0) patterns must be taken into account in the analysis of tune meaning....
Goller, Florian; Lee, Donghoon; Ansorge, Ulrich; Choi, Soonja
Languages differ in how they categorize spatial relations: While German differentiates between containment ( in ) and support ( auf ) with distinct spatial words-(a) den Kuli IN die Kappe stecken ("put pen in cap"); (b) die Kappe AUF den Kuli stecken ("put cap on pen")-Korean uses a single spatial word ( kkita ) collapsing (a) and (b) into one semantic category, particularly when the spatial enclosure is tight-fit. Korean uses a different word (i.e., netha ) for loose-fits (e.g., apple in bowl). We tested whether these differences influence the attention of the speaker. In a crosslinguistic study, we compared native German speakers with native Korean speakers. Participants rated the similarity of two successive video clips of several scenes where two objects were joined or nested (either in a tight or loose manner). The rating data show that Korean speakers base their rating of similarity more on tight- versus loose-fit, whereas German speakers base their rating more on containment versus support ( in vs. auf ). Throughout the experiment, we also measured the participants' eye movements. Korean speakers looked equally long at the moving Figure object and at the stationary Ground object, whereas German speakers were more biased to look at the Ground object. Additionally, Korean speakers also looked more at the region where the two objects touched than did German speakers. We discuss our data in the light of crosslinguistic semantics and the extent of their influence on spatial cognition and perception.
Full Text Available This paper reports on a qualitative discourse analysis of 290 tokens of (the same occurring in spoken American English. Our study of these naturally occurring tokens extends and elaborates on the analysis of this expression that was proposed by Halliday and Hasan (l976. We also review other prior research on (the same in our attempt to provide data-based answers to the following three questions: (1 under what conditions is the definite article the obligatory or optional with same? (2 what are the head nouns that typically follow same and why is there sometimes no head noun? (3 what type(s of cohesive relationships can (the same signal in spoken English discourse? Finally, we explore some typical pedagogical treatments of (the same in current ESL/EFL textbooks and reference grammars. Then we make our own suggestions regarding how teachers of English as a second or foreign language might go about presenting this useful expression to their learners. Este estudo apresenta uma análise qualitativa do discurso de 290 ocorrências de (the same no Inglês Americano falado. Nosso estudo sobre essas ocorrências naturais amplia e elabora a análise desta expressão que foi proposta por Halliday e Hassan (1976. Também revisamos investigações posteriores sobre (the same com o intuito de fornecer respostas fundamentadas em um banco de dados para as três seguintes perguntas: (1 em quais condições o artigo definido (the é obrigatório ou opcional juntamente a same? (2 quais são os principais substantivos que tipicamente seguem same e por que, às vezes, não há substantivo? (3 que tipo(s de relações coesivas pode (the same indicar no discurso do Inglês falado? Finalmente, exploramos alguns tratamentos pedagógicos típicos de (the same nos atuais livros-texto e gramáticas de Inglês – L2/LE. Em seguida, sugerimos como os professores de Inglês, como segunda língua ou língua estrangeira, poderiam ensinar essa útil expressão para seus
Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen; Chang, Ruohan; Guo, Chunyan
Using unimodal auditory tasks of word-matching and meaning-matching, this study investigated how the phonological and semantic processes in Chinese disyllabic spoken word recognition are modulated by top-down mechanism induced by experimental tasks. Both semantic similarity and word-initial phonological similarity between the primes and targets were manipulated. Results showed that at early stage of recognition (~150-250 ms), an enhanced P2 was elicited by the word-initial phonological mismatch in both tasks. In ~300-500 ms, a fronto-central negative component was elicited by word-initial phonological similarities in the word-matching task, while a parietal negativity was elicited by semantically unrelated primes in the meaning-matching task, indicating that both the semantic and phonological processes can be involved in this time window, depending on the task requirements. In the late stage (~500-700 ms), a centro-parietal Late N400 was elicited in both tasks, but with a larger effect in the meaning-matching task than in the word-matching task. This finding suggests that the semantic representation of the spoken words can be activated automatically in the late stage of recognition, even when semantic processing is not required. However, the magnitude of the semantic activation is modulated by task requirements.
Norton, Elizabeth S.; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Gaab, Nadine; Lieberman, Daniel A.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wolf, Maryanne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D. E.
Phonological awareness, knowledge that speech is composed of syllables and phonemes, is critical for learning to read. Phonological awareness precedes and predicts successful transition from language to literacy, and weakness in phonological awareness is a leading cause of dyslexia, but the brain basis of phonological awareness for spoken language in children is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of phonological awareness using an auditory word-rhyming task in children who were typical readers or who had dyslexia (ages 7–13) and a younger group of kindergarteners (ages 5–6). Typically developing children, but not children with dyslexia, recruited left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when making explicit phonological judgments. Kindergarteners, who were matched to the older children with dyslexia on standardized tests of phonological awareness, also recruited left DLPFC. Left DLPFC may play a critical role in the development of phonological awareness for spoken language critical for reading and in the etiology of dyslexia. PMID:21693783
Full Text Available It has long been speculated whether communication between humans and machines based on natural speech related cortical activity is possible. Over the past decade, studies have suggested that it is feasible to recognize isolated aspects of speech from neural signals, such as auditory features, phones or one of a few isolated words. However, until now it remained an unsolved challenge to decode continuously spoken speech from the neural substrate associated with speech and language processing. Here, we show for the first time that continuously spoken speech can be decoded into the expressed words from intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG recordings. Specifically, we implemented a system, which we call Brain-To-Text that models single phones, employs techniques from automatic speech recognition (ASR, and thereby transforms brain activity while speaking into the corresponding textual representation. Our results demonstrate that our system achieved word error rates as low as 25% and phone error rates below 50%. Additionally, our approach contributes to the current understanding of the neural basis of continuous speech production by identifying those cortical regions that hold substantial information about individual phones. In conclusion, the Brain-To-Text system described in this paper represents an important step towards human-machine communication based on imagined speech.
Bonin, Patrick; Boyer, Bruno; Méot, Alain; Fayol, Michel; Droit, Sylvie
A set of 142 photographs of actions (taken from Fiez & Tranel, 1997) was standardized in French on name agreement, image agreement, conceptual familiarity, visual complexity, imageability, age of acquisition, and duration of the depicted actions. Objective word frequency measures were provided for the infinitive modal forms of the verbs and for the cumulative frequency of the verbal forms associated with the photographs. Statistics on the variables collected for action items were provided and compared with the statistics on the same variables collected for object items. The relationships between these variables were analyzed, and certain comparisons between the current database and other similar published databases of pictures of actions are reported. Spoken and written naming latencies were also collected for the photographs of actions, and multiple regression analyses revealed that name agreement, image agreement, and age of acquisition are the major determinants of action naming speed. Finally, certain analyses were performed to compare object and action naming times. The norms and the spoken and written naming latencies corresponding to the pictures are available on the Internet (http://www.psy.univ-bpclermont.fr/~pbonin/pbonin-eng.html) and should be of great use to researchers interested in the processing of actions.
Full Text Available Th e characterization of metonymy as a conceptual tool for guiding inferencing in language has opened a new fi eld of study in cognitive linguistics and pragmatics. To appreciate the value of metonymy for pragmatic inferencing, metonymy should not be viewed as performing only its prototypical referential function. Metonymic mappings are operative in speech acts at the level of reference, predication, proposition and illocution. Th e aim of this paper is to study the role of metonymy in pragmatic inferencing in spoken discourse in televison interviews. Case analyses of authentic utterances classifi ed as illocutionary metonymies following the pragmatic typology of metonymic functions are presented. Th e inferencing processes are facilitated by metonymic connections existing between domains or subdomains in the same functional domain. It has been widely accepted by cognitive linguists that universal human knowledge and embodiment are essential for the interpretation of metonymy. Th is analysis points to the role of cultural background knowledge in understanding target meanings. All these aspects of metonymic connections are exploited in complex inferential processes in spoken discourse. In most cases, metaphoric mappings are also a part of utterance interpretation.
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Hamel, Candyce; Stevens, Adrienne; Pratt, Misty; Moher, David; Doucet, Suzanne P; Neuss, Deirdre; Bernstein, Anita; Na, Eunjung
Permanent hearing loss affects 1 to 3 per 1000 children and interferes with typical communication development. Early detection through newborn hearing screening and hearing technology provide most children with the option of spoken language acquisition. However, no consensus exists on optimal interventions for spoken language development. To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of early sign and oral language intervention compared with oral language intervention only for children with permanent hearing loss. An a priori protocol was developed. Electronic databases (eg, Medline, Embase, CINAHL) from 1995 to June 2013 and gray literature sources were searched. Studies in English and French were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were measures of auditory, vocabulary, language, and speech production skills. All data collection and risk of bias assessments were completed and then verified by a second person. Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to judge the strength of evidence. Eleven cohort studies met inclusion criteria, of which 8 included only children with severe to profound hearing loss with cochlear implants. Language development was the most frequently reported outcome. Other reported outcomes included speech and speech perception. Several measures and metrics were reported across studies, and descriptions of interventions were sometimes unclear. Very limited, and hence insufficient, high-quality evidence exists to determine whether sign language in combination with oral language is more effective than oral language therapy alone. More research is needed to supplement the evidence base. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Hirschmüller, Sarah; Egloff, Boris
How do individuals emotionally cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality? DeWall and Baumeister as well as Kashdan and colleagues previously provided support that an increased use of positive emotion words serves as a way to protect and defend against mortality salience of one's own contemplated death. Although these studies provide important insights into the psychological dynamics of mortality salience, it remains an open question how individuals cope with the immense threat of mortality prior to their imminent actual death. In the present research, we therefore analyzed positivity in the final words spoken immediately before execution by 407 death row inmates in Texas. By using computerized quantitative text analysis as an objective measure of emotional language use, our results showed that the final words contained a significantly higher proportion of positive than negative emotion words. This emotional positivity was significantly higher than (a) positive emotion word usage base rates in spoken and written materials and (b) positive emotional language use with regard to contemplated death and attempted or actual suicide. Additional analyses showed that emotional positivity in final statements was associated with a greater frequency of language use that was indicative of self-references, social orientation, and present-oriented time focus as well as with fewer instances of cognitive-processing, past-oriented, and death-related word use. Taken together, our findings offer new insights into how individuals cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality.
Souza, Jonas Gordilho; Apolinario, Daniel; Farfel, José Marcelo; Jaluul, Omar; Magaldi, Regina Miksian; Busse, Alexandre Leopold; Campora, Flávia; Jacob-Filho, Wilson
To translate, adapt and evaluate the properties of a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Patients with Diabetes, which is a questionnaire that evaluate diabetes knowledge. A cross-sectional study with type 2 diabetes patients aged ≥60 years, seen at a public healthcare organization in the city of Sao Paulo (SP). After the development of the Portuguese version, we evaluated the psychometrics properties and the association with sociodemographic and clinical variables. The regression models were adjusted for sociodemographic data, functional health literacy, duration of disease, use of insulin, and glycemic control. We evaluated 129 type 2 diabetic patients, with mean age of 75.9 (±6.2) years, mean scholling of 5.2 (±4.4) years, mean glycosylated hemoglobin of 7.2% (±1.4), and mean score on Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Patients with Diabetes of 42.1% (±25.8). In the regression model, the variables independently associated to Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Patients with Diabetes were schooling (B=0.193; p=0.003), use of insulin (B=1.326; p=0.004), duration of diabetes (B=0.053; p=0.022) and health literacy (B=0.108; p=0.021). The determination coefficient was 0.273. The Cronbach a was 0.75, demonstrating appropriate internal consistency. This translated version of the Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Patients with Diabetes showed to be adequate to evaluate diabetes knowledge in elderly patients with low schooling levels. It presented normal distribution, adequate internal consistency, with no ceiling or floor effect. The tool is easy to be used, can be quickly applied and does not depend on reading skills. Traduzir, adaptar e avaliar as propriedades de uma versão, em português do Brasil, do Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Patients with Diabetes, um questionário que avalia conhecimento em diabetes. Estudo transversal, em diabéticos tipo 2, com idade ≥60 anos de uma instituição pública de saúde, em São Paulo (SP
Full Text Available How do individuals emotionally cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality? DeWall and Baumeister as well as Kashdan and colleagues previously provided support that an increased use of positive emotion words serves as a way to protect and defend against mortality salience of one’s own contemplated death. Although these studies provide important insights into the psychological dynamics of mortality salience, it remains an open question how individuals cope with the immense threat of mortality prior to their imminent actual death. In the present research, we therefore analyzed positivity in the final words spoken immediately before execution by 407 death row inmates in Texas. By using computerized quantitative text analysis as an objective measure of emotional language use, our results showed that the final words contained a significantly higher proportion of positive than negative emotion words. This emotional positivity was significantly higher than (a positive emotion word usage base rates in spoken and written materials and (b positive emotional language use with regard to contemplated death and attempted or actual suicide. Additional analyses showed that emotional positivity in final statements was associated with a greater frequency of language use that was indicative of self-references, social orientation, and present-oriented time focus as well as with fewer instances of cognitive-processing, past-oriented, and death-related word use. Taken together, our findings offer new insights into how individuals cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality.
Sedgwick, Carole; Garner, Mark
Non-native speakers of English who hold nursing qualifications from outside the UK are required to provide evidence of English language competence by achieving a minimum overall score of Band 7 on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) academic test. To describe the English language required to deal with the daily demands of nursing in the UK. To compare these abilities with the stipulated levels on the language test. A tracking study was conducted with 4 nurses, and focus groups with 11 further nurses. The transcripts of the interviews and focus groups were analysed thematically for recurrent themes. These findings were then compared with the requirements of the IELTS spoken test. The study was conducted outside the participants' working shifts in busy London hospitals. The participants in the tracking study were selected opportunistically;all were trained in non-English speaking countries. Snowball sampling was used for the focus groups, of whom 4 were non-native and 7 native speakers of English. In the tracking study, each of the 4 nurses was interviewed on four occasions, outside the workplace, and as close to the end of a shift as possible. They were asked to recount their spoken interactions during the course of their shift. The participants in the focus groups were asked to describe their typical interactions with patients, family members, doctors, and nursing colleagues. They were prompted to recall specific instances of frequently-occurring communication problems. All interactions were audio-recorded, with the participants' permission,and transcribed. Nurses are at the centre of communication for patient care. They have to use appropriate registers to communicate with a range of health professionals, patients and their families. They must elicit information, calm and reassure, instruct, check procedures, ask for and give opinions,agree and disagree. Politeness strategies are needed to avoid threats to face. They participate in medical
Go, Criscely L; Frenzel, Antonia; Rosales, Raymond L; Lee, Lillian V; Benecke, Reiner; Dressler, Dirk; Walter, Uwe
Transcranial sonography of the substantia nigra for diagnosing premotor stages of Parkinson disease has been attracting increasing interest. Standard reference values defining an abnormal increased echogenic size (hyperechogenicity) of the substantia nigra have been established in several populations using high-end stationary ultrasound systems. It is unknown whether a portable ultrasound system can be appropriately used and how the Filipino population would compare with the well-studied white population. We prospectively studied substantia nigra echogenic sizes and third ventricle widths in 71 healthy adult German participants and 30 age- and sex-matched Filipino participants using both a well-established stationary ultrasound system (in the German cohort) and a recently distributed portable ultrasound system (in both ethnic cohorts). Mean substantia nigra echogenic sizes, cutoff values defining abnormal hyperechogenicity, and intra-rater reliability were similar with both systems and in both ethnic cohorts studied. The Filipino and German participants did not differ with respect to the frequency of insufficient insonation conditions (each 3%) and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (10% versus 9%; P = .80). However, third ventricle widths were smaller in the Filipino than the German participants (mean ± SD, 1.6 ± 1.1 versus 2.4 ± 1.0 mm; P = .004). The frequency of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity appears to be homogeneous in white and Asian populations. Screening for this feature may well be performed with a present-day portable ultrasound system.
Ruzanska, Ulrike Alexandra; Warschburger, Petra
Intuitive eating is based on a strong physical connection with the body, aligned to internal cues of hunger and satiety, and a low preoccupation with food. The aim of this study was to provide a German version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) and to examine its psychometric properties with data collected from 532 participants aged 18-91 years. The IES-2 was translated into German following the World Health Organization guidelines (2016). Cronbach's alpha as a measure of internal consistency was 0.89 for the IES-2 total score, as well as 0.73 - 0.92 for the IES-2 subscale scores. For group differences, the results were as hypothesized: men had higher IES-2 scores than women, and participants with under- and average weight showed higher IES-2 scores than participants with overweight and obesity. Participants without a dieting history had higher IES-2 scores than former or current dieters. In line with our hypotheses regarding construct validity, the IES-2 score had negative associations with emotional eating, restraint eating, external eating, binge eating and eating disorder symptomatology, as well as positive associations with self-efficacy and mental health-related quality of life. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis replicated the four-factor solution, with intuitive eating as a higher-order factor. These findings demonstrate that the German version of the IES-2 is a useful tool to assess intuitive eating in the general German population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peters, E.; Hulstijn, J.H.; Sercu, L.; Lutjeharms, M.
This study investigated three techniques designed to increase the chances that second language (L2) readers look up and learn unfamiliar words during and after reading an L2 text. Participants in the study, 137 college students in Belgium (L1 = Dutch, L2 = German), were randomly assigned to one of
Leili R. Rustamova
Full Text Available In recent years, a number of foreign policy concepts declared the importance of using the instruments of "soft power" to promote the national interests of a country. Soft power is the ability through political values, culture and foreign policy to influence others by forming attractiveness . Germany is generally recognized as the leader in the resources of "soft power." The article discusses what kind of resources are deployed by Germany to increase its "soft power" in the Muslim direction of foreign policy. The Muslim world has its own specifics, which complicate the use of instruments of "soft power." Countries with large Muslim population are difficult to influence, as they differ from Europe in the civilizational respect, have their own customs and traditions which they strictly follow because of the nature of Muslim religion. The author notes that in the Muslim direction of foreign policy the problem for Germany lies in the fact that the formation of its attractiveness resulted in a significant flow of immigration of Muslims in the country. A part of immigrant Muslims tries to live isolated from European society, professes radical currents ofIslam and participates in military conflicts abroad, participation in which in the role of active player is ruled out by Germany. Failure to integrate them into German society and the lack of progress in the formation of its positive image in the Muslim countries resulted, on the one hand, in the split of German society, on the other hand, in the threat of absorption by foreign civilization, as it is observed now in Germany the presence of "soft power" of Muslim countries, which use its former and current citizens to influence German political course. The article was written within the constructivist methodology, which consider the "soft power" as a way of construction of social reality with the use of tangible and intangible resources for the formation of an attractive image of Germany in world
Martin, M; Fangerau, H; Karenberg, A
The article discusses the consequences for neurology as a discipline which resulted from neurologists' participation in the crimes committed under National Socialism (NS). Chronologically, the current literature distinguishes mainly four overlapping stages: (1) a first phase was characterized by legal persecution and "denazification", which was also the time of the Nuremberg doctors' trial in which no neurologists were on trial. A detailed documentation of the trial for the German medical profession was published by Alexander Mitscherlich. (2) In the subsequent practice of wide amnestying and reintegration of former Nazi followers during the 1950s, neurologists were no exception as its elite continued in their positions. The year 1953 was the year of the Lisbon scandal, when chiefly Dutch representatives protested against the participation of Julius Hallervorden in the International Congress of Neurology. The newly founded societies, the German Society for Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurologie, DGN) and the German Society for Psychiatry and Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie und Neurologie, DGPN), unanimously supported their member. (3) The next period was characterized by a nascent criticism of the prevailing attitude of covering up the crimes committed by physicians during the Nazi period. The discovery of incriminating brain sections at various Max Planck Institutes brought neurology to the focus of the debate. (4) Since the 1980s and 1990s historians (of medicine) have been systematically examining medicine's Nazi past in a professional way, which resulted in a noticeable increase of knowledge. Additionally, a new generation of scholars provoked a change of mind insofar as they recognized medicine's responsibility for the crimes committed between 1933 and 1945. We expect that future historical research will further elucidate the history of neurology during the NS regime and have consequences for our current understanding of research
Full Text Available It is unclear whether healthy aging influences concreteness effects (ie. the processing advantage seen for concrete over abstract words and its associated neural mechanisms. We conducted an fMRI study on young and older healthy adults performing auditory lexical decisions on concrete versus abstract words. We found that spoken comprehension of concrete and abstract words appears relatively preserved for healthy older individuals, including the concreteness effect. This preserved performance was supported by altered activity in left hemisphere regions including the inferior and middle frontal gyri, angular gyrus, and fusiform gyrus. This pattern is consistent with age-related compensatory mechanisms supporting spoken word processing.
In this paper, we aim to predict audience response from simple spoken sequences, speech pauses and co-speech gestures in annotated video- and audio-recorded speeches by Barack Obama at the Annual White House Correspondents’ Association Dinner in 2011 and 2016. At these dinners, the American...... president mocks himself, his collaborators, political adversary and the press corps making the audience react with cheers, laughter and/or applause. The results of the prediction experiment demonstrate that information about spoken sequences, pauses and co-speech gestures by Obama can be used to predict...
Schüttoff, Ute; Pawlowski, Tim
This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week. The second variable measures whether activity drops below the threshold as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results suggest that the organisational setting, the intensity and number of sports practised, and the motive for participation are strongly correlated with the variation measures used. For example, both, participation in a sports club and a commercial facility, are associated with reduced seasonal variation and a significantly higher probability of participating at a volume above the WHO threshold across all seasons. These findings give some impetus for policymaking and the planning of sports programmes as well as future research directions.
This paper conducts an empirical analysis of risk premiums in the German day-ahead Electricity Wholesale Market. We compare hourly price data of the European Energy Exchange (EEX) auction and of the continuous over-the-counter (OTC) market which takes place prior to the EEX auction. Data provided by the Energy Exchange Austria (EXAA) has been used as a snapshot of the OTC market two hours prior to the EEX auction. Ex post analysis found market participants are willing to pay both significant positive and negative premiums for hourly contracts. The largest positive premiums were paid for high demand evening peak hours on weekdays during winter months. By contrast, night hours on weekends featuring lowest demand levels display negative premiums. Additionally, ex ante analysis found a strong positive correlation between the expected tightness of the system and positive premiums. For this purpose, a tightness factor has been introduced that includes expectations of fundamental factors such as power plant availability, wind power production and demand. Hence, findings by can be supported that power traders in liberalised markets behave like risk-averse rational economic agents. - Research highlights: →Analysis of hourly risk premiums in the German day-ahead Electricity Wholesale Market. →Market participants are willing to pay both significant positive and negative premiums for hourly contracts. →A strong correlation exists between the expected tightness of the power system and premiums.
Biesalski, A-S; Zupanic, M; Isenmann, S
Germany is confronted with a lack of medical doctors and an increasing need for neurologists in particular. In order to recruit future doctors in neurology it is essential to attract young students when still at university. This article presents the first German national survey of medical students' acceptance of teaching methods in neurology. The participants evaluated teaching methods and examination formats and were asked about their preferences. The survey was based on a questionnaire distributed to 22 German medical schools and 1245 participating students. Interactive teaching methods, especially courses in practical examinations, clinical internships and bedside teaching were highly rated among the students. In contrast, multiple choice tests, as one of the most widespread examination methods, were poorly rated compared to practical and oral examinations. For most of the students it was not decisive, in which semester teaching of neurology took place, while the majority asked for additional and more intensive neurological education. The data give an overview of teaching of neurology in Germany and students' assessment of various approaches. The results should be utilized towards reorientation of future curricula that should aim at innovative and even more practically oriented teaching.
This paper explores the impact of a Spoken Word Education Programme (SWEP hereafter) on young people's engagement with poetry in a group of schools in London, UK. It does so with reference to the secondary Discourses of school-based learning and the Spoken Word community, an artistic "community of practice" into which they were being…
This study compares mastery of gender assignment and agreement in Italian by adult Italian-German bilinguals who have acquired two languages simultaneously (2L1), and by adult German highly proficient second language learners (L2ers) of Italian. Our data show that incompleteness in bilingual acquisition and in second language (L2) acquisition…
This dictionary has been compiled as a result of many years experience of translating German texts in the biological sciences, particularly veterinary medicine. The author's aim is to supplement the standard German-English general dictionaries with technical terms to in the fields of anatomy, microbiology, physiology, parasitology, pathology, pharmacology, toxicology and zootechny, with special reference to domestic animals and their diseases. (orig.) [de
Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut
Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…
Ahlberg, Daniela Katharina; Bischoff, Heike; Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Bryant, Doreen; Kaup, Barbara
While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task. Upward or downward responses were made depending on the font colour, resulting in compatible and incompatible trials. We found compatibility effects for all children, but in contrast to the adult sample, there were no processing differences between the children depending on the nature of their other language, suggesting that the processing of German prepositions of bilingual children is embodied in a similar way as in monolingual German children.
Bischoff, Heike; Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Bryant, Doreen; Kaup, Barbara
While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task. Upward or downward responses were made depending on the font colour, resulting in compatible and incompatible trials. We found compatibility effects for all children, but in contrast to the adult sample, there were no processing differences between the children depending on the nature of their other language, suggesting that the processing of German prepositions of bilingual children is embodied in a similar way as in monolingual German children. PMID:29538404
Zhilyuk Sergey Aleksandrovich
Full Text Available The article presents the properties of exogenous word-formation system taking into account the existence of two word-formation systems in modern German. On the basis of foreign research which reveal modern trends in German word-formation connected with the internationalization and the development of new European Latin language. The author defines key features of exogenous word-formation, i.e. foreign origin of wordformation units, unmotivated units, unmotivated interchange in base and affixes as well as limited distribution rules in combination with German word-formation. The article analyzes various approaches to word-division, as well as motivated and unmotivated interchange of consonants in bases and in affixes. Unmotivated interchange showcases a special status of the exogenous word-formation within German. Another item covered by the article is the issue of confix. The article has opinions of researchers about correctness of its separation and a list of its features. The author presents his definition of confix: a confix is a bound exogenous word-formation unit with a certain lexical and semantic meaning and joining other units directly or indirectly (through linking morpheme -o-, which is able to make a base. Moreover, some confixes are able to participate at word-combination and have unlimited distribution. So far, confix showcases the integration of exogenous word-formation and traditional German word-formation. The research proves the special status of exogenous word-formation in German. Its results can be used as a base for further analysis of co-existing word-formation systems in German and determination of their characteristic features.
van Nie-Visser, Noémi C; Meijers, Judith M M; Schols, Jos M G A; Lohrmann, Christa; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Halfens, Ruud J G
This study investigates possible differences in malnutrition prevalence rates in Dutch and German nursing homes. It seeks to provide insight into the screening, prevention and treatment of malnutrition and the indicators for nutritional care policy. For decades, malnutrition has been an important problem in health care settings worldwide. A considerable percentage of frail older people suffer from malnutrition. In European nursing homes, the reported prevalence rates range widely (2% to 85%). This is a multicentre, cross-sectional prevalence study of malnutrition in Dutch and German nursing homes using standardised methodology, with the participation of respectively 5848 and 4923 residents (65+ years). Patient characteristics differed significantly between the two countries. Dutch residents were more often male, younger, more care-dependent and significantly more at risk of malnutrition (31·7%). However, overall malnutrition prevalence rates did not differ significantly (Netherlands 26·8% and Germany 26·5%). All German residents were screened at admission, whereas only 73·1% of the Dutch residents were. As part of screening, nutritional screening tools were used in 38·0% of Dutch and 42·1% of the German residents. A dietician was consulted for 36·7% Dutch and 9·3% German malnourished residents. The proportion of malnourished receiving nutritional intervention was larger in Germany than in the Netherlands. Structural indicators for nutritional policy were fulfilled more often in the Netherlands care at institutional level whereas in Germany they were fulfilled more often at ward level. In this study, German residents had a somewhat better nutritional status than Dutch residents and more is done to enhance nutritional status in German nursing homes. The differences would be somewhat larger if both populations were more comparable. Comparing malnutrition prevalence rates, prevention and interventions in health care institutions and countries gives insight into
Brueckel, Thomas (ed.)
The German Neutron Scattering Conference 2012 - Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung DN 2012 offers a forum for the presentation and critical discussion of recent results obtained with neutron scattering and complementary techniques. The meeting is organized on behalf of the German Committee for Research with Neutrons - Komitee Forschung mit Neutronen KFN - by the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS of Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. In between the large European and international neutron scattering conferences ECNS (2011 in Prague) and ICNS (2013 in Edinburgh), it offers the vibrant German and international neutron community an opportunity to debate topical issues in a stimulating atmosphere. Originating from ''BMBF Verbundtreffen'' - meetings for projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research - this conference series has a strong tradition of providing a forum for the discussion of collaborative research projects and future developments in the field of research with neutrons in general. Neutron scattering, by its very nature, is used as a powerful probe in many different disciplines and areas, from particle and condensed matter physics through to chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering sciences, right up to geology and cultural heritage; the German Neutron Scattering Conference thus provides a unique chance for exploring interdisciplinary research opportunities. It also serves as a showcase for recent method and instrument developments and to inform users of new advances at neutron facilities.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.
The German Neutron Scattering Conference 2012 - Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung DN 2012 offers a forum for the presentation and critical discussion of recent results obtained with neutron scattering and complementary techniques. The meeting is organized on behalf of the German Committee for Research with Neutrons - Komitee Forschung mit Neutronen KFN - by the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS of Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. In between the large European and international neutron scattering conferences ECNS (2011 in Prague) and ICNS (2013 in Edinburgh), it offers the vibrant German and international neutron community an opportunity to debate topical issues in a stimulating atmosphere. Originating from ''BMBF Verbundtreffen'' - meetings for projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research - this conference series has a strong tradition of providing a forum for the discussion of collaborative research projects and future developments in the field of research with neutrons in general. Neutron scattering, by its very nature, is used as a powerful probe in many different disciplines and areas, from particle and condensed matter physics through to chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering sciences, right up to geology and cultural heritage; the German Neutron Scattering Conference thus provides a unique chance for exploring interdisciplinary research opportunities. It also serves as a showcase for recent method and instrument developments and to inform users of new advances at neutron facilities.
Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steininger, Walter [Karisruhe Inst. of Technology (Germany); Bollingerfehr, Willhelm [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH (Germany)
The 7th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Washington, DC on September 7-9, 2016. Over fifty participants representing governmental agencies, internationally recognized salt research groups, universities, and private companies helped advance the technical basis for salt disposal of radioactive waste. Representatives from several United States federal agencies were able to attend, including the Department of Energy´s Office of Environmental Management and Office of Nuclear Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. A similar representation from the German ministries showcased the covenant established in a Memorandum of Understanding executed between the United States and Germany in 2011. The US/German workshops´ results and activities also contribute significantly to the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club repository research agenda.
Metsala, Jamie L.; Stavrinos, Despina; Walley, Amanda C.
This study examined effects of lexical factors on children's spoken word recognition across a 1-year time span, and contributions to phonological awareness and nonword repetition. Across the year, children identified words based on less input on a speech-gating task. For word repetition, older children improved for the most familiar words. There…
Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen
The present study investigated the effect of lexical competition on the time course of spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese using a unimodal auditory priming paradigm. Two kinds of competitive environments were designed. In one session (session 1), only the unrelated and the identical primes were presented before the target words. In the other session (session 2), besides the two conditions in session 1, the target words were also preceded by the cohort primes that have the same initial syllables as the targets. Behavioral results showed an inhibitory effect of the cohort competitors (primes) on target word recognition. The event-related potential results showed that the spoken word recognition processing in the middle and late latency windows is modulated by whether the phonologically related competitors are presented or not. Specifically, preceding activation of the competitors can induce direct competitions between multiple candidate words and lead to increased processing difficulties, primarily at the word disambiguation and selection stage during Mandarin Chinese spoken word recognition. The current study provided both behavioral and electrophysiological evidences for the lexical competition effect among the candidate words during spoken word recognition.
Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P; Blackwell, Simon E; Misailidi, Plousia; Kyritsi, Alexandra; Ayfanti, Maria
Interpretation training programs, in which individuals are trained to interpret ambiguous scenarios in either a negative or benign way, have proven effective in altering anxiety-related cognitive biases in both children and adults. The current study investigated whether the effects of the interpretation training procedure in children are differentiated according to the mode of presentation of the training. Ninety-four primary school children (aged 10-12 years) scoring above the mean on a social anxiety scale were randomly allocated to four groups, in which they were trained using written or spoken presentation of training materials in either the negative or benign direction. For the negative training, children who heard the training material spoken aloud (spoken presentation) made more negative interpretations of ambiguous social events, compared to children who read the training material (written presentation). However, for the benign training, there was less clear evidence for a differentiation of the effects between the two modes of presentation, although children in the spoken presentation group performed better in a stressful task and showed a trend to rate their mood as more positive after the task than children in the written presentation group. These results not only forward our understanding of the mechanism of the genesis of cognitive bias in children, but also highlight the need for further investigation of how to optimize the effectiveness of interpretation training in children.
Ramos-Sanchez, Jose Luis; Cuadrado-Gordillo, Isabel
This article presents the results of a quasi-experimental study of whether there exists a causal relationship between spoken language and the initial learning of reading/writing. The subjects were two matched samples each of 24 preschool pupils (boys and girls), controlling for certain relevant external variables. It was found that there was no…
Planchou, Clément; Clément, Sylvain; Béland, Renée; Cason, Nia; Motte, Jacques; Samson, Séverine
Previous studies have reported that children score better in language tasks using sung rather than spoken stimuli. We examined word detection ease in sung and spoken sentences that were equated for phoneme duration and pitch variations in children aged 7 to 12 years with typical language development (TLD) as well as in children with specific language impairment (SLI ), and hypothesized that the facilitation effect would vary with language abilities. In Experiment 1, 69 children with TLD (7-10 years old) detected words in sentences that were spoken, sung on pitches extracted from speech, and sung on original scores. In Experiment 2, we added a natural speech rate condition and tested 68 children with TLD (7-12 years old). In Experiment 3, 16 children with SLI and 16 age-matched children with TLD were tested in all four conditions. In both TLD groups, older children scored better than the younger ones. The matched TLD group scored higher than the SLI group who scored at the level of the younger children with TLD . None of the experiments showed a facilitation effect of sung over spoken stimuli. Word detection abilities improved with age in both TLD and SLI groups. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis of delayed language abilities in children with SLI , and are discussed in light of the role of durational prosodic cues in words detection.
Schroeder, Rui M.
This study reports on the three-year development and validation of a new assessment tool--the Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS). The questionnaire is the first of its kind to assess the listening and speaking strategy use of non-native English speaking (NNES) graduate students. A combination of sources was used to develop the…
Tong, Vivien; Raynor, David K; Aslani, Parisa
To explore Australian and UK consumers' receipt and use of spoken and written medicine information and examine the role of leaflets for consumers of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 37 Australian and 39 UK consumers to explore information received with their most recent OTC medicine purchase, and how information was used at different times post-purchase. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Similarities were evident between the key themes identified from Australian and UK consumers' experiences. Consumers infrequently sought spoken information and reported that pharmacy staff provided minimal spoken information for OTC medicines. Leaflets were not always received or wanted and had a less salient role as an information source for repeat OTC purchases. Consumers tended not to read OTC labels or leaflets. Product familiarity led to consumers tending not to seek information on labels or leaflets. When labels were consulted, directions for use were commonly read. However, OTC medicine information in general was infrequently revisited. As familiarity is not an infallible proxy for safe and effective medication use, strategies to promote the value and use of these OTC medicine information sources are important and needed. Minimal spoken information provision coupled with limited written information use may adversely impact medication safety in self-management. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Carlos Filipe Guimarães Figueiredo
Full Text Available This paper analyses the relative clauses with “ku” [substrate relativizer] and “com” [with] in the Portuguese of Almoxarife, spoken by the community of Almoxarife, São Tome island, aiming to uncover what the motivations are that trigger the use of those relativizers.
Planchou, Clément; Clément, Sylvain; Béland, Renée; Cason, Nia; Motte, Jacques; Samson, Séverine
Background: Previous studies have reported that children score better in language tasks using sung rather than spoken stimuli. We examined word detection ease in sung and spoken sentences that were equated for phoneme duration and pitch variations in children aged 7 to 12 years with typical language development (TLD) as well as in children with specific language impairment (SLI ), and hypothesized that the facilitation effect would vary with language abilities. Method: In Experiment 1, 69 children with TLD (7–10 years old) detected words in sentences that were spoken, sung on pitches extracted from speech, and sung on original scores. In Experiment 2, we added a natural speech rate condition and tested 68 children with TLD (7–12 years old). In Experiment 3, 16 children with SLI and 16 age-matched children with TLD were tested in all four conditions. Results: In both TLD groups, older children scored better than the younger ones. The matched TLD group scored higher than the SLI group who scored at the level of the younger children with TLD . None of the experiments showed a facilitation effect of sung over spoken stimuli. Conclusions: Word detection abilities improved with age in both TLD and SLI groups. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis of delayed language abilities in children with SLI , and are discussed in light of the role of durational prosodic cues in words detection. PMID:26767070
Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael; Schuele, C. Melanie
Children with hearing loss who are developing spoken language tend to lag behind children with normal hearing in vocabulary knowledge. Thus, researchers must validate instructional practices that lead to improved vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate how semantic richness of instruction…
This article discusses the attitudes and motivations of two Saudi children learning Japanese as a foreign language (hence JFL), a language which is rarely spoken in the country. Studies regarding children's motivation for learning foreign languages that are not widely spread in their contexts in informal settings are scarce. The aim of the study…
Özçaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.; Dimitrova, Nevena; Baumann, Stephanie
Typically developing (TD) children refer to objects uniquely in gesture (e.g., point at a cat) before they produce verbal labels for these objects ("cat"). The onset of such gestures predicts the onset of similar spoken words, showing a strong positive relation between early gestures and early words. We asked whether gesture plays the…
Dral, J.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Ahmad, K.
This paper reports results in automatic detection of speakers uncertainty in spoken dialogues by using prosodic markers. For this purpose a substantial part of the AMI corpus (a multi-modal multi-party meeting corpus) has been selected and converted to a suitable format so its data could be analyzed
Dral, Jeroen; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Ahmad, Kurshid
This paper reports results in automatic detection of speaker uncertainty in spoken dialogues by using prosodic markers. For this purpose a substantial part of the AMI corpus (a multi-modal multi-party meeting corpus) has been selected and converted to a suitable format so its data could be analyzed
Männel, Claudia; Schipke, Christine S; Friederici, Angela D
Spoken language is hierarchically structured into prosodic units divided by prosodic breaks. The largest prosodic breaks in an utterance are intonational phrase boundaries (IPBs), which are defined by three acoustic cues, namely, pitch change, preboundary lengthening, and pausing. Previous studies have revealed that the electrophysiological marker of IPB perception, the Closure Positive Shift (CPS), is established between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, we examined the neural activity underlying IPB perception in children by targeting their reliance on pausing; hypothesized to be a key boundary cue in German. To evaluate the role of pausing, we tested IPB perception without the boundary pause, but with pitch change and preboundary lengthening. We tested children at the age of 3 years, when the CPS in response to IPBs has just emerged, and at 6 years, when language abilities are further developed. Results revealed that 6-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, show the CPS in response to IPBs without full prosodic marking. These results indicate developmental differences with respect to the role of pausing as a prosodic boundary cue in German. The correlation of children's IPB perception and their syntactic abilities further corroborates the close prosody-syntax interaction in children's advancing ability to process phrase structure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Within the scope of my investigation on language use and language attitudes of People of German Descent from the USSR, I find almost regular different language contact phenomena, such as viel bliny habn=wir gbackt (engl.: 'we cooked lots of pancakes' (cf. Ries 2011. The aim of analysis is to examine both language use with regard to different forms of language contact and the language attitudes of the observed speakers. To be able to analyse both of these aspects and synthesize them, different types of data are required. The research is based on the following two data types: everyday conversations and interviews. In addition, the individual speakers' biography is a key part of the analysis, because it allows one to draw conclusions about language attitudes and use. This qualitative research is based on morpho-syntactic and interactional linguistic analysis of authentic spoken data. The data arise from a corpus compiled and edited by myself. My being a member of the examined group allowed me to build up an authentic corpus. The natural language use is analysed from the perspective of different language contact phenomena and potential functions of language alternations. One central issue is: How do speakers use the languages available to them, German and Russian? Structural characteristics such as code switching and discursive motives for these phenomena are discussed as results, together with the socio-cultural background of the individual speaker. Within the scope of this article I present exemplarily the data and results of one speaker.
Peters, Sara A; Boiteau, Timothy W; Almor, Amit
The choice and processing of referential expressions depend on the referents' status within the discourse, such that pronouns are generally preferred over full repetitive references when the referent is salient. Here we report two visual-world experiments showing that: (1) in spoken language comprehension, this preference is reflected in delayed fixations to referents mentioned after repeated definite references compared with after pronouns; (2) repeated references are processed differently than new references; (3) long-term semantic memory representations affect the processing of pronouns and repeated names differently. Overall, these results support the role of semantic discourse representation in referential processing and reveal important details about how pronouns and full repeated references are processed in the context of these representations. The results suggest the need for modifications to current theoretical accounts of reference processing such as Discourse Prominence Theory and the Informational Load Hypothesis.
Full Text Available The research and development of the Slovak spoken language dialogue system (SLDS is described in the paper. The dialogue system is based on the DARPA Communicator architecture and was developed in the period from July 2003 to June 2006. It consists of the Galaxy hub and telephony, automatic speech recognition, text-to-speech, backend, transport and VoiceXML dialogue management and automatic evaluation modules. The dialogue system is demonstrated and tested via two pilot applications, „Weather Forecast“ and „Public Transport Timetables“. The required information is retrieved from Internet resources in multi-user mode through PSTN, ISDN, GSM and/or VoIP network. Some innovation development has been performed since 2006 which is also described in the paper.
Shtyrov, Yury; Kimppa, Lilli; Pulvermüller, Friedemann
, in passive non-attend conditions, with acoustically matched high- and low-frequency words along with pseudo-words. Using factorial and correlation analyses, we found that already at ~120 ms after the spoken stimulus information was available, amplitude of brain responses was modulated by the words' lexical...... for the most frequent word stimuli, later-on (~270 ms), a more global lexicality effect with bilateral perisylvian sources was found for all stimuli, suggesting faster access to more frequent lexical entries. Our results support the account of word memory traces as interconnected neuronal circuits, and suggest......How are words represented in the human brain and can these representations be qualitatively assessed with respect to their structure and properties? Recent research demonstrates that neurophysiological signatures of individual words can be measured when subjects do not focus their attention...
Full Text Available Language technologies, in particular machine translation applications, have the potential to help break down linguistic and cultural barriers, presenting an important contribution to the globalization and internationalization of the Portuguese language, by allowing content to be shared 'from' and 'to' this language. This article aims to present the research work developed at the Laboratory of Spoken Language Systems of INESC-ID in the field of machine translation, namely the automated speech translation, the translation of microblogs and the creation of a hybrid machine translation system. We will focus on the creation of the hybrid system, which aims at combining linguistic knowledge, in particular semantico-syntactic knowledge, with statistical knowledge, to increase the level of translation quality.
Cowles, H Wind; Ferreira, Victor S
Four experiments investigate the influence of topic status and givenness on how speakers and writers structure sentences. The results of these experiments show that when a referent is previously given, it is more likely to be produced early in both sentences and word lists, confirming prior work showing that givenness increases the accessibility of given referents. When a referent is previously given and assigned topic status, it is even more likely to be produced early in a sentence, but not in a word list. Thus, there appears to be an early mention advantage for topics that is present in both written and spoken modalities, but is specific to sentence production. These results suggest that information-structure constructs like topic exert an influence that is not based only on increased accessibility, but also reflects mapping to syntactic structure during sentence production.
Baese-Berk, Melissa M; Heffner, Christopher C; Dilley, Laura C; Pitt, Mark A; Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin
Humans unconsciously track a wide array of distributional characteristics in their sensory environment. Recent research in spoken-language processing has demonstrated that the speech rate surrounding a target region within an utterance influences which words, and how many words, listeners hear later in that utterance. On the basis of hypotheses that listeners track timing information in speech over long timescales, we investigated the possibility that the perception of words is sensitive to speech rate over such a timescale (e.g., an extended conversation). Results demonstrated that listeners tracked variation in the overall pace of speech over an extended duration (analogous to that of a conversation that listeners might have outside the lab) and that this global speech rate influenced which words listeners reported hearing. The effects of speech rate became stronger over time. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neural entrainment by speech occurs on multiple timescales, some lasting more than an hour. © The Author(s) 2014.
McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Mello, Melissa; Tempero-Feigles, Robyn; Castignetti, Nancy; Abbeduto, Leonard
Using a single case design, a parent-mediated spoken language intervention was delivered to three mothers and their school-aged sons with fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The intervention was embedded in the context of shared story-telling using wordless picture books and targeted three empirically-derived language support strategies. All sessions were implemented via distance video-teleconferencing. Parent education sessions were followed by 12 weekly clinician coaching and feedback sessions. Data was collected weekly during independent homework and clinician observation sessions. Relative to baseline, mothers increased their use of targeted strategies and dyads increased the frequency and duration of story-related talking. Generalized effects of the intervention on lexical diversity and grammatical complexity were observed. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:27119214
Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf
Full Text Available This study focuses on the semantic prosodies of the word ¡°robot¡± from words that colligates it in data of the spoken form. The data is collected from a lecturer.s talk discussing two topics which are about man and machines in perfect harmony and the effective temperature of workplaces. For annotation, UCREL CLAWS5 Tagset is used, with Tagset C5 to select output style of horizontal. The design of corpus used is by ICE. It reveals that more positive semantic prosodies on the word ¡°robot¡± are presented in the data compared to negative, with 52 occurrences discovered for positive (94,5% and 3 occurrences discovered for negative (5,5%. Words mostly collocated with ¡°robot¡± in the data are service with 8 collocations, machines with 20 collocations, surgical system with 15 collocations and intelligence with 13 collocations.
Alotaibi, Yousef Ajami; Hussain, Amir
Arabic is one of the world's oldest languages and is currently the second most spoken language in terms of number of speakers. However, it has not received much attention from the traditional speech processing research community. This study is specifically concerned with the analysis of vowels in modern standard Arabic dialect. The first and second formant values in these vowels are investigated and the differences and similarities between the vowels are explored using consonant-vowels-consonant (CVC) utterances. For this purpose, an HMM based recognizer was built to classify the vowels and the performance of the recognizer analyzed to help understand the similarities and dissimilarities between the phonetic features of vowels. The vowels are also analyzed in both time and frequency domains, and the consistent findings of the analysis are expected to facilitate future Arabic speech processing tasks such as vowel and speech recognition and classification.
Veit, Daniel J.; Weidlich, Anke; Krafft, Jacob A. [University of Mannheim, Dieter Schwarz Chair of Business Administration, E-Business and E-Government, 68131 Mannheim (Germany)
While some agent-based models have been developed for analyzing the German electricity market, there has been little research done on the emerging issue of intra-German congestion and its effects on the bidding behavior of generator agents. Yet, studies of other markets have shown that transmission grid constraints considerably affect strategic behavior in electricity markets. In this paper, the implications of transmission constraints on power markets are analyzed for the case of Germany. Market splitting is applied in the case of congestion in the grid. For this purpose, the agent-based modeling of electricity systems (AMES) market package developed by Sun and Tesfatsion is modified to fit the German context, including a detailed representation of the German high-voltage grid and its interconnections. Implications of transmission constraints on prices and social welfare are analyzed for scenarios that include strategic behavior of market participants and high wind power generation. It can be shown that strategic behavior and transmission constraints are inter-related and may pose severe problems in the future German electricity market. (author)
Veit, Daniel J.; Weidlich, Anke; Krafft, Jacob A.
While some agent-based models have been developed for analyzing the German electricity market, there has been little research done on the emerging issue of intra-German congestion and its effects on the bidding behavior of generator agents. Yet, studies of other markets have shown that transmission grid constraints considerably affect strategic behavior in electricity markets. In this paper, the implications of transmission constraints on power markets are analyzed for the case of Germany. Market splitting is applied in the case of congestion in the grid. For this purpose, the agent-based modeling of electricity systems (AMES) market package developed by Sun and Tesfatsion is modified to fit the German context, including a detailed representation of the German high-voltage grid and its interconnections. Implications of transmission constraints on prices and social welfare are analyzed for scenarios that include strategic behavior of market participants and high wind power generation. It can be shown that strategic behavior and transmission constraints are inter-related and may pose severe problems in the future German electricity market.
Full Text Available Export represents an important strategic lever for enterprises to reach new clients, to diversify, and to participate in regional economic growth. An online based survey invited more than 800 wine experts to assess wine export success factors as well as the performance of German producers. The questionnaire tested a literature based success factor framework with the four success factors. The experts assessed the relevance of the levers for the wine industry and the performance of German produc- ers. Respondents judged all four success factors as well as all underlying 27 criteria to be relevant in the wine industry. Export strategy receives highest value of the success factor rating. The survey depicts a heterogeneous performance of German produc- ers comparing the success factors but a homogeneous performance for all the underlying criteria within each success factor. The responses reveal a performance gap for the success factors export commitment and export strategy. For the success factor export knowledge German producers apparently overperform. Export programs are of importance and in the case of Germany appar- ently meet the needed level of support and activity. The results thereby support empiric findings in the context of cultural differ- ences of different nations. The study provides orientation for German wine producers but also small and medium enterprises of other industries.
Zwink, Nadine; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Hirsch, Karin; Reifferscheid, Peter; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Schmidt, Dominik; Reckin, Sabrina; Obermayr, Florian; Boemers, Thomas M; Stein, Raimund; Reutter, Heiko; Rösch, Wolfgang H; Brenner, Hermann; Ebert, Anne-Karoline
We assessed the risk of exstrophy-epispadias complex in children conceived by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Data from the German Network for Congenital Uro-REctal malformations were compared to nationwide data from the German In Vitro Fertilization Register and the German Federal Statistical Office. Odds ratios (95% CI) were determined to quantify associations using logistic regression. A total of 123 patients with exstrophy-epispadias complex born in Germany between 1997 and 2011 were recruited through participating departments of pediatric urology and pediatric surgery throughout the country as well as the German self-help organizations Blasenekstrophie/Epispadie e.V. and Kloakenekstrophie. All German live births (10,069,986) between 1997 and 2010 comprised the controls. Overall, 12 subjects (10%) and 129,982 controls (1%) were conceived by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Conception by assisted reproductive technique was associated with a more than eightfold increased risk of exstrophy-epispadias complex compared to spontaneous conception (OR 8.3, 95% CI 4.6-15.0, p assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are associated with a markedly increased risk of having a child born with exstrophy-epispadias complex. However, it remains unclear whether this finding may be due to assisted reproduction per se and/or underlying infertility/subfertility etiology or parent characteristics. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dammgen, U; Rosemann, C; Haenel, H D
Up to now, the German agricultural emission inventory used a model for the assessment of methane emissions from enteric fermentation that combined an estimate of the energy and feed requirements as a function of performance parameters and diet composition, with the constant methane conversion rate......, as stated by IPCC. A methane emission model was selected here that is based on German feed data. It was combined with the hitherto applied model describing energy requirements. The emission rates thus calculated deviate from those previously obtained. In the new model, the methane conversion rate is back......-calculated from emission rates and gross energy intake rates. For German conditions of animal performance and diet composition, the national means of methane conversion rates range between 71 kJ MJ(-1) and 61 kJ MJ(-1) for low and high performances (4700 kg animal(-1) a(-1) in 1990 to 7200 kg animal(-1) a(-1...
A severe nuclear power plant accident can be followed by a considerable release of radioactive effluents into the atmosphere. Due to atmospheric dispersion, areas of different sizes can be contaminated. The corresponding doses can cause early illnesses, early fatalities, latent effects and genetic effects. They are accompanied by economic effects. Within the consequence model of the German Risk Study, early and late fatalities and genetically significant doses are calculated. The calculations are based on real data or phenomena such as the population around 19, present or future German sites, or 115 real weather sequences, as well as on models such as an atmospheric dispersion model, a dose model, a model of protective actions or a health effects model. Within this lecture, the consequence model applied in the German Risk Study will be discussed in detail and the results will be presented. (orig./RW)
Caroline M. Whiting
Full Text Available Rapid and automatic processing of grammatical complexity is argued to take place during speech comprehension, engaging a left-lateralised fronto-temporal language network. Here we address how neural activity in these regions is modulated by the grammatical properties of spoken words. We used combined magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG, EEG to delineate the spatiotemporal patterns of activity that support the recognition of morphologically complex words in English with inflectional (-s and derivational (-er affixes (e.g. bakes, baker. The mismatch negativity (MMN, an index of linguistic memory traces elicited in a passive listening paradigm, was used to examine the neural dynamics elicited by morphologically complex words. Results revealed an initial peak 130-180 ms after the deviation point with a major source in left superior temporal cortex. The localisation of this early activation showed a sensitivity to two grammatical properties of the stimuli: 1 the presence of morphological complexity, with affixed words showing increased left-laterality compared to non-affixed words; and 2 the grammatical category, with affixed verbs showing greater left-lateralisation in inferior frontal gyrus compared to affixed nouns (bakes vs. beaks. This automatic brain response was additionally sensitive to semantic coherence (the meaning of the stem vs. the meaning of the whole form in fronto-temporal regions. These results demonstrate that the spatiotemporal pattern of neural activity in spoken word processing is modulated by the presence of morphological structure, predominantly engaging the left-hemisphere’s fronto-temporal language network, and does not require focused attention on the linguistic input.
Jansen, Stefanie; Wesselmeier, Hendrik; de Ruiter, Jan P; Mueller, Horst M
Even though research in turn-taking in spoken dialogues is now abundant, a typical EEG-signature associated with the anticipation of turn-ends has not yet been identified until now. The purpose of this study was to examine if readiness potentials (RP) can be used to study the anticipation of turn-ends by using it in a motoric finger movement and articulatory movement task. The goal was to determine the preconscious onset of turn-end anticipation in early, preconscious turn-end anticipation processes by the simultaneous registration of EEG measures (RP) and behavioural measures (anticipation timing accuracy, ATA). For our behavioural measures, we used both button-press and verbal response ("yes"). In the experiment, 30 subjects were asked to listen to auditorily presented utterances and press a button or utter a brief verbal response when they expected the end of the turn. During the task, a 32-channel-EEG signal was recorded. The results showed that the RPs during verbal- and button-press-responses developed similarly and had an almost identical time course: the RP signals started to develop 1170 vs. 1190 ms before the behavioural responses. Until now, turn-end anticipation is usually studied using behavioural methods, for instance by measuring the anticipation timing accuracy, which is a measurement that reflects conscious behavioural processes and is insensitive to preconscious anticipation processes. The similar time course of the recorded RP signals for both verbal- and button-press responses provide evidence for the validity of using RPs as an online marker for response preparation in turn-taking and spoken dialogue research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Strori, Dorina; Zaar, Johannes; Cooke, Martin; Mattys, Sven L
Recent evidence has shown that nonlinguistic sounds co-occurring with spoken words may be retained in memory and affect later retrieval of the words. This sound-specificity effect shares many characteristics with the classic voice-specificity effect. In this study, we argue that the sound-specificity effect is conditional upon the context in which the word and sound coexist. Specifically, we argue that, besides co-occurrence, integrality between words and sounds is a crucial factor in the emergence of the effect. In two recognition-memory experiments, we compared the emergence of voice and sound specificity effects. In Experiment 1 , we examined two conditions where integrality is high. Namely, the classic voice-specificity effect (Exp. 1a) was compared with a condition in which the intensity envelope of a background sound was modulated along the intensity envelope of the accompanying spoken word (Exp. 1b). Results revealed a robust voice-specificity effect and, critically, a comparable sound-specificity effect: A change in the paired sound from exposure to test led to a decrease in word-recognition performance. In the second experiment, we sought to disentangle the contribution of integrality from a mere co-occurrence context effect by removing the intensity modulation. The absence of integrality led to the disappearance of the sound-specificity effect. Taken together, the results suggest that the assimilation of background sounds into memory cannot be reduced to a simple context effect. Rather, it is conditioned by the extent to which words and sounds are perceived as integral as opposed to distinct auditory objects.
Full Text Available In present-day spoken German, subordinate clauses introduced by the connector 'weil '‘because’ occur with two orders of subject, finite verb, and object(s. In addition to 'weil 'clauses with verb-final word order (“VF”; standard in subordinate clauses one often hears 'weil 'clauses with SVO, the standard order of main clauses (“verb-second”, V2. The “'weil'-V2” phenomenon is restricted to sentences where the 'weil 'clause follows the main clause, and is virtually absent from formal (written, edited German, occurring only in extemporaneous speech. Extant accounts of 'weil'-V2 focus on the interpretation of 'weil'-V2 clauses by the hearer, in particular on the type of discourse relation licensed by 'weil'-V2 vs. 'weil'-VF: causal/propositional or inferential/epistemic. Focusing instead on the production of 'weil 'clauses by the speaker, we examine a collection of about 1,000 sentences featuring a causal connector ('weil, da 'or 'denn' after the main clause, all extracted from a corpus of spoken German dialogues and annotated with tags denoting major prosodic and syntactic boundaries, and various types of disfluencies (pauses, hesitations. Based on the observed frequency patterns and on known linguistic properties of the connectors, we propose that 'weil'-V2 is caused by miscoordination between the mechanisms for lexical retrieval and grammatical encoding: Due to its high frequency, the lexical item 'weil 'is often selected prematurely, while the grammatical encoder is still working on the syntactic shape of the 'weil 'clause. 'Weil'-V2 arises when pragmatic and processing factors drive the encoder to discontinue the current sentence, and to plan the clause following 'weil 'in the form of the main clause of an independent, new sentence. Thus, the speaker continues with a V2 clause, seemingly in violation of the VF constraint imposed by the preceding 'weil'. We also explore implications of the model regarding the interpretation of
The political situation and the state of legislation after World War II make it difficult to pinpoint a precise date of origin of German nuclear legislation. The restrictions imposed by the Allied High Commission (AHC) without any exception put a ban on the production of uranium and thorium metal as well as the construction of nuclear reactors. These restrictions were lifted expressly when the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) entered into force on January 1, 1960, i.e. much later than the formal step of gaining sovereignty, which was marked by the protocol of May 5, 1955 terminating the Occupation Statute. In October 1955, the German federal government established the then Federal Ministry for Atomic Matters also in an attempt to reconnect to developments in nuclear fission in other parts of the Western world. To supersede the AHC law, the German federal government in December 1956 publicized a draft Atomic Energy Act. It is safe, therefore, to consider that year the starting point of German atomic legislation. This step was followed by deliberations preparatory to the adoption of the Atomic Energy Act. In 1957, however, adoption failed because no two-thirds majority was reached to amend the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. As a consequence, some federal states saw the need to adopt state legislation to regulate this area. On December 3, 1959, a new draft Atomic Energy Act was adopted by the German federal parliament after the second and third readings - coupled with an amendment to the Basic Law on that same day - with the votes of the opposition and with one abstention. (orig.)
The book on the German energy policy as a consequence includes the following contributions: The German energy turnaround - scientific contributions. The energy turnaround in Germany - issue of interdisciplinary science. The transformation of the energy systems as social and technical challenge, - on the need of integrating energy research. Transformations and transformation blockades in the German energy system. The German energy turnaround in the context of international best practice. Energy turnaround also in Japan? - The chances of a nuclear phase-out. Possibilities and limits of public participation for the realization of an energy turnaround. Public energy in Germany - a model for participation? A plea for a comprehensive analysis of the energy turnaround in relation to the omnipresent crisis. Challenges and development in the German energy industry - consequences of the increasing percentage of renewable energies on the costs and the security of supply. Research funding and innovation promotion in the area of selected renewable energies. The economic chances of an energy turnaround. The need of appropriate monetary boundary conditions for the energy turnaround and the possibilities of an organization. The human factor in the context of the energy turnaround - environmental-psychological research approaches. The legal contribution to the energy turnaround. Vulnerability and resilience of energy systems. Geography of renewable energies -spatial constraints of a sustainable energy system. Critics and alternatives: The German energy turnaround that is no turnaround.
Anthony d. Kauders
The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; a...
This introduction proceeds in five steps. First, it briefly considers the etymology of the term "suffering," as well as the way in which scholars from different disciplines have approached it conceptually and empirically. Second, drawing on the contributions to this issue, it raises general themes emerging from the study of the Thirty Years, Franco-Prussian and First World Wars, with particular attention to gender, the disabled, and Jewish-German veterans. Finally, it considers the most politically contested field of German suffering - the Second World War - and reflects on how that suffering can be narrated and understood without running into the intellectual dead ends of either self-pity or collective guilt.
The German integrated association is a union of those electric power supply utilities in the Federal Republic of Germany which cooperate in the integrated operation of 220 kV and 380 kV. The German integrated association (DVG) was founded in 1948. Its main task is to create the technical, operational and legal conditions for the cooperation in the national and international integrated system. The inclusion of the new Federal States has been practiced for the first time with the 320 MW power station in Offleben. (DG) [de
Ghiselin, Michael T
The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.
The author argues in favor of a more fact-oriented German energy policy: Firstly, German energy policy must accept the new European framework of a market economy. This means that German utilities must no longer be burdened with the implementation of political objectives. The German power industry needs a level playing field for competition on a European scale. Consequently, also the European partner countries should not limit themselves to the minimum conditions of the Single Market Directive in opening their markets. Secondly, German energy policy must develop new forms of cooperation with the power industry so as to maintain domestic employment and the addition of value despite considerably stronger competitive pressure. Also the conflicting targets of sustainability, continuity of supply, and economic viability must not only be discussed, but must be turned into productive approaches. Thirdly, this means that there must be no inadmissible solution in matters nuclear. If the German power industry is to remain strong, in the interest of domestic jobs and opportunities for the future, it must not lose any more domestic market share to other European companies. Fourthly, we need a new energy policy which takes cognizance of the results of market development in a more rational, less emotional way. In this respect, it should be limited henceforth to supporting renewable energies and technologies so as to enhance energy efficiency in line with market requirements. Fifthly, German energy policy must not commit the mistake of enforcing deregulation and, at the same time, exempting large segments of the market from competition. Thus, the planned expansion of renewable energies, and the increase in cogeneration to more than thirty percent of the German electricty generation, by way of quotas and revenues for electricity from these sources fed into the public grid, are incompatible with competition in Europe. The electricity tax within the framework of the eco tax, the
Damsma, Levi; Versloot, Arjen
A number of runic inscriptions from the entire Germanic area from between A.D. 200 and 800 exhibit non-etymological, epenthetic vowels, such as worahto for *worhto ‘did’. An analysis of all (likely) instances of epenthesis in early Germanic languages shows that epenthesis developed only in clusters involving /r/, /l/ or /n/. Epenthesis was an optional feature of nearly every early Germanic dialect, being most abundantly attested in southern Sweden. There is no statistically significant...
Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias
Findings on the association of speaking different languages with cognitive functioning in old age are inconsistent and inconclusive so far. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of the number of languages spoken to cognitive performance and its interplay with several other markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. Two thousand eight hundred and twelve older adults served as sample for the present study. Psychometric tests on verbal abilities, basic processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were administered. In addition, individuals were interviewed on their different languages spoken on a regular basis, educational attainment, occupation, and engaging in different activities throughout adulthood. Higher number of languages regularly spoken was significantly associated with better performance in verbal abilities and processing speed, but unrelated to cognitive flexibility. Regression analyses showed that the number of languages spoken predicted cognitive performance over and above leisure activities/physical demand of job/gainful activity as respective additional predictor, but not over and above educational attainment/cognitive level of job as respective additional predictor. There was no significant moderation of the association of the number of languages spoken with cognitive performance in any model. Present data suggest that speaking different languages on a regular basis may additionally contribute to the build-up of cognitive reserve in old age. Yet, this may not be universal, but linked to verbal abilities and basic cognitive processing speed. Moreover, it may be dependent on other types of cognitive stimulation that individuals also engaged in during their life course.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness and comorbid anxiety may cause severe disability of patients with vestibulopathy, but can be addressed effectively with rehabilitation. For an individually adapted treatment, a structured assessment is needed. The Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS with two subscales assessing vertigo symptoms (VSS-VER and associated symptoms (VSS-AA might be used for this purpose. As there was no validated VSS available in German, the aim of the study was the translation and cross-cultural adaptation in German (VSS-G and the investigation of its reliability, internal and external validity. Methods The VSS was translated into German according to recognized guidelines. Psychometric properties were tested on 52 healthy controls and 202 participants with vestibulopathy. Internal validity and reliability were investigated with factor analysis, Cronbach’s α and ICC estimations. Discriminant validity was analysed with the Mann–Whitney-U-Test between patients and controls and the ROC-Curve. Convergent validity was estimated with the correlation with the Hospital Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A, Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI and frequency of dizziness. Results Internal validity: factor analysis confirmed the structure of two subscales. Reliability: VSS-G: α = 0.904 and ICC (CI =0.926 (0.826, 0.965. Discriminant validity: VSS-VER differentiate patients and controls ROC (CI =0.99 (0.98, 1.00. Convergent validity: VSS-G correlates with DHI (r = 0.554 and frequency (T = 0.317. HADS-A correlates with VSS-AA (r = 0.452 but not with VSS-VER (r = 0.186. Conclusions The VSS-G showed satisfactory psychometric properties to assess the severity of vertigo or vertigo-related symptoms. The VSS-VER can differentiate between healthy subjects and patients with vestibular disorders. The VSS-AA showed some screening properties with high sensitivity for patients with abnormal anxiety.
Werfel, Krystal L
The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed measures of oral language, phonological processing, and print knowledge twice at a 6-month interval. A series of repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to compare change across groups. Main effects of time were observed for all variables except phonological recoding. Main effects of group were observed for vocabulary, morphosyntax, phonological memory, and concepts of print. Interaction effects were observed for phonological awareness and concepts of print. Children with hearing loss performed more poorly than children with normal hearing on measures of oral language, phonological memory, and conceptual print knowledge. Two interaction effects were present. For phonological awareness and concepts of print, children with hearing loss demonstrated less positive change than children with normal hearing. Although children with hearing loss generally demonstrated a positive growth in emergent literacy skills, their initial performance was lower than that of children with normal hearing, and rates of change were not sufficient to catch up to the peers over time.
Lohse, Sandrina; Jespersen, Per Homann
This report gives an overview of the planned improvements of the German hinterland infrastructure connected to the fixed Fehmarn Belt Link (FBL), as well as the views of the key German stake holders towards the FBL....
This document is a translation of technology-specific safety requirements developed : for the German Transrapid Maglev technology. These requirements were developed by a : working group composed of representatives of German Federal Railways (DB), Tes...
The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…
Young, Anne P.
Discusses opposite findings of researchers concerning the amount of time given to the study of Hitler and the Third Reich in German Secondary Schools. Considers the relationship among scholarly work on the Nazi era, influences of the work on secondary school teachers, impact of curriculum reform, and effects of government educational…
we are having problems. 49 Possible future options for NATO will be addressed in Chapter VII. Eurooe. after 40 years of stutter starts, has been...Jarvis. a Berliner. is a school teacher who has vivid childhood memories of tne World War II bombings of Berlin. -’Christoph Bertram. "The German
Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energie fuer Deutschland
The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt gegeben, der auch in diesem Jahr eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun- und Steinkohle, Elektrizitaet sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert. Eine aktuelle Uebersicht ueber die Entwicklung der Treibhausgas-Emissionen schliesst den Beitrag ab.
abstractThe trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it
Seidenstuecker, Klaus H; Neidhardt, Stefan
While a steady growth of cruise tourism since the 1970s created an increasing demand for ship doctors medical postgraduate specialty training did not sufficiently reflect the scope of skills and knowledge required from a physician being left to himself at sea. The German Maritime Health Association therefore tasked a working group with analysing the situation and coming up with suggestions for an adequate postgraduate training for ship doctors. The working group consisted of 19 experts with various backgrounds in maritime medicine. A literature review was done on cruise ship epidemiology as well as an assessment of tasks and environmental factors influencing medical care on board of cruise ships. Necessary knowledge and skills were derived and compared with those imparted by standard German medical education. Mandatory knowledge and skills were identified as well as elements of standard medical education contributing to these goals. Those aspects that would or could not be adequately covered by German standard education were catalogued and summarised in a course curriculum. In 2013 after approval by its board of directors the German Maritime Health Association published a qualification and training recommendation addressing colleagues planning to muster as ship doctors.
This English/German dictionary covers more than 100.000 terms from chemistry, chemical engineering and related fields. It also contains molecular formulas, as well as numerous synonyms and areas of application. IUPAC terminology is emphasized, and outdated or rare terminology is indicated. (MM) [de
O Riain, Sean
Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…