WorldWideScience

Sample records for spoiling micro-organisms representative

  1. Spoils of Truce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Review of Spoils of Truce. Corruption and stat building in Postwar Lebanon Reinoud Leenders Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-8014-5100-3......Review of Spoils of Truce. Corruption and stat building in Postwar Lebanon Reinoud Leenders Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-8014-5100-3...

  2. Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penkov, F.; Tuleushev, A.; Lisitsyn, V.; Kim, S.; Tuleushev, Yu.

    1996-01-01

    Objective of Investigations: Development and creation of the Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms which allows to evaluate, in a real temporal scale, variations in the state of water suspension of micro-organisms under the effect of chemical, physical and other external actions. Statement of the Problem The main problem is absence of reliable, accessible for users and simple, in view of application, Doppler speedometers for micro-organisms. Nevertheless, correlation Doppler spectrometry in the regime of heterodyning the supporting and cell-scattered laser radiation is welt known. The main idea is that the correlation function of photo-current pulses bears an information on the averages over the assembly of cell velocities. For solving the biological problems, construction of auto-correlation function in the real-time regime with the delay time values comprising, function in the real-time regime with the delay time values comprising, nearly, 100 me (10 khz) or higher is needed. Computers of high class manage this problem using but the program software. Due to this, one can simplify applications of the proposed techniques provided he creates the Doppler speedometer for micro-organism on a base of the P entium . Expected Result Manufactured operable mock-up of the Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms in a form of the auxiliary computer block which allows to receive an information, in the real time scale, on the results of external effects of various nature on the cell assembly in transparent medium with a small volume of the studied cell suspension

  3. Micro-organisms Associated with Locally Available Infant Weaning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen micro-organisms were isolated consisting of Bacillus species, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus viridans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus species, Pseudomonas species, Klebsiella species, Citrobacter species, Escherichia coli, Actinomycetes species, Neurospora sitophila, ...

  4. Pseudomonads and symbiotic micro-organisms as biocontrol agents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEN

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... Key words: antagonism, beneficial micro-organisms, biological control, Glomus deserticola, Pseudomonas spp.,. Pythium aphanidermaturm. ... The importance of this plant is related to its leaves and seeds which are ..... fluorescens F113: P. ultimum represses the expression of genes in. P. fluorescens F133 ...

  5. Phytoremediation of spoil coal dumps in Western Donbass (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Kharytonov, Mykola; Wiche, Oliver; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    At the moment, in Ukraine about 150 thousand hectares of fertile land are occupied by spoil dumps. Moreover, this figure increases every year. According to the technology used about 1500 m3 of adjacent stratum is dumped at the surface per every 1000 tons of coal mined. Apart from land amortization, waste dumps drastically change the natural landscape and pollute air, soil and water sources as the result of water and wind erosion, as well as self-ignition processes. A serious concern exists with respect to the Western Donbass coal mining region in Ukraine, where the coal extraction is made by the subsurface way and solid wastes are represented by both spoil dumps and wastes after coal processing. Sulphides, mostly pyrite (up to 4% of waste material), are widely distributed in the waste heaps freshly removed due to coal mining in Western Donbass.The oxidation of pyrite with the presence of oxygen and water is accompanied by a sharp drop in the pH from the surface layer to the spoil dumps(from 5.2-6.2 to 3.9-4.2 in soil substrates with chernozen and from 8.3-8.4 to 6.7-7.2 in soil substrates with red-brown clay, stabilizing in dump material in both cases at 2.9-3.2). Low pH generates the transformation of a number of toxic metals and other elementspresent in waste rock (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, U) into mobile forms. To stabilize and reduce metal mobility the most resistant plants that occur naturally in specified ecosystems can be used. On coal spoil dumpsin Western Donbas the dominant species are Bromopsis inermis, subdominant Artemisia austriaca; widespread are also Festucas pp., Lathyrus tuberosus, Inula sp., Calamagrostis epigeios, Lotus ucrainicus, and Vicias pp. Identification of plants tolerant to target metals is a key issue in phytotechnology for soil restoration. It is hypothesized that naturally occurring plants growing on coal spoil dumps can be candidates for phytostabilization, phytoextraction (phytoaccumulation) and phytomining

  6. Streptomyces sp. 173, an insecticidal micro-organism from marine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L; Li, J; Kong, F

    2004-01-01

    To find new insecticidal antibiotics from marine micro-organisms. Strains isolated from seawater and sea sediments from Beidiahe and Dagang of the east coast of China were screened for their insecticidal qualities. The screening was carried out using bioassay of brine shrimp and the insect pest Helicoverpa armigera. The fermentation, preliminary extraction and isolation of Streptomyces sp.173 were carried out. In total 331 isolates were examined through bioassay of brine shrimp and 40 isolates (12.08%) showed potential insecticidal activities. Of the 40 isolates, one isolate, designated Streptomyces sp.173, was found to have strong insecticidal activity against both brine shrimp and H. armigera, similar to that of avermectin B1. The isolated Streptomyces sp.173 has great insecticidal potency. This work indicated that marine micro-organisms could be an important source of insecticidal antibiotics and the improved anti-brine shrimp bioassay is suitable for primary screening.

  7. 9 CFR 114.5 - Micro-organisms used as seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Micro-organisms used as seed. 114.5 Section 114.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.5 Micro-organisms used as seed. Micro-organisms used in the preparation of...

  8. Biotransformations of monoterpenes by photoautotrophic micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerzak, L; Lipok, J; Strub, D; Lochyński, S

    2014-12-01

    Monoterpenes are widely used in food technology, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries and as compounds of agricultural importance. It is known that compounds comprising this class can be transformed by a variety of organisms, namely by: bacteria, fungi, yeasts, plants or isolated enzymes. Biotransformations, as one of the most important tools of green chemistry, allow obtaining new products using whole cells of micro-organisms or isolated enzymes in mild reaction conditions. Therefore, biotransformations of monoterpenes, by different type of reaction such as: epoxidation, oxidation and stereoselective hydroxylation, resulted in the production of so desired, enantiomerically defined compounds that can be advised as natural seem to be interesting. Bearing in mind that such processes are carried out also by easy to maintain, photoautotrophic micro-organisms cultivated at large scale, this paper is focused on biotransformations of acyclic, monocyclic and bicyclic monoterpenes by freshwater or haliphylic cyanobacteria and microalgae on the way of mainly stereoselective hydroxylation. Moreover, aspects of potential industrial application of obtained products in medicine, perfume, cosmetics and food industry are discussed. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Micro-organisms responsible for osteo-articular infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza, E; Muñoz, P

    1999-03-01

    Identification of the aetiological agents responsible for bone and joint infections requires either hard to obtain specimens that are easy to interpret, or easy to obtain specimens of difficult interpretation. Isolates obtained by blood cultures, arthrocentesis, or trephine or surgical biopsy bone samples are usually clinically significant. In contrast, samples obtained from sinus tracts or through open wounds are very often easy to obtain but difficult to interpret. Micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most common cause of infections around prosthetic joint materials but are usually of little significance when obtained from the sinus tract of a patient with chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia without osteosynthesis. Other micro-organisms to be interpreted with caution include Corynebacterium spp. and Enterococcus spp. The most important families of antimicrobial agents and their utility in bone and joint infections are briefly reviewed at the end of the chapter. Bone and joint infections require long-term antimicrobial therapy based on the correct diagnosis and the appropriate selection of antimicrobial treatment. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  10. Geochemical assessments and classification of coal mine spoils for better understanding of potential salinity issues at closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Li, Xiaofang; Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas; Kirsch, Bernie

    2013-06-01

    Coal mining wastes in the form of spoils, rejects and tailings deposited on a mine lease can cause various environmental issues including contamination by toxic metals, acid mine drainage and salinity. Dissolution of salt from saline mine spoil, in particular, during rainfall events may result in local or regional dispersion of salts through leaching or in the accumulation of dissolved salts in soil pore water and inhibition of plant growth. The salinity in coal mine environments is from the geogenic salt accumulations and weathering of spoils upon surface exposure. The salts are mainly sulfates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium and sodium. The objective of the research is to investigate and assess the source and mobility of salts and trace elements in various spoil types, thereby predicting the leaching behavior of the salts and trace elements from spoils which have similar geochemical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis, total digestion, sequential extraction and column experiments were conducted to achieve the objectives. Sodium and chloride concentrations best represented salinity of the spoils, which might originate from halite. Electrical conductivity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the leachate decreased sharply with increasing leaching cycles. Leaching of trace elements was not significant in the studied area. Geochemical classification of spoil/waste defined for rehabilitation purposes was useful to predict potential salinity, which corresponded with the classification from cluster analysis based on leaching data of major elements. Certain spoil groups showed high potential salinity by releasing high sodium and chloride concentrations. Therefore, the leaching characteristics of sites having saline susceptible spoils require monitoring, and suitable remediation technologies have to be applied.

  11. The biological costs of not reclaiming bentonite mine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1982-01-01

    Bentonite clay has been mined in the northern Great Plains for more than 80 years. Until the late 1960's, mine spoil materials were left in steep piles and no effort was made to restore biological productivity to these disturbed sites. As a result, unreclaimed spoils are barren and eroded. The biological costs of not reclaiming these spoils are examined in this...

  12. 5-Fluorouracil sensitivity varies among oral micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlancker, Eline; Vanhoecke, Barbara; Smet, Rozel; Props, Ruben; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2016-08-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, often causes oral mucositis, an inflammation and ulceration of the oral mucosa. Micro-organisms in the oral cavity are thought to play an important role in the aggravation and severity of mucositis, but the mechanisms behind this remain unclear. Although 5-FU has been shown to elicit antibacterial effects at high concentrations (>100 µM), its antibacterial effect at physiologically relevant concentrations in the oral cavity is unknown. This study reports the effect of different concentrations of 5-FU (range 0.1-50 µM) on the growth and viability of bacterial monocultures that are present in the oral cavity and the possible role in the activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), an enzyme involved in 5-FU resistance. Our data showed a differential sensitivity among the tested oral species towards physiological concentrations of 5-FU. Klebsiellaoxytoca, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lactobacillus salivarius appeared to be highly resistant to all tested concentrations. In contrast, Lactobacillusoris, Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus pyogenes, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Neisseria mucosa showed a significant reduction in growth and viability starting from very low concentrations (0.2-3.1 µM). We can also provide evidence that DPD is not involved in the 5-FU resistance of the selected species. The observed variability in response to physiological 5-FU concentrations may explain why certain microbiota lead to a community dysbiosis and/or an overgrowth of certain resistant micro-organisms in the oral cavity following cancer treatment.

  13. Race, Commitment to Deviance, and Spoiled Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony R.

    1976-01-01

    Data generated by 234 young black and white inmates in 1971 challenge the assumption that spoiled identity is a necessary, socially invariant outcome of deviant commitment and self-definition. For blacks, the relationship between criminal self-typing and stability and esteem is negative but inconsequential; for whites, the relationship is negative…

  14. A Spectral Emissivity Library of Spoil Substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivovarník, Marek; Pikl, Miroslav; Frouz, J.; Zemek, František; Kopačková, V.; Notesco, G.; Ben Dor, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2016) E-ISSN 2306-5729 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : post- mining sites * spectral emissivity * spectral library * spoil substrates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  15. Review: Micro-organic contaminants in groundwater in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weihong; Xie, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Wen, Chuanlei; Cao, Zhipeng; Wan, Yuyu

    2018-03-01

    Micro-organic contaminants (MOs) in groundwater, which may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems worldwide, are gaining increased attention in China. A great deal of research has been conducted to investigate their sources, occurrences and behavior in aquifers. This paper reviews the main sources, distribution, concentrations and behavior of a wide range of MOs in groundwater in China. These MOs include well-established persistent organic pollutants—polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), bisphenol A (BPA)—and some contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (antibiotics, caffeine, shampoos) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). The results reveal that the main MOs in groundwater are PAHs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), PBDEs, PAEs, and antibiotics. Moreover, some PFCs such as perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have only recently been observed in groundwater as emerging organic contaminants. Additionally, most MOs are distributed in populated and industrialized areas such as the southeast coast of China. Finally, industrial emissions, wastewater treatment plant effluents and agricultural wastewater are found to be dominant sources of MOs in groundwater. Based on the existing pollution levels, regulation and amelioration of MOs are warranted.

  16. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Gilad; Ingham, Colin; Ariel, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  17. Liaison between micro-organisms and oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasprasad, Vijayan; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sathiyajeeva, J.; Karthikeyan, M.; Sunitha, J.; Ragunathan, Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer which is a subtype of head and neck, cancer is any neoplastic tissue growth in the oral cavity. It comprises an abnormal mass of cells that foists genetic mutation and impedes the normal cell cycle, resulting in its unrestrained growth. Various studies on the plausible link between oral microbial flora and cancer notwithstanding, our understanding of their link remains obscure and inadequate. The multitude of mechanisms by which the microflora initiate or spur Carcinogenesis are still under study and scrutiny. As is widely known, the oral cavity is an abode to a wide assortment of microbes, each present in contrasting amounts. It is observed that increased growth of the microflora is concomitant with known clinical risk factors for oral cancer. Manifold bacterial species have been found to interfere directly with eukaryotic cellular signaling, adopting a style typical of tumor promoters. Bacteria are also known to impede apoptosis thereby potentially promoting carcinogenesis. The viral role in carcinogenesis (by annulling of p53 tumor suppressor gene and other cellular proteins with subsequent alteration in host genome function) is well documented. Furthermore, the changes occurring in the commensal microflora in accompaniment with cancer development could possibly be used as a diagnostic indicator for early cancer detection. The intention of this review is to obtain a better understanding of the “role” that micro-organisms play in oral cancer etiology. PMID:26538877

  18. Enzymatic activity of micro-organisms isolated from cork wine stoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, S; Calvo, M A

    2001-01-01

    The production of enzymes by micro-organisms which are found on vegetal substrates is important due to their ability to decompose cellulose, lignin and other components, which guarantee the integrity of the vegetal cell. The objective of this study was to determine the enzymatic activity of filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria, isolated from natural cork stoppers for bottles of still and sparkling wines. Suspensions of fungal conidia, yeasts and bacterial cells of micro-organisms were established in concentrations of 10(6) CFU/ml. The enzymatic activity of these micro-organisms was evaluated by means of the API ZYM system, with which it was possible to determine and semi-quantify nineteen enzymatic activities simultaneously. The enzymes produced by all of the species were esterase (C1), esterase lipase and naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase. The micro-organisms with the greatest enzymatic activity were Monilia sitophila, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger and Aeromonas sp.

  19. Promising native forbs for seeding on mine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardell J. Bjugstad; Warren C. Whitman

    1989-01-01

    Twenty nine species of perennial forbs and 2 biennial forbs were directly seeded into coal mine spoil materials at Dickinson, North Dakota to determine which species would be most successful for direct seeding into coal mine spoil. Those which showed exceptionally good emergence and vigorous growth of seedlings in a two year study were: white prairie clover (...

  20. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. An inappropriate biochar may negatively impact plant growth conditions resulting in poor plant establishment and growth. Matching the appropriate biochar for each mine site requires reconnaissance of spoil chemical and physical conditions and then identifying which properties need rectified to promote plant growth. A rectification hierarchy needs to be established with the primary limiting factor being addressed first, then successive limitations addressed simultaneously or thereafter. We posit that spoils at each site will have a unique chemical, physical, and biological signature that will affect plant growth. For example, some spoils may be extremely acidic, possess phytotoxic concentrations of heavy metals, or have physical conditions that limits water storage and root penetration. Quantifying these and other conditions beforehand allows for the production of designer biochar with specific characteristics tailored for specific plant growth deficiencies within each spoil. Additionally, we recommend the use of proximally located, undisturbed soils to establish spoil remediation targets. In our work, we have developed a decision-tree flow-chart that identifies salient chemical,

  1. Influence of autochthonous micro-organisms on sorption and remobilization of technetium and selenium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maue, G.; Stroetmann, I.; Dott, W.; Taute, T.; Winkler, A.; Pekdeger, A.

    1996-01-01

    Within this research project the influence of autochthonous mirco-organisms on immobilization and remobilization of Technetium and Selenium was investigated. Both redoxsensitive radionuclides are part of the waste of nuclear fuel (Tc app. 6%). Former investigations have shown, that immobilization behaviour of both elements could be influenced by micro-organisms. It has not been known, if the autochthonous (or in situ) organisms from greater depth do also have an influence on radionuclide mobility. The autochthonous populations of micro-organisms in deep sediments and their influence on the migration of Tc and Se were investigated in this study. For this reason recirculation column experiments were carried out. Absolutely sterile and anaerobic handling was necessary for the sampling and the further treatment of the sediments and waters used in the experiments. Therefore special methods for sampling, storage and handling had been developed. The results of recirculation column test with autochthonous micro-organisms were compared with sterile parallel tests and were verified with the results of an elaborated version of the hydrogeochemical equilibration code PHREEQE. It was shown that the autochthonous micro-organisms had only very little influence on the migration behaviour. The reason is the very low population (less than 10 E+6 CFU). Nevertheless it has to be taken into consideration, that conventional laboratory experiments for the estimation of the retention capacities of sediments for hazardous waste lead to an overestimation, if the sediments are contaminated with allochthonous micro-organisms (CFU=colony forming units). (orig.) [de

  2. [Evolution of pathogenic micro-organisms as a challenge for medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Martti

    2009-01-01

    Successful parasitic micro-organisms are able to adapt to the circumstances of the host's organ system, and it is usually not expedient for them to kill their host. Under selection pressure, the evolution of micro-organisms is vastly quicker that that of man. The selection pressure brought about by rapid ecological changes and alterations associated with human action provides for the development of new, dangerous pathogens and transformation of familiar pathogens to become more dangerous. Progress in molecular biology has thus far not yielded as many new tools for the treatment of infectious diseases as the hopes were in the early 2000's.

  3. Acetobacter oeni sp. nov., isolated from spoiled red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luis R; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Rivas, Raúl; Swings, Jean; Trujillo, Martha E; Willems, Anne; Velázquez, Encarna

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated B13T, was isolated from spoiled red wine from the Dão region, Portugal. The strain was Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped and motile. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that B13T belonged to the genus Acetobacter within the Alphaproteobacteria. The closest related species was Acetobacter aceti, with 98.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that B13T constituted a taxon separate from the Acetobacter species with validly published names. The DNA G+C content of B13T was 58.1 mol%. Phenotypic characteristics of B13T allowed its differentiation from the recognized Acetobacter species. B13T produced 5-ketogluconic acid from glucose, but no 2-ketogluconic acid. It produced catalase, but no oxidase. It utilized glycerol, but not maltose, ethanol or methanol as carbon sources. On the basis of the results obtained, B13T represents a novel species for which the name Acetobacter oeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B13T (= LMG 21952T = CECT 5830T).

  4. Isolation and drug sensitivity of micro-organisms from clinical bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and drug sensitivity of micro-organisms from clinical bovine mastitis in Zambia. G. S. Pandey, L. M. Tuchili, Y. Sato, M. M. Musonda, K. Kobayashi. Abstract. (Journal of Science and Technology: 1997 1(1): 33-39). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. PERFORMANCE, CARCASS YIELD AND LITTER QUALITY OF BROILERS RAISED ON LITTERS TREATED WITH MICRO-ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Prado da Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aimed at evaluating the effect of adding beneficial micro-organisms to the litters on litter quality, performance and carcass yield for broilers. A total of 240 one-day chicks were used, and randomly distributed in blocks with four treatments and four replications. The following treatments were carried out in the housing: Treatment 1 – Control with weekly spraying of water on the litters; Treatment 2 – Litter treated with a mixture of inoculated and fermented meal by micro-organisms and weekly spraying of water; Treatment 3 – Litter treated by weekly spraying of micro-organisms; Treatment 4 – Litter treated with the same mixture of meals from treatment two and weekly spraying of micro-organisms. Performance was evaluated by the feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion, viability and carcass, breast and leg yield. From litter samples, pH, dry matter, ashes and nitrogen were evaluated. No differences were found among the treatments. In the conditions the animals were raised, it can be concluded that the treatment on the litter does not affect performance, carcass yield and quality of the litter for broilers.

  6. Effect of micro-organism and particle size on fermentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aziwo Niba

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of micro-organism and particle size on ... fermentation for pH, sugar and organic acids analysis. Significant reductions in the pH of maize and sorghum .... Raw sorghum was milled in a hammer mill to pass through a 3 mm screen while equal quantities of raw maize were ...

  7. The effect of antagonistic micro-organisms on the brood of honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Dik, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Several plant pathogenic fungi enter the plant trough open flowers. Spores of antagonistic micro-organisms present on the flowers can successfully compete with the possible pathogens. Honeybees and bumblebees can be used for transporting these antagonistic micro-organisms from the hive into flowers

  8. Groundwater hydrogeochemical characteristics in rehabilitated coalmine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomo, M.; Masemola, E.

    2016-04-01

    The investigation aims to identify and describe hydrogeochemical processes controlling the evolution of groundwater chemistry in rehabilitated coalmine spoils and their overall influence on groundwater quality at a study area located in the Karoo basin of South Africa. A good understanding of the processes that controls the evolution of the mine water quality is vital for the planning, application and management of post-mining remedial actions. The study utilises scatter plots, statistical analysis, PHREEQC hydrogeochemical modelling, stoichiometric reaction ratios analysis, and the expanded Durov diagram as complimentary tools to interpret the groundwater chemistry data collected from monitoring boreholes from 1995 to 2014. Measured pH ranging between 6-8 and arithmetic mean of 7.32 shows that the groundwater system is characterised by circumneutral hydrogeochemical conditions period. Comparison of measured groundwater ion concentrations to theoretical reaction stoichiometry identifies Dolomite-Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) neutralisation as the main hydrogeochemical process controlling the evolution of the groundwater chemistry. Hydrogeochemical modelling shows that, the groundwater has temporal variations of calcite and dolomite saturation indices characterised by alternating cycles of over-saturation and under-saturation that is driven by the release of sulphate, calcium and magnesium ions from the carbonate-AMD neutralization process. Arithmetic mean concentrations of sulphate, calcium and magnesium are in the order of 762 mg/L, 141 mg/L and 108 mg/L. Calcium and magnesium ions contribute to very hard groundwater quality conditions. Classification based on total dissolved solids (TDS), shows the circumneutral water is of poor to unacceptable quality for drinking purposes. Despite its ability to prevent AMD formation and leaching of metals, the dolomite-AMD neutralisation process can still lead to problems of elevated TDS and hardness which mines should be aware of

  9. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2008-07-15

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  10. Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate degradation in the presence of micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabouan-Guyon, S M; Fauvaud, C M; Courtois, P Y; Barthes, D M

    1997-02-01

    This study compared the degradation of hydrocortisone 17-butyrate (H17B) in the presence of six different bacteria, commonly found on psoriatic skin. H17B and its degradation products (hydrocortisone and hydrocortisone 21-butyrate (H21B)) were assayed by HPLC. In the absence of micro-organisms, we observed 16.6 +/- 7.1% degradation. In the presence of micro-organisms and otherwise similar conditions, we noted that H17B degradation was not modified by cocci (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae). Three bacilli increased degradation, Escherichia coli 59.1 +/- 19.4%, Klebsiella oxytoca 62.1 +/- 6.7% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 56.0 +/- 17.9%. The degradation of H17B into hydrortisone and H21B may produce a loss of therapeutic activity.

  11. Toxicological impacts of antibiotics on aquatic micro-organisms: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välitalo, Pia; Kruglova, Antonina; Mikola, Anna; Vahala, Riku

    2017-05-01

    Antibiotics are found globally in the environment at trace levels due to their extensive consumption, which raises concerns about the effects they can have on non-target organisms, especially environmental micro-organisms. So far the majority of studies have focused on different aspects of antibiotic resistance or on analyzing the occurrence, fate, and removal of antibiotics from hospital and municipal wastewaters. Little attention has been paid to ecotoxicological effects of antibiotics on aquatic micro-organisms although they play a critical role in most ecosystems and they are potentially sensitive to these substances. Here we review the current state of research on the toxicological impacts of antibiotics to aquatic micro-organisms, including proteobacteria, cyanobacteria, algae and bacteria commonly present in biological wastewater treatment processes. We focus on antibiotics that are poorly removed during wastewater treatment and thus end up in surface waters. We critically discuss and compare the available analytical methods and test organisms based on effect concentrations and identify the knowledge gaps and future challenges. We conclude that, in general, cyanobacteria and ammonium oxidizing bacteria are the most sensitive micro-organisms to antibiotics. It is important to include chronic tests in ecotoxicological assessment, because acute tests are not always appropriate in case of low sensitivity (for example for proteobacteria). However, the issue of rapid development of antibiotic resistance should be regarded in chronic testing. Furthermore, the application of other species of bacteria and endpoints should be considered in the future, not forgetting the mixture effect and bacterial community studies. Due to differences in the sensitivity of different test organisms to individual antibiotic substances, the application of several bioassays with varying test organisms would provide more comprehensive data for the risk assessment of antibiotics

  12. A general method for selection of riboflavin-overproducing food grade micro-organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Catherine M; Smid, Eddy J; Rutten, Ger; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background This study describes a strategy to select and isolate spontaneous riboflavin-overproducing strains of Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum, Leuconostoc (Lc.) mesenteroides and Propionibacterium (P.) freudenreichii. Results The toxic riboflavin analogue roseoflavin was used to isolate natural riboflavin-overproducing variants of the food grade micro-organisms Lb. plantarum, Lc. mesenteroides and P. freudenreichii strains. The method was successfully employed for strains of all thr...

  13. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  14. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  15. The Characteristics and Fertility Status of Tin Mine Spoils of the Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... include reclaimed cropped spoil (RCS), reclaimed uncropped spoil (RUS), mining (intermound) depressions (MD), spoil mounds (SM) and surrounding flat land (SFL). Unmined Ropp soil (URS) was included as control. RCS had significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of total nitrogen (1.6 g kg-1) and organic carbon (13.7 ...

  16. Effect of enteric micro-organisms on intestinal sugar and fatty acid absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, V; Houghton, M; Gracey, M

    1977-08-01

    The effect of micro-organisms contaminating the upper intestinal contents of malnourished children on intestinal absorption of 3-0 methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranose (3-M.G.) and oleic acid was studied in rats in vivo. Oleci acid absorption was unaffected by non-pathogenic E. coli but decreased by E. coli 0111, Salmonella paratyphi B., Shigella sonnei and Candida sp. This effect was probably explained by intestinal secretion diluting the test solution leading to a decreased diffusion gradient for solubilised fatty acid. Inhibition of sugar absorption occurred with bacterial suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, E. coli and Candida sp. and cell-free preparations of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, a non-pathogenic E. coli, Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Candida sp. These effects were not explained by dilution of the test solution. This indicates that numerous micro-organisms and, in some instances, their cell-free preparations can interfere with intestinal active sugar transport. These findings may be relevant to the production of malabsorption in malnourished children who have a wide variety of micro-organisms contaminating their upper intestinal contents.

  17. Role of soil micro-organisms in the sorption of radionuclides in organic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parekh, N.R.; Potter, E.D.; Poskitt, J.M.; Dodd, B.A.; Sanchez, A.

    2004-01-01

    Although the fraction of radionuclides linked to soil organic matter and soil microorganisms may be relatively small when compared to the amount bound to the mineral constituents, (mostly irreversibly bound), this fraction is of great importance as it remains readily exchangeable and is thus available for plant uptake. Many studies have measured the uptake of radionuclides by organic soils but the role of soil micro-organisms may have been masked by the presence of even small amounts of clay minerals occurring in these soils. We have carried out a series of experiments using a biologically active, 'mineral-free' organic soil produced under laboratory conditions, to determine the potential of soil micro-organisms to accumulate radionuclides Cs-134 and Sr-85. Biological uptake and release was differentiated from abiotic processes by comparing experimental results with inoculated and non-inoculated sterile organic material. We have investigated the role of different clay minerals, competing potassium and calcium ions, and changes in temperature on the sorption of Cs and Sr isotopes. The results from studies so far show conclusively that living components of soil systems are of primary importance in the uptake of radionuclides in organic material, microorganisms also influence the importance of chemical factors (e.g. adsorption to clay minerals) which may play a secondary role in these highly organic systems. In further experiments we hope to define the precise role of specific soil micro-organisms in these organic systems. (author)

  18. Lactobacillus cerevisiae sp. nov., isolated from a spoiled brewery sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, Jennifer; Jacob, Fritz; Wenning, Mareike; Hutzler, Mathias

    2017-09-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated TUM BP 140423000-2250T (=DSM 100836T=LMG 29073T), was isolated from spoiled beer. This bacterium did not form spores, and was catalase-negative and facultatively anaerobic. Its taxonomic position was determined in a polyphasic study. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity data showed that the strain belonged to the Lactobacillus genus with the nearest neighbours being Lactobacillus koreensis DCY50T (sequence similarity 99.5 %), Lactobacillus yonginensis THK-V8T (99.2 %) and Lactobacillus parabrevis LMG 11984T (98.7 %). Sequence comparisons of additional phylogenetic markers, pheS and rpoA, confirmed the 16S rRNA gene sequence tree topology. The maximum rpoA sequence similarity was 92.3 % with L. yonginensis THK-V8T. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 50.0 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness showed that strain TUM BP 140423000-2250T could be clearly distinguished from L. koreensis DCY 50T (30.8±0.4 %) and L. yonginensis THK-V8T (23.6±5.9 %). The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, summed feature 7 (comprised of C19 : 0 cyclo ω10c/C19 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. Based on phenotypic and genotypic studies, the authors propose classifying the new isolate as a representative of a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus cerevisiae sp. nov. The type strain is deposited at the Research Centre Weihenstephan for Brewing and Food Quality as TUM BP 140423000-2250T (=DSM 100836T=LMG 29073T).

  19. Spoiling the womb”: Definitions, Aetiologies and responses to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spoiling the womb”: Definitions, Aetiologies and responses to infertility in North West Province, Cameroon. ... Now, family planning is promoted nationwide to reduce population growth, and infertility is not addressed by public health policy or services. In contrast to the biomedical definition used by planners, at the local level ...

  20. Investigation on the spoiling of meat using PTR-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, D.; Maerk, T.D.; Margesin, R.; Schinner, F.

    2002-01-01

    The spoiling of meat was investigated. Beef (pork) were wrapped into different kinds of packages (air and vacuum) and stored at 4 o C for 10 (13) days. The emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the course of time were measured and a large increase in these emissions after a few days of storage was found. Also a large difference in the spoiling behavior between vacuum- and air- packed meat was observed. The measurements were performed using a proton-transfer-reaction-mass spectrometer(PTR-MS) system, it allows on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations. Ethylacetate, methylpropionate, and propylformate were detected as typical spoiling compounds in pork samples. After 3.5 days the concentrations started to exponentially increase, but after 6 days remained more or less unchanged. This VOCs behaviour corresponds to a typical bacterial growth curve. Therefore, it was concluded that bacteria produce these components. In a second measurements set, the VOCs emitted by beef under aerobic (normal packed) and anaerobic (vacuum packed) conditions were compared. In the case of normal air-packed beef, the above mentioned spoiling compounds strongly increased with the time, while with the vacuum-packed beef a strong increase of ethanol was detected. This method as a replacement of the bacteriological examinations of meat spoilage is proposed. (nevyjel)

  1. stabilization of dredged spoils for pavement construction in the niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Tse

    to which dredge spoils can be deployed, including use as fill and construction materials, placing the dredged material at specific locations to combat erosion, and manufacturing bricks, etc. These uses will be particularly beneficial given the high rainfall intensity, extensive marsh land and frequent oil spills in the study area.

  2. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engineer or other qualified professional specialist experienced in the construction of earth and rockfill... minesite. (11) Coal processing wastes shall not be disposed of in head-of-hollow or valley fills, and may... require a flatter slope. (c) Head-of-hollow fills. Disposal of spoil in the head-of-hollow fill shall meet...

  3. stabilization of dredged spoils for pavement construction in the niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Tse

    spoils by stabilization produces a 'conditioned' soil mix with improved strength properties suitable for use in civil engineering construction. In view of the large volumes of sand dredged from rivers along the East-West road alignment, it is thought that a beneficial scheme to use such large quantity of otherwise waste material ...

  4. Prediction of the acid generating potential of coal mining spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterroso, C.; Macias, F. [Universidad de Santiago, Santiago (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola

    1998-07-01

    The sulfide oxidation impact on mined land reclamation makes it necessary for mine spoils to be classified according to their acidifying potential. In this paper predictions were made of the acid generating potential of sulfide-containing spoils from the Puentes lignite mine (Galicia, NW Spain), and the limits of sulfur contents allowable for their storage in aerobic conditions, were established. Using samples of fresh spoils, analyses were made of the content and speciation of sulfur, pH was measured after oxidation of the sample with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (pH of oxidation = pH{sub OX}), and titration of the oxidation extract with 0.1N NaOH to pH = 7 was carried out (Net Acid Production = NAP). The total sulfur content (S{sub T}) varied between {lt} 0.01% and {gt} 3%, with pyritic-S being the most common form ({gt} 80%). pH{sub OX} varied between 1.6 and 6.4 and NAP between 1.2 and 85.0 Kg-CaCO{sub 3}t{sup -1}. A high correlation was found between the NAP and the S{sub T}(r-0.98, p{lt} 0.001). Spoils with S{sub T} {gt} 0.15% cause high risks of mine-soil acidification, and create the need for large doses of CaCO{sub 3} to be used on final surface of the mine dump. Use of fly ash, produced from the combustion of lignite, as an alternative to commercial lime is more effective in the control of acidity generated by spoils with high S{sub T}. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Two-dimensional tracking of a motile micro-organism allowing high-resolution observation with various imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, H.; Ogawa, N.; Ishikawa, M.; Hashimoto, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a micro-organism tracking system using a high-speed vision system is reported. This system two dimensionally tracks a freely swimming micro-organism within the field of an optical microscope by moving a chamber of target micro-organisms based on high-speed visual feedback. The system we developed could track a paramecium using various imaging techniques, including bright-field illumination, dark-field illumination, and differential interference contrast, at magnifications of 5 times and 20 times. A maximum tracking duration of 300 s was demonstrated. Also, the system could track an object with a velocity of up to 35 000 μm/s (175 diameters/s), which is significantly faster than swimming micro-organisms

  6. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Morris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  7. Potential applications of nonthermal plasmas against biofilm-associated micro-organisms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puligundla, P; Mok, C

    2017-05-01

    Biofilms as complex microbial communities attached to surfaces pose several challenges in different sectors, ranging from food and healthcare to desalination and power generation. The biofilm mode of growth allows microorganisms to survive in hostile environments and biofilm cells exhibit distinct physiology and behaviour in comparison with their planktonic counterparts. They are ubiquitous, resilient and difficult to eradicate due to their resistant phenotype. Several chemical-based cleaning and disinfection regimens are conventionally used against biofilm-dwelling micro-organisms in vitro. Although such approaches are generally considered to be effective, they may contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and environmental pollution. Consequently, advanced green technologies for biofilm control are constantly emerging. Disinfection using nonthermal plasmas (NTPs) is one of the novel strategies having a great potential for control of biofilms of a broad spectrum of micro-organisms. This review discusses several aspects related to the inactivation of biofilm-associated bacteria and fungi by different types of NTPs under in vitro conditions. A brief introduction summarizes prevailing methods in biofilm inactivation, followed by introduction to gas discharge plasmas, active plasma species and their inactivating mechanism. Subsequently, significance and aspects of NTP inactivation of biofilm-associated bacteria, especially those of medical importance, including opportunistic pathogens, oral pathogenic bacteria, foodborne pathogens and implant bacteria, are discussed. The remainder of the review discusses majorly about the synergistic effect of NTPs and their activity against biofilm-associated fungi, especially Candida species. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry...... since mold can develop when frozen foods are allowed to attain temperatures of -10ºC, or above. The growth of fungi on the food surface results in economic losses and represents a hazard to public health due to the possibility of mycotoxin production. The aim of this study was to identify the species...... citreoviridin, roquefortine C, penitrem A, and verrucosidin under standard conditions. Considering the occurrence of fungal spoilage in frozen food and the potential hazard involved, more studies on psychrophilic fungi growth in foods stored at low temperatures are necessary. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  9. A national-scale assessment of micro-organic contaminants in groundwater of England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; Stuart, Marianne; Talbot, John; Lapworth, Dan; Hart, Alwyn

    2016-10-15

    A large variety of micro-organic (MO) compounds is used in huge quantities for a range of purposes (e.g. manufacturing, food production, healthcare) and is now being frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Interest in the occurrence of MO contaminants in the terrestrial and aquatic environments continues to grow, as well as in their environmental fate and potential toxicity. However, the contamination of groundwater resources by MOs has a limited evidence base compared to other freshwater resources. Of particular concern are newly 'emerging contaminants' such as pharmaceuticals and lifestyle compounds, particularly those with potential endocrine disrupting properties. While groundwater often has a high degree of protection from pollution due to physical, chemical and biological attenuation processes in the subsurface compared to surface aquatic environments, trace concentrations of a large range of compounds are still detected in groundwater and in some cases may persist for decades due to the long residence times of groundwater systems. This study provides the first national-scale assessment of micro-organic compounds in groundwater in England and Wales. A large set of monitoring data was analysed to determine the relative occurrence and detected concentrations of different groups of compounds and to determine relationships with land-use, aquifer type and groundwater vulnerability. MOs detected including emerging compounds such as caffeine, DEET, bisphenol A, anti-microbial agents and pharmaceuticals as well as a range of legacy contaminants including chlorinated solvents and THMs, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides and other industrial compounds. There are clear differences in MOs between land-use types, particularly for urban-industrial and natural land-use. Temporal trends of MO occurrence are assessed but establishing long-term trends is not yet possible. Copyright © 2016 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of arboviruses and other micro-organisms in experimentally infected mosquitoes using massively parallel sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hall-Mendelin

    Full Text Available Human disease incidence attributed to arbovirus infection is increasing throughout the world, with effective control interventions limited by issues of sustainability, insecticide resistance and the lack of effective vaccines. Several promising control strategies are currently under development, such as the release of mosquitoes trans-infected with virus-blocking Wolbachia bacteria. Implementation of any control program is dependent on effective virus surveillance and a thorough understanding of virus-vector interactions. Massively parallel sequencing has enormous potential for providing comprehensive genomic information that can be used to assess many aspects of arbovirus ecology, as well as to evaluate novel control strategies. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, we analyzed Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus experimentally infected with dengue, yellow fever or chikungunya viruses. Random amplification was used to prepare sufficient template for sequencing on the Personal Genome Machine. Viral sequences were present in all infected mosquitoes. In addition, in most cases, we were also able to identify the mosquito species and mosquito micro-organisms, including the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Importantly, naturally occurring Wolbachia strains could be differentiated from strains that had been trans-infected into the mosquito. The method allowed us to assemble near full-length viral genomes and detect other micro-organisms without prior sequence knowledge, in a single reaction. This is a step toward the application of massively parallel sequencing as an arbovirus surveillance tool. It has the potential to provide insight into virus transmission dynamics, and has applicability to the post-release monitoring of Wolbachia in mosquito populations.

  11. PREFACE: Swimming at low Reynolds numbers—motility of micro-organisms Swimming at low Reynolds numbers—motility of micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garstecki, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2009-05-01

    net displacement nor a rectified speed. This rule forced various strategies of swimming that all break the reciprocity of motion of the organelles of the swimmers. The most common—and most commonly known—of these are rotating a helical flagella, as utilized by e.g. the bacterium E. coli [3], or performing asymmetric power and recovery strokes, as done by e.g. the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [4]. There are however other strategies, such as sending periodic waves over the celia that cover the whole surface of the cell. This mechanism is discussed on the grounds of a physical model by Downton and Stark in this issue [5]. Ekiel-Jeżewska and Wajnryb [6] discuss yet another physical model of a swimmer comprised of two arms that can spin along their axes. They show that this spinning can significantly affect sedimentation, a result that could lead to insights into the behavior of gravitactic micro-organisms. Although the scallop theorem holds, it allows for refinement. For example, in this issue, Gonzalez-Rodriguez and Lauga show several models of swimmers that can utilize the inertia of their bodies (as opposed to the inertia of the fluid in which they swim) by performing reciprocal strokes to move [7]. Golestanian and Ajdari discuss another strategy that can avoid a non-reciprocal force resulting in net motion [8]. At small scales, thermal fluctuations become important and Golestanian and Ajdari show a swimming ratchet: they demonstrate that an appropriate design of the geometry of the swimmer can yield a net speed as a result of thermal fluctuations. Wilson et al [9] utilize the concept of the Lyapunov exponent calculated for the trajectories of elements of fluid to show how micro-organisms manage fluctuations in flow, and how the exact mechanics of swimming creates flow barriers between the fluid that is expelled during the power stroke and the fluid that returns during the recovery stroke of an organism. Besides the insignificance of inertia, there is

  12. Reestablishing natural succession on acidic mine spoils at high elevations: long-term ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray W. Brown; Michael C. Amacher; Walter F. Mueggler; Janice Kotuby-Amacher

    2003-01-01

    Methods for restoring native plant communities on acidic mine spoils at high elevations were evaluated in a "demonstration area" in the New World Mining District of southern Montana. Research plots installed in 1976 were assessed for 22 years and compared with adjacent native reference plant communities. A 1.5-acre (0.61-ha) area of mine spoils was shaped and...

  13. Effect of elevated oxygen and carbon dioxide on the surface growth of vegetable-associated micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amanatidou, A.; Smid, E.J.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    The impact of a novel type of Modified Atmosphere (MA), referred to as high O2-MA, on micro-organisms associated with the spoilage of minimally-processed vegetables was studied. Pure cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter agglomerans, Aureobacterium strain 27, Candida guilliermondii, C.

  14. Aspects of the use of honeybees and bumblebees as vector of antagonistic micro-organisms in plant diseas control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Langerak, C.J.; Tongeren, van C.A.M.; Dik, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) are used for pollination in agriculture and horticulture. The morphological and behavioural characteristics of bees make them good pollinators. Thanks to this, bees may also be used as vector of antagonistic micro-organisms for

  15. Modelling and predicting the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage micro-organisms in cold-smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, B.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate and model the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage micro-organisms in cold-smoked salmon.Methods and Results: Growth kinetics of L. monocytogenes, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci and Photobacterium phosphoreum were determined in ...

  16. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  17. Vegetational stabilization of uranium spoil areas, grants, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    Factors that could be detrimental to vegetative stabilization of uranium mine and mill waste material were examined. Physical and chemical analyses of materials from an open-pit uranium mine and material from three inactive mill tailing piles in New Mexico were performed. Analyses for selected trace elements in mill tailing material and associated vegetation from piles in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah were also performed. Field and laboratory experiments identified problems associated with establishing vegetation on spoil material. Problems of uptake and concentration of toxic elements by plants growing on specific spoil material were also identified. Ecological observations in conjunction with physical and chemical analyses of specific geologic units, which form the overburden and waste dumps at the open-pit mine, identified a specific geologic material that, if segregated and placed on the surface of the dumps, would pose the least set of problems for a revegetation program. A pilot revegetation project verified that segregation and use of specific geologic material in the overburden could be utilized successfully and economically for reestablishment of native vegetation on mine waste material.

  18. Vegetational stabilization of uranium spoil areas, grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    Factors that could be detrimental to vegetative stabilization of uranium mine and mill waste material were examined. Physical and chemical analyses of materials from an open-pit uranium mine and material from three inactive mill tailing piles in New Mexico were performed. Analyses for selected trace elements in mill tailing material and associated vegetation from piles in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah were also performed. Field and laboratory experiments identified problems associated with establishing vegetation on spoil material. Problems of uptake and concentration of toxic elements by plants growing on specific spoil material were also identified. Ecological observations in conjunction with physical and chemical analyses of specific geologic units, which form the overburden and waste dumps at the open-pit mine, identified a specific geologic material that, if segregated and placed on the surface of the dumps, would pose the least set of problems for a revegetation program. A pilot revegetation project verified that segregation and use of specific geologic material in the overburden could be utilized successfully and economically for reestablishment of native vegetation on mine waste material

  19. Colonyzer: automated quantification of micro-organism growth characteristics on solid agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput screens comparing growth rates of arrays of distinct micro-organism cultures on solid agar are useful, rapid methods of quantifying genetic interactions. Growth rate is an informative phenotype which can be estimated by measuring cell densities at one or more times after inoculation. Precise estimates can be made by inoculating cultures onto agar and capturing cell density frequently by plate-scanning or photography, especially throughout the exponential growth phase, and summarising growth with a simple dynamic model (e.g. the logistic growth model. In order to parametrize such a model, a robust image analysis tool capable of capturing a wide range of cell densities from plate photographs is required. Results Colonyzer is a collection of image analysis algorithms for automatic quantification of the size, granularity, colour and location of micro-organism cultures grown on solid agar. Colonyzer is uniquely sensitive to extremely low cell densities photographed after dilute liquid culture inoculation (spotting due to image segmentation using a mixed Gaussian model for plate-wide thresholding based on pixel intensity. Colonyzer is robust to slight experimental imperfections and corrects for lighting gradients which would otherwise introduce spatial bias to cell density estimates without the need for imaging dummy plates. Colonyzer is general enough to quantify cultures growing in any rectangular array format, either growing after pinning with a dense inoculum or growing with the irregular morphology characteristic of spotted cultures. Colonyzer was developed using the open source packages: Python, RPy and the Python Imaging Library and its source code and documentation are available on SourceForge under GNU General Public License. Colonyzer is adaptable to suit specific requirements: e.g. automatic detection of cultures at irregular locations on streaked plates for robotic picking, or decreasing analysis time by

  20. Investigation of Removal Capacities of Biofilters for Airborne Viable Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soret, Rémi; Fanlo, Jean-Louis; Malhautier, Luc; Geiger, Philippe; Bayle, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    New emerging issues appears regarding the possible aerosolization of micro-organisms from biofilters to the ambient air. Traditional bioaerosol sampling and cultural methods used in literature offer relative efficiencies. In this study, a new method revolving around a particle counter capable of detecting total and viable particles in real time was used. This counter (BioTrak 9510-BD) uses laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology to determine the biological nature of the particle. The concentration of viable particles was measured on two semi-industrial pilot scale biofilters in order to estimate the Removal Efficiency in viable particles (REvp) in stable conditions and to examine the influence of pollutant feeding and relative humidification of the gaseous effluent on the REvp. The REvp of biofilters reached near 80% and highlighted both the stability of that removal and the statistical equivalence between two identical biofilters. Pollutant deprivation periods of 12 h, 48 h and 30 days were shown to have no influence on the biofilters’ removal capacity, demonstrating the robustness and adaptation capacities of the flora. In contrast, a 90-day famine period turned the biofilters into emitters of viable particles. Finally, the humidification of the effluent was shown to negatively influence the removal capacity for viable particles, as drying off the air was shown to increase the REvp from 60 to 85%. PMID:29562709

  1. Airborne enteric micro-organisms and ammonia levels in diaper-changing rooms in kindergartens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaattovaara, P E; Kivimäenpää, M; Vaattovaara, P; Pasanen, P; Heinonen-Tanski, H

    2012-05-01

      We evaluated risks associated with diaper changing in Finnish kindergartens where children were using either modern disposable paper or reusable cloth diapers.   We determined enteric micro-organisms and ammonia in diaper-changing rooms in four kindergartens in autumn and winter in the ambient air. No coliphages were detected in the air. The numbers of faecal coliforms and enterococci in air were typically low regardless of whether the children used either paper or cloth diapers. Ammonia concentrations increased over the background level because of diaper changing.   The numbers of bacteria or coliphages are not expected to pose any high air hygiene risks, and increased ammonia air concentrations are unlikely to impair the health of staff or children when diapers are changed in modern kindergartens. However, increased ammonia gas concentrations indicate that some other diaper-related gas-phase emissions should be studied to understand better diaper-related health risks.   Modern reusable cloth baby diapers and the modern paper baby diapers used in this study are equally safe with respect to risks from airborne virus, bacteria or ammonia. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Combining ANOVA-PCA with POCHEMON to analyse micro-organism development in a polymicrobial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Brigitte P; Neerincx, Anne H; Bertrand, Samuel; Leemans, Manja A A P; Postma, Geert J; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Cristescu, Simona M; Buydens, Lutgarde M C; Jansen, Jeroen J

    2017-04-22

    Revealing the biochemistry associated to micro-organismal interspecies interactions is highly relevant for many purposes. Each pathogen has a characteristic metabolic fingerprint that allows identification based on their unique multivariate biochemistry. When pathogen species come into mutual contact, their co-culture will display a chemistry that may be attributed both to mixing of the characteristic chemistries of the mono-cultures and to competition between the pathogens. Therefore, investigating pathogen development in a polymicrobial environment requires dedicated chemometric methods to untangle and focus upon these sources of variation. The multivariate data analysis method Projected Orthogonalised Chemical Encounter Monitoring (POCHEMON) is dedicated to highlight metabolites characteristic for the interaction of two micro-organisms in co-culture. However, this approach is currently limited to a single time-point, while development of polymicrobial interactions may be highly dynamic. A well-known multivariate implementation of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) uses Principal Component Analysis (ANOVA-PCA). This allows the overall dynamics to be separated from the pathogen-specific chemistry to analyse the contributions of both aspects separately. For this reason, we propose to integrate ANOVA-PCA with the POCHEMON approach to disentangle the pathogen dynamics and the specific biochemistry in interspecies interactions. Two complementary case studies show great potential for both liquid and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry to reveal novel information on chemistry specific to interspecies interaction during pathogen development. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A general method for selection of riboflavin-overproducing food grade micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutten Ger

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes a strategy to select and isolate spontaneous riboflavin-overproducing strains of Lactobacillus (Lb. plantarum, Leuconostoc (Lc. mesenteroides and Propionibacterium (P. freudenreichii. Results The toxic riboflavin analogue roseoflavin was used to isolate natural riboflavin-overproducing variants of the food grade micro-organisms Lb. plantarum, Lc. mesenteroides and P. freudenreichii strains. The method was successfully employed for strains of all three species. The mutation(s responsible for the observed overproduction of riboflavin were identified for isolates of two species. Conclusion Selection for spontaneous roseoflavin-resistant mutants was found to be a reliable method to obtain natural riboflavin-overproducing strains of a number of species commonly used in the food industry. This study presents a convenient method for deriving riboflavin-overproducing strains of bacterial starter cultures, which are currently used in the food industry, by a non-recombinant methodology. Use of such starter strains can be exploited to increase the vitamin content in certain food products.

  4. The functional micro-organization of grid cells revealed by cellular-resolution imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heys, James G; Rangarajan, Krsna V; Dombeck, Daniel A

    2014-12-03

    Establishing how grid cells are anatomically arranged, on a microscopic scale, in relation to their firing patterns in the environment would facilitate a greater microcircuit-level understanding of the brain's representation of space. However, all previous grid cell recordings used electrode techniques that provide limited descriptions of fine-scale organization. We therefore developed a technique for cellular-resolution functional imaging of medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) neurons in mice navigating a virtual linear track, enabling a new experimental approach to study MEC. Using these methods, we show that grid cells are physically clustered in MEC compared to nongrid cells. Additionally, we demonstrate that grid cells are functionally micro-organized: the similarity between the environment firing locations of grid cell pairs varies as a function of the distance between them according to a "Mexican hat"-shaped profile. This suggests that, on average, nearby grid cells have more similar spatial firing phases than those further apart. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of passive body dynamics in micro-organism swimming in complex fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomases, Becca; Guy, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the role of passive body dynamics in the kinematics of swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids. Asymptotic analysis and linear theory are used to predict shape changes that result as body elasticity and fluid elasticity are varied. The analysis is compared with a computational model of a finite length swimmer in a Stokes-Oldroyd-B fluid. Simulations and theory agree quantitatively for small amplitude motions with low fluid elasticity (Deborah number). This may not be surprising as the theory is expected hold in these two regimes. What is more remarkable is that the predicted shape changes match the computational shape changes quantitatively for large amplitudes, even for large Deborah numbers. Shape changes only tell part of the story. Swimming speed depends on other effects as well. We see that shape changes can predict swimming speed well when either the amplitude is small (including large Deborah number) or when the Deborah number is small (including large amplitudes). It is only in the large De AND large amplitude regime where the theory breaks down and swimming speed can no longer be inferred from shape changes alone.

  6. [Counting colonies of micro-organisms on solid media (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonebrink, B

    1978-11-01

    The base of the system consists in a stainless steel cup with a shallow recess into which about 3 ml. of fluid agar medium may be poured, which produces a flat rectangular surface of about 8.65 sq. cm. after solidification. In the majority of cases, inoculation was performed by flooding the medium with a diluted suspension of micro-organisms. The cups were then put upright and carried over into a centrifuge tube which was closed with a rubber stopper. After the required incubation period, the colonies were counted, if necessary, using a specially developed colony counter connected to an electromechanical counting relay. Dilutions were prepared in screw capped bottles of various sizes. Pipettes were used only with connected "Volac" pipette holders. Cleaning and sterilisation could be done in an efficient and reliable way. In addition to the above method, the cups containing media may also be used for: impression counts, examination of fluids by immersion, inoculation by swabs or wire loops, studying air pollution. the system requires a rather large investment, but the daily cost and quantities of material used are small. The underlying study of the literature and the discussion of statistical methods used are available to the interested reader.

  7. How cells jump: Ultrafast motions in the single-celled micro-organism Halteria grandinella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Deepak; Cockenpot, Fabien; Prakash, Manu

    Here we describe a novel behavior of ''jumping'' in micro-organisms, observed in the common freshwater ciliate Halteria grandinella. This organism's swimming motion is characterized by periods of forward swimming at around 10 body lengths/s punctuated by extremely rapid backward ''jumps'' where the organism reaches speeds of more than 150 body lengths/s. We show, using detailed measurements of the swimming motion through high-speed video microscopy, that the extreme swimming speeds are achieved by the motile cilia transitioning to a beating mode characterized by a significantly larger beat amplitude and an associated reversal in the direction of thrust production. We further show that H.grandinella cells can sense a fluid shear stress signal and ''jump'' in response: a possible predator avoidance mechanism. We investigate this mechanism of shear sensing and study the role of the long, slender structures known as ''cirri'' as microscale sensors of shear stress. The jumping of H.grandinella is at the limits of the metabolic rate of the organism and thus offers insights into the limiting factors governing energy storage and mechanical power release at the microscale. Concurrently their sensing apparatus allows an understanding of the physical limits of microscale mechanical sensing. This material is based on work supported by, or in part by, the US Army Research Laboratory and the US Army Research Office under contract/Grant Number W911NF-15-1-0358.

  8. Bioavailability and microbial adaptation to elevated levels of uranium in an acid, organic topsoil forming on an old mine spoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joner, E.J.; Munier-Lamy, C.; Gouget, B.

    2007-01-01

    An old mine spoil at a 19. century mining site with considerable residues of uranium (400-800 mg U/kg) was investigated with respect to U concentrations in soil and plants and tolerance to U in the soil microbial community in order to describe the bioavailability of U. Measurements of soil fractions representing water-soluble U, easily exchangeable U, and U bound to humidified organic matter showed that all fractions contained elevated concentrations of U. Plant U concentrations were only 10 times higher at the mine spoil site compared to the reference site (3 mg U/kg vs 0.3 mg U/kg), while the most easily available soil fractions contained 0.18 to 0.86 mg U/kg soil at the mine spoil. An eco-toxicity bioassay using incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into the indigenous microbial communities of the two soils in the presence of increasing U concentrations showed that microorganisms at the mining site were sensitive to U but also that they had acquired a substantial tolerance toward U (EC50, the effective concentration reducing activity by 50% of UO 2 -citrate was similar to 120 μM as compared to 30 μM in the reference soil). In the assay, more than 40% of the microbial activity was maintained in the presence of 1 mM UO 2 -citrate versus 3% in the reference soil. We conclude that U-enriched mining waste can contain sufficiently elevated concentrations of bio-available U to affect indigenous microorganisms and that bio-available U imposes a selection pressure that favors the development of a highly uranium-tolerant microbial community, while plant uptake of U remains low. (authors)

  9. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils. [USA - Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A M University, Normal, AL (USA). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza {ital Lespedeza striata} (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza {ital Lespedeza cuneata} (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by Bragg' soybean {ital Glycine max} (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl {gt} DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  11. Effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Paul M.; Garza, Eric L.; Butcher, Jason T.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated dredge spoil is a national concern due to its scope and effects on biota, water quality, and the physical environment. This literature review discusses the effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities. Plant communities naturally shift over time with changing environmental conditions. Addition of toxins and nutrients and changes in hydrology may influence plant community structure. The storage and disposal of nutrient and metal contaminated dredge spoils may cause shifts in nearby plant communities. Shifts in species composition and diversity may not be observed for decades after nutrient enrichment, causing any disturbance to remain undetected. Plant community shifts often have great amounts of inertia and are difficult to reverse.

  12. From bioseparation to artificial micro-organs: microfluidic chip based particle manipulation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Microfluidic device technology provides unique physical phenomena which are not available in the macroscopic world. These may be exploited towards a diverse array of applications in biotechnology and biomedicine ranging from bioseparation of particulate samples to the assembly of cells into structures that resemble the smallest functional unit of an organ. In this paper a general overview of chip-based particle manipulation and separation is given. In the state of the art electric, magnetic, optical and gravitational field effects are utilized. Also, mechanical obstacles often in combination with force fields and laminar flow are employed to achieve separation of particles or molecules. In addition, three applications based on dielectrophoretic forces for particle manipulation in microfluidic systems are discussed in more detail. Firstly, a virus assay is demonstrated. There, antibody-loaded microbeads are used to bind virus particles from a sample and subsequently are accumulated to form a pico-liter sized aggregate located at a predefined position in the chip thus enabling highly sensitive fluorescence detection. Secondly, subcellular fractionation of mitochondria from cell homogenate yields pure samples as was demonstrated by Western Blot and 2D PAGE analysis. Robust long-term operation with complex cell homogenate samples while avoiding electrode fouling is achieved by a set of dedicated technical means. Finally, a chip intended for the dielectrophoretic assembly of hepatocytes and endothelial cells into a structure resembling a liver sinusoid is presented. Such "artificial micro organs" are envisioned as substance screening test systems providing significantly higher predictability with respect to the in vivo response towards a substance under test.

  13. Optical macro-tweezers: trapping of highly motile micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalhammer, G; Steiger, R; Bernet, S; Ritsch-Marte, M

    2011-01-01

    Optical micromanipulation stands for contact-free handling of microscopic particles by light. Optical forces can manipulate non-absorbing objects in a large range of sizes, e.g., from biological cells down to cold atoms. Recently much progress has been made going from the micro- down to the nanoscale. Less attention has been paid to going the other way, trapping increasingly large particles. Optical tweezers typically employ a single laser beam tightly focused by a microscope objective of high numerical aperture to stably trap a particle in three dimensions (3D). As the particle size increases, stable 3D trapping in a single-beam trap requires scaling up the optical power, which eventually induces adverse biological effects. Moreover, the restricted field of view of standard optical tweezers, dictated by the use of high NA objectives, is particularly unfavorable for catching actively moving specimens. Both problems can be overcome by traps with counter-propagating beams. Our 'macro-tweezers' are especially designed to trap highly motile organisms, as they enable three-dimensional all-optical trapping and guiding in a volume of 2 × 1 × 2 mm 3 . Here we report for the first time the optical trapping of large actively swimming organisms, such as for instance Euglena protists and dinoflagellates of up to 70 µm length. Adverse bio-effects are kept low since trapping occurs outside high intensity regions, e.g., focal spots. We expect our approach to open various possibilities in the contact-free handling of 50–100 µm sized objects that could hitherto not be envisaged, for instance all-optical holding of individual micro-organisms for taxonomic identification, selective collecting or tagging

  14. Passive sampling as a tool for identifying micro-organic compounds in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, N; Cerar, S; Koroša, A; Auersperger, P

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents the use of a simple and cost efficient passive sampling device with integrated active carbon with which to test the possibility of determining the presence of micro-organic compounds (MOs) in groundwater and identifying the potential source of pollution as well as the seasonal variability of contamination. Advantage of the passive sampler is to cover a long sampling period by integrating the pollutant concentration over time, and the consequently analytical costs over the monitoring period can be reduced substantially. Passive samplers were installed in 15 boreholes in the Maribor City area in Slovenia, with two sampling campaigns covered a period about one year. At all sampling sites in the first series a total of 103 compounds were detected, and 144 in the second series. Of all detected compounds the 53 most frequently detected were selected for further analysis. These were classified into eight groups based on the type of their source: Pesticides, Halogenated solvents, Non-halogenated solvents, Domestic and personal, Plasticizers and additives, Other industrial, Sterols and Natural compounds. The most frequently detected MO compounds in groundwater were tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene from the Halogenated solvents group. The most frequently detected among the compound's groups were pesticides. Analysis of frequency also showed significant differences between the two sampling series, with less frequent detections in the summer series. For the analysis to determine the origin of contamination three groups of compounds were determined according to type of use: agriculture, urban and industry. Frequency of detection indicates mixed land use in the recharge areas of sampling sites, which makes it difficult to specify the dominant origin of the compound. Passive sampling has proved to be useful tool with which to identify MOs in groundwater and for assessing groundwater quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reducing time to identification of aerobic bacteria and fastidious micro-organisms in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, J; Sala, M R; Falbo, R; Cappellini, F; Brambilla, P

    2016-12-01

    Rapid and early identification of micro-organisms in blood has a key role in the diagnosis of a febrile patient, in particular, in guiding the clinician to define the correct antibiotic therapy. This study presents a simple and very fast method with high performances for identifying bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after only 4 h of incubation. We used early bacterial growth on PolyViteX chocolate agar plates inoculated with five drops of blood-broth medium deposited in the same point and spread with a sterile loop, followed by a direct transfer procedure on MALDI-TOF MS target slides without additional modification. Ninety-nine percentage of aerobic bacteria were correctly identified from 600 monomicrobial-positive blood cultures. This procedure allowed obtaining the correct identification of fastidious pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae that need complex nutritional and environmental requirements in order to grow. Compared to the traditional pathogen identification from blood cultures that takes over 24 h, the reliability of results, rapid performance and suitability of this protocol allowed a more rapid administration of optimal antimicrobial treatment in the patients. Bloodstream infections are serious conditions with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Rapid identification of pathogens and appropriate antimicrobial therapy have a key role for successful patient outcome. In this work, we developed a rapid, simplified, accurate, and efficient method, reaching 99 % identification of aerobic bacteria from monomicrobial-positive blood cultures by using early growth on enriched medium, direct transfer to target plate without additional procedures, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and SARAMIS database. The application of this protocol allows to anticipate appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  16. Micro-organisms growing on rapeseed during storage affect the profile of volatile compounds of virgin rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Claudia; Bonte, Anja; Brühl, Ludger; Niehaus, Karsten; Bednarz, Hanna; Matthäus, Bertrand

    2017-09-27

    Micro-organisms populate on rapeseed after harvest during storage depending on the growing conditions. The composition of the bacterial colonization is unknown, although its contribution to the profile of volatile aroma-active compounds determines the sensory quality of virgin cold-pressed rapeseed oil. From four rapeseed samples, 46 bacterial strains were isolated. By DNA-sequencing, the identification of four bacteria species and 17 bacteria genera was possible. In total, 22 strains were selected, based on their typical off-flavors resembling those of virgin sensory bad cold-pressed rapeseed oils. The cultivation of these strains on rapeseed meal agar and examination of volatile compounds by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the identification of 29 different compounds, mainly degradation products of fatty acids such as alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols and, in addition, sulfur-containing compounds, including one terpene and three pyrazines. From these compounds, 19 are described as aroma-active in the literature. Micro-organisms populating on rapeseed during storage may strongly influence the sensory quality of virgin rapeseed oil as a result of the development of volatile aroma-active metabolic products. It can be assumed that occurrence of off-flavor of virgin rapeseed oils on the market are the result of metabolic degradation products produced by micro-organisms populating on rapeseed during storage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Plains hydrology and reclamation project: Spoil ground-water chemistry and its impacts on surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudell, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Description of the chemical makeup of spoil groundwater at Diplomat and Vesta mines in the Battle River mining area, 200 km southeast of Edmonton within the Lower Horseshoe Canyon coal zone; and at Highvale and Whitewood Mines in the Lake Wabamun mining area, 100 km west of Edmonton within the Ardley coal zone. This report compares the chemical characteristics of the spoil groundwater for each mine to those of the principal premining aquifer that is disrupted by surface mining. The characterization of spoil groundwater chemistry is based on the sampling and analyses of groundwater from piezometers installed in reclaimed areas. Forty-three samples were collected from 23 piezometers at Vesta Mine, and 54 samples were collected from 32 piezometers at Diplomat Mine. At Highvale Mine, 29 samples were collected from 13 piezometers installed in the reclaimed area at Pit 01. Eleven samples were also collected from piezometers installed in spoil at Whitewood Mine to augment a study of that site.

  18. Load Bearing and Deformation Characteristics of Granular Spoils under Unconfined Compressive Loading for Coal Mine Backfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The load bearing capacity and deformation response of granular spoils under uniaxial compression are numerically and experimentally investigated, aiming to shed light on the performance of back filled waste spoils while controlling ground subsidence after coal extraction. In numerical study, the particles are assembled in PFC commercial code in light of the digitized real shape of spoils with image technique, which is proved to be consistent with the physical test. The results from numerical and laboratory experiments showed that the complete compressive process of spoils tended to have spatial and temporal characteristics. The load-strain curves of investigated specimens could be divided into three stages (stage I, rearranging stage; stage II, breaking stage; stage III, consolidating stage and three zones (I, rearranging zone; II, interlocking zone; III, consolidated zone from outside to inside. During stage I, the load increasing rate of smaller spoils is relatively low, but it increases faster than larger ones in stages II and III. In addition, spoils with Talbot’s gradation are greater than single gradations. The magnitude of the density in consolidated zone is maximum, indicating that it is the main part holding the overlying strata weight.

  19. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Laboratory rainfall simulator studies of selected open-cut coal mine overburden spoils from Central Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K.G.; Loch, R.J.; Aspinall, T.O.; Bell, L.C. [Eros and Hydrology Group, Jabiru, NT (Australia)

    1997-05-01

    Data on the erodibility of overburden spoils resulting from open-cut coal mining are limited. These data are required to derive parameters for erosion prediction models which can be used in the design of re-formed landscapes after mining. In this study, laboratory rainfall simulation data were used to derive CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems) interfill erodibility parameters K and n{sub bov} for Central Queensland coal mine overburden spoils. For the spoils studied, K values ranged from 0.0111 to 0.1398 Mg ha h/(ha MJ mm) and n{sub bov} values ranged from 0.0004 to 0.0081. Sediment yield was transport controlled. Results for 1 spoil, South Blackwater Terang, showed that total soil loss increased linearly with slope, and both K and n{sub bov} varied non-linearly with slope. If a constant set of K and n{sub bov} values is used in modelling, CREAMS over-predicts spoil loss for slopes greater than that for which the parameter values were determined, and under-predicts spoil loss for slopes less than that for which the parameter values were determined.

  1. Influences of humic and fulvic acids and organic matter on leachate chemistry from acid coal spoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentry, C.E.; Davidson, W.H.; Wade, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    Column-leaching experiments were conducted on an acid pyritic coal spoil to determine the influence of acid rain, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and undecomposed organic matter (OM) on pH and Al, Fe, Mn, and SO 4 concentrations in the spoil leachate and on the spoil. Simulated acid rain of pH 4.0 was applied for 50 weeks under laboratory conditions to spoil columns modified with 0.5% FA or HA, or 2.0% OM from four forest trees and two herbs. Quality-control methods were used to evaluate treatment effects. Addition of HA and tall fescue leaf material to a Lily, KY, spoil created a greater and longer lasting desirable effect on leachate pH and Al, Fe, Mn, and SO 4 than additions of FA or OM of five other species. Results suggest that revegetation resulting in rapid production of matured soil OM may reduce the amount of some ions commonly leached from acid mine spoils

  2. Reforestation of Bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karthikeyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted in degradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth. However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum (Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings ofEucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings ofE. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantly higher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher in AM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings. 

  3. Reforestation of bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Krishnakumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted indegradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth.However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum(Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum(Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings of E. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantlyhigher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher inAM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings.

  4. Fate and control of pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms in orange blossom (Citrus aurantium) and rose flower (Rosa centifolia) hydrosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, C; Cerutti, C; Carlin, F

    2016-12-01

    Hydrosols are hydrodistillation products used in food and cosmetic industries, perfumery, pharmacy and aromatherapy. The ability of preservatives to control previously reported bacterial proliferation and spoilage was evaluated. All tested preservatives were authorized for food and cosmetic application. Major pathogens of concern for foods and cosmetics were poorly able to grow in rose and orange blossom hydrosols when inoculated and incubated at 30°C. Commercial antimicrobials, such as isothiazolinone, chlorphenesin and paraben solutions, benzyl alcohol and sodium benzoate at pH = 5·0, controlled the growth of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia sp. strains representative of the natural microbiota of both hydrosols for >90 days at 30°C, only at concentrations close to the authorized limits. Concentrations of some of the tested preservatives that controlled growth at 5°C were lower than at 30°C. Pathogenic micro-organisms likely represent a low risk in rose flower and orange blossom hydrosol. However, the oligotrophic character of hydrosols and the antimicrobial properties of their essential oils do not prevent microbiological spoilage by the naturally present microbiota. In the absence of aseptic conditions and microbial inactivation process, only preservatives can stabilize hydrosols for a several-month storage. Several effective preservatives have been identified. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Merits of partial shielding in dumping sediment spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob Hjelmager; Saremi, Sina; Jimenez, Carlos; Hadjioannou, Louis

    2015-12-15

    The commonly adopted method of dumping dredge spoil at sea using split-hull barges leads to considerable sediment loss to the water column and a subsequent dispersion of fine material that can pose a risk to sensitive "downstream" habitats such as coral reefs. Containing sediment loads using stitched closed geotextile bags is practiced for minimizing loss of contaminated sediment, but is expensive in terms of operational efficiency. Following promising observations from initial laboratory trials, the plunging of partially shielded sediment loads, released on open sea, was studied. The partial shielding was achieved with rigid, open containers as well as flexible, open bags. The loss of sediment from these modes of shielding was measured, and it was observed that even limited and unstitched shielding can be effective in debilitating the entrainment of water into the descending load. In particular, long-sleeved flexible bags practically self-eliminated the exposure of the load and thus losses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early evolution of large micro-organisms with cytological complexity revealed by microanalyses of 3.4 Ga organic-walled microfossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Lepot, K; Ito, S; Javaux, E J

    2015-11-01

    The Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) is widely distributed in the East Pilbara Terrane (EPT) of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, and represents a Paleoarchean shallow-water to subaerial environment. It was deposited ~3.4 billion years ago and displays well-documented carbonate stromatolites. Diverse putative microfossils (SPF microfossils) were recently reported from several localities in the East Strelley, Panorama, Warralong, and Goldsworthy greenstone belts. Thus, the SPF provides unparalleled opportunities to gain insights into a shallow-water to subaerial ecosystem on the early Earth. Our new micro- to nanoscale ultrastructural and microchemical studies of the SPF microfossils show that large (20-70 μm) lenticular organic-walled flanged microfossils retain their structural integrity, morphology, and chain-like arrangements after acid (HF-HCl) extraction (palynology). Scanning and transmitted electron microscopy of extracted microfossils revealed that the central lenticular body is either alveolar or hollow, and the wall is continuous with the surrounding smooth to reticulated discoidal flange. These features demonstrate the evolution of large micro-organisms able to form an acid-resistant recalcitrant envelope or cell wall with complex morphology and to form colonial chains in the Paleoarchean era. This study provides evidence of the evolution of very early and remarkable biological innovations, well before the presumed late emergence of complex cells. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Vetiver Grass: a potential tool for phytoremediation of iron ore mine site spoil dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mining has lead to the generation of a large amount of spoil dumps that has become dangerous to human health, wildlife and biodiversity. Thus it is essential that the post mining areas and waste land generated need to be rapidly vegetated. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Roberty is a tropical plant which grows naturally in various soil conditions and is well known for its ability to resist DNA damage while growing on typically polluted soil conditions. The spoil dumps from the iron mine site is unstable and inhospitable for plant growth due to presence of various toxic heavy metals like - Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd etc. Vetiver system is an efficient bio-engineering tool for reclaiming such spoil dumps. There are 12 known species of Vetiver grass, and many hundreds of different cultivars that are exploited by users depending on need. In the present study we selected the polyploid infertile variety of vetiver and carried pot experiments. Vetiver plants grown on the iron ore mine spoil dump show distinct differences in their growth with fewer numbers of tillers, reduced chlorophyll content, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and increased proline content. To investigate the level of DNA damage incurred and change in the genetic stability Comet assay and RAPD analysis were performed. Results confirmed that Vetiver grass can serve as a model species for phytoremediating the iron ore mine spoil dumps.

  8. Establishment of native species on amended and unamended coal mine spoil in central Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.C.; Mulligan, D.R.; Orr, M.S.; Johnstone, P.

    1994-01-01

    At the Curragh open-cut coal mine in central Queensland, tree and shrub growth on amended and unamended spoil was assessed over a 5-year period. The most successful media in terms of seedling densities were bare spoil and spoil covered by a thin layer of coarse coal reject. Where soil was replaced, very few native species established due to the intense competition from exotic grasses. Given this poor establishment on soil, the question of how well an ecosystem would develop on non-soil media was addressed by assessing the ability of each of the media to support sustainable communities in the longer term. Early results from direct-seeding tree and shrub species onto non-soil media have been quite encouraging, but analysis of the surface horizons has shown that after several years, there are still some characteristics which could either limit the re-establishment, and/or prevent the sustainability, of new communities. Due primarily to the high sulfate levels originally in the coal reject, the surface salinity in these treatments was much higher than in the uncapped spoil. Substrate analyses have shown also that there was a much lower concentration of mineralizable N in the spoil and coal reject than in the soil, revealing that the potential of these non-soil substrates to continue supplying nitrogen to the system is greatly reduced. Furthermore, the concentration of microbial biomass carbon was significantly lower in these media, and the percentage ground cover after 5 years was generally <10%

  9. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dague, E; Jauvert, E; Laplatine, L; Thibault, C [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Viallet, B; Ressier, L, E-mail: edague@laas.fr, E-mail: laurence.ressier@insa-toulouse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, LPCNO, INSA-CNRS-UPS, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France)

    2011-09-30

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  10. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dague, E.; Jauvert, E.; Laplatine, L.; Viallet, B.; Thibault, C.; Ressier, L.

    2011-09-01

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  11. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dague, E; Jauvert, E; Laplatine, L; Thibault, C; Viallet, B; Ressier, L

    2011-01-01

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  12. Evaluation of the Gauss-Eyring model to predict thermal inactivation of micro-organisms at short holding times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, R A H; Mastwijk, H C; Nierop Groot, M N; Van Boekel, M A J S

    2017-12-18

    Application of mild (non)-thermal processing technologies have received considerable interest as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, because of its shorter holding time and lower temperature aiming for an improved product quality. To understand and develop these alternative technologies, like pulsed electric fields, a proper comparison between the conventional thermal and alternative process is necessary. Up to recent, no suitable models were available to predict the inactivation of micro-organisms by a thermal process at a chosen short holding time, due to non-linearity. The recently developed Gauss-Eyring model with two variables temperature and time has the properties to be a suitable model to apply for short holding times, and was tested for this purpose. Therefore, this study aims to validate if the Gauss-Eyring model can be used to describe non-linear isothermal (a fixed temperature with varying holding time) and isotime (a fixed holding time with varying temperature) thermal inactivation data, and if it is a suitable model to predict the thermal inactivation as a function of temperature for short holding times. Inactivation data of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactobacillus plantarum, Salmonella Senftenberg and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in orange juice were collected via isothermal and isotime inactivation kinetics. Survival of the tested micro-organisms was modelled with the Gauss-Eyring model, which contains three parameters σ, Tr and Z. The transition of 'no inactivation' to 'inactivation' (i.e. the 'shoulder' in inactivation curves) can be characterised as the temperature-time (T,t) combination where T=Tr-Z·log 10 (t), with Tr as the reference temperature defined for 1s treatment, Z as the temperature needed for a 10-fold increase of decrease of the holding time t, and σ as the temperature width of the distribution. The Gauss-Eyring model fitted well to the experimental data, and revealed different sensitivity for the tested micro-organisms

  13. Micro-organism re-growth in wastewater disinfected by UV radiation and ozone: a micro-biological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E; Santos, A; Riesco, P

    2004-04-01

    A series of disinfection experiments using UV radiation and ozone was performed on the secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant at a pilot plant scale. The microbial population in the inflowing wastewater and the treated outflow water were quantified for each of the treatment modules (fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, Salmonella spp. (presence/absence), Clostridium Sulphite-reducers, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, coliphages, nematodes, intestinal nematodes and pathogenic fungi). Treated water was stored in opaque tanks at a temperature between 20 and 22 degrees C, after which, a one-month study of the regrowth of the bacterial flora, nematodes and fungi was carried out. Clostridium Sulphite-reducers, pathogenic fungi and nematodes were the micro-organisms showing a greatest degree of resistence to UV- and Ozone-treatment. It was only concerning Clostridium and Pseudomonas abatement that significant elimination results were achieved with both technologies.

  14. Inactivation of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms using ultraviolet-A light in combination with ferulic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, A; Watanabe, T; Matsuki, H

    2017-02-01

    The low energy of UV-A (315-400 nm) is insufficient for disinfection. To improve UV-A disinfection technology, we evaluated the effect of ferulic acid (FA) addition on disinfection by UV-A light-emitting diode (LED) (350-385 nm) against various food spoilers and pathogens (seven bacteria and four fungi species). Photoantimicrobial assays were performed at FA concentrations below the MIC. The MIC of the isomerized FA, consisting of 93% cis-form and 7% trans-form, was very similar to that of the commercially available FA (trans-form). Irradiation with UV-A (1·0 J cm -2 ) in the presence of 100 mg l -1 FA resulted in enhanced reducing of all of the tested bacterial strains. A combination of UV-A (10 J cm -2 ) and 1000 mg l -1 FA resulted in enhanced reducing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one of the tested filamentous fungi. These results demonstrated that the combination of a short-term application of UV-A and FA at a low concentration yielded synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial activity, especially against bacteria. Microbial contamination is one of the most serious problems for foods, fruit and sugar thick juices. UV light is suitable for the nonthermal decontamination of food products by inactivating the contaminating micro-organisms. However, UV-A exposure is insufficient for disinfection. This study demonstrates that the combination of UV-A LED light (350-385 nm), which is not hazardous to human eyes and skin, and ferulic acid (FA), a known phytochemical and food additive, provides synergistic antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms. Therefore, FA addition to UV-A light treatment may be useful for improvement of UV-A disinfection technology to prevent food deterioration. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of two South African honeys produced from indigenous Leucospermum cordifolium and Erica species on selected micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grobler Sias R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Honey has been shown to have wound healing properties which can be ascribed to its antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity can be effective against a broad spectrum of bacterial species especially those of medical importance. It has also been shown that there is considerable variation in the antimicrobial potency of different types of honey, which is impossible to predict. With this in mind we tested the antimicrobial activity of honeys produced from plants grown in South Africa for their antibacterial properties on selected standard strains of oral micro-organisms. Methods The honeys used were produced from the blossoms of Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Bluegum trees, an indigenous South African plant Leucospermum cordifolium (Pincushion, a mixture of wild heather shrubs, mainly Erica species (Fynbos and a Leptospermum scoparium (Manuka honey. Only pure honey which had not been heated was used. The honeys were tested for their antimicrobial properties with a broth dilution method. Results Although the honeys produced some inhibitory effect on the growth of the micro-organisms, no exceptionally high activity occurred in the South African honeys. The carbohydrate concentration plays a key role in the antimicrobial activity of the honeys above 25%. However, these honeys do contain other antimicrobial properties that are effective against certain bacterial species at concentrations well below the hypertonic sugar concentration. The yeast C. albicans was more resistant to the honeys than the bacteria. The species S. anginosus and S. oralis were more sensitive to the honeys than the other test bacteria. Conclusion The honeys produced from indigenous wild flowers from South Africa had no exceptionally high activity that could afford medical grade status.

  16. FUNGAL ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION FROM SPOILED VEGETABLES LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM, BRASSICA OLERACEA, SPINACIA OLERACEA

    OpenAIRE

    Padma Singh*, Pallavi *, Rekha Negi, Alka Rani , Parul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the micro organisms associated with the spoilage of vegetables of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), Spinach (Spinacea oleracea), Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) obtained from local market of Haridwar. Five vegetable spoilage fungi were isolate & identified as follows Aspergilus, Fusarium, Penicilium, Trichoderma. In antifungal sensitivity test different antifungal drugs were used to test the susceptibility behavior as the isolated organism. Antifungal activity was determin...

  17. Does the sequence of plant dominants affect mycorrhiza development in simulated succession on spoil banks?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Püschel, David; Rydlová, Jana; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 302, 1-2 (2008), s. 273-282 ISSN 0032-079X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * plant succession * spoil banks Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.998, year: 2008

  18. Forest-biological erosion control on coal-mine spoil banks in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, M.J.; Gentcheva-Kostadinova, S.; Zheleva, E.

    1995-01-01

    The forest fallowing of coal-mine spoils helps re-establish the processes of natural, self-sustaining, soil formation. Environmental monitoring in Bulgaria demonstrates that forestation can moderate soil pH (from ph> 3.0 to pH 1.3 g/cm 3 in the 0-5 cm layer) in the case of coal briquette spoils at Pernik, near Sofia. Ground losses from forested, 16-17 degree slope, coal briquette-spoils at Pernik are a quarter of those from an entirely unvegetated section of the same embankment (48.5 vs 12. 1 mm in the period 1988-1994) despite the absence of ground cover beneath the trees. On lignite spoil banks, at Maritsa-Iztok, central Bulgaria, forestation increases the organic content of the soil to greater depths than revegetation with grass, and to a greater degree than conventional agricultural cultivation. On Pinus nigra forested crest sites at Pernik, and in Robinia pseudacacia forested groves on the lignite minespoil banks at Maritsa-Iztok, slopes showed ground advance rather than ground retreat. Slopes protected by mechanical means alone did not allow soil growth and, where the structure broke down, they suffered as much erosion as untreated sites. In sum, the forest fallowing of surface coal-mine disturbed land accelerates organic matter accumulation in the soil, helps improve soil structure, reduces erosion, and may transform soil loss into soil gain, even on steeply sloping sites. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Earthworm succession in afforested colliery spoil heaps in the Sokolov region, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2001), s. 359-364 ISSN 1061-2971 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworms * colliery spoil heaps * succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2001

  20. Photobacterium piscicola sp. nov., isolated from marine fish and spoiled packed cod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figge, Marian; Cleenwerck, Ilse; van Uijen, Astrid; de Vos, Paul; Huys, Geert; Robertson, Lesley

    Five isolates from marine fish (W3T, WM, W1S, S2 and S3) and three isolates misclassified as Photobacterium phosphoreum, originating from spoiled modified atmosphere packed stored cod (NCIMB 13482 and NCIMB 13483) and the intestine of skate (NCIMB 192), were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic

  1. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stable under all conditions of construction. (c) Compliance with permit. You, the permittee or operator... (excavations to stable bedrock) or rock-toe buttresses to ensure fill stability. (e) Placement of excess spoil... provided to minimize surface erosion at the site. All disturbed areas, including diversion channels that...

  2. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stable under all conditions of construction. (c) Compliance with permit. You, the permittee or operator... (excavations to stable bedrock) or rock-toe buttresses to ensure fill stability. (e) Placement of excess spoil... provided to minimize surface erosion at the site. All disturbed areas, including diversion channels that...

  3. Fungi are the predominant micro-organisms responsible for degradation of soil-buried polyester polyurethane over a range of soil water holding capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, S R; Ennos, A R; Greenhalgh, M; Robson, G D; Handley, P S

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between soil water holding capacity (WHC) and biodegradation of polyester polyurethane (PU) and to quantify and identify the predominant degrading micro-organisms in the biofilms on plastic buried in soil. High numbers of both fungi and bacteria were recovered from biofilms on soil-buried dumb-bell-shaped pieces of polyester PU after 44 days at 15-100% WHC. The tensile strength of the polyester PU was reduced by up to 60% over 20-80% soil WHC, but no reduction occurred at 15, 90 or 100% soil WHC. A PU agar clearance assay indicated that fungi, but not bacteria were, the major degrading organisms in the biofilms on polyester PU and 10-30% of all the isolated fungi were able to degrade polyester PU in this assay. A 5.8S rDNA sequencing identified 13 strains of fungi representing the three major colony morphology types responsible for PU degradation. Sequence homology matches identified these strains as Nectria gliocladioides (five strains), Penicillium ochrochloron (one strain) and Geomyces pannorum (seven strains). Geomyces pannorum was the predominant organism in the biofilms comprising 22-100% of the viable polyester PU degrading fungi. Polyester PU degradation was optimum under a wide range of soil WHC and the predominant degrading organisms were fungi. By identifying the predominant degrading fungi in soil and studying the optimum WHC conditions for degradation of PU it allows us to better understand how plastics are broken down in the environment such as in landfill sites.

  4. Soil quality and carbon sequestration in a reclaimed coal mine spoil of Jharia coalfield, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Masto, Reginald; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of coal mine spoil helps in carbon storage and the success of remediation depend on the selection of appropriate tree species. A study was conducted at the coalmine overburden dumps of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India to evaluate the impact of revegetation on the overall soil quality and carbon sequestration. Morphological parameters (tree height, diameter at breast height, tree biomass, wood specific gravity) of the dominant tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo and Leucaena leucocephala) growing on the mine spoil was recorded. Mine spoil samples were collected under the canopy cover of different tree species and analyzed for soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters. In general reclaimed sites had better soil quality than the reference site. For instance, D. sissoo and C. siamea improved soil pH (+28.5%, +27.9%), EC (+15.65%, +19%), cation exchange capacity (+58.7%, +52.3%), organic carbon (+67.5%, +79.5%), N (+97.2%, +75.7%), P (+98.2%, +76.9%), K (+31.8%, +37.4%), microbial biomass carbon (+143%, +164%) and dehydrogenase activity (+228%, +262%) as compared to the unreclaimed reference coal mine site. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) decreased significantly in the reclaimed site than the reference spoil, C. siamea was found to be more promising for PAH degradation. The overall impact of tree species on the quality of reclaimed mine spoil cannot be assessed by individual soil parameters, as most of the parameters are interlinked and difficult to interpret. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more meaningful assessment of reclamation potential of tree species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity were the most critical properties controlling growth of tree

  5. Solid speciation and availability of nickel and chromium in Ni mining spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raous, Sophie; Garnier, Jérémie; Sterckeman, Thibaul; Echevarria, Guillaume; Becquer, Thierry; Thomas, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    Nickel mining of ultramafic laterites generates different types of wastes, topsoils and ores that are too poor in Ni to be currently processed. These are mixed and stored on heaps which could be a potential source of Ni and Cr pollution. Chemical reactivity of the main metal bearing phases present in the mining spoils of Goiás (Brasil) was investigated. Principally a silicated 'saprolite' material and a Fe-oxide rich limonitic material were isolated from the wastes. Their total Ni and Cr content are high, respectively for Ni and Cr : 7,170 and 54,970 mg kg-1 in limonite and 12,200 and 12,650 mg kg-1 in saprolite. The main metal-bearing minerals, identified and localized using XRD, TEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and Mossbaüer spectrometry are well-crystallized minerals: goethite (75%), hematite (13%) and chromite in limonite and ferruginous smectite, talc and chromite in saprolite. Single and sequential extractions showed that the amounts of 1M KCl exchangeable Ni and Cr reached respectively 7.1% and 0.03% of total contents in saprolite. Moreover, Cr(VI) extraction by KH2PO4 showed that more than 2% (980 mg kg-1) of total Cr was under this labile toxic form in limonite. This study allowed us to determine the main reactions controlling the Ni and Cr mobility in the spoils i.e. Ni2+ cationic exchange in saprolitic spoil and CrO32- surface complexation in limonitic spoil. This study allowed us to demonstrate the need of chemical rehabilitation of mining wastes in order to avoid the dispersion of the high contents of Ni and Cr available. It constitutes the system definition needed to predict the Cr and Ni mobility in ultramafic mining spoils.

  6. Improving surface stability of elevated spoil landforms using natural landform analogy and geological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Bevan; Burgess, Jon; Esterle, Joan; Erskine, Peter; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale open cut mining in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia has undergone an evolutionary process over the period of a few decades, transitioning from shallow mining depths, limited spoil elevation and pasture based rehabilitation to increased mining depths, escalating pre-stripping, elevated mesa-like landforms and native woody species rehabilitation. As a consequence of this development, the stabilisation of recent constructed landforms has to be assured through means other than the establishment of vegetative cover. Recent developments are the specific selection and partitioning of resilient fragmental spoil types for the construction of final landform surface. They can also be used as cladding resources for stabilizing steep erosive batters and this has been identified as a practical methodology that has the potential to significantly improve rehabilitation outcomes. Examples of improvements are an increase of the surface rock cover, roughness and infiltration and reducing inherent erodibility and runoff and velocity of surface flow. However, a thorough understanding of the properties and behavior of individual spoil materials disturbed during mining is required. Relevant information from published literature on the geological origins, lithology and weathering characteristics of individual strata within the Bowen Basin Coal Measures located in Queensland, Australia (and younger overlying weathered strata) has been studied, and related both to natural landforms and to the surface stability of major strata types when disturbed by mining. The resulting spoil classification developed from this study is based primarily on inherent geological characteristics and weathering behaviour of identifiable lithologic components, and as such describes the expected fragmental resilience likely within disturbed materials at Bowen Basin coal mines. The proposed classification system allows the allocation of spoil types to use categories which have application in pre

  7. Survival and growth of wildlife shrubs and trees on acid mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, D.K.; Adkisson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the survival and growth of selected wildlife plants over a wide range of acid mine spoil conditions and to identify species suitable for surface mine reclamation. A major criterion in selection of study sites was inclusion of a wide range of spoil acidity conditions. The Ollis Creek (Study Area A) and Farrell (Study Area B) coal surface mines located in Campbell and Scott Counties, Tennessee, were selected for study. Seven plant species, all of which had been used in past reclamation demonstrations, were introduced on the 22 plots during March 1972. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) was included as a control plant. Ten additional plant species were introduced during March 1973. With the exception of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum var.). European filbert (Corylus avellana), and red maple (Acer rubrum), these species had not been used in TVA reclamation demonstrations. To assess the effects of spoil pH on the plants, the plots were grouped into seven pH categories, and mean percent survival and growth for each species were calculated. Results indicate that autumn olive, elaeagnus cherry, arnot locust, sawtooth oak, red maple, and Toringo crabapple are suitable for quick improvement of surface mine habitat over a wide range of spoil acidity in the Appalachian coalfield. Bessey cherry and European filbert need further study before a decision can be made regarding their reclamation utility. Species that are not recommended for quick habitat improvement over a wide range of surface mine spoil pH conditions include bush honeysuckle, barberry, Siberian crabapple, Manchu cherry, American beautyberry, bear oak, blueberry, rem-red honeysuckle, and redcedar.

  8. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of indigenous nitrogen-fixing micro organisms lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew Woan Ying Pauline; Jong Bor Chyan; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2006-01-01

    The use of PCR-RFLP analysis as a useful microbial identification tool has been evaluated for years. This approach was verified effective worldwide, where differential DNA bands and sequence markers distinctive to specific microbes or microbial groups have been identified. In our study, PCR-RFLP technique has been adopted in the identification of our indigenous N 2 -fixing isolates obtained from several local environments. RFLP was carried out with suitable restriction enzymes and the patterns were documented. Representatives of the different patterns were selected and analysed with the 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing method. The results demonstrated correlation between the differential RFLP patterns and the 16S rDNA identities. (Author)

  9. Representing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztambide-Fernandez, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Handbooks denote representative authority, which gives their content normative value and through which editors and authors can emphasize certain views and orientations within a field. The representative authority of a handbook is reinforced in various ways, both obvious and subtle. The "SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" is no exception…

  10. Persistent and emerging micro-organic contaminants in Chalk groundwater of England and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Manamsa, K.; Talbot, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Chalk aquifer of Northern Europe is an internationally important source of drinking water and sustains baseflow for surface water ecosystems. The areal distribution of microorganic (MO) contaminants, particularly non-regulated emerging MOs, in this aquifer is poorly understood. This study presents results from a reconnaissance survey of MOs in Chalk groundwater, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides and their transformation products, conducted across the major Chalk aquifers of England and France. Data from a total of 345 sites collected during 2011 were included in this study to provide a representative baseline assessment of MO occurrence in groundwater. A suite of 42 MOs were analysed for at each site including industrial compounds (n = 16), pesticides (n = 14) and pharmaceuticals, personal care and lifestyle products (n = 12). Occurrence data is evaluated in relation to land use, aquifer exposure, well depth and depth to groundwater to provide an understanding of vulnerable groundwater settings. - Highlights: • Broad range of microorganics detected in Chalk groundwater in England and France. • Plasticisers, pesticides, BPA and THM detected at the highest concentrations. • Pesticides higher in outcrop Chalk, caffeine and BPA at concealed sites. • Occurrences show some relationship to land use, borehole depth and water level. - Broad screening reveals for the first time the extent of emerging microorganic pollution in Chalk groundwater sources across England and France

  11. Biofabrication of a three-dimensional liver micro-organ as an in vitro drug metabolism model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Robert; Sun Wei; Emami, Kamal; Wu Honglu

    2010-01-01

    In their normal in vivo matrix milieu, tissues assume complex well-organized three-dimensional architectures. Therefore, the primary aim in the tissue engineering design process is to fabricate an optimal analog of the in vivo scenario. This challenge can be addressed by applying emerging layered biofabrication approaches in which the precise configuration and composition of cells and bioactive matrix components can recapitulate the well-defined three-dimensional biomimetic microenvironments that promote cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Furthermore, the advent of and refinements in microfabricated systems can present physical and chemical cues to cells in a controllable and reproducible fashion unmatched with conventional cultures, resulting in the precise construction of engineered biomimetic microenvironments on the cellular length scale in geometries that are readily parallelized for high throughput in vitro models. As such, the convergence of layered solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technologies along with microfabrication techniques enables the creation of a three-dimensional micro-organ device to serve as an in vitro platform for cell culture, drug screening or to elicit further biological insights, particularly for NASA's interest in a flight-suitable high-fidelity microscale platform to study drug metabolism in space and planetary environments. The proposed model in this paper involves the combinatorial setup of an automated syringe-based, layered direct cell writing bioprinting process with micro-patterning techniques to fabricate a microscale in vitro device housing a chamber of bioprinted three-dimensional liver cell-encapsulated hydrogel-based tissue constructs in defined design patterns that biomimic the cell's natural microenvironment for enhanced biological functionality. In order to assess the structural formability and biological feasibility of such a micro-organ, reproducibly fabricated tissue constructs were biologically characterized for

  12. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality

  13. [Research Progress in Technology of Using Soil Micro-organisms to Generate Electricity and Its Potential Applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huan; Xue, Hong-jing; Jiang, Yun-bin; Zhong, Wen-hui

    2015-10-01

    Microbial fuel cells ( microbial fuel cells, MFCs) are devices in which micro-organisms convert chemical energy into electrical power. Soil has electrogenic bacteria and organic substrates, thus can generate electrical current in MFCs. Soil MFCs can be operated and applied to real-time and continuously monitor soil pollution, remove soil pollutants and to reduce methane emitted from flooded rice paddy, without energy consumption and the application of chemical reagents to the soil. Instead, the operation of soil MFCs generates small amount of electrical power. Therefore, soil MFCs are useful in the development of environment-friendly technology for monitoring and remediating soil pollution, which have potential value for applications in the domain of environmental science and engineering. However, much of advanced technology hasn't been applied into soil MFCs since the studies on soil MFCs was not started until recently. This paper summarized the research progress in related to soil MFCs combining with the frontier of MFCs technology, and brought forward the possible direction in studies on soil MFCs.

  14. Inactivation of food-borne spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms on the surface of a photoactive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerdin, Katherine; Scully, Andrew D

    2010-01-01

    The photodynamic action of a novel photoactive polymer comprising covalently bound anthraquinone (AQ) moieties was evaluated after developing a methodology to reliably immobilize viable micro-organisms onto polymer film surfaces. The survival of Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus (vegetative cells and spores), Fusarium oxysporum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae microbes inoculated on the surface of inert polymeric substrates was assessed to determine the effect of inoculum composition, drying rate and exposure to ultraviolet (UV-A) radiation. Their survival was highly dependent on microbial genus, with E. coli consistently displaying markedly shorter survival times than the other microbes, and B. cereus spores being the most resistant. Inoculation of the microbes onto the surface of the photoactive polymer films, followed by exposure to UV-A radiation, dramatically accelerated the inactivation of all microbial types studied compared with their survival on the surface of inert polymer substrates. Simultaneous exposure to both oxygen and UV-A radiation is required to affect cell survival, which is consistent with this effect most likely originating from the photoinduced production of singlet oxygen by the photoactive polymer. These results provide further compelling evidence that singlet oxygen produced exogenously by this photoactive polymeric substrate can successfully inactivate a broad spectrum of microbes on the substrate's surface. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation. The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Flexibility, stroke, and dimensionless parameters: the importance of telling the whole story for swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomases, Becca; Guy, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The question of how fluid elasticity affects the swimming performance of micro-organisms is complicated and has been the subject of many recent experimental and theoretical studies. The Deborah number, De = λω , is typically used to characterize the strength of the fluid elasticity in these studies, and for swimmers is expressed as the product of the elastic relaxation time and the frequency of the swimmer stroke. In simulations of undulatory flexible swimmers in an Oldroyd-B-type fluid, we find that varying the frequency of the stroke and varying the relaxation time separately results in a significantly different dependence of swimming speed for the same De . Thus the elastic effects on swimming cannot be characterized by a single dimensionless number. The Weissenberg number, defined as the product of elastic relaxation time and characteristic strain rate (Wi = λγ˙), is another dimensionless parameter useful for describing complex fluids. For a fixed swimmer frequency, varying the relaxation time will also vary the Weissenberg number. We conjecture that the different behavior is a consequence of a Weissenberg-number transition in the fluid, which additionally depends on the amplitude of the swimmer stroke.

  16. Flow cytometry: a versatile technology for specific quantification and viability assessment of micro-organisms in multistrain probiotic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiron, C; Tompkins, T A; Burguière, P

    2018-02-01

    Classical microbiology techniques are the gold standard for probiotic enumeration. However, these techniques are limited by parameters of time, specificity and incapacity to detect viable but nonculturable (VBNC) micro-organisms and nonviable cells. The aim of the study was to evaluate flow cytometry as a novel method for the specific quantification of viable and nonviable probiotics in multistrain products. Custom polyclonal antibodies were produced against five probiotic strains from different species (Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071, Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis R0033, Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum R0175, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011). Evaluation of specificity confirmed that all antibodies were specific at least at the subspecies level. A flow cytometry method combining specific antibodies and viability assessment with SYTO ® 24 and propidium iodide was applied to quantify these strains in three commercial products. Analyses were conducted on two flow cytometry instruments by two operators and compared with classical microbiology using selective media. Results indicated that flow cytometry provides higher cell counts than classical microbiology (P probiotic enumeration and viability assessment. Combination with polyclonal antibodies can achieve sufficient specificity to differentiate closely related strains. Flow cytometry provides absolute and specific quantification of viable and nonviable probiotic strains in a very short time (48 h), bringing efficient tools for research and development and quality control. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. A model of the transmission of micro-organisms in a public setting and its correlation to pathogen infection risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardts, A; Hammer, T R; Balluff, C; Mucha, H; Hoefer, D

    2012-03-01

    Gastro-intestinal infections are widespread in the community and have considerable economic consequences. In this study, we followed chains of infection from a public toilet scenario, looking at infection risks by correlating the transmission of bacteria, fungi and viruses to our current knowledge of infectious doses. Transmission of Escherichia coli, Bacillus atrophaeus spores, Candida albicans and bacteriophage MS2 from hands to surfaces was examined in a transmission model, that is toilet brush, door handle to water tap. The load of viable pathogens was significantly reduced during transfer from hands to objects. Nevertheless, it was shown that pathogens were successfully transferred to other people in contagious doses by contact with contaminated surfaces. Our results suggest that infection risks are mainly dependent on current infectious doses of pathogens. For enteritic viruses or bacteria, for example Norovirus or EHEC, only a few particles or cells are sufficient for infection in public lavatories, thus bearing a high risk of infection for other persons. However, there seems to be only a low probability of becoming infected with pathogens that have a high infectious dose whilst sharing the same bathroom. The transmission model for micro-organisms enables a risk assessment of gastro-intestinal infections on the basis of a practical approach. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Weathering processes under various moisture conditions in a lignite mine spoil from As Pontes (N.W. Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoane, S.; Leiros, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Processes contributing to acid release/consumption during weathering of a lignite mine spoil (2.3% w/w S as sulfides) from As Pontes (N.W. Spain) were studied under three moisture conditions (at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying or forced percolation), which were simulated in laboratory experiments. Oxidation of sulfides to sulfates was favoured under all three moisture conditions, releasing most acid in spoil kept at field capacity. Hydroxysulfates formed in spoil kept at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying conditions, thereby contributing to acid release. Acid consumption by dissolution of clay minerals, especially micas, was favoured under all three moisture conditions, but was particularly intense in spoil at field capacity. Dissolution of aluminium oxides was also favoured under all the moisture conditions studied. 27 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  19. The copper spoil heap Knappenberg, Austria, as a model for metal habitats – Vegetation, substrate and contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Weiss, Yasmin S. [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Sassmann, Stefan [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); University of Exeter, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Biosciences, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Steinhauser, Georg [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Radioecology and Radiation Protection, Herrenhäuser Straße 2, D30419 Hannover (Germany); Hofhansl, Florian [University of Vienna, Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Coordenação de Dinâmica Ambiental, Manaus (Brazil); Baumann, Nils [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Division of Biogeochemistry, Bautzner Landstraße 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Lichtscheidl, Irene K. [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Lang, Ingeborg, E-mail: ingeborg.lang@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    Historic mining in the Eastern Alps has left us with a legacy of numerous spoil heaps hosting specific, metal tolerant vegetation. Such habitats are characterized by elevated concentrations of toxic elements but also by high irradiation, a poorly developed substrate or extreme pH of the soil. This study investigates the distribution of vascular plants, mosses and lichens on a copper spoil heap on the ore bearing Knappenberg formed by Prebichl Layers and Werfener Schist in Lower Austria. It serves as a model for discriminating between various ecological traits and their effects on vegetation. Five distinct clusters were distinguished: (1) The bare, metal rich Central Spoil Heap was only colonised by highly resistant specialists. (2) The Northern and (3) Southern Peripheries contained less copper; the contrasting vegetation was best explained by the different microclimate. (4) A forest over acidic bedrock hosted a vegetation overlapping with the periphery of the spoil heap. (5) A forest over calcareous bedrock was similar to the spoil heap with regard to pH and humus content but hosted a vegetation differing strongly to all other habitats. Among the multiple toxic elements at the spoil heap, only Cu seems to exert a crucial influence on the vegetation pattern. Besides metal concentrations, irradiation, humidity, humus, pH and grain size distribution are important for the establishment of a metal tolerant vegetation. The difference between the species poor Northern and the diverse Southern Periphery can be explained by the microclimate rather than by the substrate. All plant species penetrating from the forest into the periphery of the spoil heap originate from the acidic but not from the calcareous bedrock. - Highlights: • Strong impact on plant diversity by isolation and extreme abiotic conditions • Both, microclimate and substrate explain species distribution. • Increased cellular metal tolerance of plants from the Central Spoil Heap • Among toxic elements

  20. Chemical properties and particle-size distribution of 39 surface-mine spoils in southern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Plass; Willis G. Vogel

    1973-01-01

    A survey of 39 surface-mine sites in southern West Virginia showed that most of the spoils from current mining operations had a pH of 5.0 or higher. Soil-size material averaged 37 percent of the weight of the spoils sampled. A major problem for the establishment of vegetation was a deficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus. This can be corrected with additions of...

  1. Reduction of Flow Artifacts by Using Partial Saturation in RF-Spoiled Gradient-Echo Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Misung; Hargreaves, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF)-spoiled gradient-echo imaging provides a signal intensity close to pure T1 contrast by using spoiler gradients and RF phase cycling to eliminate net transverse magnetization. Generally, spins require many RF excitations to reach a steady-state magnetization level; therefore, when unsaturated flowing spins enter the imaging slab, they can cause undesirable signal enhancement and generate image artifacts. These artifacts can be reduced by partially saturating an outer slab u...

  2. Heavy metals in soil on spoil heap of an abandoned lead ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Total concentrations of 4 heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mn), non-metal As and three reference elements. (Ti, Fe and Al) of a soil profile on spoil heap were examined. 54 soil samples were collected in the soil profile at different depths: 15 to 45, 45 to 75, 75 to 105, 105 to 135 and 135 to 150 cm. The first 15 cm of top layer ...

  3. The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza in two simulated stages of spoil-bank succession

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Püschel, David; Rydlová, Jana; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2007), s. 363-369 ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/04/0996; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mycorrhiza * plant succession * spoil bank s Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2007

  4. Development of Soil Characteristics and Plant Communities On Reclaimed and Unreclaimed Spoil Heaps After Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudlín, Ondřej; Řehák, Zdeněk; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare soil characteristics, plant communities and the rate of selected ecosystem function performance on reclaimed and unreclaimed plots (left for spontaneous succession) of different age on spoil heaps. Twelve spoil heaps (three circle plots of radius 12.5 m) near the town Kladno in north-west direction from Prague, created after deep coal mining, were compared. Five mixed soil samples from organo-mineral horizons in each plot were analysed for total content of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, active soil pH (pHH2O) was determined. Plant diversity was determined by vegetation releves. The biodiversity value of the habitat according to the Habitat Valuation Method was assessed and the rate of evapotranspiration function by the Method of Valuation Functions and Services of Ecosystems in the Czech Republic were determined. The higher organo-mineral layers and higher amount of total nitrogen content were found on the older reclaimed and unreclaimed plots than in younger plots. The number of plant species and the total contents of carbon and nitrogen were significantly higher at the unreclaimed plots compared to reclaimed plots. The biodiversity values and evapotranspiration function rate were also higher on unreclaimed plots. From this perspective, it is possible to recommend using of spontaneous succession, together with routine reclamation methods to restore habitats after coal mining. Despite the relatively high age of vegetation in some of selected plots (90 years), both the reclaimed and unreclaimed plots have not reached the stage of potential vegetation near to natural climax. Slow development of vegetation was probably due to unsuitable substrate of spoil heaps and a lack of plant and tree species of natural forest habitats in this area. However, it is probable that vegetation communities on observed spoil heaps in both type of management (reclaimed and unreclaimed) will achieve the stage of natural climax and they

  5. Bottom fauna of dredging and dredge spoil disposal sites of a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Devi, S.K.

    gathered at a single point in time. These studies are valuable even though they give only very little insight into the biotic constraints which are highly important in the dynamic processes which establish the real niches of animals. Niche concept.... 1967. Environmental effects of dredging and spoil deposition. Proceedings of WODCOM, World Dredging Conference (Palos Verdes Estates, California): 353-359. Heip, C. 1974. A new index measuring evenness. Journal of the Marine Biology Association (UK...

  6. Representing time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Poncellini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of natural phenomena applied to architectural planning and design is facing the most fascinating and elusive of the four dimensions through which man attempts to define life within the universe: time. We all know what time is, said St. Augustine, but nobody knows how to describe it. Within architectural projects and representations, time rarely appears in explicit form. This paper presents the results of a research conducted by students of NABA and of the Polytechnic of Milan with the purpose of representing time considered as a key element within architectural projects. Student investigated new approaches and methodologies to represent time using the two-dimensional support of a sheet of paper.

  7. Remediation of Acid Generating Colliery Spoil Using Steel Slag – Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghataora Gurmel S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the legacies of the coal mining industry is the existence of numerous colliery spoil mounds. Run-off waters from some of these mounds result in oxidation of sulphur compounds causing pH to drop to perhaps as low as 2.5. At this pH, mobility for metals increases and it results in destruction of both flora and fauna. In order to reduce acidity, a number of solutions have been investigated with varying degree of success. A recent study to reduce acidity in spoil run-off water included the use of Basic Oxygen Steel slag. Its slow release of lime resulted in longer term remediation compared with other techniques. In addition to this, steel slag contains elements which are essential for plant growth and can be regarded as a weak fertiliser. This was substantiated in two field trials, which had the aim of not only remediating acidity from two different types of colliery spoils, but also to develop a composition that supports grass growth. The objectives were achieved at both sites and some of the results of over 5000 chemical tests conducted during these studies are reported in this paper.

  8. Remediation of Acid Generating Colliery Spoil Using Steel Slag - Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghataora, Gurmel S.; Ghazireh, Nizar; Hall, Nigel

    2015-06-01

    One of the legacies of the coal mining industry is the existence of numerous colliery spoil mounds. Run-off waters from some of these mounds result in oxidation of sulphur compounds causing pH to drop to perhaps as low as 2.5. At this pH, mobility for metals increases and it results in destruction of both flora and fauna. In order to reduce acidity, a number of solutions have been investigated with varying degree of success. A recent study to reduce acidity in spoil run-off water included the use of Basic Oxygen Steel slag. Its slow release of lime resulted in longer term remediation compared with other techniques. In addition to this, steel slag contains elements which are essential for plant growth and can be regarded as a weak fertiliser. This was substantiated in two field trials, which had the aim of not only remediating acidity from two different types of colliery spoils, but also to develop a composition that supports grass growth. The objectives were achieved at both sites and some of the results of over 5000 chemical tests conducted during these studies are reported in this paper.

  9. Impact of plantation on ecosystem development in disturbed coal mine overburden spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Mishra, T.K.; Singh, A.K.; Jain, A. [Tropical Forest Research Inst., Jabalpur (India)

    2004-07-15

    Eleven nitrogen fixing and one non-nitrogen fixing tree species were planted in coal mine overburden spoils of Bisrampur colliery at Surguja district, Chattisgarh, India in 1993. Their growth performance at one, two, four, six and eight years was recorded. It was observed that after eight years of planting, Acacia mangium performed very well in respect to all the growth parameters followed by A. holoserecia, Dalbergia sissoo, Albiziaprocera, Pithecellobium dulce, Acacia auriculiformis and Gmelina arborea. Acacia nilotica showed very poor performance. The number of natural colonisers increased with increasing age of the planted species. Nutrient status of the spoils also increased gradually with the increase in age of the plants. Organic carbon increased greatly and, as a result, activities of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi accelerated. This study indicated that the spoil environment, which is extremely harsh just after mining, could be improved gradually and the ecosystem restored by planting suitable species. Therefore, for early development of the ecosystem, afforestation with suitable leguminous species is recommended.

  10. Magnetization spoiling in radial FLASH contrast-enhanced MR digital subtraction angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Parmede; Ansari, Sameer A; Hurley, Michael C; Bhat, Himanshu; Batjer, H Hunt; Bendok, Bernard R; Eddleman, Christopher S; Carroll, Timothy J

    2012-07-01

    To increase the in-plane spatial resolution and image update rates of 2D magnetic resonance (MR) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) pulse sequences to 0.57 × 0.57 mm and 6 frames/sec, respectively, for intracranial vascular disease applications by developing a radial FLASH protocol and to characterize a new artifact, not previously described in the literature, which arises in the presence of such pulse sequences. The pulse sequence was optimized and artifacts were characterized using simulation and phantom studies. With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, the pulse sequence was used to acquire time-resolved images from healthy human volunteers and patients with x-ray DSA-confirmed intracranial vascular disease. Artifacts were shown to derive from inhomogeneous spoiling due to the nature of radial waveforms. Gradient spoiling strategies were proposed to eliminate the observed artifact by balancing gradient moments across TR intervals. The resulting radial 2D MR DSA sequence (2.6 sec temporal footprint, 6 frames/sec with sliding window factor 16, 0.57 × 0.57 mm in-plane) demonstrated small vessel detail and corroborated x-ray DSA findings in intracranial vascular imaging studies. Appropriate gradient spoiling in radial 2D MR DSA pulse sequences improves intracranial vascular depiction by eliminating circular banding artifacts. The proposed pulse sequence may provide a useful addition to clinically applied 2D MR DSA scans. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Temporal variability of micro-organic contaminants in lowland chalk catchments: New insights into contaminant sources and hydrological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamsa, K; Lapworth, D J; Stuart, M E

    2016-10-15

    This paper explores the temporal variation of a broad suite of micro organic (MO) compounds within hydrologically linked compartments of a lowland Chalk catchment, the most important drinking water aquifer in the UK. It presents an assessment of results from relatively high frequency monitoring at a well-characterised site, including the type and concentrations of compounds detected and how they change under different hydrological conditions including exceptionally high groundwater levels and river flow conditions during 2014 and subsequent recovery. This study shows for the first time that within the Chalk groundwater there can be a greater diversity of the MOs compared to surface waters. Within the Chalk 26 different compounds were detected over the duration of the study compared to 17 in the surface water. Plasticisers (0.06-39μg/L) were found to dominate in the Chalk groundwater on 5 visits (38.4%) accounting for 14.5% of detections but contributing highest concentrations whilst other compounds dominated in the surface water. Trichloroethene and atrazine were among the most frequently detected compounds. The limit for the total pesticide concentration detected did not exceed EU/UK prescribed concentration values for drinking water. Emerging organic compounds such as caffeine, which currently do not have water quality limits, were also detected. The low numbers of compounds found within the hyporheic zone highlight the role of this transient interface in the attenuation and breakdown of the MOs, and provision of an important ecosystem service. Copyright © 2016 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Xenografted human whole embryonic and fetal entoblastic organs develop and become functional adult-like micro-organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioi, Karine; Hatier, Renée; Merle, Michel; Duprez, Adrien

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to study the morphological and functional development in vivo of whole human embryonic and fetal stomachs, intestines, tracheas, and lungs, which would otherwise be ethically and technically impossible to perform in utero, by microsurgically grafting these organs into nude mice. Five hundred fifty-seven human organs obtained from legally aborted embryos and fetuses of 6-10 weeks were microsurgically grafted into nude mice for 1 to 273 days. Following different grafting times, biopsies were taken for optical and electron microscopy, in situ hybridization, and cellular kinetics studies. A catheter was introduced into the human organs in order to collect and analyze secretions. All of the grafts took successfully. Macroscopic growth was fast during the first 6 to 10 weeks, following which organ size was stable. In situ hybridization studies detected only a minute level of mouse mesenchymal chimerism in the grafts. The different epithelial cells differentiated, became of adult type, and remained normal during the remainder of the grafting periods. The pH of gastric juice from stomachs grafted for 10 to over 90 days dropped from 8.0 +/- 0.1 to 1.58 +/- 0.29 over this time period (P organs from human embryos and fetuses microsurgically grafted into nude mice is similar to that occurring in utero. As such, this method provides a model for the analysis of whole human organs in development and later normal adult-like micro-organs for physiological, therapeutic, and pathological studies. (c)2001 Elsevier Science.

  13. Exergy analysis of micro-organic Rankine power cycles for a small scale solar driven reverse osmosis desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchanche, B.F.; Lambrinos, Gr.; Frangoudakis, A.; Papadakis, G.

    2010-01-01

    Exergy analysis of micro-organic Rankine heat engines is performed to identify the most suitable engine for driving a small scale reverse osmosis desalination system. Three modified engines derived from simple Rankine engine using regeneration (incorporation of regenerator or feedliquid heaters) are analyzed through a novel approach, called exergy-topological method based on the combination of exergy flow graphs, exergy loss graphs, and thermoeconomic graphs. For the investigations, three working fluids are considered: R134a, R245fa and R600. The incorporated devices produce different results with different fluids. Exergy destruction throughout the systems operating with R134a was quantified and illustrated using exergy diagrams. The sites with greater exergy destruction include turbine, evaporator and feedliquid heaters. The most critical components include evaporator, turbine and mixing units. A regenerative heat exchanger has positive effects only when the engine operates with dry fluids; feedliquid heaters improve the degree of thermodynamic perfection of the system but lead to loss in exergetic efficiency. Although, different modifications produce better energy conversion and less exergy destroyed, the improvements are not significant enough and subsequent modifications of the simple Rankine engine cannot be considered as economically profitable for heat source temperature below 100 °C. As illustration, a regenerator increases the system's energy efficiency by 7%, the degree of thermodynamic perfection by 3.5% while the exergetic efficiency is unchanged in comparison with the simple Rankine cycle, with R600 as working fluid. The impacts of heat source temperature and pinch point temperature difference on engine's performance are also examined. Finally, results demonstrate that energy analysis combined with the mathematical graph theory is a powerful tool in performance assessments of Rankine based power systems and permits meaningful comparison of different

  14. Dynamic micro-organization of P2X7 receptors revealed by PALM based single particle tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amulya Nidhi Shrivastava

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP-gated P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs are members of the purinergic receptor family that are expressed in several cell types including neurons. A high concentration of ATP is required for the channel opening of P2X7Rs compared to other members of this receptor family. Recent work suggests that ATP binding to members of the P2X receptor family determines the diffusion and localization of these receptors on the plasma membrane of neurons. Here, we employed single particle tracking photoactivated localization microscopy (sptPALM to study the diffusion and ATP-dependence of rat P2X7Rs. Dendra2-tagged P2X7Rs were transfected in hippocampal neurons and imaged on proximal dendrites. Our results suggest the presence of two populations of P2X7Rs within the extra-synaptic membrane: a population composed of rapidly diffusing receptors and one stabilized within nanoclusters (~100 nm diameter. P2X7R trajectories were rarely observed at synaptic sites. P2X7R mutations in the ATP-binding site (K64A or the conserved phosphorylation site (K17A resulted in faster- and slower-diffusing receptors, respectively. Furthermore, ATP differentially accelerated wild type and K17A-mutant receptors but not K64A-mutant receptors. Our results indicate that receptor conformation plays a critical role in regulating ATP-mediated changes in P2X7R diffusion and micro-organization.

  15. Investigations on the populations of introduced and resident micro-organisms in deep repositories and their effects on containment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.M.; Arme, S.C.; Christofi, N.; Philp, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The present study has sought to establish basic facts concerning the importance of microbial presence in a radioactive waste repository. These are: (1) establishing the presence of microbes in relevant geological formations; (2) defining the importance of isolated groups to radioactive waste containment; (3) establishing the ability of sampled microbes to tolerate repository environmental conditions; (4) conducting preliminary work on microbial ability to influence radionuclide migration characteristics; (5) attempting basic modelling of the effects of micro-organisms on containment and radionuclide migration. Results have shown that micro-organisms of significance (e.g. sulphur cycle bacteria) are present in relevant formations. These groups can tolerate repository conditions and influence migration studies. Their growth, however, would seem to be limited by the nutrient availability. Simple modelling has concentrated on conservative calculations on the constraints of maximum effects of microbial contamination of a high-level waste repository

  16. Micro-organisms in latex and natural rubber coagula of Hevea brasiliensis and their impact on rubber composition, structure and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomez, M; Subileau, M; Intapun, J; Bonfils, F; Sainte-Beuve, J; Vaysse, L; Dubreucq, E

    2014-10-01

    Natural rubber, produced by coagulation of the latex from the tree Hevea brasiliensis, is an important biopolymer used in many applications for its outstanding properties. Besides polyisoprene, latex is rich in many nonisoprene components such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and thereby constitutes a favourable medium for the development of micro-organisms. The fresh rubber coagula obtained by latex coagulation are not immediately processed, allowing the development of various microbial communities. The time period between tree tapping and coagula processing is called maturation, during which an evolution of the properties of the corresponding dry natural rubber occurs. This evolution is partly related to the activity of micro-organisms and to the modification of the biochemical composition. This review synthesizes the current knowledge on microbial populations in latex and natural rubber coagula of H. brasiliensis and the changes they induce on the biochemistry and technical properties of natural rubber during maturation. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Effects of coal spoil amendment on heavy metal accumulation and physiological aspects of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growing in copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhaoxia; Wang, Xingming; Wang, Yunmin; Liu, Guijian; Dong, Zhongbing; Lu, Xianwen; Chen, Guangzhou; Zha, Fugeng

    2017-12-21

    Copper mine tailings pose many threats to the surrounding environment and human health, and thus, their remediation is fundamental. Coal spoil is the waste by-product of coal mining and characterized by low levels of metals, high content of organic matter, and many essential microelements. This study was designed to evaluate the role of coal spoil on heavy uptake and physiological responses of Lolium perenne L. grown in copper mine tailings amended with coal spoil at rates of 0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20%. The results showed that applying coal spoil to copper mine tailings decreased the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents in tailings and reduced those metal contents in both roots and shoots of the plant. However, application of coal spoil increased the DTPA-extractable Cr concentration in tailings and also increased Cr uptake and accumulation by Lolium perenne L. The statistical analysis of physiological parameters indicated that chlorophyll and carotenoid increased at the lower amendments of coal spoil followed by a decrease compared to their respective controls. Protein content was enhanced at all the coal spoil amendments. When treated with coal spoil, the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) responded differently. CAT activity was inhibited, but POD activity was increased with increasing amendment ratio of coal spoil. SOD activity increased up to 1% coal spoil followed by a decrease. Overall, the addition of coal spoil decreased the oxidative stress in Lolium perenne L., reflected by the reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the plant. It is concluded that coal spoil has the potential to stabilize most metals studied in copper mine tailings and ameliorate the harmful effects in Lolium perenne L. through changing the physiological attributes of the plant grown in copper mine tailings.

  18. Application of groundwater residence time tracers and broad screening for micro-organic contaminants in the Indo-Gangetic aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, Dan; Das, Prerona; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Petersen, Jade; Gooddy, Daren; Krishan, Gopal

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater abstracted from aquifers underlying urban centres across India provide a vital source of domestic water. Abstraction from municipal and private supplies is considerable and growing rapidly with ever increasing demand for water from expanding urban populations. This trend is set to continue. The vulnerability of deeper aquifers (typically >100 m below ground) used for domestic water to contamination migration from often heavily contaminated shallow aquifer systems has not been studies in detail in India. This paper focusses on the occurrence of micro-organic contaminants within sedimentary aquifers beneath urban centres which are intensively pumped for drinking water and domestic use. New preliminary results from a detailed case study undertaken across Varanasi, a city with an estimated population of ca. 1.5 million in Uttar Pradesh. Micro -organic groundwater quality status and evolution with depth is investigated through selection of paired shallow and deep sites across the city. These results are considered within the context of paired groundwater residence time tracers within the top 150m within the sedimentary aquifer system. Groundwater emerging contaminant results are compared with surface water quality from the Ganges which is also used for drinking water supply. Broad screening for >800 micro-organic compounds was undertaken. Age dating tools were employed to constrain and inform a conceptual model of groundwater recharge and contaminant evolution within the sedimentary aquifer system.

  19. Representing Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Representing Development presents the different social representations that have formed the idea of development in Western thinking over the past three centuries. Offering an acute perspective on the current state of developmental science and providing constructive insights into future pathways...... and development, addressing their contemporary enactments and reflecting on future theoretical and empirical directions. The first section of the book provides an historical account of early representations of development that, having come from life science, has shaped the way in which developmental science has...... approached development. Section two focuses upon the contemporary issues of developmental psychology, neuroscience and developmental science at large. The final section offers a series of commentaries pointing to the questions opened by the previous chapters, looking to outline the future lines...

  20. Edaphic restoration of the spoil banks of lignite mines in Galicia. Recuperacion edafica de los escombreras de minas de lignito en Galicia. Caracterizacion de los materiales esteriles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiros de la Pena, M.C.; Gil Sotres, F.; Carballas Fernandez, M.; Codesido Lopez, C.; Gonzalez Sangregorio, M.V.; Seoane Lavandeira, S.; Guitian Ojea, F. (Univ. of Santiago, La Coruna (Spain). Fac. Farm., Lab. Edafol.)

    1989-01-01

    We report physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of four lignite spoils from the mines at Meirama and As Pontes (La Coruna, NW Spain). The low acidity, zero pyrite content and balanced texture of the Meirama spoils suggest that their recovery as viable soil will not be difficult, whereas recovery of the As Pontes spoils (P1 and P2) is hindered by their low pH, high total acidity and the presence of pyrites. The greatest contribution to total acidity is the residual fraction in P1 and the soluble and exchange fractions in P2. Different recovery strategies should be used for these two spoils. 2 figs., 10 tabs., 20 refs.

  1. Mycorrhizal status of plants in two successional stages on spoil heaps from fireloam mining in Lower Silesia (SW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kasowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal status of two plant communities representing an initial stage (1-2 year-old and a 8-9-year-old stage of succession on spoil heaps from fireloam mining in Lower Silesia, Poland, was determined. In the initial stage, the mycorrhizal structures were not observed in 39% of the investigated species; they were members of the Polygonaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae families. The relative cover of non-mycorrhizal plants exceeded 50% and the major role was played by the Polygonum aviculare population, which predominated the whole community. Mycorrhizal species (arbuscular mycorrhizae contributed to 61 % of the composition of the initial phyto-coenosis. The most numerous taxa were those with 20-40% of the root length colonized, with a small number of arbuscules (0.2-3.1% of the root length containig arbuscules and no vesicles. In the advanced stage of succession, mycorrhizal plants definitely dominated and the major role was played by the Tussilago farfara population. Compared with the initial stage, the later one also harboured more plants with mycorrhizas occupied >40% of the root length, as well as containing numerous arbuscules (>20% of the root length and vesicles. The non-mycorrhizal species, i.e., Equisetum arvense and Poa compressa, represented 11 % o': the community composition and their relative cover amounted to 3%. Despite the relatively frequent occurrence of the arbuscular mycorrhizae in the initial stage of succession, the qualitative properties of the colonization indicated a low effectiveness of symbiosis. This could be caused by the lack of adaptation of the fungal symbiont to the edaphic conditions which were changed after disturbance.

  2. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist

  3. Anthropogenic soils on spoil rock banks in North Bohemian Coal Basin, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raclavska, H.; Raclavsky, K.; Matysek, D.; Stalmachova, B.

    1997-01-01

    The area of the North Bohemian Coal Basin is devastated by the extensive exploitation of brown coal by open pit mining. Knowledge of newly formed soils, their properties, development and contamination is important from the point of view of biological regeneration of the landscape. The mineralogy of anthropogenic soils from the mining area is presented together with the geochemistry of nutrients and trace elements. Attention is paid to the soil-forming processes in the non-reclaimed spoil rock banks with the development of spontaneous vegetation. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. Ecological study of revegetated coal mine spoil of an Indian dry tropical ecosystem along an age gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R S; Tripathi, N; Chaulya, S K

    2012-11-01

    Mineral nitrogen (MN), belowground (root) biomass (BGB), soil nitrogen (N) mineralization (NM), microbial biomass N (MBN) and mine dump stability of a revegetated mine spoil were studied after 2, 6, 10 and 12 years of re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. MN in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 7.4 to 11.6 kg ha(-1), NM from 38.4 to 252 kg ha(-1) year(-1), MBN from 86 to 426 kg ha(-1), and BGB from 380 to 3,750 kg ha(-1). Mining caused decline of physico-chemical characteristics of soil like MN by 46 %, N-mineralization by 92 %, MBN values by 91 %, respectively compared to forest ecosystems and reduction of total plant biomass (above ground and below ground). Revegetation of mine spoil caused increase in MN values by 12, 36 and 76 %, BGB values by 380, 1770 and 3750 times, NM values by 0.6, 3.58 and 9.5 times and MBN values by 0.43, 2.77, and 6.07 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. BGB was highly correlated with MN and MBN. Clay content was positively correlated to MN, NM, and the age of revegetation (P < 0.01). Numerical modelling indicated that revegetation increased the dump slope stability with a factor of safety from 1.2 to 1.4, 1.7, 1.9 and 2.1 after 2, 6, 10 and 12 years, respectively. Thus, long-term revegetation was found to enhance the dump stability and the soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil.

  5. Acidification - neutralization processes in a lignite mine spoil amended with fly ash or limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoane, S.; Leiros, M.C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola

    2001-08-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the long-term effects of amending sulfide-rich lignite mine spoil with fly ash (originating from a coal-fired power station and largely comprised of aluminosilicates) and/or agricultural limestone. The experiment was carried out with soil moisture maintained at field capacity or alternate cycles of wetting and drying. Results obtained suggest that the principal acidification processes were oxidation of sulfide and formation of hydroxysulfate (FeOHSO{sub 4}), whereas the main neutralization processes were weathering of aluminosilicates in fly ash-treated samples. The highest dose of limestone rapidly raised the pH of the spoil, but this increase was not maintained throughout the one-year experiment. In contrast, fly ash-treated samples showed a more sustained increase in pH, attributable to the gradual weathering of aluminosilicates. The best results (i.e., good short- and long-term neutralization) were obtained in samples treated with both fly ash and limestone. The low liming capacity of the fly ash (47.85 cmol kg{sup -1}) means that it must be used in large quantities, an advantage in achieving the further aim of disposing of the fly ash. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Reduction of flow artifacts by using partial saturation in RF-spoiled gradient-echo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Misung; Hargreaves, Brian A

    2011-05-01

    Radiofrequency (RF)-spoiled gradient-echo imaging provides a signal intensity close to pure T(1) contrast by using spoiler gradients and RF phase cycling to eliminate net transverse magnetization. Generally, spins require many RF excitations to reach a steady-state magnetization level; therefore, when unsaturated flowing spins enter the imaging slab, they can cause undesirable signal enhancement and generate image artifacts. These artifacts can be reduced by partially saturating an outer slab upstream to drive the longitudinal magnetization close to the steady state, while the partially saturated spins generate no signal until they enter the imaging slab. In this work, magnetization evolution of flowing spins in RF-spoiled gradient-echo sequences with and without partial saturation was simulated using the Bloch equations. Next, the simulations were validated by phantom and in vivo experiments. For phantom experiments, a pulsatile flow phantom was used to test partial saturation for a range of flip angles and relaxation times. For in vivo experiments, the technique was used to image the carotid arteries, abdominal aorta, and femoral arteries of normal volunteers. All experiments demonstrated that partial saturation can provide consistent T(1) contrast across the slab while reducing inflow artifacts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Colonization of colliery spoil heaps by millipedes (Diplopoda) and terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea) in the Sokolov region, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2001), s. 365-369 ISSN 1061-2971 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : colliery spoil heaps * succession * rekultivation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2001

  8. Efficacy of Designer Biochars with or without Lime Application for Remediating Heavy Metals in Mine Spoil Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigua, Gilbert C.; Novak, Jeffrey; Johnson, Mark; Ippolito, James; Spokas, Kurt; Ducey, Thomas; Trippe, Kristin

    2017-04-01

    A multitude of research investigations have confirmed that biochars can increase soil carbon sequestration, improve critical plant nutrient concentrations, and improve the fertility, chemical, and physical properties of degraded agricultural soils. Recently, biochars ability to sequester metals has caught the attention of the mine reclamation sector. It is proposed that biochar is a suitable amendment to remediate heavy metals in mine spoils, as well as improve chemical conditions for enhanced plant growth. Better plant growth will improve phytostabilization, increase containment of metal-laden sediment, while also reducing potential metal uptake by plants. As such, utilization of a biochar with appropriate chemical and physical characteristics is crucial for effective binding of heavy metals while also improving plant growth conditions in mine spoils. Using two different mine spoils, we conducted laboratory and greenhouse experiments to determine the ability of designer biochar with or without lime application to favorably improve soil pH, reduce heavy metal bioavailability, and improve grass (e.g., wild blue rye) plant nutrient uptake. Preliminary results showed that our designer biochars did increase pH of acid mine spoils significantly (pheavy metals (e.g. aluminum, chromium, zinc, nickel, zinc, manganese, copper and cadmium) in the soils.

  9. Dump stability and soil fertility of a coal mine spoil in Indian dry tropical environment: a long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Nimisha; Singh, Raj Shekhar; Chaulya, Swadesh K

    2012-10-01

    Plant available nitrogen, belowground (root) biomass, soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and microbial biomass N (MBN) were studied for 12 years at the interval of 2 years (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 years) and mine dump stability at the intervals of 6 years (0, 6 and 12 years) after re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. Plant available nitrogen in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 4.51 to 6.59 μg g(-1), net N-mineralization from 1.87 to 13.85 μg g(-1) month(-1), MBN from 10 to 22.63 μg g(-1), and root biomass from 28 to 566 g(-2). Mining activity has caused a change in soil characteristics including plant available nutrients like nitrate-N, ammonium-N and phosphate-P by 70, 67, and 76 %, respectively, N-mineralization by 93 %, root biomass values by 97 % and MBN values by 91 % compared to forest ecosystems. Revegetation of mine spoil produced increase in root biomass values by 1.3, 7.6 and 17.2 times, mineral N values by 1.22, 1.43 and 1.79 times, N-mineralization values by 1.8, 5.2 and 12.6 times and MBN values by 1.6, 2.0, and 3.4 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. Below ground biomass was highly co-related with microbial biomass and plant available nutrients. N-mineralization, plant available nutrients and the clay content were positively correlated with age of revegetation (P soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil.

  10. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the development of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three types of coal mine spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Renxin; Fu, Ruiying; Bi, Na; Wang, Lixin; Zhao, Wenjing; Guo, Jiangyuan; Zhang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Coal mine spoils are usually unfavorable for plant growth and have different properties according to dumping years, weathering degree, and the occurrence of spontaneous combustion. The establishment of plant cover in mine spoils can be facilitated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the importance of AMF in plant adaptation to different mine spoils and the potential role of AMF for revegetation practices. We investigated the effects of Glomus aggregatum, Rhizophagus intraradices (syn. Glomus intraradices), and Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) on the growth, nutritional status, and metal uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in recent discharged (S1), weathered (S2), and spontaneous combusted (S3) coal mine spoils. Symbiotic associations were successfully established between AMF and maize in three substrates. Mycorrhizal colonization effectively promoted plant growth by significantly increasing the uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), adjusting C:N:P stoichiometry and alleviating toxic effects of heavy metals. G. aggregatum, R. intraradices, and F. mosseae exhibited different mycorrhizal effects in response to mine spoil types. F. mosseae was the most effective in the development of maize in S1 and may be the most appropriate for revegetation of this substrate, while R. intraradices played the most beneficial role in S2 and S3. Our results suggest that inoculation with AMF can enhance plant adaptation to different types of coal mine spoils and play a positive role in the revegetation of coal mine spoil banks.

  11. In vivo quantitative NMR imaging of fruit tissues during growth using Spoiled Gradient Echo sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenouche, S.; Perrier, M.; Bertin, N.

    2014-01-01

    the intrinsic parameters maps M 0 and T 1 of the fruit tissues. Water transport and paths flow were monitored using Gd 3+/[Fe(CN)6]3-/D - mannitol nanoparticles as a tracer. This dynamic study was carried out using a compartmental modeling. The CA was preferentially accumulated in the surrounding tissues...... of this study was to design a robust and accurate quantitative measurement method based on NMR imaging combined with contrast agent (CA) for mapping and quantifying water transport in growing cherry tomato fruits. A multiple flip-angle Spoiled Gradient Echo (SGE) imaging sequence was used to evaluate...... of columella and in the seed envelopes. The total quantities and the average volume flow of water estimated are: 198 mg, 1.76 mm 3/h for the columella and 326 mg, 2.91 mm 3/h for the seed envelopes. We demonstrate in this paper that the NMR imaging technique coupled with efficient and biocompatible CA...

  12. Behavior of Psychrotrophic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Spoiling Cooked Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Yoshikatsu; Ayaki, Mitsuko; Fuchu, Hidetaka; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Morita, Hidetoshi

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spoiling cooked meat products stored below 10°C. They were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Leuconostoc citreum. All three strains grew well in MRS broth at 10°C. In particular, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and L. citreum grew even at 4°C, and their doubling times were 23.6 and 51.5 h, respectively. On the other hand, although the bacteria were initially below the detection limit (<10 CFU/g) in model cooked meat products, the bacterial counts increased to 108 CFU/g at 10°C after 7 to 12 days. PMID:12788779

  13. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  14. The roles of the micro-organisms and chromium content in the corrosion of iron-chromium steels in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, V.

    1991-12-01

    Although the ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to enhance the corrosion of steel is now widely accepted, the actual processes involved in such phenomena are still discussed. This work is dedicated to the study of the exact roles played in corrosion processes firstly, by the presence of D. vulgaris cells and, secondly, by chemical factors such as the material composition and the accumulation of sulfide ions in the solution. The use of microbiological, electrochemical and analytical experimental techniques lead to results that show the interdependence of the bacteria and the material as well as the importance of the steel composition in the adhesion of the micro-organisms and the general corrosion rates. The bacteria cells and dissolved sulfide ions do not markedly influence the general corrosion rates. They however induce surface state modifications that can result in localized corrosion phenomena

  15. Hydrological remedial actions for polluted overburden dumps, spoils and landfills. Papers and posters; Wasserwirtschaftliche Sanierung von Bergbaukippen, Halden und Deponien. Vortraege und Posterbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, A. [ed.; Haefner, F.; Schmidt, J.; Merkel, B. [comps.

    2000-07-01

    This publication contains the papers and posters presented at the conference 'Hydrological remedial actions for polluted overburden dumps, spoils and landfills. 35 Papers have been recorded as separate citations in this database.

  16. Water and materials balances of a spoil bank of an abandoned uranium mine in the Freital district, Sachsen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biehler, D.

    2000-01-01

    Sanitation of former uranium mines started immediately after uranium mining in East Germany was abandoned in 1990. In the case of shaft 1 of the Dresden-Gittersee mine, a multilayer mineral sealing system was decided. As required by the radiation protection authorities, the Wismut GmbH initiated a detailed hydrogeological expert's opinion including a forecast of the long-term effects of sealing on the basis of hydrogeological data and a material flow analysis for the spoil bank [de

  17. Subterranean clover enhances production of [open quote]Coastal[close quote] bermudagrass in the revegetation of lignite mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, P.A. (Kansas Agriculture Experimental Station, Hays (United States)); Zuberer, D.A. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States))

    Lignite mine spoils in Texas are commonly revegetated with [open quote]Coastal[close quote] bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. Legumes have been overseeded in bermudagrass in reclamation programs in Texas, but information regarding establishment and persistence in mine spoil is limited. A field study investigated the effects of fertilization and inoculation with Rhizobium spp. on subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.; subclover) establishment and production in mine spoil and to assess the effect of subclover on Coastal bermudagrass. Subclover seed was broadcast into a 6-mo-old bermudagrass sod in October 1986. Individual plots were fertilized, or left unfertilized at the beginning of each clover season (Sept.-Oct.); however, all plots were fertilized at the start of each grass season (April-May). Although native rhizobia was present in plots, inoculation with a commercial, multi-strain inoculant increases subclover forage production (100%) and total N and P yields of subclover. The overseeding of subclover into the bermuda grass sod increased grass production and total N and P yields later in the first year and in the second season. However, inoculation of subclover had little effect on subsequent grass production. There was an apparent positive benefit of P fertilization on subclover and bermudagrass production. The effect of subclover on grass production was apparent by the end of the first grass season, and it became even more evident in the second year. The results showed that subclover was established and maintained for at least two seasons in a bermudagrass sod on reclaimed lignite spoil, and that the clover benefited the subsequent grass crop when fertilized with P and K, apparently by providing extra [open quotes]fixed[close quotes] N for grass production. 22 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Assessment of biochar and iron filing amendments for the remediation of a metal, arsenic and phenanthrene co-contaminated spoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneath, Helen E.; Hutchings, Tony R.; Leij, Frans A.A.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Sites contaminated with mixtures of metals, metalloids and organics are difficult to remediate as each contaminant type may require a different treatment. Biochar, with high metal sorption capacity, used singly and in combination with iron filings, is investigated in microcosm trials to immobilise metal(loid)s within a contaminated spoil, thereby enabling revegetation and degradation of organic pollutants. A mine spoil, contaminated with heavy metals, arsenic and spiked with phenanthrene was treated with either 1%w/w biochar, 5%w/w iron or their combination, enhancing phenanthrene degradation by 44–65%. Biochar treatment reduced Cu leaching and enabled sunflower growth, but had no significant effect on As mobility. Iron treatment reduced Cu and As leaching but negatively impacted soil structure and released high levels of Fe causing sunflower plant mortality. The combined treatment reduced both Cu and As leaching and enabled sunflower growth suggesting this could be a useful approach for treating co-contaminated sites. -- Highlights: ► 56 day microcosm trials examine biochar for remediation of co-contaminated sites. ► Biochar reduces leachable Cu concentrations but phytotoxicity remains. ► Iron filings are investigated as a co-amendment with biochar to reduce As leaching. ► Removal of metal toxicity stimulates phenanthrene degradation. ► Biochar could enable revegetation of contaminated sites. -- Biochar and iron filings incorporated into contaminated spoils reduce Cu and As leaching and stimulate phenanthrene degradation, but do not prevent phytotoxicity to sunflowers

  19. A systematic investigation into the extraction of aluminum from coal spoil through kaolinite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X C; Si, P; Yu, J G

    2008-11-15

    This research has applied kaolin and active carbon (AC) to the investigation of the recovery of aluminum from coal spoil (CS). The kaolin, AC-containing kaolin mixture, and CS have been calcined at 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 degrees C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The transformation of kaolinite and aluminum extraction that occurred in each calcined sample have been characterized using XRD, TG, IR, and hydrochloric acid leaching methods. The dehydroxylation of kaolinite and the decomposition of metakaolin were influenced by thermal treatment temperature and time. The metakaolin had kept a portion of OH- in its structure until it was calcined at a temperature of 800 degrees C. Under 60 min treatment, new SiO2 phase was able to be formed at 500 degrees C, kaolinite was totally converted to metakaolin at 600 degrees C, and the SiO2 rejoined the reaction at 800 degrees C. The decompositions of CS were similar to those of kaolin mixture containing 20 wt % AC (MKC). The combustion of combustible matter accelerated the decomposition of kaolinite in the CS and MKC. Higher AC content led to lower aluminum extraction. The treatment at 600 degrees C was optimal for both CS and MKC.

  20. Data-driven optimized flip angle selection for T1 estimation from spoiled gradient echo acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Christina M; Hurley, Samuel A; Meyerand, M Elizabeth; Koay, Cheng Guan

    2016-09-01

    Define criteria for selection of optimal flip angle sets for T1 estimation and evaluate effects on T1 mapping. Flip angle sets for spoiled gradient echo-based T1 mapping were selected by minimizing T1 estimate variance weighted by the joint density of M0 and T1 in an initial acquisition. The effect of optimized flip angle selection on T1 estimate error was measured using simulations and experimental data in the human and rat brain. For two-point acquisitions, optimized angle sets were similar to those proposed by other groups and, therefore, performed similarly. For multipoint acquisitions, optimal angle sets for T1 mapping in the brain consisted of a repetition of two angles. Implementation of optimal angles reduced T1 estimate variance by 30-40% compared with a multipoint acquisition using a range of angles. Performance of the optimal angle set was equivalent to that of a repetition of the two-angle set selected using criteria proposed by other researchers. Repetition of two carefully selected flip angles notably improves the precision of resulting T1 estimates compared with acquisitions using a range of flip angles. This work provides a flexible and widely applicable optimization method of particular use for those who repeatedly perform T1 estimation. Magn Reson Med 76:792-802, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Response surface optimization of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01 isolated from spoiled apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Habib; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Alidost, Leila; Bodagh, Atefe; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2013-01-01

    A potent biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain isolated from spoiled apples was identified by 16S rRNA as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracted biosurfactant was composed of high percentages of lipid (66%, w/w) and carbohydrate (32%, w/w). The surface tension of pure water decreased gradually with increasing biosurfactant concentration to 32.5 mN m(-1) with critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 10.1 mg L(-1). The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of extracted biosurfactant confirmed the glycolipid nature of this natural product. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the biosynthesis medium for the production of MA01 biosurfactant. Nineteen carbon sources and 11 nitrogen sources were examined, with soybean oil and sodium nitrate being the most effective carbon and nitrogen sources on biosurfactant production, respectively. Among the organic nitrogen sources examined, yeast extract was necessary as a complementary nitrogen source for high production yield. Biosurfactant production at the optimum value of fermentation processing factor (15.68 g/L) was 29.5% higher than the biosurfactant concentration obtained before the RSM optimization (12.1 g/L). A central composite design algorithm was used to optimize the levels of key medium components, and it was concluded that two stages of optimization using RSM could increase biosurfactant production by 1.46 times, as compared to the values obtained before optimization.

  2. Identifying yeast isolated from spoiled peach puree and assessment of its batch culture for invertase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vega FERREIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of yeasts isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree using the API 20C AUX method and a commercial yeast as witness were studied. Subsequently, the yeast’s growth potential using two batch culture treatments were performed to evaluate number of colonies (N, reducing sugar concentration (RS, free-invertase (FI, and culture-invertase activity (CI. Stock cultures were maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA slants at 4 °C and pH 5 for later use for batch-culture (150 rpm at 30°C for 24 h, then they were stored at 4 °C for subsequent invertase extraction. The FI extract was obtained using NaHCO3 as autolysis agent, and CI activity was determined on the supernatant after batch-cultured centrifugation. The activity was followed by an increase in absorbance at 490 nm using the acid 3,5-DNS method with glucose standard. Of the four yeasts identified, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen for legal reasons. It showed logarithmic growth up to 18 h of fermentation with positive correlation CI activity and inverse with RS. FI showed greater activity by the end of the log phase and an inverse correlation with CI activity. Finally, it was concluded that treatment “A” is more effective than “B” to produce invertase (EC 3.2.1.26.

  3. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in Hirschfeldia incana, a Mediterranean Brassicaceae from Metalliferous Mine Spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; Brugel, Anaïs; Laplaze, Laurent; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Doumas, Patrick; Smouni, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal of particular concern with respect to environmental quality and health. The lack of plant species that accumulate and tolerate Pb is a limiting factor to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in Pb tolerance. In this study we identified Hirschfeldia incana, a Brassicaceae collected from metalliferous mine spoils in Morocco, as a Pb accumulator plant. H. incana exhibited high Pb accumulation in mine soils and in hydroponic cultures. Major Pb accumulation occurred in the roots and a part of Pb translocated from the roots to the shoots, even to the siliques. These findings demonstrated that H. incana is a Pb accumulator species. The expression of several candidate genes after Pb-exposure was measured by quantitative PCR and two of them, HiHMA4 and HiMT2a, coding respectively for a P1B-type ATPase and a metallothionein, were particularly induced by Pb-exposure in both roots and leaves. The functional characterization of HiHMA4 and HiMT2a was achieved using Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants. Pb content and primary root growth analysis confirmed the role of these two genes in Pb tolerance and accumulation. H. incana could be considered as a good experimental model to identify genes involved in lead tolerance and accumulation in plants. PMID:23667449

  4. Corrosion of copper in oxygen-deficient groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms: Characterisation of microbial communities and surface processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen-Saarivirta, E., E-mail: elina.huttunen-saarivirta@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Materials Performance, Kemistintie 3, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Rajala, P. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Materials Performance, Kemistintie 3, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Bomberg, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Geobiotechnology, Tietotie 2, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Carpén, L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Materials Performance, Kemistintie 3, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Copper was exposed to groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms. • Biofilm composition was determined and correlated with the behaviour of copper. • Under biotic conditions, the film of Cu{sub 2}S formed on copper surfaces. • Bacterial pool was in a key role for the morphology and properties of Cu{sub 2}S film. • Under abiotic conditions, Cu{sub 2}O systematically developed on copper surfaces. - Abstract: Copper specimens were exposed to oxygen-deficient artificial groundwater in the presence and absence of micro-organisms enriched from the deep bedrock of the planned nuclear waste repository site at Olkiluoto island on the western coast of Finland. During the exposure periods of 4 and 10 months, the copper specimens were subjected to electrochemical measurements. The biofilm developed on the specimens and the water used in the exposures were subjected to microbiological analyses. Changes in the water chemistry were also determined and surfaces of the copper specimens were characterized with respect to the morphology and composition of the formed corrosion products. The results showed that under biotic conditions, redox of the water and open circuit potential (OCP) of the copper specimens were generally negative and resulted in the build-up of a copper sulphide, Cu{sub 2}S, layer due to the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that were included in the system. In the 4-month test, the electrochemical behaviour of the specimens changed during the exposure and alphaproteobactria Rhizobiales were the dominant bacterial group in the biofilm where the highest corrosion rate was observed. In the 10-month test, however, deltaproteobacteria SRB flourished and the initial electrochemical behaviour and the low corrosion rate of the copper were retained until the end of the test period. Under abiotic conditions, the positive water redox potential and specimen OCP correlated with the formation of copper oxide, Cu{sub 2}O

  5. Isolation and characterization of an ether-type polyurethane-degrading micro-organism and analysis of degradation mechanism by Alternaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumiya, Y; Murata, N; Tanabe, E; Kubota, K; Kubo, M

    2010-06-01

    To degrade ether-type polyurethane (ether-PUR), ether-PUR-degrading micro-organism was isolated. Moreover, ether-PUR-degrading mechanisms were analysed using model compounds of ether-PUR. A fungus designated as strain PURDK2, capable of changing the configuration of ether-PUR, has been isolated. This isolated fungus was identified as Alternaria sp. Using a scanning electron microscope, the grid structure of ether-PUR was shown to be melted and disrupted by the fungus. The degradation of ether-PUR by the fungus was analysed, and the ether-PUR was degraded by the fungus by about 27.5%. To analyse the urethane-bond degradation by the fungus, a degraded product of ethylphenylcarbamate was analysed using GC/MS. Aniline and ethanol were detected by degradation with the supernatant, indicating that the fungus secreted urethane-bond-degrading enzyme(s). PURDK2 also degraded urea bonds when diphenylmethane-4,4'-dibutylurea was used as a substrate. The enzyme(s) from PURDK2 degraded urethane and urea bonds to convert the high molecular weight structure of ether-PUR to small molecules; and then the fungus seems to use the small molecules as an energy source. Ether-PUR-degrading fungus, strain PURDK2, was isolated, and the urethane- and urea-bonds-degrading enzymes from strain PURDK2 could contribute to the material recycling of ether-PUR.

  6. Experimental Test Of Whether Electrostatically Charged Micro-organisms And Their Spores Contribute To The Onset Of Arcs Across Vacuum Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,; Grisham, Larry R.

    2014-02-24

    Recently it was proposed [L.R. Grisham, A. vonHalle, A.F. Carpe, Guy Rossi, K.R. Gilton, E.D. McBride, E.P. Gilson, A. Stepanov, T.N. Stevenson, Physics of Plasma 19 023107 (2012)] that one of the initiators of vacuum voltage breakdown between condu cting electrodes might be micro-organisms and their spores, previously deposited during exposure to air, which tnen become electrostatically charged when an electric potential is applied across the vacuum gap. The note describes a simple experiment to compare the number of voltage-conditioning pulses required to reach the nominal maxium operating voltage across a gap between two metallic conductors in a vacuum, comparing cases in which biological cleaning was done just prior to pump-down with cases where this was not done, with each preceded by exposure to ambient air for three days. Based upon these results, it does not appear that air-deposited microbes and their spores constitute a major pathway for arc initiation, at least for exposure periods of a few days, and for vacuum gaps of a few millimeters, in the regime where voltage holding is usually observed to vary linearly with gap distance

  7. Dynamic MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint arthrosis using spoiled GRASS sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, Shigeaki; Hamamoto, Sadatoshi; Kawano, Kazunori (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dental School) (and others)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate contrast enhancement effects of the posterior disk attachment in the temporomandibular joint arthrosis using dynamic MRI with bilateral surface coils. One hundred twenty-four temporomandibular joints in 96 symptomatic patients and 27 control subjects were examined with a spoiled GRASS pulse sequence (TR: 35 ms, TE: 8 ms, flip angle: 60deg). One sagittal scan was performed prior to injection, then 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA was given as a rapid bolus injection, immediately after which scans were performed at 30 seconds intervals for a period of 5 minutes. Signal intensity (SI) was measured from the ROI of the posterior disk attachment region. The contrast enhancement effects may be calculated by SI ratio (SIR) = ( SI[sup post]-SI[sup pre])/SI[sup pre], where SI[sup post] and SI[sup pre] were the signal intensities after and before administration of contrast medium. The time intensity curve of SIR versus time after injection was obtained on each symptoms. Join pain group (85 joints) tended to show a rapid enhancement pattern, while control group (54 joints), joint sound or opening limitation group (39 joints), and asymptomatic group (68 joints) showed a relatively gradual enhancement pattern. The drop of SIR in four groups were hardly observed during examination. Mean peak SIR of control group, joint pain group, joint sound or opening limitation group, and asymptomatic group was 0.62[+-]0.24 (SD), 1.53[+-]0.69, 0.73[+-]0.38 and 0.78[+-]0.44 respectively. The mean SIR of pain group was significantly (P<0.001, t-test) higher than that of other groups. These results suggested that dynamic MRI of the temporomandibular joint may effectively depict the inflammatory changes of the posterior disk attachment. (author).

  8. Dynamic MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint arthrosis using spoiled GRASS sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, Shigeaki; Hamamoto, Sadatoshi; Kawano, Kazunori

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate contrast enhancement effects of the posterior disk attachment in the temporomandibular joint arthrosis using dynamic MRI with bilateral surface coils. One hundred twenty-four temporomandibular joints in 96 symptomatic patients and 27 control subjects were examined with a spoiled GRASS pulse sequence (TR: 35 ms, TE: 8 ms, flip angle: 60deg). One sagittal scan was performed prior to injection, then 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA was given as a rapid bolus injection, immediately after which scans were performed at 30 seconds intervals for a period of 5 minutes. Signal intensity (SI) was measured from the ROI of the posterior disk attachment region. The contrast enhancement effects may be calculated by SI ratio (SIR) = ( SI post -SI pre )/SI pre , where SI post and SI pre were the signal intensities after and before administration of contrast medium. The time intensity curve of SIR versus time after injection was obtained on each symptoms. Join pain group (85 joints) tended to show a rapid enhancement pattern, while control group (54 joints), joint sound or opening limitation group (39 joints), and asymptomatic group (68 joints) showed a relatively gradual enhancement pattern. The drop of SIR in four groups were hardly observed during examination. Mean peak SIR of control group, joint pain group, joint sound or opening limitation group, and asymptomatic group was 0.62±0.24 (SD), 1.53±0.69, 0.73±0.38 and 0.78±0.44 respectively. The mean SIR of pain group was significantly (P<0.001, t-test) higher than that of other groups. These results suggested that dynamic MRI of the temporomandibular joint may effectively depict the inflammatory changes of the posterior disk attachment. (author)

  9. Acetobacter aceti fast identification by Real Time PCR in spoiled wine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a beverage that made from grape berries. However, without beneficial bacteria, we would not produce good wine. But very often wines contain acetic acid bacteria, which are undesirable in winemaking process. Acetic acid bacteria as known as a vinegar bacteria are Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and ubiquitous bacteria. This study was focused on species of acetic acid bacteria, specifically Acetobacter aceti that make spoilage in wine.The aim of our study was the identification of Acetobacter aceti in spoiled red wine samples, with plate dilution method on agar plates and using sensitive Real-time PCR (qPCR method. We cultivated Acetobacter aceti on GYC agar at 30°C, 48h. The one of main objective in the present work was the test fast, sensitive and reliable technique such as quantitative Real-time PCR and detecting the presence of Acetobacter aceti in wine samples with positive Acetobacteraceti control on amplification plot and melting curve. The next objective before  qPCR analysis was DNA extraction from wine samples incubated for one week at 28°C aerobically. We used five different red wine samples for this experiment: Alibernet 2013, Blaufränkisch 2013, Cabernet Sauvignon 2013, Dunaj 2012 and Saint-Laurent 2012. Next we extracted DNA from wine samples and from pure Acetobacter aceti CCM 3620T strain purchased from Czech collection of microorganisms in Brno. Susceptibility ofAcetobacter aceti was varied in different isolates from 102 to 107 CFU.mL-1. The number of Acetobacter cells on GYC medium ranged from 4.05 to 4.83log CFU.mL-1 in differentwine samples.The higher number of Acetobacter cells (4.83 log CFU.mL-1 was found in Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 wine.

  10. Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as urban solid waste dump; Utilizacion de Escombreras de Carbon como Vertedero Controlado de Residuos Solidos Urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the coordinated project DISPOSAL OF SOLID RESIDUES FROM COAL it is included the project Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as Urban Solid Waste Dump. The main target of this project consisted of determining the viability of using coal mining spoil heaps, as controlled dubbish dump of urban solid wastes. The working plan to achieve this objective was composed of the following stages: 1. Urban solid wastes characterization. 2. Methodology to be followed for the selection of coal mining spoil heaps as controlled dump of urban solid wastes. 2.1 Classification and preliminary assessment of the possibility of using spoil heaps as urban solid waste dumps (APT/NON APT). 2.2 Realization of geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies applied to the spoil heaps classified as APT. 2.3 Analysis of the compatibility of the mining activity with the urban solid wastes dumped on the spoil heap. 2.4 Analysis of the use of coal mining wastes in the rubbish dump operative life. 3. Extraction of conclusions. The works were focused in the Leon province. As result of the researches we obtained the following results and conclusions: In the areas studied, only two emplacements are optima to dump urban solid wastes; spoil heap n. 13. Roguera Mine (Cinera-Matallana) and the open pit mine n. 4, Las Chaviadas, in Villablino. The active spoil heap use as controlled rubbish dump can cause, if not managed adequately, several coperating and occupational problems to the mine and to the company that manages the urban solid wastes. The abandoned spoil heap utilisation is difficult due to the problems that would arise when conditioning the site to be use as rubbish dump. The use of abandoned open pit mines, as controlled rubbish dump is feasible if geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies support it. It's possible the use of the coal mining wastes in the different operatives phases of the controlled rubbish dump. The evaluation methodology

  11. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1.

  12. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1

  13. Chemical and isotopic tracing of underground water in relation with leaching of mine spoils, Nord-Pas-de-Calais Coal Basin (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denimal, S.; Tribovillard, N.; Meilliez, F.; Barbecot, F.; Dever, L.

    2001-01-01

    Coal mining activity in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (Northern France) has generated many mine spoils. The oxidation of the pyrite content of such coal shales and their leaching can be a source of sulfate pollution for the underlying chalk aquifer, i.e. the main drinking water resource of the region. Two sites of study have been retained: one in the free water table zone and the other in the confined water table zone. Samples from both mine spoils have been analyzed with respect to their carbon and sulfur content and a superficial leaching of these elements has been evidenced. Water has been sampled in piezometers and boreholes close to the mine spoils and also along natural flux lines. The use of sulfur isotopes as markers of the different sulfate sources has confirmed the spoils source but has permitted to identify another source in the second site which is the Tertiary gypsum-bearing Ostricourt sands. This study has shown also that in the confined water table zone, part of the exported sulfates is reduced. This bacterial reduction of sulfates is due to a joint leaching of both carbon and sulfur in the mine spoils. A self-purification phenomenon occurs when the chalk aquifer is confined beneath the Cenozoic cover. (J.S.)

  14. Comparative growth behaviour and leaf nutrient status of native trees planted on mine spoil with and without nutrient amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Singh, J.S. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany

    2001-07-01

    The effect of nutrient amendment on growth of nine indigenous tree species planted on coal mine spoil was studied. Greater growth in fertilized plots was accompanied by greater foliar N and P concentrations in all species. The response to fertilization varied among species and was greater in non-leguminous than in leguminous species. Furthermore, leguminous species exhibited higher growth rates compared to non-leguminous species. Acacia catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Gmelina arborea and Azadirachta indica fitted the elastic similarity model of tree growth; whereas Pongamia pinnata and Phyllanthus emblica followed the constant stress model. Tectona grandis was the only species which fitted the geometric similarity model.

  15. Buzz off! An evaluation of ultrasonic acoustic vibration for the disruption of marine micro-organisms on sensor-housing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, J S; Hopper, D J; Magiopoulos, I; Arundell, M; Brown, R; Shorter, S; Mowlem, M C; Pascal, R W; Connelly, D

    2016-12-01

    Biofouling is a process of ecological succession which begins with the attachment and colonization of micro-organisms to a submerged surface. For marine sensors and their housings, biofouling can be one of the principle limitations to long-term deployment and reliability. Conventional antibiofouling strategies using biocides can be hazardous to the environment, and therefore alternative chemical-free methods are preferred. In this study, custom-made testing assemblies were used to evaluate ultrasonic vibration as an antibiofouling process for marine sensor-housing materials over a 28-day time course. Microbial biofouling was measured based on (i) surface coverage, using fluorescence microscopy and (ii) bacterial 16S rDNA gene copies, using Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ultrasonic vibrations (20 KHz, 200 ms pulses at 2-s intervals; total power 16·08 W) significantly reduced the surface coverage on two plastics, poly(methyl methacrylate) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for up to 28 days. Bacterial gene copy number was similarly reduced, but the results were only statistically significant for PVC, which displayed the greatest overall resistance to biofouling, regardless of whether ultrasonic vibration was applied. Copper sheet, which has intrinsic biocidal properties was resistant to biofouling during the early stages of the experiment, but inhibited measurements made by PCR and generated inconsistent results later on. In this study, ultrasonic acoustic vibration is presented as a chemical-free, ecologically friendly alternative to conventional methods for the perturbation of microbial attachment to submerged surfaces. The results indicate the potential of an ultrasonic antibiofouling method for the disruption of microbial biofilms on marine sensor housings, which is typically a principle limiting factor in their long-term operation in the oceans. With increasing deployment of scientific apparatus in aquatic environments, including further offshore

  16. Silicon nitride grids are compatible with correlative negative staining electron microscopy and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for use in the detection of micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausch, V; Hermann, P; Laue, M; Bannert, N

    2014-06-01

    Successive application of negative staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is a new correlative approach that could be used to rapidly and specifically detect and identify single pathogens including bioterrorism-relevant viruses in complex samples. Our objective is to evaluate the TERS-compatibility of commonly used electron microscopy (EM) grids (sample supports), chemicals and negative staining techniques and, if required, to devise appropriate alternatives. While phosphortungstic acid (PTA) is suitable as a heavy metal stain, uranyl acetate, paraformaldehyde in HEPES buffer and alcian blue are unsuitable due to their relatively high Raman scattering. Moreover, the low thermal stability of the carbon-coated pioloform film on copper grids (pioloform grids) negates their utilization. The silicon in the cantilever of the silver-coated atomic force microscope tip used to record TERS spectra suggested that Si-based grids might be employed as alternatives. From all evaluated Si-based TEM grids, the silicon nitride (SiN) grid was found to be best suited, with almost no background Raman signals in the relevant spectral range, a low surface roughness and good particle adhesion properties that could be further improved by glow discharge. Charged SiN grids have excellent particle adhesion properties. The use of these grids in combination with PTA for contrast in the TEM is suitable for subsequent analysis by TERS. The study reports fundamental modifications and optimizations of the negative staining EM method that allows a combination with near-field Raman spectroscopy to acquire a spectroscopic signature from nanoscale biological structures. This should facilitate a more precise diagnosis of single viral particles and other micro-organisms previously localized and visualized in the TEM. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. The effect of dietary Chlorella vulgaris supplementation on micro-organism community, enzyme activities and fatty acid profile in the rumen liquid of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, E; Abdullah, M A M; Skliros, D; Chatzikonstantinou, M; Flemetakis, E; Labrou, N; Zervas, G

    2017-04-01

    Microalgae might be considered as an alternative source of fat and/or protein for ruminant's diets. However, changes in populations of ruminal micro-organisms associated with biohydrogenation process, methane and ammonia production in response to microalgae dietary supplementation have not been well characterized. Thus, 16 cross-bred goats were divided into two groups. Each goat of both groups was fed individually with alfalfa hay and concentrates separately. The concentrates of the control group had no microalgae while those of the treated group were supplemented with 10 g lyophilized Chlorella vulgaris/kg concentrate (chlor). On the 30th experimental day, samples of rumen fluid were collected for microbial DNA extraction, fatty acid profile and enzyme activity analyses. The results showed that the chlor diet compared with the control increased significantly the populations of Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Methanogens bacteria and protozoa in the rumen of goats. A significant reduction in the cellulase activity and in the abundance of Ruminococcus albus, and a significant increase in the protease activity and in the abundance of Clostridium sticklandii in the rumen liquid of goats fed with the chlor diet, compared with the control, were found. Chlorella vulgaris supplementation promoted the formation of trans C 18:1 , trans-11 C 18:1 and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), while the proportions of C 18:0 and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) reduced significantly in the rumen liquid of goats. This shift in ruminal biohydrogenation pathway was accompanied by a significant increase in Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens trans C 18:1 -producing bacteria. In conclusion, the supplementation of diets with microalgae needs further investigation because it enhances the populations of methane-producing bacteria and protozoa. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. The role of micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) in the pathogenesis of breast pain and infection in lactating women: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tabrizi Sepehr N; Garland Suzanne M; Cullinane Meabh; Amir Lisa H; Donath Susan M; Bennett Catherine M; Cooklin Amanda R; Fisher Jane RW; Payne Matthew S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The CASTLE (Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission: Longitudinal Evaluation) study will investigate the micro-organisms involved in the development of mastitis and "breast thrush" among breastfeeding women. To date, the organism(s) associated with the development of breast thrush have not been identified. The CASTLE study will also investigate the impact of physical health problems and breastfeeding problems on maternal psychological health in the early postpartum period....

  19. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled raw salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macé, Sabrina; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; Cardinal, Mireille; Malcheva, Mariya; Cornet, Josiane; Lalanne, Valérie; Chevalier, Frédérique; Sérot, Thierry; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The spoilage potential of eight bacterial groups/species (Serratia spp., Hafnia alvei, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Shewanella baltica, Lactococcus piscium, Photobacterium phosphoreum, "other Enterobacteriaceae" [containing one strain of Moellerella sp., Morganella sp. and Pectobacterium sp.]) isolated from spoiled raw salmon fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated by inoculation into sterile raw salmon cubes followed by storage for 12days at 8°C. Microbial growth and sensory changes were monitored during the storage period. The dominant spoilage bacteria were C. maltaromaticum, H. alvei and P. phosphoreum. In order to further characterize their spoilage potential and to study the effect of their interactions, each of these 3 specific spoilage organisms (SSO) and two mixed-cultures, C. maltaromaticum/H. alvei and C. maltaromaticum/P. phosphoreum were tested in the sterile salmon model system using a combination of complementary methods: molecular (PCR-TTGE), sensory, chemical and conventional microbiological analyses. It was concluded that, in the mixed-culture inoculated samples, the dominant species determined the spoilage characteristics. The volatile fraction of P. phosphoreum inoculated samples was analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the specific volatile compounds present on P. phosphoreum spoiled inoculated samples, acetic acid was correlated with sensory analysis and can be proposed as a raw salmon spoilage marker. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation-induced enhancement of antifungal activity of chitosan on fruit-spoiling fungi during postharvest storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diep, Tran Bang; Lam, Nguyen Duy; Quynh, Tran Minh; Kume, Tamikazu

    2001-01-01

    Experiment conducted four fruit-spoiling fungal strains that were isolated from spoilt fruits (mango and dragon fruit) and were identified as follows: Fusarium dimerum Penzig, Aspergillus nidulans Wint, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius and Aspergillus japonicus Saito. Chitosan samples with various deacetylation degree (70-99%) were irradiated at doses ranging from 20 to 200kGy, then were supplemented to liquid medium for growth of fungi. We have found that chitosan possesses not only well known antibacterial activity but also the antifungal one on fruit-spoiling fungi. Method of fungal cultivation using liquid medium showed that it has higher sensitivity compared with the cultivation on agar plate, so we recommend this method should be used for evaluation of antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Our study also indicated that deacetylation degree of chitosan clearly affects its antifungal activity, the higher the deacetylation of chitosan, stronger antifungal activity can be observed. This finding recommends the use of chitosan with higher deacetylation for fruit coating and other pharmacology utilization. Results from the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) on fungal growth showed that radiation treatment increased antifungal activity of chitosan and dose of 60kGy gave highest activity. (author)

  1. Radiation-induced enhancement of antifungal activity of chitosan on fruit-spoiling fungi during postharvest storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diep, Tran Bang; Lam, Nguyen Duy; Quynh, Tran Minh [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique-VAEC, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Experiment conducted four fruit-spoiling fungal strains that were isolated from spoilt fruits (mango and dragon fruit) and were identified as follows: Fusarium dimerum Penzig, Aspergillus nidulans Wint, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius and Aspergillus japonicus Saito. Chitosan samples with various deacetylation degree (70-99%) were irradiated at doses ranging from 20 to 200kGy, then were supplemented to liquid medium for growth of fungi. We have found that chitosan possesses not only well known antibacterial activity but also the antifungal one on fruit-spoiling fungi. Method of fungal cultivation using liquid medium showed that it has higher sensitivity compared with the cultivation on agar plate, so we recommend this method should be used for evaluation of antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Our study also indicated that deacetylation degree of chitosan clearly affects its antifungal activity, the higher the deacetylation of chitosan, stronger antifungal activity can be observed. This finding recommends the use of chitosan with higher deacetylation for fruit coating and other pharmacology utilization. Results from the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) on fungal growth showed that radiation treatment increased antifungal activity of chitosan and dose of 60kGy gave highest activity. (author)

  2. Quantitative determination of sediment movement at the landward spoil ground in the Yangtze Estuary with radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhangsu

    1993-01-01

    A radioactive tracer experiment was carried out at the landward spoil ground of the North Passage in the Yangtze Estuary in June of 1991. The scandium-46 was selected as the tracer, the total activity released is 17.95 x 10 10 Bq(4.85 Ci), the amount of the scandium-46 glass is 495 g. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the sediment movement direction, path, velocity and transport rate. The experiment provides the direct evidence for using the landward spoil ground in the future. The experiment results show the sediment movement was governed by the ebb tide current during the period of middle and neap tides when the radioactive tracer was injected both on the flood and ebb tides, and the sediment moved from the injection points to the middle of the North Passage near the navigation buoy No. 269. The direction of the sediment movement is 110 degree, the particle velocity is 758 m/d, and the sediment transport rate per unit width is 47.8 m 3 /md

  3. Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, M. M.; Pina, S.; García-Orenes, F.; Almendro-Candel, M. B.; García-Sánchez, E.

    2008-07-01

    The ecologic restoration criteria in areas degraded from extraction activities require making use of their mine spoils. These materials do not meet fertility conditions to guarantee restoration success and therefore, need the incorporation of organic amendments to obtain efficient substratum. Reducing the deficiencies in the organic material and restoration material nutrients with the contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed in this work. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was conducted with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcium carbonate. The first mineral, of poor quality, came from the formation of aggregates of crushed limestone ( Z). The other residual material examined originated in limestone extraction, formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils ( D). Two treatments were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge), in addition to a control treatment. The water contribution was carried out with a device that simulated either short-duration rain or a flooding irrigation system in order to cover the surface and then percolate through the soil. The collection of leached water took place 24 h after the applications. Different parameters of the leached water were determined, including pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate anions, ammonium, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. The values obtained for each irrigation application are discussed, and the nitrate values obtained were very elevated.

  4. Influence of autochthonous micro-organisms on sorption and remobilization of technetium and selenium. Final report; Einfluss der autochthonen Mikroflora auf die Sorption und Remobilisierung des Technetiums und des Selens. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maue, G.; Stroetmann, I.; Dott, W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Umwelthygiene; Taute, T.; Winkler, A.; Pekdeger, A. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachrichtung Rohstoff- und Umweltgeologie

    1996-10-31

    Within this research project the influence of autochthonous mirco-organisms on immobilization and remobilization of Technetium and Selenium was investigated. Both redoxsensitive radionuclides are part of the waste of nuclear fuel (Tc app. 6%). Former investigations have shown, that immobilization behaviour of both elements could be influenced by micro-organisms. It has not been known, if the autochthonous (or in situ) organisms from greater depth do also have an influence on radionuclide mobility. The autochthonous populations of micro-organisms in deep sediments and their influence on the migration of Tc and Se were investigated in this study. For this reason recirculation column experiments were carried out. Absolutely sterile and anaerobic handling was necessary for the sampling and the further treatment of the sediments and waters used in the experiments. Therefor special methods for sampling, storage and handling had been developed. The results of recirculation column test with autochthonous micro-organisms were compared with sterile parallel tests and were verified with the results of an elaborated version of the hydrogeochemical equilibration code PHREEQE. It was shown that the autochthonous micro-organisms had only very little influence on the migration behaviour. The reason is the very low population (less than 10 E+6 CFU). Nevertheless it has to be taken into consideration, that conventional laboratory experiments for the estimation of the retention capacities of sediments for hazardous waste lead to an overestimation, if the sediments are contaminated with allochthonous micro-organisms (CFU=colony forming units). (orig.) [Deutsch] In dem Forschungsvorhaben wurde der Einfluss der autochthonen Mikroorgansimen auf die Mobilitaet von Technetium und Selen untersucht. Beide redoxsensitiven Radionuklide sind im Abfall von Kernbrennelementen enthalten (Tc ca. 6%). Aus vorangegangenen Forschungsarbeiten ist bekannt, dass die Mobilitaet der beiden Elemente durch

  5. The role of micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) in the pathogenesis of breast pain and infection in lactating women: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Lisa H; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Donath, Susan M; Bennett, Catherine M; Cooklin, Amanda R; Fisher, Jane R W; Payne, Matthew S

    2011-07-22

    The CASTLE (Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission: Longitudinal Evaluation) study will investigate the micro-organisms involved in the development of mastitis and "breast thrush" among breastfeeding women. To date, the organism(s) associated with the development of breast thrush have not been identified. The CASTLE study will also investigate the impact of physical health problems and breastfeeding problems on maternal psychological health in the early postpartum period. The CASTLE study is a longitudinal descriptive study designed to investigate the role of Staphylococcus spp (species) and Candida spp in breast pain and infection among lactating women, and to describe the transmission dynamics of S. aureus and Candida spp between mother and infant. The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum health problems as well as maternal psychological well-being is also being investigated. A prospective cohort of four hundred nulliparous women who are at least thirty six weeks gestation pregnant are being recruited from two hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (November 2009 to June 2011). At recruitment, nasal, nipple (both breasts) and vaginal swabs are taken and participants complete a questionnaire asking about previous known staphylococcal and candidal infections. Following the birth, participants are followed-up six times: in hospital and then at home weekly until four weeks postpartum. Participants complete a questionnaire at each time points to collect information about breastfeeding problems and postpartum health problems. Nasal and nipple swabs and breast milk samples are collected from the mother. Oral and nasal swabs are collected from the baby. A telephone interview is conducted at eight weeks postpartum to collect information about postpartum health problems and breastfeeding problems, such as mastitis and nipple and breast pain. This study is the first longitudinal study of the role of both staphylococcal and candidal colonisation in breast infections

  6. The role of micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans in the pathogenesis of breast pain and infection in lactating women: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabrizi Sepehr N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CASTLE (Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission: Longitudinal Evaluation study will investigate the micro-organisms involved in the development of mastitis and "breast thrush" among breastfeeding women. To date, the organism(s associated with the development of breast thrush have not been identified. The CASTLE study will also investigate the impact of physical health problems and breastfeeding problems on maternal psychological health in the early postpartum period. Methods/Design The CASTLE study is a longitudinal descriptive study designed to investigate the role of Staphylococcus spp (species and Candida spp in breast pain and infection among lactating women, and to describe the transmission dynamics of S. aureus and Candida spp between mother and infant. The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum health problems as well as maternal psychological well-being is also being investigated. A prospective cohort of four hundred nulliparous women who are at least thirty six weeks gestation pregnant are being recruited from two hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (November 2009 to June 2011. At recruitment, nasal, nipple (both breasts and vaginal swabs are taken and participants complete a questionnaire asking about previous known staphylococcal and candidal infections. Following the birth, participants are followed-up six times: in hospital and then at home weekly until four weeks postpartum. Participants complete a questionnaire at each time points to collect information about breastfeeding problems and postpartum health problems. Nasal and nipple swabs and breast milk samples are collected from the mother. Oral and nasal swabs are collected from the baby. A telephone interview is conducted at eight weeks postpartum to collect information about postpartum health problems and breastfeeding problems, such as mastitis and nipple and breast pain. Discussion This study is the first longitudinal study of the role of both

  7. Volatile metabolite production of spoilage micro-organisms on a mixed-lettuce agar during storage at 7 degrees C in air and low oxygen atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaert, P; Devlieghere, F; Devuyst, E; Dewulf, J; Van Langenhove, H; Debevere, J

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes the volatile metabolite production of spoilage bacteria (Pantoea agglomerans and Rahnella aquatilis) and spoilage yeasts (Pichia fermentans and Cryptococcus laurentii), previously isolated from mixed lettuce, on a simulation medium of shredded mixed lettuce (mixed-lettuce agar) both under air conditions and modified atmosphere (MA)-conditions at 7 degrees C. These latter conditions simulated the equilibrium modified atmosphere packaging, which is used to extend the shelf-life of shredded mixed lettuce. Besides volatile metabolites, organic acid metabolites and consumption of sugars were measured. Microbiological growth on the mixed-lettuce agar resulted in metabolite production and consumption of sugars. Bacteria and yeasts produced a range of volatile organic compounds both under air conditions and MA-conditions: ethanol, ethyl acetate, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2,3-butanedione, 3-methyl-1-pentanol, 1-butanol and 1-hexanol. Under MA-conditions, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and ethanol were the first compounds that were detected in the headspace as being produced by the inoculated micro-organisms. In the case of the yeast P. fermentans, production of these compounds was detected from a count of 5.0+/-0.1 log cfu/cm(2) with a fast increase when exceeding 6.0-6.5 log cfu/cm(2). Unlike P. fermentans, the yeast C. laurentii showed a slow metabolism under MA-conditions, compared to air conditions. In the case of the bacteria, production of 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol was detected starting from a count of 6.7+/-0.1 log cfu/cm(2) in the case of R. aquatilis and from a count of 7.1+/-0.4 log cfu/cm(2) in the case of P. agglomerans with a fast increase when exceeding 8 log cfu/cm(2). No production of ethanol by the bacteria under MA-conditions was detected in contradiction to air conditions. It could be concluded that, if these counts are reached on the cut surfaces of shredded mixed lettuce

  8. Ameliorating effects of industrial sugar residue on the Jales gold mine spoil (NE Portugal) using Holcus lanatus and Phaseolus vulgaris as indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, P.M.; Teiga, P.M.; Santos, M.H.; Koe, T. de; Verkleij, J.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    A residue of the sugar industry can be used in revegetation programs on metal contaminated sites. - Phytostabilisation of bare heavily contaminated substrate, such as abandoned mine sites, is considered a very appropriate technology in order to diminish erosion and dispersion of contaminants into the surroundings. In this short-term pot study, application of industrial sugar residue (ISR), a waste product of the sugar industry, proved to ameliorate spoils conditions for plant performance by elevating pH and immobilising several metals. Although arsenate concentrations were positively correlated to spoil pH and spoil treatment with ISR mobilised As, growth of both Phaseolus vulgaris and Holcus lanatus improved significantly after applications of 3.75 g ISR kg -1 dry spoil. Nutrient uptake from the substrate, with the exception of potassium, was elevated by ISR. As a remediation technique ISR application could be effective although in As-contaminated sites application might be restricted to areas where leaching to (ground) water does not form a risk

  9. Redemption of the "spoiled identity:" the role of HIV-positive individuals in HIV care cascade interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camlin, Carol S; Charlebois, Edwin D; Geng, Elvin; Semitala, Fred; Wallenta, Jeanna; Getahun, Monica; Kampiire, Leatitia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Sang, Norton; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Clark, Tamara D; Petersen, Maya L; Kamya, Moses R; Havlir, Diane V

    2017-12-01

    The concept of "therapeutic citizenship" has drawn attention to ways in which public testimony, the "story-telling in the public sphere" undertaken by people living with HIV (PLHIV), has shaped the global response to the epidemic. This paper presents qualitative findings from two large studies in eastern Africa that reveal how the advent of population-based HIV testing campaigns and efforts to accelerate antiretroviral "treatment for all" has precipitated a rapidly expanding therapeutic citizenship "project," or social movement. The title of this paper refers to Goffman's original conceptualization of stigma as a social process through which a person's identity is rendered "spoiled." Data were derived from qualitative studies embedded within two clinical trials, Sustainable East African Research in Community Health (SEARCH) (NCT# 01864603) in Kenya and Uganda, and START-ART (NCT# 01810289) in Uganda, which aimed to offer insights into the pathways through which outcomes across the HIV care continuum can be achieved by interventions deployed in the studies, any unanticipated consequences, and factors that influenced implementation. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted among cohorts of adults in 2014 through 2015; across both studies and time periods, 217 interviews were conducted with 166 individuals. Theoretically informed, team-based analytic approaches were used for the analyses. Narratives from PLHIV, who have not always been conceptualized as actors but rather usually as targets of HIV interventions, revealed strongly emergent themes related to these individuals' use of HIV biomedical resources and discourses to fashion a new, empowered subjecthood. Experiencing the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) emboldens many individuals to transform their "spoiled" identities to attain new, valorized identities as "advocates for ART" in their communities. We propose that the personal revelation of what some refer to as the "gospel of ARVs

  10. EQA School Representative's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Planning and Evaluation.

    Step-by-step instructions for the school representative responsible for Educational Quality Assessment in Pennsylvania are provided. The representative, who is expected to attend Quality Assessment Workshops, is given information about how to schedule the administration of the questionnaire, how to collect district and school data, and how to…

  11. Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M. [University of Lleida, Lleida (Spain). Dept. of Environmental & Soil Science

    2009-07-01

    A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

  12. A Usages of Herb Extracts by Stream Integrated with Micro-organism to Control Insect Pests and Phytophagus Mites by Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uraisakul, Kanok; Piadang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    A usages of herb extracts by stream integrated rith micro-organism to control insect pests and phytophagus mites by biological control was compared with insecticide to investigate the responses of chili tree and kieffer lime tree. Moreover, herb extracts were tested in controlling insect pests. Herb extracts were selected from many effective kinds such as: Azadirachta indica, Hyptis suaveolens, Citronella grass, Eucalyptus, Stemona, Galangal, Zingiber, cassumunar Roxb. Chronmolaena oderatum, Derris elyptica, Ginger, Annona seed, Malueraca sp., Andrographis paniculata, Veronia aquarrosa, Garlic, Thevetia peruviana, and Tobacco. The experiment was set at Herb Laboratory Ayutthaya Campus, Rajamangala University of Technology, Suvarnabhumi during August 2004 to June 2006. From testing herb extracts at 100 ppm. On Chili germination, the result was that the Chromolaena extracts made highest germination of 69.50%, Citronella grass at 500 ppm., made highest germination of chili seed at 86.00% within 12 days. Garlic extracts could kill 75.90% of aphids in 24 hrs., maximized in this experiments. Malueraca extracts at 500 ppm. Could kill 92.65% of chili aphids similar to the activity of insecticides action in 24 hrs. However at 5,000 ppm. It found that chemical treatment gave difference results from herbal treatments. Annona extracts could kill 64.58% of chili aphids better that others treatments. There are 18 treatment of time at 6 hrs. , 15 hrs., and 24 hrs., respectively. The results found that at 6 hrs., Kelthane could kill 93.75% of red spider mite. At 15 hrs. Stemona could kill 95.50% of red spider mite. At 24 hrs. Stemona or Chromolaena could kill 100% of red spider mite equally, Chrolaena could kill more than 83% of chili thrips at 24 hrs. Annona extracts could harvest the maximum of fruit fresh weight and numbers of fruits. After cutting leaves for producing new leaves, spraying herbal extracts was not different in statistic; however, Eucalyptus extracts, Neem plus

  13. List of Accredited Representatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VA accreditation is for the sole purpose of providing representation services to claimants before VA and does not imply that a representative is qualified to provide...

  14. Representing fractals by superoscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M V; Morley-Short, S

    2017-01-01

    Fractals provide an extreme test of representing fine detail in terms of band-limited functions, i.e. by superoscillations. We show that this is possible, using the example of the Weierstrass nondifferentiable fractal. If this is truncated at an arbitrarily fine scale, it can be expressed to any desired accuracy with a simple superoscillatory function. In illustrative simulations, fractals truncated with fastest frequency 2 16 are easily represented by superoscillations with fastest Fourier frequency 1. (letter)

  15. Optimization of molecular representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosipof, Abraham; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2014-06-23

    Representative subsets selected from within larger data sets are useful in many chemoinformatics applications including the design of information-rich compound libraries, the selection of compounds for biological evaluation, and the development of reliable quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. Such subsets can overcome many of the problems typical of diverse subsets, most notably the tendency of the latter to focus on outliers. Yet only a few algorithms for the selection of representative subsets have been reported in the literature. Here we report on the development of two algorithms for the selection of representative subsets from within parent data sets based on the optimization of a newly devised representativeness function either alone or simultaneously with the MaxMin function. The performances of the new algorithms were evaluated using several measures representing their ability to produce (1) subsets which are, on average, close to data set compounds; (2) subsets which, on average, span the same space as spanned by the entire data set; (3) subsets mirroring the distribution of biological indications in a parent data set; and (4) test sets which are well predicted by qualitative QSAR models built on data set compounds. We demonstrate that for three data sets (containing biological indication data, logBBB permeation data, and Plasmodium falciparum inhibition data), subsets obtained using the new algorithms are more representative than subsets obtained by hierarchical clustering, k-means clustering, or the MaxMin optimization at least in three of these measures.

  16. Representing vision and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  17. Mentoring: A Representative Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Cheryl S.

    This annotated bibliography provides a representative sample of the available literature on mentoring. It reviews both qualitative and quantitative research, and covers specific mentoring programs, program implementation, and testimonials to the benefits of mentoring. Materials covered include 40 journal articles, conference papers, books, and…

  18. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled cooked whole tropical shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) stored under modified atmosphere packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Mace, Sabrina; Cardinal, Mireille; Jaffres, Emmanuel; Cornet, Josiane; Lalanne, Valerie; Chevalier, Frederique; Serot, Thierry; Pilet, Marie-france; Dousset, Xavier; Joffraud, Jean-jacques

    2014-01-01

    The spoilage potential of isolates belonging to five bacterial groups/species (Shewanella baltica, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio sp., “other Gamma-Proteobacteria” [containing one strain of Pseudoalteromonas sp. and one strain of Psychrobacter sp.]) isolated from spoiled cooked and whole tropical shrimp stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated by inoculation into ionized cooked and peeled tropical shrimp followed by storage for 32 days at 8°...

  19. Nomograms to calculate stability in slate and granite spoil heaps; Abacos para el calculo de estabilidad en escombreras de pizarra y granito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz Freire, M.; Taboada Castro, J.; Rivas Brea, T.; Giraldez Perez, E.; Araujo Fernandez, M.

    2011-07-01

    One of the main problems involved in the mining of slate and ornamental granite is the unavoidable generation of waste rock, which must be stored in spoil heaps under suitably integrated, secure and stable conditions. Our work here focuses on this last point. To study the risk of instability within spoil heaps we have analysed the performance of a wide number of models with regard to circular slope failure, taking into account the different degrees of compactness of the material, the characteristics of the material itself, the effect of water pressure and the geometry of the heap. From this analysis we obtained more than 300 safety criteria, which were then used to draw up a series of nomograms to allow us to determine the risk of sliding in any granite or slate spoil heap. Thus, nomograms prove themselves to be suitable, quick, easy-to-use tools for preliminary studies of new structures, for periodic analyses of existing structures and to investigate structures that are due to be modified. (Author) 24 refs.

  20. Integration of thermal digital 3D model and a MASW (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave as a means of improving monitoring of spoil tip stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewińska Paulina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spoil tips are anthropogenic terrain structures built of leftover (coal mining materials. They consist mostly of slate and sandstone or mudstone but also include coal and highly explosive coal dust. Coal soil tip fires cause an irreversible degradation to the environment. Government organizations notice the potential problem of spoil tip hazard and are looking for ways of fast monitoring of their temperature and inside structure. In order to test new monitoring methods an experimental was performed in the area of spoil tip of Lubelski Węgiel „Bogdanka” S.A. A survey consisted of creating a 3D discreet thermal model. This was done in order to look for potential fire areas. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave was done in order to find potential voids within the body of a tip. Existing data was digitalized and a 3D model of object’s outside and inside was produced. This article provides results of this survey and informs about advantages of such an approach.

  1. Integration of thermal digital 3D model and a MASW (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave) as a means of improving monitoring of spoil tip stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewińska, Paulina; Matuła, Rafał; Dyczko, Artur

    2018-01-01

    Spoil tips are anthropogenic terrain structures built of leftover (coal) mining materials. They consist mostly of slate and sandstone or mudstone but also include coal and highly explosive coal dust. Coal soil tip fires cause an irreversible degradation to the environment. Government organizations notice the potential problem of spoil tip hazard and are looking for ways of fast monitoring of their temperature and inside structure. In order to test new monitoring methods an experimental was performed in the area of spoil tip of Lubelski Węgiel "Bogdanka" S.A. A survey consisted of creating a 3D discreet thermal model. This was done in order to look for potential fire areas. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) was done in order to find potential voids within the body of a tip. Existing data was digitalized and a 3D model of object's outside and inside was produced. This article provides results of this survey and informs about advantages of such an approach.

  2. Two-Dimensional Spoiled Gradient-Recalled Echo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Liver Using Respiratory Navigator-Gating Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Hata, Hirofumi; Matsunaga, Keiji; Nakajima, Ai; Komi, Shotaro; Abe, Yutaka; Miyatake, Hiroki

    We assessed the feasibility of T1-weighted 2-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled (2D SPGR) acquisition in steady-state imaging of the liver with various respiratory navigator gating techniques. A total of 12 healthy volunteers underwent in-phase and out-of-phase 2D SPGR imaging of the liver during breath-holding and free-breathing. Four techniques for respiratory navigation, 2 conventional navigator techniques and 2 self-navigator techniques, were used for free-breathing imaging. Good navigator waveforms were obtained in conventional navigation, whereas fluctuations were evident in self navigation. All of the 4 navigator-based methods provided better images in terms of background signals and visual image quality compared with images obtained with no respiratory control. However, differences remained in comparison with breath-holding. Superiority of self-navigation to conventional navigation was not shown. Navigator-gating techniques improved 2D SPGR images of the liver acquired during free-breathing, suggesting feasibility and beneficial effects, although navigator-based images were still inferior to breath-hold images.

  3. Plant Communities Rather than Soil Properties Structure Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities along Primary Succession on a Mine Spoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kohout

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF community assembly during primary succession has so far received little attention. It remains therefore unclear, which of the factors, driving AMF community composition, are important during ecosystem development. We addressed this question on a large spoil heap, which provides a mosaic of sites in different successional stages under different managements. We selected 24 sites of c. 12, 20, 30, or 50 years in age, including sites with spontaneously developing vegetation and sites reclaimed by alder plantations. On each site, we sampled twice a year roots of the perennial rhizomatous grass Calamagrostis epigejos (Poaceae to determine AMF root colonization and diversity (using 454-sequencing, determined the soil chemical properties and composition of plant communities. AMF taxa richness was unaffected by site age, but AMF composition variation increased along the chronosequences. AMF communities were unaffected by soil chemistry, but related to the composition of neighboring plant communities of the sampled C. epigejos plants. In contrast, the plant communities of the sites were more distinctively structured than the AMF communities along the four successional stages. We conclude that AMF and plant community successions respond to different factors. AMF communities seem to be influenced by biotic rather than by abiotic factors and to diverge with successional age.

  4. Aluminum-Tolerant Pisolithus Ectomycorrhizas Confer Increased Growth, Mineral Nutrition, and Metal Tolerance to Eucalyptus in Acidic Mine Spoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Egerton-Warburton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM may increase the tolerance of their host plants to Al toxicity by immobilizing Al in fungal tissues and/or improving plant mineral nutrition. Although these benefits have been demonstrated in in vitro (pure culture or short-term nutrient solution (hydroponic experiments, fewer studies have examined these benefits in the field. This study examined the growth, mineral nutrition, and Al levels in two Eucalyptus species inoculated with three Pisolithus ecotypes that varied in Al tolerance (in vitro and grown in mine spoil in the greenhouse and field. All three ecotypes of Pisolithus improved Eucalyptus growth and increased host plant tolerance to Al in comparison to noninoculated plants. However, large variations in plant growth and mineral nutrition were detected among the Pisolithus-inoculated plants; these differences were largely explained by the functional properties of the Pisolithus inoculum. Seedlings inoculated with the most Al-tolerant Pisolithus inoculum showed significantly higher levels of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K and lower levels of Al than seedlings inoculated with Al-sensitive ecotypes of Pisolithus. These findings indicate an agreement between the fungal tolerance to Al in vitro and performance in symbiosis, indicating that both ECM-mediated mineral nutrient acquisition and Al accumulation are important in increasing the host plant Al tolerance.

  5. CCR7 expressing mesenchymal stem cells potently inhibit graft-versus-host disease by spoiling the fourth supplemental Billingham's tenet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    Full Text Available The clinical acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD-therapy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is not as satisfactory as expected. Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs are the major niches serve to initiate immune responses or induce tolerance. Our previous study showed that CCR7 guide murine MSC line C3H10T1/2 migrating to SLOs. In this study, CCR7 gene was engineered into murine MSCs by lentivirus transfection system (MSCs/CCR7. The immunomodulatory mechanism of MSCs/CCR7 was further investigated. Provoked by inflammatory cytokines, MSCs/CCR7 increased the secretion of nitric oxide and calmed down the T cell immune response in vitro. Immunofluorescent staining results showed that transfused MSCs/CCR7 can migrate to and relocate at the appropriate T cell-rich zones within SLOs in vivo. MSCs/CCR7 displayed enhanced effect in prolonging the survival and alleviating the clinical scores of the GvHD mice than normal MSCs. Owing to the critical relocation sites, MSCs/CCR7 co-infusion potently made the T cells in SLOs more naïve like, thus control T cells trafficking from SLOs to the target organs. Through spoiling the fourth supplemental Billingham's tenet, MSCs/CCR7 potently inhibited the development of GvHD. The study here provides a novel therapeutic strategy of MSCs/CCR7 infusion at a low dosage to give potent immunomodulatory effect for clinical immune disease therapy.

  6. Relationship between the trochlear groove angle and patellar cartilage morphology defined by 3D spoiled gradient-echo imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Yuko; Tokuda, Osamu; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi (Japan); Fukuda, Kouji [Shunan Memorial Hospital, Division of Radiological Technology, Yamaguchi (Japan); Shiraishi, Gen; Motomura, Tetsuhisa [Shunan Memorial Hospital, Department of Orthopedics Surgery, Yamaguchi (Japan); Kimura, Motoichi [Customer Application Gr., GE Healthcare MR Sales and Marketing Department, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    To examine whether the femoral trochlear groove angle (TGA) is a determinant of the patellar cartilage volume and patellar cartilage damage. Patellar cartilage was evaluated by MR imaging in 66 patients (22 males and 44 females) with knee pain. Fat-suppressed 3D spoiled gradient-echo images were used to calculate the cartilage volume and to grade the cartilage damage. The proximal and distal TGAs were measured from axial PD-weighted FSE MR images with fat suppression. For every increase in the TGA at the distal femur, the patellar cartilage volume was significantly increased by 6.07 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 3} (95% CI: 1.27 x 10{sup -3}, 10.9 x 10{sup -3}) after adjustment for age, gender, and patellar bone volume (P < 0.05). The MR grade of medial patellar cartilage damage progressed as the distal TGA became narrower, although there was no significant correlation between the distal TGA and the MR grading of patellar cartilage damage. A more flattened distal TGA was associated with increased patellar cartilage volume. However, there was no association between TGA and patellar cartilage defects. (orig.)

  7. Multiparameter estimation using multi-echo spoiled gradient echo with variable flip angles and multicontrast compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Daiki; Wakayama, Tetsuya; Onishi, Hiroshi; Motosugi, Utaroh

    2018-02-24

    To develop multiparameter mapping including T 1 , R2*, and proton density fat fraction with a single breath-hold to evaluate liver disease and liver function. A 6-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence with dual flip angles was used to acquire a 12-set MRI volume data set. To shorten the scan time, undersampling and multicontrast compressed-sensing reconstruction were used. The scan time was 18 seconds. R2* and proton density fat fraction mapping were achieved by using the iterative least-squares method. T 1 mapping was estimated using driven equilibrium single-pulse observation of T 1 . Quantitative values were validated by performing phantom and volunteer studies. Statistical analysis showed that the quantitative values measured using the proposed methods agreed with those measured using conventional methods. T 1 values of water proton measured by the proposed method in phantom and volunteer studies were in good agreement with those by MRS. The results showed that accurate quantitative mapping of T 1 , R2*, and proton density fat fraction with a single breath-hold was achieved using our approach. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Richness, diversity and evenness of vegetation upon rehabilitation of gypsum mine spoiled lands in the Indian arid zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Sharma, K.D.; Sharma, U.K.; Gough, L.P.

    1998-01-01

    Richness, diversity and evenness of vegetation, after rehabilitation of gypsum mine spoils at Barmer were investigated in plots protected and planted one year and four years ago. There were four water harvesting treatments, viz., half-moon terraces, micro-catchments with 5% slope, ridge and furrow and control, wherein, indigenous and exotic trees and shrubs were planted at 5 ?? 5 m spacing. Sampling of the planted and natural vegetation, using quadrats and transacts, revealed much less species richness in unplanted control as compared to all treatments and in all the years. The species richness that increased initially (within one year) gradually declined over time (during four year), though the extent varied in different treatments. The water harvesting treatment showing maximum initial increase in richness also showed maximum decline over time, though decline was more in annual species. Two perennial species increased in richness with time. This was further proved from the trends in diversity and evenness indices. It was concluded that natural successional process was accelerated by rehabilitation providing stability to the habitat.

  9. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming......Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...

  10. Representing AIDS in Comics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiec, M K

    2018-02-01

    Matthew P. McAllister wrote: "Comic books can and have contributed positively to the discourse about AIDS: images that encourage true education, understanding and compassion can help cope with a biomedical condition which has more than a biomedical relevance" [1]. With this in mind, I combined a 23-narrator oral history and my personal memoir about an inpatient Chicago AIDS hospital unit in my book, Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371. In doing so, I built upon the existing rich history of HIV/AIDS in comics, which this article will briefly describe. Although not a comprehensive review of the intersection of AIDS and comics, the book is a tour through influences that proved useful to me. In addition, in making my book, I faced a distinct ethical issue with regard to representing patient experiences with HIV/AIDS, and I describe here how I addressed it. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Representative of the municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellnou Barcelo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The decommissioning of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant was a big challenge for the host community of Vandellos i l'Hospitalet de l'Infant and the close-by region. Closing down of the facility resulted in a rise of unemployment and a decrease of municipal income. The public was concerned with three issues: safety, transparency and information about the decommissioning, and economic future. Therefore, from the very beginning, municipal governments entered into negotiations with ENRESA on socio-economic benefits, including local employment in dismantling activities, and other types of financial and non-financial compensation. The ADE business association, i.e. a network of business organisations was created that guided the allotment of work to local firms. To satisfy public demand, local municipalities focused on the triad of safety, dialogue and local development, considered the three 'pillars of trust'. A Municipal Monitoring Commission was created, made up of representatives of affected municipalities, the regional government, the ADE business association, trade unions, the local university, the NPP management and ENRESA to monitor the dismantling process and regularly inform the local public. Items that were handled by this Commission included: - Work process monitoring. - Workers. - Materials Control. - Conventional and radioactive or contaminated waste management. - Emanation waste management (liquid and gas) - Safety (training and accidents). - Surveillance (radiological and environmental: dust, noise). - Effects. - Fulfillment of agreed conditions. A number of communication tools and channels were used, e.g., public information meetings, an information centre, the municipal magazine, the municipal radio station, and meetings with representatives of the local press. Particularly innovative was the idea to ask academics from the University of Tarragona to help with 'translating' technical information into language that could

  12. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil potential by woody plants on Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wei; Bao, Jianguo; Zheng, Jin; Xu, Fen; Wang, Liuming

    2018-01-02

    Fast-growing metal-accumulating woody plants are considered potential candidates for phytoremediation of metals. Tonglushan mining, one of the biggest Cu production bases in China, presents an important source of the pollution of environment. The sample was collected at Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap. The aims were to measure the content of heavy metal in the soil and woody plants and to elucidate the phytoremediation potential of the plants. The result showed that soil Cu, Cd and Pb were the main contamination, the mean contents of which were 3166.73 mg/kg, 3.66 mg/kg and 137.06 mg/kg respectively, which belonged to severe contamination. Fourteen species from 14 genera of 13 families were collected and investigated; except for Ligutrum lucidum, the other 13 woody plants species were newly recorded in this area. In addition, to assess the ability of metal accumulation of these trees, we proposed accumulation index. Data suggested that Platanus × acerilolia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ligutrum lucidum, Viburnum awabuki, Firmiana simplex, Robina pseudoacacia, Melia azedarach and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited high accumulated capacity and strong tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore, Platanus × acerilolia and Broussonetia papyrifera can be planted in Pb contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Firmiana simplex, Robina pseudoacacia and Melia azedarach are the suitable trees for Cd contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Melia azedarach, Ligutrum lucidum, Firmiana simplex, Osmanthus fragrans and Robina pseudoacacia are appropriate to Cu, Pb and Cd multi-metal contaminated areas.

  13. Biosurfactant-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01 isolated from spoiled apples: physicochemical and structural characteristics of isolated biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Habib; Hamedi, Mir Manochehr; Lotfabad, Tayebe Bagheri; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ortiz, Antonio; Amanlou, Massoud; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2012-02-01

    An extensive investigation was conducted to isolate indigenous bacterial strains with outstanding performance for biosurfactant production from different types of spoiled fruits, food-related products and food processing industries. An isolate was selected from 800 by the highest biosurfactant yield in soybean oil medium and it was identified by 16S rRNA and the two most relevant hypervariable regions of this gene; V3 and V6 as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01. The isolate was able to produce 12 g/l of a glycolipid-type biosurfactant and generally less efficient to emulsify vegetable oils compared to hydrocarbons and could emulsify corn and coconut oils more than 50%. However, emulsification index (E(24)) of different hydrocarbons including hexane, toluene, xylene, brake oil, kerosene and hexadecane was between 55.8% and 100%. The surface tension of pure water decreased gradually with increasing biosurfactant concentration to 32.5 mNm(-1) with critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 10.1mg/l. Among all carbon substrates examined, vegetable oils were the most effective on biosurfactant production. Two glycolipid fractions were purified from the biosurfactant crude extracts, and FTIR and ES-MS were used to determine the structure of these compounds. The analysis indicated the presence of three major monorhamnolipid species: R(1)C(10)C(10), R(1)C(10)C(12:1), and R(1)C(10)C(12); as well as another three major dirhamnolipid species: R(2)C(10)C(10), R(2)C(10)C(12:1), and R(2)C(10)C(12). The strain sweep experiment for measuring the linear viscoelastic of biosurfactant showed that typical behavior characteristics of a weak viscoelastic gel, with storage modulus greater than loss modulus at all frequencies examined, both showing some frequency dependence. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation on coal mine spoils reclaimed with maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Hakan; Makineci, Ender

    2009-08-01

    Mining operations on open coal mines in Agacli-Istanbul have resulted in the destruction of vast amounts of land. To rehabilitate these degraded lands, plantations on this area began in 1988. Twelve tree species were planted, however, the most planted tree species was maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). This study performed on 14 sample plots randomly selected in maritime pine plantations on coal mine soil/spoils in 2005. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil layers (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples; fine soil fraction (carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated, and results were compared statistically among soil layers. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 17,973.20 kg ha(-1). Total nitrogen and organic matter amounts of forest floor were 113.90 and 14,640.92 kg ha(-1) respectively. Among soil layers, the highest levels of organic carbon (1.77%) and total nitrogen (0.096%) and the lowest pH value (pH 5.38) were found in 0-1 cm soil layer, and the variation differs significantly among soil layers. Both organic carbon and total nitrogen content decreased, pH values increased from 0-1 to 5-10 cm layer. In conclusion, according to results obtained maritime pine plantations on coal mine spoils; slow accumulation and decomposition of forest floor undergo simultaneously. Depending on these changes organic carbon and total nitrogen contents increased in upper layer of soil/spoil.

  15. An experimental study on dredge spoil of estuarine sediments in the bay of seine (France): A morphosedimentary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmin, Stella; Lesueur, Patrick; Dauvin, Jean Claude; Samson, Sandrine; Tournier, Patrice; Gallicher Lavanne, Albert; Dubrulle-Brunaud, Carole; Thouroude, Coralie

    2016-03-01

    Studies on the consequences of dredging on estuarine morphology and its sedimentary dynamics are common, but the impacts of dumping dredge spoil in coastal open settings are rarely found in scientific literature. An experimental study was conducted over the period 2012-2013 to monitor the physical impacts of dredged material dumped at two adjacent sites (one million cubic metres at each) on the inner shelf of the Bay of Seine in France (eastern part of the English Channel, La Manche). As recently reinforced in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), knowledge on the location and intensity of human impacts (e.g. on marine ecosystems) is critical for effective marine management and conservation. So, two methods of disposition were tested to evaluate the impacts of dumping on the environment and thus propose recommendations for future dumping. The strategy is based on a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) approach, in which the spatio-temporal variability was studied by analysing the morphological and sedimentological characteristics over a period of 28 months, from November 2011 to April 2014, also including recovery of the seafloor after cessation of the dumping activities. The first experimental dumping operation (MASED) was carried out regularly for 8 months at a single point and generating a conical deposit of 5 m in height, while the second dumping (MABIO) lasted for 12 months involving four steps in the dumping process. In the second case, a wider area was covered, leading to the formation of a smaller deposit of 2 m in height. The dumped deposits consisted of muddy fine sand, whereas the inner shelf seafloor in this area is covered with fine to medium sand. As a result, muddy fine sand accumulated at or near the two dumping sites, with a maximum mud (i.e. particles4 Φ) content of 50% compared tostudy area. For the latter, a spreading of fine particles was observed extending from the conical deposit towards the south west. To favour long

  16. Characteristics of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Hafnia alvei H4 Isolated from Spoiled Instant Sea Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Man Hou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL produced by Hafnia alvei H4, which was isolated from spoiled instant sea cucumber, and to investigate the effect of AHLs on biofilm formation. Two biosensor strains, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens KYC55, were used to detect the quorum sensing (QS activity of H. alvei H4 and to confirm the existence of AHL-mediated QS system. Thin layer chromatography (TLC and high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis of the AHLs extracted from the culture supernatant of H. alvei H4 revealed the existence of at least three AHLs: N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL, N-(3-oxo-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL, and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL. This is the first report of the production of C4-HSL by H. alvei. In order to determine the relationship between the production of AHL by H. alvei H4 and bacterial growth, the β-galactosidase assay was employed to monitor AHL activity during a 48-h growth phase. AHLs production reached a maximum level of 134.6 Miller unites at late log phase (after 18 h and then decreased to a stable level of about 100 Miller unites. AHL production and bacterial growth displayed a similar trend, suggesting that growth of H. alvei H4 might be regulated by QS. The effect of AHLs on biofilm formation of H. alvei H4 was investigated by adding exogenous AHLs (C4-HSL, C6-HSL and 3-oxo-C8-HSL to H. alvei H4 culture. Biofilm formation was significantly promoted (p < 0.05 by 5 and 10 µM C6-HSL, inhibited (p < 0.05 by C4-HSL (5 and 10 µM and 5 µM 3-oxo-C8-HSL, suggesting that QS may have a regulatory role in the biofilm formation of H. alvei H4.

  17. Possibilities for production of medicinal aromatic plants on the spoil bank of the Pljevlja coal mine. Mogucnost gajenja ljekovitog i aromaticnog bilja na jalovistu rudnika uglja - Pljevlja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memic, M.; Bajovic, L. (Rudnik Uglja Pljevlja (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    Presents results obtained from experimental recultivation of the Potrlica surface coal mine spoil bank (810 m elevation, continental climate) during 1986-1990. Two experimental fields - Potrlica-I (600 m[sup 2]) and Potrlica-II (300 m[sup 2]) - were prepared by spreading a 10-20 cm thick layer of low-quality soil over the marly waste of the spoil bank. Soil composition was: 2.10% and 74% Ca, 4.5% and 0.70% humus, l3.5% and 5.5% P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and 23.0% and 6.0% K[sub 2]O in Potrlica-I and II respectively. Soil pH values were 7.2 and 7.60; 500 kg/ha NPK (15:15:15) were spread. Seventeen species of aromatic and medicinal plants were grown. After four years the plants were classified into 3 groups (thriving, satisfactory and non-thriving). It was found that the following plants can yield satisfactory crops and profits: valeriana officinalis, hyssopus officinalis, artemis dracunculus, cynaris scolimus, foenculum vulgare and malva silvestris. Unsatisfactory results were obtained with melisa officinalis, coriandrum sativum, pimpinela anisum and angelica archangelica. Experiments will be continued.

  18. Restoration Practices Used on Post Mining Sites and Industrial Deposits in the Czech Republic with an Example of Natural Restoration of Granodiorite Quarries and Spoil Heaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuman Tomáš

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mining of minerals that have significant impact on landscape and landscape functions affects 1% of the land surface worldwide. In the Czech Republic the extent of mining sites is estimated to be more than 800 km2 and according to the state legislation the land affected by mining should be reclaimed. There are several approaches to land restoration, which are shortly reviewed in this article, from pure technical approach to one adopting natural processes. The review shows increasing appeal of scientist and conservationist to use natural processes e.g. natural or directed succession as an alternative method of post-mining sites or industrial deposits restoration due to growing evidence of conservational value of such sites in human dominated landscapes. The natural processes used for land restoration are often argued to be slow therefore the rate of spontaneous vegetation succession was assessed in stone quarries and on spoil heaps using a sequence of panchromatic aerial images. The results showed that natural processes act fast and vegetation can reach 100% cover within 10-15 years in granodiorite quarries and on spoil heaps.

  19. Periodontal disease-associated micro-organisms in peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women using or not using hormone replacement therapy. A two-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuholm Jussi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite conflicting results on the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT there is no doubt that many women benefit from it. Women using HRT are known to be more health conscious in general with putative positive implications in the mouth. However, we observed recently in our cohort hardly any difference in oral health status between HRT-users and non-users. There are only a few studies about HRT and oral microbiota. We hypothesized that counts of periodontal micro-organisms are lower in health-conscious HRT-users than non-users. Methods Two-year open follow-up study was conducted on originally 200 HRT-users and 200 non-users from age cohorts of 50-58 years. After clinical examination pooled subgingival plaque samples were taken for polymerase chain reaction analyses. The results of finally 135 women meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed with cross-tabulation and chi-square test. Explanatory factors were studied by step-wise logistic regression analysis. Results In HRT group, the numbers of positive samples for Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis, p Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia, p Tannerella forsythia (T. forsythia, p P. gingivalis (p T. forsythia (p Conclusion Although use of HRT did not correlate with periodontal health status, HRT led to decreasing numbers of positive samples of the periodontal pathogens P. gingivalis and T. forsythia. Further studies with longer observation time are needed to observe the clinical relevance of the results.

  20. Homogeneity spoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Boesch, C.; Martin, E.; Grutter, R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the problems of in vivo MR spectroscopy of P-31 is spectra localization. Surface coil spectroscopy, which is the method of choice for clinical applications, suffers from the high-intensity signal from subcutaneous muscle tissue, which masks the spectrum of interest from deeper structures. In order to suppress this signal while maintaining the simplicity of surface coil spectroscopy, the authors introduced a small sheet of ferromagnetically dotted plastic between the surface coil and the body. This sheet destroys locally the field homogeneity and therefore all signal from structures around the coil. The very high reproducibility of the simple experimental procedure allows long-term studies important for monitoring tumor therapy

  1. Novel Micro-organisms controlling plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to control of pathogen caused diseases on leaves, fruits and ears in plants, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis by treatment of plant with an isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection

  2. Novel Micro-organisms controlling plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to control of pathogen caused diseases on leaves, fruits and ears in plants, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis by treatment of plant with an isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection

  3. Rapid Identification of Micro-Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-26

    conventional procedures for bacterial identification rely on organisms’ capacity or inability to ferment particular substrates. Detection of intracellular enzyme...USA 74:3850, 1977 15. Butter K-J, Eipel HE: Flow cytometric determinations of cellular substances in algae, bacteria, moulds and yeasts. Antonie van...flow microfluorcmetry. J Am Inst Chem Eng 24:570, 1978 17. Fazel-tdjIlessi J, Bailey JE: Analysis of fermentation processes using flow

  4. Representative mass reduction in sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Harry Kim; Dahl, Casper Kierulf

    2004-01-01

    dividers, the Boerner Divider, the ??spoon method??, alternate/fractional shoveling and grab sampling. Only devices based on riffle splitting principles (static or rotational) passes the ultimate representativity test (with minor, but significant relative differences). Grab sampling, the overwhelmingly...... always be representative in the full Theory of Sampling (TOS) sense. This survey also allows empirical verification of the merits of the famous ??Gy?s formula?? for order-of-magnitude estimation of the Fundamental Sampling Error (FSE)....

  5. ROLE OF EXPANDED CLAY AND POROUS CERAMIC AMENDMENTS ON PLANT ESTABLISHMENT IN MINE SPOILS. (R825549C033)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...... left by the wayside. The 14 often both fitting and well crafted contributions of this publication offer an approach to how landscape architecture has been and is currently represented; in the design study, in presentation, in criticism, and in the creation of landscape architecture....

  7. Does representative wind information exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.

    1996-01-01

    Representativity requirements are discussed for various wind data users. It is shown that most applications can be dealt with by using data from wind stations when these are made to conform with WMO specifications. Methods to achieve this WMO normalization are reviewed, giving minimum specifications

  8. Burnout in Customer Service Representatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Jalees

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and aim of this research was to (1 identify the factors that contributes towards job burnout in sales service representative (2 What are the relationships of these factors (3 To empirically test the relationships of the determinants relating to burnout in customer service representatives. Based on literature survey six different variables related to burnout were identified. The variables were (1 Emotional exhaustion.(2 Reduced personal accomplishment.(3 Job induced tension.(4 Job satisfaction.(5 Workload (6 Job satisfaction.Each of the variables contained 3 sub-variables. Five different hypotheses were developed and tested through techniques such as Z-test, F-test and regression analysis. The questionnaire administered for the study contained 15 questions including personal data. The subject was Moblink company customers sales service representative in Karachi.The valid sample size was 98 drawn through multi-cluster technique. Techniques such as measure of dispersion and measure of central tendencies were used for analyzing the data. Regression, Z-test, and F-test were used for testing the developed hypothesis.According to the respondents’ opinions, the reduced personal accomplishment had a high rating with a mean of 3.75 and job induced tension has the lowest mean of 3.58. The standard deviation of respondents’ opinions was highest for dimension depersonalization and least for dimension work load. This indicates that there is a high polarization of the respondents’ opinions on the dimension depersonalization moral and least on the dimension work load.The Skew nesses for all the dimensions were in negative except the determinants emotional exhaustion and workload. This indicates that the majority of respondents’ opinions on all the dimensions were below the mean except in the case of emotional exhaustion and workload.Five hypotheses were developed and tested:a The hypothesis relating to low level of burnout in customers

  9. Voxel models representing the male and female ICRP reference adult: a dosimetric tool for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zankl, M.; Schlattl, H.; Becker, J.; Petoussi-Henss, N.; Hoeschen, C.

    2008-03-01

    For optimisation in diagnostic medical imaging it is important to consider the relation between diagnostic image quality and patient dose. In the past, schematic representations of the human body were commonly used for dosimetric simulations together with Monte Carlo codes. During the last two decades, voxel models were introduced as an improvement to these body models. Studies performed by various research groups have shown that the more realistic organ topology of voxel models constructed from medical image data of real persons has an impact on calculated doses for external as well as internal exposures. As a consequence of these findings, the ICRP decided to use voxel models for the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients. These voxel models should be representative of an average population, i.e. they should resemble the ICRP reference anatomical data with respect to their external dimensions and their organ masses. To meet the ICRP requirements, our group at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (formerly known as GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health) constructed voxel models of a male and female adult, based on the voxel models of two individuals whose body height and weight resembled those of the male and female ICRP reference adult. The organ masses of both models were adjusted to the ICRP reference anatomical data, without spoiling their realistic anatomy. The paper describes the method used for this process and the resulting voxel models.

  10. SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF BARU (Dipterix alata Vog. TREATED WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE, COMPOSTED GARBAGE OR CATTLE MANURE ON MINED SPOILS IN THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Queiroz Pinheiro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge and composted garbage are available in large quantities to be employed assources of organic matter for revegetation projects of mined spoils in the Brazilian FederalDistrict (DF. These sources were used for growing baru (Dipterix alata Vog. on minedspoils in the Brazilian Cerrado and the growth and mortality of 99 seedlings treated with theseorganic matter soruces were measured. In 4 months, rates of survival ranged from 56.7%, fortrees treated with compost, to 96.7% for plants treated with sewage sludge. The compostseems to have toxic effects on seedlings, since the treatments with 35, 45 and 50 L/hollow hadno survivals. After the first period of growth, the study was able to show that the best rate forplant development with sewage sludge was 20 and 30 L/hollow (57% and 47. For plantstreated with compost, the best result was obtained with the smallest dosage (5L/hollow,where the growth is similar to the best results obtained with the sludge (47%. In larger dosesthe growth varied between 6% and 24%, span in which the results obtained in the controltreatments, chemical treatment (16% and no treatment (12% are also found. Therefore, theincrease in growth of the seedlings is a function of the dosage and type of organic materialemployed.

  11. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled cooked whole tropical shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) stored under modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macé, Sabrina; Cardinal, Mireille; Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Cornet, Josiane; Lalanne, Valérie; Chevalier, Frédérique; Sérot, Thierry; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques

    2014-06-01

    The spoilage potential of isolates belonging to five bacterial groups/species (Shewanella baltica, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio sp., "other Gamma-Proteobacteria" [containing one strain of Pseudoalteromonas sp. and one strain of Psychrobacter sp.]) isolated from spoiled cooked and whole tropical shrimp stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated by inoculation into ionized cooked and peeled tropical shrimp followed by storage for 32 days at 8 °C. Microbial growth and sensory changes were monitored during the storage period. The major spoilage bacterial isolate groups were C. maltaromaticum and S. baltica. In order to characterize their spoilage potential further and to study the effect of their interactions, each of these two specific spoilage organisms (SSO) and one mixed-culture, C. maltaromaticum/S. baltica, were tested using a combination of complementary methods: molecular (PCR-TTGE), sensory, chemical, and conventional microbiological analyses. It was concluded that, in the mixed-culture-inoculated samples, both species groups imposed their spoilage characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus and Zygosaccharomyces bailii as primary microbial contaminants of a spoiled herbal food supplement and evaluation of their survival during shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Franca; Gaio, Elena; Torriani, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    This investigation was carried out to identify the microbiota in a spoiled commercial food supplement consisting of a syrup suspension of a mixture of dried herbs and herb extracts. The product did not contain alkyl-p-hydroxybenzoates (parabens) as preservatives, was kept at room temperature and showed abundant gas formation. Colonies of distinct morphology were recovered on bacteria- and yeast-specific media, and tested for their ability to grow in the product. Genetic differentiation and identification of the microbial contaminants were achieved by RAPD-PCR and rDNA sequence analysis. The bacteria Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Paenibacillus humicus, Paenibacillus glycanilyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and the yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii were detected. Of the two S. aureus strains isolated, one was enterotoxigenic, as indicated by the presence of five SE genes. Quantitative Real-Time PCR tests, specific for this pathogen and for Z. bailii, a microbial agent causing fermentation processes and consequent food spoilage, were carried out to quantify these microorganisms in the product and identify their source among the herbal ingredients and the fructose syrup used as sweetener. Most components appeared to be contaminated by both S. aureus and Z. bailii. These findings indicate the need to improve hygienic practices in the industrial manufacturing of the food supplement, starting with herbal ingredients, to ensure a high quality of the product. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  14. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  15. Conspicuous Waste and Representativeness Heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Shishkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the similarities between conspicuous waste and representativeness heuristic. The conspicuous waste is analyzed according to the classic Veblen’ interpretation as a strategy to increase social status through conspicuous consumption and conspicuous leisure. In “The Theory of the Leisure Class” Veblen introduced two different types of utility – conspicuous and functional. The article focuses on the possible benefits of the analysis of conspicuous utility not only in terms of institutional economic theory, but also in terms of behavioral economics. To this end, the representativeness heuristics is considered, on the one hand, as a way to optimize the decision-making process, which allows to examine it in comparison with procedural rationality by Simon. On the other hand, it is also analyzed as cognitive bias within the Kahneman and Twersky’ approach. The article provides the analysis of the patterns in the deviations from the rational behavior strategy that could be observed in case of conspicuous waste both in modern market economies in the form of conspicuous consumption and in archaic economies in the form of gift-exchange. The article also focuses on the marketing strategies for luxury consumption’ advertisement. It highlights the impact of the symbolic capital (in Bourdieu’ interpretation on the social and symbolic payments that actors get from the act of conspicuous waste. This allows to perform a analysis of conspicuous consumption both as a rational way to get the particular kind of payments, and, at the same time, as a form of institutionalized cognitive bias.

  16. Representing Performance in Ethnomusicological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lutzu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Back in the 1970s a number of ethnomusicologists started to elaborate a theoretical reflection on performance as a central issue in the study of music making. This forced them to develop other ways of visualizing music for their analytical purposes. This article deals with how performance has been represented in ethnomusicological studies. I shall discuss how the graphic rendition of a sound recording is simply the mirror of what a scholar perceives, or the consequence of his/her will to emphasise a specific aspect, mediated through the possibilities offered by (and the limits of the Western semiographic system. After presenting a series of examples on how various scholars chose to graphically visualize musical performance, this paper shows how the contemplation of the strategies used to visualize performance in ethnomusicological studies can be a fruitful way of reflecting upon various topics, namely 1 the impassable limits of score transcription for understanding music as a performative phenomenon; 2 the analysis of the graphic solutions adopted by the ethnomusicologist as a way to better understand their idea of what the performance is; 3 the role played by technology in promoting new analytical approaches and methodologies; 4 analysis in ethnomusicology as an "artisanal process".

  17. Want change? Call your representative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Ilya R.

    2011-07-01

    During my tenure as an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, which began in September 2010 and continues until November 2011, my time has been shared between working with the U.S. House of Representatives Natural Resource Committee Democratic staff and in the office of Rep. Ed Markey (D-Mass., ranking Democrat on the committee). I appreciate getting to work with staff, fellows, and interns who inspire me, make me laugh, and know their issues cold. Much of my work on the committee is related to fish, wildlife, oceans, lands, and water issues and is directly related to my background in ecology and evolutionary biology (I studied zebra ecology and behavior in Kenya). My assignments have included asking the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) about why it has not changed the allowed usage of certain pesticides that the National Marine Fisheries Service has found to jeopardize the recovery of endangered Pacific salmon; helping to identify research needs and management options to combat the swiftly spreading and catastrophic white nose syndrome in North American bats; and inquiring as to whether a captive-ape welfare bill, if passed without amendment, could thwart development of a vaccine to stop the Ebola virus from continuing to cause mass mortality in endangered wild apes.

  18. The Limits of Representative Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Alexandru

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The public administration is closely linked to political power of the state, for which it implies the fact that the relationship of subordination is not against political parties or governmentcoalitions, but more of political power, democratically and constitutionally formed at the level of state’s representative bodies. The subordination and the separation are not dichotomous, they are not incompatible, but they form what it is known as, according to philosophy, inseparable and complementary opposed. Basically adopting an etymological definition (demos = people and kratos = power, status, the democracy is the people’s government. The personalization of the political life increases with the proliferation of monocratic institutions - as part of the state. Under these conditions, the elections, rather after having renounced at the party list, tend to transform into a ritual, a procedure for identifying people, which breaks down into an almost unconditional delegation of authority. So, beware of politicians who wish, under the reasoning of the elective investment, to be players in the democracy game, ignoring the rules established in the constitution.

  19. Chemical and isotopic tracing of underground water in relation with leaching of mine spoils, Nord-Pas-de-Calais Coal Basin (France); Tracage chimique et isotopique des eaux souterraines en relation avec les eaux de lixiviation de terrils, bassin minier du Nord-Pas-de-Calais (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denimal, S.; Tribovillard, N.; Meilliez, F. [Lille-1 Univ., Lab. de Sedimentologie et Geodynamique, UMR 8577, 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Barbecot, F.; Dever, L. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie Isotopique, UMR 8616, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2001-07-01

    Coal mining activity in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (Northern France) has generated many mine spoils. The oxidation of the pyrite content of such coal shales and their leaching can be a source of sulfate pollution for the underlying chalk aquifer, i.e. the main drinking water resource of the region. Two sites of study have been retained: one in the free water table zone and the other in the confined water table zone. Samples from both mine spoils have been analyzed with respect to their carbon and sulfur content and a superficial leaching of these elements has been evidenced. Water has been sampled in piezometers and boreholes close to the mine spoils and also along natural flux lines. The use of sulfur isotopes as markers of the different sulfate sources has confirmed the spoils source but has permitted to identify another source in the second site which is the Tertiary gypsum-bearing Ostricourt sands. This study has shown also that in the confined water table zone, part of the exported sulfates is reduced. This bacterial reduction of sulfates is due to a joint leaching of both carbon and sulfur in the mine spoils. A self-purification phenomenon occurs when the chalk aquifer is confined beneath the Cenozoic cover. (J.S.)

  20. Microbial quality of industrial liquid egg white: assumptions on spoiling issues in egg-based chilled desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techer, Clarisse; Daoud, Amina; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Gautier, Michel; Jan, Sophie; Baron, Florence

    2015-02-01

    As a 1st step, this study aimed at investigating the microbial quality of liquid egg white in a French egg processing company. Thirty raw and 33 pasteurized liquid egg white samples were analyzed. Pasteurization was globally found efficient on mesophilic contaminants (1.7 ± 1.6 and 0.8 ± 0.9 log CFU/mL in raw and pasteurized samples, respectively), including for the control of Salmonella. However, Gram-positive enterococci were still detected in the pasteurized samples. As a 2nd step, a representative bacterial collection was built for exploring the spoilage issue in egg-based chilled desserts. Custard cream was chosen as growth medium since this food is widely used for the production of French chilled desserts. All of the 166 isolates of the bacterial collection were shown to be able to grow and to induce spoilage of the custard cream at refrigeration temperature (10 °C). Several spoilage types were highlighted in the custard cream, on the basis of changes regarding pH, consistency, production of holes or gas. As a 3rd step, bacterial enzymatic activities were explored on custard cream-based agar media. The bacterial collection was reduced to 43 isolates, based on further selection regarding the genera and the spoilage types previously highlighted. Albeit to different degrees, all these isolates were able to produce proteases. A large part of these isolates also expressed lipolytic and amylolytic activities. This study emphasizes the need to control egg white contamination and especially with Gram-positive heat-resistant Enterococi, in order to guarantee the shelf life of egg-based chilled desserts. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. An analysis of the uncertainty and bias in DCE-MRI measurements using the spoiled gradient-recalled echo pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subashi, Ergys; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI have been used in more than 100 phase I trials and investigator led studies. A comparison of the absolute values of these quantities requires an estimation of their respective probability distribution function (PDF). The statistical variation of the DCE-MRI measurement is analyzed by considering the fundamental sources of error in the MR signal intensity acquired with the spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) pulse sequence. Methods: The variance in the SPGR signal intensity arises from quadrature detection and excitation flip angle inconsistency. The noise power was measured in 11 phantoms of contrast agent concentration in the range [0–1] mM (in steps of 0.1 mM) and in onein vivo acquisition of a tumor-bearing mouse. The distribution of the flip angle was determined in a uniform 10 mM CuSO 4 phantom using the spin echo double angle method. The PDF of a wide range of T1 values measured with the varying flip angle (VFA) technique was estimated through numerical simulations of the SPGR equation. The resultant uncertainty in contrast agent concentration was incorporated in the most common model of tracer exchange kinetics and the PDF of the derived pharmacokinetic parameters was studied numerically. Results: The VFA method is an unbiased technique for measuringT1 only in the absence of bias in excitation flip angle. The time-dependent concentration of the contrast agent measured in vivo is within the theoretically predicted uncertainty. The uncertainty in measuring K trans with SPGR pulse sequences is of the same order, but always higher than, the uncertainty in measuring the pre-injection longitudinal relaxation time (T1 0 ). The lowest achievable bias/uncertainty in estimating this parameter is approximately 20%–70% higher than the bias/uncertainty in the measurement of the pre-injection T1 map. The fractional volume parameters derived from the extended Tofts model were found to be

  2. Qualidade do substrato minerado de uma área de empréstimo revegetada no distriro federal Quality of a revegeted mine spoil in the federal disrict of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de resíduos orgânicos tem-se mostrado eficaz para a revegetação de áreas mineradas. Entretanto, dados acerca da qualidade de substratos tratados com resíduos orgânicos são escassos. Dessa forma, este trabalho visou avaliar a qualidade edáfica de um substrato minerado no Distrito Federal que recebeu 250 Mg ha-1 de lodo de esgoto e uma cobertura herbácea estabelecida a partir de sementes. Os atributos edáficos utilizados na avaliação foram densidade de solo, porosidade total, água disponível, resistência mecânica à penetração, ΔpH, CTC, saturação por bases, P disponível, matéria orgânica, abundância e diversidade da macrofauna de solo. Os resultados mostraram que a incorporação do lodo de esgoto e o desenvolvimento de um estrato herbáceo resultaram em melhoria das qualidades química e biológica do substrato exposto pela mineração, mas não alteraram a qualidade física dele. A dose de lodo de esgoto utilizada elevou os valores dos atributos químicos para além dos medidos em solos sob Cerrado nativo. Caso o objetivo da recuperação seja a restauração do ecossistema local, técnicas que melhorem a qualidade física do substrato e não excedam os níveis naturais de fertilidade devem ser desenvolvidas.The use of organic residues has been shown to be effective for the revegetation of mined areas. However, data on the quality of mine spoils treated with organic residues are rather scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the spoil quality of a mined area in the Brazilian Federal District treated with 250 Mg ha-1 of domestic sewage sludge and covered with herbs grown from seeds. The soil attributes used for the evaluation were bulk density, total porosity, available water capacity, soil resistance to penetration, ΔpH, CEC, base saturation, available phosphorus, organic matter content, abundance and diversity of soil macro-fauna. Results show that plowing sewage sludge into the spoil and the establishment of a

  3. VT Biodiversity Project - Representative Landscapes boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This coverage represents the results of an analysis of landscape diversity in Vermont. Polygons in the dataset represent as much as possible (in a...

  4. 28 CFR 104.4 - Personal Representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., determine that the Personal Representative for purposes of compensation by the Fund is the first person in... under this provision. The claim forms shall require that the purported Personal Representative certify... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal Representative. 104.4 Section...

  5. Quantifying the effect of water activity and storage temperature on single spore lag times of three moulds isolated from spoiled bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gougouli, Maria; Onno, Bernard; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-01-02

    The inhibitory effect of water activity (a w ) and storage temperature on single spore lag times of Aspergillus niger, Eurotium repens (Aspergillus pseudoglaucus) and Penicillium corylophilum strains isolated from spoiled bakery products, was quantified. A full factorial design was set up for each strain. Data were collected at levels of a w varying from 0.80 to 0.98 and temperature from 15 to 35°C. Experiments were performed on malt agar, at pH5.5. When growth was observed, ca 20 individual growth kinetics per condition were recorded up to 35days. Radius of the colony vs time was then fitted with the Buchanan primary model. For each experimental condition, a lag time variability was observed, it was characterized by its mean, standard deviation (sd) and 5 th percentile, after a Normal distribution fit. As the environmental conditions became stressful (e.g. storage temperature and a w lower), mean and sd of single spore lag time distribution increased, indicating longer lag times and higher variability. The relationship between mean and sd followed a monotonous but not linear pattern, identical whatever the species. Next, secondary models were deployed to estimate the cardinal values (minimal, optimal and maximal temperatures, minimal water activity where no growth is observed anymore) for the three species. That enabled to confirm the observation made based on raw data analysis: concerning the temperature effect, A. niger behaviour was significantly different from E. repens and P. corylophilum: T opt of 37.4°C (standard deviation 1.4°C) instead of 27.1°C (1.4°C) and 25.2°C (1.2°C), respectively. Concerning the a w effect, from the three mould species, E. repens was the species able to grow at the lowest a w (aw min estimated to 0.74 (0.02)). Finally, results obtained with single spores were compared to findings from a previous study carried out at the population level (Dagnas et al., 2014). For short lag times (≤5days), there was no difference between lag

  6. Experiments on the survival of six brackish macro-invertebrates from the Baltic Sea after dredged spoil coverage and its implications for the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powilleit, M.; Graf, G.; Kleine, J.; Riethmüller, R.; Stockmann, K.; Wetzel, M. A.; Koop, J. H. E.

    2009-02-01

    the organisms ( N. hombergii and M. arenaria) to reach the sediment surface after burial. This was not observed for the other test species. While crawling upward to the new sediment surfaces burrowing velocities of up to 8 cm d - 1 were observed for the bivalves and up to 20 cm d - 1 for N. hombergii. Between 17 and 79% of the test organisms showed burrowing activity after experimental burial. The survival rate (defined as the ability to regained contact with the sediment surface) ranged from 0 to 33%, depending on species and on burial depth. The organisms reached the sediment surface by burrowing (polychaetes and bivalves) and/or by extending their siphons to the new sediment surface (bivalves). The extrapolation of laboratory survival rates to the two disposal sites was obtained based on the in situ thicknesses of the dredged spoil layers measured by multi-beam echo sounder. This resulted in total average survival rate estimates for the test species of 45 and 43% for the two disposal sites. The results obtained during the laboratory tests and the following extrapolation to the field were verified by the range of results from a previous field study, using grab sampling shortly before and after a disposal event in June 2001. The effect of dredged material disposal on the tested Baltic Sea benthic macrofauna was assessed by extrapolating the verified laboratory results to the field.

  7. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  8. Representing Uncertainty by Probability and Possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance...... of uncertain parameters. Monte Carlo simulation is readily used for practical calculations. However, an alternative approach is offered by possibility theory making use of possibility distributions such as intervals and fuzzy intervals. This approach is well suited to represent lack of knowledge or imprecision...

  9. Edaphic restoration of the spoil banks of lignite mines in Galicia. Recuperacion edafica de los escombreras de minas de lignito en Galicia. 2(Influencia del encalado sobre les formas de acidez)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Sotres, F.; Leiros de la Pena, M.C.; Gonzalez Sangregorio, M.V.; Seoane Lavandeira, S.; Codesido Lopez, C.; Guitian Ojea, F. (Univ. Santiago, La Coruna (Spain). Fac. Farm., Lab. Edafol.)

    1989-01-01

    The influence of liming on clay spoil from the lignite mine at As Pontes (La Coruna, NW Spain), which has high soluble and exchange acidity and contains sulphur as pyrites, was studied in a 4 x 4 latin square experiment in which the plots were treated with 20 Tm CaCO{sub 3}/Ha, 40 Tm CaCO{sub 3}/Ha, 28 Tm Ca(OH){sub 2}/Ha or nothing. The various acidity fractions of the plots were monitored from July 1987 to May 1988. Though pH rose initially, to the extent that soluble and exchange acidity was virtually eliminated from the most heavily limed plots, all plots eventually regained the acidity spectrum of the controls. The cause of the poor efficiency of liming and of the difference between the performances of CaCO{sub 3} and Ca(OH){sub 2} is discussed. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 1 plot., 21 refs.

  10. Heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils. Concentrations - sorption and solubility - effects on micro-organisms; Schwermetalle und organische Schadstoffe in Boeden. Gehalte - Sorption und Loeslichkeit - Wirkung auf Mikroorganismen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welp, G.

    2000-07-01

    The thesis comprises six manuscripts published in different journals. Soil protection being the main theme the articles deal with different aspects that represent a necessary scientific basis of a risk assessment for polluted soils. The first step is to look at the total contents of different soil contaminants and to decide whether a pollution is given or not. In chapter II the contents of 18 elements in 335 soil samples of North Rhine-Westphalia are analysed, in order to determine groups of soil samples that are characterized by a certain range of element contents in connection with other common features (e.g., parent material, sampling region, specific source of pollution). The study bases on a detailed inspection of frequency distributions which are evaluated with a parametric method (assuming several single lognormal distributions) and with a nonparametric approach (Kemel density estimation). The latter method proved to be a useful tool to derive background concentrations for toxic elements in soils. It is necessary to differentiate between soluble (mobile, available) and insoluble (immobile, strongly adsorbed, precipitated) fractions of pollutants in soil. The sorption and solubility of pollutants in soils, therefore, is a second important parameter for an appropriate risk assessment. Four papers (chapter III-VI) deal with this aspect. In chapter III sorption and solubility of ten metals in four soil samples is studied. The quantity-intensity relations of eight metals [except Cr(III) and Fe(III)] are governed by sorption and complexation procecces and can be fitted by Freundlich isotherms. In three further papers sorption and solubility experiments with inorganic and organic toxicants are combined with microbial tests in order to detect effects on microorganisms in relation to soil properties. The large data set of about 500 dose-response curves was also used to examine the general reaction patterns of heterogeneous microbial populations under chemical stress

  11. 7 CFR 1205.20 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1205.20 Section 1205.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... period means the 2006 calendar year. ...

  12. Services Subcontract Technical Representative (STR) handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, D.H.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide guidance to Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Subcontract Representatives in their assignments. It is the intention of this handbook to ensure that subcontract work is performed in accordance with the subcontract documents

  13. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The attached clarification by a spokesman of the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs is being circulated for the information of Member States pursuant to a request made by the Resident Representative of Iraq

  14. Enhancing policy innovation by redesigning representative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Policy innovation is a key aspect of public innovation, which has been largely overlooked. Political leadership, competition and collaboration are key drivers of policy innovation. It is a barrier in traditional models of representative democracy that they provide weak conditions for collaboration....... Two Danish case studies indicate that collaboration between politicians and relevant and affected stakeholders can promote policy innovation, but also that a redesign of representative democracy is needed in order to establish a productive combination of political leadership, competition...

  15. Caspar Wessel on representing complex numbers (1799)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Bodil

    1999-01-01

    In celebration of the bicentenary of the publication of Wessel's paper on the geometric interpretation of complex numbers it is decsribed how Wessel used complex numbers to represent directions in surveying, at least as early as 1787.......In celebration of the bicentenary of the publication of Wessel's paper on the geometric interpretation of complex numbers it is decsribed how Wessel used complex numbers to represent directions in surveying, at least as early as 1787....

  16. Video Summarization Via Multiview Representative Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingjing; Wang, Suchen; Wang, Hongxing; Yuan, Junsong; Tan, Yap-Peng

    2018-05-01

    Video contents are inherently heterogeneous. To exploit different feature modalities in a diverse video collection for video summarization, we propose to formulate the task as a multiview representative selection problem. The goal is to select visual elements that are representative of a video consistently across different views (i.e., feature modalities). We present in this paper the multiview sparse dictionary selection with centroid co-regularization method, which optimizes the representative selection in each view, and enforces that the view-specific selections to be similar by regularizing them towards a consensus selection. We also introduce a diversity regularizer to favor a selection of diverse representatives. The problem can be efficiently solved by an alternating minimizing optimization with the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm. Experiments on synthetic data and benchmark video datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for video summarization, in comparison with other video summarization methods and representative selection methods such as K-medoids, sparse dictionary selection, and multiview clustering.

  17. 40 CFR 60.4112 - Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in owners and operators. 60.4112 Section 60.4112... Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4112 Changing Hg designated...

  18. Agrotourism-Representative Issues And Pro Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many governments from European Union recognize the fact that agrotourism and rural tourism represents one way that can save the agriculture in that in the coming year’s rural tourism and agrotourism will become representative elements for rural area, the arguments of this representativity being the purpose of this paper. The rural area offers great opportunities for development of agrotourism, practicing of its being necessary in the current period. At the majority of rural settlements, the defining emblematic is multiple: the quality of landscape and warmth of the inhabitants, works of art and popular technique, traditional occupations, costumes, customs, traditions, cuisine, resources, etc. To these is added also the awareness, by small farmers, of the need to diversify agricultural activity, both in and outside the farm, by engaging in other activities, with non-agricultural character, from which agrotourism is one of the most circulated.

  19. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor I. Smith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao’s original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  20. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  1. Representing Context in Hypermedia Data Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan

    2005-01-01

    As computers and software systems move beyond the desktopand into the physical environments we live and workin, the systems are required to adapt to these environmentsand the activities taking place within them. Making applicationscontext-aware and representing context informationalong side...... application data can be a challenging task. Thispaper describes how digital context traditionally has beenrepresented in hypermedia data models and how this representationcan scale to also represent physical context. TheHyCon framework and data model, designed for the developmentof mobile context...

  2. On the Inception of Financial Representative Bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Ferrara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we aim to formalize the inception of representative bubbles giving the condition under which they may arise. We will find that representative bubbles may start at any time, depending on the definition of a behavioral component. This result is at odds with the theory of classic rational bubbles, which are those models that rely on the fulfillment of the transversality condition by which a bubble in a financial asset can arise just at its first trade. This means that a classic rational bubble (differently from our model cannot follow a cycle since if a bubble exists, it will burst by definition and never arise again.

  3. Representativeness elements of an hybrid reactor demonstrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerdraon, D.; Billebaud, A.; Brissot, R.; David, S.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.

    2000-11-01

    This document deals with the quantification of the minimum thermal power level for a demonstrator and the definition of the physical criteria which define the representative character of a demonstrator towards a power reactor. Solutions allowing to keep an acceptable flow in an industrial core, have also been studied. The document is divided in three parts: the representativeness elements, the considered solutions and the characterization of the neutrons flows at the interfaces and the dose rates at the outer surface of the vessel. (A.L.B.)

  4. Representing Uncertainty on Model Analysis Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-01-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model.…

  5. Representing a public that does not exist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    . This paper will attempt to outline a third way that does not retreat into nostalgia nor caves in to policy pressure. Through the metaphor of teaching as standing as a representative of the world, and a pedagogy of exemplification an alternative form of legitimisation of teaching is formulated. This way deals...

  6. A Framework for Representing Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Ludger; Blunck, Henrik; Hinrichs, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for representing the trajectories of moving objects and the time-varying results of operations on moving objects. This framework supports the realization of discrete data models of moving objects databases, which incorporate representations of moving objects based on non...

  7. Adjustment Following Disability: Representative Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.

    1984-01-01

    Examined adjustment following physical disability using the representative case method with two persons with quadriplegia. Results highlighted the importance of previously established coping styles as well as the role of the environment in adjustment. Willingness to mourn aided in later growth. (JAC)

  8. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  9. A Symbolic Logic for Representing Linear Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charles E.

    A set of symbols is presented along with logical operators which represent the possible manipulations of the linear model. The use of these symbols and operators is to simplify the representation of analysis of variance models, correlation models and factor analysis models. (Author)

  10. Susceptibility-resistance profile of micro-organisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were sensitive to the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, 85.3%, norfloxacin 93.3%) and the aminoglycosides (streptomycin 90%, gentamycin 89.3%). However, the isolates demonstrated significant resistance to common antibiotics like penicillins (augmentin [amoxycillin-cavulanic acid combination] 80%, cloxacillin 88.3%, ...

  11. Listeria monocytogenes: A Micro-organism of Concern?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including meat, poultry, dairy, marine and vegetable products. The ubiquity .... meat products. In a study of-Beumer et al. (l996d) it was shown that during the shelf life (4-6 weeks) of artificially contaminated sliced cooked meat products, the growth of L. manoqvtogenes in ... derived from plant and animal origin, respectively.

  12. The ecology of micro-organisms in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L.

    1971-01-01

    Microorganisms under closed environmental ecological conditions with reference to astronauts infectious diseases, discussing bacteria growth in Biosatellite 2 and earth based closed chamber experiments

  13. Physico-chemical properties of indigenous micro organism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paddy husk (PH) and corn stalks (CS) residues are managed through burning. Besides contributing to environmental pollution, burning causes loss of vegetation cover, erosion, run off and loss of organic matter. In order to minimize this problem, a study was conducted to manage PH and CS residues through composting ...

  14. Assessment of some Micro-Organisms and Physico-Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated microorganisms and physico-chemical properties of floodwaters in some major streets in Benin City. Floodwater samples were collected from the selected streets and taken to the laboratory for analysis using AAS Model-Solaar 969 Unicam series with Air Acetylene flame. The increasing trends of ...

  15. Elimination of micro-organisms in water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Clean water supply and sanitation are regarded as major milestones in medical advances since the 19th century. Production and control of microbiologically safe drinking water has been an important challenge for the drinking water industry ever since. Based on recent progress in scientific literature

  16. Susceptibility-resistance profile of micro-organisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... were sensitive to the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, 85.3%, norfloxacin 93.3%) and the aminoglycosides (streptomycin 90% ... of pathogenic spoilage organisms from product to consumers (Grigo, 1976; Mendie et al., 1993). ...... The booming US Botanical Market. A new overview. Herbalgram 44: 33-36.

  17. Method and apparatus for detecting micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsky, J.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the presence and quantity of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and yeast, in a given sample. The apparatus includes two sealed containers, a portion of which may be penetrated by a sharp instrument, as for example, glass vials with flexible septum tops. One container includes a radioactive nutrient medium which is capable of supporting the life process of the microorganism whose presence is being tested. The second container includes a liquid scintillation solution which absorbs the product of metabolism of the organisms. The sample is introduced into the first sealed container, for example, by means of a standard syringe. Any microorganisms present will consume the radioactive nutrient and as a result produce radioactive waste. Means are then applied to penetrate the containers and allow the flow of the radioactive metabolic product from the first container to the second container while preventing any contamination from the ambient. The liquid scintillation solution will emit light in proportion to the amount of the product of metabolism collected from the first container. This light may be detected by standard liquid scintillation counters, thus providing a qualitative and quantitative measure of the microorganism in the tested sample

  18. Biodegradation of catechols by micro-organisms - A short review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many aromatic hydrocarbons and catechols are known to be toxic and carcinogenic for humans, and their contamination of soils and aquifers is of great environmental concern. Soil microorganisms, like Pseudomonas spp. and Mycobacterium, were found to be capable of transforming and degrading toxic catechols to easily ...

  19. Listeria monogytogenes : A micro-organism of concern? | Beumer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Food Technology in Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1999) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Pseudomonads and symbiotic micro-organisms as biocontrol agents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation was made using selected strains of pseudomonad (Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida and Pseudomonas sp.) isolated from V. unguiculata and Solanum tuberosum rhizospheric soils collected in three agroecological zones of Cameroon. Cultures were conducted on agar plates and in liquid media to evaluate ...

  1. Micro-organisms and nuclear waste: a neglected problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1989-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of bacteria in nuclear waste disposal. A description is given of how bacteria colonised the Three Mile Island Nuclear Reactor soon after meltdown, demonstrating the ability of some bacteria to operate under extreme conditions. Work is also described indicating that microbial corrosion of metal canisters can occur. Thus the author recommends that studies of nuclear waste disposal should take into account the interrelations between geology, geochemistry and microbiology. (U.K.)

  2. Radiation-resistant micro-organisms isolated from textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, H.; Christensen, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Towels from private homes and public offices and underwear contaminated by being used by employees at a public health laboratory were examined for occurrence of radiation-resistant bacteria and fungi. Three different methods were used for isolation of the most resistant organisms, one with multiplication of the microbial population prior to an irradiation used for selection, and two witout this multiplication and with the organisms placed on membrane filters or in situ on the textiles, respectively. A total of 44 different strains were isolated. Differences in the three methods used for selection of the most radiation-resistant microorganisms were not reflected in the results. 16 pigmentproducing Gram-positive cocci, tentatively classified as Micrococcus radiodurans, were the most radiation-resistant and were isolated in about half of the examinations. Other Gram-positive cocci, nonspore forming rods, some Nocardia and Candida parapsilosis strains and two Bacillus strains constituted the rest of the collection. With few exceptions dose-response curves for the strains were upward convex. D-6 values determined to be between 1.5 megarad for the most radiation sensitive, a Candida, and 5.7 megarad for the most resistant, tentatively classified as M. radiodurans. The D-6 values for the Bacillus strains were in both cases 1.8 megarad, consistent with a D-value of 0.3 megarad. The same resistance is reported to be the maximum resistance for B. pumilus, strain E601, commonly used as reference strain in the literature on radiation sterilization of medical devices and supplies. (author)

  3. Environmental research - development of the material balance of oak tree ecosystems on quaternary spoil bank substrates of coal mines; Umweltforschung - Entwicklung des Stoffhaushaltes von Eichenoekosystemen auf quartaeren Kippsubstraten des Braunkohlenbergbaues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzur, J.; Knoche, D.

    2000-07-01

    Investigations have shown that even the very first forest generation on spoil banks already have high vitality. However, it is well known that pioneering terrestrial ecosystems have a high water and material turnover dynamics which will quickly influence the soil at that site but is not an indication of the development of a stable ecosystem. Long-term measurements were therefore made in oak forest ecosystems on quaternary spoil bank sands in order to achieve a quantification (Boxberg: Q. rubra L., 2 years; Kleinleipisch: Q. rubra L., 21 years; Annahuetter: Q. rubra L., 63 years). The results were compared with a virgin soil reference site (Neusorgefeld: Q. rubra L., 41 years). [German] Seit Jahrzehnten praegen Braunkohlentagebaue das Landschaftsbild und den Wasserhaushalt der Niederlausitz. Bislang wurden ca. 770 km{sup 2} ueberwiegend forstlich genutzter Flaechen devastiert und auf 2.100 km{sup 2} rund 9,5 Mrd. m{sup 3} statischer Grundwasservorraete entnommen. Im Zuge der seit 1990 drastisch verringerten Kohlefoerderung und forcierten Bergbausanierung erreicht die Rekultivierungsflaeche zwischenzeitlich rund 450 km{sup 2}, wobei die forstliche Folgenutzung mit 60% der Flaeche dominiert. Zahlreiche wachstumskundliche Untersuchungen belegen, dass sich bereits in der ersten Waldgeneration auf Kippe wuechsige und vitale Bestaende etablieren. Vegetations- und ertragskundliche Parameter wie z.B. Artenzusammensetzung, Naehrstoffversorgung, laufender Zuwachs oder Vorratshaltung sind jedoch per se noch keine hinreichenden Kriterien zur Einschaetzung der Entwicklungsdynamik und damit des angestrebten Rekultivierungserfolgs. Bekannterweise zeichnen sich im Aufbau befindliche terrestrische Oekosysteme generell durch eine ausgepraegte Wasser- und Stoffdynamik aus, welche im Zuge bodengenetischer Prozesse meist eine rasche Standortveraenderung bewirkt. Da das Standortpotential zum Rekultivierungszeitpunkt nicht prognostiziert werden kann, ist offen, ob sich bereits in der

  4. Climate Change and the Representative Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B. [Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2000-02-01

    The artifice of an infinitely-lived representative agent is commonly invoked to balance the present costs and future benefits of climate stabilization policies. Since actual economies are populated by overlapping generations of finite-lived persons, this approach begs important questions of welfare aggregation. This paper compares the results of representative agent and overlapping generations models that are numerically calibrated based on standard assumptions regarding climate economy interactions. Under two social choice rules - Pareto efficiency and classical utilitarianism - the models generate closely similar simulation results. In the absence of policies to redistribute income between present and future generations, efficient rates of carbon dioxide emissions abatement rise from 15 to 20% between the years 2000 and 2105. Under classical utilitarianism, in contrast, optimal control rates rise from 48 to 79% this same period. 23 refs.

  5. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  6. Representing exact number visually using mental abacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael C; Barner, David

    2012-02-01

    Mental abacus (MA) is a system for performing rapid and precise arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, a physical calculation device. Previous work has speculated that MA is based on visual imagery, suggesting that it might be a method of representing exact number nonlinguistically, but given the limitations on visual working memory, it is unknown how MA structures could be stored. We investigated the structure of the representations underlying MA in a group of children in India. Our results suggest that MA is represented in visual working memory by splitting the abacus into a series of columns, each of which is independently stored as a unit with its own detailed substructure. In addition, we show that the computations of practiced MA users (but not those of control participants) are relatively insensitive to verbal interference, consistent with the hypothesis that MA is a nonlinguistic format for exact numerical computation.

  7. Representative Sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    The Theory of Sampling (TOS) provides a description of all errors involved in sampling of heterogeneous materials as well as all necessary tools for their evaluation, elimination and/or minimization. This tutorial elaborates on—and illustrates—selected central aspects of TOS. The theoretical...... aspects are illustrated with many practical examples of TOS at work in typical scenarios, presented to yield a general overview. TOS provides a full scientific definition of the concept of sampling correctness, an attribute of the sampling process that must never be compromised. For this purpose...... the Fundamental Sampling Principle (FSP) also receives special attention. TOS provides the first complete scientific definition of sampling representativeness. Only correct (unbiased) mass reduction will ensure representative sampling. It is essential to induct scientific and technological professions in the TOS...

  8. Meeting staff representatives of the European Agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      The AASC (Assembly of Agency Staff Committee) held its 27th Meeting of the specialized European Agencies on 26 and 27 May on the premises of the OHIM (Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market) in Alicante, Spain. Two representatives of the CERN Staff Association, in charge of External Relations, attended as observers. This participation is a useful complement to regular contacts we have with FICSA (Federation of International Civil Servants' Associations), which groups staff associations of the UN Agencies, and the annual CSAIO conferences (Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations), where each Autumn representatives of international organizations based in Europe meet to discuss themes of common interest to better promote and defend the rights of the international civil servants. All these meetings allow us to remain informed on items that are directly or indirectly related to employment and social conditions of our colleagues in other international and Europ...

  9. Data structures and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Thomson, Judi R; Harvey, William J; Paulson, Patrick R; Whiting, Mark A; Tratz, Stephen C; Chappell, Alan R; Butner, Robert S

    2014-02-18

    Data structures and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  10. Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms, and in some cases it is more compact than values table or even the formula [44]. Representing a function in the form of decision tree allows applying graph algorithms for various transformations [10]. Decision trees and branching programs are used for effective hardware [15] and software [5] implementation of functions. For the implementation to be effective, the function representation should have minimal time and space complexity. The average depth of decision tree characterizes the expected computing time, and the number of nodes in branching program characterizes the number of functional elements required for implementation. Often these two criteria are incompatible, i.e. there is no solution that is optimal on both time and space complexity. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  11. Citizen's initiatives and the representative system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenberger, B.; Kempf, U.

    1978-01-01

    This anthology containing contributions of 19 sociologists is a systematic investigation of the locality, the possibilities and the effective radius of citizen's initiatives under the functional conditions of the parliamentary - representative system. The intellectual and political surroundings, the sociologic context, the institutional, political and judical overall conditions as well as the consequences of this movement for the whole political system of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  12. Representative operation of Paris region: Montgeron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, J.

    1984-06-01

    Montgeron geothermal plant was realized between 1980 and 1983. It belongs to the Seimaroise, a low-cost housing agency and provides floor-panels heating to three building units totalizing 3042 dwelling-equivalents. This plant is one of the most representative of Paris region and may also be a model from the point of view of its realization by a private society and its economic aspect.

  13. Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Saxon E

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of Project Activity ORD-FY04-012, 'Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative', was to provide the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with expertise on past, present, and future climate scenarios and to support the technical elements of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) climate program. The Climate Technical Support Representative was to explain, defend, and interpret the YMP climate program to the various audiences during Site Recommendation and License Application. This technical support representative was to support DOE management in the preparation and review of documents, and to participate in comment response for the Final Environmental Impact Statement, the Site Recommendation Hearings, the NRC Sufficiency Comments, and other forums as designated by DOE management. Because the activity was terminated 12 months early and experience a 27% reduction in budget, it was not possible to complete all components of the tasks as originally envisioned. Activities not completed include the qualification of climate datasets and the production of a qualified technical report. The following final report is an unqualified summary of the activities that were completed given the reduced time and funding

  14. Diversity and representativeness: two key factors

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    In the past few weeks many of you have filled out the questionnaire for preparing the upcoming Five-yearly review. Similarly, Staff Association members have elected their delegates to the Staff Council for the coming two years. Once again we would like to thank all those who have taken the time and effort to make their voice heard on these two occasions. Elections to the Staff Council Below we publish the new Staff Council with its forty delegates who will represent in 2014 and 2015 all CERN staff in the discussions with Management and Member States in the various bodies and committees. Therefore it is important that the Staff Council represents as far as possible the diversity of the CERN population. By construction, the election process with its electoral colleges and two-step voting procedure guarantees that all Departments, even the small ones, and the various staff categories are correctly represented. Figure 1 shows the participation rate in the elections. The average rate is just above 52 %, with ...

  15. How do plants manage to survive on toxic spoil-mining sites? Physiological and structural properties of plants on substrates with high As and Hg contents

    OpenAIRE

    Kovářová, Monika

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metals contamination of environment represents a worldwide problem lately. Heavy metals cause harmful effects not only to plants, but also to other organisms. Throught their acumulation in plant biomass, heavy metals enter a food chain and could negatively influence the human health. The impact of heavy metals on plants and their defence mechanisms against toxicity of heavy metals have been in focus of plant physiology and ecology research for decades. Importance of this topic arise...

  16. Anthropomorphic Networks as Representatives of Global Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Yahodzinskyi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been analyzed a phenomenon of global consciousness, and its cultural and historical, civilizational dimensions have been substantiated. There has been demonstrated that the concept of planetary consciousness, global thinking, noosphere was described for the first time in the philosophy of cosmism. However, in modern conditions ideas of representatives of the naturalistic philosophical direction of cosmism have not lost their heuristic potential. They can be reconsidered in a new fashion within the context of emerging anthropomorphic (human dimension networks. There has been proved that global consciousness is a component of the social and cultural potential of global information networks defining vectors to prospects of humanity progress in the 21st century. Relying on methodology of the structural and functional analysis, the author arrives at a conclusion about global networks obtaining the status of representatives of global consciousness. This is the area of networks where all relevant information is concentrated – from statistical data to scientific and technical information. Access to these data is limited by human abilities and is realized in the form of discrete requests with using heuristic algorithms of information procession. A suggestion is introduced considering the fact that modern society being a self-organized system seeks to gain stable condition. Anthropomorphic networks are means of decreasing social entropy, which is growing as a result of any kind of human intervention into social processes. Thus, for the first time a human is challenged by their intellect, ability to create, discover and control.

  17. Exploring Representativeness and Informativeness for Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bo; Wang, Zengmao; Zhang, Lefei; Zhang, Liangpei; Liu, Wei; Shen, Jialie; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-01-01

    How can we find a general way to choose the most suitable samples for training a classifier? Even with very limited prior information? Active learning, which can be regarded as an iterative optimization procedure, plays a key role to construct a refined training set to improve the classification performance in a variety of applications, such as text analysis, image recognition, social network modeling, etc. Although combining representativeness and informativeness of samples has been proven promising for active sampling, state-of-the-art methods perform well under certain data structures. Then can we find a way to fuse the two active sampling criteria without any assumption on data? This paper proposes a general active learning framework that effectively fuses the two criteria. Inspired by a two-sample discrepancy problem, triple measures are elaborately designed to guarantee that the query samples not only possess the representativeness of the unlabeled data but also reveal the diversity of the labeled data. Any appropriate similarity measure can be employed to construct the triple measures. Meanwhile, an uncertain measure is leveraged to generate the informativeness criterion, which can be carried out in different ways. Rooted in this framework, a practical active learning algorithm is proposed, which exploits a radial basis function together with the estimated probabilities to construct the triple measures and a modified best-versus-second-best strategy to construct the uncertain measure, respectively. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our algorithm consistently achieves superior performance over the state-of-the-art active learning algorithms.

  18. [Sensitivity of four representative angular cephalometric measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xü, T; Ahn, J; Baumrind, S

    2000-05-01

    Examined the sensitivity of four representative cephalometric angles to the detection of different vectors of craniofacial growth. Landmark coordinate data from a stratified random sample of 48 adolescent subjects were used to calculate conventional values for changes between the pretreatment and end-of-treatment lateral cephalograms. By modifying the end-of-treatment coordinate values appropriately, the angular changes could be recalculated reflecting three hypothetical situations: Case 1. What if there were no downward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 2. What if there were no forward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 3. What if there were no Nasion change? These questions were asked for four representative cephalometric angles: SNA, ANB, NAPg and UI-SN. For Case 1, the associations (r) between the baseline and the modified measure for the three angles were very highly significant (P < 0.001) with r2 values no lower than 0.94! For Case 2, however, the associations were much weaker and no r value reached significance. These angular measurements are less sensitive for measuring downward landmark displacement than they are for measuring forward landmark displacement.

  19. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  20. Representing the vacuum polarization on de Sitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Katie E.; Woodard, Richard P. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Prokopec, Tomislav [Institute of Theoretical Physics (ITP) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    Previous studies of the vacuum polarization on de Sitter have demonstrated that there is a simple, noncovariant representation of it in which the physics is transparent. There is also a cumbersome, covariant representation in which the physics is obscure. Despite being unwieldy, the latter form has a powerful appeal for those who are concerned about de Sitter invariance. We show that nothing is lost by employing the simple, noncovariant representation because there is a closed form procedure for converting its structure functions to those of the covariant representation. We also present a vastly improved technique for reading off the noncovariant structure functions from the primitive diagrams. And we discuss the issue of representing the vacuum polarization for a general metric background.

  1. Towards a representative periphytic diatom sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to acquire a representative periphytic diatom sample for river water quality monitoring has been recognised in the development of existing diatom indices, important in the development and employment of diatom monitoring tools for the Water Framework Directive. In this study, a nested design with replication is employed to investigate the magnitude of variation in diatom biomass, composition and Trophic Diatom Index at varying scales within a small chalk river. The study shows that the use of artificial substrates may not result in diatom communities that are typical of the surrounding natural substrates. Periphytic diatom biomass and composition varies between artificial and natural substrates, riffles and glides and between two stretches of the river channel. The study also highlights the existence of high variation in diatom frustule frequency and biovolume at the individual replicate scale which may have implications for the use of diatoms in routine monitoring.

  2. STATISTICAL MODELS OF REPRESENTING INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Feraru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article entitled Statistical Models of Representing Intellectual Capital approaches and analyses the concept of intellectual capital, as well as the main models which can support enterprisers/managers in evaluating and quantifying the advantages of intellectual capital. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. Among the group of static models for evaluating organisational intellectual capital the canonical model stands out. This model enables the structuring of organisational intellectual capital in: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Although the model is widely spread, it is a static one and can thus create a series of errors in the process of evaluation, because all the three entities mentioned above are not independent from the viewpoint of their contents, as any logic of structuring complex entities requires.

  3. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyzer, Jan; van den Hout, Dick; Zandveld, Peter; van Ratingen, Sjoerd

    2015-03-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in four large cities. The concentrations calculated at the location of the monitoring stations, compared well with the concentrations measured at the stations indicating that the models worked well. Therefore the calculated concentration distributions were used as a proxy for the actual concentration distributions across the cities. The distributions of these proxy concentrations across the city populations was determined and cumulative population distribution curves were estimated. The calculated annual mean values at the monitoring network stations were located on the population distribution curves to estimate the fractions of the populations that the monitoring network stations represent. This macro scale procedure is used to evaluate which subgroups of the monitoring stations can be reliably used to decide on compliance or to estimate the concentration the population is exposed to. In addition, the CAR model and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are used to investigate the effect of micro scale siting of the monitoring stations within the streets. The following observations were made: - Berlin and London networks cover the distribution of concentrations to which the population is exposed rather well, while Stuttgart and Barcelona have stations at sites with mainly the higher concentrations and the exposure is covered less well. - The networks in London and Berlin, with a substantial number of urban background stations, seem fit to monitor the average population exposure, contrary to those in Stuttgart and Barcelona with only a limited number of these stations. - The concentrations measured at street stations hardly reflect the calculated differences in street

  4. Recent activities of the Seismology Division Early Career Representative(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Matthew; Van Noten, Koen; Ermert, Laura; Mai, P. Martin; Krawczyk, CharLotte

    2016-04-01

    The European Geosciences Union is a bottom-up-organisation, in which its members are represented by their respective scientific divisions, committees and council. In recent years, EGU has embarked on a mission to reach out for its numerous 'younger' members by giving awards to outstanding young scientists and the setting up of Early Career Scientists (ECS) representatives. The division representative's role is to engage in discussions that concern students and early career scientists. Several meetings between all the division representatives are held throughout the year to discuss ideas and Union-wide issues. One important impact ECS representatives have had on EGU is the increased number of short courses and workshops run by ECS during the annual General Assembly. Another important contribution of ECS representatives was redefining 'Young Scientist' to 'Early Career Scientist', which avoids discrimination due to age. Since 2014, the Seismology Division has its own ECS representative. In an effort to more effectively reach out for young seismologists, a blog and a social media page dedicated to seismology have been set up online. With this dedicated blog, we'd like to give more depth to the average browsing experience by enabling young researchers to explore various seismology topics in one place while making the field more exciting and accessible to the broader community. These pages are used to promote the latest research especially of young seismologists and to share interesting seismo-news. Over the months the pages proved to be popular, with hundreds of views every week and an increased number of followers. An online survey was conducted to learn more about the activities and needs of early career seismologists. We present the results from this survey, and the work that has been carried out over the last two years, including detail of what has been achieved so far, and what we would like the ECS representation for Seismology to achieve. Young seismologists are

  5. EEG microstates during resting represent personality differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Felix; Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L; Milz, Patricia; Gianotti, Lorena R R

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the spontaneous brain electric activity of 13 skeptics and 16 believers in paranormal phenomena; they were university students assessed with a self-report scale about paranormal beliefs. 33-channel EEG recordings during no-task resting were processed as sequences of momentary potential distribution maps. Based on the maps at peak times of Global Field Power, the sequences were parsed into segments of quasi-stable potential distribution, the 'microstates'. The microstates were clustered into four classes of map topographies (A-D). Analysis of the microstate parameters time coverage, occurrence frequency and duration as well as the temporal sequence (syntax) of the microstate classes revealed significant differences: Believers had a higher coverage and occurrence of class B, tended to decreased coverage and occurrence of class C, and showed a predominant sequence of microstate concatenations from A to C to B to A that was reversed in skeptics (A to B to C to A). Microstates of different topographies, putative "atoms of thought", are hypothesized to represent different types of information processing.The study demonstrates that personality differences can be detected in resting EEG microstate parameters and microstate syntax. Microstate analysis yielded no conclusive evidence for the hypothesized relation between paranormal belief and schizophrenia.

  6. The Two Sides of the Representative Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sutherland

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Federalist 10 James Madison drew a functional distinction between “parties” (advocates for factional interests and “judgment” (decision-making for the public good and warned of the corrupting effect of combining both functions in a “single body of men.” This paper argues that one way of overcoming “Madisonian corruption” would be by restricting political parties to an advocacy role, reserving the judgment function to an allotted (randomly-selected microcosm of the whole citizenry, who would determine the outcome of parliamentary debates by secret ballot—a division of labour suggested by James Fishkin’s experiments in deliberative polling. The paper then defends this radical constitutional proposal against Bernard Manin’s (1997 claim that an allotted microcosm could not possibly fulfil the “consent” requirement of Natural Right theory. Not only does the proposal challenge Manin’s thesis, but a 28th Amendment implementing it would finally reconcile the competing visions that have bedevilled representative democracy since the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

  7. [Representativeness of general practice university lecturers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Céline; Leroy, Olivier; Huez, Jean-François; Bellanger, William; Ramond-Roquin, Aline

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop primary care research by general practice university lecturers, it was necessary to evaluate the representativeness of this group of lecturers at the Angers Faculty of Medicine. Declarative study based on self-administered questionnaires filled in by 216 university lecturers. The questionnaire was derived from that of the regional panel of the Research, studies, evaluation and statistics directorate of 2007, investigating the sociodemographic characteristics, professional organization, activities and certain professional practices of general practitioners. University lecturers were compared to the population of the panel by means of a Chi-square test of conformity. A total of 181 university lecturers participated in the survey, comprising 65% of men. The proportion of women was higher among university lecturers and the 45-54years age-group was underrepresented. The university lecturers group was significantly different from the panel in terms of predominantly group practice and shorter weekly working hours. No significant difference was observed for the type of town of practice ahd the continuing medical education participation rate. University lecturers present certain specificities, partly related to the reference population used. The development of research based on such a network appears to be feasible in terms ofrepresentativeness, provided these specificities are clearly described.

  8. Multicriteria analysis of ontologically represented information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.

    2014-11-01

    Our current work concerns the development of a decision support system for the software selection problem. The main idea is to utilize expert knowledge to help the user in selecting the best software / method / computational resource to solve a computational problem. Obviously, this involves multicriterial decision making and the key open question is: which method to choose. The context of the work is provided by the Agents in Grid (AiG) project, where the software selection (and thus multicriterial analysis) is to be realized when all information concerning the problem, the hardware and the software is ontologically represented. Initially, we have considered the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is well suited for the hierarchical data structures (e.g., such that have been formulated in terms of ontologies). However, due to its well-known shortcomings, we have decided to extend our search for the multicriterial analysis method best suited for the problem in question. In this paper we report results of our search, which involved: (i) TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution), (ii) PROMETHEE, and (iii) GRIP (Generalized Regression with Intensities of Preference). We also briefly argue why other methods have not been considered as valuable candidates.

  9. Mathematical modelling of transport of gaseous and liquid substances induced by pyrite oxidation in spoil banks of lignite mines; Mathematische Modellierung der durch Pyritoxidation induzierten Stofftransporte in Braunkohleabraumkippen in gasfoermiger und fluessiger Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, R.

    2001-07-01

    Pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) oxidation due to open-pit lignite mining activities may result in acid mine drainage and dissolved metals in the soil and ground water of the overburden spoil piles. The pyrite oxidation takes place firstly during the mining process and at the temporary surfaces of the mine, secondly in deep zones of the overburden spoil pile as a result of gas transport through the unsaturated zone. The second process continues after mine closure possibly over several decades and therefore contaminates the environment for a long time. Whereas some studies deal with a minimisation by geochemical means, this research focuses on a minimisation by impacting the physical boundary conditions. Special attention is given to the transport of oxygen from the soil surface to the pyrite oxidation zone. Soil column experiments with columns of 2.90 m height yield experimental data concerning the pyrite oxidation and the related transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Experimental data are compared to simulation results obtained with the model MUSIC; it calculates coupled reaction and transport processes in a one-dimensional soil profile using the finite volume method. Pyrite oxidation is described by means of a first order kinetics, the gas transport takes place by diffusion as well as convection. The transport of solutes in the soil water is described by the convection-dispersion equation (Cl{sup -}, Fe{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). The simulations are able to reproduce the measured time series of oxygen concentrations in the soil profile. (orig.) [German] Die durch Braunkohlegewinnung im Tagebau hervorgerufene Pyritoxidation (Pyrit: FeS{sub 2}) kann zu Versauerung, Schwermetallfreisetzung und Aufmineralisierung des Boden- und Grundwassers in den Abraumkippen fuehren. Die Pyritoxidation findet zum einen waehrend des Abbaubetriebs und an den temporaeren Oberflaechen des Tagebaus statt, zum anderen in tieferen Bereichen der Abraumkippe durch Gastransport durch die

  10. Investigations of water pollution effects of mining spoil heaps depending on the period of existence. Final report. Part project 2; Untersuchungen gewaesserrelevanter Einfluesse von Bergbauhalden in Abhaengigkeit von der Standzeit. Abschlussbericht. Teilprojekt 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puchelt, H.; Stueben, D.; Berner, Z.; Kappes, B.

    1996-12-01

    Apart form the main elements, the Wiesloch Ag-Pb-Zn mineralisation contains a series of higly toxic trace elements. The main ore minerals of galena, zinc blende and Menikow pyrites also contain Tl, Cd, As and Sb up to the precent range. The main and trace element contents of ores, flotation residues and slags were examined in detail. Their weathering properties were estimated, depending on the time of existence, from new secondary mineral formations. An element displacement from the spoil heaps reaching several decimetres in the ceiling was shown. Strong contamination can be proved by washing out and dispersion of As and Tl in agriculturally used areas and can be found in plants. Using elution experiments, the metal release of hevy metals and arsenic from ores, flotation wastes and slags was examined for the quantitative estimation of the material transfer. Also, the excellent suitability of synthetic Fe-Mn hydroxides for the decontamination of water containing arsenic and heavy metals was shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Wieslocher Ag-Pb-Zn-Vererzung enthaelt neben den Hauptelementen eine Reihe von hochtoxischen Spurenelementen. Die Haupterzminerale Bleiglanz, Zinkblende und Melnikowitpyrit enthalten zusaetzlich Tl, Cd, As sowie Sb bis in den Prozentbereich. Im Detail wurde der Haupt- und Spurenelementgehalt von Erzen, Flotationsrueckstaenden und Schlacken untersucht. Ihre Verwitterungseigenschaften wurden in Abhaengigkeit der Standzeit anhand von sekundaeren Mineralneubildungen abgeschaetzt. Eine mehrere dm-weit reichende Elementverlagerung aus Halden in das Liegende (Loessdecke) konnte nachgewiesen werden. Starke Kontaminationen sind durch Auswaschung und Dispersion von As und Tl in landwirtschaftlich genutzen Flaechen nachzuweisen und in Pflanzen wiederfindbar. Zur quantitativen Abschaetzung des Stofftransfers wurde anhand von Elutionsversuchen die Metallfreisetzung von Schwermetallen und Arsen aus Erz, Flotationsabgaengen und Schlacken untersucht. Ausserdem konnte

  11. Musculoskeletal symptoms in pharmaceutical sales representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Katherine; Gyi, Diane; Haslam, Cheryl

    2010-03-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a leading cause of work-related ill health. Existing literature indicates that pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) report a high prevalence of MSDs, possibly exacerbated by the nature of work (prolonged driving and manual handling). In addition, they experience difficulty in accessing occupational health services. To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and associated risk factors among PSRs in order to assist their occupational health management through raising risk awareness. A self-completed questionnaire distributed to 205 PSRs within a UK pharmaceutical company was used to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms, psychosocial factors, work tasks undertaken and company car use. To assist understanding of work tasks and organizational factors, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a sample of 12 key personnel. The questionnaire response rate was 68%. PSRs reported high mileage and 100% reported working from the car in a typical day. Forty-seven per cent reported both manual handling for > or = 4 h/day and 'often' or 'sometimes' working from the car. Fifty-seven per cent reported low back symptoms in the last 12 months. Interview data revealed issues relating to car choice, storage in the boot and working from the car, which should be considered when developing priorities for preventive management of MSDs. Musculoskeletal symptoms appear to be a problem for PSRs, with risk factors reported as prolonged driving, sitting in the car, working from the car and manual handling. Interventions to facilitate their occupational health management should focus on raising awareness of the risks of prolonged driving and working from the car.

  12. Succession of Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity in Soil along a Chronosequence of Reclamation and Re-Vegetation on Coal Mine Spoils in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wen, Hongyu; Chen, Longqian; Yin, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    The growing concern about the effectiveness of reclamation strategies has motivated the evaluation of soil properties following reclamation. Recovery of belowground microbial community is important for reclamation success, however, the response of soil bacterial communities to reclamation has not been well understood. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was applied to compare bacterial communities in undisturbed soils with those in reclaimed soils using chronosequences ranging in time following reclamation from 1 to 20 year. Bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant in all soils, while the composition of predominant phyla differed greatly across all sites. Long-term reclamation strongly affected microbial community structure and diversity. Initial effects of reclamation resulted in significant declines in bacterial diversity indices in younger reclaimed sites (1, 8-year-old) compared to the undisturbed site. However, bacterial diversity indices tended to be higher in older reclaimed sites (15, 20-year-old) as recovery time increased, and were more similar to predisturbance levels nearly 20 years after reclamation. Bacterial communities are highly responsive to soil physicochemical properties (pH, soil organic matter, Total N and P), in terms of both their diversity and community composition. Our results suggest that the response of soil microorganisms to reclamation is likely governed by soil characteristics and, indirectly, by the effects of vegetation restoration. Mixture sowing of gramineae and leguminosae herbage largely promoted soil geochemical conditions and bacterial diversity that recovered to those of undisturbed soil, representing an adequate solution for soil remediation and sustainable utilization for agriculture. These results confirm the positive impacts of reclamation and vegetation restoration on soil microbial diversity and suggest that the most important

  13. HOW TO REPRESENT THE GENETIC CODE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Santos-Magalhães

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The advent of molecular genetic comprises a true revolution of far-reaching consequences for human-kind, which evolved into a specialized branch of the modern-day Biochemistry. The analysis of specicgenomic information are gaining wide-ranging interest because of their signicance to the early diag-nosis of disease, and the discovery of modern drugs. In order to take advantage of a wide assortmentof signal processing (SP algorithms, the primary step of modern genomic SP involves convertingsymbolic-DNA sequences into complex-valued signals. How to represent the genetic code? Despitebeing extensively known, the DNA mapping into proteins is one of the relevant discoveries of genetics.The genetic code (GC is revisited in this work, addressing other descriptions for it, which can beworthy for genomic SP. Three original representations are discussed. The inner-to-outer map buildson the unbalanced role of nucleotides of a codon. A two-dimensional-Gray genetic representationis oered as a structured map that can help interpreting DNA spectrograms or scalograms. Theseare among the powerful visual tools for genome analysis, which depends on the choice of the geneticmapping. Finally, the world-chart for the GC is investigated. Evoking the cyclic structure of thegenetic mapping, it can be folded joining the left-right borders, and the top-bottom frontiers. As aresult, the GC can be drawn on the surface of a sphere resembling a world-map. Eight parallels oflatitude are required (four in each hemisphere as well as four meridians of longitude associated tofour corresponding anti-meridians. The tropic circles have 11.25o, 33.75o, 56.25o, and 78.5o (Northand South. Starting from an arbitrary Greenwich meridian, the meridians of longitude can be plottedat 22.5o, 67.5o, 112.5o, and 157.5o (East and West. Each triplet is assigned to a single point on thesurface that we named Nirenberg-Kohamas Earth. Despite being valuable, usual representations forthe GC can be

  14. 29 CFR 1960.27 - Representatives of officials in charge and representatives of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attention of the Safety and Health Inspector any unsafe or unhealthful working condition which the employee... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.27... knowledge of any existing or potential unsafe or unhealthful working conditions. The representative of...

  15. Application to Representative Structures. Other Representative Structures: Mutsu-Ogawara, Niigata East and West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, Hans F.

    1999-01-01

    Reliability analyses are performed for three Japanese vertical wall breakwaters in this chapter. Only the geotechnical failure modes described in chapter 3 are investigated. For none of the breakwaters detailed data are available for the wave climate and for the soil conditions. Therefore represe...

  16. Registration Appointment and Services for Representatives Management Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A new internet/intranet application that collects all representative information and establishes the relationship between the claimant and the representative. Allow...

  17. 20 CFR 266.7 - Accountability of a representative payee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountability of a representative payee. 266.7 Section 266.7 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT REPRESENTATIVE PAYMENT § 266.7 Accountability of a representative payee. (a) A representative...

  18. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  19. Too many cooks spoil the broth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbæk, Anne

    To collaborate across organisational contexts is not an easy task, but to do so and to succeed can be vital for reaching creative and innovative results. This paper is an empirical exploration of contextual challenges for collaborative museum design, focusing on the interplay between museums and ...

  20. VT Biodiversity Project - Representative Landscapes in Vermont polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This coverage represents the results of an analysis of landscape diversity in Vermont. Polygons in the dataset represent as much as possible (in a...

  1. COMPARISON OF ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of ecological communities to make taxon richness (TR) or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Sample representativeness literally means the similarity in species composition and relative abundance between a ...

  2. Statistics On Title II Direct Payments To Claimant Representatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Every person has the right to be represented by an attorney or other representative while pursuing a claim or other rights. This dataset contains data around Title...

  3. 48 CFR 652.242-70 - Contracting Officer's Representative (COR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Representative (COR). 652.242-70 Section 652.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... Contracting Officer's Representative (COR). As prescribed in 642.272(a), insert a clause substantially the same as follows: Contracting Officer's Representative (COR) (AUG 1999) (a) The Contracting Officer may...

  4. 22 CFR 23.4 - Representative value in exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representative value in exchange. 23.4 Section... Representative value in exchange. Representative value in exchange for the collection of a fee means foreign currency equivalent to the prescribed United States dollar fee at the current rate of exchange at the time...

  5. 40 CFR 72.22 - Alternate designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designated representative is selected shall include a procedure for the owners and operators of the source and affected units at the source to authorize the alternate designated representative to act in lieu...) In the event of a conflict, any action taken by the designated representative shall take precedence...

  6. 40 CFR 60.4111 - Alternate Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate Hg designated representative... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4111 Alternate Hg designated representative. (a) A certificate of representation under § 60.4113...

  7. High School Students' Perception of University Students as STEM Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    ’ potential identities. It shows that the students preferred STEM representatives resembled themselves in some aspects (primarily social and health aspects) and fit their perceptions of a typical person working in STEM in other aspects (knowledge seeking, hard-working etc.). At least two different...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relation-ship to the subject area or the person representing it....... Some representatives transmit infor-mation and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students...

  8. Soil, climate and the environment - an indissociable threesome. Soil carbon and global changes: reciprocal impacts; Carbon in all its forms; Echomicadas, a new tool to analyse carbon 14; Biotransformation of metallic trace elements by soil micro-organisms; Absorption and distribution of metallic elements in plants; Dynamics of metallic contaminants in agricultural systems; Is photo-remediation for tomorrow? Hyper-accumulator plants; Sediments, tell me the Seine history... The complex history of plant feeding by the soil; The environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatte, Christine; Tisnerat-Laborde, Nadine; Ayrault, Sophie; Balesdent, Jerome; Chapon, Virginie; Bourguignon, Jacques; Alban, Claude; Ravanel, Stephane; Denaix, Laurence; Nguyen, Christophe; Vavasseur, Alain; Sarrobert, Catherine; Gasperi, Johnny; Latrille, Christelle; Savoye, Sebastien; Augusto, Laurent; Conan Labbe, Annie; Bernard Michel, Bruno; Douysset, Guilhem; Toqnelli, Antoine; Vailhen, Dominique; Moulin, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The articles of this file on the relationships between soils, climate and the environment discuss the reciprocal impacts of soil carbon and global changes with the objective of reduction of greenhouse effect and of increase of carbon sequestration; the various forms of carbon are presented and their properties commented ; a compact radiocarbon system (ECHoMiCADAS) is presented, developed by the Laboratory of sciences of climate and environment (LSCE) and designed for the analysis of carbon 14; an article describes how micro-organisms can play a crucial role in the transformation of soil pollutants by modifying their chemical speciation and thus their toxicity; strategies based on the absorption of metallic trace elements present in the soil to control physiological processes in plants are discussed, with applications to agriculture, food supply and to the environment; researches related to the study of effects of metallic contaminants in agricultural systems are evoked, and the reasons for a slow development of phyto-technologies, notably phyto-remediation, for pollution control and decontamination of soils and liquid media, are explained. Other themes are presented : hyper-accumulator plants which present very high contents of non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Se) or essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni) elements, are slowly growing, and display a limited biomass, but could be used for a phyto-extraction of metals from contaminated soils; how analysis and dating of sediments can reveal the presence of contaminants, and therefore give an insight into human activities and regulations, and into their impact on the river; how plants are able to develop strategies in their search for nutrients in different types of soils, even poor ones, and presentation of the various disciplines, methods and techniques used for environmental analysis with their applications to installation and site control, or to the study of pollutant migration

  9. DFS Associates: Simple ways to become a good manufacturer's representative

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra K. Pharre

    2018-01-01

    Being one of the trusted manufacturer’s representative firms for RF and microwave products and services, DFS Associates wanted to impart a few insights to consider in becoming a good manufacturer’s representative with this article. Firstly, you need to understand what it does if you’re interested on becoming one where it could be an individual or a small business that can represent a manufacturer’s products and services effectively to the marketplace. You can choose between representing one m...

  10. Representativeness Uncertainty in Chemical Data Assimilation Highlight Mixing Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lary, David John

    2003-01-01

    When performing chemical data assimilation the observational, representativeness, and theoretical uncertainties have very different characteristics. In this study we have accurately characterized the representativeness uncertainty by studying the probability distribution function (PDF) of the observations. The average deviation has been used as a measure of the width of the PDF and of the variability (representativeness uncertainty) for the grid cell. It turns out that for long-lived tracers such as N2O and CH4 the representativeness uncertainty is markedly different from the observational uncertainty and clearly delineates mixing barriers such as the polar vortex edge, the tropical pipe and the tropopause.

  11. On the Representativeness of Behavior Observation Samples in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Sarah J.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Alvarez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    School consultants who rely on direct observation typically conduct observational samples (e.g., 1 30-min observation per day) with the hopes that the sample is representative of performance during the remainder of the day, but the representativeness of these samples is unclear. In the current study, we recorded the problem behavior of 3 referred…

  12. Calls to Teen Line: Representative Concerns of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Kathryn E.; Schondel, Connie K.; Ivoska, William J.; Marlowe, Alison L.; Manke-Mitchell, Laurie

    1998-01-01

    Study examines whether the concerns of teenagers calling a peer listening service are representative of the concerns of teenagers in the area served. Results indicate that students' biggest concerns involve family problems, peer relationships, self-esteem, and school problems. Concludes that calls to the teen line are representative. (Author/GCP)

  13. 40 CFR 97.82 - NOX authorized account representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX authorized account representative... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.82 NOX authorized account representative. A unit for which an application for a NOX...

  14. 40 CFR 96.82 - NOX authorized account representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX authorized account representative... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.82 NOX authorized account representative. A unit for which an...

  15. 19 CFR 146.2 - Port director as Board representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.2 Port director as Board representative. The appropriate port director shall be in charge of the zone as the representative of the Board. [T.D. 86-16, 51 FR 5049, Feb. 11, 1986, as amended by T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999] ...

  16. 48 CFR 642.270 - Contracting Officer's Representative (COR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Representative (COR). 642.270 Section 642.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACT... Officer's Representative (COR). (a) Scope. Contracting officers may designate technically qualified... training and have the necessary experience and judgment shall be appointed as CORs. This policy shall be...

  17. 40 CFR 97.11 - Alternate NOX authorized account representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representative. 97.11 Section 97.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Authorized Account Representative for NOX Budget Sources § 97.11 Alternate NOX authorized account... representation under § 97.13, any representation, action, inaction, or submission by the alternate NOX authorized...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4114 - Objections concerning Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objections concerning Hg designated... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4114 Objections concerning Hg designated representative. (a) Once a complete certificate of...

  19. An active learning approach with uncertainty, representativeness, and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tianxu; Zhang, Shukui; Xin, Jie; Zhao, Pengpeng; Wu, Jian; Xian, Xuefeng; Li, Chunhua; Cui, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    Big data from the Internet of Things may create big challenge for data classification. Most active learning approaches select either uncertain or representative unlabeled instances to query their labels. Although several active learning algorithms have been proposed to combine the two criteria for query selection, they are usually ad hoc in finding unlabeled instances that are both informative and representative and fail to take the diversity of instances into account. We address this challenge by presenting a new active learning framework which considers uncertainty, representativeness, and diversity creation. The proposed approach provides a systematic way for measuring and combining the uncertainty, representativeness, and diversity of an instance. Firstly, use instances' uncertainty and representativeness to constitute the most informative set. Then, use the kernel k-means clustering algorithm to filter the redundant samples and the resulting samples are queried for labels. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms several state-of-the-art active learning approaches.

  20. Establishing and maintaining a facility representative program at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this standard is to help ensure that DOE Facility Representatives are selected based on consistently high standards and from the best qualified candidates, that they receive the necessary training, and that their duties are well understood and documented. The standard defines the duties, responsibilities, and qualifications for Facility Representatives, based on facility hazard classification; risks to workers, the public, and the environment; and the operational activity level. Guidance provided includes: (1) an approach for determining the required facility coverage; (2) the duties, responsibilities, and authorities of a Facility Representative; (3) training and qualifications expected of a Facility Representative; and (4) elements necessary for successful Facility Representative Programs at DOE Field Offices. This guidance was written primarily to address nuclear facilities. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Antecedents and Consequences of Sales Representatives' Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    's customer portfolio, managers must not only provide a clear definition of the types of customers the organization does not want to serve, but must also implement termination routines within the organization. Managers also need to establish incentives for sales representatives to terminate relationships......Purpose: Most firms have a number of unprofitable customer relationships that drain the firms' resources. However, firms in general and sales representatives in particular hesitate to address this problem and, ultimately, to terminate business relationships. This paper therefore aims to investigate...... the antecedents and consequences of sales representatives' relationship termination competence. Design/methodology/approach: A model of antecedents of sales representatives' relationship termination competence is developed and tested using a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives...

  2. High School Students' perception of University Students as STEM representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    2012-01-01

    The Danish government has an ambition to recruit more high school students into STEM educations (science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics). The students’ choice of further education is based on the people and jobs they have knowledge of. Therefore, to recruit more students into STEM st......’ potential identities. It shows that the students preferred STEM representatives resembled themselves in some aspects (primarily social and health aspects) and fit their perceptions of a typical person working in STEM in other aspects (knowledge seeking, hard-working etc.)....... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relationship to the subject area or the person representing it....... Some representatives transmit information and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students...

  3. Representative breast size of reference female; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.; Kramer, R.; Williams, G.; Drexler, G.

    1982-01-01

    Cristy disagrees with Kramer and Drexler on the representative breast size of a reference adult female - and after reviewing the literature suggests a representative size of 190-200 ml for one breast in a young adult female. Kramer and Drexler reply that after carrying out a series of Monte Carlo calculations on a mathematical MIRD-5 phantom, exposed to external photon irradiation, to discover the influence of breast-size on dose equivalents to the breast a representative size of (260-270)cm 3 and weight of (250-265)gm per breast is more appropriate, taking all data into account. (U.K.)

  4. Assessing the population representativeness of colorectal cancer treatment clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe He; Zhiwei Chen; George, Thomas J; Lipori, Gloria; Bian

    2016-08-01

    The generalizability (external validity) of clinical trials has long been a concern for both clinical research community as well as the general public. Results of trials that do not represent the target population may not be applicable to the broader patient population. In this study, we used a previously published metric Generalizability Index for Study Traits (GIST) to assess the population representativeness of colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment trials. Our analysis showed that the quantitative eligibility criteria of CRC trials are in general not restrictive. However, the qualitative eligibility criteria in these trials are with moderate or strict restrictions, which may impact their population representativeness of the real-world patient population.

  5. Searches over graphs representing geospatial-temporal remote sensing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brost, Randolph; Perkins, David Nikolaus

    2018-03-06

    Various technologies pertaining to identifying objects of interest in remote sensing images by searching over geospatial-temporal graph representations are described herein. Graphs are constructed by representing objects in remote sensing images as nodes, and connecting nodes with undirected edges representing either distance or adjacency relationships between objects and directed edges representing changes in time. Geospatial-temporal graph searches are made computationally efficient by taking advantage of characteristics of geospatial-temporal data in remote sensing images through the application of various graph search techniques.

  6. Allegheny County Pennsylvania House of Representatives District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the Pennsylvania House of Representatives district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western...

  7. Sample representativeness verification of the FADN CZ farm business sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Prášilová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample representativeness verification is one of the key stages of statistical work. After having joined the European Union the Czech Republic joined also the Farm Accountancy Data Network system of the Union. This is a sample of bodies and companies doing business in agriculture. Detailed production and economic data on the results of farming business are collected from that sample annually and results for the entire population of the country´s farms are then estimated and assessed. It is important hence, that the sample be representative. Representativeness is to be assessed as to the number of farms included in the survey and also as to the degree of accordance of the measures and indices as related to the population. The paper deals with the special statistical techniques and methods of the FADN CZ sample representativeness verification including the necessary sample size statement procedure. The Czech farm population data have been obtained from the Czech Statistical Office data bank.

  8. Microalbuminuria represents a feature of advanced renal disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The systematic screening for microalbuminuria represents the touchstone to prevent CRF in patients with diabetes mellitus. Microalbuminuria has also been demonstrated in patients with sickle cell disease. Whether this has the same ...

  9. A representative individual from Arrovian aggregation of parametric individual utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Herzberg, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the representative-agent hypothesis for an infinite population which has to make a social choice from a given finite-dimensional space of alternatives. It is assumed that some class of admissible strictly concave utility functions is exogenously given and that each individual's preference ordering can be represented cardinally through some admissible utility function. In addition, we assume that (i) the class of admissible utility functions allows for a smooth parame...

  10. Quantum states representing perfectly secure bits are always distillable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horodecki, Pawel; Augusiak, Remigiusz

    2006-01-01

    It is proven that recently introduced states with perfectly secure bits of cryptographic key (private states representing secure bit) [K. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160502 (2005)] as well as its multipartite and higher dimension generalizations always represent distillable entanglement. The corresponding lower bounds on distillable entanglement are provided. We also present a simple alternative proof that for any bipartite quantum state entanglement cost is an upper bound on a distillable cryptographic key in a bipartite scenario

  11. Direct and Representative Democracy - Supplementing, not Excluding Each Other

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    2007-01-01

      This paper presents and discuses four main arguments for and against direct democracy, popular initiatives and referendums: (1) higher responsiveness versus lesser quality; (2) higher popular responsibility versus weaker representatives; (3) higher popular participation versus deeper conflicts......: and (4) more transparency and enlightened understanding versus less confidentiality. The arguments are discussed in relation to general political goals of good government such as legitimacy, efficiency and stability. The basic thesis of the paper is that direct and representative forms of democracy...

  12. Elections for staff representatives – Join, commit and vote!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    The Staff Council is a statutory body representing collectively in the area of employment conditions all CERN staff members (MPE and MPA), as well as the pensioners, former Cernois. The Staff Council is the supreme representative body of the CERN staff and pensioners, which defines the main lines of the policy of the Staff Association. The Staff Council is composed of staff representatives (45 seats to represent staff members, and 5 for representing fellows and associate members), as well as delegates for pensioners (seven positions), designated by GAC-EPA. Every two years, the Council is renewed through elections. Concerning the 45 delegates representing staff members, all departments have a least two seats allocated, one in career paths AA to D and one in career paths E to H. This guarantees a fair distribution of seats among the various organizational units and career paths. The table below, shows the exact number of delegates per department and career paths. Staff members or fellows who want to participa...

  13. Representative oxygen dissociation curve and equation for the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R L; McDaniel, G R; Clark, C H

    1981-01-01

    Because of the considerable variability in the oxygen dissociation curves for chickens reported in the literature, the respiratory physiologist studying avian gas exchange is faced with the dilemma of which curve is representative for the chicken. In order to arrive at a representative curve, data from eight reported curves were compiled and adjusted to the same set of standard conditions of temperature (T), pH, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2): T = 42 C, pH = 7.5 PCO2 = 40 torr. The mean PO2 STD (mean +/- SD) versus percent saturation of hemoglobin curve was then determined. The mean data were fitted to an equation representing the oxygen dissociation curve so that for any selected partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) the percent saturation (%SAT) of oxyhemoglobin may be computed. The P50 values for the mean literature and equation curves, respectively, were 47.4 +/- 9.8 and 45.3 Torr. The mean curve with its standard deviations provides a chicken oxygen dissociation curve representative of the literature data to which experimental data may be compared. The equation for the curve enables rapid referral to the representative curve to compute the %SAT, given the PO2 adjusted to the standard conditions.

  14. Selection of Representative Models for Decision Analysis Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Luis A. A.; Coelho, Guilherme P.; Santos, Antonio Alberto S.; Schiozer, Denis J.

    2016-03-01

    The decision-making process in oil fields includes a step of risk analysis associated with the uncertainties present in the variables of the problem. Such uncertainties lead to hundreds, even thousands, of possible scenarios that are supposed to be analyzed so an effective production strategy can be selected. Given this high number of scenarios, a technique to reduce this set to a smaller, feasible subset of representative scenarios is imperative. The selected scenarios must be representative of the original set and also free of optimistic and pessimistic bias. This paper is devoted to propose an assisted methodology to identify representative models in oil fields. To do so, first a mathematical function was developed to model the representativeness of a subset of models with respect to the full set that characterizes the problem. Then, an optimization tool was implemented to identify the representative models of any problem, considering not only the cross-plots of the main output variables, but also the risk curves and the probability distribution of the attribute-levels of the problem. The proposed technique was applied to two benchmark cases and the results, evaluated by experts in the field, indicate that the obtained solutions are richer than those identified by previously adopted manual approaches. The program bytecode is available under request.

  15. Aphasia diagrams: a new notational scheme for representing neurolinguistic deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, C; Bub, D

    1998-01-01

    Models of language processing are becoming extremely complex. As a result, it has become very difficult to develop a thorough understanding of even a single patient's deficits, let alone to represent those deficits in a way which renders their significance apparent to others. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the use of a notational system which has been developed specifically for representing the complexities of neurolinguistic deficits. The notational system is simple to learn and to use and may easily be extended and adapted to different models of language processing. It may also be used to represent the results from other nonlinguistic neuropsychological batteries which are composed of tightly interdependent subtests with many related factors included in each subtest. Despite its simplicity, the notational system has proven itself in the field as a useful tool for rendering complex deficits more easily interpretable.

  16. Assessing Use of Cognitive Heuristic Representativeness in Clinical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Velma L.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a pilot study to investigate use of the cognitive heuristic Representativeness in clinical reasoning. We tested a set of tasks and assessments to determine whether subjects used the heuristics in reasoning, to obtain initial frequencies of heuristic use and related cognitive errors, and to collect cognitive process data using think-aloud techniques. The study investigates two aspects of the Representativeness heuristic - judging by perceived frequency and representativeness as causal beliefs. Results show that subjects apply both aspects of the heuristic during reasoning, and make errors related to misapplication of these heuristics. Subjects in this study rarely used base rates, showed significant variability in their recall of base rates, demonstrated limited ability to use provided base rates, and favored causal data in diagnosis. We conclude that the tasks and assessments we have developed provide a suitable test-bed to study the cognitive processes underlying heuristic errors. PMID:18999140

  17. Representing female desire within a labial framework of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware."

  18. Knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the virtual physiological human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Furlong, Laura; Fornes, Oriol; Kolárik, Corinna; Hanser, Susanne; Boeker, Martin; Schulz, Stefan; Sanz, Ferran; Klinger, Roman; Mevissen, Theo; Gattermayer, Tobias; Oliva, Baldo; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2008-09-13

    In essence, the virtual physiological human (VPH) is a multiscale representation of human physiology spanning from the molecular level via cellular processes and multicellular organization of tissues to complex organ function. The different scales of the VPH deal with different entities, relationships and processes, and in consequence the models used to describe and simulate biological functions vary significantly. Here, we describe methods and strategies to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities that can be used for modelling the molecular scale of the VPH. Our strategy to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities is based on the combination of information extraction from scientific text and the integration of information from biomolecular databases. We introduce @neuLink, a first prototype of an automatically generated, disease-specific knowledge environment combining biomolecular, chemical, genetic and medical information. Finally, we provide a perspective for the future implementation and use of knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the VPH.

  19. Multivariate analysis of the population representativeness of related clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Ryan, Patrick; Hoxha, Julia; Wang, Shuang; Carini, Simona; Sim, Ida; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    To develop a multivariate method for quantifying the population representativeness across related clinical studies and a computational method for identifying and characterizing underrepresented subgroups in clinical studies. We extended a published metric named Generalizability Index for Study Traits (GIST) to include multiple study traits for quantifying the population representativeness of a set of related studies by assuming the independence and equal importance among all study traits. On this basis, we compared the effectiveness of GIST and multivariate GIST (mGIST) qualitatively. We further developed an algorithm called "Multivariate Underrepresented Subgroup Identification" (MAGIC) for constructing optimal combinations of distinct value intervals of multiple traits to define underrepresented subgroups in a set of related studies. Using Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as an example, we identified and extracted frequently used quantitative eligibility criteria variables in a set of clinical studies. We profiled the T2DM target population using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. According to the mGIST scores for four example variables, i.e., age, HbA1c, BMI, and gender, the included observational T2DM studies had superior population representativeness than the interventional T2DM studies. For the interventional T2DM studies, Phase I trials had better population representativeness than Phase III trials. People at least 65years old with HbA1c value between 5.7% and 7.2% were particularly underrepresented in the included T2DM trials. These results confirmed well-known knowledge and demonstrated the effectiveness of our methods in population representativeness assessment. mGIST is effective at quantifying population representativeness of related clinical studies using multiple numeric study traits. MAGIC identifies underrepresented subgroups in clinical studies. Both data-driven methods can be used to improve the transparency of

  20. Representing User Navigation in XML Retrieval with Structural Summaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, M. S.; Consens, Mariano P.; Larsen, Birger

    This poster presents a novel way to represent user navigation in XML retrieval using collection statistics from XML summaries. Currently, developing user navigation models in XML retrieval is costly and the models are specific to collected user assessments. We address this problem by proposing...... summary navigation models which describe user navigation in terms of XML summaries. We develop our proposal using assessments collected in the interactive track at INEX 2006. Our preliminary results suggest that summary navigation models can represent user navigation in a way that is e ective...

  1. Medical marijuana: time to contact your U.S. representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1998-04-03

    Advocates for legalizing marijuana for medicinal use are encouraged to contact their U.S. representatives. The first congressional vote on medicinal use of marijuana, House Resolution 372 (the anti-medicinal-marijuana resolution), takes place on April 21. H. Res. 372 states that marijuana is a dangerous and addictive drug. Nine Democrats on the House Judiciary Committee strongly disagreed with the statement and supported State initiatives to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes. The Marijuana Policy Project offers a script to use when contacting representatives. Contact information is provided.

  2. A geometric language for representing structure in polyphonic music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, Deutsch and Feroe proposed a formal language for representing melodic pitch structure that employed the powerful concept of hierarchically-related pitch alphabets. However, neither rhythmic structure nor pitch structure in polyphonic music can be adequately represented using this language....... A new language is proposed here that incorporates certain features of Deutsch and Feroe’s model but extends and generalises it to allow for the representation of both rhythm and pitch structure in polyphonic music. The new language adopts a geometric approach in which a passage of polyphonic music...

  3. Party member recruitment and the representativeness of party membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Party membership figures are in decline. However, parties are still recruiting party members. Are there any differences in the social and political characteristics of old and new party members? If there is a difference, are new party members more or less representative for party voters than old...... members? The substantive point of the paper is to assess whether the representativeness of party membership changes over time. The methodological point of the paper is to show whether party member surveys are of added value when compared to citizen surveys when assessing the character of party membership...

  4. Identifying and Representing Elements of Local Contexts in Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Løvborg Jensen, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    disconnection of community members with both abstract and absolute representations of points, paths and areas. From this we discuss how the local concepts of space and time as frames of reference can not be represented adequately with our current selection of contextual data, and how we are engaging...

  5. 'To Think Representatively': Arendt on Judgment and the Imagination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the standpoint of the spectator, I go on to examine their most distinctive features, in particular, the link between judgment, the imagination, and the ability to think 'representatively'. I also examine the philosophical sources of Arendt's theory of judgment, namely, Kant's theory of aesthetic judgment and its criteria of validity.

  6. Do sawfish Pristis spp. represent South Africa's first local extirpation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do sawfish Pristis spp. represent South Africa's first local extirpation of marine elasmobranchs in the modern era? ... African Journal of Marine Science ... This paper traces the decline in sawfish catches from 1951 and assesses the current population status and local extinction risk, based on historical and current records up ...

  7. 29 CFR 1904.40 - Providing records to government representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under part 1904, you must provide copies of the records within four (4) business hours. (b) Implementation—(1) What government representatives have the right to get copies of my part 1904 records? The... responsible for administering a State plan approved under section 18 of the Act. (2) Do I have to produce the...

  8. Church representatives' perspectives on masculinities in the context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite a growing body of literature related to church leaders challenging dominant norms of masculinities that may enable the spread of HIV, research on masculinity issues among African church representatives who are policy makers is scarce. The objectives of this study were to explore the perspectives on masculinities ...

  9. Reaching a Representative Sample of College Students: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenco, Daniel P.; Gundersen, Daniel A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of a random-digit dial (RDD) cellular phone survey in order to reach a national and representative sample of college students. Methods: Demographic distributions from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey (NYAHS) were benchmarked against enrollment numbers from the Integrated Postsecondary Education…

  10. Comparing German and Danish employee representatives on European Works Councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bicknell, Helen; Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to analyse the links and possible‘fit’ between German and Danish representation structures and trade union policies on the one hand, and the views and activities of European Works Council (EWC) representatives from the two countries on the other. Which similarities or difference...

  11. Representing nature : Late twentieth century green infrastructures in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, J.R.T.; De Wit, S.I.

    2015-01-01

    The appreciation of green infrastructures as ‘nature’ by urban communities presents a critical challenge for the green infrastructure concept. While many green infrastructures focus on functional considerations, their refinement as places where concepts of nature are represented and where nature can

  12. 26 CFR 31.3211-3 - Employee representative supplemental tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee representative supplemental tax. 31... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employee...

  13. Crime’s face: Imagining and representing kleptomania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, W.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Marlene Dumas is regarded as one of the most important international painters of this time. In this article, an analysis is made of what her painting The Kleptomaniac (2005) and, in particular, what its title represents. Drawing upon art history, I begin by looking at the original Portrait of a

  14. A Balanced and Representative Corpus: The Effects of Strict Corpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theoretically the Northern Sotho language is made up of almost 30 dialects while practically it is not so, because the standard language was formed from very few of its dialects. As a result, even today the language has no corpus which is balanced or representative owing to the fact that almost all of the available corpora ...

  15. Professional Human Service Occupation Biases Represented in General Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Johnson, Erica J.; Wikler, Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    We examined the coverage given by General Psychology textbooks, representing 8 major commercial publishers, regarding the professions of psychology, counseling, marriage & family therapy, and social workers. Of the 24 textbooks assessed, we found substantial bias favoring the coverage of psychology. While 25% of the texts mentioned social workers,…

  16. Education and support for representative, direct and stealth democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde; Michels, Ank

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected within the scope of a Dutch internet panel survey (LISS) in 2011, this study tracks public support for direct, stealth and representative democracy according to educational level. Our findings indicate that, in terms of overall support for each specific type of democracy, lower

  17. Depression and Suicidality among Bisexual Youth: A Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Gloppen, Kari M.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2018-01-01

    To address gaps in the literature on bisexual youth, we used the first nationally representative sample of high school students from the United States to determine profiles of behaviors related to depressive symptoms, a suicide attempt, and a medically-serious attempt. We examined the data from 922 bisexual students in grades 9-12 who completed…

  18. Learning, Labour and Union Learning Representatives: Promoting Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    The initiative by the Trades Union Congress (TUC) and affiliated trade unions in the UK to appoint trade union learning representatives (ULRs), to promote learning among their members, is a significant development in adult learning. Understandably, the initiative has attracted the attention of academic researchers, but primarily from the…

  19. Cephalopods represented by beaks in the stomach of a sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 3 000 cephalopod beaks taken from the stomach of a sperm whale stranded at Paekakariki, North Island, New Zealand, were identified to species and measured; estimates were made of the masses and standard lengths of the cephalopods represented. In all, 24 species of cephalopod in 13 families were ...

  20. Wabbes and the Milan Triennales: Representing the Belgian Nation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floré, F.M.W.; Ferran-Wabbes, Marie; Strauven, Iwan

    2012-01-01

    The work of the Brussels based furniture designer and interior architect Jules Wabbes played a significant role in the Belgian section of two successive Milan Triennials, that of 1957 and 1960. His sophisticated modern furniture and lightning designs were well qualified to represent the nation.

  1. Quantitative radiomic profiling of glioblastoma represents transcriptomic expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Doo-Sik; Kim, Junhyung; Ryu, Gyuha; You, Hye-Jin; Sung, Joon Kyung; Han, Yong Hee; Shin, Hye-Mi; Lee, In-Hee; Kim, Sung-Tae; Park, Chul-Kee; Choi, Seung Hong; Choi, Jeong Won; Seol, Ho Jun; Lee, Jung-Il; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2018-01-19

    Quantitative imaging biomarkers have increasingly emerged in the field of research utilizing available imaging modalities. We aimed to identify good surrogate radiomic features that can represent genetic changes of tumors, thereby establishing noninvasive means for predicting treatment outcome. From May 2012 to June 2014, we retrospectively identified 65 patients with treatment-naïve glioblastoma with available clinical information from the Samsung Medical Center data registry. Preoperative MR imaging data were obtained for all 65 patients with primary glioblastoma. A total of 82 imaging features including first-order statistics, volume, and size features, were semi-automatically extracted from structural and physiologic images such as apparent diffusion coefficient and perfusion images. Using commercially available software, NordicICE, we performed quantitative imaging analysis and collected the dataset composed of radiophenotypic parameters. Unsupervised clustering methods revealed that the radiophenotypic dataset was composed of three clusters. Each cluster represented a distinct molecular classification of glioblastoma; classical type, proneural and neural types, and mesenchymal type. These clusters also reflected differential clinical outcomes. We found that extracted imaging signatures does not represent copy number variation and somatic mutation. Quantitative radiomic features provide a potential evidence to predict molecular phenotype and treatment outcome. Radiomic profiles represents transcriptomic phenotypes more well.

  2. Representing Mental Spaces and Dynamics of Natural Language Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Golshaie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Building systems with the robustness of human reasoning capabilities requires inspirations from cognitive science.  The primary objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of representing some basic principles of cognitive semantics’ Mental Spaces Theory such as domain construction, reality status of domains and their elements, and mental attitudes in a knowledge representation framework for the purpose of developing cognitively plausible knowledge representation systems. The model used as the basis of representation is the extended version of conventional semantic networks, namely Multi-Layered Extended Semantic Networks (MultiNet. The data used in this study have been selected from English expressions and have been represented in MWR, MultiNet’s knowledge representation software. Results obtained from analysis of represented data and their comparison to principles of mental spaces theory shows that theoretical constructs of mental spaces theory such as domain construction, reality status of domains and their elements, and mental attitudes can be formally represented in the MultiNet framework.

  3. total mercury distribution in different fish species representing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    ABSTRACT. Concentrations of total mercury (Hg) were measured in the edible muscle tissues of different fish species representing different trophic levels from the Atlantic Coast of Ghana using Cold. Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (CVAAS). Mercury concentrations were gener- ally found to increase with ...

  4. Communication received from the Resident Representatives of Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The document reproduces the communication received by the Director General from the Resident Representatives of Argentina and Brazil to the Agency to inform him about the official inauguration on 9 December 1992 of the headquarters of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) in Rio de Janeiro

  5. Using fuzzy cognitive maps in modelling and representing weather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and characterization of visual sky objects (such as moon, clouds, stars, rainbow, etc) in forecasting weather is a significant subject of research. In order to realize the integration of visual weather lore knowledge in modern weather forecasting systems, there is a need to represent and scientifically substantiate weather lore.

  6. Party member recruitment and the representativeness of party membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Party membership figures are in decline. However, parties are still recruiting party members. Are there any differences in the social and political characteristics of old and new party members? If there is a difference, are new party members more or less representative for party voters than old...

  7. 78 FR 66973 - Submission for Review: Representative Payee Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... information collection to the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Retirement Services, Union Square Room 370... Personnel Management. Elaine Kaplan, Acting Director. BILLING CODE 6325-38-P ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Representative Payee Survey AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management...

  8. Under-Representation in Nationally Representative Secondary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Karen; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Sulak, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the use of secondary data sets. Many such data sets purport to be nationally representative. Secondary data sets include research commissioned by the National Center for Education Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control, and other public entities. Research increasingly utilizes these secondary data in…

  9. Changes in faunal assemblages over time represented in rock art ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changes in faunal assemblages over time represented in rock art, can be distinguished by relative dating techniques. For example in Sahara Tassili region earliest paintings portray wild animals not found in the region today. Later art features domestic cattle reflecting the arrival of pastoralists in the area around 6000 B.P. ...

  10. The Mediation of Representative Council of Learners Policy in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Western Cape schools, from 1997 to 2003, using the structure, symbolic, human resource and political frames of Bolman and Deal (1997) as the basis of the investigation. The investigation produced diverse research findings. At the one end there were a majority of representative councils of learners that received the full ...

  11. Union Learning Representatives: Facilitating Professional Development for Scottish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Alex; O'Brien, Jim

    2007-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, teachers' professional associations and labor organizations, notably in the form of trade unions have historically been involved in education and training in the workplace. Recently, in the United Kingdom this activity has gained greater credence and importance due to the emergence of trade union learning representatives who…

  12. New Strategies for Representing Mental Illness on Canadian Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2009-01-01

    Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…

  13. In search of more representative cervical cytology | Brink | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an effort to secure more representative smears a preliminary prospective study was conducted to ascertain the value of a variety of devices (Ayre wooden spatula, saline-soaked cotton-wool swab, Cytobrush). Initially these devices were employed by one specific clinician and subsequently by a variety of medical ...

  14. 40 CFR 197.31 - What is a representative volume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... supply a given water demand. The DOE must project the concentration of radionuclides released from the... Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Ground Water Protection Standards § 197.31 What is a representative volume? (a) It is the volume of ground water that would be withdrawn annually from...

  15. 28 CFR 32.7 - Fees for representative services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE BENEFIT CLAIMS General Provisions § 32.7 Fees for representative services. (a) A person... with the filing of the petition, with— (i) A copy of the petition; and (ii) A letter advising the... days of the date of that letter; and (7) A copy of the letter described in paragraph (a)(6)(ii) of this...

  16. Understanding and Representing Changing Work Structures and Practices through Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Stacey M. B.

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Organizational Communication, Advanced Organizational Communication, Organizing Work, Management/Organizational History. Objectives: This activity will help students to understand major shifts in the organization of work and creatively represent changing work structures and practices. An optional follow-up assignment is included. A…

  17. Challenges to issues of balance and representativeness in African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These issues include a lack of texts of different genres, the unavailability of balanced and representative written texts, a complete absence of spoken texts as well as literacy problems in African societies. This article therefore explores the different challenges to the construction of reliable corpora in African languages.

  18. Re-Presenting Self: Reading Some Van Kalker Studio Photographs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It eroded the dignity of blacks by presenting them in public media as being inferior, poor and violent. Nonetheless, photography has equally been appropriated by the people to project their dignity in contrast to the images widely represented. These photographs of how the indigenes saw themselves were often kept in ...

  19. Global representatives flock to Stellenbosch for 3rd student affairs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global representatives flock to Stellenbosch for 3rd student affairs global summit. Thierry M. Luescher. Abstract. Media release, Division of Corporate Communication, Stellenbosch University, 28 October 2016. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. The role of a representative reinsurer in optimal reinsurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, T.J.; Tan, K.S.; Zhuang, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a one-period optimal reinsurance design model with nn reinsurers and an insurer. For very general preferences of the insurer and that all reinsurers use a distortion premium principle, we establish the existence of a representative reinsurer and this in turn facilitates

  1. An affordable proxy of representative national survey on radon concentration in dwellings: Design, organisation and preliminary evaluation of representativeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antignani, Sara; Carelli, Vinicio; Cordedda, Carlo; Zonno, Fedele; Ampollini, Marco; Carpentieri, Carmela; Venoso, Gennaro; Bochicchio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Representative national surveys in dwellings are important to unbiasedly evaluate the exposure of the general population to radon. In Italy, a representative national survey was conducted from 1989 to 1996, which involved about 5600 dwellings in 232 towns. Later on, some Regions carried out more detailed surveys, but a new national survey in dwellings is necessary in order to obtain a more thorough estimate of radon concentration distribution over the Italian territory. The need to make this survey in an affordable way led to implement a new approach based on the collaboration between the Istituto Superiore di Sanità and a national company with workplaces and employees' homes throughout the country. The intent is to carry out a proxy of a population representative survey by measuring radon concentration in the homes of a random sample of the company employees. The realisation of this survey was affordable, thanks to the availability of corporate e-mail for each employee, intranet service, and company internal mail service. A dedicated web procedure and e-questionnaires allowed to automatically manage the contact with employees and to collect their data, which were both cost- and time-saving. Using this e-mail contact approach, 53% of contacted employees consented to participate in the survey. Radon concentration passive measuring devices were distributed to about 7000 dwellings, using about 14000 CR-39 detectors (two measured rooms per dwelling). In order to reduce costs, the devices were exposed for 12 months instead of two consecutive 6-month periods (as with the former national survey). A first checking of the actual representativeness of the sample was done by comparing characteristics of dwellings and occupants in the sample with corresponding data from the latest National Census. This was accomplished thanks to the fact that the questions in the survey questionnaire were tailored to the categories adopted for the Census questionnaire. A preliminary

  2. Sexual desire in a nationally representative Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene; Giraldi, Annamaria; Davidsen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are only a few studies on the frequency of sexual desire in the general population, whereas studies investigating the frequency of disordered sexual desire are more common. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of sexual desire in a representative sample...... of the adult Danish population and to analyze the relationships between a number of relevant variables and sexual desire. METHODS: The study population (N = 10,458, response rate 84.8%) answered a questionnaire with questions on sexual matters. The representativity of the population was examined. The frequency...... of self-reported sexual desire and decrease in sexual desire over a 5-year period was calculated for the two genders across age cohorts. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between potential determinants and sexual desire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The frequency of self...

  3. Moral Severity is Represented as a Domain-General Magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Derek; Horne, Zachary

    2017-03-01

    The severity of moral violations can vary by degree. For instance, although both are immoral, murder is a more severe violation than lying. Though this point is well established in Ethics and the law, relatively little research has been directed at examining how moral severity is represented psychologically. Most prominent moral psychological theories are aimed at explaining first-order moral judgments and are silent on second-order metaethical judgments, such as comparisons of severity. Here, the relative severity of 20 moral violations was established in a preliminary study. Then, a second group of participants were asked to decide which of two moral violations was more severe for all possible combinations of these 20 violations. Participant's response times exhibited two signatures of domain-general magnitude comparisons: we observed both a distance effect and a semantic congruity effect. These findings suggest that moral severity is represented in a similar fashion as other continuous magnitudes.

  4. Representing cognitive activities and errors in HRA trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    A graphic representation method is presented herein for adapting an existing technology--human reliability analysis (HRA) event trees, used to support event sequence logic structures and calculations--to include a representation of the underlying cognitive activity and corresponding errors associated with human performance. The analyst is presented with three potential means of representing human activity: the NUREG/CR-1278 HRA event tree approach; the skill-, rule- and knowledge-based paradigm; and the slips, lapses, and mistakes paradigm. The above approaches for representing human activity are integrated in order to produce an enriched HRA event tree -- the cognitive event tree system (COGENT)-- which, in turn, can be used to increase the analyst's understanding of the basic behavioral mechanisms underlying human error and the representation of that error in probabilistic risk assessment. Issues pertaining to the implementation of COGENT are also discussed

  5. Representing cognitive activities and errors in HRA trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertman, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    A graphic representation method is presented herein for adapting an existing technology--human reliability analysis (HRA) event trees, used to support event sequence logic structures and calculations--to include a representation of the underlying cognitive activity and corresponding errors associated with human performance. The analyst is presented with three potential means of representing human activity: the NUREG/CR-1278 HRA event tree approach; the skill-, rule- and knowledge-based paradigm; and the slips, lapses, and mistakes paradigm. The above approaches for representing human activity are integrated in order to produce an enriched HRA event tree -- the cognitive event tree system (COGENT)-- which, in turn, can be used to increase the analyst's understanding of the basic behavioral mechanisms underlying human error and the representation of that error in probabilistic risk assessment. Issues pertaining to the implementation of COGENT are also discussed.

  6. Representing cognitive activities and errors in HRA trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertman, D.I.

    1992-05-01

    A graphic representation method is presented herein for adapting an existing technology--human reliability analysis (HRA) event trees, used to support event sequence logic structures and calculations--to include a representation of the underlying cognitive activity and corresponding errors associated with human performance. The analyst is presented with three potential means of representing human activity: the NUREG/CR-1278 HRA event tree approach; the skill-, rule- and knowledge-based paradigm; and the slips, lapses, and mistakes paradigm. The above approaches for representing human activity are integrated in order to produce an enriched HRA event tree -- the cognitive event tree system (COGENT)-- which, in turn, can be used to increase the analyst`s understanding of the basic behavioral mechanisms underlying human error and the representation of that error in probabilistic risk assessment. Issues pertaining to the implementation of COGENT are also discussed.

  7. Representing the environment 3.0. Maps, models, networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Bollini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Web 3.0 is changing the world we live and perceive the environment anthropomorphized, making a stratifation of levels of experience and mediated by the devices. If the urban landscape is designed, shaped and planned space, there is a social landscape that overwrite the territory of values, representations shared images, narratives of personal and collective history. Mobile technology introduces an additional parameter, a kind of non-place, which allows the coexistence of the here and elsewhere in an sort of digital landscape. The maps, mental models, the system of social networks become, then, the way to present, represented and represent themselves in a kind of ideal coring of the co-presence of levels of physical, cognitive and collective space.

  8. Effective Presentation Speech Support System for Representing Emphasis-Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kojiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A research presentation integrates slides and speech. If these two aspects do not represent the same intention, the presentation will probably fail to effectively explain the presenter’s intention. This paper focuses on the representation of the critical contents in a presentation. In an effective speech, the speaker adds more intonation and stress to emphasize the importance of the slide contents. Audiences recognize that important contents are those that are explained in a stronger voice or that are said after a short pause. However, in ineffective speeches, such voice effects do not always correspond to the important contents that are indicated by slides. On slides, the important contents are represented by levels of text indentation and size, color, and animation. This research develops a presentation speech support system that estimates important contents from slides and voices that might be recognized by audiences and extracts numerical differences. In addition, the system provides comments and feedback to improve speeches.

  9. Are there martial art styles that represent natural systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim T. Haug

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For didactics, systematically structured teaching contents are desirable, and natural systems would be most comprehensible. We tested whether serrada-escrima styles (SES, a type of Filipino martial arts, represent a natural system. Natural systems are considered to have an inner coherence. This means that based on some elements of the system the other elements can be predicted, based on knowledge of the characteristics of the elements of the system. SES is a good candidate to test this hypothesis, as it embraces only a relatively small set of techniques. It appears that SES indeed represents a natural, coherent system with 12 elements that can be grouped into three also coherent sets, each with four techniques. One basic pre-assumption is necessary to make SES a natural system; this pre-assumption is derived from knowledge of medieval European sword fighting, more precisely Messerfechten. We furthermore discuss indications for the historic background of SES.

  10. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  11. Patient representatives' views on patient information in clinical cancer trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellson, Pia; Nilbert, Mef; Carlsson, Christina

    2016-01-01

    responses. Subthemes related to the former included individual preferences and perceptions of effect, while subthemes related to the latter were comprehensibility and layout. Based on these observations the patient representatives provided suggestions for improvement, which largely included development......BACKGROUND: Patient enrolment into clinical trials is based on oral information and informed consent, which includes an information sheet and a consent certificate. The written information should be complete, but at the same time risks being so complex that it may be questioned if a fully informed...... consent is possible to provide. We explored patient representatives' views and perceptions on the written trial information used in clinical cancer trials. METHODS: Written patient information leaflets used in four clinical trials for colorectal cancer were used for the study. The trials included phase I...

  12. Processes, data structures, and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E [West Richland, WA; Thomson, Judi R [Guelph, CA; Harvey, William J [Richland, WA; Paulson, Patrick R [Pasco, WA; Whiting, Mark A [Richland, WA; Tratz, Stephen C [Richland, WA; Chappell, Alan R [Seattle, WA; Butner, R Scott [Richland, WA

    2011-09-20

    Processes, data structures, and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  13. Representing climate change on public service television: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrett, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Publicly funded broadcasters with a track record in science programming would appear ideally placed to represent climate change to the lay public. Free from the constraints of vested interests and the economic imperative, public service providers are better equipped to represent the scientific, social and economic aspects of climate change than commercial media, where ownership conglomeration, corporate lobbyists and online competition have driven increasingly tabloid coverage with an emphasis on controversy. This prime-time snapshot of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's main television channel explores how the structural/rhetorical conventions of three established public service genres - a science programme, a documentary and a live public affairs talk show - impact on the representation of anthropogenic climate change. The study findings note implications for public trust, and discuss possibilities for innovation in the interests of better public understanding of climate change.

  14. Representing Scientific Communities by Data Visualization (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    These lectures present a research that investigates the representation of communities, and the way to foster their understanding by different audiences. Communities are complex multidimensional entities intrinsically difficult to represent synthetically. The way to represent them is likely to differ depending on the audience considered: governing entities trying to make decision for the future of the community, general public trying to understand the nature of the community and the members of the community themselves. This work considers two types of communities as example: a scientific organization and an arising domain: the EPFL institutional community composed of faculty members and researchers and, at a world wide level, the emerging community of Digital Humanities researchers. For both cases, the research is organised as a process going from graphical research to actual materialization as physical artefacts (posters, maps, etc.), possibly extended using digital devices (augmented reality applications). T...

  15. Representing electrons a biographical approach to theoretical entities

    CERN Document Server

    Arabatzis, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Both a history and a metahistory, Representing Electrons focuses on the development of various theoretical representations of electrons from the late 1890s to 1925 and the methodological problems associated with writing about unobservable scientific entities. Using the electron-or rather its representation-as a historical actor, Theodore Arabatzis illustrates the emergence and gradual consolidation of its representation in physics, its career throughout old quantum theory, and its appropriation and reinterpretation by chemists. As Arabatzis develops this novel biographical

  16. Representative landscapes in the forested area of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardille, Jeffrey A; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Mike A; Holland, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Canada is a large nation with forested ecosystems that occupy over 60% of the national land base, and knowledge of the patterns of Canada's land cover is important to proper environmental management of this vast resource. To this end, a circa 2000 Landsat-derived land cover map of the forested ecosystems of Canada has created a new window into understanding the composition and configuration of land cover patterns in forested Canada. Strategies for summarizing such large expanses of land cover are increasingly important, as land managers work to study and preserve distinctive areas, as well as to identify representative examples of current land-cover and land-use assemblages. Meanwhile, the development of extremely efficient clustering algorithms has become increasingly important in the world of computer science, in which billions of pieces of information on the internet are continually sifted for meaning for a vast variety of applications. One recently developed clustering algorithm quickly groups large numbers of items of any type in a given data set while simultaneously selecting a representative-or "exemplar"-from each cluster. In this context, the availability of both advanced data processing methods and a nationally available set of landscape metrics presents an opportunity to identify sets of representative landscapes to better understand landscape pattern, variation, and distribution across the forested area of Canada. In this research, we first identify and provide context for a small, interpretable set of exemplar landscapes that objectively represent land cover in each of Canada's ten forested ecozones. Then, we demonstrate how this approach can be used to identify flagship and satellite long-term study areas inside and outside protected areas in the province of Ontario. These applications aid our understanding of Canada's forest while augmenting its management toolbox, and may signal a broad range of applications for this versatile approach.

  17. Recovering a Representative Conformational Ensemble from Underdetermined Macromolecular Structural Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Konstantin; Castañeda, Carlos A.; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Sali, Andrej; Nava-Tudela, Alfredo; Fushman, David

    2013-01-01

    Structural analysis of proteins and nucleic acids is complicated by their inherent flexibility, conferred, for example, by linkers between their contiguous domains. Therefore, the macromolecule needs to be represented by an ensemble of conformations instead of a single conformation. Determining this ensemble is challenging because the experimental data are a convoluted average of contributions from multiple conformations. As the number of the ensemble degrees of freedom generally greatly exceeds the number of independent observables, directly deconvolving experimental data into a representative ensemble is an ill-posed problem. Recent developments in sparse approximations and compressive sensing have demonstrated that useful information can be recovered from underdetermined (ill-posed) systems of linear equations by using sparsity regularization. Inspired by these advances, we designed Sparse Ensemble Selection (SES) method for recovering multiple conformations from a limited number of observations. SES is more general and accurate than previously published minimum-ensemble methods, and we use it to obtain representative conformational ensembles of Lys48-linked di-ubiquitin, characterized by the residual dipolar coupling data measured at several pH conditions. These representative ensembles are validated against NMR chemical shift perturbation data and compared to maximum-entropy results. The SES method reproduced and quantified the previously observed pH dependence of the major conformation of Lys48-linked di-ubiquitin, and revealed lesser-populated conformations that are pre-organized for binding known di-ubiquitin receptors, thus providing insights into possible mechanisms of receptor recognition by polyubiquitin. SES is applicable to any experimental observables that can be expressed as a weighted linear combination of data for individual states. PMID:24093873

  18. Effective Presentation Speech Support System for Representing Emphasis-Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoko Kojiri; Takaya Kaji

    2015-01-01

    A research presentation integrates slides and speech. If these two aspects do not represent the same intention, the presentation will probably fail to effectively explain the presenter’s intention. This paper focuses on the representation of the critical contents in a presentation. In an effective speech, the speaker adds more intonation and stress to emphasize the importance of the slide contents. Audiences recognize that important contents are those that are explained in a stronger voice or...

  19. Representing value judgements in the evaluation options for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.

    1985-08-01

    In this report we show how the concept of Best Practical Environmental Option for nuclear waste management may be articulated using the methods of Multi-attribute Value Analysis. The concept of characteristic weights is introduced to represent differences of opinion on the relative importance of different factors that may reasonably be held, and show how these may be used to summarise information for decision-makers in a concise way. (author)

  20. Representativeness of enrollment into a perinatal research repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorehead, Pamela A; Klebanoff, Mark; Nelin, Leif D; Oza-Frank, Reena

    2015-07-01

    To describe enrollment and compare demographic and clinical characteristics of neonates enrolled in the perinatal research repository (PRR) with eligible, but non-enrolled neonates. Characteristics from enrolled infants were compared with eligible, but non-enrolled infants using t-tests, Wilcoxon rank tests and χ(2) tests. Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2011, 622 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), born repository can enroll a sufficiently representative sample of eligible patients.

  1. Photo-geomorphologic study of representative islands of Lakshadweep

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.; Kunte, P.D.

    -1 Photo-Geomorphologic Study of Representative Islands of Lakshadweep B. G. Wagle and Pravin D. Kunte National Institute of Oceanography. Dona Paula. Goa - 403 004. ABSTRACT The Lakshadweep group of islands is scattered in the Arabian Sea about 200... of Lakshadweep is 32 km2. Though several researchers have con- centrated on corals and other kinds of bio- logical studies, very limited work has been reported on the geomorphological aspects of these islands. A few studies carried out are topographic...

  2. Representing Simple Geometry Types in NetCDF-CF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, D. L.; Koziol, B. W.; Whiteaker, T. L.; Simons, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata convention is well-suited for representing gridded and point-based observational datasets. However, CF currently has no accepted mechanism for representing simple geometry types such as lines and polygons. Lack of support for simple geometries within CF has unintentionally excluded a broad set of geoscientific data types from NetCDF-CF data encodings. For example, hydrologic datasets often contain polygon watershed catchments and polyline stream reaches in addition to point sampling stations and water management infrastructure. The latter has an associated CF specification. In the interest of supporting all simple geometry types within CF, a working group was formed following an EarthCube workshop on Advancing NetCDF-CF [1] to draft a CF specification for simple geometries: points, lines, polygons, and their associated multi-geometry representations [2]. The draft also includes parametric geometry types such as circles and ellipses. This presentation will provide an overview of the scope and content of the proposed specification focusing on mechanisms for representing coordinate arrays using variable length or continuous ragged arrays, capturing multi-geometries, and accounting for type-specific geometry artifacts such as polygon holes/interiors, node ordering, etc. The concepts contained in the specification proposal will be described with a use case representing streamflow in rivers and evapotranspiration from HUC12 watersheds. We will also introduce Python and R reference implementations developed alongside the technical specification. These in-development, open source Python and R libraries convert between commonly used GIS software objects (i.e. GEOS-based primitives) and their associated simple geometry CF representation. [1] http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/events/2016CFWorkshop/[2] https://github.com/bekozi/netCDF-CF-simple-geometry

  3. Representing thoughts, words, and things in the UMLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K E; Oliver, D E; Spackman, K A; Shortliffe, E H

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe a framework, based on the Ogden-Richards semiotic triangle, for understanding the relationship between the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and the source terminologies from which the UMLS derives its content. They pay particular attention to UMLS's Concept Unique Identifier (CUI) and the sense of "meaning" it represents as contrasted with the sense of "meaning" represented by the source terminologies. The CUI takes on emergent meaning through linkage to terms in different terminology systems. In some cases, a CUI's emergent meaning can differ significantly from the original sources' intended meanings of terms linked by that CUI. Identification of these different senses of meaning within the UMLS is consistent with historical themes of semantic interpretation of language. Examination of the UMLS within such a historical framework makes it possible to better understand the strengths and limitations of the UMLS approach for integrating disparate terminologic systems and to provide a model, or theoretic foundation, for evaluating the UMLS as a Possible World--that is, as a mathematical formalism that represents propositions about some perspective or interpretation of the physical world.

  4. Representativeness of wind measurements in moderately complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bossche, Michael; De Wekker, Stephan F. J.

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the representativeness of 10-m wind measurements in a 4 km × 2 km area of modest relief by comparing observations at a central site with those at four satellite sites located in the same area. Using a combination of established and new methods to quantify and visualize representativeness, we found significant differences in wind speed and direction between the four satellite sites and the central site. The representativeness of the central site wind measurements depended strongly on surface wind speed and direction, and atmospheric stability. Through closer inspection of the observations at one of the satellite sites, we concluded that terrain-forced flows combined with thermally driven downslope winds caused large biases in wind direction and speed. We used these biases to generate a basic model, showing that terrain-related differences in wind observations can to a large extent be predicted. Such a model is a cost-effective way to enhance an area's wind field determination and to improve the outcome of pollutant dispersion and weather forecasting models.

  5. Reference materials and representative test materials: the nanotechnology case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roebben, G., E-mail: gert.roebben@ec.europa.eu [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (Belgium); Rasmussen, K. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (Italy); Kestens, V.; Linsinger, T. P. J. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (Belgium); Rauscher, H. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (Italy); Emons, H. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (Belgium); Stamm, H. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    An increasing number of chemical, physical and biological tests are performed on manufactured nanomaterials for scientific and regulatory purposes. Existing test guidelines and measurement methods are not always directly applicable to or relevant for nanomaterials. Therefore, it is necessary to verify the use of the existing methods with nanomaterials, thereby identifying where modifications are needed, and where new methods need to be developed and validated. Efforts for verification, development and validation of methods as well as quality assurance of (routine) test results significantly benefit from the availability of suitable test and reference materials. This paper provides an overview of the existing types of reference materials and introduces a new class of test materials for which the term 'representative test material' is proposed. The three generic concepts of certified reference material, reference material(non-certified) and representative test material constitute a comprehensive system of benchmarks that can be used by all measurement and testing communities, regardless of their specific discipline. This paper illustrates this system with examples from the field of nanomaterials, including reference materials and representative test materials developed at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, in particular at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), and at the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP).

  6. Representing Spatial Layout According to Intrinsic Frames of Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Shiyi; Tao, Weidong; Wei, Yiping; Sun, Hong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mou and McNamara have suggested that object locations are represented according to intrinsic reference frames. In three experiments, we investigated the limitations of intrinsic reference frames as a mean to represent object locations in spatial memory. Participants learned the locations of seven or eight common objects in a rectangular room and then made judgments of relative direction based on their memory of the layout. The results of all experiments showed that when all objects were positioned regularly, judgments of relative direction were faster or more accurate for novel headings that were aligned with the primary intrinsic structure than for other novel headings; however, when one irregularly positioned object was added to the layout, this advantage was eliminated. The experiments further indicated that with a single view at study, participants could represent the layout from either an egocentric orientation or a different orientation, according to experimental instructions. Together, these results suggest that environmental reference frames and intrinsic axes can influence performance for novel headings, but their role in spatial memory depends on egocentric experience, layout regularity, and instructions.

  7. Using SNOMED CT to represent two interface terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S Trent; Brown, Steven H; Froehling, David; Bauer, Brent A; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Gregg, William M; Elkin, Peter L

    2009-01-01

    Interface terminologies are designed to support interactions between humans and structured medical information. In particular, many interface terminologies have been developed for structured computer based documentation systems. Experts and policy-makers have recommended that interface terminologies be mapped to reference terminologies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate how well the reference terminology SNOMED CT could map to and represent two interface terminologies, MEDCIN and the Categorical Health Information Structured Lexicon (CHISL). Automated mappings between SNOMED CT and 500 terms from each of the two interface terminologies were evaluated by human reviewers, who also searched SNOMED CT to identify better mappings when this was judged to be necessary. Reviewers judged whether they believed the interface terms to be clinically appropriate, whether the terms were covered by SNOMED CT concepts and whether the terms' implied semantic structure could be represented by SNOMED CT. Outcomes included concept coverage by SNOMED CT for study terms and their implied semantics. Agreement statistics and compositionality measures were calculated. The SNOMED CT terminology contained concepts to represent 92.4% of MEDCIN and 95.9% of CHISL terms. Semantic structures implied by study terms were less well covered, with some complex compositional expressions requiring semantics not present in SNOMED CT. Among sampled terms, those from MEDCIN were more complex than those from CHISL, containing an average 3.8 versus 1.8 atomic concepts respectively, pterms.

  8. Using SNOMED CT to Represent Two Interface Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S. Trent; Brown, Steven H.; Froehling, David; Bauer, Brent A.; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Gregg, William M.; Elkin, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Interface terminologies are designed to support interactions between humans and structured medical information. In particular, many interface terminologies have been developed for structured computer based documentation systems. Experts and policy-makers have recommended that interface terminologies be mapped to reference terminologies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate how well the reference terminology SNOMED CT could map to and represent two interface terminologies, MEDCIN and the Categorical Health Information Structured Lexicon (CHISL). Design Automated mappings between SNOMED CT and 500 terms from each of the two interface terminologies were evaluated by human reviewers, who also searched SNOMED CT to identify better mappings when this was judged to be necessary. Reviewers judged whether they believed the interface terms to be clinically appropriate, whether the terms were covered by SNOMED CT concepts and whether the terms' implied semantic structure could be represented by SNOMED CT. Measurements Outcomes included concept coverage by SNOMED CT for study terms and their implied semantics. Agreement statistics and compositionality measures were calculated. Results The SNOMED CT terminology contained concepts to represent 92.4% of MEDCIN and 95.9% of CHISL terms. Semantic structures implied by study terms were less well covered, with some complex compositional expressions requiring semantics not present in SNOMED CT. Among sampled terms, those from MEDCIN were more complex than those from CHISL, containing an average 3.8 versus 1.8 atomic concepts respectively, pterms. PMID:18952944

  9. Patch-based visual tracking with online representative sample selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Weihua; Yuan, Di; Li, Donghao; Liu, Bin; Xia, Daoxun; Zeng, Wu

    2017-05-01

    Occlusion is one of the most challenging problems in visual object tracking. Recently, a lot of discriminative methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. For the discriminative methods, it is difficult to select the representative samples for the target template updating. In general, the holistic bounding boxes that contain tracked results are selected as the positive samples. However, when the objects are occluded, this simple strategy easily introduces the noises into the training data set and the target template and then leads the tracker to drift away from the target seriously. To address this problem, we propose a robust patch-based visual tracker with online representative sample selection. Different from previous works, we divide the object and the candidates into several patches uniformly and propose a score function to calculate the score of each patch independently. Then, the average score is adopted to determine the optimal candidate. Finally, we utilize the non-negative least square method to find the representative samples, which are used to update the target template. The experimental results on the object tracking benchmark 2013 and on the 13 challenging sequences show that the proposed method is robust to the occlusion and achieves promising results.

  10. Risk Gambling and Personality: Results from a Representative Swedish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Kristina; Wennberg, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The association between personality and gambling has been explored previously. However, few studies are based on representative populations. This study aimed at examining the association between risk gambling and personality in a representative Swedish population. A random Swedish sample (N = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (N = 257) consisted of those screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and personality (measured with the NODS-PERC and the HP5i respectively). Risk gambling was positively correlated with Negative Affectivity (a facet of Neuroticism) and Impulsivity (an inversely related facet of Conscientiousness), but all associations were weak. When taking age and gender into account, there were no differences in personality across game preference groups, though preferred game correlated with level of risk gambling. Risk gamblers scored lower than the population norm data with respect to Negative Affectivity, but risk gambling men scored higher on Impulsivity. The association between risk gambling and personality found in previous studies was corroborated in this study using a representative sample. We conclude that risk and problem gamblers should not be treated as a homogeneous group, and prevention and treatment interventions should be adapted according to differences in personality, preferred type of game and the risk potential of the games.

  11. 76 FR 38679 - Notice of Call for Nominations for Appointment of Primary and Alternate Representatives, Santa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Committee. Primary Representatives Representative of the City of Palm Desert. Representative of the City of Rancho Mirage. Representative of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians. Representative of the Pinyon... college or university. Alternate Representatives Alternate representative of the City of Palm Desert...

  12. Solar Heliospheric and INterplanetary Environment (SHINE) Students - Student Representatives' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahud, D. M.; Niembro, T.

    2014-12-01

    The SHINE workshop is an annual meeting of solar and heliospheric scientists which, in addition to aiming to improve understanding of solar disturbances and their propagation to, and effect, on the Earth (shinecon.org), is dedicated to actively supporting students. This dedication is substantiated in part through the National Science Foundation (NSF) providing funding for student attendance to the workshop, which enables student participation. Another example of SHINE's commitment to its student members is the incorporation of a Student Day prior to the workshop since 2003, entirely organized and run by two student representatives. While there are variations in format from year to year, Student Day consists of tutorials and research talks exclusively by student volunteers to an audience of only students. The day is intended to provide a low-stress environment for students to learn about the various topics addressed during the workshop, to ask questions freely, and to engage in scientific discussion with other students which hopefully is a catalyst for collaboration. As a result of positive experiences, over the past decade student attendance and participation in the workshop have increased. At the SHINE 2014 workshop, nearly a third of attendees were students. SHINE student visibility has increased over the years, with student posters being advertised at breakfast, inclusion of a student day summary by the student representatives during a plenary session, and continued support from the steering committee. Students are also promoting a broader impact of SHINE sciences via increased social media presence. From a student representative's perspective, SHINE has built and fostered a healthy student community and encourages students to engage in shaping the future of the field.

  13. Representativeness of the LifeLines Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klijs, Bart; Scholtens, Salome; Mandemakers, Jornt J; Snieder, Harold; Stolk, Ronald P; Smidt, Nynke

    2015-01-01

    LifeLines is a large prospective population-based three generation cohort study in the north of the Netherlands. Different recruitment strategies were adopted: recruitment of an index population via general practitioners, subsequent inclusion of their family members, and online self-registration. Our aim was to investigate the representativeness of the adult study population at baseline and to evaluate differences in the study population according to recruitment strategy. Demographic characteristics of the LifeLines study population, recruited between 2006-2013, were compared with the total adult population in the north of the Netherlands as registered in the Dutch population register. Socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle, chronic diseases, and general health were further compared with participants of the Permanent Survey of Living Conditions within the region (2005-2011, N = 6,093). Differences according to recruitment strategy were assessed. Compared with the population of the north of the Netherlands, LifeLines participants were more often female, middle aged, married, living in a semi-urban place and Dutch native. Adjusted for differences in demographic composition, in LifeLines a smaller proportion had a low educational attainment (5% versus 14%) or had ever smoked (54% versus 66%). Differences in the prevalence of various chronic diseases and low general health scores were mostly smaller than 3%. The age profiles of the three recruitment groups differed due to age related inclusion criteria of the recruitment groups. Other differences according to recruitment strategy were small. Our results suggest that, adjusted for differences in demographic composition, the LifeLines adult study population is broadly representative for the adult population of the north of the Netherlands. The recruitment strategy had a minor effect on the level of representativeness. These findings indicate that the risk of selection bias is low and that risk estimates in Life

  14. Representative Vector Machines: A Unified Framework for Classical Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Jie; Liu, Tongliang; Tao, Dacheng; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2016-08-01

    Classifier design is a fundamental problem in pattern recognition. A variety of pattern classification methods such as the nearest neighbor (NN) classifier, support vector machine (SVM), and sparse representation-based classification (SRC) have been proposed in the literature. These typical and widely used classifiers were originally developed from different theory or application motivations and they are conventionally treated as independent and specific solutions for pattern classification. This paper proposes a novel pattern classification framework, namely, representative vector machines (or RVMs for short). The basic idea of RVMs is to assign the class label of a test example according to its nearest representative vector. The contributions of RVMs are twofold. On one hand, the proposed RVMs establish a unified framework of classical classifiers because NN, SVM, and SRC can be interpreted as the special cases of RVMs with different definitions of representative vectors. Thus, the underlying relationship among a number of classical classifiers is revealed for better understanding of pattern classification. On the other hand, novel and advanced classifiers are inspired in the framework of RVMs. For example, a robust pattern classification method called discriminant vector machine (DVM) is motivated from RVMs. Given a test example, DVM first finds its k -NNs and then performs classification based on the robust M-estimator and manifold regularization. Extensive experimental evaluations on a variety of visual recognition tasks such as face recognition (Yale and face recognition grand challenge databases), object categorization (Caltech-101 dataset), and action recognition (Action Similarity LAbeliNg) demonstrate the advantages of DVM over other classifiers.

  15. Sugary beverages represent a threat to global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M

    2012-12-01

    Sugary beverages represent a major global threat to the health of all populations. The shifts in distribution, marketing, and sales have made them the plague of the globe in terms of obesity, diabetes, and a host of other chronic health problems. The fructose-laden beverages have unique properties that lead to lack of dietary compensation and direct adverse effects on our health. Global efforts to limit marketing and sales are necessary to protect the health of the planet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Mental Processes Represented in Models of Artificial Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Folchini da Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Artificial Consciousness concept has been used in the engineering area as being an evolution of the Artificial Intelligence. However, consciousness is a complex subject and often used without formalism. As a main contribution, in this work one proposes an analysis of four recent models of artificial consciousness published in the engineering area. The mental processes represented by these models are highlighted and correlations with the theoretical perspective of cognitive psychology are made. Finally, considerations about consciousness in such models are discussed.

  17. Enterprise Systems Implementations: Organizational Influence Processes for Corporate User Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Nordheim, Stig

    2008-01-01

    -depth, interpretive study from the oil industry, where we analyze a case of innovative integration of an ECM system with collaboration technologies. The data collection has been longitudinal. The data analysis has been performed through the perspective of organizational influence processes. The main finding concerns...... the responsibilities associated with the role. A corporate user representative in a high formal position and with lateral and downward influence processes to the steering committee and the project group was more influential. Challenging upward influence processes was thus avoided. Typical influence tactics include...

  18. The live album or many ways of representing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzanti Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of live albums can clarify the dialectic between studio recordings and live performances. After discussing key concepts such as authenticity, space, time and place, and documentation, the author gives a preliminary definition of live albums, combining available descriptions and comparing them with different typologies and functions of these recordings. The article aims to give a new definition of the concept of live albums, gathering their primary elements: “A live album is an officially released extended recording of popular music representing one or more actually occurred public performances”.

  19. Representing Mental Spaces and Dynamics of Natural Language Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Ramin Golshaie

    2011-01-01

    Building systems with the robustness of human reasoning capabilities requires inspirations from cognitive science.  The primary objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of representing some basic principles of cognitive semantics&rs...

  20. Representing vegetation processes in hydrometeorological simulations using the WRF model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joakim Refslund

    For accurate predictions of weather and climate, it is important that the land surface and its processes are well represented. In a mesoscale model the land surface processes are calculated in a land surface model (LSM). These pro-cesses include exchanges of energy, water and momentum between...... data and the default vegetation data in WRF were further used in high-resolution simulations over Denmark down to cloud-resolving scale (3 km). Results from two spatial resolutions were compared to investigate the inuence of parametrized and resolved convec-tion. The simulations using the parametrized...

  1. Retention performance of green roofs in representative climates worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, F.; Hellies, M.; Deidda, R.

    2017-10-01

    The ongoing process of global urbanization contributes to an increase in stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces, threatening also water quality. Green roofs have been proved to be innovative stormwater management measures to partially restore natural states, enhancing interception, infiltration and evapotranspiration fluxes. The amount of water that is retained within green roofs depends not only on their depth, but also on the climate, which drives the stochastic soil moisture dynamic. In this context, a simple tool for assessing performance of green roofs worldwide in terms of retained water is still missing and highly desirable for practical assessments. The aim of this work is to explore retention performance of green roofs as a function of their depth and in different climate regimes. Two soil depths are investigated, one representing the intensive configuration and another representing the extensive one. The role of the climate in driving water retention has been represented by rainfall and potential evapotranspiration dynamics. A simple conceptual weather generator has been implemented and used for stochastic simulation of daily rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Stochastic forcing is used as an input of a simple conceptual hydrological model for estimating long-term water partitioning between rainfall, runoff and actual evapotranspiration. Coupling the stochastic weather generator with the conceptual hydrological model, we assessed the amount of rainfall diverted into evapotranspiration for different combinations of annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration in five representative climatic regimes. Results quantified the capabilities of green roofs in retaining rainfall and consequently in reducing discharges into sewer systems at an annual time scale. The role of substrate depth has been recognized to be crucial in determining green roofs retention performance, which in general increase from extensive to intensive settings. Looking at the

  2. Representing the Algerian Civil War: Literature, History, and the State

    OpenAIRE

    Landers, Neil Grant

    2013-01-01

    "Representing the Algerian Civil War: Literature, History, and the State" addresses the way the Algerian civil war has been portrayed in 1990s novelistic literature. In the words of one literary critic, "The Algerian war has been, in a sense, one big murder mystery." This may be true, but literary accounts portray the "mystery" of the civil war--and propose to solve it--in sharply divergent ways. The primary aim of this study is to examine how three of the most celebrated 1990s novels depict...

  3. Representative parameter of immunostimulatory ginseng polysaccharide to predict radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyeog Jin; Shim, Ji Young; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    According to the increase in the use of radiotherapy to cancer patients, many approaches have been tried to develop new agents for the protection of surrounding normal tissues. However, it is still few applied in the clinic as a radioprotector. We aim to find a representative parameter for radioprotection to easily predict the activity of in vivo experiment from the results of in vitro screening. The polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng was used in this study because the immunostimulator has been regarded as one of the radioprotective agent category and was already reported having a promising radioprotective activity through the increase of hematopoietic cells and the production of several cytokines. Mitogenic activity, AK cells activity and nitric oxide production were monitored for the in vitro immunological assay, and endogenous Colony-Forming Unit (e-CFU) was measured as in vivo radioprotective parameter. The immunological activity was increased by the galactose contents of ginseng polysaccharide dependently. The result of this study suggests that mitogenic activity of splenocytes demonstrated a good correlation with in vivo radioprotective effect, and may be used as a representative parameter to screen the candidates for radioprotector.

  4. Scanning electron microscopy image representativeness: morphological data on nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odziomek, Katarzyna; Ushizima, Daniela; Oberbek, Przemyslaw; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof Jan; Puzyn, Tomasz; Haranczyk, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    A sample of a nanomaterial contains a distribution of nanoparticles of various shapes and/or sizes. A scanning electron microscopy image of such a sample often captures only a fragment of the morphological variety present in the sample. In order to quantitatively analyse the sample using scanning electron microscope digital images, and, in particular, to derive numerical representations of the sample morphology, image content has to be assessed. In this work, we present a framework for extracting morphological information contained in scanning electron microscopy images using computer vision algorithms, and for converting them into numerical particle descriptors. We explore the concept of image representativeness and provide a set of protocols for selecting optimal scanning electron microscopy images as well as determining the smallest representative image set for each of the morphological features. We demonstrate the practical aspects of our methodology by investigating tricalcium phosphate, Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , and calcium hydroxyphosphate, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH), both naturally occurring minerals with a wide range of biomedical applications. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Human visual system automatically represents large-scale sequential regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Motohiro; Widmann, Andreas; Schröger, Erich

    2010-03-04

    Our brain recordings reveal that large-scale sequential regularities defined across non-adjacent stimuli can be automatically represented in visual sensory memory. To show that, we adopted an auditory paradigm developed by Sussman, E., Ritter, W., and Vaughan, H. G. Jr. (1998). Predictability of stimulus deviance and the mismatch negativity. NeuroReport, 9, 4167-4170, Sussman, E., and Gumenyuk, V. (2005). Organization of sequential sounds in auditory memory. NeuroReport, 16, 1519-1523 to the visual domain by presenting task-irrelevant infrequent luminance-deviant stimuli (D, 20%) inserted among task-irrelevant frequent stimuli being of standard luminance (S, 80%) in randomized (randomized condition, SSSDSSSSSDSSSSD...) and fixed manners (fixed condition, SSSSDSSSSDSSSSD...). Comparing the visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) index of memory-mismatch processes in human visual sensory system, revealed that visual MMN elicited by deviant stimuli was reduced in the fixed compared to the randomized condition. Thus, the large-scale sequential regularity being present in the fixed condition (SSSSD) must have been represented in visual sensory memory. Interestingly, this effect did not occur in conditions with stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 480 and 800 ms but was confined to the 160-ms SOA condition supporting the hypothesis that large-scale regularity extraction was based on perceptual grouping of the five successive stimuli defining the regularity. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lifestyle choices and mental health: a representative population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Julia; Lavallee, Kristen L; Scholten, Saskia; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Zhang, Xiao-Chi; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Identifying healthy lifestyle behaviours that promote psychological wellbeing is crucial to preventing mental disorders. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the individual and combined associations between different aspects of everyday life and mental health within a representative community sample in Germany. The study was conducted in 2012/2013 and included 7,937 participants representative of the German population. Lifestyle factors were assessed via self-report and included frequency of physical and mental activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index as well as circadian and social regularity. Outcome variables were depression, anxiety, stress and satisfaction with life. All lifestyle factors were associated with the mental health outcomes. Better mental health was linked to higher frequency of physical and mental activity, moderate alcohol consumption (i.e. not increased or no alcohol consumption), non-smoking, a body mass index within the range of normal to overweight (i.e. not underweight or obese) and a regular life rhythm. The more healthy lifestyle choices an individual makes, the higher life satisfaction and lower psychological distress he or she tends to have. The current study underlines the importance of healthy lifestyle choices in respect to psychological wellbeing.

  7. Representing flow patterns by using streamlines with glyphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar, David H F; Ware, Colin

    2013-08-01

    Most professional wind visualizations show wind speed and direction using a glyph called a wind barb in a grid pattern. Research into flow visualization has suggested that streamlines better represent flow patterns but these methods lack a key property-unlike the wind barb, they do not accurately convey the wind speed. With the goal of improving the perception of wind patterns, and at least equaling the quantitative quality of wind barbs, we designed two variations on the wind barb and designed a new quantitative glyph. All of our new designs space glyph elements along equally spaced streamlines. To evaluate these designs, we used a North American mesoscale forecast model. We tested the ability of subjects to determine direction and speed using two different densities each of three new designs as well as the classic wind barb. A second experiment evaluated how effectively each of the designs represented wind patterns. The results showed that the new design is superior to the classic, but they also showed that the classic barb can be redesigned and substantially improved. We suggest that flow patterns with integrated glyphs may have widespread application in flow visualization.

  8. Development of a Representative Mouse Model with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jef; Jacobs, Ans; Spincemaille, Pieter; Cassiman, David

    2016-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the Western world. It represents a disease spectrum ranging from isolated steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In particular, NASH can evolve to fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. The development of novel treatment strategies is hampered by the lack of representative NASH mouse models. Here, we describe a NASH mouse model, which is based on feeding non-genetically manipulated C57BL6/J mice a 'Western style' high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF-HSD). HF-HSD leads to early obesity, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. After 12 weeks of HF-HSD, all mice exhibit the complete spectrum of features of NASH, including steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and lobular inflammation, together with fibrosis in the majority of mice. Hence, this model closely mimics the human disease. Implementation of this mouse model will lead to a standardized setup for the evaluation of (i) underlying mechanisms that contribute to the progression of NAFLD to NASH, and (ii) therapeutic interventions for NASH. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Using music[al] knowledge to represent expressions of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stewart C; Garner, David Kirkland; Somoroff, Matthew; Gramling, David J; Norton, Sally A; Gramling, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Being able to identify expressions of emotion is crucial to effective clinical communication research. However, traditional linguistic coding systems often cannot represent emotions that are expressed nonlexically or phonologically (i.e., not through words themselves but through vocal pitch, speed/rhythm/tempo, and volume). Using audio recording of a palliative care consultation in the natural hospital setting, two experienced music scholars employed Western musical notation, as well as the graphic realization of a digital audio program (Piano roll visualization), to visually represent the sonic features of conversation where a patient has an emotional "choke" moment. Western musical notation showed the ways that changes in pitch and rate correspond to the patient's emotion: rising sharply in intensity before slowly fading away. Piano roll visualization is a helpful supplement. Using musical notation to illustrate palliative care conversations in the hospital setting can render visible for analysis several aspects of emotional expression that researchers otherwise experience as intuitive or subjective. Various forms and formats of musical notation techniques and sonic visualization technologies should be considered as fruitful and complementary alternatives to traditional coding tools in clinical communications research. Musical notation offers opportunity for both researchers and learners to "see" how communication evolves in clinical encounters, particularly where the lexical and phonological features of interpersonal communication are concordant and discordant with one another. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. An analysis of spatial representativeness of air temperature monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suhua; Su, Hongbo; Tian, Jing; Wang, Weizhen

    2018-05-01

    Surface air temperature is an essential variable for monitoring the atmosphere, and it is generally acquired at meteorological stations that can provide information about only a small area within an r m radius ( r-neighborhood) of the station, which is called the representable radius. In studies on a local scale, ground-based observations of surface air temperatures obtained from scattered stations are usually interpolated using a variety of methods without ascertaining their effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the spatial representativeness of ground-based observations of surface air temperature before conducting studies on a local scale. The present study used remote sensing data to estimate the spatial distribution of surface air temperature using the advection-energy balance for air temperature (ADEBAT) model. Two target stations in the study area were selected to conduct an analysis of spatial representativeness. The results showed that one station (AWS 7) had a representable radius of about 400 m with a possible error of less than 1 K, while the other station (AWS 16) had the radius of about 250 m. The representable radius was large when the heterogeneity of land cover around the station was small.

  11. The Representatives of Amelanchier Medik. Genus in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opalko Anatoliy Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The information on fruit and decorative value, honey and medicinal properties of the genus Amelanchier Medik. is generalized. Their biological characteristics, chemical composition and palatability traits of the fruit, the ways of consumption and processing, including drying, preparing juices, syrups, jams, candied fruit jellies, confiture, and fruit wine are specified. The environmental adaptability and effectiveness of using juneberry for phytomelioration are mentioned. Several versions of the origin of the genus Amelanchier name and interpretation of its specific epithets are described. The controversial issues of the genus Amelanchier system were discussed from the classical and molecular genetic approaches. The attention is focused on two main aspects of views on the place of the genus Amelanchier representatives of the family Rosaceae Juss. within the particular subfamily, namely the subfamily Pyroideae Burnett (Maloideae S. Weber or the subfamily Amygdaloideae Arn., which indicates the necessity for further comparative morphological and molecular genetic studies of the family Rosaceae. The directions of evolution, habitat and invasive ability of some species of the genus Amelanchier are characterised. The list of the genus Amelanchier representatives cultivated in Ukraine is given.

  12. Foot Complications in a Representative Australian Inpatient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lazzarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence and factors independently associated with foot complications in a representative inpatient population (adults admitted for any reason with and without diabetes. We analysed data from the Foot disease in inpatients study, a sample of 733 representative inpatients. Previous amputation, previous foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease (PAD, peripheral neuropathy (PN, and foot deformity were the foot complications assessed. Sociodemographic, medical, and foot treatment history were collected. Overall, 46.0% had a foot complication with 23.9% having multiple; those with diabetes had higher prevalence of foot complications than those without diabetes (p<0.01. Previous amputation (4.1% was independently associated with previous foot ulceration, foot deformity, cerebrovascular accident, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.01. Previous foot ulceration (9.8% was associated with PN, PAD, past podiatry, and past nurse treatment (p<0.02. PAD (21.0% was associated with older age, males, indigenous people, cancer, PN, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.02. PN (22.0% was associated with older age, diabetes, mobility impairment, and PAD (p<0.05. Foot deformity (22.4% was associated with older age, mobility impairment, past podiatry treatment, and PN (p<0.01. Nearly half of all inpatients had a foot complication. Those with foot complications were older, male, indigenous, had diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, mobility impairment, and other foot complications or past foot treatment.

  13. Quantifying Representative Hydraulic Conductivity for Three-Dimensional Fractured Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I.; Ni, C.

    2013-12-01

    The fractures and pores in rock formations are the fundamental units for flow and contaminant transport simulations. Due to technical and logical limitations it is difficult in reality to account for such small units to model flow and transport in large-scale problems. The concept of continuum representations of fractured rocks is then used as an alternative to solve for flow and transport in complex fractured formations. For these types of approaches the determinations of the representative parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and dispersion coefficient play important roles in controlling the accuracy of simulation results for large-scale problems. The objective of this study is to develop a discrete fracture network (DFN) model and the associated unstructured mesh generation system to characterize the continuum hydraulic conductivity for fractured rocks on different scales. In this study a coupled three-dimensional model of water flow, thermal transport, solute transport, and geochemical kinetic/equilibrium reactions in saturated/unsaturated porous media (HYDROGEOCHEM) is employed to be the flow simulator to analyze the flow behaviors in fracture formations. The fracture network model and the corresponding continuum model are simulated for same scale problems. Based on the concept of mass conservation in flow, the correlations between statistics of fracture structure and the representative continuum parameters are quantified for a variety of fracture distribution scenarios and scales. The results of this study are expected to provide general insight into the procedures and the associated techniques for analyzing flow in complex large-scale fractured rock systems.

  14. An audience with … the public, the representative, the sovereign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanese Niccolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The right of audience, in common law, is the right of a lawyer to represent a client in a court. Royalty, the Pope and some Presidents grant audiences. What does the power to grant an audience consist in? And what does it mean to demand an audience (with? Through a reading of the way in which the vocabulary of theatre, acting and audience is involved in the generation of a theory of state by Hobbes and Rousseau, this paper looks to reopen these questions as a political resource for us to re-imagine and refigure our ways of being together. Through readings of Hobbes and Rousseau, it looks at the ways in which the performance of politics creates the public, the representative and the sovereign and the ways these figures interact. It proposes an alternative role for theatre as places of affective learning and a civic ethics of playfulness, in which the auto-institution of the state as an imagined collectivity is fully assumed.

  15. Flexible Clustered Multi-Task Learning by Learning Representative Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Multi-task learning (MTL) methods have shown promising performance by learning multiple relevant tasks simultaneously, which exploits to share useful information across relevant tasks. Among various MTL methods, clustered multi-task learning (CMTL) assumes that all tasks can be clustered into groups and attempts to learn the underlying cluster structure from the training data. In this paper, we present a new approach for CMTL, called flexible clustered multi-task (FCMTL), in which the cluster structure is learned by identifying representative tasks. The new approach allows an arbitrary task to be described by multiple representative tasks, effectively soft-assigning a task to multiple clusters with different weights. Unlike existing counterpart, the proposed approach is more flexible in that (a) it does not require clusters to be disjoint, (b) tasks within one particular cluster do not have to share information to the same extent, and (c) the number of clusters is automatically inferred from data. Computationally, the proposed approach is formulated as a row-sparsity pursuit problem. We validate the proposed FCMTL on both synthetic and real-world data sets, and empirical results demonstrate that it outperforms many existing MTL methods.

  16. Representativeness of the Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems National Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, Jessica M; Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Deutsch, Anne; Chen, Yuying; Charlifue, Susan; Chen, David; Dijkers, Marcel P; Graham, James E; Heinemann, Allen W; Lammertse, Daniel P; Whiteneck, Gale G

    2018-02-01

    Secondary analysis of prospectively collected observational data. To assess the representativeness of the Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems National Database (SCIMS-NDB) of all adults aged 18 years or older receiving inpatient rehabilitation in the United States (US) for new onset traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). Inpatient rehabilitation centers in the US. We compared demographic, functional status, and injury characteristics (nine categorical variables comprising of 46 categories and two continuous variables) between the SCIMS-NDB (N = 5969) and UDS-PRO/eRehabData (N = 99,142) cases discharged from inpatient rehabilitation in 2000-2010. There are negligible differences (exist for age categories, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, FIM Motor score, and time from injury to rehabilitation admission. Important differences (>10%) exist in mean age and preinjury occupational status; the SCIMS-NDB sample was younger and included a higher percentage of individuals who were employed (62.7 vs. 41.7%) and fewer who were retired (10.2 vs. 36.1%). Adults in the SCIMS-NDB are largely representative of the population of adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation for new onset TSCI in the US. However, users of the SCIMS-NDB may need to adjust statistically for differences in age and preinjury occupational status to improve generalizability of findings.

  17. Challenges to Issues of Balance and Representativeness in African Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapelo Joseph Otlogetswe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Modern dictionaries depend on corpora of different sizes and types for frequency listings, concordances and collocations, illustrative sentences and grammatical information. With the help of computer software, retrieving such information has increasingly become relatively easy. However, the quality of retrieved information for lexicographic purposes depends on the information input at the stage of corpus construction. If corpora are not representative of the different language usages of a speech community, they may prove to be unreliable sources of lexicographic information. There are, however, issues in African languages which make many African corpora questionable. These issues include a lack of texts of different genres, the unavailability of balanced and representative written texts, a complete absence of spoken texts as well as literacy problems in African societies. This article therefore explores the different challenges to the construction of reliable corpora in African languages. It argues that African languages face peculiar challenges and corpus research may require a different treatment compared to European and American corpus research. It finally concludes that issues of balance and representativeness appear theoretically impossible when looking at the results of sociolinguistic research on the different existing language varieties which are difficult to represent accurately in a corpus.

    Keywords: AFRICAN LANGUAGES, BALANCE, BANK OF ENGLISH, BORROWING,BRITISH NATIONAL CORPUS, COBUILD, CODE-SWITCHING, COMPUTERS, CORPORA,DIALECT, DICTIONARIES, FREQUENCY, LANGUAGE VARIETY, REPRESENTATIVENESS,SETSWANA, SOCIOLINGUISTICS, SPEECH, TEXT

    Opsomming: Uitdagings betreffende kwessies van balans en verteenwoordigendheidin Afrikaleksikografie. Moderne woordeboeke steun op korpusse vanverskillende groottes en soorte vir frekwensielyste, konkordansies en kollokasies, voorbeeldsinneen taalkundige inligting. Met die hulp van

  18. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and

  19. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and

  20. Psychosocial workload and stress in the workers' representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Martin; Giacomuzzi, Salvatore; Nübling, Matthias

    2012-10-26

    Using a data set of works councils of trade union IG Metal, this paper investigates psychosocial stress and strain on this specific group in comparison to employees working in administration in general (leadership and non-leadership-role) and a national reference value. For assessing psychosocial work factors on works councils within the sector represented by the trade union IG Metal in Germany, a research by using the German standard version of COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) was performed. The instrument includes 87 single items forming 25 aspects of strain and stress. Results from the study group of works councils were compared to those from employees working in administration and to the general population mean (COPSOQ database). Statistical analysis included t-tests, analysis of variance and multiple comparisons of means. To be significant in terms of statistics, pworks councils from a national survey of the German chemical and metalworking industries took part in the study. 113 were full-time works council members (exempted from the duty to perform their regular work), 196 were voluntary members (acting as employee representatives on an honorary basis alongside their normal duties). Comparison between works councils and employees working in administration (leadership roles (N=1810) and non-leadership roles (N=2970)) and for employees in general (N=35.000) showed unfavourable values for works councils for most scales. Significantly higher values indicating higher strain and stress were found for the scales: emotional demands, work-privacy conflict, role conflicts, mobbing, cognitive stress symptoms and burnout. Unfavourable results were obtained for the aspects: quality of leadership, social support, sense of community and general health. Favourable findings were found on the scales: influence at work, quantity of social relations and the partly positive values for quantitative demands and commitment to the workplace. Compared to the reference

  1. Psychosocial workload and stress in the workers’ representative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Using a data set of works councils of trade union IG Metal, this paper investigates psychosocial stress and strain on this specific group in comparison to employees working in administration in general (leadership and non-leadership-role) and a national reference value. Methods For assessing psychosocial work factors on works councils within the sector represented by the trade union IG Metal in Germany, a research by using the German standard version of COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) was performed. The instrument includes 87 single items forming 25 aspects of strain and stress. Results from the study group of works councils were compared to those from employees working in administration and to the general population mean (COPSOQ database). Statistical analysis included t-tests, analysis of variance and multiple comparisons of means. To be significant in terms of statistics, pworks councils from a national survey of the German chemical and metalworking industries took part in the study. 113 were full-time works council members (exempted from the duty to perform their regular work), 196 were voluntary members (acting as employee representatives on an honorary basis alongside their normal duties). Comparison between works councils and employees working in administration (leadership roles (N=1810) and non-leadership roles (N=2970)) and for employees in general (N=35.000) showed unfavourable values for works councils for most scales. Significantly higher values indicating higher strain and stress were found for the scales: emotional demands, work-privacy conflict, role conflicts, mobbing, cognitive stress symptoms and burnout. Unfavourable results were obtained for the aspects: quality of leadership, social support, sense of community and general health. Favourable findings were found on the scales: influence at work, quantity of social relations and the partly positive values for quantitative demands and commitment to the workplace

  2. Psychosocial workload and stress in the workers’ representative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a data set of works councils of trade union IG Metal, this paper investigates psychosocial stress and strain on this specific group in comparison to employees working in administration in general (leadership and non-leadership-role and a national reference value. Methods For assessing psychosocial work factors on works councils within the sector represented by the trade union IG Metal in Germany, a research by using the German standard version of COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was performed. The instrument includes 87 single items forming 25 aspects of strain and stress. Results from the study group of works councils were compared to those from employees working in administration and to the general population mean (COPSOQ database. Statistical analysis included t-tests, analysis of variance and multiple comparisons of means. To be significant in terms of statistics, p Results All in all, 309 works councils from a national survey of the German chemical and metalworking industries took part in the study. 113 were full-time works council members (exempted from the duty to perform their regular work, 196 were voluntary members (acting as employee representatives on an honorary basis alongside their normal duties. Comparison between works councils and employees working in administration (leadership roles (N=1810 and non-leadership roles (N=2970 and for employees in general (N=35.000 showed unfavourable values for works councils for most scales. Significantly higher values indicating higher strain and stress were found for the scales: emotional demands, work-privacy conflict, role conflicts, mobbing, cognitive stress symptoms and burnout. Unfavourable results were obtained for the aspects: quality of leadership, social support, sense of community and general health. Favourable findings were found on the scales: influence at work, quantity of social relations and the partly positive values for quantitative

  3. Use of S-α diagram for representing tokamak equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Chance, M.; Kessel, C.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.

    1991-05-01

    A use of the S-α diagram is proposed as a tool for representing the plasma equilibrium with a qualitative characterization of its stability through pattern recognition. The diagram is an effective tool for visually presenting the relationship between the shear and dimensionless pressure gradient of an equilibrium. In the PBX-M tokamak, an H-mode operating regime with high poloidal β and L-mode regime with high toroidal β, obtained using different profile modification techniques, are found to have distinct S-α trajectory patterns. Pellet injection into a plasma in the H-mode regime with high toroidal β, obtained using different profile modification techniques, are found to have distinct S-α trajectory patterns. Pellet injection into a plasma in the H-mode regime results in favorable qualities of both regimes. The β collapse process and ELM event also manifest themselves as characteristic changes in the S-α pattern

  4. On the Alignment of Shapes Represented by Fourier Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Ericsson, Anders; Larsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    The representation of shapes by Fourier descriptors is a time-honored technique that has received relatively little attention lately. Nevertheless, it has many benefits and is applicable for describing a range of medical structures in two dimensions. Delineations in medical applications often...... consist of continuous outlines of structures, where no information of correspondence between samples exist. In this article, we discuss an alignment method that works directly with the functional representation of Fourier descriptors, and that is optimal in a least-squares sense. With corresponding...... represented by common landmarks can be constructed in an automatic fashion. If the aligned Fourier descriptors are inverse transformed from the frequency domain to the spatial domain, a set of roughly aligned landmarks are obtained. The positions of these are then adjusted along the contour of the objects...

  5. Linear elastic properties derivation from microstructures representative of transport parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Minh Tan; Bonnet, Guy; Tuan Luu, Hoang; Perrot, Camille

    2014-06-01

    It is shown that three-dimensional periodic unit cells (3D PUC) representative of transport parameters involved in the description of long wavelength acoustic wave propagation and dissipation through real foam samples may also be used as a standpoint to estimate their macroscopic linear elastic properties. Application of the model yields quantitative agreement between numerical homogenization results, available literature data, and experiments. Key contributions of this work include recognizing the importance of membranes and properties of the base material for the physics of elasticity. The results of this paper demonstrate that a 3D PUC may be used to understand and predict not only the sound absorbing properties of porous materials but also their transmission loss, which is critical for sound insulation problems.

  6. Frequency of lucid dreaming in a representative German sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Lucid dreams occur when a person is aware that he is dreaming while he is dreaming. In a representative sample of German adults (N = 919), 51% of the participants reported that they had experienced a lucid dream at least once. Lucid dream recall was significantly higher in women and negatively correlated with age. However, these effects might be explained by the frequency of dream recall, as there was a correlation of .57 between frequency of dream recall and frequency of lucid dreams. Other sociodemographic variables like education, marital status, or monthly income were not related to lucid dream frequency. Given the relatively high prevalence of lucid dreaming reported in the present study, research on lucid dreams might be pursued in the sleep laboratory to expand the knowledge about sleep, dreaming, and consciousness processes in general.

  7. Representative Bureaucracy and the Role of Expertise in Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarle Trondal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of existing studies on bureaucratic representation focus on bureaucracies’ permanent and internal staff. Yet, the rising sophistication of modern democracies and the technocratization of political life are gradually inducing an increased reliance on external experts to assist in the development and implementation of policy decisions. This trend, we argue, raises the need to extend studies of bureaucratic representation to such external and non-permanent experts in governmental affairs. In this article, we take a first step in this direction using seconded national experts (SNEs in the European Commission as our empirical laboratory. Our results highlight that Commission SNEs do not appear representative of their constituent population (i.e., the EU-27 population along a number of socio-demographic dimensions. Moreover, we find that the role perception of “experts” is primarily explained by organizational affiliation, and only secondarily by demographic characteristics (except, of course, education.

  8. Representing Something Out of Nothing: The Dawning of Zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Zero stands for emptiness, for nothing, and yet it is considered to be one of the greatest achievements of humankind. This review first recapitulates the discovery of the number zero in human history, then follows its progression in human development, traces its evolution in the animal kingdom, and finally elucidates how the brain transforms 'nothing' into an abstract zero category. It is argued that the emergence of zero passes through four corresponding representations in all of these interrelated realms: first, sensory 'nothing'; then categorical 'something'; then quantitative empty sets; and finally the number zero. The concept of zero shows how the brain, originally evolved to represent stimuli ('something'), detaches from empirical properties to achieve ultimate abstract thinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Lay of the Land: Sensing and Representing Topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora S. Newcombe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Navigating, and studying spatial navigation, is difficult enough in two dimensions when maps and terrains are flat. Here we consider the capacity for human spatial navigation on sloped terrains, and how sloping terrain is depicted in 2D map representations, called topographic maps. First, we discuss research on how simple slopes are encoded and used for reorientation, and to learn spatial configurations. Next, we describe how slope is represented in topographic maps, and present an assessment (the Topographic Map Assessment, which can be administered to measure topographic map comprehension. Finally, we describe several approaches our lab has taken with the aim of improving topographic map comprehension, including gesture and analogy. The current research reveals a rich and complex picture of topographic map understanding, which likely involves perceptual expertise, strong spatial skills, and inferential logic.

  10. THE STRUCTURE OF HAPPINESS REPRESENTATION FOR RUSSIAN AND AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Zhdanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotional state of students exerts direct impact on their ability and readiness to cope with challenges when studying, gives rise to the success of educational process and its effectiveness. In this regard, the search of methods and determination of the tasks of psychological diagnostics is brought into focus. Above all, the teacher should consider mentality and valuable attitudes of representatives of various cultures, including their understanding of happiness and personal well-being in the activity against the background of the increasing scales of the international and interethnic mobility.The development of Russian psychology has recently acquired the direction of positive psychology, the focus of which is happiness and positive functioning of the individual. Modern research reveals significant differences in the indicators of happiness and satisfaction with life between representatives of different cultures. However, the diagnostic tools used in such studies are based primarily on the model of happiness image that has been developed in American psychology. In this connection, the question arises as to what extent the image of happiness in American culture correlates with the image of happiness in Russian culture.The aim of this work is to study the representation of happiness between representatives of American and Russian culture, the definition of invariable and variable components in the structure of representation.Methodology and research methods. The study included several stages. At the first stage, the theoretical analysis and development of the ontology of the subject area “Psychology of Happiness” was carried out. At the second stage, an empirical study of the representations of American and Russian respondents was carried out. The main method of data collection was a narrative interview; a method of early personal memories was used to obtain the narrative of happiness. Subsequent processing of verbal

  11. Excretory system of representatives from family Diplozoidae (Monogenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstanzová, V; Koubková, B; Kašný, M; Ilgová, J; Dzika, E; Gelnar, M

    2016-04-01

    Diplozoons are representatives of blood-feeding ectoparasites from the family Diplozoidae (Polyopisthocotylea, Monogenea). Although these worms have been the subject of numerous taxonomical, phylogenetic, and ecological studies, the detailed study of their excretory system has remained relatively neglected. Our observations focused on the morphological and ultrastructural features of the excretory apparatus of four diplozoid species: Diplozoon paradoxum, Eudiplozoon nipponicum, Paradiplozoon bliccae, and Paradiplozoon homoion. Observations were obtained using two microscope methods: light microscopy, equipped with differential interference contrast (Nomarski DIC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ultrastructure of two basic compartments which forms the excretory apparatus, flame cells with filtration apparatus, and canal cells forming the protonephridial ducts is revealed in this study. A unique consecutive sequence of longitudinal semi-thin sections of the excretory pore of E. nipponicum is visualized there for the first time.

  12. Impact of pharmaceutical representative visits on GPs' drug preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Vach, Kirstin; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    preferences and prevalence of steroid prescribing. METHODS: Observational cohort study in Funen County, Denmark, including 165 general practices visited 832 times by pharmaceutical representatives and 54 080 patients treated with asthma drugs. Visits were conducted from 2001 to 2003. Our main outcome measures...... were (i) company-specific drug preferences measured as the proportion of dispensings of the promoted drug among all dispensings of fixed combinations of inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonists and (ii) the proportion of patients receiving repeated beta2-agonist dispensings who were...... treated with inhaled steroids. RESULTS: The first visit had a statistically significant effect on the GPs' drug preference in favour of the marketed drug [odds ratio (OR), 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72-3.32]. The effect on drug preference increased further after the second visit (OR, 1.51; 95...

  13. Discriminatively learning for representing local image features with quadruplet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-long; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Duan-qing; Lu, Dong-ming

    2017-11-01

    Traditional hand-crafted features for representing local image patches are evolving into current data-driven and learning-based image feature, but learning a robust and discriminative descriptor which is capable of controlling various patch-level computer vision tasks is still an open problem. In this work, we propose a novel deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn local feature descriptors. We utilize the quadruplets with positive and negative training samples, together with a constraint to restrict the intra-class variance, to learn good discriminative CNN representations. Compared with previous works, our model reduces the overlap in feature space between corresponding and non-corresponding patch pairs, and mitigates margin varying problem caused by commonly used triplet loss. We demonstrate that our method achieves better embedding result than some latest works, like PN-Net and TN-TG, on benchmark dataset.

  14. Coping with traumatic brain injury: representative case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnica, C M; Heinemann, A

    1994-04-01

    This case report compares the use of social supports and vulnerability to substance abuse for two rehabilitation clients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using a psychosocial assessment, the Motivational Structure Questionnaire, Adaptive Skills Battery, and Ways of Coping Checklist within a representative case method, we studied two individuals in depth to understand differences in postinjury drinking behaviors. We also examined differences in availability and use of social supports and how support was related to coping efforts. Finally, we illustrated goal-setting and the relationship between long-term planning and follow-through on goals. Social supports, adaptive problem-solving behaviors, and positive reappraisal of situations seem to be important elements in postinjury abstinence. Clinically, this research supports the need for fostering use of both social supports and substance use prevention and treatment services when working with both inpatient and outpatient TBI clients.

  15. Priorities Without Priorities: Representing Preemption in Psi-Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Åman Pohjola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Psi-calculi is a parametric framework for extensions of the pi-calculus with data terms and arbitrary logics. In this framework there is no direct way to represent action priorities, where an action can execute only if all other enabled actions have lower priority. We here demonstrate that the psi-calculi parameters can be chosen such that the effect of action priorities can be encoded. To accomplish this we define an extension of psi-calculi with action priorities, and show that for every calculus in the extended framework there is a corresponding ordinary psi-calculus, without priorities, and a translation between them that satisfies strong operational correspondence. This is a significantly stronger result than for most encodings between process calculi in the literature. We also formally prove in Nominal Isabelle that the standard congruence and structural laws about strong bisimulation hold in psi-calculi extended with priorities.

  16. Ambiguities in representing the concept of energy: a semiotic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMIEN GIVRY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many researches in science education have shown the importance of the concept of energy and the learning difficulties that students face. Based on a semiotic approach, the current study focuses on the different ways in representing the concept of energy. It examines the ambiguities appear in written text, diagram, photo, graph, corporal acts etc. as vehicles of conveying some aspects of the energy concept. Video of a regular Greek lesson about energy and an usual Greek physics school textbook composed our database. The first results show a conceptual blending between the concepts 'transfer' and 'transformation' due to the lack of specification of which are exactly the physical systems studied in these modes of representation.

  17. [Dangerous liaisons--physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Mónica

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between physicians and detailers (even when legitimate ones) raise scientific and ethical questions. In Portugal little thinking and discussion has been done on the subject and the blames for bribery have monopolized the media. This work intended to review what has been said in medical literature about these interactions. How do physicians see themselves when interacting with pharmaceutical companies and their representatives? Do these companies in fact change their prescriptive behaviour, and, if so, how do they change it? How can physicians interact with detailers and still keep their best practice? A Medline research, from 1966 till 2002, was performed using the key-words as follows. A database similar to Medline but concerning medical journals published in Portugal, Index das Revistas Médicas Portuguesas, was also researched from 1992 to 2002. Pharmaceutical companies are profit bound and they allot promoting activities, and detailing in particular, huge amounts of money. Most physicians hold firmly to the belief that they are able to resist and not be influenced by drug companies promotion activities. Nevertheless, all previous works on literature tell us the opposite. Market research also indicates that detailers effectively promote drug sales. Various works also suggest that the information detailers provide to physicians may be largely incorrect, even comparing it to the written information provided by the pharmaceutical companies they work for. The frequency at which portuguese physicians (especially family physicians) contact with pharmaceutical sales representatives is higher than the frequency reported in countries where the available studies come from (namely, Canada and the United States of America). This may put portuguese physicians at a higher risk, making it imperative that work and wide debate are initiated among the class.

  18. Representativeness of the IAGOS airborne measurements in the lower troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Petetin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the In Service Aircraft for Global Observing System (IAGOS program, airborne in-situ O3 and CO measurements are performed routinely using in-service aircraft, providing vertical profiles from the surface to about 10–12 km. Due to the specificity of IAGOS measurements (measurements around busy international airports, uncertainties exist on their representativeness in the lower troposphere as they may be impacted by emissions related to airport activities and/or other aircraft. In this study, we thus investigate how the IAGOS measurements in the lower troposphere compare with nearby surface stations (from the local Air Quality monitoring network (AQN and more distant regional surface stations (from the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW network. The study focuses on Frankfurt but some results at other European airports (Vienna, Paris are also discussed. Results indicate that the IAGOS observations close to the surface do not appear to be strongly impacted by local emissions related to airport activities. In terms of mixing ratio distribution, seasonal variations and trends, the CO and O3 mixing ratios measured by IAGOS in the first few hundred metres above the surface have similar characteristics to the mixing ratios measured at surrounding urban background stations. Higher in altitude, both the difference with data from the local AQN and the consistency with the GAW regional stations are higher, which indicates a larger representativeness of the IAGOS data. Despite few quantitative differences with Frankfurt, consistent results are obtained in the two other cities Vienna and Paris. Based on 11 years of data (2002–2012, this study thus demonstrates that IAGOS observations in the lowest troposphere can be used as a complement to surface stations to study the air quality in/around the agglomeration, providing important information on the vertical distribution of pollution.

  19. Invite your representative to work. Change the world. Here's how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montell, Denise J

    2018-02-15

    Today's political climate can seem hostile to science. Alternative facts, climate change denial, and relabeling of actual news as fake news are discouraging phenomena for sure. But these trends make it more important than ever to engage our politicians. Take heart! There is something you can do. You can show your representatives firsthand the amazing things you do, evidence of the economic engine that your activities generate, and the real people behind the discoveries. I did, and it was fun. We invited our congressman to the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and he accepted! For 2 hours, we explained and demonstrated efforts to cure blindness using stem cells, the medical implications of the discovery that cells can recover from the brink of death, a mosquito lab striving to eliminate insect-borne disease, and an Alzheimer's disease laboratory. Salud Carbajal peered through a microscope and met real scientists. Before his visit, he did not know what a postdoctoral fellow was, much less what stem cells look like. When he left he knew our names, how much money we bring into his district, and how important National Institutes of Health funding and international mobility are to our enterprise. Although I live in the United States, this approach should also apply to other democratic countries. If each of us converts one representative into a science champion, we can change the world. © 2018 Montell. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. The Korarchaeota: Archaeal orphans representing an ancestral lineage of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkins, James G.; Kunin, Victor; Anderson, Iain; Barry, Kerrie; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Hedlund, Brian; Hugenholtz, Phil; Kyrpides, Nikos; Graham, David; Keller, Martin; Wanner, Gerhard; Richardson, Paul; Stetter, Karl O.

    2007-05-01

    Based on conserved cellular properties, all life on Earth can be grouped into different phyla which belong to the primary domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. However, tracing back their evolutionary relationships has been impeded by horizontal gene transfer and gene loss. Within the Archaea, the kingdoms Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota exhibit a profound divergence. In order to elucidate the evolution of these two major kingdoms, representatives of more deeply diverged lineages would be required. Based on their environmental small subunit ribosomal (ss RNA) sequences, the Korarchaeota had been originally suggested to have an ancestral relationship to all known Archaea although this assessment has been refuted. Here we describe the cultivation and initial characterization of the first member of the Korarchaeota, highly unusual, ultrathin filamentous cells about 0.16 {micro}m in diameter. A complete genome sequence obtained from enrichment cultures revealed an unprecedented combination of signature genes which were thought to be characteristic of either the Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, or Eukarya. Cell division appears to be mediated through a FtsZ-dependent mechanism which is highly conserved throughout the Bacteria and Euryarchaeota. An rpb8 subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was identified which is absent from other Archaea and has been described as a eukaryotic signature gene. In addition, the representative organism possesses a ribosome structure typical for members of the Crenarchaeota. Based on its gene complement, this lineage likely diverged near the separation of the two major kingdoms of Archaea. Further investigations of these unique organisms may shed additional light onto the evolution of extant life.

  1. Representing the dosimetric impact of deformable image registration errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickress, Jason; Battista, Jerry; Barnett, Rob; Yartsev, Slav

    2017-09-01

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is emerging as a tool in radiation therapy for calculating the cumulative dose distribution across multiple fractions of treatment. Unfortunately, due to the variable nature of DIR algorithms and dependence of performance on image quality, registration errors can result in dose accumulation errors. In this study, landmarked images were used to characterize the DIR error throughout an image space and determine its impact on dosimetric analysis. Ten thoracic 4DCT images with 300 landmarks per image study matching the end-inspiration and end-expiration phases were obtained from ‘dir-labs’. DIR was performed using commercial software MIM Maestro. The range of dose uncertainty (RDU) was calculated at each landmark pair as the maximum and minimum of the doses within a sphere around the landmark in the end-expiration phase. The radius of the sphere was defined by a measure of DIR error which included either the actual DIR error, mean DIR error per study, constant errors of 2 or 5 mm, inverse consistency error, transitivity error or the distance discordance metric (DDM). The RDUs were evaluated using the magnitude of dose uncertainty (MDU) and inclusion rate (IR) of actual error lying within the predicted RDU. The RDU was calculated for 300 landmark pairs on each 4DCT study for all measures of DIR error. The most representative RDU was determined using the actual DIR error with a MDU of 2.5 Gy and IR of 97%. Across all other measures of DIR error, the DDM was most predictive with a MDU of 2.5 Gy and IR of 86%, closest to the actual DIR error. The proposed method represents the range of dosimetric uncertainty of DIR error using either landmarks at specific voxels or measures of registration accuracy throughout the volume.

  2. Sleepiness and Motor Vehicle Crashes in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Drivers: The Importance of Epidemiological Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M; Peralta, A R; Monteiro Ferreira, J; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleepiness is considered to be a leading cause of crashes. Despite the huge amount of information collected in questionnaire studies, only some are based on representative samples of the population. Specifics of the populations studied hinder the generalization of these previous findings. For the Portuguese population, data from sleep-related car crashes/near misses and sleepiness while driving are missing. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of near-miss and nonfatal motor vehicle crashes related to sleepiness in a representative sample of Portuguese drivers. Structured phone interviews regarding sleepiness and sleep-related crashes and near misses, driving habits, demographic data, and sleep quality were conducted using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sleep apnea risk using the Berlin questionnaire. A multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the associations with sleepy driving (feeling sleepy or falling asleep while driving) and sleep-related near misses and crashes. Nine hundred subjects, representing the Portuguese population of drivers, were included; 3.1% acknowledged falling asleep while driving during the previous year and 0.67% recalled sleepiness-related crashes. Higher education, driving more than 15,000 km/year, driving more frequently between 12:00 a.m. and 6 a.m., fewer years of having a driver's license, less total sleep time per night, and higher scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were all independently associated with sleepy driving. Sleepiness-related crashes and near misses were associated only with falling asleep at the wheel in the previous year. Sleep-related crashes occurred more frequently in drivers who had also had sleep-related near misses. Portugal has lower self-reported sleepiness at the wheel and sleep-related near misses than most other countries where epidemiological data are available. Different population characteristics and cultural, social, and road safety specificities may

  3. Simulating a Nationally Representative Housing Sample Using EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Asa S.; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, James; Rosenquist, Gregory; Gu, Lixing

    2011-03-04

    This report presents a new simulation tool under development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This tool uses EnergyPlus to simulate each single-family home in the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), and generates a calibrated, nationally representative set of simulated homes whose energy use is statistically indistinguishable from the energy use of the single-family homes in the RECS sample. This research builds upon earlier work by Ritchard et al. for the Gas Research Institute and Huang et al. for LBNL. A representative national sample allows us to evaluate the variance in energy use between individual homes, regions, or other subsamples; using this tool, we can also evaluate how that variance affects the impacts of potential policies. The RECS contains information regarding the construction and location of each sampled home, as well as its appliances and other energy-using equipment. We combined this data with the home simulation prototypes developed by Huang et al. to simulate homes that match the RECS sample wherever possible. Where data was not available, we used distributions, calibrated using the RECS energy use data. Each home was assigned a best-fit location for the purposes of weather and some construction characteristics. RECS provides some detail on the type and age of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in each home; we developed EnergyPlus models capable of reproducing the variety of technologies and efficiencies represented in the national sample. This includes electric, gas, and oil furnaces, central and window air conditioners, central heat pumps, and baseboard heaters. We also developed a model of duct system performance, based on in-home measurements, and integrated this with fan performance to capture the energy use of single- and variable-speed furnace fans, as well as the interaction of duct and fan performance with the efficiency of heating and cooling equipment. Comparison with RECS revealed

  4. Permeability tensor and representative elementary volume of fractured rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Guan; Peng, Jun; Wang, Xiaojiang; Liu, Guang; Hou, Di

    2013-11-01

    Based on a simulation of three-dimensional fracture networks and a superposition principle of liquid dissipation energy for fractured rock masses, a model of the fracture permeability tensor is proposed. An elastic constitutive model of rock fractures, considering fracture closure and dilation during shearing, is also proposed, based on the dilation angle of the fracture. Algorithms of flow-path searching and calculation of the effective flow coefficients for fracture networks are presented, together with a discussion on the influence of geometric parameters of the fractures (trace length, spacing, aperture, orientation and the number of fracture sets) on magnitude, anisotropy of hydraulic permeability and the size of a representative elementary volume (REV). The anisotropy of hydraulic permeability of fractured rock masses is mainly affected by orientation and the number of fracture sets, and the REV size is mainly influenced by trace length, spacing and the number of fracture sets. The results of studies on REV size and the influence of in-situ stress on hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass on the slope of Jinping-I hydropower station, China, are presented using the developed models and methods. The simulation results agreed well with the results obtained from field water-pressure measurements, with an error of less than 10 %.

  5. Social tagging: a model for representing information in the blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pérez Sanchidrián

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study addresses the theoretical and conceptual aspects related to social labeling. Has the advantages of labels on different platforms of Web 2.0. Exposes some of the major sites of social labeling system including Flickr, Delicious, Technorati is destcan, among others. Terminologically analyzed using the tags in the blogosphere as a model for representing information. Methods: The research took as methods of qualitative content analysis to identify the behavior of the international literature on this subject and the metric analysis to characterize the use of social labeling in the blogosphere. Results: The study led to qualitatively describe the use of labels on blogs and their terminological particularities associated with the following aspects: creating labels in these spaces is related to a number of social issues among which we can highlight: Politics, Culture, economy, Gender, History, Sexuality, Discrimination, Health, Environment, Technology. The labels on these platforms are defined from the general to the particular and there is no limit concurrency for its creation, usually the authors cite for each post 4-7 labels in order to spread their content as possible in the community. Conclusions: This study enables reflect the social impact of using labels on platforms like blogs.

  6. SOILS AS REPRESENTATIVE COMPONENT OF URBAN SYSTEM ECOLOGICAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorkina N.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Some classifications of city soils together with possibilities of operative tracking of the ecological state of urban system soil cover were considered. Data analysis of complex ecological monitoring of the soil cover was performed towards structural-functional organization of urban system and soils of city principal basic industrial enterprises and territories adjacent to artillery base complex near Novobogdanovka.The use of modern classifications of urban soils allows us to monitor the ecological state of soil of urban system and take proper measures for its optimization. The most representative indicators of the ecological status of soils for urban system are pH and heavy metals. All components of urban system must be considered as integrated structural and functional formation, where the main structural components are the administrative and territorial units - regions, and functional - industrial, residential and recreational areas of the city.Environmental monitoring of the spatial distribution of heavy metals and pH in Melitopol proved their uneven distribution. Most disadvantaged areas were located near highways. The main role in the pollution of the urban Melitopol environment has shifted to the road transport industry due to its significant increase.

  7. Testing a groundwater sampling tool: Are the samples representative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, D.S.; Bergren, C.L.; Carlson, C.A.; Carlson, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    A ground water sampling tool, the HydroPunch trademark, was tested at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina to determine if representative ground water samples could be obtained without installing monitoring wells. Chemical analyses of ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark from various depths within a borehole were compared with chemical analyses of ground water from nearby monitoring wells. The site selected for the test was in the vicinity of a large coal storage pile and a coal pile runoff basin that was constructed to collect the runoff from the coal storage pile. Existing monitoring wells in the area indicate the presence of a ground water contaminant plume that: (1) contains elevated concentrations of trace metals; (2) has an extremely low pH; and (3) contains elevated concentrations of major cations and anions. Ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark provide in excellent estimate of ground water quality at discrete depths. Groundwater chemical data collected from various depths using the HydroPunch trademark can be averaged to simulate what a screen zone in a monitoring well would sample. The averaged depth-discrete data compared favorably with the data obtained from the nearby monitoring wells

  8. Modeling of Cementitious Representative Volume Element with Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzamanian, M. M.; Basirun, W. J.

    CEMHYD3D has been employed to simulate the representative volume element (RVE) of cementitious systems (Type I cement) containing fly ash (Class F) through a voxel-based finite element analysis (FEA) approach. Three-dimensional microstructures composed of voxels are generated for a heterogeneous cementitious material consisting of various constituent phases. The primary focus is to simulate a cementitious RVE containing fly ash and to present the homogenized macromechanical properties obtained from its analysis. Simple kinematic uniform boundary conditions as well as periodic boundary conditions were imposed on the RVE to obtain the principal and shear moduli. Our current work considers the effect of fly ash percentage on the elastic properties based on the mass and volume replacements. RVEs with lengths of 50, 100 and 200μm at different degrees of hydration are generated, and the elastic properties are modeled and simulated. In general, the elastic properties of a cementitious RVE with fly ash replacement for cement based on mass and volume differ from each other. Moreover, the finite element (FE) mesh density effect is studied. Results indicate that mechanical properties decrease with increasing mesh density.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum dolichol phosphate mannose synthase represents a novel clade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Santos de Macedo, Cristiana; Niehus, Sebastian; Dorn, Caroline; Kimmel, Juergen; Azzouz, Nahid; Schwarz, Ralph T.

    2008-01-01

    Dolichol phosphate mannose synthase (DPM) catalyzes the reaction between dolichol phosphate (Dol-P) and guanosine diphosphate mannose (GDP-Man) to form dolichol-phosphate-mannose (Dol-P-Man). This molecule acts as mannose donor for N-glycosylation and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. The Plasmodium falciparum DPM1 (Pfdpm1) possesses a single predicted transmembrane region near the N-, but not the C-terminus. Here we show that the cloned Pfdpm1 gene failed to complement a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant indicating that the parasite gene does not belong to the baker's yeast group, as was previously assumed. Furthermore, Pfdpm1 was unable to complement a mouse mutant deficient in DPM but efficiently complements the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast mutant, indicating a difference between fission yeast and mammalian DPM genes. Therefore, we reanalyzed the hydrophobicity scales of all known DPMs and consequently reclassify the DPM clade into six major novel subgroups. Furthermore, we show that Pfdpm1 represents a unique enzyme among these subgroups

  10. Implicit Theories and Offender Representativeness in Judgments About Sexual Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Craig A; Bartels, Ross M

    2018-04-01

    Implicit theories structure the way people understand and respond to various human actions. Typically, people believe attributes are either fixed (entitists) or malleable (incrementalists). The present study aimed to examine (a) whether attitudes toward sexual offenders differ depending upon one's implicit theory about human nature and sexual offenders, and (b) whether implicit theories are associated with judgments made about different types of child abusers. A sample of 252 community participants was recruited. Their attitudes, implicit theories, and political orientation were assessed via self-report. One of three vignettes describing an incidence of child sexual abuse was then presented. The cases were identical except the perpetrator was either an adult male, an adult female, or a male juvenile. Participants then made judgments about the offender's deserved sentence and moral character. Entitists (across both domains) held more negative attitudes than incrementalists, although the magnitude of the difference was greatest when examining implicit theories about sexual offenders. Compared with those with an incremental theory of sexual offenders, entity theorists judged sexual offending to be more (a) indicative of the perpetrator's moral character and (b) deserving of punishment. However, scores were greater toward the adult male relative to the adult female and juvenile. The findings suggest that implicit theories about sexual offenders are domain specific. They also indicate that judgments made by those with an entity theory (about sexual offenders) are affected by whether a case is representative of a stereotypical sexual offender. Implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and future research.

  11. Sampling and Representativeness for a Spaceborne Wind Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieutaud, F.; Dabas, A.; Flamant, P. H.; Seze, G.; Courtier, PH.

    1992-01-01

    The capability of an Earth-orbiting lidar to produce a reliable windfield sampling with an error of 1-3 ms(exp -1) and that is relevant to numerical forecasting and climate studies is discussed. The spatial and temporal resolutions range from 100 km to 1000 km and 3 hr to 1 month respectively. In this respect cloud obstruction is of great concern, as it can prevent the lidar probing whole parts of the atmosphere, for both short and long periods of time. A worldwide analysis of cloudiness from either visual observations made from the ground or else from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) instrument, has shown that the average cloud cover is 60 percent. This analysis is only valid at large scales (time and space) compatible with the currently operating satellites. However, a lidar footprint is only about a hundred meters or less, and it was observed from ground based lidars that, even when the cloudiness is 100 percent, some lidar shots get through. A complete analysis of the probability of probing through clouds by a spaceborne lidar is presently beyond our capacities. Hence, no small scale cloudiness data set is yet available representing all kinds of meteorological situations at all latitudes.

  12. Assessing the Geographic Representativity of Farm Accountancy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Green

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The environment affects agriculture, via soils, weather, etc. and agriculture affects the environment locally at farm level and via its impact on climate change. Locating agriculture within its spatial environment is thus important for farmers and policy makers. Within the EU countries collect detailed farm data to understand the technical and financial performance of farms; the Farm Accountancy Data Network. However, knowledge of the spatial-environmental context of these farms is reported at gross scale. In this paper, Irish farm accounting data is geo-referenced using address matching to a national address database. An analysis of the geographic distribution of the survey farms, illustrated through a novel 2D ranked pair plot of the coordinates, compared to the national distribution of farms shows a trend in the location of survey farms that leads to a statistical difference in the climatic variables associated with the farm. The farms in the survey have significantly higher accumulated solar radiation values than the national average. As a result, the survey may not be representative spatially of the pattern of environment x farm system. This could have important considerations when using FADN data in modelling climate change impacts on agri-economic performance.

  13. Interactions between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Alkaabba, Abdulaziz; Qadi, Mahdi; Albahlal, Abdullah; Alabdulkarim, Yasir; Alabduljabbar, Mohammad; Alqahtani, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Interaction between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representative (PR) is a major component of the promotional activities by pharmaceutical companies. The lack of studies examining the magnitude of this interaction in Saudi Arabia is evident. The objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude and associated characteristics of physician-PR interaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted among physicians working in the different regions of Saudi Arabia between March and July of 2012. A cross-sectional study was undertaken between March and July of 2012 in the different regions of Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and handed to all participants, both in paper and electronic formats. A total of 663 participants completed the questionnaire. The participation rate was 66.3% (663/1000). The majority of the participants (72.9%) reported interaction with PRs. This was lower among residents/interns compared to higher ranking employees (55.6% vs 83.6%, P strategy to reduce negative impact.

  14. [News media's surveillance and gatekeeping in representing health risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Myoungsoon; Ju, Youngkee

    2010-05-01

    This study investigates whether Korean news media pay more attention to emerging diseases than chronic ones, and whether they closely follow the changes in the magnitude of health risks of chronic or well-known diseases. These two features are expected to appear as the result of surveillance function served by health journalism that should be the main source of the public's risk perception. The number of stories published in 10 newspapers containing the words, 'SARS,' 'Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy,' 'Avian Influenza,' and 'Influenza A virus' was compared with the number of stories on chronic or well-known diseases. We also counted the annual number of stories, published in a 12-year period, containing following terms: 'cancer,' 'diabetes,' 'hypertension,' 'pneumonia,' and 'tuberculosis.' The number was compared with the actual mortality of each disease. Although cancer represented the primary cause of mortality, the newspapers covered key emerging diseases more than cancer or other well-known diseases. Also, media coverage of 'pneumonia' and 'tuberculosis' did not vary in accordance with changes in the mortality of each disease. However, the news media coverage did vary in accordance with the mortality of 'cancer,' 'diabetes,' and 'hypertension.' Korean health journalism was found to have both strong and weak points. The news media reduced the relative level of attention given to pneumonia and tuberculosis. Bearing in mind the major influence of news coverage on risk perception, health professionals need to be more proactive about helping to improve Korean health journalism.

  15. Representative Delay Measurements (RDM: Facing the Challenge of Modern Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Fabini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Network access technologies have evolved significantly in the last years. They deploy novel mechanisms like reactive capacity allocation and time-slotted operation to optimize overall network capacity. From a single node's perspective, such optimizations decrease network determinism and measurement repeatability. Evolving application fields like machine to machine (M2M communications or real-time gaming often have strict real-time requirements to operate correctly. Highly accurate delay measurements are necessary to monitor network compliance with application demands or to detect deviations of normal network behavior, which may be caused by network failures, misconfigurations or attacks. This paper analyzes factors that challenge active delay measurements in modern networks. It introduces the Representative Delay Measurement tool (RDM that addresses these factors and proposes solutions that conform to requirements of the recently published RFC7312. Delay measurement results acquired using RDM in live networks confirm that advanced measurement methods can significantly improve the quality of measurement samples by isolating systematic network behavior. The resulting high-quality samples are one prerequisite for accurate statistics that support proper operation of subsequent algorithms and applications.

  16. Targeting Nucleophosmin 1 Represents a Rational Strategy for Radiation Sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhar, Konjeti R.; Benamar, Mouadh; Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Sasi, Soumya; Penthala, Narsimha R.; Crooks, Peter A.; Hann, Stephen R.; Geng, Ling; Balusu, Ramesh; Abbas, Tarek; Freeman, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that small molecule targeting of nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) represents a rational approach for radiosensitization. Methods and Materials: Wilde-type and NPM1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were used to determine whether radiosensitization produced by the small molecule YTR107 was NPM1 dependent. The stress response to ionizing radiation was assessed by quantifying pNPM1, γH2AX, and Rad51 foci, neutral comet tail moment, and colony formation. NPM1 levels in a human-derived non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue microarray (TMA) were determined by immunohistochemistry. YTR107-mediated radiosensitization was assessed in NSCLC cell lines and xenografts. Results: Use of NPM1-null MEFs demonstrated that NPM1 is critical for DNA double- strand break (DSB) repair, that loss of NPM1 increases radiation sensitivity, and that YTR107-mediated radiosensitization is NPM1 dependent. YTR107 was shown to inhibit NPM1 oligomerization and impair formation of pNPM1 irradiation-induced foci that colocalized with γH2AX foci. Analysis of the TMA demonstrated that NPM1 is overexpressed in subsets of NSCLC. YTR107 inhibited DNA DSB repair and radiosensitized NSCLC lines and xenografts. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that YTR107-mediated targeting of NPM1 impairs DNA DSB repair, an event that increases radiation sensitivity

  17. Medical Representatives' Intention to Use Information Technology in Pharmaceutical Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Eun-Seon; Chang, Hyejung

    2016-10-01

    Electronic detailing (e-detailing), the use of electronic devices to facilitate sales presentations to physicians, has been adopted and expanded in the pharmaceutical industry. To maximize the potential outcome of e-detailing, it is important to understand medical representatives (MRs)' behavior and attitude to e-detailing. This study investigates how information technology devices such as laptop computers and tablet PCs are utilized in pharmaceutical marketing, and it analyzes the factors influencing MRs' intention to use devices. This study has adopted and modified the theory of Roger's diffusion of innovation model and the technology acceptance model. To test the model empirically, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 221 MRs who were working in three multinational or eleven domestic pharmaceutical companies in Korea. Overall, 28% and 35% of MRs experienced using laptop computers and tablet PCs in pharmaceutical marketing, respectively. However, the rates were different across different groups of MRs, categorized by age, education level, position, and career. The results showed that MRs' intention to use information technology devices was significantly influenced by perceived usefulness in general. Perceived ease of use, organizational and individual innovativeness, and several MR characteristics were also found to have significant impacts. This study provides timely information about e-detailing devices to marketing managers and policy makers in the pharmaceutical industry for successful marketing strategy development by understanding the needs of MRs' intention to use information technology. Further in-depth study should be conducted to understand obstacles and limitations and to improve the strategies for better marketing tools.

  18. Representing knowledge, data and concepts for EHRS using DCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William

    2011-01-01

    With the move towards next generations of Electronic Health Record Systems (EHRS), the focus changes from administrative and data retrieval and data entry system capabilities towards clinical functions. The representation of the clinical knowledge and evidence base into EHRS becomes an important asset for health care, with its own challenges. Clinician's do want EHRS support but do not want to standardize care, they do want unified terminology and structured data entry but also free text. In addition, information modelers challenge each other for the best solution, and care pathways and other workflows seem to differ for each situation. Such diverging approaches add complexity to the already difficult situation around Information Technology in health care, the EHRS in particular. This paper argues that a change is necessary to adopt Detailed Clinical Modeling as a method to organize clinical knowledge, represent concepts and define data in such a manner that it allows for semantics to be exchanged without being trapped in a specific technology. DCM help to fulfill the requirements for the enter data once, reuse multiple times paradigm for EHRS.

  19. Focal colors across languages are representative members of color categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Joshua T; Griffiths, Thomas L; Regier, Terry

    2016-10-04

    Focal colors, or best examples of color terms, have traditionally been viewed as either the underlying source of cross-language color-naming universals or derived from category boundaries that vary widely across languages. Existing data partially support and partially challenge each of these views. Here, we advance a position that synthesizes aspects of these two traditionally opposed positions and accounts for existing data. We do so by linking this debate to more general principles. We show that best examples of named color categories across 112 languages are well-predicted from category extensions by a statistical model of how representative a sample is of a distribution, independently shown to account for patterns of human inference. This model accounts for both universal tendencies and variation in focal colors across languages. We conclude that categorization in the contested semantic domain of color may be governed by principles that apply more broadly in cognition and that these principles clarify the interplay of universal and language-specific forces in color naming.

  20. Representative concentration pathways and mitigation scenarios for nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.

    2012-06-01

    The challenges of mitigating nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are substantially different from those for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), because nitrogen (N) is essential for food production, and over 80% of anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the agricultural sector. Here I use a model of emission factors of N2O to demonstrate the magnitude of improvements in agriculture and industrial sectors and changes in dietary habits that would be necessary to match the four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) now being considered in the fifth assessment report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Stabilizing atmospheric N2O by 2050, consistent with the most aggressive of the RCP mitigation scenarios, would require about 50% reductions in emission factors in all sectors and about a 50% reduction in mean per capita meat consumption in the developed world. Technologies exist to achieve such improved efficiencies, but overcoming social, economic, and political impediments for their adoption and for changes in dietary habits will present large challenges.