WorldWideScience

Sample records for spoiled processed cheese

  1. How cheese is processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This column continues the theme of "How Is It Processed?" with a focus on cheese. A fun fact is that it takes 10 pounds of milk to make one pound of cheese. Production of cheese is described in this column, as well as the effects of processing on the final properties of this popular food....

  2. Structure, Meltability, and Firmness of Process Cheese Containing White Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Kalab, Miloslav; Modler, H. Wayne; Caric, Marijana; Milanovic, Spasenija

    1991-01-01

    White cheese made by coagulating heated milk (90"C) with a 2.5% citric acid solution to pH 5.5 consists of casein particles having a characteristic core-and-shell ultrastructure. The presence of this White cheese in process cheese can be detected by transmission electron microscopy on the basis of the core-and-shell ultrastructure which is stable during cheese processing. White cheese additions may be detected at levels equal to or higher than 8%. White cheese, which does not melt alone wh...

  3. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 133.169 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese is...

  4. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized process...

  5. The quality of processed cheeses and cheese analogues the same brand domestic and foreign production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Bezeková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Processed cheeses belong to Slovakia favorite dairy products. Processed cheeses are made from natural cheeses. In recent years the trend is to replace natural cheeses with other raw materials of non-dairy nature. The composition of the processed cheese analogues is not in many countries defined by legislation. The objective of this study was to determine and compare chemical properties (fat, dry matter, fat in dry matter, NaCl two samples of processed cheeses (C, D - Veselá krava and two samples cheese analogues (A, B - Kiri the same brand domestic and foreign production. The evaluated was taste of processed cheeses and cheese analogues, too. Chemical analysis and sensory analysis were repeated four times. The results of chemical analysis shows that all rated samples processed cheeses made on Slovakia fulfilled demands declared (dry matter and fat in dry matter as producers provided on the label. The most commonly fluctuate content of NaCl from 1 to 1.24 g.100g-1. The higher coefficient of variation in the determination of NaCl (3.88% was found in processed cheeses made in France. Processed cheese and cheese analogues made in France had not specified parameters for dry matter and fat in dry matter on the label. For production cheese analogues Kiri made in Slovakia was used different raw material than Kiri made in France. The taste of products was determined by descriptors - salty, slightly sweet, milky, buttery-creamy, fatty, sour, bitter, and unknown. The interesting that Kiri made in Slovakia had stronger milky and buttery-creamy taste than cheese analogue Kiri made in France. Significant differences were found in the slighty sweet taste of processed cheeses, the most points won processed cheese Veselá krava made in Slovakia.

  6. Protein substitution to produce a processed cheese with high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoida A.M. El-Shazly

    KEYWORDS. Processed cheese;. Branched chain amino acids;. Ras cheese;. Kariesh cheese;. Protein replacement;. Chemical and sensory analysis;. Liver;. Brain; ... Effect of 2.5%, 5% and 10% protein-replacement cheese formulas was evaluated among .... and Robbins [22] using HPLC equipment Wallac fluorometer.

  7. Characterization of a processed cheese spread produced from fresh cheese (quesito antioqueño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinson Eliecer Bejarano Toro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Processed products are made from mixes of fresh and ripened cheeses; the use of cheeses with a short shelf-life in the development of processed cheeses is an alternative for the dairy industry. A processed cheese spread was made using only a soft and fatty fresh cheese that had been stored for 25 days. The primary materials were the fresh cheese, water, and emulsifying salts (sodium citrate (E-331 and sodium phosphate (E-450, using a STEPHAN® Universal Machine (UMSK 24E with indirect vapor injection and equipped with rasping and cutting blades. The resulting cheese (A was compared with a commercial cheese (B for compositional, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. The cheeses were similar except for the fat in dry matter (FDM, with values of 54.50% and 47.21%, respectively. Sensorially, there were significant differences (P0.05. Cheese A provided, in mg per 100 g of product, 935.823 for phenylalanine, 1003.070 for isoleucine, 2041.420 for leucine, 475.337 for methionine, 119.300 for tryptophan, and 758.347 for valine. Producing processed cheeses with only fresh cheese is possible, resulting in a product that is similar to others that are currently on the market with typical characteristics that are accepted by consumers.

  8. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and Drug...

  9. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and Drug...

  10. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  11. Artisanal Sonoran cheese (Cocido cheese): an exploration of its production process, chemical composition and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-González, Paúl F; Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Reyes-Díaz, Ricardo; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and document the production process of artisanal Cocido cheese and to determine its chemical composition and microbiological quality, considering samples from six dairies and four retailers. Cocido cheese is a semi-hard (506-555 g kg -1 of moisture), medium fat (178.3-219.1 g kg -1 ), pasta filata-type cheese made from raw whole cow's milk. The production process is not standardized and therefore the chemical and microbiological components of the sampled cheeses varied. Indicator microorganisms significantly decreased (P cheese. Salmonella spp. were not found during the production process, and both Listeria monocytogenes and staphylococcal enterotoxin were absent in the final cheeses. This study provides more information on one of the most popular artisanal cheeses with high cultural value and economic impact in northwestern Mexico. In view of the foregoing, good manufacturing practices need to be implemented for the manufacture of Cocido cheese. Also, it is of utmost importance to make sure that the heat treatment applied for cooking the curd ensures a phosphatase-negative test, otherwise it would be necessary to pasteurize milk. Nevertheless, since Cocido cheese is a non-ripened, high-moisture product, it is a highly perishable product that could present a health risk if not properly handled. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Rezik Azab; Salama, Wafaa Mohammed; Farahat, Azza Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artificial, extruded, synthetic and/or filled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, flavorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). Matured Ras cheese (3 months old) was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fine paste and kept frozen until used. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and firmness of products. Feeding rats a balanced diet containing processed cheese

  13. The formation of polycyclic hydrocarbons during smoking process of cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Akpinar-Bayizit

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The smoking process determines the characteristic flavour, odour, colour and texture of several cheese varieties. Some smoke compounds are known to have bacteriostatic and antioxidant effects, and may act as preservatives. Smoked cheese is appreciated by consumers due to its sensorial properties. However, with smoking process there is a risk of formation of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. This review emphasises the occurrence of polycyclic hydrocarbons on smoked cheeses and their health impacts.

  14. Microflora of processed cheese and the factors affecting it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buňková, Leona; Buňka, František

    2017-07-24

    The basic raw materials for the production of processed cheese are natural cheese which is treated by heat with the addition of emulsifying salts. From a point of view of the melting temperatures used (and the pH-value of the product), the course of processed cheese production can be considered "pasteurisation of cheese." During the melting process, the majority of vegetative forms of microorganisms, including bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, are inactivated. The melting temperatures are not sufficient to kill the endospores, which survive the process but are often weakened. From a microbiological point of view, the biggest contamination problem of processed cheese is caused by gram-positive spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Geobacillus, and Clostridium. Other factors affecting the shelf-life and quality of processed cheese are mainly the microbiological quality of the raw materials used, strict hygienic conditions during the manufacturing process as well as the type of packaging materials and storage conditions. The quality of processed cheese is not only dependent on the ingredients used but also on other parameters such as the value of water activity of the processed cheese, its pH-value, the presence of salts and emulsifying salts and the amount of fat in the product.

  15. Development of volatile compounds in processed cheese during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Lund, Pia; Sørensen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work teas to study tire impact of storage conditions, such as light and temperature, on the development of volatile compounds to processed cheese. Cheese in glass containers was stored at 5, 20 or 37 degreesC in light or darkness for up to 1 yr. Dynamic headspace and gas...

  16. Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work points out the use of experimental design for peulh cheese making process optimisation. Peulh cheese, a milk coagulum, well-known in certain West African countries (e.g. Benin), is unfortunately ill-known in Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast). However, it could be a transformation way of milk. This work consisting in use ...

  17. Characterization of energy use and performance of global cheese processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tengfang; Flapper, Joris; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2009-01-01

    The global cheese-making industry processes approximately one quarter of total raw milk production to create a variety of consumer cheeses, and cheese processing can be very energy-intensive. Characterizing energy usage in existing cheese markets and plants can provide baseline information to allow comparisons of energy performance of individual plants and systems. In this paper, we analyzed energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on cheese-making across various countries and regions. The study has found that the magnitudes of average final energy intensity exhibited significant variations, ranging from 4.9 to 8.9 MJ per kg cheese across a few countries. In addition, the final energy intensity of individual plants exhibited even more significant variations, ranging from 1.8 to 68.2 MJ per kg of cheese from the countries in this study. These significant differences have indicated large potential energy savings' opportunities in the sector. The paper also indicates that there are positive association between implementation of energy measures and the decreasing trends of specific energy consumption over time, and suggests that developing and promulgating an energy-benchmarking framework including a process step approach and efficiency measures should be recommended for evaluating energy performance and improving energy efficiency in cheese-making industry.

  18. Application of low intensity ultrasonics to cheese manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J A; Gonzalez, R; Mulet, A

    2002-05-01

    Ultrasound has been used to non-destructively assess the quality of many foods such as meat, fish, vegetables and dairy products. This paper addresses the applications of low intensity ultrasonics in the cheese manufacturing processes and highlights the areas where ultrasonics could be successfully implemented in the future. The decrease of ultrasonic attenuation during the renneting process can be used to determine the optimum cut time for cheese making. The ultrasonic velocity increases during maturation for those types of cheese that become harder during this manufacturing stage, thus being an indicator of the maturity degree. Moreover, ultrasonic measurements could be linked to sensory parameters. From the ultrasonic velocity measurements at two different temperatures, it is possible to assess cheese composition, thus allowing an improvement in the quality and uniformity of cheese commercialization. In addition, in pulse-echo mode it is possible to detect cracked pieces due to abnormal fermentations and also to assess the distance of the crack from the surface.

  19. Weathering processes under various moisture conditions in a lignite mine spoil from As Pontes (N.W. Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoane, S.; Leiros, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Processes contributing to acid release/consumption during weathering of a lignite mine spoil (2.3% w/w S as sulfides) from As Pontes (N.W. Spain) were studied under three moisture conditions (at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying or forced percolation), which were simulated in laboratory experiments. Oxidation of sulfides to sulfates was favoured under all three moisture conditions, releasing most acid in spoil kept at field capacity. Hydroxysulfates formed in spoil kept at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying conditions, thereby contributing to acid release. Acid consumption by dissolution of clay minerals, especially micas, was favoured under all three moisture conditions, but was particularly intense in spoil at field capacity. Dissolution of aluminium oxides was also favoured under all the moisture conditions studied. 27 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Process energy efficiency improvement in Wisconsin cheese plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehr, S.; Mitchell, J.; Reinemann, D.; Klein, S.; Reindl, D.

    1997-01-01

    Costs for the energy involved in cheese making has a major impact on profit. Although industrial cheese plants differ in size, production equipment, and the manner in which whey is processed, there are common elements in most plants. This paper evaluates several process integration opportunities at two representative cheese plants in Wisconsin. Pinch analysis is used to help assess the heat recovery potential for the major thermal processes in the plants. The potential of using packaged cheese as a thermal storage medium to allow electrical demand shifting in the cold storage warehouse is evaluated and shown to be feasible. Three major conservation measures are identified with a total cost savings of $130,000 to $160,000 annually

  1. Cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Lucey, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The initial step in the manufacture of most cheese varieties involves enzymatic hydrolysis of one of the milk proteins, κ-casein. The enzyme involved is called rennet. During the primary stage, κ-casein is cleaved by rennet at the Phe105–Met106 bond, resulting in a reduction in both the net...

  2. Statistical Analysis of Industrial processed Cheese puffs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studied and fit a Multivariate linear regression model to the relationship between the response variables; Weight and Bulk density on one hand, and the predictor variables; Temperature, Moisture content before extrusion and Moisture content after extrusion on the other hand, of Cheese puffs product, ...

  3. Acidification - neutralization processes in a lignite mine spoil amended with fly ash or limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoane, S.; Leiros, M.C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola

    2001-08-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the long-term effects of amending sulfide-rich lignite mine spoil with fly ash (originating from a coal-fired power station and largely comprised of aluminosilicates) and/or agricultural limestone. The experiment was carried out with soil moisture maintained at field capacity or alternate cycles of wetting and drying. Results obtained suggest that the principal acidification processes were oxidation of sulfide and formation of hydroxysulfate (FeOHSO{sub 4}), whereas the main neutralization processes were weathering of aluminosilicates in fly ash-treated samples. The highest dose of limestone rapidly raised the pH of the spoil, but this increase was not maintained throughout the one-year experiment. In contrast, fly ash-treated samples showed a more sustained increase in pH, attributable to the gradual weathering of aluminosilicates. The best results (i.e., good short- and long-term neutralization) were obtained in samples treated with both fly ash and limestone. The low liming capacity of the fly ash (47.85 cmol kg{sup -1}) means that it must be used in large quantities, an advantage in achieving the further aim of disposing of the fly ash. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. 40 CFR 405.60 - Applicability; description of the natural and processed cheese subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... natural and processed cheese subcategory. 405.60 Section 405.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Natural and Processed Cheese Subcategory § 405.60 Applicability; description of the natural and processed cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  5. Microstructure of cheese: Processing, technological and microbiological considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Cláudia I.; Gomes, Ana M. P.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Cheese is a classical dairy product, which is strongly judged by its appearance and texture; hence, a renewed interest in its microstructure has been on the rise, as sophisticated techniques of analysis become more and more informative and widely available. Processing parameters that affect microstructure play a dominant role upon the features exhibited by the final product as perceived by the consumer; rational relationships between microstructure (which includes biochem...

  6. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Wallisch, Stefanie; Engel, Marion; Welzl, Gerhard; Havranek, Jasmina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a

  7. Dynamics of Bacterial Communities during the Ripening Process of Different Croatian Cheese Types Derived from Raw Ewe's Milk Cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Wallisch, Stefanie; Engel, Marion; Welzl, Gerhard; Havranek, Jasmina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a

  8. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    Full Text Available Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB, mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all

  9. Changes in isoflavones concentrations in cheese during processing and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Křížová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine possible changes in isoflavones concentration in cheese made from either control or isoflavone-enriched milk during manufacturing and ripening. The experiment was carried out on four high-yielding lactating Holstein cows that were divided into two groups with similar mean milk yield. The control group of cows was fed a diet based on extruded rapeseed cake (C while the experimental group of animals was fed a diet based on extruded full-fat soya (S. The experiment was carried out in the form of a cross-over design and was divided into 2 periods of 14 days (a 10-d preliminary period and a 4-d experimental period. Cows were fed individually twice daily ad libitum the diet based on maize silage, lucerne hay and supplemental mixture. In each period 20 kg of morning milk was collected from each group for cheese processing. After pasteurisation (65 °C, 30 min. a total of 5 kg of milk from each sample in each period was weighed out to make cheese with a low-heated curd. Cheeses were salted in 20% solution of NaCl for 3.5 h and allowed to ripen for 90 days at 15 °C. During technological processing samples were taken to determine isoflavones content. Data concerning the nutrients intake, milk yield and concentration of isoflavones were analysed by means of multifactor analysis of variance using the GLM procedure of the Statgraphics 7.0 package. Average daily isoflavones intake in S (1284.7 mg/d was higher than in C (2.9 mg/d, P < 0.001. Milk yield expressed in 4% FCM did not differ significantly between groups (P > 0.05. Concentration of daidzein, genistein and glycitein in pasteurised full fat milk was similar in both groups. Milk from S group had higher concentration of equol (26.7 µg/L in comparison to C group (4.0 µg/L. After processing cheese in C contained 32.1 µg/kg daidzein and 5.6 µg/kg of equol while cheese in S contained 17.5 µg/kg of daidzein and 24.3 µg/kg of equol. During a 90-day ripening

  10. Evaluation of microbial hazards during creamy cream cheese processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Żukowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to identify the potential microbial hazards that may occur during the manufacturing process of creamy cream cheese, and to present the means of their elimination or minimization. The analysis demonstrated that among the most crucial stages that should be particularly monitored are: the quality of raw materials, the control of pasteurization and souring parameters as well as temperature of product packaging, ensuring proper storage conditions of the finished product and hygiene throughout the production. Of these, the most critical step in the entire process (critical control points - CCP is a heat treatment process which is pasteurization. On the basis of the analysis, it can be concluded that the monitoring of such a process and consistent adherence to Operational Pre-Condition Pro-grams at the thermisation and centrifuging and later packaging, can help guarantee a safe product and its long shelf life.

  11. Effect of vacuum-condensed or ultrafiltered milk on pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, M R; Mistry, V V

    2005-09-01

    Milk was concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF) or vacuum condensing (CM) and milks with 2 levels of protein: 4.5% (UF1 and CM1) and 6.0% (UF2 and CM2) for concentrates and a control with 3.2% protein were used for manufacturing 6 replicates of Cheddar cheese. For manufacturing pasteurized process cheese, a 1:1 blend of shredded 18- and 30-wk Cheddar cheese, butter oil, and disodium phosphate (3%) was heated and pasteurized at 74 degrees C for 2 min with direct steam injection. The moisture content of the resulting process cheeses was 39.4 (control), 39.3 (UF1), 39.4 (UF2), 39.4 (CM1), and 40.2% (CM2). Fat and protein contents were influenced by level and method of concentration of cheese milk. Fat content was the highest in control (35.0%) and the lowest in UF2 (31.6%), whereas protein content was the lowest in control (19.6%) and the highest in UF2 (22.46%). Ash content increased with increase in level of concentration of cheese milk with no effect of method of concentration. Meltability of process cheeses decreased with increase in level of concentration and was higher in control than in the cheeses made with concentrated milk. Hardness was highest in UF cheeses (8.45 and 9.90 kg for UF1 and UF2) followed by CM cheeses (6.27 and 9.13 kg, for CM1 and CM2) and controls (3.94 kg). Apparent viscosity of molten cheese at 80 degrees C was higher in the 6.0% protein treatments (1043 and 1208 cp, UF2 and CM2) than in 4.5% protein treatments (855 and 867 cp, UF1 and CM1) and in control (557 cp). Free oil in process cheeses was influenced by both level and method of concentration with control (14.3%) being the lowest and CM2 (18.9%) the highest. Overall flavor, body and texture, and acceptability were higher for process cheeses made with the concentrates compared with control. This study demonstrated that the application of concentrated milks (UF or CM) for Cheddar cheese making has an impact on pasteurized process cheese characteristics.

  12. THE STUDY OF FISH SUPPLEMENT AND BUTTERFAT SUBSTITUTE EFFECT ON EXPIRY DATE OF PROCESSED CHEESE PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIYA LOTYSH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sector of functional products has top-priority meaning – it is the most convenient and natural form of introduction and enrichment of the human organism with vitamins, mineral substances, microelements and other components. Attraction into the branch of raw materials of non-milk origin – fish supplements and substitutes of butterfat – served the basis of technology development of processed cheese products of combined content, which in accordance with acting terminology are called processed cheese products. The technology of processed cheese products allows easily regulating their content by introduction of corresponding supplement that facilitates obtainment of product with set properties and content. Inclusion of meat and fish as the raw materials in the processed cheese content results in enrichment of the product with macro- and microelements, unsaturated fatty acids, except for regulation of fatty acid content of cheese products is executed by substitution of butterfat by butterfat substitute.

  13. Development of technology for production of reduced fat processed cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Torres Silva e Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An increasing share of foods with reduced fat has been observed in the diet of the Brazilian population, a trend also seen in many other countries. In this context, our-aim was to study the manufacturing parameters and to develop a process to produce a spreadable processed cheese (requeijão cremoso with reduced fat content. In the first stage of this study, modifications were performed in the traditional manufacturing process of requeijão cremoso with regular fat content to produce a reduced fat product. During the second stage of this study, two reduced fat cheeses, with and withoutthe addition of whey protein concentrate (WPC were developed, both using JOHA S9 and JOHA PZ as emulsifying salts, resulting in four different formulations. The amounts of cream and water used in both products were calculated in order to obtain a final product with 10% fat and 33% total solids. The product which presented the best results was produced with curd obtained by direct acidification of skimmed milk heated at 68-70 ºC, using 1,3% emulsifying salt JOHA S9 in the melting process and 2% WPC 34% as a partial fat substitute, both calculated as a percentage of the amountof curd used as raw material. It was also important to add WPC 34% to the product at the first cooking step of the process (70 ºC, in order to obtain a final product withthe typical spreadable texture of the traditional requeijão cremoso.

  14. One approach in using multivariate statistical process control in analyzing cheese quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Djekic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to investigate possibility of using multivariate statistical process control in analysing cheese quality parameters. Two cheese types (white brined cheeses and soft cheese from ultra-filtered milk were selected and analysed for several quality parameters such as dry matter, milk fat, protein contents, pH, NaCl, fat in dry matter and moisture in non-fat solids. The obtained results showed significant variations for most of the quality characteristics which were examined among the two types of cheese. The only stable parameter in both types of cheese was moisture in non-fat solids. All of the other cheese quality characteristics were characterized above or below control limits for most of the samples. Such results indicated a high instability and variations within cheese production. Although the use of statistical process control is not mandatory in the dairy industry, it might provide benefits to organizations in improving quality control of dairy products.

  15. Foci of contamination of Listeria monocytogenes in different cheese processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, G; Magalhães, R; Carneiro, L; Santos, I; Silva, J; Ferreira, V; Hogg, T; Teixeira, P

    2013-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous bacterium widely distributed in the environment that can cause a severe disease in humans when contaminated foods are ingested. Cheese has been implicated in sporadic cases and in outbreaks of listeriosis worldwide. Environmental contamination, in several occasions by persistent strains, has been considered an important source of finished product contamination. The objectives of this research were to (i) evaluate the presence of L. monocytogenes within the factory environments and cheeses of three processing plants, artisanal producer of raw ewe's milk cheeses (APC), small-scale industrial cheese producer (SSI) and industrial cheese producer (ICP) each producing a distinct style of cheese, all with history of contamination by L. monocytogenes (ii) and identify possible sources of contamination using different typing methods (arsenic and cadmium susceptibility, geno-serotyping, PFGE). The presence of markers specific for 3 epidemic clones (ECI-ECIII) of L. monocytogenes was also investigated. Samples were collected from raw milk (n = 179), whey (n = 3), cheese brining solution (n = 7), cheese brine sludge (n = 505), finished product (n = 3016), and environment (n = 2560) during, at least, a four-year period. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in environmental, raw milk and cheese samples, respectively, at 15.4%, 1.1% and 13.6% in APC; at 8.9%, 2.9% and 3.4% in SSI; and at 0%, 21.1% and 0.2% in ICP. Typing of isolates revealed that raw ewe's milk and the dairy plant environment are important sources of contamination, and that some strains persisted for at least four years in the environment. Although cheeses produced in the three plants investigated were never associated with any case or outbreak of listeriosis, some L. monocytogenes belonging to specific PFGE types that caused disease (including putative epidemic clone strains isolated from final products) were found in this study. © 2013.

  16. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Staphylococcus aureus in natural and processed cheese in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Kyunga; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan

    2015-09-01

    This study quantitatively assessed the microbial risk of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese in Korea. The quantitative microbial risk assessment was carried out for natural and processed cheese from factory to consumption. Hazards for S. aureus in cheese were identified through the literature. For exposure assessment, the levels of S. aureus contamination in cheeses were evaluated, and the growth of S. aureus was predicted by predictive models at the surveyed temperatures, and at the time of cheese processing and distribution. For hazard characterization, a dose-response model for S. aureus was found, and the model was used to estimate the risk of illness. With these data, simulation models were prepared with @RISK (Palisade Corp., Ithaca, NY) to estimate the risk of illness per person per day in risk characterization. Staphylococcus aureus cell counts on cheese samples from factories and markets were below detection limits (0.30-0.45 log cfu/g), and pert distribution showed that the mean temperature at markets was 6.63°C. Exponential model [P=1 - exp(7.64×10(-8) × N), where N=dose] for dose-response was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Mean temperature of home storage was 4.02°C (log-logistic distribution). The results of risk characterization for S. aureus in natural and processed cheese showed that the mean values for the probability of illness per person per day were higher in processed cheese (mean: 2.24×10(-9); maximum: 7.97×10(-6)) than in natural cheese (mean: 7.84×10(-10); maximum: 2.32×10(-6)). These results indicate that the risk of S. aureus-related foodborne illness due to cheese consumption can be considered low under the present conditions in Korea. In addition, the developed stochastic risk assessment model in this study can be useful in establishing microbial criteria for S. aureus in cheese. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Sanitary and technologic evaluation of the rural processing of fresh goat cheese in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, L; Sierra, C

    1988-12-01

    A sanitary and technological diagnosis of the goat cheese rural process was carried out. The purpose was to obtain more information for the planning of a program aimed to the improvement of this small agroindustry. Samples of milk, curdle, dry abomasum, rennet, water and cheese of 10% of the small industries of two rural villages in two agricultural seasons, were taken. Moreover, dilutions of the utensils and goat udders were prepared. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis of mesophilic aerobic bacteria count, most probable number of total and fecal coliforms, and detection of Staphylococcus aureus coagulase (+), Salmonella typhi and Brucella melitensis. Proximate chemical analysis and determinations of sodium chloride and titratible acidity in milk, cheese, dry abomasum and rennet, were carried out. Goat milk was also subjected to analysis of density. It was found that significant sanitary failures are present during th whole goat cheese process, although the highest bacteria contamination occurred at the milking, curdling and filling stages. These are characterized by excessive handling and absolute lack of hygiene. The pathogen B. melitensis was absent; therefore the causes of poisoning were attributed to the toxin produced by S. aureus and to the significant count of fecal coliforms found in the goat cheese. Even though the goats are fed under a poor feeding system, the milk presented a normal physical and chemical composition. Nevertheless, protein and fat matter losses occur during cheese preparation, as a result of handling practices and lack of process control.

  18. High-fat spreadable processed cheese for people with high blood cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zeid, N A

    1993-05-01

    Part of the raw cheese base used for manufacturing high-fat processed cheese spread was replaced by cows' (C) or buffalo (B) butter residue at levels of up to 20%. These residues were produced during the conversion of butter to butter oil by traditional moderate (T) or severe (M) heat treatments. The hypocholesterolaemic properties of butter residues incorporated into processed cheese were tested with rats (serum and liver cholesterol) and human beings (serum cholesterol). When rats were given the control cheese with no butter residue there were significant increases in both serum and liver cholesterol compared with rats given stock diet. However, when part of the raw cheese base was replaced by butter residue these rises were reduced by amounts proportional to the level of butter residue. The hypocholesterolaemic properties of the residues were in order CT > BT, CM > BM, and incorporations of 10% CT, 15% BT, 15% CM and 20% BM were found to nullify the hypercholesterolaemic effects of control cheese and restore cholesterol levels to their normal values. A small human trial gave similar results. Incorporation of butter residue slightly affected the chemical composition of the cheeses. Fat content and pH were little different; however, cheeses with butter residue tended to have higher total protein but lower soluble protein, tyrosine and tryptophan, and total volatile fatty acids. Rheological properties were not altered significantly. Incorporation of butter residue improved the organoleptic properties, particularly flavour intensity. Storage at 5 degrees C for 2 months did not alter the organoleptic properties and changes in chemical composition followed the normal pattern.

  19. Processes that contribute to radiocesium decontamination of feta cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, C.P.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pakou, A.A.; Mantzios, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    In a series of experiments, the transfer of radiocesium from ovine milk to feta cheese was investigated through modifications of the standard cheese making procedure. All variations explored showed no significant change in the percentage of radiocesium transfer and the milk-to-cheese transfer coefficient was determined as f=.79 plus/minus .04 L.kg-1. It is concluded that cesium, like the rest of the alkali metals, remains in the water phase and thus follows very closely the distribution of moisture into the products of cheese making. The possibility of radiocesium decontamination of mature feta during the customary storage of the product in brine was also explored in a second series of experiments. The theoretical model employed in the analysis of cesium transport from feta to brine is presented in the Appendix to this paper. Predictions of the model were validated by experiments. A procedure is thus proposed for decontaminating mature feta during storage through successive replacements of the storage medium. Nomograms are presented for the determination of the optimum time interval between changes of the brine and the radiocesium concentration remaining in the feta. Changes in the properties of the product induced by the proposed treatment were also investigated with respect to composition, taste, and overall quality

  20. Development of Yeast Populations during Processing and Ripening of Blue Veined Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Knox

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of blue veined cheese were analyzed regularly during different stages of manufacturing and ripening to determine the origin of contaminating the yeasts present in them, their population diversity and development until the end of the storage. Yeast diversity and development in the inner and outer core of the cheeses during ripening were also compared. Air samples revealed few if any yeasts whereas the samples in contact with the equipment and the surroundings revealed high number of yeasts, implicating it as the possible main source of post-pasteurization contamination, as very few yeasts were isolated from the milk and cheese making process itself. Samples from the inner and outer core of the maturing cheeses had typical survival curves. The number of yeasts on the outer core was about a 100-fold more than of those in the inner core. The most abundant yeasts isolated from the environment and ripening cheeses were identified as Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Trichosporon beigelii, Candida versatilis and Cryptococcus albidus, while the yeasts Candida zeylanoides and Dekkera anomala were additionally isolated from the environment. Yeasts were present in high number, making their occurrence in blue-veined cheeses meaningful.

  1. Innovative application of the moisture analyzer for determination of dry mass content of processed cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Janas, Sławomir; Woźniak, Magdalena

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was the presentation of an alternative method of determination of the total dry mass content in processed cheese. The authors claim that the presented method can be used in industry's quality control laboratories for routine testing and for quick in-process control. For the test purposes both reference method of determination of dry mass in processed cheese and moisture analyzer method were used. The tests were carried out for three different kinds of processed cheese. In accordance with the reference method, the sample was placed on a layer of silica sand and dried at the temperature of 102 °C for about 4 h. The moisture analyzer test required method validation, with regard to drying temperature range and mass of the analyzed sample. Optimum drying temperature of 110 °C was determined experimentally. For Hochland cream processed cheese sample, the total dry mass content, obtained using the reference method, was 38.92%, whereas using the moisture analyzer method, it was 38.74%. An average analysis time in case of the moisture analyzer method was 9 min. For the sample of processed cheese with tomatoes, the reference method result was 40.37%, and the alternative method result was 40.67%. For the sample of cream processed cheese with garlic the reference method gave value of 36.88%, and the alternative method, of 37.02%. An average time of those determinations was 16 min. Obtained results confirmed that use of moisture analyzer is effective. Compliant values of dry mass content were obtained for both of the used methods. According to the authors, the fact that the measurement took incomparably less time for moisture analyzer method, is a key criterion of in-process control and final quality control method selection.

  2. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Spoils of Truce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Review of Spoils of Truce. Corruption and stat building in Postwar Lebanon Reinoud Leenders Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-8014-5100-3......Review of Spoils of Truce. Corruption and stat building in Postwar Lebanon Reinoud Leenders Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-8014-5100-3...

  4. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., vegetables, or meats. 133.174 Section 133.174 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and...

  5. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., vegetables, or meats. 133.180 Section 133.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is a food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is...

  6. 21 CFR 133.170 - Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.170 Section 133.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Unless a definition and standard of identity specifically applicable is established by another section of this part, a pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats...

  7. Exploring the microbiota of the red-brown defect in smear-ripened cheese by 454-pyrosequencing and its prevention using different cleaning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Carafa, Ilaria; Tuohy, Kieran; Cervantes, Gonzalo; Vernetti, Luca; Barmaz, Andrea; Larcher, Roberto; Franciosi, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Red-brown pigmentation can occasionally form in smeared-ripened cheese such as Fontina during the ripening process. This reaction is due to over-development of the typical microbiota present on the rind. Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between red-brown pigmentation and the traditional utilization of wooden shelves during cheese ripening. The first part of the paper focuses on the characterisation of yeast and bacterial microbiota: plate counts and 454-pyrosequencing were performed in spoiled (n = 6) and non-spoiled cheeses (n = 6) and on the wooden shelves used during ripening. The second part shows different systems tested for cleaning the wooden shelves and avoiding the development of the red-brown defect in cheese: washing with hot water and ozone treatment. Actinobacteria, dominated on the wooden shelves, suggesting to be responsible for the red-brown pigmentation; they were also found in traces in the defected cheese samples. Galactomyces and Debaryomyces were the main species characterizing the yeast population, with Debaryomyces being the most dominant species on the shelves used during ripening of the red-brown defective cheese. Hot water treatment reduced the microbial contamination of shelves, whereas only the ozone treatment ensured complete elimination of both yeast and bacteria, resulting in the cheese rind not having the red-brown defect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield (CY) is the most important technological trait of milk, because cheese-making uses a very high proportion of the milk produced worldwide. Few studies have been carried out at the level of individual milk-producing animals due to a scarcity of appropriate procedures for model-cheese production, the complexity of cheese-making, and the frequent use of the fat and protein (or casein) contents of milk as a proxy for cheese yield. Here, we report a high-throughput cheese manufacturing process that mimics all phases of cheese-making, uses 1.5-L samples of milk from individual animals, and allows the simultaneous processing of 15 samples per run. Milk samples were heated (35°C for 40 min), inoculated with starter culture (90 min), mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk), and recorded for gelation time. Curds were cut twice (10 and 15 min after gelation), separated from the whey, drained (for 30 min), pressed (3 times, 20 min each, with the wheel turned each time), salted in brine (for 60 min), weighed, and sampled. Whey was collected, weighed, and sampled. Milk, curd, and whey samples were analyzed for pH, total solids, fat content, and protein content, and energy content was estimated. Three measures of percentage cheese yield (%CY) were calculated: %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER), representing the ratios between the weight of fresh curd, the total solids of the curd, and the water content of the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. In addition, 3 measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d) were defined, considering the daily milk yield. Three measures of nutrient recovery (REC) were computed: REC(FAT), REC(PROTEIN), and REC(SOLIDS), which represented the ratio between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Energy recovery, REC(ENERGY), represented the energy content of the cheese compared with that in the milk. This

  9. Assessing environmental impacts using a comparative LCA of industrial and artisanal production processes: "Minas Cheese" case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Muller Nigri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology to evaluate and compare the environmental impacts caused by both the artisanal and the industrial manufacturing processes of "Minas cheese". This is a traditional cheese produced in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil, and it is considered a "cultural patrimony" in the country. The high participation of artisanal producers in the market justifies this research, and this analysis can help the identification of opportunities to improve the environmental performance of several stages of the production system. The environmental impacts caused were also assessed and compared. The functional unit adopted was 1 kilogram (Kg of cheese. The system boundaries considered were the production process, conservation of product (before sale, and transport to consumer market. The milk production process was considered similar in both cases, and therefore it was not included in the assessment. The data were collected through interviews with the producers, observation, and a literature review; they were ordered and processed using the SimaPro 7 LCA software. According to the impact categories analyzed, the artisanal production exerted lower environmental impacts. This can be justified mainly because the industrial process includes the pasteurization stage, which uses dry wood as an energy source and refrigeration.

  10. The Effect of Sterilization on Size and Shape of Fat Globules in Model Processed Cheese Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tremlová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Model cheese samples from 4 independent productions were heat sterilized (117 °C, 20 minutes after the melting process and packing with an aim to prolong their durability. The objective of the study was to assess changes in the size and shape of fat globules due to heat sterilization by using image analysis methods. The study included a selection of suitable methods of preparation mounts, taking microphotographs and making overlays for automatic processing of photographs by image analyser, ascertaining parameters to determine the size and shape of fat globules and statistical analysis of results obtained. The results of the experiment suggest that changes in shape of fat globules due to heat sterilization are not unequivocal. We found that the size of fat globules was significantly increased (p < 0.01 due to heat sterilization (117 °C, 20 min, and the shares of small fat globules (up to 500 μm2, or 100 μm2 in the samples of heat sterilized processed cheese were decreased. The results imply that the image analysis method is very useful when assessing the effect of technological process on the quality of processed cheese quality.

  11. Time-Delay Artificial Neural Network Computing Models for Predicting Shelf Life of Processed Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Goyal; Gyanendra Kumar Goyal

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the capability of Time–delay artificial neural network models for predicting shelf life of processed cheese. Datasets were divided into two subsets (30 for training and 6 for validation). Models with single and multi layers were developed and compared with each other. Mean Square Error, Root Mean Square Error, Coefficient of Determination and Nash -
    Sutcliffo Coefficient were used as performance evaluators, Time- delay model predicted the shelf life of...

  12. Use of a metagenetic approach to monitor the bacterial microbiota of "Tomme d'Orchies" cheese during the ripening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceugniez, Alexandre; Taminiau, Bernard; Coucheney, Françoise; Jacques, Philippe; Delcenserie, Véronique; Daube, Georges; Drider, Djamel

    2017-04-17

    The study of microbial ecosystems in artisanal foodstuffs is important to complete in order to unveil its diversity. The number of studies performed on dairy products has increased during the last decade, particularly those performed on milk and cheese derivative products. In this work, we investigated the bacterial content of "Tomme d'Orchies" cheese, an artisanal pressed and uncooked French cheese. To this end, a metagenetic analysis, using Illumina technology, was utilized on samples taken from the surface and core of the cheese at 0, 1, 3, 14 and 21days of ripening process. In addition to the classical microbiota found in cheese, various strains likely from environmental origin were identified. A large difference between the surface and the core content was observed within samples withdrawn during the ripening process. The main species encountered in the core of the cheese were Lactococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp., with an inversion of this ratio during the ripening process. Less than 2.5% of the whole population was composed of strains issued from environmental origin, as Lactobacillales, Corynebacterium and Brevibacterium. In the core, about 85% of the microbiota was attributed to the starters used for the cheese making. In turn, the microbiota of the surface contained less than 30% of these starters and interestingly displayed more diversity. The predominant genus was Corynebacterium sp., likely originating from the environment. The less abundant microbiota of the surface was composed of Bifidobacteria, Brevibacterium and Micrococcales. To summarize, the "Tomme d'Orchies" cheese displayed a high diversity of bacterial species, especially on the surface, and this diversity is assumed to arise from the production environment and subsequent ripening process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring the ripening process of Cheddar cheese based on hydrophilic component profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, H; Sakai, Y; Koishihara, H; Abe, F; Bamba, T; Fukusaki, E

    2013-01-01

    We proposed an application methodology that combines metabolic profiling with multiple appropriate multivariate analyses and verified it on the industrial scale of the ripening process of Cheddar cheese to make practical use of hydrophilic low-molecular-weight compound profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to design optimal conditions and quality monitoring of the cheese ripening process. Principal components analysis provided an overview of the effect of sodium chloride content and kind of lactic acid bacteria starter on the metabolic profile in the ripening process of Cheddar cheese and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis unveiled the difference in characteristic metabolites. When the sodium chloride contents were different (1.6 and 0.2%) but the same lactic acid bacteria starter was used, the 2 cheeses were classified by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis from their metabolic profiles, but were not given perfect discrimination. Not much difference existed in the metabolic profile between the 2 cheeses. Compounds including lactose, galactose, lactic acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, and phosphate were identified as contents that differed between the 2 cheeses. On the other hand, in the case of the same salt content of 1.6%, but different kinds of lactic acid bacteria starter, an excellent distinctive discrimination model was obtained, which showed that the difference of lactic acid bacteria starter caused an obvious difference in metabolic profiles. Compounds including lactic acid, lactose, urea, 4-aminobutyric acid, galactose, phosphate, proline, isoleucine, glycine, alanine, lysine, leucine, valine, and pyroglutamic acid were identified as contents that differed between the 2 cheeses. Then, a good sensory prediction model for "rich flavor," which was defined as "thick and rich, including umami taste and soy sauce-like flavor," was constructed based on the metabolic profile during ripening using partial least

  14. Evaluation of the parameters effects on the bio-ethanol production process from Ricotta Cheese Whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Curcio, Stefano; Calabrò, Vincenza

    2010-01-01

    The work consists of an experimental analysis to evaluate the effects of the variables temperature (T), pH, agitation rate (K) and initial lactose concentration (L) on the batch fermentation process of Ricotta Cheese Whey (RCW) into bio-ethanol by using the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. A central...... composite design, constituted by 26 runs, has been carried out, and the effects of the parameters have been evaluated. Eventually, once eliminated the negligible effects, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been applied to optimize the four parameters values in RCW fermentation process. After...

  15. The effect of individual phosphate emulsifying salts and their selected binary mixtures on hardness of processed cheese spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of this work was to observe the effects of emulsifying salts composed of trisodium citrate and sodium phosphates with different chain length (disodium phosphate (DSP, tetrasodium diphosphate (TSPP, pentasodium triphosphate (PSTP and sodium salts of polyphosphates with 5 different mean length (n ≈ 5, 9, 13, 20, 28 on hardness of processed cheese spreads. Hardness of processed cheese spreads with selected binary mixtures of the above mentioned salts were also studied. Measurements were performed after 2, 9 and 30 days of storage at 6 °C. Hardness of processed cheese increased with increase in chain length of individually used phosphates.  Majority of applied binary mixtures of emulsifying salts had not significant influence on hardness charges in processed cheese spreads. On the other hand, a combination of phosphates salts (DSP with TSPP was found, which had specific effect on hardness of processed cheese spreads. Textural properties of samples with trisodium citrate were similar compared to samples with DSP.

  16. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MICROBIOLOGIC PARAMETERS VALUE FROM RAW MILK USED IN TELEMEA CHEESE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA SULER

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available An important faze for food quality control is verification of microbiological parameters of food products. In this way is assuring the prevention of alimentation toxicological infections to consumer, avoiding the technological and economical losses as well as increasing the products conservation period. In this paper are presents the microbiological exam results from raw milk used in Telemea cheese technological process, for 5 stations studied. The determinations were made on 2 series with 57 samples each of them, prelevated in reception fase, in summer and winter season.

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS EXTRACTION OF LUPINE CHEESE WHEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Shishatskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the job is showed. These words of the academician A.G. Khramtsov that breakthrough technology in the dairy industry is the use of whey as a solvent for the extraction of target components of plant raw materials and obtaining valu-able milk-plant extract. The problem of optimization to determine the input factors for the effective management of process of extraction. Optimization of parameters of the process was carried out experimental-statistical methods in several stages. At the first stage built regression model that adequately describes the dependence of the selected output parameter from the studied factors. A full factorial experiment (PFA type 23, composed planning matrix, decorated in a table. The experiments were conducted in a double-repetition. The number of experiments in the centre of the plan selected taking into account a possible transition to the planning of the second order. The plan PFA type 23 gives the possibility to calculate 8 regression coefficients and construct the equation of the first order. The results of calculation of confidence errors presented in the table. Statistical processing of experimental data allowed determining the regression coefficients, check their significance, to assess the reproducibility of experiments and to establish the adequacy of the obtained regression equations of the second order on three criteria. The second stage was to optimize the parameters of extraction. Statement of a problem of optimization recorded analytically. To solve this problem we use the method of the Lagrange multipliers. According to calculated by the algorithm is composed of a system of equations containing partial derivatives of the objective function for all independent variables and undetermined Lagrange multiplier. Optimal recognized the results obtained on the 10-step optimization, providing the maximum output of extractive substances. The obtained optimal conditions of extraction. The third stage was

  18. Proteomic analysis of the adaptative response of Mucor spp. to cheese environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Sardin, Stéphanie; Jany, Jean-Luc; Artigaud, Sébastien; Pichereau, Vianney; Bernay, Benoît; Coton, Emmanuel; Madec, Stéphanie

    2017-02-10

    In the cheese industry context, Mucor species exhibit an ambivalent behavior as some species are essential "technological" organisms of some cheeses while others can be spoiling agents. Previously, we observed that cheese "technological" species exhibited higher optimal growth rates on cheese related matrices than on synthetic media. This growth pattern combined with morphological differences raise the question of their adaptation to cheese. In this study, using a comparative proteomic approach, we described the metabolic pathways of three Mucor strains considered as "technological" or "contaminant" in the cheese environment (M. lanceolatus UBOCC-A-109153, M. racemosus UBOCC-A-109155, M. circinelloides CBS 277-49) as well as a non-cheese related strain (M. endophyticus CBS 385-95). Overall, 15.8 to 19.0% of the proteomes showed a fold change ≥1.6 in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) versus Cheese Agar (CA), a cheese mimicking-medium. The 289 differentially expressed proteins identified by LC MS-MS analysis were mostly assigned to energy and amino-acid metabolisms in PDA whereas a higher diversity of biological processes was observed for cheese related strains in CA. Surprisingly, the vast majority (72.9%) of the over-accumulated proteins were different according to the considered medium and strain. These results strongly suggest that the observed better adaptative response of "technological" strains to cheese environment is mediated by species-specific proteins. The Mucor genus consists of a multitude of poorly known species. In the food context, few species are known for their positive role in the production of various food products, including cheese, while others are spoiling agents. The present study focused on the analysis of morphological and proteome differences of various Mucor spp. representative strains known as either positively (hereafter referred as "technological") or negatively (hereafter referred as "contaminant") associated with cheese or non-related to

  19. A new study of the kinetics of curd production in the process of cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Susana Vargas; Torres, Maykel González; Guerrero, Francisco Quintanilla; Talavera, Rogelio Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    We studied the role played by temperature and rennet concentration in the coagulation process for cheese manufacture and the evaluation of their kinetics. We concluded that temperature is the main factor that determines the kinetics. The rennet concentration was unimportant probably due to the fast action of the enzyme chymosin. The Dynamic light scattering technique allowed measuring the aggregate's size and their formation kinetics. The volume fraction of solids was determined from viscosity measurements, showing profiles that are in agreement with the size profiles. The results indicate that the formation of the aggregates for rennet cheese is strongly dependent on temperature and rennet concentration. The results revealed that at 35·5 °C the volume fraction of solids has the maximum slope, indicating that at this temperature the curd is formed rapidly. The optimal temperature throughout the process was established. Second-order kinetics were obtained for the process. We observed a quadratic dependence between the rennet volume and the volume fraction of solids (curd), thereby indicating that the kinetics of the curd production should be of order two.

  20. Physical and processing properties of milk, butter, and cheddar cheese from cows fed supplemental fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramis, C A; Wang, H; McBride, B W; Wright, T C; Hill, A R

    2003-08-01

    Physical, chemical, sensory and processing properties of milk produced by feeding a rumen-undegradable fish meal protein supplement to Holstein cows were investigated. The supplement contained (as fed basis) 25% soft-white wheat, 60% herring meal, and 15% feather meal. The total fat level in the milk decreased to 2.43%. For both pasteurized and ultra-high temperature processed drinking milk, no difference was found between fish meal (FM) milk and control milk in terms of color, flavor and flavor stability; in particular, no oxidized flavor was observed. Cheddar cheese made from FM milk ripened faster after 3 mo of ripening and developed a more desirable texture and stronger Cheddar flavor. The yield efficiencies for FM and control cheese, 94.4 (+/- 2.44 SE) and 96.4 (+/- 2.26 SE), respectively, were not different. Relative to controls, average fat globule size was smaller in FM milk and churning time of FM cream was longer. FM butter had softer texture and better cold spreadability, and butter oils from FM enriched milk had lower dropping points compared to control butter oil (average 32.89 versus 34.06 degrees C). These differences in physical properties of butter fat were greater than expected considering that iodine values were not different. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing high quality products from milk naturally supplemented with FM, but the results also show that dietary changes affect processing properties.

  1. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS General Provisions § 133.10 Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

  2. Microstructure and textural and viscoelastic properties of model processed cheese with different dry matter and fat in dry matter content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černíková, M.; Nebesářová, Jana; Salek, R. N.; Řiháčková, L.; Buňka, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 6 (2017), s. 4300-4307 ISSN 0022-0302 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : processed cheese * texture * rheology * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 2.474, year: 2016

  3. Quantity of selected probiotic cultures in semi-hard cheese with low-cooking curd during the maturation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovayová, Viera; Dudriková, E; Rimárová, K; Siegfried, L

    2015-08-01

    The work studies the survival of added selected probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus (S1), Lactobacillus casei (S2), and Lactobacillus plantarum96 (S3) in semi-hard cheese with low-cooking curd during the maturation process. Cheeses were made according to the standard procedure (Polyfood SI 050 device). Probiotic lactobacilli strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (S1), Lactobacillus casei (S2), and Lactobacillus plantarum96 (S3) used in this study were added into the milk before the renneting process. The manufactured cheeses were matured for 6 months at the temperature of 10 °C. Cheese samples were taken for pH and titratable acidity measurements, lactobacilli enumeration, and chemical analysis at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of maturation. At the end of the experiment (180 days) the cheese samples were analyzed also for the amount of lactic acid and protein contents. Initial numbers of lactobacilli inoculated into the milk (10(8) CFU mL(-1)) decreased during the first 2 weeks of maturation and reached from 2.15 10(7) CFU g(-1) in S1 cheese to 4.32 10(7) CFU g(-1) in S3 cheese. The number of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain bacteria at the beginning of the maturation period was 2.47.10(7) CFU g(-1) and declined until day 120 of maturation to the number of 0.45 10(6) CFU g(-1). In the last month of the experiment day 180 the viable cell numbers started to rise up to the final number of 0.41 10(7) CFU g(-1). The numbers of Lactobacillus plantarum96 varied around 10(8) CFU g(-1) during the whole period of the experiment. According to our results it was detected that in all experimental cheeses, the used probiotic lactobacilli reached the values above 10(6) CFU g(-1). Thus the legislated and therapeutic minimum limits set for the products containing probiotic bacteria for human diet were fulfilled.

  4. THE VISCOSITY OF PROCESSED CHEESE SAUCES DEPENDING ON ADDITION TYPE AND CONCENTRATION OF 1-MONOGLYCERIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahula Janiš

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study viscosity of processed cheese sauces with 1-monoglycerides (MAG addition. Six types of 1-monoglycerides (1-monocaprin, C10:0; 1-monolaurin, C12:0; 1-monomyristin, C14:0; 1-monopalmitin, C16:0; 1-monostearin, C18:0; 1-monoolein, C18:1 in concentration of 0.25 and 0.50% w/w were used. Control samples were prepared without MAG but with lecithin. The lowest values of viscosity were found in control samples. The viscosity increased with extending of chain fatty acid in the molecule of monoglycerides. The highest viscosity was found in samples with 1-monomyristin.doi:10.5219/183

  5. BIOHYDROGEN FROM CHEESE WHEY TREATMENT IN AN AnSBBR: ACHIEVING PROCESS STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. F. Lima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAn AnSBBR (anaerobic sequencing batch reactor containing biomass immobilized on an inert support with liquid phase recirculation, containing a 3.5 L working volume, treated 1.5 L of cheese whey wastewater in 3 and 4 h cycles at 30 ºC to produce biohydrogen. From startup the bioreactor presented process instability. To overcome this problem the following measures were taken, however without success: adaptation of the biomass with uncontaminated easily degradable substrates, pH control at very low levels, and a different form of inoculation (natural fermentation of the feed medium. The problem was solved by cooling the feed medium to 4 ºC to prevent acidification in the storage container, by eliminating nutrient supplementation to prevent possible formation of H2S by sulfate-reducing bacteria and by periodic washing of the support material to improve the food/microorganism ratio. Hence, stable hydrogen production could be achieved with minimal presence of methane (36% H2; 62% CO2; 2% CH4 and the AnSBBR fed with cheese whey (influent concentration of 4070 mgCOD.L-1 and 3240 mgCarbohydrate.L-1 and applied volumetric organic loading of 14.6 gCOD.L-1.d-1 presented improved productivity and yield indicators compared to pure lactose and other reactor configurations, reaching values of 420 NmLH2.L-1.d-1 and 0.60 molH2.molCarbohydrate-1 in the steady-state phase (conversions of carbohydrates and COD were 98% and 30%, respectively.

  6. Artisanal cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artisanal cheese, which is handmade in small batches, differs from mass-produced cheese because of the milk and procedures used. Artisanal cheese is made from the milk of pasture-fed cows, sheep, or goats instead of conventionally-fed cows, and is affected by plants eaten, stage of lactation, and s...

  7. Variability of bacterial biofilms of the "tina" wood vats used in the ragusano cheese-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licitra, G; Ogier, J C; Parayre, S; Pediliggieri, C; Carnemolla, T M; Falentin, H; Madec, M N; Carpino, S; Lortal, S

    2007-11-01

    Ragusano cheese is a "protected denomination of origin" cheese made in the Hyblean region of Sicily from raw milk using traditional wooden tools, without starter. To explore the Ragusano bacterial ecosystem, molecular fingerprinting was conducted at different times during the ripening and biofilms from the wooden vats called "tinas" were investigated. Raw milks collected at two farm sites, one on the mountain and one at sea level, were processed to produce Ragusano cheese. Raw milk, curd before and after cooking, curd at stretching time (cheese 0 time), and cheese samples (4 and 7 months) were analyzed by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE) and by classical enumeration microbiology. With the use of universal primers, PCR-TTGE revealed many differences between the raw milk profiles, but also notable common bands identified as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Enterococcus faecium. After the stretching, TTGE profiles revealed three to five dominant species only through the entire process of ripening. In the biofilms of the two tinas used, one to five species were detected, S. thermophilus being predominant in both. Biofilms from five other tinas were also analyzed by PCR-TTGE, PCR-denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis, specific PCR tests, and sequencing, confirming the predominance of lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus, L. lactis, and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis) and the presence of a few high-GC-content species, like coryneform bacteria. The spontaneous acidification of raw milks before and after contact with the five tinas was followed in two independent experiments. The lag period before acidification can be up to 5 h, depending on the raw milk and the specific tina, highlighting the complexity of this natural inoculation system.

  8. Distribution and stability of Aflatoxin M1 during processing and ripening of traditional white pickled cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Cibik, R; Yilmaz, E; Kalkanli, O

    2006-02-01

    The distribution of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) has been studied between curd, whey, cheese and pickle samples of Turkish white pickled cheese produced according to traditional techniques and its stability studied during the ripening period. Cheeses were produced in three cheese-making trials using raw milk that was artificially contaminated with AFM(1) at the levels of 50, 250 and 750 ng/l and allowed to ripen for three months. AFM(1) determinations were carried out at intervals by LC with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up. During the syneresis of the cheese a proportionately high concentration of AFM(1) remained in curd and for each trial the level was 3.6, 3.8 and 4.0 times higher than levels in milk. At the end of the ripening, the distribution of AFM(1) for cheese/whey + brine samples was 0.9, 1.0 and 1.3 for first, second and third spiking respectively indicating that nearly half of the AFM(1) remained in cheese. It has been found that only 2-4% of the initial spiking of AFM(1) transferred into the brine solution. During the ripening period AFM(1) levels remained constant suggesting that AFM(1) was quite stable during manufacturing and ripening.

  9. Too many betas do not spoil the broth: The role of beta brain oscillations in language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eWeiss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, brain oscillations have proven to be a gateway to the understanding of cognitive processes. It has been shown that different neurocognitive aspects of language processing are associated with brain oscillations at various frequencies. Frequencies in the beta range (13-30 Hz turned out to be particularly important with respect to cognitive and linguistic manipulations during language processing. Beta activity has been involved in higher-order linguistic functions such as the discrimination of word categories and the retrieval of action semantics as well as semantic memory, and syntactic binding processes, which support meaning construction during sentence processing. From a neurophysiological point of view, the important role of the beta frequencies for such a complex cognitive task as language processing seems reasonable. Experimental evidence suggests that frequencies in the beta range are ideal for maintaining and preserving the activity of neuronal assemblies over time. In particular, recent computational and experimental evidence suggest that beta frequencies are important for linking past and present input and the detection of novelty of stimuli, which are essential processes for language perception as well as production. In addition, the beta frequency’s role in the formation of cell assemblies underlying short-term memory seems indispensable for language analysis. Probably the most important point is the well-known relation of beta oscillations with motor processes. It can be speculated that beta activities reflect the close relationship between language comprehension and motor functions, which is one of the core claims of current theories on embodied cognition.In this article, the importance of beta oscillations for language processing is reviewed based both on findings in psychophysiological and neurophysiological literature.

  10. "Too Many betas do not Spoil the Broth": The Role of Beta Brain Oscillations in Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sabine; Mueller, Horst M

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, brain oscillations have proven to be a gateway to the understanding of cognitive processes. It has been shown that different neurocognitive aspects of language processing are associated with brain oscillations at various frequencies. Frequencies in the beta range (13-30 Hz) turned out to be particularly important with respect to cognitive and linguistic manipulations during language processing. Beta activity has been involved in higher-order linguistic functions such as the discrimination of word categories and the retrieval of action semantics as well as semantic memory, and syntactic binding processes, which support meaning construction during sentence processing. From a neurophysiological point of view, the important role of the beta frequencies for such a complex cognitive task as language processing seems reasonable. Experimental evidence suggests that frequencies in the beta range are ideal for maintaining and preserving the activity of neuronal assemblies over time. In particular, recent computational and experimental evidence suggest that beta frequencies are important for linking past and present input and the detection of novelty of stimuli, which are essential processes for language perception as well as production. In addition, the beta frequency's role in the formation of cell assemblies underlying short-term memory seems indispensable for language analysis. Probably the most important point is the well-known relation of beta oscillations with motor processes. It can be speculated that beta activities reflect the close relationship between language comprehension and motor functions, which is one of the core claims of current theories on embodied cognition. In this article, the importance of beta oscillations for language processing is reviewed based both on findings in psychophysiological and neurophysiological literature.

  11. Texture profile in processed cheese: influence of the use of milk protein concentrates and whey protein concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Borges Souza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The techno-functional properties of proteins related with the molecular characteristics are facilitated by partial unfolding of structures. From these interactions, the medium pH is presented as a major interferer in intensity and type of reaction that takes place. The intensity of denaturation and interaction of different proteins occur in different forms and intensity accordingly to the pH value of the medium in which they are located. This study aimed to verify the influence of interactions between whey protein concentrate/milk protein concentrate on the evolution of the texture profile of processed cheese at different pH values. We have analyzed samples of commercial whey protein concentrate (WPC and milk protein concentrate (MPC using 112.5g/kg processed cheese. The results were interpreted in terms of texture profile. It was also possible to optimize the different proportions of WPC and MPC, and pH value change the parameters of texture for creamy processed cheese and the pH was also an influencing factor in this optimization.

  12. Effect of inulin on physico-chemical, sensory, fatty acid profile and microstructure of processed cheese spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Apurba; Kanawjia, Suresh Kumar; Singh, Mukesh Pratap

    2017-07-01

    To develop a functional processed cheese spread (PCS) different levels of inulin (0, 4, 6 and 8%) addition into PCS was studied with its physico-chemical, sensory and fatty acid profile and micro-structural quality. As the level of inulin addition increased moisture, a w and titratable acidity, decreased. At the highest level of inulin addition (8%) sensory panelists reported a significant decrease in total sensory score. PCS with 6% insulin was found to have optimum from quantity. The addition of inulin in cheese spread decreased both total saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid and in unsaturated fatty acid, mono unsaturated fatty acid decreased; however, polyunsaturated fatty acids increased as compared to the control. Scanning Electron Micrograph of PCS containing insulin showed uniform distribution of insulin with diameter ranged 4-10 µm in the protein matrix.

  13. Life cycle assessment of cheese production process in a small-sized dairy industry in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson Carlos Maia; Maranduba, Henrique Leonardo; de Almeida Neto, José Adolfo; Rodrigues, Luciano Brito

    2017-02-01

    Current research identifies, analyzes, and suggests improvements for minimizing environmental impacts in the manufacture of cheese using the life cycle assessment. Data collection and development of the inventory were performed in a small-sized dairy industry in Brazil. A cradle-to-gate approach was conducted based on the primary data from cheese production and secondary data from databases. The ReCiPe method was used for the impact assessment, considering the categories climate change, ozone depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, water depletion, and fossil depletion. A sensitivity analysis was performed including evaluations of different fuels for generating thermal energy, strategies for cleaning of dairy plant and utensils, variations in the way of cheese production based on the fat content, and production percentage changes. The results showed that the skimmed milk and thermal energy productions, electricity usage, and water consumptions were the main elementary flows. The pallet residues showed the best to be used as fuel for thermal energy. Detergent combinations did not influence the impact categories. There was a direct relationship between fat content range (20 to 30%) and the contribution in six impact categories. Changes from 20% in cheese allocation factor influenced the impact assessment results. LCA allowed identifying the main elementary flow of cheese production, providing valuable information with the potential to verify opportunities for on-site improvements.

  14. Fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese after technological processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

  15. Fatty Acid Composition of Buffalo Milk Yellow Cheese after Technological Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

  16. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  17. Bacteriological studies on Limburger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Erian, A.F.M.

    1969-01-01

    A study has been made of the ripening process of Limburger cheese, including microbiological investigations of the surface flora and chemical analyses of the cheese during the different stages of ripening. The microbial flora was studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition to the

  18. Habit Formation in Natural Cheese Consumption An Approach Based on Dynamic Demand Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    WAKABAYASHI, Katsufumi

    2010-01-01

    In expectation of growing cheese consumption, natural cheese production is being increased to reduce surplus milk and create high added value in raw milk. Other studies found positive trends in cheese consumption. However, those studies neither clarified recent trends, nor distinguished natural cheese from processed cheese. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structure of natural cheese consumption, focusing on habit formation. We test structural changes in cheese demand using dynamic...

  19. Fed-batch bioreactor process with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on cheese whey

    OpenAIRE

    Rech, Rosane; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2006-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303 was transformed with two yeast integrative plasmids containing Kluyveromyces lactis LAC4 and LAC12 genes that codify beta-galactosidase and lactose permease respectively. The BLR030 recombinant strain was selected due to its growth and beta-galactosidase production capacity. Different culture media based on deproteinized cheese whey (DCW) were tested and the best composition (containing DCW, supplemented with yeast extract 1 %, and peptone 3 % (w/v)) was c...

  20. Using cheese whey for hydrogen and methane generation in a two-stage continuous process with alternative pH controlling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsaneas, Nikolaos; Antonopoulou, Georgia; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Kornaros, Michael; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2009-08-01

    This study focuses on the exploitation of cheese whey as a source for hydrogen and methane, in a two-stage continuous process. Mesophilic fermentative hydrogen production from undiluted cheese whey was investigated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. Alkalinity addition (NaHCO(3)) or an automatic pH controller were used, to maintain the pH culture at a constant value of 5.2. The hydrogen production rate was 2.9+/-0.2 L/Lreactor/d, while the yield of hydrogen produced was approximately 0.78+/-0.05 mol H(2)/mol glucose consumed, with alkalinity addition, while the respective values when using pH control were 1.9+/-0.1 L/Lreactor/d and 0.61+/-0.04 mol H(2)/mol glucose consumed. The corresponding yields of hydrogen produced were 2.9 L of H(2)/L cheese whey and 1.9 L of H(2)/L cheese whey, respectively. The effluent from the hydrogenogenic reactor was further digested to biogas in a continuous mesophilic anaerobic bioreactor. The anaerobic digester was operated at an HRT of 20 d and produced approximately 1L CH(4)/d, corresponding to a yield of 6.7 L CH(4)/L of influent. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) elimination reached 95.3% demonstrating that cheese whey could be efficiently used for hydrogen and methane production, in a two-stage process.

  1. Optimising the wagashie (A traditional cottage cheese) process and sensory quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Akua B.

    2016-07-01

    Wagashie is a traditional West African cottage cheese produced by the Fulani who are semi-nomadic. It is a good protein source and can replace fish or meat in the diet of low income families in Africa. However, it is a product with high moisture content (60%) which is favourable for the growth of microorganisms and thus has a short shelf life of 3 days; it also has a bland taste with limited patronage. This research was therefore carried out to re-engineer wagashie for a larger market with a focus on improving its sensory quality, safety and shelf life. A brief survey was carried out to confirm the wagashie production procedure and identify retailers and producers for collection of samples. The safety of market samples of fresh and fried wagashie samples were determined by assaying for various indicator and pathogenic microorganisms including aerobic mesophiles, Yeast and moulds, coliform bacterin, F coli, Staphylococcus aurcus Bacillus cercus, Salmonella spp, Enterococcus, Enterobacteriaceae. Studies were also carried out to replace the traditional coagulant of milk which involves the use of plant extract of Sodom apple (Calotropis procera) with commercial rennet used in industrial cheese production and ferment fresh milk used in the preparation. The traditional method of preparation was also standardised to improve its sensory quality. The process variables of wagashie, which are salt concentration, coagulant and fermentation time, were thus optimised using the Box Behnken design which is a response surface methodology and an affective testing was carried out to evaluate the consumer preference of the product with a nine-point hedonic scale. The sensory profile of the 'wagashie' samples were described by a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis by a trained 13 member panel. They evaluated the wagashie samples for desirable and undesirable attributes of wagashie. The rheology of 'wagashie which involves Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) with a texture

  2. Biofilm Formation and Disinfectant Susceptibility of Persistent and Nonpersistent Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Gorgonzola Cheese Processing Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Annalisa; Bertolotti, Luigi; Brito, Luisa; Civera, Tiziana

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the biofilm-forming ability and/or the disinfectant susceptibility accounted for the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in Gorgonzola cheese processing plants. For this purpose, a set of 16 L. monocytogenes isolates collected in the 2004-2007 period was analyzed, including 11 persistent isolates collected in different years, within the collection period, and displaying identical or highly correlated pulsotypes. The evaluation of biofilm-forming ability was assessed using crystal violet (CV) staining and the enumeration of viable cells on stainless steel coupons (SSC). Absorbance values obtained with CV staining for persistent and nonpersistent isolates were not significantly different (rm-ANOVA p > 0.05) and the cell counts from nonpersistent isolates showed to be higher compared with persistent isolates (rm-ANOVA p  0.05). A greater influence of organic matter on MS could explain why P3 was efficient in reducing to effective levels the majority of the isolates at the lowest concentration suggested by the manufacturer (0.2% [v/v]), while the same purpose required a higher concentration (1% [v/v]) of MS. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the persistence of these isolates in Gorgonzola cheese processing plants was linked neither to the biofilm-forming ability nor to their susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectants; therefore, other factors should contribute to the persistent colonization of the dairies.

  3. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engineer or other qualified professional specialist experienced in the construction of earth and rockfill... minesite. (11) Coal processing wastes shall not be disposed of in head-of-hollow or valley fills, and may... require a flatter slope. (c) Head-of-hollow fills. Disposal of spoil in the head-of-hollow fill shall meet...

  5. Phage Biodiversity in Artisanal Cheese Wheys Reflects the Complexity of the Fermentation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Jennifer; Moscarelli, Angelo; Kelleher, Philip; Lugli, Gabriele A; Ventura, Marco; Settanni, Luca; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2017-03-16

    Dairy fermentations constitute a perfect "breeding ground" for bacteriophages infecting starter cultures, particularly strains of Lactococcus lactis. In modern fermentations, these phages typically belong to one of three groups, i.e., the 936, P335, and c2 phage groups. Traditional production methods present fewer chemical and physical barriers to phage proliferation compared to modern production systems, while the starter cultures used are typically complex, variable, and undefined. In the current study, a variety of cheese whey, animal-derived rennet, and vat swab samples from artisanal cheeses produced in Sicily were analysed for the presence of lactococcal phages to assess phage diversity in such environments. The complete genomes of 18 representative phage isolates were sequenced, allowing the identification of 10 lactococcal 949 group phages, six P087 group phages, and two members of the 936 group phages. The genetic diversity of these isolates was examined using phylogenetic analysis as well as a focused analysis of the receptor binding proteins, which dictate specific interactions with the host-encoded receptor. Thermal treatments at 63 °C and 83 °C indicate that the 949 phages are particularly sensitive to thermal treatments, followed by the P087 and 936 isolates, which were shown to be much less sensitive to such treatments. This difference may explain the relatively low frequency of isolation of the so-called "rare" 949 and P087 group phages in modern fermentations.

  6. Phage Biodiversity in Artisanal Cheese Wheys Reflects the Complexity of the Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mahony

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dairy fermentations constitute a perfect “breeding ground” for bacteriophages infecting starter cultures, particularly strains of Lactococcus lactis. In modern fermentations, these phages typically belong to one of three groups, i.e., the 936, P335, and c2 phage groups. Traditional production methods present fewer chemical and physical barriers to phage proliferation compared to modern production systems, while the starter cultures used are typically complex, variable, and undefined. In the current study, a variety of cheese whey, animal-derived rennet, and vat swab samples from artisanal cheeses produced in Sicily were analysed for the presence of lactococcal phages to assess phage diversity in such environments. The complete genomes of 18 representative phage isolates were sequenced, allowing the identification of 10 lactococcal 949 group phages, six P087 group phages, and two members of the 936 group phages. The genetic diversity of these isolates was examined using phylogenetic analysis as well as a focused analysis of the receptor binding proteins, which dictate specific interactions with the host-encoded receptor. Thermal treatments at 63 °C and 83 °C indicate that the 949 phages are particularly sensitive to thermal treatments, followed by the P087 and 936 isolates, which were shown to be much less sensitive to such treatments. This difference may explain the relatively low frequency of isolation of the so-called “rare” 949 and P087 group phages in modern fermentations.

  7. Thermal properties of selected cheeses samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BOŽIKOVÁ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermophysical parameters of selected cheeses (processed cheese and half hard cheese are presented in the article. Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms. Cheese goes during processing through the thermal and mechanical manipulation, so thermal properties are one of the most important. Knowledge about thermal parameters of cheeses could be used in the process of quality evaluation. Based on the presented facts thermal properties of selected cheeses which are produced by Slovak producers were measured. Theoretical part of article contains description of cheese and description of plane source method which was used for thermal parameters detection. Thermophysical parameters as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volume specific heat were measured during the temperature stabilisation. The results are presented as relations of thermophysical parameters to the temperature in temperature range from 13.5°C to 24°C. Every point of graphic relation was obtained as arithmetic average from measured values for the same temperature. Obtained results were statistically processed. Presented graphical relations were chosen according to the results of statistical evaluation and also according to the coefficients of determination for every relation. The results of thermal parameters are in good agreement with values measured by other authors for similar types of cheeses.

  8. Fed-batch bioreactor process with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rech

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303 was transformed with two yeast integrative plasmids containing Kluyveromyces lactis LAC4 and LAC12 genes that codify beta-galactosidase and lactose permease respectively. The BLR030 recombinant strain was selected due to its growth and beta-galactosidase production capacity. Different culture media based on deproteinized cheese whey (DCW were tested and the best composition (containing DCW, supplemented with yeast extract 1 %, and peptone 3 % (w/v was chosen for bioreactor experiments. Batch, and fed-batch cultures with linear ascending feeding for 25 (FB25, 35 (FB35, and 50 (FB50 hours, were performed. FB35 and FB50 produced the highest beta-galactosidase specific activities (around 1,800 U/g cells, and also the best productivities (180 U/L.h. Results show the potential use of fed-batch cultures of recombinant S. cerevisiae on industrial applications using supplemented whey as substrate.

  9. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes and members of the Enterobacteriaceae group along the processing line of 'Wara' a Southwestern Nigeria soft cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, V O; Chen, J

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the survivability of Listeria monocytogenes and members of the Enterobacteriaceae group of organisms during the processing and storage of wara, a southwestern Nigerian un-ripened soft cheese. Pasteurized milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes at 10(1) or 10(2) CFU/ml was used to process the cheese. Samples were taken along the processing steps and throughout a five-day storage period at 15 and 28 degrees C for populations of L. monocytogenes and Enterobacteriaceae. On the fourth storage day, portions of the control cheese (not inoculated with L. monocytogenes) were fried in vegetable oil, mimicking the practice of southwestern Nigerian cheese processors. The results indicated that L. monocytogenes, at both inoculation levels, did not survive the processing of wara. In samples initially inoculated with 10(1) CFU/ml of L. monocytogenes, the Enterobacteriaceae counts increased from 3.35-3.48 Log10 CFU/g on the first day of storage to 7.63-8.46 Log10 CFU/g at 28 degrees C and 5.41-6.34 Log10 CFU/g at 15 degrees C after storage for 5 days. The populations of the Enterobacteriaceae group increased with the extension of storage time in the contaminated, as well as the control cheeses. Overall, the survival of Enterobacteriaceae responded to storage temperatures. Frying significantly reduced the populations of Enterobacteriaceae. The study suggests that wara can serve as a vehicle to transmit illness if its microbial quality is not appropriately managed.

  10. Effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) on the microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathogenic microorganisms such as Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli which contaminate, spoil and limit the shelf-life of cheese can be controlled by HPP. HPP can also cause changes in milk rennet coagulation properties, produce a more continuous or homogeneous protein matrix in cheese, improve cheese ...

  11. Improvements in the Flavour of Soy Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of biochemical and technological similarities and dissimilarities between soy cheese and Cheddar cheese is presented to provide guidelines for the improvements in the flavour of soy cheese. Processing technology as well as the final product of soy cheese have many similarities with Cheddar in terms of appearance, texture, mouth feel, chemical nature, biochemical processes, etc. Soy protein has many useful amino acids like Asp, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp, Tyr, Val, etc., which are precursors of flavouring compounds and the right choice of microbial cultures is necessary to benefit from them. Using low levels of sodium chloride, without the use of ethanol, and introducing new milk cheese starter and non-starter cultures like Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (formerly L. lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus lactis var. maltigenes and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris that enhance flavour will be helpful to improve the flavour of soy cheese.

  12. Evaluation of microbial survival post-incidence on fresh Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Irish, David A; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2012-12-01

    Commercial fresh Mozzarella cheese is made by direct acidification and is stored dry or in water without salt addition. The cheese has a shelf life of 6 wk, but usually develops an off-flavor and loses textural integrity by 4 wk, potentially due to the lack of salt and high moisture that allow the outgrowth of undesirable bacteria. To understand how microbial incidence affects cheese quality and how incident pathogen-related bacteria are limited by salt level during refrigerated storage, we made fresh Mozzarella cheese with high (2%) and low (0.5%) salt. The high-salt cheese was packaged and stored dry. The low-salt cheese was packaged and stored either dry or in 0.5% salt brine. One portion of cheeses was evaluated for surviving incident microbes by aerobic plate counts, coliform counts, and psychrophilic bacterial counts, of which coliforms and psychrophiles were not detected over 9 wk. Aerobic plate counts remained at 100 to 300 cfu/g up to 2 wk but increased by 1,000- to 10,000-fold between 4 and 6 wk at all salt levels and storage conditions. Other portions of cheeses were inoculated with either Escherichia coli or Enterococcus faecalis, both of which increased by 100-fold over 90 d of storage. Interestingly, E. coli added to the cheese brine first grew in the brine by 100-fold before attaching to the cheese, whereas Ent. faecalis attached to the cheese within 24h and grew only on the cheese. We conclude that incident bacteria, even from similar environments, may attach to cheese curd and survive differently in fresh Mozzarella cheese than in brine. Overall, 2% salt was insufficient to control bacterial growth, and slow-growing, cold- and salt-tolerant bacteria may survive and spoil fresh Mozzarella cheese. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 133.155 - Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese. 133.155... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.155 Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese. (a) Description. (1...

  14. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Noori; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese.

  15. Domestic cooked cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The research results of sensory properties, chemical and microbiological quality of domestic cooked cheese, which is produced around Bjelovar region, are presented in this paper.Domestic cooked cheese is Croatian autochthonous cheese produced in wider north-western region of Croatia (Bilogora, Lika, Banovina, Gorski Kotar and around Zagreb, and therefore should be registered as Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO and/or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI. Sensory properties, chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on 16 samples (7 non-smoked and 9 smoked cheeses. All cheese samples were produced according to tradition. Significant unevenness was determined in sensory, chemical and microbiological quality. Domestic cooked cheese can be classified as soft cheese according to dry matter content, and as semi-hard cheese according to water content in non fat cheese matter. According to fat content in dry matter, domestic cooked cheese can be classified as fat cheese. Standardization elements are proposed.

  16. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Idiazabal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrese, E; Arroyo-Izaga, M

    2012-01-01

    Raw-milk cheese has been identified in risk assessment as a food of greater concern to public health due to listeriosis. To determine the prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in semi-hard Idiazabal cheese manufactured by different producers in the Basque Country at consumer level. A total of 51 Idiazabal cheese samples were obtained from 10 separate retail establishments, chosen by stratified random sampling. Samples were tested using the official standard ISO procedure 11290-1 for detection and enumeration methods. All cheese samples tested negative for L. monocytogenes. However, 9.8% tested positive for Listeria spp., different from L. monocytogenes. Positive samples came from two brands, two were natural and three were smoked. The presence of Listeria spss. suggests that the cheese making process and the hygiene whether at milking or during cheese making could be insufficient.

  17. Phytoremediation of spoil coal dumps in Western Donbass (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Kharytonov, Mykola; Wiche, Oliver; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    At the moment, in Ukraine about 150 thousand hectares of fertile land are occupied by spoil dumps. Moreover, this figure increases every year. According to the technology used about 1500 m3 of adjacent stratum is dumped at the surface per every 1000 tons of coal mined. Apart from land amortization, waste dumps drastically change the natural landscape and pollute air, soil and water sources as the result of water and wind erosion, as well as self-ignition processes. A serious concern exists with respect to the Western Donbass coal mining region in Ukraine, where the coal extraction is made by the subsurface way and solid wastes are represented by both spoil dumps and wastes after coal processing. Sulphides, mostly pyrite (up to 4% of waste material), are widely distributed in the waste heaps freshly removed due to coal mining in Western Donbass.The oxidation of pyrite with the presence of oxygen and water is accompanied by a sharp drop in the pH from the surface layer to the spoil dumps(from 5.2-6.2 to 3.9-4.2 in soil substrates with chernozen and from 8.3-8.4 to 6.7-7.2 in soil substrates with red-brown clay, stabilizing in dump material in both cases at 2.9-3.2). Low pH generates the transformation of a number of toxic metals and other elementspresent in waste rock (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, U) into mobile forms. To stabilize and reduce metal mobility the most resistant plants that occur naturally in specified ecosystems can be used. On coal spoil dumpsin Western Donbas the dominant species are Bromopsis inermis, subdominant Artemisia austriaca; widespread are also Festucas pp., Lathyrus tuberosus, Inula sp., Calamagrostis epigeios, Lotus ucrainicus, and Vicias pp. Identification of plants tolerant to target metals is a key issue in phytotechnology for soil restoration. It is hypothesized that naturally occurring plants growing on coal spoil dumps can be candidates for phytostabilization, phytoextraction (phytoaccumulation) and phytomining

  18. bomasa for Cheese

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'The .~1uc{ywa~· conducted to investigate the activity and storage stability of crude pepsin extractfor use ~ rennet . substitute in cheese processing. The conditio,!s.tested were; regions of the abom~a, fresh versus dry abomasa; drying methods; maceration temPeratures (3re, 24~2ff>C Or 1 ~5"C).' 1,1U1Ceration pH 1-6 for 6 ...

  19. Determination of lead and cadmium contaminations in UF-Cheese and yoghurt produced in Esfahan and GolpayeganPegah Dairy Processing Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Jaberi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a complicated liquid that contains necessary components for the growth of mammalian neonate. Milk can get polluted by heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. In this study, the concentrations of lead and cadmium were measured in 12 yoghurt and 12 UF cheese samples produced in each of the Isfahan and Golpayegan-Pegah Dairy Processing Establishments. The samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry by furnace according to AOAC instruction. According to the results, lead concentrations (Mean ± SD in yoghurt and UF cheese samples produced in Isfahan and Golpayegan-Pegah were estimated at 54.96 ± 35.21, 61.65 ± 19.62, 105.38 ± 59.09, 141.94 ± 63.44 μg/Kg, respectively. In the case of cadmium, the concentrations were determined as 19.03 ± 1.23, 16.84 ± 8.08, 53.79 ± 19.29, 37.67 ± 22.58 μg/Kg, respectively. Results revealed a significant difference (P≥0.05 in lead and cadmium concentrations among the cheese samples of the two Dairy Processing Establishments. However, lead and cadmium concentrations in all samples were within the international approved limit (200 ppb.

  20. Load Bearing and Deformation Characteristics of Granular Spoils under Unconfined Compressive Loading for Coal Mine Backfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The load bearing capacity and deformation response of granular spoils under uniaxial compression are numerically and experimentally investigated, aiming to shed light on the performance of back filled waste spoils while controlling ground subsidence after coal extraction. In numerical study, the particles are assembled in PFC commercial code in light of the digitized real shape of spoils with image technique, which is proved to be consistent with the physical test. The results from numerical and laboratory experiments showed that the complete compressive process of spoils tended to have spatial and temporal characteristics. The load-strain curves of investigated specimens could be divided into three stages (stage I, rearranging stage; stage II, breaking stage; stage III, consolidating stage and three zones (I, rearranging zone; II, interlocking zone; III, consolidated zone from outside to inside. During stage I, the load increasing rate of smaller spoils is relatively low, but it increases faster than larger ones in stages II and III. In addition, spoils with Talbot’s gradation are greater than single gradations. The magnitude of the density in consolidated zone is maximum, indicating that it is the main part holding the overlying strata weight.

  1. 7 CFR 58.711 - Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... stirred curd cheese. 58.711 Section 58.711 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese. Cheese, used in the manufacture of pasteurized process cheese products should possess a pleasing and desirable taste and odor consistent with the age of the...

  2. Fungal diversity of "Tomme d'Orchies" cheese during the ripening process as revealed by a metagenomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceugniez, Alexandre; Taminiau, Bernard; Coucheney, Françoise; Jacques, Philippe; Delcenserie, Véronique; Daube, Georges; Drider, Djamel

    2017-10-03

    Tomme d'Orchies is an artisanal pressed and uncooked cheese produced and marketed in the north of France. This study aimed at showing the fungal microbiota evolution of this cheese using a metagenetic based Illumina technology targeting the ITS2 domain of 5.8S fungal rDNAs. To this end, samples were taken from the rind and the core of different cheeses, after 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21days of ripening. The data underpinned the prevalence of Yarrowia lipolytica and Galactomyces geotrichum for both microbiotas. Unusual species including Clavispora lusitaniae, Kazachstania unispora and Cladosporium cladosporioides were also detected, but their origins remain to be ascertained. The metagenomic revealed also the presence of Kluyveromyces and Debaryomyces species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, H.; Kruijswijk, Z.; Molenaar, D.; Kleerebezem, M.; van Hylckama Vlieg, J.E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing

  4. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, H.; Kruijswijk, Z.; Molenaar, D.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing

  5. Groundwater hydrogeochemical characteristics in rehabilitated coalmine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomo, M.; Masemola, E.

    2016-04-01

    The investigation aims to identify and describe hydrogeochemical processes controlling the evolution of groundwater chemistry in rehabilitated coalmine spoils and their overall influence on groundwater quality at a study area located in the Karoo basin of South Africa. A good understanding of the processes that controls the evolution of the mine water quality is vital for the planning, application and management of post-mining remedial actions. The study utilises scatter plots, statistical analysis, PHREEQC hydrogeochemical modelling, stoichiometric reaction ratios analysis, and the expanded Durov diagram as complimentary tools to interpret the groundwater chemistry data collected from monitoring boreholes from 1995 to 2014. Measured pH ranging between 6-8 and arithmetic mean of 7.32 shows that the groundwater system is characterised by circumneutral hydrogeochemical conditions period. Comparison of measured groundwater ion concentrations to theoretical reaction stoichiometry identifies Dolomite-Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) neutralisation as the main hydrogeochemical process controlling the evolution of the groundwater chemistry. Hydrogeochemical modelling shows that, the groundwater has temporal variations of calcite and dolomite saturation indices characterised by alternating cycles of over-saturation and under-saturation that is driven by the release of sulphate, calcium and magnesium ions from the carbonate-AMD neutralization process. Arithmetic mean concentrations of sulphate, calcium and magnesium are in the order of 762 mg/L, 141 mg/L and 108 mg/L. Calcium and magnesium ions contribute to very hard groundwater quality conditions. Classification based on total dissolved solids (TDS), shows the circumneutral water is of poor to unacceptable quality for drinking purposes. Despite its ability to prevent AMD formation and leaching of metals, the dolomite-AMD neutralisation process can still lead to problems of elevated TDS and hardness which mines should be aware of

  6. Discrimination of commercial cheeses from fatty acid profiles and phytosterol contents obtained by GC and PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Sook; Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyoung Moon; Kim, Ji Won; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Jinho

    2014-01-15

    In this study, a method for discriminating natural mozzarella cheese from cheese substitutes, using fatty acid profiles, phytosterol contents, and statistical comparison, was developed. A total of 27 cheeses were evaluated: eight natural mozzarella cheeses (NMCs), four imitation mozzarella cheeses (IMCs), 12 processed cheeses (PCs) and three mixed cheeses (MCs) composed of NMCs and IMCs. The fatty acid composition of the NMC class was distinct from those of the IMC and MC classes, but statistically similar (pIMCs, but similar (pIMCs, but discrimination between the NMCs and the PCs could not be achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Addition of whey protein to fresh cheese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Arce-Méndez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has been conducted in order to assess the effect of adding whey protein (WP to fresh cheese. The yield, proximal chemical composition, tryptophan content,and texture and consumer sensorial acceptance were obtained. The study was conducted at a cheese factory located in San Carlos, Costa Rica, in 2011. The protein obtained from whey was added during the cheese manufacturing process, before adding the microbial rennet; and four enrichment levels were evaluated, including one control. The supplemented cheese showed an acceptance rating between 6.8 and 7.1. Products with 75 and 120 g of added whey protein per kilogram of milk showed no significant differences versus non-supplemented cheese, while the preference towards the cheese with 150 g WP/kg was less than that of the control (p<0.05. A cluster analysis revealed the existence of two consumer groups: one, accounting for 65% of the members of the panel, whose preference was unaffected by the protein supplemented; and, the other group where the added protein affected their liking negatively. Adding whey protein to the cheese resulted in a significant increase in yield and in the protein-to-water ratio, as well as a reduction in fat content (p<0.05. Nevertheless, there were structural changes in the cheese that caused the reduction of certain texture properties, generating changes in their sensory properties that reduced the preference of a representative group of consumers towards the product.

  8. Cheese / Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Eero, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Fotoajakirjast "Cheese". Fotograafia uurimisest, fotoajaloo läbikirjutatusest Eestis. Samas "Cheese'i" toimetaja Tiit Lepp ajakirja erainitsiatiivil väljaandmisest, Eesti Kultuurkapitali ebapiisavast ja määramatust toetusest

  9. Origin of disinfection by-products in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes; Prados, Francisco; Fernández-Salguero, José

    2017-06-01

    The disinfection of water, equipment and surfaces in a cheese factory is one of the factors that can originate disinfection by-products (DBPs) in cheese. This research has focused on studying cheese factories in order to evaluate the individual contribution of each step of the cheese-making process that can contribute to the presence of DBPs in cheese. Ten factories were selected according to their salting processes (brine or dry salting). Each factory was monitored by the collection of six representative samples (factory water supply, brine solution, milk, whey, curd and cheese) in which the concentrations of up to eight chemicals were detected. The study shows that contact with brine solutions containing significant levels of DBPs is the main source of these chemicals in cheese. A minor factor is the pasteurised milk used in their manufacture.

  10. The science of cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book describes the science of cheese in everyday language. The first chapters cover milk, mammals, and principles of cheesemaking and aging, along with lactose intolerance and raw milk cheese. Succeeding chapters deal with a category of cheese along with a class of compounds associated with it...

  11. The biological costs of not reclaiming bentonite mine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1982-01-01

    Bentonite clay has been mined in the northern Great Plains for more than 80 years. Until the late 1960's, mine spoil materials were left in steep piles and no effort was made to restore biological productivity to these disturbed sites. As a result, unreclaimed spoils are barren and eroded. The biological costs of not reclaiming these spoils are examined in this...

  12. Listeria monocytogenes in Gorgonzola cheese: Study of the behaviour throughout the process and growth prediction during shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzini, Elena; Cosciani-Cunico, Elena; Monastero, Paola; Bernini, Valentina; Neviani, Erasmo; Bellio, Alberto; Decastelli, Lucia; Losio, Marina-Nadia; Daminelli, Paolo; Varisco, Giorgio

    2017-12-04

    As reported on RASFF's portal, in the first 9months of 2016, a total of 13 "alerts/information for attention" were issued concerning the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in mould cheeses throughout Europe. This study analyzes the behaviour of L. monocytogenes in Gorgonzola cheese, a typical Italian soft blue-veined cheese, when contaminated at different time points. In the first challenge test, the pasteurized milk was contaminated and the complete cheese manufacture (cheesemaking, ripening) and shelf life was simulated. After a decrease during the first days of the cheesemaking, the pH remained constant for 35days (5weeks) and then it increased rapidly reaching the final values of 6.8±0.02 in the core and 5.8±0.4 on the rind. At the same time, the pathogen concentration decreased (about 2logCFU/g), although during the last week a rapid pathogen growth was observed after the rise in pH values. When the cheese was stored at thermal abuse condition (8-12°C), the pathogen concentration on the rind was 4.8±0.3 log CFU/g and after 66days (about 9weeks) no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed; whereas, a growth from 5.4±0.4 to 7.1±0.5logCFU/g was observed in the core. A second challenge test was performed using three batches of commercial slices of Gorgonzola cheese inoculated by L. monocytogenes and stored at 8°C. The maximum specific growth rates (μ max , 1/h) of L. monocytogenes estimated ranged from 0.007 to 0.061. The square root model was used to predict the μ max at others temperature and to establish the time necessary to reach the European critical legal limit of 2logCFU/g, in different storage scenarios. The predictions obtained in this study can be applied to any time-temperature profile, and in particular to the conditions to which the product is most likely to be subject in normal use, up to its final consumption. This study can be considered a valuable contribution also aimed at supporting the monitoring surveys carried out by officers of

  13. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  14. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used for...

  15. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Race, Commitment to Deviance, and Spoiled Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony R.

    1976-01-01

    Data generated by 234 young black and white inmates in 1971 challenge the assumption that spoiled identity is a necessary, socially invariant outcome of deviant commitment and self-definition. For blacks, the relationship between criminal self-typing and stability and esteem is negative but inconsequential; for whites, the relationship is negative…

  17. A Spectral Emissivity Library of Spoil Substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivovarník, Marek; Pikl, Miroslav; Frouz, J.; Zemek, František; Kopačková, V.; Notesco, G.; Ben Dor, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2016) E-ISSN 2306-5729 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : post- mining sites * spectral emissivity * spectral library * spoil substrates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  18. Producing specific milks for speciality cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, G; Calamari, L; Maianti, M G

    2001-05-01

    Protected denomination of origin (PDO) cheeses have distinctive sensorial characteristics. They can be made only from raw milk possessing specific features, which is processed through the 'art' of the cheesemaker. In general, the distinctive sensorial traits of PDO cheese cannot be achieved under different environmental-production conditions for two main reasons: (1) some milk features are linked to specific animal production systems; (2) cheese ripening is affected by the interaction between milk (specific) and the traditional technology applied to the transformation process (non-specific). Also, the environment for a good ripening stage can be quite specific and not reproducible. With reference to milk, factors of typicality are species and/or breed, pedoclimatic conditions, animal management system and feeding. Other factors that influence cheese quality are milk treatments, milk processing and the ripening procedures. The technology applied to most cheeses currently known as PDO utilizes only raw milk, rennet and natural lactic acid bacteria, so that milk must be, at its origin, suitable for processing. The specific milk characteristics that ensure a high success rate for PDO cheeses are high protein content and good renneting properties, appropriate fat content with appropriate fatty acid composition and the presence of chemical flavours originating from local feeds. Moreover, an appropriate microflora is also of major importance. The factors that contribute to achieving milk suitable for transformation into PDO cheese are genetics, age, lactation stage, season and climate, general management and health conditions, milking and particularly feeding, which affect nutrient availability, endocrine response and health status, and also the presence of microbes and chemical substances which enrich or reduce the milk-cheese quality. Many of these factors are regulated by the Producer Associations. However, the secret of the success of PDO cheeses is the combination of

  19. Water mobility and thermal properties of smoked soft cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Maria Baranowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present study was to characterize the functional parameters of smoked soft cheese, with the emphasis on the behavior of water and milk fat, as analyzed by DSC, which was used to directly measure the melting/freezing phase transitions in the cheese. This study was complemented by NMR measurements of the organization and distribution of the aqueous phase within the emulsions constituting the cheese. The smoked and unsmoked cheeses were characterized by similar compositions in terms of protein (19.08-19.12 g∙100 g-1, fat (18.86-19.02 g∙100 g-1, and water content (59.86-60.27 g∙100 g-1. The water activity was higher in the unsmoked cheese (aw = 0.9736 than in the smoked cheese (aw = 0.9615. This result was confirmed by DSC (higher ice melting enthalpy and NMR (higher T1 value measurements. The smoking process led to differences in the distribution and binding of water to the lipid-protein matrix of the cheese. There was more non-freezed bound water in the smoked cheese which resulted in a more fragile and loosened structure in the smoked cheese than the unsmoked, which manifested in lower values of stretching and meltability. The meltability of the mozzarella smoked cheese was 1.5 times less than that of the unsmoked cheese (tube test and Schreiber test.

  20. Sensory Profile and Consumers’ Liking of Functional Ovine Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, Antonella; Albenzio, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    The present research was undertaken to evaluate the sensory profile and consumers’ liking of functional ovine cheese containing probiotic cultures. Ovine cheese was made from ewe’s milk by animals reared in extensive conditions; cheesemaking trials were performed by using rennet paste containing probiotic cells. Experimental cheeses were denoted: cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste without probiotic (C), cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste containing a mix of Bifidobacterium lactis and Bifidobacterium longum (BB), and cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste containing Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA). Ovine cheese containing probiotic strains highlighted a more intense proteolysis and a greater level of short chain free fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid due to the metabolic activity of the adjunct microflora. The sensorial profile of ovine cheese showed lower humidity and gumminess in cheeses containing probiotics as a consequence of differences in the maturing process; furthermore, probiotic cheeses scored higher ratings for salty and pungent attributes. An interaction effect of probiotic, gender, and age of the consumers was detected in the perceived and the expected liking. The higher rate of expected liking in all experimental cheeses is attributed to the information given, regarding not only the presence of probiotic strains but also the farming conditions and cheesemaking technology. PMID:28231229

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Moldy Cheese: Is It Unsafe to Eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating If a piece of cheese has mold growing on it, should I throw the cheese away? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. Soft cheeses, such as cottage cheese, cream cheese and ricotta ...

  3. Development of parmesan cheese production from local cow milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliwarga, Lienda; Christianti, Elisabeth Novi; Lazarus, Chrisella

    2017-05-01

    Parmesan cheese is one of the dairy products which is used in various foods, such as pasta, bakery product, and pizza. It has a hard texture due to aging process for at least two years. Long aging period inhibited the production of parmesan cheese while consumer demands were increasing gradually. This research was conducted to figure out the effect of starter culture and rennet dose to the production of parmesan cheese. This research consists of (1) pasteurization of 1,500 ml milk at 73°C; and (2) main cheese making process that comprised of fermentation process and the addition of rennet. In latter stage, milk was converted into curd. Variations were made for the dose of bacteria culture and rennet. Both variables correlated to the fermentation time and characteristics of the produced cheese. The analysis of the produced cheese during testing stage included measured protein and cheese yield, whey pH, water activity, and moisture content. Moreover, an organoleptic test was done in a qualitative manner. The results showed that the dose of bacteria culture has a significant effect to the fermentation time, protein yield, and cheese yield. Meanwhile, rennet dose significantly affected cheese yield, pH of whey, and water activity. The highest protein yield (93.1%) was obtained at 0.6 ml of culture and 0.5 ml of rennet while the maximum cheese yield (6.81%) was achieved at 0.4 ml of culture and 0.1 ml of rennet. The water activity of produced cheeses was lower compared to the water activity of common parmesan cheese (ca. 0.6). For the organoleptic test, 0.4 ml of bacterial culture and 0.5 ml of rennet produced the most preferred cheese flavor compared to other variations.

  4. Mexican chihuahua cheese: sensory profiles of young cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hekken, D L; Drake, M A; Corral, F J Molina; Prieto, V M Guerrero; Gardea, A A

    2006-10-01

    Sensory profiles of fresh semihard Chihuahua cheese produced in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua were developed to characterize the flavors and textures of this traditionally made Hispanic-style cheese. Multiple allotments of Chihuahua cheese, 9 brands made with raw milk (RM) and 5 brands made with pasteurized milk (PM), were obtained within 3 d of manufacture from 12 different cheese plants throughout Chihuahua, México. Cheeses were shipped overnight to Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, and flavor analyses were conducted within 14 to 18 d after manufacture. Four brands (2 RM and 2 PM cheeses) were then selected and multiple allotments were shipped at 3 distinct seasons over a 1-yr period for evaluation of flavor and texture. Microbial analysis was conducted prior to testing to ensure product safety. Descriptive analyses of cheese flavors and textures were conducted with panelists trained to use a universal or product-specific Spectrum intensity scale, respectively. Sensory profiles of cheeses varied among the different manufacturers. The most prominent flavor attributes were salty, sour, diacetyl, cooked, whey, bitter, and milk-fat. The RM cheeses had more intense sour, bitter, and prickle scores than the PM cheeses. Many cheese texture attributes were similar, but RM cheeses were perceived as softer than PM cheeses. As the demand for Hispanic-style cheeses increases, defining and understanding the sensory attributes of traditionally made Mexican cheeses provides guidance to cheese manufacturers as new ways are explored to improve the production and shelf life of the cheeses.

  5. Production of Cheese Kaçkavall from Cows Milk at Milk Industries in Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    , Shukri Maxhuni

    2016-01-01

    Milk processing in Kaçkavall cheese takes very important place in productivity of dairy, in the same time takes very important roll in domestic economy as well as nutritive for humankind. This study is done to research the technology for production of Kaçkaval cheese, (This types of cheese is classified to hard group of cheeses) with a little milk to produce 1kg cheese (Until now we need 10 liters of milk to produce 1 kg. of this kind of cheese), after research and analyses of physical-chemic...

  6. A 100-Year Review: Cheese production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M E

    2017-12-01

    In the beginning, cheese making in the United States was all art, but embracing science and technology was necessary to make progress in producing a higher quality cheese. Traditional cheese making could not keep up with the demand for cheese, and the development of the factory system was necessary. Cheese quality suffered because of poor-quality milk, but 3 major innovations changed that: refrigeration, commercial starters, and the use of pasteurized milk for cheese making. Although by all accounts cold storage improved cheese quality, it was the improvement of milk quality, pasteurization of milk, and the use of reliable cultures for fermentation that had the biggest effect. Together with use of purified commercial cultures, pasteurization enabled cheese production to be conducted on a fixed time schedule. Fundamental research on the genetics of starter bacteria greatly increased the reliability of fermentation, which in turn made automation feasible. Demand for functionality, machinability, application in baking, and more emphasis on nutritional aspects (low fat and low sodium) of cheese took us back to the fundamental principles of cheese making and resulted in renewed vigor for scientific investigations into the chemical, microbiological, and enzymatic changes that occur during cheese making and ripening. As milk production increased, cheese factories needed to become more efficient. Membrane concentration and separation of milk offered a solution and greatly enhanced plant capacity. Full implementation of membrane processing and use of its full potential have yet to be achieved. Implementation of new technologies, the science of cheese making, and the development of further advances will require highly trained personnel at both the academic and industrial levels. This will be a great challenge to address and overcome. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microstructure, physicochemistry, microbial populations and aroma compounds of ripened Cantal cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    De Freitas, Isabelle; Pinon, Nicolas; Lopez, Christelle; Thierry, Anne; Maubois, Jean-Louis; Lortal, Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    International audience; In spite of its high production (18000 T yearly), very few studies have been devoted to Cantal, a French AOC ("Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée") cheese variety whose making process is close to that of Cheddar. To improve the knowledge of this type of cheese, two ripened Cantal cheeses issued from raw milk and two different industrial processes were biochemically, physicochemically, structurally and microbiologically characterised through the analysis of both cheese sec...

  8. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing cottage...

  9. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese. 133.133 Section 133.133 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.133 Cream cheese. (a) Description. (1) Cream cheese is the soft, uncured cheese prepared by...

  10. ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL METHODS OF PROCESSING FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TWO LOCAL CHEESES IN ILORIN, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle Kudirat Saliu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigerian locally produced cheese from milk, commonly known as wara is highly nutritious and highly prone to attack by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Moist heat treatment and salting alone are the common methods used for processing. This study assessed the efficacy of these local processing methods in preserving the physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of wara. Samples were purchased from open markets in Ilorin; processed by boiling in water and with addition of salt; and stored at room temperature (28±2oC to mimic the local method. The samples were observed at 24 hrs interval for a period of 96 hrs, for changes in pH, color, odor and texture. Microbiological analysis was done following standard methods. The pH of most of the samples increased while the color, odor and texture deteriorated within 48 hrs of storage. The cheese samples were preserved most by boiling with salt. Many spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were isolated. The bacterial isolates were Lactobaccillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus feacalis, Aerobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella, Aerococcus, Micrococcus and Streptococcus spp.; while the fungi were Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Candida tropicalis, Rhizopus arrhizus, Penicillium and Mucor spp. Some of the microorganisms were eliminated during treatments, others survived while some contaminated the samples during storage. Though boiling of wara with salt was shown to improve its keeping quality compared to other methods studied, further treatments such as frying, drying, and roasting; as well as storage at low temperature may significantly increase the shelf life.

  11. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese samples analyzed, respectively, exceeded the microbiological standards accepted by Brazilian legislation. These results indicate the need for a better product monitoring and more concern with hygiene and sanitary practices during industrial process.

  12. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  13. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-03-11

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.

  14. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM and T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility

  15. Thermus and the Pink Discoloration Defect in Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Daniel J; Daly, David; O'Sullivan, Orla; Burdikova, Zuzana; Vana, Rostislav; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; McSweeney, Paul L H; Giblin, Linda; Sheehan, Jeremiah J; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    A DNA sequencing-based strategy was applied to study the microbiology of Continental-type cheeses with a pink discoloration defect. The basis for this phenomenon has remained elusive, despite decades of research. The bacterial composition of cheese containing the defect was compared to that of control cheese using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing as well as quantitative PCR (qPCR). Throughout, it was apparent that Thermus , a carotenoid-producing genus, was present at higher levels in defect-associated cheeses than in control cheeses. Prompted by this finding and data confirming the pink discoloration to be associated with the presence of a carotenoid, a culture-based approach was employed, and Thermus thermophilus was successfully cultured from defect-containing cheeses. The link between Thermus and the pinking phenomenon was then established through the cheese defect equivalent of Koch's postulates when the defect was recreated by the reintroduction of a T. thermophilus isolate to a test cheese during the manufacturing process. IMPORTANCE Pink discoloration in cheese is a defect affecting many cheeses throughout the world, leading to significant financial loss for the dairy industry. Despite decades of research, the cause of this defect has remained elusive. The advent of high-throughput, next-generation sequencing has revolutionized the field of food microbiology and, with respect to this study, provided a means of testing a possible microbial basis for this defect. In this study, a combined 16S rRNA, whole-genome sequencing, and quantitative PCR approach was taken. This resulted in the identification of Thermus , a carotenoid-producing thermophile, in defect-associated cheeses and the recreation of the problem in cheeses to which Thermus was added. This finding has the potential to lead to new strategies to eliminate this defect, and our method represents an approach that can be employed to investigate the role of microbes in other food defects

  16. Forest-biological erosion control on coal-mine spoil banks in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, M.J.; Gentcheva-Kostadinova, S.; Zheleva, E.

    1995-01-01

    The forest fallowing of coal-mine spoils helps re-establish the processes of natural, self-sustaining, soil formation. Environmental monitoring in Bulgaria demonstrates that forestation can moderate soil pH (from ph> 3.0 to pH 1.3 g/cm 3 in the 0-5 cm layer) in the case of coal briquette spoils at Pernik, near Sofia. Ground losses from forested, 16-17 degree slope, coal briquette-spoils at Pernik are a quarter of those from an entirely unvegetated section of the same embankment (48.5 vs 12. 1 mm in the period 1988-1994) despite the absence of ground cover beneath the trees. On lignite spoil banks, at Maritsa-Iztok, central Bulgaria, forestation increases the organic content of the soil to greater depths than revegetation with grass, and to a greater degree than conventional agricultural cultivation. On Pinus nigra forested crest sites at Pernik, and in Robinia pseudacacia forested groves on the lignite minespoil banks at Maritsa-Iztok, slopes showed ground advance rather than ground retreat. Slopes protected by mechanical means alone did not allow soil growth and, where the structure broke down, they suffered as much erosion as untreated sites. In sum, the forest fallowing of surface coal-mine disturbed land accelerates organic matter accumulation in the soil, helps improve soil structure, reduces erosion, and may transform soil loss into soil gain, even on steeply sloping sites. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Promising native forbs for seeding on mine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardell J. Bjugstad; Warren C. Whitman

    1989-01-01

    Twenty nine species of perennial forbs and 2 biennial forbs were directly seeded into coal mine spoil materials at Dickinson, North Dakota to determine which species would be most successful for direct seeding into coal mine spoil. Those which showed exceptionally good emergence and vigorous growth of seedlings in a two year study were: white prairie clover (...

  18. Feasibility of cheese production and whey valorization in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems associated with perishability and distribution of local milk and milk products by small-scale producers in the Adamawa province of Cameroon, justified development of an easy process for producing pressed-dough cheese and flavoured whey. Production from raw milk was technically profitable with mean cheese ...

  19. Improving quality of some types of cheese by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, E.M.E.A

    2010-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation as a food preservation technique has been recognized for many years as a means to reduce food losses, improve food safety, and extend shelf life. Furthermore, irradiation can be an effective way of reducing the incidence of food borne disease and treating a variety of potential problems in food supplies. The treatment of food with ionizing radiation is one of the most thoroughly researched techniques available to the food processing industry. In view of the afore mentioned the objective of this study were to study the effect of irradiation time and dose on Ras cheese quality, investigate the effect of irradiation after ripening on cheese quality and possibility of prolonging the shelf-life of Ras cheese, study the effect of irradiation dose on Kareish cheese quality and its shelf- life and to monitor the chemical, microbiological and sensory changes during ripening and storage of Ras and Kareish cheeses .The results of this study will be presented in three parts: Part I: Effect of irradiation dose and time on some properties of Ras cheese:Part II: Effect of irradiation on some properties during storage of ripened Ras cheese.Part III: Effect of irradiation on the quality and shelf-life of Kareish cheese: It could be concluded that irradiation caused a significant reduction of cheese ripening indices, and count of total viable,proteolytic, lipolytic bacteria and mould and yeast. Using irradiation doses of 3 and 4 kGy were able to stop the ripening factors and these safety dose were used to prevent the ripened Ras cheese irradiation of ripened Ras cheese has been prolonged the shelf-life of Ras cheese to about 32 months compared with control cheese, which showed only 18 months. The obtained results revealed that the best irradiation treatment was at the end of ripening period. Also safety irradiation of Kareish cheese has been prolonged the shelf-life of Kareish cheese to about 54 days compared with 12 days only control cheese.

  20. Effect of peracetic acid on biofilms formed by Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from a Brazilian cheese processing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hwa In Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the effect of peracetic acid (PAA, 0.5% on adherent cells of three strains of Listeria monocytogenes strains belonging to serotypes 4b and 1/2b that had been previously isolated from the environment of a Brazilian cheese plant. The assays were conducted using polystyrene microplates and stainless steel coupons and the adhered cells were treated with PAA for 60, 120 and 180 s. On stainless steel, biofilms were partially inactivated by PAA after 60 s and almost 100% of the cells were damaged within 180 s using epifluorescence microscopy with LIVE/DEAD® staining. On polystyrene microplates, PAA decreased (P<0.05 biofilm biomass produced by the three L. monocytogenes isolates at 60 s, when compared with controls (no PAA treatment. However, PAA did not completely eliminate L. monocytogenes cells on polystyrene microplates (decreasing 1.8-2.5 log cycles after treatment with PAA for 180 s. The correct concentration and contact time of PAA is critical for eliminating biofilms formed by L. monocytogenes on stainless steel surfaces, although further studies are needed for defining efficient PAA treatments to remove adherent cells of this pathogen on plastic polymers.

  1. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  2. Solid speciation and availability of nickel and chromium in Ni mining spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raous, Sophie; Garnier, Jérémie; Sterckeman, Thibaul; Echevarria, Guillaume; Becquer, Thierry; Thomas, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    Nickel mining of ultramafic laterites generates different types of wastes, topsoils and ores that are too poor in Ni to be currently processed. These are mixed and stored on heaps which could be a potential source of Ni and Cr pollution. Chemical reactivity of the main metal bearing phases present in the mining spoils of Goiás (Brasil) was investigated. Principally a silicated 'saprolite' material and a Fe-oxide rich limonitic material were isolated from the wastes. Their total Ni and Cr content are high, respectively for Ni and Cr : 7,170 and 54,970 mg kg-1 in limonite and 12,200 and 12,650 mg kg-1 in saprolite. The main metal-bearing minerals, identified and localized using XRD, TEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and Mossbaüer spectrometry are well-crystallized minerals: goethite (75%), hematite (13%) and chromite in limonite and ferruginous smectite, talc and chromite in saprolite. Single and sequential extractions showed that the amounts of 1M KCl exchangeable Ni and Cr reached respectively 7.1% and 0.03% of total contents in saprolite. Moreover, Cr(VI) extraction by KH2PO4 showed that more than 2% (980 mg kg-1) of total Cr was under this labile toxic form in limonite. This study allowed us to determine the main reactions controlling the Ni and Cr mobility in the spoils i.e. Ni2+ cationic exchange in saprolitic spoil and CrO32- surface complexation in limonitic spoil. This study allowed us to demonstrate the need of chemical rehabilitation of mining wastes in order to avoid the dispersion of the high contents of Ni and Cr available. It constitutes the system definition needed to predict the Cr and Ni mobility in ultramafic mining spoils.

  3. Improving surface stability of elevated spoil landforms using natural landform analogy and geological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Bevan; Burgess, Jon; Esterle, Joan; Erskine, Peter; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale open cut mining in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia has undergone an evolutionary process over the period of a few decades, transitioning from shallow mining depths, limited spoil elevation and pasture based rehabilitation to increased mining depths, escalating pre-stripping, elevated mesa-like landforms and native woody species rehabilitation. As a consequence of this development, the stabilisation of recent constructed landforms has to be assured through means other than the establishment of vegetative cover. Recent developments are the specific selection and partitioning of resilient fragmental spoil types for the construction of final landform surface. They can also be used as cladding resources for stabilizing steep erosive batters and this has been identified as a practical methodology that has the potential to significantly improve rehabilitation outcomes. Examples of improvements are an increase of the surface rock cover, roughness and infiltration and reducing inherent erodibility and runoff and velocity of surface flow. However, a thorough understanding of the properties and behavior of individual spoil materials disturbed during mining is required. Relevant information from published literature on the geological origins, lithology and weathering characteristics of individual strata within the Bowen Basin Coal Measures located in Queensland, Australia (and younger overlying weathered strata) has been studied, and related both to natural landforms and to the surface stability of major strata types when disturbed by mining. The resulting spoil classification developed from this study is based primarily on inherent geological characteristics and weathering behaviour of identifiable lithologic components, and as such describes the expected fragmental resilience likely within disturbed materials at Bowen Basin coal mines. The proposed classification system allows the allocation of spoil types to use categories which have application in pre

  4. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.106 Blue cheese. (a) Description. (1) Blue cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set...

  5. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuworld cheese. 133.164 Section 133.164 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.164 Nuworld cheese. (a) Description. (1) Nuworld cheese is the food prepared by the...

  6. 21 CFR 133.108 - Brick cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese. 133.108 Section 133.108 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.108 Brick cheese. (a) Description. (1) Brick cheese is the food prepared from dairy...

  7. 21 CFR 133.138 - Edam cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Edam cheese. 133.138 Section 133.138 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.138 Edam cheese. (a) Description. (1) Edam cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set...

  8. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colby cheese. 133.118 Section 133.118 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.118 Colby cheese. (a) Colby cheese is the food prepared from milk and other ingredients...

  9. 21 CFR 133.141 - Gorgonzola cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gorgonzola cheese. 133.141 Section 133.141 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.141 Gorgonzola cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gorgonzola cheese is the food prepared...

  10. 21 CFR 133.152 - Limburger cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limburger cheese. 133.152 Section 133.152 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.152 Limburger cheese. (a) Description. (1) Limburger cheese is the food prepared by one of...

  11. 21 CFR 133.183 - Romano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Romano cheese. 133.183 Section 133.183 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.183 Romano cheese. (a) Romano cheese is the food prepared from cow's milk or sheep's milk or...

  12. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity and...

  13. 21 CFR 133.113 - Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cheddar cheese. 133.113 Section 133.113 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.113 Cheddar cheese. (a) Description. (1) Cheddar cheese is the food prepared by the...

  14. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from nonfat...

  15. 21 CFR 133.162 - Neufchatel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neufchatel cheese. 133.162 Section 133.162 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.162 Neufchatel cheese. (a) Description. (1) Neufchatel cheese is the soft uncured...

  16. 21 CFR 133.149 - Gruyere cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gruyere cheese. 133.149 Section 133.149 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.149 Gruyere cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gruyere cheese is the food prepared by the...

  17. 21 CFR 133.153 - Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese. 133.153... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.153 Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese. (a) Description...

  18. Performance Evaluation Milk Cheese, Depending on Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Suler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of milk in Telemea cheese is a complex process based on proteins concentration with a variable percent of fat and mineral substances and elimination of lactose and water in important quantity. The transformation of milk in different assortments of cheese is an important argument for developing of this production (stability in storage, long time conservation, easy transportation and human diet diversification.The research was effectuated in 5 processing Telemea cheese unit, in 2 seasons, summer and winter. Were made 15 determinations for each unit and period and dates obtained were interpreted by statistical methods. paper abstract will be written with Times New Roman 10 pt., justify. It will contain maximum 200 words.

  19. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. An inappropriate biochar may negatively impact plant growth conditions resulting in poor plant establishment and growth. Matching the appropriate biochar for each mine site requires reconnaissance of spoil chemical and physical conditions and then identifying which properties need rectified to promote plant growth. A rectification hierarchy needs to be established with the primary limiting factor being addressed first, then successive limitations addressed simultaneously or thereafter. We posit that spoils at each site will have a unique chemical, physical, and biological signature that will affect plant growth. For example, some spoils may be extremely acidic, possess phytotoxic concentrations of heavy metals, or have physical conditions that limits water storage and root penetration. Quantifying these and other conditions beforehand allows for the production of designer biochar with specific characteristics tailored for specific plant growth deficiencies within each spoil. Additionally, we recommend the use of proximally located, undisturbed soils to establish spoil remediation targets. In our work, we have developed a decision-tree flow-chart that identifies salient chemical,

  20. Production of fresh Cheddar cheese curds with controlled postacidification and enhanced flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gelais, D; Lessard, J; Champagne, C P; Vuillemard, J-C

    2009-05-01

    Cheddar cheese in curd form is very popular in eastern Canada. It is retailed immediately after cheese manufacturing and can be maintained at room temperature for 24 h to provide better texture and mouthfeel. Subsequently, the cheese curds must be stored at 4 degrees C. The shelf life is generally 3 d. In this study, Cheddar cheese curds were produced by adding a high diacetyl flavor-producing strain (Lactococcus diacetylactis) to a thermophilic-based starter. The objective was to achieve both postacidification stability to increase the shelf life and enhanced flavor. The addition of L. diacetylactis increased processing time but did not affect cheese composition or the evolution of proteolysis and texture. During cheese manufacturing, streptococci became the dominant microflora in all cheeses, whereas populations of Lactococcus cremoris and L. diacetylactis decreased. During cheese storage, viable counts of L. diacetylactis and Streptococcus thermophilus increased but the counts of L. cremoris decreased. During cheese manufacturing and storage, the concentrations of lactic acid and diacetyl increased rapidly in cheeses produced with L. diacetylactis. Citric acid and galactose contents remained high in cheese made without L. diacetylactis. Sensory evaluation indicated that cheeses containing the L. diacetylactis strain were more flavorful and also had less sourness and could be stored at 4 degrees C for up to 7 d.

  1. Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture and ripening of Manchego and Chihuahua Mexican cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-López, C; Hernández-Sánchez, H

    2000-12-05

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to survive the Mexican Manchego and Chihuahua cheese-making processes and its persistence during the ripening stages of both cheeses was examined. Commercial pasteurized and homogenized whole milk was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes (strain ATCC 19114) to a level between 2 x 10(6) and 9 x 10(6) CFU/ml. The milk was used to make Mexican Manchego and Chihuahua cheeses in a 25-l vat. Mexican Manchego cheese was ripened for 5 days and Chihuahua cheese for 6 weeks at 12 degrees C and 85% RH. Listeria present in the cheese was enumerated by diluting samples in sterile 0.1% peptone water and plating on Oxford agar. Duplicate samples were taken at each step of the manufacturing process. During the first week of ripening samples were taken daily from both cheeses. For Chihuahua cheese, samples were taken weekly after the first week of the ripening stage. During the manufacture of Mexican Manchego cheese, Listeria counts remained relatively constant at 10(6) CFU/ml, while with Chihuahua cheese there was a one log decrease in numbers (10(6) to 10(5) CFU/ml). After pressing both curds overnight, numbers of bacteria decreased in Mexican Manchego cheese to 8.2 x 10(5) but increased in Chihuahua cheese from 1.7 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(6) CFU/ml. During the ripening stage, counts of Listeria remained constant in both cheeses. However, since the Chihuahua cheese ripening stage is about 6 weeks, the number of bacteria decreased from 2 x 10(6) to 4 x 10(4) CFU/g. The results show that Listeria monocytogenes is able to survive the manufacture and ripening processes of both Mexican cheeses.

  2. Effect of biodegradable starch packing on storage of processed cheese/ Efeito de embalagem biodegradável de amido no armazenamento de queijo processado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victória Eiras Grossmann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in the utilization of renewable resources for the production of food packaging. Among the biopolymers, starches from several sources have been considered as one of the most promising material for this purpose; and the reasons for this are that starches are biodegradable, inexpensive and available in all world. This work had the objective of evaluate the effect of yam starch biodegradable packaging on storage (30 days / 4oC of comercial-processed cheese and to compare with conventional packaging. The results showed that conventional packaging presented the better behavior on weight and water activity retention of samples during all storage time than starch packaging. Considering microbiological counts, only control samples (unpackaged showed contamination. Titratable acidity and pH of packaged samples did not differ for starch or conventional package (Tukey test, p ? 0.05 during all storage time. Considering the presented results, yam starch could be used as an alternative to package processed cheese, but more studies have to be done to improve starch films as a water vapor barrier.Há um interesse crescente no emprego de matérias-primas provenientes de recursos renováveis para a produção de embalagens para alimentos. Dentre os biopolímeros mais promissores para este fim estão os amidos de diversas fontes botânicas, que são biodegradáveis, têm custo baixo e estão disponíveis em todo o mundo. Assim sendo, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de embalagens biodegradáveis de amido de inhame no armazenamento (30 dias / 4oc de queijo processado obtido de fonte comercial, e comparar o seu desempenho com o de embalagens convencionais. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a embalagem convencional foi mais eficaz na retenção do peso e atividade de água das amostras do que a embalagem de amido. Quanto à contagem microbiana, apenas as amostras não embaladas apresentaram contaminação. A acidez

  3. Characterization of major and trace minerals, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol content of Protected Designation of Origin cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuelian, C L; Currò, S; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M; De Marchi, M

    2017-05-01

    Cheese provides essential nutrients for human nutrition and health, such as minerals and fatty acids (FA). Its composition varies according to milk origin (e.g., species and breed), rearing conditions (e.g., feeding and management), and cheese-making technology (e.g., coagulation process, addition of salt, ripening period). In recent years, cheese production has increased worldwide. Italy is one of the main producers and exporters of cheese. This study aimed to describe mineral, FA, and cholesterol content of 133 samples from 18 commercial cheeses from 4 dairy species (buffalo, cow, goat, and sheep) and from 3 classes of moisture content (hard, 45%). Mineral concentrations of cheese samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and FA and cholesterol contents were determined by gas chromatography. Moisture and species had a significant effect on almost all traits: the highest levels of Na, Ca, and Fe were found in cheeses made from sheep milk; the greatest level of Cu was found in cow milk cheese, the lowest amount of K was found in buffalo milk cheese, and the lowest amount of Zn was found in goat cheeses. In all samples, Cr and Pb were not detected (below the level of detection). In general, total fat, protein, and minerals significantly increased when the moisture decreased. Buffalo and goat cheeses had the highest saturated FA content, and sheep cheeses showed the highest content of unsaturated and polyunsaturated FA, conjugated linoleic acid, and n-3 FA. Goat and sheep cheeses achieved higher proportions of minor FA than did cow and buffalo cheeses. Buffalo cheese exhibited the lowest cholesterol level. Our results confirm that cheese mineral content is mainly affected by the cheese-making process, whereas FA profile mainly reflects the FA composition of the source milk. This study allowed the characterization of mineral and FA composition and cholesterol content and revealed large variability among different commercial

  4. Proteolysis of prato type cheese produced using ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spadoti Leila Maria

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of milk ultrafiltration technology for cheese manufacture presents several advantages. However, it also influences proteolysis and, consequently, cheese ripening. The effects of five different processing methods for Prato cheese were evaluated with respect to the time evolution of the extent and depth of proteolysis indexes (EPI and DPI. The following treatments (T for cheese production were studied: T1 - without ultrafiltration (standard; T2, T3, T4 and T5 - using milk concentrated by ultrafiltration (UFCM and respectively: T2 - without pre-fermentation of the UFCM; T3 - pre-fermentation of 10% of the UFCM; T4 - pre-fermentation of 20% of the UFCM, and T5 - pre-fermentation of 20% of the UFCM plus indirect heating. Treatments affected the EPI and DPI of the cheeses (T1 lower values for EPI and DPI and T4 higher values for EPI and DPI. The time influenced the extent and depth of proteolysis indexes.

  5. The language of cheese-ripening cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Microbial interactions are of importance for the establishment and growth of cheese ripening cultures. An interesting aspect of microbial interactions is cell-cell communication, often referred to as quorum sensing; the process in which micro-organisms communicate with signalling molecules and co......-ordinate gene expression in a cell density dependent manner. Little is known about quorum sensing in foods. However, as quorum sensing is expected to be a general phenomenon in micro-organisms, it is likely to be of importance for micro-organisms in foods. An example of a food product where quorum sensing could...... be of importance is surface ripened cheeses. The present review focuses on our findings on quorum sensing systems in cheese ripening cultures. The main focus is on the group of bacterial non-species-specific signalling molecules referred to as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in smear bacteria as well as alcohol...

  6. Fontes de contaminação por Staphylococcus aureus na linha de processamento de queijo prato Identification of main sources of contamination with Staphylococcus aureus in Prato cheese manufacturing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Assumpção

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar as principais fontes de contaminação por Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus produtores de coagulase (SC+, avaliou-se o processo de fabricação de queijo prato em um laticínio de Lavras, MG, durante os meses de outubro de 2000 a abril de 2001. As análises microbiológicas foram feitas no leite cru, no leite pasteurizado resfriado, nas mãos e antebraços dos funcionários, na salmoura, na água de imersão das fôrmas e no queijo embalado. Contagens elevadas de SC+ e de S. aureus (4x10³ a 4,8x10(6 UFC/ml e 4x10³ a 3,3x10(5 UFC/ml, respectivamente foram encontradas em quatro avaliações no leite cru. Após a pasteurização, as contagens foram reduzidas a In order to identify the main sources of contamination with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus coagulase positive (SC+, a manufacture process of prato cheese in a plant located in Lavras, State of Minas Gerais, was evaluated five times from October/2000 to April/2001. Raw and pasteurized milk, hand and forearms of cheese makers, brine, hoops flushing water and cheeses were analyzed for SC+ and S. aureus. High counts of SC+ and S. aureus (4x10³ to 4.8x10(6 CFU/ml and 4x10³ to 3.3x10(5 CFU/ml, respectively were found in raw milk in four evaluations, but they decreased to values lower than 1 CFU/ml after pasteurization. In three evaluations, counts of SC+ in prato cheese samples were above legal limits (10(4, 10(5 and 2.3x10(5 CFU/g. The hoops flushing water and brine were not important contamination sources, both with counts lower than 1CFU/ml. The cheese makers probably were the main source of contamination, since high counts in cheese were correlated to high counts in their hands (4x10² CFU/cm² or forearms (4.7x10² and 3.3x10³ CFU/cm².

  7. Bottom fauna of dredging and dredge spoil disposal sites of a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Devi, S.K.

    gathered at a single point in time. These studies are valuable even though they give only very little insight into the biotic constraints which are highly important in the dynamic processes which establish the real niches of animals. Niche concept.... 1967. Environmental effects of dredging and spoil deposition. Proceedings of WODCOM, World Dredging Conference (Palos Verdes Estates, California): 353-359. Heip, C. 1974. A new index measuring evenness. Journal of the Marine Biology Association (UK...

  8. Proteolysis in soft cheese, studied on Meshanger cheese and cheese models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, A.

    1978-01-01

    Enzymes predominantly responsible for the primary degradation of protein in soft cheese and for the related changes in consistency were studied. Reconstructed Noordhollandse Meshanger cheese and preserved simulated soft cheeses of different composition were used as models in the

  9. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture. R...

  10. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  11. 21 CFR 133.181 - Provolone cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provolone cheese. 133.181 Section 133.181 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.181 Provolone cheese. (a) Description. (1) Provolone, a pasta filata or stretched curd-type...

  12. Researches Regarding Microbiological Parameters Values of Telemea Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Suler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper were microbiological parameters which characterized the Telemea cheese for each season, assessment of technologies and thus assortment defects as well as projection of hygienic solution for obtaining qualitative products according to actual standards. We studied 5 units of Telemea cheese processing replaced in different area. For obtaining concrete results we used STAS methodologies and analyze procedure was based on observation, mathematical estimation and experiments (in lab and processing units.

  13. Antioxidant activity and nutrient release from polyphenol-enriched cheese in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Langlois, Ariane; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Green tea polyphenols are recognized for their antioxidant properties and their effects on lipid digestion kinetics. Polyphenols are sensitive to degradation in the intestinal environment. Interactions with dairy proteins could modulate the stability and biological activity of polyphenols during digestion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the release of nutrients (polyphenols, fatty acids and peptides) and the antioxidant activity in polyphenol-enriched cheese containing different levels of calcium in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. The relationship between cheese matrix texture, matrix degradation and nutrient release during digestion was also studied. Green tea extract was added to milk at 0% or 0.1%, and cheeses were produced on a laboratory scale. The level of available calcium was adjusted to low (Ca(low)), regular (Ca(reg)) or high (Ca(high)) during the salting step of the cheese-making process. Cheeses were subjected to simulated digestion. The rate and extent of fatty acid release were 21% lower for Ca(low) cheese than for Ca(reg) and Ca(high) cheeses. The greater adhesiveness of Ca(low) cheese, which resulted in lower rates of matrix degradation and proteolysis, contributed to the reduced rate of lipolysis. The presence of green tea extract in cheese reduced the release of free fatty acids at the end of digestion by 7%. The addition of green tea extract increased cheese hardness but did not influence matrix degradation or proteolysis profiles. The formation of complexes between tea polyphenols and proteins within the cheese matrix resulted in a more than twofold increase in polyphenol recovery in the intestinal phase compared with the control (tea polyphenol extract incubated with polyphenol-free cheese). Antioxidant activity was 14% higher in the digest from polyphenol-enriched cheese than in the control. These results suggest that cheese is an effective matrix for the controlled release of nutrients and for the protection of green

  14. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...

  15. Lipids in cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  16. Assessment of the Indicators Atherogenic Index and Lipid Preventive Score of White Brine Cheese by Buffalo Milk after Technological Processing and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation had the objective to study the changes in the atherogenic index - AI and the lipid preventive score - LPS as nutritious indicators for assessment of the risk of cardio-vascular diseases, on the basis of the fatty acid composition of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after applying of two methods of preservation – freeze-drying and dry gamma sterilization with 2 and 4 kGy. The analysis was made with the aid of gas chromatograph SHIMADZU 2010. The lyophilized cheese is characterized by a comparatively low AI - 2.59 after lyophilization and is preserved during storage - 2.55. After lyophilization the LPS of the cheese was the highest – 103.70, while after irradiation a decrease of its value was observed up to 97.73 with 2 kGy and 96.91 with 4 kGy. Key words: white brine cheese by buffalo milk, atherogenic index, lipid preventive score, freeze-drying - lyophilization, gamma sterilization

  17. Assessment of the indicators atherogenic index and lipid preventive score of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after technological processing and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation had the objective to study the changes in the atherogenic index - AI and the lipid preventive score - LPS as nutritious indicators for assessment of the risk of cardio-vascular diseases, on the basis of the fatty acid composition of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after applying of two methods of preservation – freeze-drying and dry gamma sterilization with 2 and 4 kGy. The analysis was made with the aid of gas chromatograph SHIMADZU 2010. The lyophilized cheese is characterized by a comparatively low AI - 2.59 after lyophilization and is preserved during storage - 2.55. After lyophilization the LPS of the cheese was the highest – 103.70, while after irradiation a decrease of its value was observed up to 97.73 with 2 kGy and 96.91 with 4 kGy. Key words: white brine cheese by buffalo milk, atherogenic index, lipid preventive score, freeze-drying - lyophilization, gamma sterilization

  18. Microbiological changes throughout ripening of Keş cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Sevgi Kirdar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological changes in Keş cheese, traditional Turkish raw cow’s milk cheese made without the addition of starter culture, were studied during 90 days of ripening. Physico-chemical parameters, pH, salt content and water activity (aw, as important parameters for microbial growth, were also determined. Lactic acid bacteria were predominant microbial group. The time of ripening significantly influenced the count of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, psychrophilic bacteria, mould (P<0.05, Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. (P<0.01 which increased during ripening. E. coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci were not detected. The counts of Enterococcus spp. (P<0.05, Staphylococcus-Micrococcus spp., Enterobactericeae and coliform bacteria decreased throughout ripening of Keş cheese, which was connected to the physico-chemical parameters. Water activity significantly decreased (P<0.05, while the salt content increased (P<0.01 during ripening of Keş cheese. The obtained results will contribute to the establishment of the microbiological quality standards for Keş cheese and give necessary information for formation of autochthonous starter culture, which will help to understand ripening process of sour dried cheeses and improve the traditional farmhouse cheese production.

  19. Survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus during the Preparation of Soy Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Liu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a new probiotic soy cheese on the basis of chinese sufu. The soy cheese was made from soymilk fermented with soy cheese bacterial starter cultures (DH1 and GH4 and L. rhamnosus 6013. After ripening, probiotic soy cheese sensory scores (standard SB/T 10170-93 were compared to the control. The changes in pH, bacterial growth and the survivability of the potential probiotic L. rhamnosus 6013 during fermentation and storage at 10 °C were examined. After 6 h of fermentation, L. rhamnosus 6013 was capable of growing in soymilk as high as 108–109 CFU/mL. After being stored for 30 days at 10 °C, slight decrease in pH and the viable counts of the strain was noticed. The viable counts of L. rhamnosus 6013, DH1 and GH4 were 107, 106 and 106 CFU/g, respectively, after storage for 30 days. The levels of stachyose, raffinose and sucrose in soy cheese were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could utilize the soybean oligosaccharides as carbon sources. In addition, 2–4 % of NaCl had little effect on the survivability of L. rhamnosus 6013. It indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could withstand the technological processing of soy cheese and had no negative effect on the fermentation and the sensory properties of the soy cheese.

  20. Segmentation of Parmigiano Reggiano dairies according to cheese-making technology and relationships with the aspect of the cheese curd surface at the moment of its extraction from the cheese vat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchetti, G; Gatti, M; Nocetti, M; Reverberi, P; Bianchi, A; Galati, F; Petroni, A

    2014-03-01

    Parmigiano Reggiano cheese dairies develop specific cheese-making strategies to adapt the variable characteristics of raw, not standardized milk to the final goal of obtaining cheese consistent with the standard. Analyzing 1,175 cheese-making reports from 30 out of 383 dairies associated with the Parmigiano Reggiano Consortium in 2010 and 2011, 4 groups of Parmigiano Reggiano dairies using specific cheese-making technologies were discriminated by means of multiple linear discriminant analysis. Cheese makers manage cheese-making practices to obtain curd with different roughness properties, classified according to jargon words such as "rigata" and "giusta" or synonyms, because they believe that the roughness of the cheese curd surface immediately after the extraction from the vat is associated with different whey-draining properties and to the final outcome of the cheese. The aspect of the surfaces of the curds produced by the 4 groups of dairies was different according to the technology applied by each group. Cutting of the coagulum when it is still soft for a longer time and faster cooking of the cheese curd grains were associated with a less rough appearance of the surface of the curd, whereas under the opposite conditions, cutting the coagulum when it is firm for a shorter time, led to a curd with a rougher surface. These findings partially support the traditional feeling of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese makers, who consider the curd surface aspect one of the main drivers for their technological choices; to date, however, no data are provided about correlation between the aspect of the curd and the quality of the ripened cheese. If a sufficiently strong correlation could be demonstrated by the future development of the research, the operational effectiveness of Parmigiano Reggiano dairies will be able to largely benefit from the availability of sound and early process markers. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2008-07-15

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  2. Trace elements content in cheese, cream and butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements were determined in five types of cheese, cream and butter using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. In cheese samples trace elements were measured as follows (mg/kg: Al 0.01-3.93, Co<0.005, Cr 0.005-1.66, Li 0.008-0.056, Mn 0.068-5.37, Mo 0.003-0.225, Ni 0.01-0.163 and Sr 0.085-3.49. There were significant differences considering the concentrations of Mn, Cr and Al (p<0.01, all among the analysed dairy products. There were no significant differences in Sr, Mo, Ni and Li levels among products. The highest levels were found in following products (mg/kg: 4.23 Mn in semi-hard fat cheese, 2.43 Sr in cream cheese, 0.18 Mo in cream, 0.14 Ni and 0.028 Li in melted cheese, 1.13 Cr and 3.87 Al in butter. The trace element con¬centrations measured in cheeses and butter varied compared to the literature data. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn and Mo found in cheeses and Mn and Ni in butter were in line with contents reported in other countries. These results may demonstrate differences in production processes between countries. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs calculated for Cr, Mn, Mo and Ni in cheeses showed a low contribution (0.59-3.38 % to the reference values for the permitted daily exposure (PDE for these elements. However, the high contribution of Al concentrations (56 and 124 % to PTWI (provisional maximum tolerable daily intake calculated in fresh and melted cheese may pose a health risk to consumers.

  3. Autochthonous cheeses of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatan Sarić; Sonja Bijeljac

    2003-01-01

    Despite the migration of people towards cities, autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina survived. Technologies of these cheeses are simple and adapted to humble mountain limitations. Geographical occasions and rich mountain pastures created a certain participation of ewe's milk cheeses. Communicative isolation of hilly-mountain regions resulted in "closed" cheese production in small households. Autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina have various origins. Different cheeses are...

  4. Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Bartolini, Elisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease characterized by loss of bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, which leads to a consequent increase in the risk of skeletal fractures. Diet awakes a critical interest in osteoporosis, because it is one of the few determinants that can be safely modified. A healthy well balanced nutrition can play an important role in prevention and pathogenesis of osteoporosis, but also in support of a pharmacological therapy. Numerous evidences have already established that dietary calcium, proteins and vitamin D are essential nutrients for achieved peak bone mass and maintaining skeletal health.Dairy products, by providing both calcium and proteins, represent the optimal source of highly bioavailable nutrients for bone health. Among dairy foods in particular cheese results one of the major source of calcium in the adults western diet and also in the Italian adults diet.Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is an homemade Italian food whose denomination "Protected Designation of Origin" is linked to an artisanal manufacturing process in limited geographic area of Northern Italy and is an optimal source of essential nutrients for acquisition and maintenance of bone health. Parmigiano Reggiano is a cheese easy digested, for the presence of ready to use proteins and lipids, lactose free, rich in calcium, with possible prebiotic and probiotic effect. On the basis of its nutritional characteristics and of its easy digestibility Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is recommended in all feeding age groups.

  5. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese....... The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content...... of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared...

  6. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND WATER ACTIVITY OF TRANSFERRED CHEESE (UF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dalvi Esfahan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few data are available on the thermophysical properties of cheese in the ripening process.The main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of brining and temperature on the thermophysical properties, i.e., thermal conductivity, specific heat, density and water activity of UF cheese and finally we measure surface heat transfer coefficient .Then we develop models for thermophysical properties based on physical and multiple regression concept .

  7. Quality Assessment of Cheese in Markets of Tirana City

    OpenAIRE

    YLLKA ALLARAJ; NEFAIL BIBA; ANJEZA COKU; ELDA ÇUKA

    2014-01-01

    Mycological control of cheese is considered an important process related to food safety. Food borne disease in our days remains an important issue for public health because they causes infection to the consumers and an important economic damage. A mycological survey of different kind of cheeses sold at five big markets in Tirana is conducted during March - Septembre 2013, in order to identify if potentially toxicological and pathogenic fungi were or were not present. A total 140 samples of c...

  8. Temperature and relative humidity influence the ripening descriptors of Camembert-type cheeses throughout ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Sicard, M; Perrot, N; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Corrieu, G

    2015-02-01

    Ripening descriptors are the main factors that determine consumers' preferences of soft cheeses. Six descriptors were defined to represent the sensory changes in Camembert cheeses: Penicillium camemberti appearance, cheese odor and rind color, creamy underrind thickness and consistency, and core hardness. To evaluate the effects of the main process parameters on these descriptors, Camembert cheeses were ripened under different temperatures (8, 12, and 16°C) and relative humidity (RH; 88, 92, and 98%). The sensory descriptors were highly dependent on the temperature and RH used throughout ripening in a ripening chamber. All sensory descriptor changes could be explained by microorganism growth, pH, carbon substrate metabolism, and cheese moisture, as well as by microbial enzymatic activities. On d 40, at 8°C and 88% RH, all sensory descriptors scored the worst: the cheese was too dry, its odor and its color were similar to those of the unripe cheese, the underrind was driest, and the core was hardest. At 16°C and 98% RH, the odor was strongly ammonia and the color was dark brown, and the creamy underrind represented the entire thickness of the cheese but was completely runny, descriptors indicative of an over ripened cheese. Statistical analysis showed that the best ripening conditions to achieve an optimum balance between cheese sensory qualities and marketability were 13±1°C and 94±1% RH. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumers’ attitude and opinion towards different types of fresh cheese: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Pereira de BARROS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fresh cheese stands out for its tradition and widespread consumption in Brazil. However, there is a lack of information on motivation towards the consumption of available fresh cheeses in the Brazilian market. Focus group sessions were used to explore consumers’ attitude and opinion about fresh cheese. Products with different characteristics were used to stimulate discussion among participants including cheese with “no added salt”, the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” and products processed with goat milk. The salt content played an important role on the consumer intention to purchase of fresh cheese. Participants stated that they would consume cheese without salt only by following a medical prescription. However, the subjects declared that they would buy reduced salt cheese if such reduction would not compromise the flavor. The meaning of the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” was often declared as unknown during the discussion. However, they would buy a probiotic product. In addition, it was mentioned that a premium price would be paid for such functional cheese. Participants declared that would buy goat cheese. Nevertheless, to pay a higher price over the conventional one was a controversial and debatable issue among consumers. Results revealed important implications for the development of marketing strategies for fresh cheese.

  10. Consumption of Iron-Fortified Cheese and Lipid Peroxidation in Females

    OpenAIRE

    Giunti, Gene J.

    1994-01-01

    Dairy products are important sources of calcium and other nutrients but are a poor source of dietary iron. Cheese comprises a substantial portion of dairy food consumption and has been determined an appropriate medium for iron-fortification. However, iron may promote the potentially harmful process in food and biological systems known as lipid peroxidation. Therefore, the safety of consuming iron-fortified cheese was examined. Commercial-scale batches of Cheddar cheese were iron-fortified ...

  11. Indigenous strains of Lactobacillus isolated from the Istrian cheese as potential starter cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Hulak; Ana Žgomba Maksimović; Ana Kaić; Andrea Skelin; Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    2016-01-01

    Istrian ewe’s milk cheese is an autochthonous product that is manufactured for generations on small family farms in the Croatian peninsula Istria. Traditional Istrian cheese is made from unpasteurized ewe’s milk, without the addition of starter cultures. Consequently, the specific flavour and texture of the Istrian cheese is owed to metabolic processes of indigenous microflora of which Lactobacillus species play pivotal role. Characterisation and selection of indigenous lactobacilli may resul...

  12. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-01-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  13. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  14. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  15. The Characteristics and Fertility Status of Tin Mine Spoils of the Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... include reclaimed cropped spoil (RCS), reclaimed uncropped spoil (RUS), mining (intermound) depressions (MD), spoil mounds (SM) and surrounding flat land (SFL). Unmined Ropp soil (URS) was included as control. RCS had significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of total nitrogen (1.6 g kg-1) and organic carbon (13.7 ...

  16. 21 CFR 133.165 - Parmesan and reggiano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parmesan and reggiano cheese. 133.165 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.165 Parmesan and reggiano cheese. (a) Parmesan cheese, reggiano cheese...

  17. Potential of anticlostridial Lactobacillus isolated from cheese to prevent blowing defects in semihard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Vogensen,, F. K.; Nielsen, E. W

    2010-01-01

    Five anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese were selected for a mixed adjunct culture. Cheese with the mixed adjunct culture (experimental) and without (control) was made in triplicate and ripened as vacuum-packed and surface-ripened cheese. Cheese gross composition was similar....... Excessive gas formation occurred only in control cheeses. In contrast to control cheeses, the experimental cheeses were dominated by the added adjunct Lactobacillus strains (repetitive-PCR). Casein breakdown was not influenced, however, the total amount of amino acids and pH was slightly lower...... in the experimental cheeses. Anticlostridial nonstarter Lactobacillus strains have potential as protective adjunct cultures against blowing defects in cheese....

  18. Extra Cheese, Please! Mozzarella's Journey from Cow to Pizza [and] Teaching Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Chris

    This book traces Annabelle the dairy cow's milk from the farm to the top of a Friday night pizza. The book relates that when Annabelle gives birth to her calf she also begins to produce milk; the milk is then processed into cheese, and from the cheese, pizza is made (recipe included). The book features color photographs of the entire process which…

  19. Spoiling the womb”: Definitions, Aetiologies and responses to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spoiling the womb”: Definitions, Aetiologies and responses to infertility in North West Province, Cameroon. ... Now, family planning is promoted nationwide to reduce population growth, and infertility is not addressed by public health policy or services. In contrast to the biomedical definition used by planners, at the local level ...

  20. Investigation on the spoiling of meat using PTR-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, D.; Maerk, T.D.; Margesin, R.; Schinner, F.

    2002-01-01

    The spoiling of meat was investigated. Beef (pork) were wrapped into different kinds of packages (air and vacuum) and stored at 4 o C for 10 (13) days. The emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the course of time were measured and a large increase in these emissions after a few days of storage was found. Also a large difference in the spoiling behavior between vacuum- and air- packed meat was observed. The measurements were performed using a proton-transfer-reaction-mass spectrometer(PTR-MS) system, it allows on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations. Ethylacetate, methylpropionate, and propylformate were detected as typical spoiling compounds in pork samples. After 3.5 days the concentrations started to exponentially increase, but after 6 days remained more or less unchanged. This VOCs behaviour corresponds to a typical bacterial growth curve. Therefore, it was concluded that bacteria produce these components. In a second measurements set, the VOCs emitted by beef under aerobic (normal packed) and anaerobic (vacuum packed) conditions were compared. In the case of normal air-packed beef, the above mentioned spoiling compounds strongly increased with the time, while with the vacuum-packed beef a strong increase of ethanol was detected. This method as a replacement of the bacteriological examinations of meat spoilage is proposed. (nevyjel)

  1. stabilization of dredged spoils for pavement construction in the niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Tse

    to which dredge spoils can be deployed, including use as fill and construction materials, placing the dredged material at specific locations to combat erosion, and manufacturing bricks, etc. These uses will be particularly beneficial given the high rainfall intensity, extensive marsh land and frequent oil spills in the study area.

  2. stabilization of dredged spoils for pavement construction in the niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Tse

    spoils by stabilization produces a 'conditioned' soil mix with improved strength properties suitable for use in civil engineering construction. In view of the large volumes of sand dredged from rivers along the East-West road alignment, it is thought that a beneficial scheme to use such large quantity of otherwise waste material ...

  3. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS WITH INGREDIENTS OF PLANT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed the use of feijoa as a filler for cheese products. Distinctive at-sign feijoa is a high content of watersoluble compounds in the fruits of iodine. According to their content feijoa can match with seafood, no plant does not accumulate a large number of iodine compounds (about 0.2 1 mg per 100 g of product. Feijoa is very useful for people living in iodine deficiency regions, as well as for preventers of thyroid diseases. The rind of the fruit is rich in antioxidants. The technology of GUT-goad product feijoa. Feature of the technology is that the finished cheese is made in the form of a mixture of filler pureed fruit pulp and sugar in a ratio of 1: 1, and the powder dry skin. Objects of research a filler in the form of syrup (pineapple guava pulp and sugar and the rind of the fruit in the form of crushed dry cottage cheese. Compatible with cream cheese filling sensory determined by the following indicators appearance, consistency, color, smell, taste. Syrup dosage ranged from 1 to 10%, dry filler from 0.5 to 3.5%. A mixture of fillers were added to the finished curd product in the ratio of syrup fairies feijoa and dry powder peel 8: 1.5. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations of preparation of fillers and incorporation in the finished cheese. Determined the antioxidant activity syrup feijoa 1,963 mg / dm3 . It was found that the cheese product is rich in antioxidants, iodine, which helps to eliminate free radicals from the body and strengthen health care. Herbal additive allows to obtain a product with a new taste characteristics. The shelf life of cottage cheese products 5 days.

  4. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.

  5. Biogas yield from Sicilian kitchen waste and cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the chemical composition of kitchen waste and cheese whey, as well as the biogas yield obtained from the Anaerobic Digestion (AD tests of these two raw materials. Since the separated waste collection is performed in the town of Marineo (Palermo, a sample of kitchen waste, different from food industry one and included in the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, was collected from the mass stored at the households of this town. Moreover, a sample of cheese whey was collected in a Sicilian mini dairy plant, where sheep milk is processed. This investigation was carried out inside laboratory digesters of Aleksandras Stulginskis University (Lithuania. Total Solids (TS resulted 15.6% in kitchen waste and 6% in cheese whey, while both the raw materials showed a high content of organic matter, 91.1% and 79.1%, respectively. The biogas yield resulted 104.6 l kg–1 from kitchen waste and 30.6 l kg–1 from cheese whey. The biogas yield from TS resulted 672.6 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 384.7 l kg–1 using cheese whey. The biogas yield from Volatile Solids (VS resulted 738.9 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 410.3 l kg–1 using cheese whey.

  6. Prediction of the acid generating potential of coal mining spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterroso, C.; Macias, F. [Universidad de Santiago, Santiago (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola

    1998-07-01

    The sulfide oxidation impact on mined land reclamation makes it necessary for mine spoils to be classified according to their acidifying potential. In this paper predictions were made of the acid generating potential of sulfide-containing spoils from the Puentes lignite mine (Galicia, NW Spain), and the limits of sulfur contents allowable for their storage in aerobic conditions, were established. Using samples of fresh spoils, analyses were made of the content and speciation of sulfur, pH was measured after oxidation of the sample with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (pH of oxidation = pH{sub OX}), and titration of the oxidation extract with 0.1N NaOH to pH = 7 was carried out (Net Acid Production = NAP). The total sulfur content (S{sub T}) varied between {lt} 0.01% and {gt} 3%, with pyritic-S being the most common form ({gt} 80%). pH{sub OX} varied between 1.6 and 6.4 and NAP between 1.2 and 85.0 Kg-CaCO{sub 3}t{sup -1}. A high correlation was found between the NAP and the S{sub T}(r-0.98, p{lt} 0.001). Spoils with S{sub T} {gt} 0.15% cause high risks of mine-soil acidification, and create the need for large doses of CaCO{sub 3} to be used on final surface of the mine dump. Use of fly ash, produced from the combustion of lignite, as an alternative to commercial lime is more effective in the control of acidity generated by spoils with high S{sub T}. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Anthropogenic soils on spoil rock banks in North Bohemian Coal Basin, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raclavska, H.; Raclavsky, K.; Matysek, D.; Stalmachova, B.

    1997-01-01

    The area of the North Bohemian Coal Basin is devastated by the extensive exploitation of brown coal by open pit mining. Knowledge of newly formed soils, their properties, development and contamination is important from the point of view of biological regeneration of the landscape. The mineralogy of anthropogenic soils from the mining area is presented together with the geochemistry of nutrients and trace elements. Attention is paid to the soil-forming processes in the non-reclaimed spoil rock banks with the development of spontaneous vegetation. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. Inhibition of bacterial growth in sweet cheese whey by carbon dioxide as determined by culture-independent community profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Raquel; Xue, Tian; Weeks, Mike; Turner, Mark S; Bansal, Nidhi

    2016-01-18

    Whey is a valuable co-product from cheese making that serves as a raw material for a wide range of products. Its rich nutritional content lends itself to rapid spoilage, thus it typically needs to be pasteurised and refrigerated promptly. Despite the extensive literature on milk spoilage bacteria, little is known about the spoilage bacteria of whey. The utility of carbon dioxide (CO2) to extend the shelf-life of raw milk and cottage cheese has been well established, but its application in whey preservation has not yet been explored. This study aims to characterise the microbial populations of fresh and spoiled sweet whey by culture-independent community profiling using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and to determine whether carbonation is effective in inhibiting bacterial growth in sweet whey. The microbiota of raw Cheddar and Mozzarella whey was dominated by cheese starter bacteria. After pasteurisation, two out of the three samples studied became dominated by diverse environmental bacteria from various phyla, with Proteobacteria being the most dominant. Diverse microbial profiles were maintained until spoilage occurred, when the entire population was dominated by just one or two genera. Whey spoilage bacteria were found to be similar to those of milk. Pasteurised Cheddar and Mozzarella whey was spoiled by Bacillus sp. or Pseudomonas sp., and raw Mozzarella whey was spoiled by Pseudomonas sp., Serratia sp., and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. CO2 was effective in inhibiting bacterial growth of pasteurised Cheddar and Mozzarella whey stored at 15°C and raw Mozzarella whey stored at 4°C. The spoilage bacteria of the carbonated samples were similar to those of the non-carbonated controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Production technology and some quality parameters of Njeguši cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Mirecki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization of agricultural production and depopulation of areas that are recognized by traditional products, reached its peak during the last few decades. This represents a significant risk that the technology of traditional agricultural products, especially cheeses, can go into oblivion. Njeguši cheese is one of the famous Montenegrin traditional dairy products which originates from the mountain Lovćen and its peripheral areas. Produced by traditional technology, it belongs to a group of full fat, hard cheeses. Owing to its characteristic, spicy taste and pleasant odour, Njeguši cheese can be compared with some of the most famous hard cheeses. Originally it is made from ewe’s milk, but also, cow’s, goat’s and their mixture in different proportions, are increasingly used, which may be the treat to the originality of Njeguši cheese. The present study offers a description of original Njeguši cheese technology, followed by analysis of the chemical quality of ewe’s milk, cheese and whey. Thereat milk, cheese and whey samples were taken from 5 households located at the place of cheese origin - the Njeguši village. Chemical quality of ewe’s milk, cheese and whey was determined by method of FTIR spectrophotometry. Milk fat in the dry matter and moisture in cheese non-fat basis were mathematically calculated. The average content of milk fat in ewe’s milk was 4.92 %, proteins 4.59 %, lactose 4.14 % and total solids non-fat 9.46 %. Accordingly, the analysed cheeses belonged to full fat, semi-hard cheese due to 51.73 % fat in total solids and 60.07 % moisture in non-fat basis. The only deviation from original technology was shortening of the ripening period. Apart from the main objective - the preservation of the original technology, this study could significantly contribute to the process of protection of origin of Njeguši cheese, because the technology of cheese fulfilled the requirements listed in the National Law on the

  10. Characterization of different native american physalis species and evaluation of their processing potential as jelly in combination with brie-type cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Nogueira CURI

    Full Text Available Abstract Faced with the need for greater knowledge of the different physalis species, the aim of this study was to characterize different Native American physalis species (Physalis peruviana L., Physalis pubescens L., Physalis angulata L., Physalis mínimos L. and Physalis ixocarpa Brot as to their physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Besides that, in order to increase their use and add even more value to this fruit, we also evaluate the influence of these different species on the physicochemical, rheological and sensory characteristics of physalis jelly. In addition, this study evaluated the sensory acceptance of the combination of physalis jellies obtained from different species with brie-type cheese. The Peruviana, Pubences and Angulata, are highlighted for being the nutritionally richest species, with the highest levels of phenolic compounds, vitamin C and antioxidant. Moreover, they stand out for originating the most widely sensory accepted jellies, either in pure form or in combination with brie-type cheese.

  11. Protected designation of cheese origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Antunac

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has completely adopted the EU set up criteria for protection of agricultural products and foodstuffs through the implementation of two Regulations: Quality of the Protected Denomination of Origin and Protected Geographical Indication (NN.80/05 and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (NN. 127/05. According to the results obtained from the four years research period on the production characteristics of the Pag sheep, milk and the Pag cheese quality, the essential description for certification and quality control of any autochthonous cheese are shown. Additionally, regardless from the arranged criteria for protection, other legal regulations that cheeses have to comply with are also described.

  12. Effects of supercritical fluid extraction pressure on chemical composition, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of goat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Laubscher, A; Castro, N; Argüello, A; Jiménez-Flores, R

    2013-03-01

    The consumer trend for healthier food choices and preferences for low-fat products has increased the interest in low-fat cheese and nutraceutical dairy products. However, consumer preference is still for delicious food. Low- and reduced-fat cheeses are not completely accepted because of their unappealing properties compared with full-fat cheeses. The method reported here provides another option to the conventional cheese-making process to obtain lower fat cheese. Using CO(2) as a supercritical fluid offers an alternative to reduce fat in cheese after ripening, while maintaining the initial characteristics and flavor. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of pressure (10, 20, 30, and 40 × 10(6) Pa) of supercritical CO(2) on the amount of fat extracted, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of 2 varieties of goat cheese: Majorero, a protected denomination of origin cheese from Spain, and goat Gouda-type cheese. The amount of fat was reduced 50 to 57% and 48 to 55% for Majorero and goat Gouda-type cheeses, respectively. Higher contents (on a fat basis) of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine were found in Majorero cheese compared with control and goat Gouda-type cheeses. The microbial population was reduced after supercritical fluid extraction in both cheeses, and the lethality was higher as pressure increased in Majorero cheese, most noticeably on lactococcus and lactobacillus bacteria. The Gouda-type cheese did not contain any lactobacilli. Micrographs obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a more open matrix and whey pockets in the Majorero control cheese. This could explain the ease of extracting fat and reducing the microbial counts in this cheese after treatment with supercritical CO(2). Supercritical fluid extraction with CO(2) has great potential in the dairy industry and in commercial applications. The Majorero cheese obtained after the supercritical fluid extraction treatment was an excellent

  13. Probiotic bacteria survive in Cheddar cheese and modify populations of other lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, B; Weimer, B C; Pinzon, J; Dao Kong, N; Rompato, G; Brothersen, C; McMahon, D J

    2014-06-01

    Starter lactic acid bacteria in Cheddar cheese face physico-chemical stresses during manufacture and ageing that alter their abilities to survive and to interact with other bacterial populations. Nonstarter bacteria are derived from milk handling, cheese equipment and human contact during manufacture. Probiotic bacteria are added to foods for human health benefits that also encounter physiological stresses and microbial competition that may mitigate their survival during ageing. We added probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis to full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat Cheddar cheeses, aiming to study their survival over 270 days of ageing and to determine the role of the cheese matrix in their survival. Probiotic and other lactic acid bacterial populations were enumerated by quantitative PCR using primers specifically targeting the different bacterial genera or species of interest. Bifidobacteria were initially added at 10(6) CFU g(-1) cheese and survived variably in the different cheeses over the 270-day ageing process. Probiotic lactobacilli that were added at 10(7) CFU g(-1) cheese and incident nonstarter lactobacilli (initially at 10(8) CFU g(-1) cheese) increased by 10- to 100-fold over 270 days. Viable bacterial populations were differentiated using propidium monoazide followed by species-specific qPCR assays, which demonstrated that the starter and probiotic microbes survived over ageing, independent of cheese type. Addition of probiotic bacteria, at levels 100-fold below that of starter bacteria, modified starter and nonstarter bacterial levels. We demonstrated that starter lactococci, nonstarter lactobacilli and probiotic bacteria are capable of surviving throughout the cheesemaking and ageing process, indicating that delivery via hard cheeses is possible. Probiotic addition at lower levels may also alter starter and nonstarter bacterial survival. We applied qPCR to study

  14. Characterization of volatiles in Beaten cheeses (bieno sirenje by SPME/GC-MC: Influence of geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulejmani Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the volatile profiles of a type of economically important cheeses for the FYR Macedonian dairy sector were characterized. A total of eighteen samples belonged to 6 different geographical regions of Beaten cheese, including cheeses from Kumanovo, Tetovo, Struga, Resen, Veles and Radovish were comparatively studied for their volatile profiles. Sixty two volatile compounds were identified in the cheeses by solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the results are discussed based on their chemical classes (18 esters, 13 ketones, 10 acids, 8 alcohols, 5 terpenes, and 8 miscellaneous compounds. Acids, esters and alcohols were the most abundant classes identified and were highly dependent on the geographical origin of cheeses. Beaten cheese from Struga had the highest levels of carboxylic acids, ketones, alcohols, esters and terpenes. The Beaten cheese from other geographical origin had low levels of volatiles probably from the effect of variable characteristics of used milk and different cheese making process which affects the biochemical processes. The results suggest that each cheese from different geographical regions had different volatiles profile and the manufacturing technique as well as the ripening stage of the cheeses played a major role on the volatile compounds’ distribution.

  15. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food...

  16. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the food...

  17. 21 CFR 133.160 - Muenster and munster cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese. 133.160 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.160 Muenster and munster cheese. (a) Description. (1) Muenster cheese...

  18. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the...

  19. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to...

  20. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss and emmentaler cheese. 133.195 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.195 Swiss and emmentaler cheese. (a) Description. (1) Swiss cheese...

  1. 21 CFR 133.111 - Caciocavallo siciliano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caciocavallo siciliano cheese. 133.111 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.111 Caciocavallo siciliano cheese. (a) Caciocavallo siciliano cheese is...

  2. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms to...

  3. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard of...

  4. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition and...

  5. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food...

  6. Production of fresh probiotic cheese with addition of transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinka Radošević

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus and enzyme transglutaminase (TG on quality and sensory properties of autochthonous fresh cheese from Zagreb region. Fresh, unpasteurized, skimmed milk was inoculated with TG at different temperatures and activation time (8 h at 11 ºC and 4 h at 25 ºC. Inactivation of the enzyme was carried out during the process of pasteurization (65ºC/30 min. The milk for fresh cheese production was further inoculated with mesophilic culture of lactic acid bacteria MM101 and probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC-1. Besides the trial samples with addition of TG and probiotic bacteria, control samples without addition of TG and probiotic were produced, as well as the samples without addition of TG but with probiotic bacteria addition. Samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG, especially in which TG was active at 11 ºC, had greater weight then samples produced without the enzyme addition. Therefore, their yield was also greater then yield of cheese produced without the addition of the enzyme. Furthermore, the samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG have shown lesser syneresis than other samples during 10 days of storage at 10 ºC. The same samples also had the best sensory properties. Metabolic activity of mesophilic culture MM101 and probiotic culture L. acidophilus LAC-1 has resulted in better taste and odour of fresh cheese. The viable cell number of probiotic strain L. acidophilus LAC-1 in prepared samples was around 5 x 106 cells/g after 10 days of storage at 10 ºC, which is higher than the minimal dose required for 27 probiotic products. Addition of transgultaminase contributed to better consistency and general appearance of produced fresh cheese.

  7. Start-up and operating costs for artisan cheese companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Andrea; Durham, Catherine A; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Lack of valid economic data for artisan cheese making is a serious impediment to developing a realistic business plan and obtaining financing. The objective of this study was to determine approximate start-up and operating costs for an artisan cheese company. In addition, values are provided for the required size of processing and aging facilities associated with specific production volumes. Following in-depth interviews with existing artisan cheese makers, an economic model was developed to predict costs based on input variables such as production volume, production frequency, cheese types, milk types and cost, labor expenses, and financing. Estimated values for start-up cost for processing and aging facility ranged from $267,248 to $623,874 for annual production volumes of 3,402 kg (7,500 lb) and 27,216 kg (60,000 lb), respectively. First-year production costs ranged from $65,245 to $620,094 for the above-mentioned production volumes. It is likely that high start-up and operating costs remain a significant entry barrier for artisan cheese entrepreneurs. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nucleic acid-based approaches to investigate microbial-related cheese quality defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eO Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe microbial profile of cheese is a primary determinant of cheese quality. Microorganisms can contribute to aroma and taste defects, form biogenic amines, cause gas and secondary fermentation defects, and can contribute to cheese pinking and mineral deposition issues. These defects may be as a result of seasonality and the variability in the composition of the milk supplied, variations in cheese processing parameters, as well as the nature and number of the non-starter microorganisms which come from the milk or other environmental sources. Such defects can be responsible for production and product recall costs and thus represent a significant economic burden for the dairy industry worldwide. Traditional non-molecular approaches are often considered biased and have inherently slow turnaround times. Molecular techniques can provide early and rapid detection of defects that result from the presence of specific spoilage microbes and, ultimately, assist in enhancing cheese quality and reducing costs. Here we review the DNA-based methods that are available to detect/quantify spoilage bacteria, and relevant metabolic pathways, in cheeses and, in the process, highlight how these strategies can be employed to improve cheese quality and reduce the associated economic burden on cheese processors.

  9. Selection of dairy culture and changes of Podravec cheese acidity during production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The selection and characteristics of dairy culture play a basic role in all types of cheese production process. The most important characteristic is acidification ability i.e. lactic acid formation, which regulates manufacturing and maturing conditions of cheese, thus affecting its organoleptic characteristics as well. In this work the results on control of acidity increase in Podravec cheeseproduction are presented. In the production process, a technical culture as well as identical frozen and concentrated culture, with and without auxiliary Streptococcus thermophilus for direct milk inoculation, were used. It was established that the acidity, expressed as pH value, is more intensively developed in cheeses produced with culture for direct inoculation. This was especially evident in the first phases of production i.e. before cheese salting. During salting the acidity of cheeses, in both cases, was almoust identical. Cheeses produced with identical frozen culture and auxiliary Streptococcus thermophilus culture had more pronounced acidity before salting and lower after salting in comparison with cheeses with the mentioned two cultures. Organoleptic and other characteristics of mature cheeses were identical.

  10. Survival of cheese-ripening microorganisms in a dynamic simulator of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adouard, Nadège; Magne, Laurent; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Foligné, Benoît; Picque, Daniel; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    A mixture of nine microorganisms (six bacteria and three yeasts) from the microflora of surface-ripened cheeses were subjected to in vitro digestive stress in a three-compartment "dynamic gastrointestinal digester" (DIDGI). We studied the microorganisms (i) grown separately in culture medium only (ii) grown separately in culture medium and then mixed, (iii) grown separately in culture medium and then included in a rennet gel and (iv) grown together in smear-ripened cheese. The yeasts Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces lactis and Debaryomyces hansenii, were strongly resistant to the whole DIDGI process (with a drop in viable cell counts of less than cheese-grown cultures. Ripening bacteria such as Hafnia alvei survived gastric stress less well when grown in cheese (with no viable cells after 90 min of exposure of the cheese matrix, compared with 6 CFU mL(-1) in lab cultures). The ability of Corynebacterium casei and Staphylococcus equorum to withstand digestive stress was similar for cheese and pure culture conditions. When grow in a cheese matrix, Brevibacterium aurantiacum and Arthrobacter arilaitensis were clearly more sensitive to the overall digestive process than when grown in pure cultures. Lactococcus lactis displayed poorer survival in gastric and duodenal compartments when it had been grown in cheese. In vivo experiments in BALB/c mice agreed with the DIDGI experiments and confirmed the latter's reliability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Short communication: norbixin and bixin partitioning in Cheddar cheese and whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Li, X E; Drake, M A

    2014-01-01

    The Cheddar cheese colorant annatto is present in whey and must be removed by bleaching. Chemical bleaching negatively affects the flavor of dried whey ingredients, which has established a need for a better understanding of the primary colorant in annatto, norbixin, along with cheese color alternatives. The objective of this study was to determine norbixin partitioning in cheese and whey from full-fat and fat-free Cheddar cheese and to determine the viability of bixin, the nonpolar form of norbixin, as an alternative Cheddar cheese colorant. Full-fat and fat-free Cheddar cheeses and wheys were manufactured from colored pasteurized milk. Three norbixin (4% wt/vol) levels (7.5, 15, and 30 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk) were used for full-fat Cheddar cheese manufacture, and 1 norbixin level was evaluated in fat-free Cheddar cheese (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk). For bixin incorporation, pasteurized whole milk was cooled to 55 °C, and then 60 mL of bixin/454 kg of milk (3.8% wt/vol bixin) was added and the milk homogenized (single stage, 8 MPa). Milk with no colorant and milk with norbixin at 15 mL/454 kg of milk were processed analogously as controls. No difference was found between the norbixin partition levels of full-fat and fat-free cheese and whey (cheese mean: 79%, whey: 11.2%). In contrast to norbixin recovery (9.3% in whey, 80% in cheese), 1.3% of added bixin to cheese milk was recovered in the homogenized, unseparated cheese whey, concurrent with higher recoveries of bixin in cheese (94.5%). These results indicate that fat content has no effect on norbixin binding or entrapment in Cheddar cheese and that bixin may be a viable alternative colorant to norbixin in the dairy industry. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence of foodborne pathogens and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese produced on farm-dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Asa; Fabricius, Ane; Guss, Bengt; Sylvén, Susanne; Lindqvist, Roland

    2010-12-15

    The objective of this study was to address knowledge gaps identified in an earlier risk assessment of Staphylococcus aureus and raw milk cheese. A survey of fresh and short-time ripened cheeses produced on farm-dairies in Sweden was conducted to investigate the occurrence and levels of S. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, to characterize S. aureus isolates with special emphasis on enterotoxin genes, antibiotic resistance, bio-typing and genetic variation, and to collect information related to production practices. In general, the hygienic quality of farm-dairy cheeses appeared to be of an acceptable microbiological quality, e.g. L. monocytogenes and staphylococcal enterotoxin were not detected in cheese samples. However, E. coli and enterotoxigenic S. aureus were frequently found in raw milk cheeses and sometimes at levels that are of concern, especially in fresh cheese. Interestingly, levels in raw milk fresh cheese were significantly lower when starter cultures were used. Up to five S. aureus colonies per cheese, if possible, were characterized and about 70% of isolates carried one or more enterotoxin genes, most common were sec and sea. The Ovine biotype (73%) was most common among isolates from goat milk cheese and the Human biotype (60%) from cow milk cheese. Of all isolates, 39% showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin, but the proportion of isolates from cows' cheese (66%) compared to isolates from goats' cheese (27%) was significantly higher. S. aureus isolates with different properties were detected in cheese from the same farm and, sometimes even the same cheese. Isolates with the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-pattern were detected on geographically distant dairies. This indicates that multiple sources and routes of contamination are important. To improve the safety of these products efforts to raise awareness of the importance of hygiene barriers and raw milk quality as well as improved process control can be

  13. Influence of selected lab cultures on the evolution of free amino acids, free fatty acids and Fiore Sardo cheese microflora during the ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangia, Nicoletta P; Murgia, Marco A; Garau, Giovanni; Sanna, Maria G; Deiana, Pietrino

    2008-04-01

    Fiore Sardo Protected Denomination of Origin is a traditional Sardinian (Italy) hard cheese produced exclusively from whole raw ovine milk and coagulated with lamb rennet paste. Currently, Fiore Sardo is still produced by shepherds at the farmhouse level without the addition of any starter culture and the cheese-making process is characterized by significant waste. The first objective of the present work was to investigate the autochthonous microflora present in milk and Fiore Sardo cheese in order to select lactic acid bacterial (LAB) cultures with suitable cheese-making attributes and, possibly reduce the production waste. Secondly, the ability of selected cultures to guarantee cheese healthiness and quality was tested in experimental cheese-making trials. In this study, we show that the typical lactic microflora of raw ewe's milk and Fiore Sardo cheese is mostly composed of mesophilic LAB such as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei. Moreover, strains belonging to the species were selected for cheese-making attributes and used in experimental cheese-making trials carried out in different farms producing Fiore Sardo. The evolution of the cheese microflora, free amino acids and free fatty acids during the ripening showed that the experimental cheeses were characterized by a balanced ratio of the chemical constituents, by a reduced number of spoilage microorganisms and, remarkably, by the absence of production waste that were significant for the control cheeses.

  14. Inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus plantarum TF711 against Clostridium sporogenes when used as adjunct culture in cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lorena; Zárate, Victoria

    2015-05-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are of great interest to the food-processing industry as natural preservatives. This work aimed to investigate the efficacy of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum TF711, isolated from artisanal Tenerife cheese, in controlling Clostridium sporogenes during cheese ripening. Cheeses were made from pasteurised milk artificially contaminated with 10(4) spores m/l C. sporogenes. Experimental cheeses were manufactured with Lb. plantarum TF711 added at 1% as adjunct to commercial starter culture. Cheeses made under the same conditions but without Lb. plantarum TF711 served as controls. Evolution of microbiological parameters, pH and NaCl content, as well as bacteriocin production was studied throughout 45 d of ripening. Addition of Lb. plantarum TF711 did not bring about any significant change in starter culture counts, NaCl content and pH, compared with control cheese. In contrast, clostridial spore count in experimental cheeses were significantly lower than in control cheeses from 7 d onwards, reaching a maximum reduction of 2·2 log units on day 21. Inhibition of clostridia found in experimental cheeses was mainly attributed to plantaricin activity, which in fact was recovered from these cheeses.

  15. Quality evaluation of parmesan-type cheese: a chemometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Jaster

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parmesan-type cheeses are the most consumed special cheeses in Brazil. It is generally sold in retail shops, either grated or in wedge-shaped pieces, and its quality varies considerably, which is reflected directly in its price. There is lack of processing standardization and, since the ripening period is fundamental for the quality of this hard, semi-fat cooked cheese, this stage seems to be the thin line between low and high quality products. It is important to note that the Italian Parmegiano Reggiano is matured for a period of twelve months, as well as its rival Grana Padano, and this long ripening period causes changes making them gourmet, highly-valued cheeses. In the present study, twelve different Parmesan-type cheeses were purchased from the Brazilian retail market and evaluated for microbiological, physicochemical, and instrumental parameters. Heterogeneous quality was confirmed by microbiological problems detected in the samples and physicochemical composition that did not meet current Brazilian specifications. The use of principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis made it possible to separate the samples into three distinct groups, mainly due to different acidity and moisture levels, water activity, and hardness values. The price per kg was also considered and was correlated with moisture, acidity, and texture.

  16. Soymilk-Cow's milk ACE-inhibiting enzyme modified cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Barkat; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Majeed, Hamid; Abid, Muhammad; Xu, Lei; Wu, Fengfeng; Xu, Xueming

    2017-12-15

    In present study, we developed and optimized soymilk-cow's milk enzyme-modified cheese with angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity. Bioactive peptide production was found to be a multivariable-dependent process. Maximum bioactivity of hydrolysates was obtained with prolonged curd proteolysis at an increased enzyme concentration. This bioactive cheese paste was subsequently spray-dried under different drying conditions to determine the powder sorption isotherm properties. Higher drying temperatures resulted in cheese powder with weak thermal stability and lower browning indices. Experiments aimed at optimizing thermal stability and physical properties revealed that optimal conditions for producing cheese powder were an inlet air temperature of 150°C, a feeding rate of 10%, and an air flow rate of 600Lh -1 . Moreover, in addition to flavour, the bioactive cheese powders produced from a combination of soymilk-cow's milk are of potential source and can be used in the dietary management of hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sanitary conditions of mozzarella and Minas frescal cheese production in northern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marangon Oliveira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The cheese due its rich nutritional composition provides a favorable environment for the multiplication of many kinds of microorganisms. The excess of total and thermotolerant coliforms indicates contamination from environmental and fecal origin, respectively, which characterizes low microbiological quality and unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions during the cheese production process, besides the possibility of enteropathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hygienic condition of the production of Mozzarella and Minas Frescal cheeses, produced in Northern region of Paraná State, Brazil. Fifty samples were analyzed, of which 14 were of Mozzarella cheese and 36 were of Minas Frescal cheese covering the period from June 2011 to June 2016. The sanitary conditions of production were evaluated by counting the total and thermotolerant coliforms according to the methodology recommended by the Brazilian legislation. For the Mozzarella cheese, it was observed that all the samples presented counts according to the recommended standards for total and thermotolerant coliforms. However, it was observed that 55.6% of the Minas Frescal cheese samples were in disagreement with the standards established by the legislation for total coliforms, as well as 27.8% for thermotolerant coliforms. These results indicate that a considerable part of the Minas Frescal cheeses present unsatisfactory hygienic conditions during the stages of production, increasing consumer health risk. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt good practices of manufacturing, take corrective actions to fix the contamination problem and compliance with microbiological quality standards established and microbiological safety assurance.

  18. The accelerated ripening of cholesterol-reduced Cheddar cheese by crosslinked beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, K H; Ahn, J; Kwak, H S

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the influence of salt content on cholesterol-reduced Cheddar cheese obtained by a treatment with crosslinked beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and to find if the ripening process was accelerated in cholesterol-reduced cheese. The crosslinked beta-CD used was made by adipic acid. A primary study indicated that the chemical and rheological properties were not changed by the salt addition and the composition of Cheddar cheese treated with crosslinked beta-CD was similar to untreated Cheddar cheese. Approximately 91 to 92% cholesterol reduction was observed in the cheeses that were treated using beta-CD. In a subsequent study, we found accelerated ripening by the crosslinked beta-CD based on the productions of short-chain free fatty acids and free amino acids. In rheological properties, elasticity, cohesiveness, and gumminess scores in the cholesterol-reduced Cheddar cheese were significantly greater at 5 wk ripening than those in the control at 4 mo ripening. At the early stage of ripening, most flavor properties such as rancidity, bitterness, and off-flavor in the cholesterol-reduced cheese were greater. With ripening, however, those scores changed to similar or lower scores than those in the control. The present study indicated that the crosslinked beta-CD treatment for cholesterol removal showed accelerated ripening effect on the properties of Cheddar cheese.

  19. Free amino acid content of goat's milk cheese made with animal rennet and plant coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Adela; Cayuela, José María; Pino, Antonio; Martínez-Cachá, Adela; Salazar, Eva; Tejada, Luis

    2012-06-01

    Enzymes present in the flowers of Cynara cardunculus (cyprosins) are used in the production of some traditional Spanish and Portuguese cheeses, replacing animal rennet. The aim of this work was to study the changes that take place in free amino acids during the ripening of a goat's milk cheese (Murcia al Vino) manufactured with plant coagulant (PC) or animal rennet (AR). The total free amino acid (TFAA) concentration increased during ripening, with Ile, Val, Ala, Phe, Gaba, Arg and Lys representing more than 50% of the TFAA content at 60 days in both types of cheese. The TFAA concentration was significantly higher in cheeses made with PC (854 mg 100 g(-1) total solids (TS)) than those made with AR (735 mg 100 g(-1) TS). The concentration of most free amino acids, especially His, Ser, Gln, Thr, Ala, Met and Ile, was higher in the PC cheese. Cheese made using PC as coagulant presented higher contents of free amino acid throughout the ripening period than cheese made using AR. Therefore we can conclude that the use of PC to produce Murcia al Vino goat's cheese would accelerate the ripening process as a result of increased cyprosin proteolytic activity. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Complexity and Uniqueness of the Aromatic Profile of Smoked and Unsmoked Herreño Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Palencia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile fraction of unsmoked and smoked Herreño cheese, a type of soft cheese from the Canary Islands, has been characterized for the first time. In order to evaluate if the position in the smokehouse could influence the volatile profile of the smoked variety, cheeses smoked at two different heights were studied. The volatile components were extracted by Solid Phase Microextraction using a divinylbenzene/carboxen/ polydimethylsiloxane fiber, followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. In total, 228 components were detected. The most numerous groups of components in the unsmoked Herreño cheese were hydrocarbons, followed by terpenes and sesquiterpenes, whereas acids and ketones were the most abundant. It is worth noticing the high number of aldehydes and ketones, and the low number of alcohols and esters in this cheese in relation to others, as well as the presence of some specific unsaturated hydrocarbons, terpenes, sesquiterpenes and nitrogenated derivatives. The smoking process enriches the volatile profile of Herreño cheese with ketones and diketones, methyl esters, aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, hydrocarbons, terpenes, nitrogenated compounds, and especially with ethers and phenolic derivatives. Among these, methylindanones or certain terpenes like α-terpinolene, have not been detected previously in other types of smoked cheese. Lastly, the results obtained suggest a slightly higher smoking degree in the cheeses smoked at a greater height.

  1. Determination of moisture in cheese and cheese products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, R L; Vanderwarn, M A

    2001-01-01

    Variables related to oven-drying samples of cheese and cheese products to determine moisture content were examined to provide more efficient and reproducible methods. Over 6500 samples of cheese were analyzed in an effort to modify the current AOAC procedure. The gravity atmospheric oven was unsuitable for use in accurate moisture analysis because of wide temperature differentials within the oven cavity. Use of this for oven moisture determination resulted in higher variance, which corresponded to the high temperature variation within the oven. Cheese sample preparation using an Oster blender yielded consistently lower variance in final moisture content than did preparation of cheese samples with a hand grater, rotary grater, and plug and plunger. Sample size of 3 +/- 0.25 g maximized surface area-to-volume ratios and yielded a lower error in final moisture content because of better control of ambient weight loss rates. Use of combination of disposable 5.5 cm diameter aluminum sample pans with 5.5 cm diameter glass fiber filter pads for covers produced a smaller standard deviation for moisture analysis than did the AOAC pan and insert cover and filter paper covers. All pans must be pre-dried for at least 3 h at 100 degrees C, and the glass fiber covers should be pre-dried for 1 h under the same conditions. All dried pans and covers must be stored in a desiccator with active desiccant. Equipment upgrades from the existing AOAC standard methods provide safer more efficient methods of analysis.

  2. Microbial fuel cell coupled to biohydrogen reactor: a feasible technology to increase energy yield from cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, J; Fuentes, L; Cabezas, A; Etchebehere, C

    2017-06-01

    An important pollutant produced during the cheese making process is cheese whey which is a liquid by-product with high content of organic matter, composed mainly by lactose and proteins. Hydrogen can be produced from cheese whey by dark fermentation but, organic matter is not completely removed producing an effluent rich in volatile fatty acids. Here we demonstrate that this effluent can be further used to produce energy in microbial fuel cells. Moreover, current production was not feasible when using raw cheese whey directly to feed the microbial fuel cell. A maximal power density of 439 mW/m 2 was obtained from the reactor effluent which was 1000 times more than when using raw cheese whey as substrate. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that potential electroactive populations (Geobacter, Pseudomonas and Thauera) were enriched on anodes of MFCs fed with reactor effluent while fermentative populations (Clostridium and Lactobacillus) were predominant on the MFC anode fed directly with raw cheese whey. This result was further demonstrated using culture techniques. A total of 45 strains were isolated belonging to 10 different genera including known electrogenic populations like Geobacter (in MFC with reactor effluent) and known fermentative populations like Lactobacillus (in MFC with cheese whey). Our results show that microbial fuel cells are an attractive technology to gain extra energy from cheese whey as a second stage process during raw cheese whey treatment by dark fermentation process.

  3. Microbiological quality of white local sheep cheese in Mosul city markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.A. AL-Hamdany

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The soft white cheese is considered one of the most popular locally manufactured cheese in Iraq, a kind of traditional cheese that is mainly produced from sheep milk. It usually becomes available in the markets of Mosul between the months of February and July. To investigate the microbiological quality, 25 samples of white, soft, un-salted fresh locally produced sheep cheese were collected from the market in Mosul. These cheese samples were examined by the quantity method to determine the total viable bacterial counts (TVC and the total counts of coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria. The minimum, maximum and average results of the aforementioned bacterial counts were 1.0x106, 1.4x103, 1.4x102 CFU g-; 2.9x108, 6.0x107, 12.6x105 CFU g- and 18.0x107, 5.8x106, 3.1x105 CFU g-1, respectively. Corresponding to the ‘International Microbiological Reference Criteria’ for cheese, it could be clear from these results that the samples were highly contaminated. Hence, it can be concluded that the sanitary conditions were inadequate either during the milk production and cheese manufacturing process or throughout their distribution in the local market. Therefore, it is recommended to comply with the public health and sanitary measures during the process of local cheese production. In consequence, it is essential to follow the annual screening of local cheese in terms of bacterial counts to determine the degree of contamination and in order to develop a national standard microbiological criteria and quality control for local cheese.

  4. Case of contamination by Listeria monocytogenes in mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Greco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Following a Listeria monocytogenes detection in a mozzarella cheese sampled at a dairy plant in Lazio Region, further investigations have been conducted both by the competent Authority and the food business operatordairy factory (as a part of dairy factory HACCP control. In total, 90 dairy products, 7 brine and 64 environmental samples have been tested. The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 24.4% in mozzarella cheese, and 9.4% in environmental samples, while brines were all negatives. Forty-seven strains of L. monocytogenes have been isolated, all belonging to 4b/4e serotype. In 12 of these, the macrorestriction profile has been determined by means of pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The profiles obtained with AscI enzyme showed a 100% similarity while those obtained with ApaI a 96.78% similarity. These characteristics of the isolated strains jointly with the production process of mozzarella cheese has allowed to hypothesise an environmental contamination.

  5. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and flavor components in cheese shall have a pleasing and desirable taste and odor and shall have the ability to...

  6. Environmental assessment of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenisation for milk and fresh cheese production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsasina, Lucia; Pizzol, Massimo; Smetana, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Temperature (UHT) treatment and, at the same time, to lower energy consumptions through the combination of pasteurisation and homogenisation in a single process. Furthermore, the use of UHPH treated milk for the production of fresh cheese has been proven to increase shelf life days and increase yield...... This study provides an LCA of UHPH and UHT processing of milk and fresh cheese production from processing to end-of-life....

  7. Acidogenic fermentation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and cheese whey for bio-plastic precursors recovery - Effects of process conditions during batch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Francesca; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Pivato, Alberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-12-01

    The problem of fossil fuels dependency is being addressed through sustainable bio-fuels and bio-products production worldwide. At the base of this bio-based economy there is the efficient use of biomass as non-virgin feedstock. Through acidogenic fermentation, organic waste can be valorised in order to obtain several precursors to be used for bio-plastic production. Some investigations have been done but there is still a lack of knowledge that must be filled before moving to effective full scale plants. Acidogenic fermentation batch tests were performed using food waste (FW) and cheese whey (CW) as substrates. Effects of nine different combinations of substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio (2, 4, and 6) and initial pH (5, 7, and 9) were investigated for metabolites (acetate, butyrate, propionate, valerate, lactate, and ethanol) productions. Results showed that the most abundant metabolites deriving from FW fermentation were butyrate and acetate, mainly influenced by the S/I ratio (acetate and butyrate maximum productions of 21.4 and 34.5g/L, respectively, at S/I=6). Instead, when dealing with CW, lactate was the dominant metabolite significantly correlated with pH (lactate maximum production of 15.7g/L at pH = 9). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cheese maturity assessment using ultrasonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J; Clemente, G; Mulet, A

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Mahon cheese maturity and ultrasonic velocity was examined. Moisture and textural properties were used as maturity indicators. The ultrasonic velocity of the cheese varied between 1630 and 1740 m/s, increasing with the curing time mainly because of loss of water, which also produced an increase of the textural properties. Because of the nature of low-intensity ultrasonics, velocity was better related to those textural parameters that involved small displacements. Ultrasonic velocity decreased with increasing temperature because of the negative temperature coefficient of the ultrasonic velocity of fat and the melting of fat. These results highlight the potential use of ultrasonic velocity measurements to rapidly and nondestructively assess cheese maturity.

  9. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological proper...

  10. Fate of Shiga toxin-producing and generic Escherichia coli during production and ripening of semihard raw milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, S; Hoffmann, W; Bockelmann, W; Hummerjohann, J; Stephan, R; Hammer, P

    2013-02-01

    The fate of 5 different Escherichia coli strains, including 3 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains, was analyzed during the production and ripening of semihard raw milk cheese. The strains, which were previously isolated from raw milk cheese, were spiked into raw milk before cheese production at 2 different levels (approximately 10(1) and 10(3) cfu/mL, respectively). Two cheese types were produced, which differed in cooking temperatures (40 and 46°C). The cheeses were sampled during manufacture and the 16-wk ripening period. An increase in E. coli counts of approximately 3.5 log(10) cfu/g occurred from raw milk to fresh cheese at d 1, which was attributed to a concentration effect during cheese production and growth of the strains. During ripening over 16 wk, a slow, continuous decrease was observed for all strains. However, significant differences were found between the E. coli strains at the applied spiking levels, whereas the inactivation was similar in the 2 different cheese types. The 2 generic E. coli strains survived at higher counts than did the 3 STEC strains. Nevertheless, only 1 of the 3 STEC strains showed significantly weaker survival at both spiking levels and in both cheese types. Six of 16 cheeses made from raw milk at a low spiking level contained more than 10 cfu/g of STEC at the end of the 16-wk ripening process. After enrichment, STEC were detected in almost all cheeses at both spiking levels. Particularly because of the low infectious dose of highly pathogenic STEC, even low colony counts in raw milk cheese are a matter of concern. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reestablishing natural succession on acidic mine spoils at high elevations: long-term ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray W. Brown; Michael C. Amacher; Walter F. Mueggler; Janice Kotuby-Amacher

    2003-01-01

    Methods for restoring native plant communities on acidic mine spoils at high elevations were evaluated in a "demonstration area" in the New World Mining District of southern Montana. Research plots installed in 1976 were assessed for 22 years and compared with adjacent native reference plant communities. A 1.5-acre (0.61-ha) area of mine spoils was shaped and...

  12. Studies on effect of oat and cheese incorporation on sensory and textural quality of short-dough type biscuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, K S; Rao, K Jayaraj

    2016-03-01

    In view of their growing importance in human nutrition, incorporation of oats and cheese during the manufacture of short-dough type biscuits was studied. Rolled oats were incorporated at 25, 35 and 45 % of refined wheat flour in short-dough type biscuit formulation. Cheddar and processed cheese were used for flavouring purpose at three levels each, viz. 30, 40 and 50 % on flour basis. The dough exhibited less firmness on oats incorporation as indicated by lower firmness value (21.73 N) as against 25.05 N for control dough measured by Texture Analyser. Addition of cheese to the 25 % oat incorporated dough further reduced its firmness and altered its viscoelastic characteristics. Baking conditions for the oats and cheese incorporated biscuits were optimized as 165 °C for 25-27 min. Sensory evaluation results revealed that the biscuit made from 25 % oat incorporated dough scored highest in most of the sensory attributes including overall acceptability. Cheddar cheese and processed cheese levels were optimized at 30 and 40 % in oats-incorporated dough based on the sensory analysis of biscuits prepared from the dough samples. The moisture and β- glucan contents were 3.93 % and 0.62 %; 4.32 % and 0.60 % for cheddar cheese and processed cheese added biscuits, respectively. The spread ratios were higher in cheese incorporated biscuits than in oat incorporated biscuits. It was concluded that good quality cheese flavoured biscuits can be prepared by incorporating rolled oats in biscuit formulation along with cheddar or processed cheese.

  13. Interaction of starter cultures and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria in the cheese environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, J; Barzideh, Z; LaPointe, G

    2017-12-20

    The microbiota of ripening cheese is dominated by lactic acid bacteria, which are either added as starters and adjunct cultures or originate from the production and processing environments (nonstarter or NSLAB). After curd formation and pressing, starters reach high numbers, but their viability then decreases due to lactose depletion, salt addition, and low pH and temperature. Starter autolysis releases cellular contents, including nutrients and enzymes, into the cheese matrix. During ripening, NSLAB may attain cell densities up to 8 log cfu per g after 3 to 9 mo. Depending on the species and strain, their metabolic activity may contribute to defects or inconsistency in cheese quality and to the development of typical cheese flavor. The availability of gene and genome sequences has enabled targeted detection of specific cheese microbes and their gene expression over the ripening period. Integrated systems biology is needed to combine the multiple perspectives of post-genomics technologies to elucidate the metabolic interactions among microorganisms. Future research should delve into the variation in cell physiology within the microbial populations, because spatial distribution within the cheese matrix will lead to microenvironments that could affect localized interactions of starters and NSLAB. Microbial community modeling can contribute to improving the efficiency and reduce the cost of food processes such as cheese ripening. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of amino acid-decarboxylative microbiota throughout the ripening of an Italian PDO cheese produced using different manufacturing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, M; Maifreni, M; Bartolomeoli, I; Rondinini, G

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in Montasio cheese produced by using different cheese manufacturing practices. Three batches of Montasio cheese were made in the following way: batch A using raw milk and natural milk culture, batch B with thermized milk and natural milk culture and batch C with thermized milk and natural milk culture added of a commercial starter culture. During 120 days of ripening analyses were performed for microbial counts and BA content; indeed, the potential to produce BAs was screened in lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae isolates. At the end of ripening, the total BA contents of cheeses from batches A, B and C were 166.3, 207.3 and 29.8 mg kg(-1), respectively. Amino acid decarboxylase activity was widespread among isolates. The BA content of Montasio cheese from the three batches was below the threshold proposed as potentially toxic. The highest BA content was found in cheese produced using thermized milk and natural milk culture; therefore, the thermal treatment of milk was not enough by itself to reduce the counts of decarboxylase-positive bacteria in cheese. The use of selected starters guaranteed a low BA content in Montasio cheese. The study of the effects of some technological processes on the incidence of decarboxylative microbiota in 'protected denomination of origin' cheeses could provide useful information on the hygienic risk related to their production.

  15. Retrospective analysis of a listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in raw milk goat cheese using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Ellouze, M; Yde, M; Clinquart, A; Daube, G; Korsak, N

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the Belgian authorities reported a Listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in cheese made from raw goat's milk. The presence of an asymptomatic shedder goat in the herd caused this contamination. On the basis of data collected at the time of the episode, a retrospective study was performed using an exposure assessment model covering the production chain from the milking of goats up to delivery of cheese to the market. Predictive microbiology models were used to simulate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the cheese process in relation with temperature, pH, and water activity. The model showed significant growth of L. monocytogenes during chilling and storage of the milk collected the day before the cheese production (median increase of 2.2 log CFU/ml) and during the addition of starter and rennet to milk (median increase of 1.2 log CFU/ml). The L. monocytogenes concentration in the fresh unripened cheese was estimated to be 3.8 log CFU/g (median). This result is consistent with the number of L. monocytogenes in the fresh cheese (3.6 log CFU/g) reported during the cheese contamination episode. A variance-based method sensitivity analysis identified the most important factors impacting the cheese contamination, and a scenario analysis then evaluated several options for risk mitigation. Thus, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools, this study provides reliable information to identify and control critical steps in a local production chain of cheese made from raw goat's milk.

  16. 21 CFR 133.144 - Granular and stirred curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular and stirred curd cheese. 133.144 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.144 Granular and stirred curd cheese. (a) Description. (1...

  17. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  18. Vegetational stabilization of uranium spoil areas, grants, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    Factors that could be detrimental to vegetative stabilization of uranium mine and mill waste material were examined. Physical and chemical analyses of materials from an open-pit uranium mine and material from three inactive mill tailing piles in New Mexico were performed. Analyses for selected trace elements in mill tailing material and associated vegetation from piles in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah were also performed. Field and laboratory experiments identified problems associated with establishing vegetation on spoil material. Problems of uptake and concentration of toxic elements by plants growing on specific spoil material were also identified. Ecological observations in conjunction with physical and chemical analyses of specific geologic units, which form the overburden and waste dumps at the open-pit mine, identified a specific geologic material that, if segregated and placed on the surface of the dumps, would pose the least set of problems for a revegetation program. A pilot revegetation project verified that segregation and use of specific geologic material in the overburden could be utilized successfully and economically for reestablishment of native vegetation on mine waste material.

  19. Vegetational stabilization of uranium spoil areas, grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    Factors that could be detrimental to vegetative stabilization of uranium mine and mill waste material were examined. Physical and chemical analyses of materials from an open-pit uranium mine and material from three inactive mill tailing piles in New Mexico were performed. Analyses for selected trace elements in mill tailing material and associated vegetation from piles in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah were also performed. Field and laboratory experiments identified problems associated with establishing vegetation on spoil material. Problems of uptake and concentration of toxic elements by plants growing on specific spoil material were also identified. Ecological observations in conjunction with physical and chemical analyses of specific geologic units, which form the overburden and waste dumps at the open-pit mine, identified a specific geologic material that, if segregated and placed on the surface of the dumps, would pose the least set of problems for a revegetation program. A pilot revegetation project verified that segregation and use of specific geologic material in the overburden could be utilized successfully and economically for reestablishment of native vegetation on mine waste material

  20. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Distribution of Penicillium commune isolates in cheese dairies mapped using secondary metabolite profiles, morphotypes, RAPD and AFLP fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Nielsen, A.B.; Skouboe, P.

    2003-01-01

    In an 8-year study of the diversity and distribution of Penicillium commune contaminants in two different cheese dairies, swab and air samples were taken from the production plants, the processing environment and contaminated cheeses. A total of 321 Penicillium commune isolates were characterized...

  2. Survival of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Minas frescal cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Frozi, Jesieli Braz; Domingues, Josiane Roberto; Esper, Luciana Maria Ramires; Corrêa da Rosa, Joel Maurício; Silva, Ana Luiza Sant’Anna da Costa; Gonzalez, Alice Gonçalves Martins

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 strains (isolated by cattle’s faeces and a reference strain, EDL933), were inoculated into pasteurized milk (102 and 103 cells.mL–1) to prepare the Minas frescal cheese. As control was used uninfected milk. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were performed to milk and elaborated cheese. The O157:H7 strains were quantified in the stages of cheese processing and during 0, 2, 4, 5, 7, 10 and 15 storage days at 8 °C ...

  3. Proline iminopeptidase PepI overexpressing Lactobacillus casei as an adjunct starter in Edam cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidghasemizad, Sahar; Takala, Timo M; Alatossava, Tapani; Saris, Per EJ

    2013-01-01

    In this study the growth of genetically modified Lactobacillus casei LAB6, overexpressing proline iminopeptidase PepI and its capacity to increase free proline was investigated during ripening of Edam cheese. The strain successfully survived 12 weeks of ripening period in cheese. The food-grade plasmid pLEB604, carrying the pepI gene, was stable, and PepI enzyme was active in LAB6 cells isolated at different stages of the ripening process. However, HPLC analyses indicated that Lb. casei LAB6 could not increase the amount of free proline in ripened cheese. PMID:23851577

  4. Children preferences of coloured fresh cheese prepared during an educational laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Tesini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Choices among young consumers are mainly driven by food preferences; in particular, a connection between appearance and acceptance of food has been highlighted, together with a general lack of knowledge of food processing. For these reasons, educational activities are important to increase scientific knowledge and awareness. The cheese-making educational laboratory described herein involved children, adolescents, and their parents/teachers in the preparation of fresh and naturally-coloured cheeses. At the end of the activity, both the colour preference and possible relation between preference and colour of cheese prepared were investigated administering a short questionnaire.

  5. Proline iminopeptidase PepI overexpressing Lactobacillus casei as an adjunct starter in Edam cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidghasemizad, Sahar; Takala, Timo M; Alatossava, Tapani; Saris, Per Ej

    2013-01-01

    In this study the growth of genetically modified Lactobacillus casei LAB6, overexpressing proline iminopeptidase PepI and its capacity to increase free proline was investigated during ripening of Edam cheese. The strain successfully survived 12 weeks of ripening period in cheese. The food-grade plasmid pLEB604, carrying the pepI gene, was stable, and PepI enzyme was active in LAB6 cells isolated at different stages of the ripening process. However, HPLC analyses indicated that Lb. casei LAB6 could not increase the amount of free proline in ripened cheese.

  6. Physical, Chemical and Microbial Characteristic of Gouda Cheese Using Propolis (Apis milifera Liguistica as Coating Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Eka Radiati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gouda cheeses were coated with different coating materials consist of pliol, beeswax, and beeswax containing different concentration of propolis  by 0,2, 0,4 and 0,8%  and stored  during  ripening at 10oC period. The result showed that no different of moisture, fat and protein content, hardness, pH value of cheese products. The hydrolysis process at maturity caused decreasing of  pH value. Added propolis in the coating material could inhibited  mould and yeast growth significantly. Key words:  Gouda Cheese, propolis, edible coating

  7. Fate of Lactococcus lactis starter cultures during late ripening in cheese models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Marianna; Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola

    2016-10-01

    The presence of Lactococcus lactis, commonly employed as starter culture, was, recently, highlighted and investigated during late cheese ripening. Thus, the main goal of the present study was to assess the persistence and viability of this microorganism throughout manufacturing and ripening of model cheeses. Eight commercial starters, constituted of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, were inoculated in pasteurized milk in order to manufacture miniature cheeses, ripened for six months. Samples were analysed at different steps (milk after inoculum, curd after cutting, curd after pressing and draining, cheese immediately after salting and cheese at 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of ripening) and submitted to both culture-dependent (traditional plating on M17) and -independent analysis (reverse transcription-quantitative PCR). On the basis of direct RNA analysis, L. lactis populations were detected in all miniature cheeses up to the sixth month of ripening, confirming the presence of viable cells during the whole ripening process, including late stages. Noteworthy, L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR in cheese samples also when traditional plating failed to indicate its presence. This discrepancy could be explain with the fact that lactococci, during ripening process, enter in a stressed physiological state (viable not culturable, VNC), which might cause their inability to grow on synthetic medium despite their viability in cheese matrix. Preliminary results obtained by "resuscitation" assays corroborated this hypothesis and 2.5% glucose enrichment was effective to recover L. lactis cells in VNC state. The capability of L. lactis to persist in late ripening, and the presence of VNC cells which are known to shift their catabolism to peptides and amino acids consumption, suggests a possible technological role of this microorganism in cheese ripening with a possible impact on flavour formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  9. Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile DSM 44702 isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and insights into cheese ripening and flavor generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trost Eva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium variabile is part of the complex microflora on the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and contributes to the development of flavor and textural properties during cheese ripening. Still little is known about the metabolic processes and microbial interactions during the production of smear-ripened cheeses. Therefore, the gene repertoire contributing to the lifestyle of the cheese isolate C. variabile DSM 44702 was deduced from the complete genome sequence to get a better understanding of this industrial process. Results The chromosome of C. variabile DSM 44702 is composed of 3, 433, 007 bp and contains 3, 071 protein-coding regions. A comparative analysis of this gene repertoire with that of other corynebacteria detected 1, 534 predicted genes to be specific for the cheese isolate. These genes might contribute to distinct metabolic capabilities of C. variabile, as several of them are associated with metabolic functions in cheese habitats by playing roles in the utilization of alternative carbon and sulphur sources, in amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid degradation. Relevant C. variabile genes confer the capability to catabolize gluconate, lactate, propionate, taurine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid and to utilize external caseins. In addition, C. variabile is equipped with several siderophore biosynthesis gene clusters for iron acquisition and an exceptional repertoire of AraC-regulated iron uptake systems. Moreover, C. variabile can produce acetoin, butanediol, and methanethiol, which are important flavor compounds in smear-ripened cheeses. Conclusions The genome sequence of C. variabile provides detailed insights into the distinct metabolic features of this bacterium, implying a strong adaption to the iron-depleted cheese surface habitat. By combining in silico data obtained from the genome annotation with previous experimental knowledge, occasional observations on genes that are involved in the complex

  10. PRODUCTION UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS OF “CASU MARZU” CHEESE: EFFECT OF THE Piophila Casei COLONIZATION ON MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CHEESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Coinu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Piophila casei colonization under controlled conditions on “casu marzu”, a typical Sardinian sheep milk cheese. Three batches of two different kind of cheese (PO, holed paste and PC, firm paste were produced in duplicate (test and control. Test cheeses were exposed to the Piophila casei colonization in a conditioned store room, while control cheeses were suitably protected. All the samples were analyzed at 0, 10, 30, 60 and 90 days from the production. The pH and aw, the chemical composition and the microbiological parameters (food safety and process hygiene criteria were determined. The colonization was unhomogeneous between the batches: PO cheeses were more easily colonized and showed more intense proteolysis and lipolysis respect to PC cheeses. The microbiological parameters were strongly affected by the experimental process conditions. The authors discuss about the opportunity of a controlled production of “casu marzu” and the implications to the health of consumers.

  11. Effect of Incubation Time and Sucrose Addition on the Characteristics of Cheese Whey Yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Nursiwi, A.; Sari, A. M.; Widowati, E.; Sanjaya, A. P.; Esnadewi, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of incubation time and concentration of sucrose addition on the characteristics of cheese whey yogurt (lactic acid content, pH, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, viscosity) and sensory characteristics (color, odor, flavor, consistency, and overalls) were investigated. The cheese whey yogurt fermentation process was carried out for 24h and 36h with the addition of sucrose 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) of total solid, respectively. The results showed that the lactic acid content, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and viscosity of cheese whey yogurt were affected by the incubation time and sucrose addition. The level of pH of yogurt which was incubated at 24h and 36h were relatively in the same levels, which were 4.51 up to 4.63. Due the sensory characteristic of cheese whey yogurt the panellists gave the high score for the cheese whey yogurt which was incubated at 24h and sucrose addition 12% (w/w) of total solid. The cheese whey yogurt has 0.41% lactic acid content; pH 4.51; 7.09 log total lactic acid bacteria cells / ml; 5.78% antioxidant activity; and 5.97 cP viscosity. The best sensory and physico-chemical characteristic of cheese whey yogurt was achieved by 24h incubation time and 12% concentration of sucrose addition.

  12. Development of low fat UF cheese technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Miočinović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The production procedure of low fat cheeses produced from ultrafiltered milk (UF cheese was developed in this study. The production procedure, that includes utilization of UF milk with 2 % of lactose, addition of 1.5 % inulin and salting with 2 % of mixed salt (NaCl/KCl in ratio 3:1 was defined based on the investigation that included the influence of coagulation parameters, different lactose content of UF milk, different inulin content, and different salt type and content on the properties of low fat UF cheeses. Presented production procedure enables the production of a product with satisfactory dietetic and functional properties. Reduced lactose content of UF milk contributes to stabilisation of pH value at an adequate level and achievement of acceptable texture properties of low fat UF cheeses. Defined inulin content (1.5 % improved cheese texture, as well as its functional properties, enabling the cheese produced to be marked as a “good source of fibre”. Reduced sodium content, due to partial substitution of NaCl with KCl, also contributes to the improvement of dietetic properties of cheeses. Low fat UF cheeses, produced according to defined production procedure, were analysed during 8 weeks of ripening and storage periods. Composition, pH values and proteolytic pattern were typical for brined cheeses. Uniform microstructure and acceptable sensory properties, especially the texture, confirm the validity of the developed production procedure of low fat UF cheeses from UF milk.

  13. Influence of ripening time on the amount of certain biogenic amines in rind and core of cow milk Livno cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonela Marijan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the levels of biogenic amines in cheese except that it has significance for determining the nutritional value and hygienic accuracy, cheese as food can be used as a parameter to evaluate the conditions of production and/or ripening of products, and particularly in the selection of bacterial cultures. The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of the ripening process on the amount of biogenic amines in cheese. For this purpose were conducted physico-chemical analysis, determination of biogenic amines and microbiological analysis. During the process of ripening Livno cheese from three different batches was taken one cheese from prime day and 9th, 20th, 29th, 50th, 60th and 105th day. From each cheese two samples were taken, one from the middle and one from the cheese rind. During 105th day of ripening Livno cheese, the presence of triptamin, ß-feniletlamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine and spermidine were determinated. The maximum total values of searched biogenic amines were found 105th day, in the middle 184.13 mg/kg and 76.26 mg/kg in the rind of cheese. With an indication that the largest share of value rep¬resent histamine with 43.9 % and tyramine with 38.2 % in the middle, respectively histamine with 31.6 % and tyramine with 31.5 % in the rind of cheese. The values of putrescine and spermine were in small ranges and they are not identified in all samples. The values of histamine and tyramine are almost a third more at 105th than 60th day. There was a significant difference between the middle and the rind of cheese in the values of biogenic amines. Correlation between biogenic amines and microorganisms has not been determined.

  14. Technological Strategies to Preserve Burrata Cheese Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Costa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Burrata cheese is a very perishable product due to microbial proliferation and undesirable sensory changes. In this work, a step-by-step optimization approach was used to design proper processing and packaging conditions for burrata in brine. In particular, four different steps were carried out to extend its shelf life. Different headspace gas compositions (MAP-1 30:70 CO2:N2; MAP-2 50:50 CO2:N2 and MAP-3 65:35 CO2:N2 were firstly tested. To further promote product preservation, a coating was also optimized. Then, antimicrobial compounds in the filling of the burrata cheese (lysozyme and Na2-EDTA and later in the coating (enzymatic complex and silver nanoparticles were analyzed. To evaluate the quality of the samples, in each step headspace gas composition, microbial population, and pH and sensory attributes were monitored during storage at 8 ± 1 °C. The results highlight that the antimicrobial compounds in the stracciatella, coating with silver nanoparticles, and packaging under MAP-3 represent effective conditions to guarantee product preservation, moving burrata shelf life from three days (control sample to ten days.

  15. Effect of milk composition and coagulation traits on Grana Padano cheese yield under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretto, Denis; De Marchi, Massimo; Penasa, Mauro; Cassandro, Martino

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chemical composition, coagulation properties, pH, and titratable acidity (TA, SH°/50 ml) of vat milk on Grana Padano cheese yield (CY) under field conditions. Twelve cheese-making sessions were carried out from February to December 2009 in a dairy cooperative of Grana Padano Consortium (Italy), for a total of 96 vats of milk processed. For each vat, samples of raw milk were collected and analysed for quality traits (fat, protein, and casein contents), pH, TA, and milk coagulation properties (MCP), measured as rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd-firming time (k(20), min), and curd firmness (a(30), mm). Cheese yield was expressed as kilograms of cheese per 100 kg milk transformed, and was measured after 2 d of drainage. Fat, protein, and casein contents were positively and strongly correlated with CY (coefficients of correlation, r = 0.72, 0.88, and 0.84, respectively; P Coagulation properties were moderately and significantly (P milk that coagulated earlier and had stronger a(30) was associated to greater CY. Cheese yield was analysed with a model that accounted for fixed effects of cheese-making day, fat and protein content, TA, and a(30). Significance was found for all the effects (P Milk characterised by high values of a(30) resulted in higher CY than milk with low values of a 30, indicating that MCP could be used as indicators of cheese-making efficiency. Future research should investigate the relationships between MCP and quality of cheese, and explore the feasibility of including MCP in multiple component milk pricing system for Grana Padano cheese production.

  16. ANOMALOUS BLUE COLOURING OF MOZZARELLA CHEESE INTENTIONALLY CONTAMINATED WITH PIGMENT PRODUCING STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sechi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2010 a large outbreak of anomalous blue coloration of mozzarella cheese was recorded in Italy and some northern European countries. Official laboratory analysis and health authorities linked the outbreak to the contamination of processing water with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, although several expert raised the question of how to unequivocally link the blue coloring to the presence of the micro-organism. In an attempt to set-up a method to determine whether a given Pseudomonas spp. strain is responsible of the defect, an in vitro system for the evaluation of blue colouring of mozzarella cheese intentionally contaminated with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens. was developed The system is aimed to ascertain whether P. fluorescens strains, isolated from mozzarella cheese with anomalous blue coloration, are able to reproduce the blue coloration under controlled experimental condition. 96 trials of experimental inoculation of mozzarella cheese in different preservation liquids, were conducted using various suspension of Pseudomonas spp. (P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, P. fluorescens CFBP 3150, one P. fluorescens field strain isolated from blue-colored mozzarella cheese and P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as positive control at different concentrations and incubated at different temperatures. Growth curve of all Pseudomonas spp. strains tested demonstrated that after three days of incubation the concentration was generally higher than 106 CFU/g of mozzarella cheese incubated in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB, and higher than 105 CFU/g of mozzarella cheese incubated in preservation liquid. All mozzarella cheeses inoculated with the field strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens showed the characteristic anomalous blue coloration, which is often associated with Pseudomonas fluorescens contamination of water used during mozzarella cheesemaking. With the proposed system, which enabled a considerable amount of samples to be analysed under controlled experimental

  17. Yeast community in traditional Portuguese Serpa cheese by culture-dependent and -independent DNA approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Dos Santos, Maria Teresa P; Benito, María José; Córdoba, María de Guía; Alvarenga, Nuno; Ruiz-Moyano Seco de Herrera, Santiago

    2017-12-04

    This study investigated the yeast community present in the traditional Portuguese cheese, Serpa, by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Sixteen batches of Serpa cheeses from various regional industries registered with the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) versus non-PDO registered, during spring and winter, were used. Irrespective of the producer, the yeast counts were around 5log CFU/g in winter and, overall, were lower in spring. The yeast species identified at the end of ripening (30days), using PCR-RFLP analysis and sequencing of the 26S rRNA, mainly corresponded to Debaryomyces hansenii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, with Candida spp. and Pichia spp. present to a lesser extent. The culture-independent results, obtained using high-throughput sequencing analysis, confirmed the prevalence of Debaryomyces spp. and Kluyveromyces spp. but, also, that Galactomyces spp. was relevant for three of the five producers, which indicates its importance during the early stages of the cheese ripening process, considering it was not found among the dominant viable yeast species. In addition, differences between the identified yeast isolated from cheeses obtained from PDO and non-PDO registered industries, showed that the lack of regulation of the cheese-making practice, may unfavourably influence the final yeast microbiota. The new knowledge provided by this study of the yeast diversity in Serpa cheese, could be used to modify the cheese ripening conditions, to favour desirable yeast species. Additionally, the prevalent yeast isolates identified, Debaryomyces hansenii and Kluyveromyces spp., may have an important role during cheese ripening and in the final sensorial characteristics. Thus, the study of their technological and functional properties could be relevant, in the development of an autochthonous starter culture, to ensure final quality and safety of the cheese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils. [USA - Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A M University, Normal, AL (USA). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza {ital Lespedeza striata} (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza {ital Lespedeza cuneata} (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by Bragg' soybean {ital Glycine max} (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl {gt} DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Invited review: Microbial evolution in raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses produced using undefined natural whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Monica; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Mucchetti, Germano

    2014-02-01

    The robustness of the starter culture during cheese fermentation is enhanced by the presence of a rich consortium of microbes. Natural starters are consortia of microbes undoubtedly richer than selected starters. Among natural starters, natural whey starters (NWS) are the most common cultures currently used to produce different varieties of cheeses. Undefined NWS are typically used for Italian cooked, long-ripened, extra-hard, raw milk cheeses, such as Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano. Together with raw milk microbiota, NWS are responsible for most cheese characteristics. The microbial ecology of these 2 cheese varieties is based on a complex interaction among starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which are characterized by their different abilities to grow in a changing substrate. This review aims to summarize the latest findings on Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano to better understand the dynamics of SLAB, which mainly arise from NWS, and NSLAB, which mainly arise from raw milk, and their possible role in determining the characteristics of these cheeses. The review is presented in 4 main sections. The first summarizes the main microbiological and chemical properties of the ripened cheese as determined by cheese-making process variables, as these variables may affect microbial growth. The second describes the microbiota of raw milk as affected by specific milk treatments, from milking to the filling of the cheese milk vat. The third describes the microbiota of NWS, and the fourth reviews the knowledge available on microbial dynamics from curd to ripened cheese. As the dynamics and functionality of complex undefined NWS is one of the most important areas of focus in current food microbiology research, this review may serve as a good starting point for implementing future studies on microbial diversity and functionality of undefined cheese starter cultures. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association

  20. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  1. Identification of a particular cheese production by trace analysis with nuclear techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, A.; Stroppa, A.; Cagnazzo, M.; Pappalardo, P.; Borio, A.; Manera, S.

    2006-05-01

    The counterfeit of a product, in this case a type of cheese, is an economic damage for the trade-mark product. An identification of the product itself by quantification of trace elements could be done. Nuclear techniques are useful and give good results. Some elements are connected to the process so different productions could be identified. Thirty elements and 160 spectrums are analysed. The samples of the same kind of cheese come from different countries and different Italian producers (15 different productions).

  2. Identification of a particular cheese production by trace analysis with nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvini, A; Stroppa, A; Cagnazzo, M; Pappalardo, P; Borio, A; Manera, S

    2006-01-01

    The counterfeit of a product, in this case a type of cheese, is an economic damage for the trade-mark product. An identification of the product itself by quantification of trace elements could be done. Nuclear techniques are useful and give good results. Some elements are connected to the process so different productions could be identified. Thirty elements and 160 spectrums are analysed. The samples of the same kind of cheese come from different countries and different Italian producers (15 different productions)

  3. Effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Paul M.; Garza, Eric L.; Butcher, Jason T.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated dredge spoil is a national concern due to its scope and effects on biota, water quality, and the physical environment. This literature review discusses the effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities. Plant communities naturally shift over time with changing environmental conditions. Addition of toxins and nutrients and changes in hydrology may influence plant community structure. The storage and disposal of nutrient and metal contaminated dredge spoils may cause shifts in nearby plant communities. Shifts in species composition and diversity may not be observed for decades after nutrient enrichment, causing any disturbance to remain undetected. Plant community shifts often have great amounts of inertia and are difficult to reverse.

  4. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh cheese using protective lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, M C; Silva, C C G; Ribeiro, S C; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Rosa, H J D

    2014-11-17

    detected over the same period, in the absence of bacteriocin-producing LAB. The combination of two bacteriocin producing Enterococcus sp. optimized the reduction of L. monocytogenes counts in fresh cheese, reducing by approximately 5 log units after 7 days. The present work demonstrates that using bacteriocin-producing strains in the manufacture of fresh cheese might contribute to preventing the growth of undesirable pathogenic bacteria such as L. monocytogenes. A blend of two strains demonstrated great potential as a protective culture for the cheese making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pasture quality and cheese traceability index of Ragusano PDO cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera Copani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Iblei plateau (Sicily, Southern Italy the native dairy cattle breed Modicana during the spring season grazes exclusively on natural pastures for the production of the Ragusano protected denomination of origin cheese. Along the grazing season, herbage undergoes to changes on protein, fibre and moisture content, affecting quality parameters such as plant carotenoids concentration, involved in the colour and nutritional characteristics of dairy products and potential biomarkers for authenticating fed green pasture-based diets. The aim of this work was to assess whether the cheese traceability index, based on the carotenoids spectra data elaboration, could be related to seasonal variations of floral composition and pasture quality. Four herbage and cheese samples were collected every two weeks in two representative farms of this area, from March to May 2013. Pasture characteristics as pastoral vegetation composition and pastoral value were analysed using the methodology developed for pastoral resources studies. Traceability index showed a significant positive correlation with pasture moisture and crude protein content (r=0.729* and 0.853**, respectively, while it was negatively correlated with fibre content (r=–0.719*.

  6. From milk to cheese: Evolution of flavor fingerprint of milk, cream, curd, whey, ricotta, scotta, and ripened cheese obtained during summer Alpine pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, M; Bittante, G

    2018-02-14

    The role of each step of cheese and ricotta making in development of flavor of cheese and other dairy products is not yet well known. The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOC) in cheese and ricotta making with bulk milk from cows grazing in a highland area and to evaluate their evolution in the various dairy products and by-products obtained during the production processes. A group of 148 cows was grazed day and night on pasture from June to September. A total of 7 cheese-making sessions were carried out using the bulk milk collected every 2 wk during summer pasturing according to the artisanal procedure used for Malga cheese production. All milks, products, and by-products were sampled, and the VOC content of milk, cream, whey, ricotta, scotta (residual liquid), fresh cheeses, and cheeses ripened for 6 and 12 mo was determined by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Forty-nine compounds were identified belonging to the following chemical families: alcohols (13), aldehydes (9), esters (8), free fatty acids (6), ketones (5), lactones (2), sulfurs (2), terpenes (2), phenol (1), and benzene (1). The results showed that the amounts of VOC in the various dairy products differed significantly. Comparisons between the VOC of 4 types of milk (whole evening, skim evening, whole morning, mixed in the vat) showed that the skimming process had the greatest effect, with about half of all the VOC analyzed affected, followed by time of milking (evening milking vs. morning milking) and mixing (skim evening milk mixed with whole morning milk). In general, among fresh products, cream had higher contents of fatty acids, sulfurs, and terpene volatile compounds than fresh cheese and ricotta, whereas ricotta showed a very high VOC amount compared with fresh cheese, probably due to its high processing temperature. The effects of the progressive nutrient depletion in milk during processing were investigated by comparing

  7. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    of cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars....... In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  8. Socioeconomic diagnosis of cheese producers of Marajó, state of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Nazaré Costa Seixas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to diagnose the socioeconomic conditions of cheese producers from three municipalities of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil. Manufacture process, hygienic-sanitary conditions in handmade cheese production and its commercialization were some features analysed for both cream-type and butter-type cheeses. During the survey, conducted from March to September 2012 questionnaires were applied to ten Marajó’s cheese producers. The cheese fabrication was characterized as a handmade process, employing family labor, most over ten years of experience. The production has a small scale, uses rudimentary technologies, lacks proper infrastructure for the processing of the product and has unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions. Commercialization is mainly by direct sale on the ship that travels to Belém city, capital of Pará state. Interviewed producers showed good reception to knowledge that can improve quality of the product, but they need a better guidance. In this context, the transfer of information is essential to sustain the production of these cheeses and preserve local culture, contributing to the economic and social development of producers regions.

  9. An Electronic Nose Based on Coated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals to Certify Ewes’ Cheese and to Discriminate between Cheese Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa S. R. Gomes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose based on coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was used to distinguish cheese made from ewes’ milk, and to distinguish cheese varieties. Two sensors coated with Nafion and Carbowax could certify half the ewes’ cheese samples, exclude 32 cheeses made from cow’s milk and to classify half of the ewes’ cheese samples as possibly authentic. Two other sensors, coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone and triethanolamine clearly distinguished between Flamengo, Brie, Gruyère and Mozzarella cheeses. Brie cheeses were further separated according to their origin, and Mozzarella grated cheese also appeared clearly separated from non-grated Mozzarella.

  10. Effect of variety and maturation of cheese on supercritical fluid extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Jessica L; Walker, John; Khalil, Hany; Jiménez-Flores, Rafael

    2008-07-09

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been utilized by the food industry in many applications to extract, fractionate, and recover compounds from various food matrices. However, little research has been conducted using SFE as an alternative process for producing reduced-fat cheese. Lipids in cheeses may be selectively extracted due to the nonpolar properties of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), without leaving residual chemicals as is the case in solvent extraction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence on the extraction process due to cheese variety and protein breakdown by age. A Latin square design was utilized to test the extractability of lipids from Parmesan and Cheddar cheeses, aged young (9-10 months) or old (24 months). Extraction took place in a 500 mL SFE vessel using 100 g of grated cheese samples. The SFE parameters of the extraction were 350 bar, 35 degrees C, and supercritical carbon dioxide at a flow rate of 20 g/min for 55 min. Compositional analysis measured all treated samples and controls of total lipids, lipid profiling, total protein, protein/peptide analysis, moisture, ash, and pH. Cheese type was a major variable in fat extraction. The extraction in Cheddar showed an average fat reduction of 53.56% for young cheese, whereas that in old Cheddar was 47.90%. However, young Parmesan was reduced an average of 55.07%, but old Parmesan was reduced at 68.11%, measured on a dry basis. SFE extracted triglycerides and cholesterol, but did not remove phospholipids. This investigation introduces the observations of the effect of Cheddar and Parmesan varieties on SFE, offering data on the important parameters to consider in the design of SFE processes to reduce fat in cheese.

  11. The influence of ripening period length and season on the microbiological parameters of a traditional Brazilian cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria M. Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ripening process of Serro Minas cheese, one of the most popular cheeses produced with raw milk in Brazil, was studied over the course of 60 days of ripening during dry and rainy seasons. Brazilian legislation prohibits the production of cheese from raw milk unless it was submitted to a maturation period greater than 60 days. However Minas Serro cheese is sold within a few days of ripening. A total of 100 samples of Serro cheese were obtained from five farms; 50 samples were collected during the dry season (winter in Brazil and 50 samples were collected during the rainy season (summer in Brazil. From each farm, ten cheeses were collected during each season after two days of ripening. Our results showed high levels of total and fecal coliforms at the beginning of the ripening period (approximately 4 Log MPN/g with 3 days of ripening that decreased with 60 days of ripening reaching almost 1.5 Log MPN/g. Contamination by coagulase-positive staphylococci was reduced by the end of the ripening period. Salmonella spp. was not detected. The staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C were detected in 1% and 4% of the cheeses, respectively, after 30 days of ripening. These results suggest that the ripening process was not effective in eliminating staphylococcal enterotoxins from the cheese. However, none of the investigated strains of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from Serro cheese produced enterotoxins A, B, C or D. The high pathogen and coliform levels at the beginning of the ripening process for the cheese produced during both seasons indicate the need for improvement of the sanitation of the manufacturing conditions.

  12. Cheese consumption and prevalence of overweight and obesity in a Basque adult population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Lertxundi, Iker; Rocandio Pablo, Ana; Arroyo-Izaga, Marta

    2014-02-01

    Studies have reported a negative association between dairy product consumption and weight status. However, not as much research has focused on cheese; therefore, the aim of this study was to study the association between cheese intake and overweight and obesity in a representative Basque adult population. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was obtained from a random sample of 1081 adults (530 males and 551 females, 17-96 years old). Cheese consumption data were expressed as g/1000 kcal/day. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in men (55.1%) than in women (35.4%) (p fresh and processed cheese demonstrated a higher prevalence of excess weight, compared with those with higher consumption. The confounding variables selected in multivariate analysis were: occupational status and age in both genders; and place of residence in men. In conclusion, negative associations were found between consumption of some types of cheese and overweight and obesity in this population.

  13. 21 CFR 133.123 - Cold-pack and club cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack and club cheese. 133.123 Section 133.123... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.123 Cold-pack and club cheese. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese, club cheese, is...

  14. Plains hydrology and reclamation project: Spoil ground-water chemistry and its impacts on surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudell, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Description of the chemical makeup of spoil groundwater at Diplomat and Vesta mines in the Battle River mining area, 200 km southeast of Edmonton within the Lower Horseshoe Canyon coal zone; and at Highvale and Whitewood Mines in the Lake Wabamun mining area, 100 km west of Edmonton within the Ardley coal zone. This report compares the chemical characteristics of the spoil groundwater for each mine to those of the principal premining aquifer that is disrupted by surface mining. The characterization of spoil groundwater chemistry is based on the sampling and analyses of groundwater from piezometers installed in reclaimed areas. Forty-three samples were collected from 23 piezometers at Vesta Mine, and 54 samples were collected from 32 piezometers at Diplomat Mine. At Highvale Mine, 29 samples were collected from 13 piezometers installed in the reclaimed area at Pit 01. Eleven samples were also collected from piezometers installed in spoil at Whitewood Mine to augment a study of that site.

  15. Exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant: a detailed survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Farshid; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a detailed exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant was conducted based on actual operational data in order to provide more comprehensive insights into the performance of the whole plant and its main subcomponents. The plant included four main subsystems, i.e., steam generator (I), above-zero refrigeration system (II), Bactocatch-assisted pasteurization line (III), and UF cheese production line (IV). In addition, this analysis was aimed at quantifying the exergy destroyed in processing a known quantity of the UF cheese using the mass allocation method. The specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production was determined at 2330.42 kJ/kg. The contributions of the subsystems I, II, III, and IV to the specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production were computed as 1337.67, 386.18, 283.05, and 323.51 kJ/kg, respectively. Additionally, it was observed through the analysis that the steam generation system had the largest contribution to the thermodynamic inefficiency of the UF cheese production, accounting for 57.40 % of the specific exergy destruction. Generally, the outcomes of this survey further manifested the benefits of applying exergy analysis for design, analysis, and optimization of industrial-scale dairy processing plants to achieve the most cost-effective and environmentally-benign production strategies.

  16. Survival of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Minas frescal cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesieli Braz Frozi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157:H7 strains (isolated by cattle’s faeces and a reference strain, EDL933, were inoculated into pasteurized milk (102 and 103 cells.mL–1 to prepare the Minas frescal cheese. As control was used uninfected milk. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were performed to milk and elaborated cheese. The O157:H7 strains were quantified in the stages of cheese processing and during 0, 2, 4, 5, 7, 10 and 15 storage days at 8 °C onto Sorbitol MacConkey Agar supplemented with potassium tellurite and cefixime (CT-SMAC. O157:H7 was not present in the pasteurised milk prior to the artificial inoculation. At the end of the processing the cheese had 10 to 100 times more STEC O157:H7 than the initial inoculum. During the storage, the Minas frescal cheese exhibited the largest population increase on the 4th and 5th day when inoculated with 102 and 103 cells.mL–1, respectively. Additionally, viable cells were found up to the 10th and 15th day, according to the amount of initial inoculum. This number of cells is able to cause infection in humans, and therefore, Minas frescal cheese, even when stored under refrigeration, is a potential vehicle of disease caused by STEC O157:H7.

  17. Dehydroacetic acid in cheese and cheese coating, results of official control in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordino, Monica; Lazzaro, Francesco; Borzì, Marco A; Sabatino, Leonardo; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of dehydroacetic acid in cheese and cheese coatings collected in Italy during Agricultural Ministry Official control. Dehydroacetic acid is an antimicrobial substance not allowed to be used in EU countries as a food additive, with unknown effects on human health. Dehydroacetic acid was measured by a validated HPLC method according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria in terms of specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The method was successfully applied to 129 samples of commercial cheese coatings and related treated cheeses collected in Italy during 2017. The overall results demonstrated that about 40% of the investigated cheese coatings contained dehydroacetic acid, ranging from 0.010% to 2.5% w/w, evidencing illicit employment of this substance. Moreover, about 25% of treated cheeses contained dehydroacetic acid, from 5 to 250 mg/Kg, proving transfer of this substance from crust to cheese.

  18. Effect of Pasteurization Temperature, Starter Culture, and Incubation Temperature on the Physicochemical Properties, Yield, Rheology, and Sensory Characteristics of Spreadable Goat Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Frau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The local cheese factories currently use bovine commercial starter cultures, and the spreadable cheese process is not standardized. A detailed understanding of the effect of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature must allow producers to optimize the process, increase cheese yield, and improve the quality of the final product. The main objective of the study was to describe the preparation method of spreadable goat cheese and investigate the effects of specific processing conditions (pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature on the composition, yield, rheology, and sensory characteristics of the final product. Results showed the impact of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature on spreadable goat cheese. The results indicated that it is possible to improve cheese yield, rheological properties, and sensory analysis when milk is pasteurized at 75°C for 30 minutes; cheese yield can also be improved by lowering incubation temperature to 37°C. Cheeses made with autochthonous starter culture showed better sensory characteristics and higher pH compared to the cheeses made with commercial culture.

  19. Fortification of Cheddar cheese with vitamin D does not alter cheese flavor perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, B; Brothersen, C; McMahon, D J

    2011-07-01

    Currently, dietary guidelines for vitamin D consumption are under review, considering new information that >50% of the US population is vitamin D deficient, and may lead to a recommendation of a higher dietary intake of this vitamin. Vitamin D fortification of cheese aims to improve the current availability of fortified dairy foods beyond liquid milk. However, cheese is susceptible to undesirable flavor changes during long-term cheese ripening, and cheese bacteria and enzymes may degrade added vitamins. To test the retention of vitamin D(3) in Cheddar cheese curd, cheese milk was fortified initially during manufacture at a level of 150 IU/serving, using commercial sources that contained vitamin D(3) in powder, oil, or emulsion form, with and without homogenization of the fortified milk. When fortification was done directly to the cheese milk, we found that more than 80% vitamin D(3) was retained in cheese curd, irrespective of homogenization or form of fortification. Further, Cheddar cheese was fortified with the emulsion form of vitamin D(3) directly in cheese milk at 200 and 400 IU/serving to test stability and flavor changes. Vitamin D(3) fortified in this manner was stable for up to 9 mo in Cheddar cheese. Consumer acceptance and descriptive analysis of flavor profiles of cheese were also conducted and showed that vitamin D(3) fortified cheeses were equally liked by consumers, and cheese taste and flavor remained unaltered with vitamin D(3) addition even after aging for 9 mo. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Laboratory rainfall simulator studies of selected open-cut coal mine overburden spoils from Central Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K.G.; Loch, R.J.; Aspinall, T.O.; Bell, L.C. [Eros and Hydrology Group, Jabiru, NT (Australia)

    1997-05-01

    Data on the erodibility of overburden spoils resulting from open-cut coal mining are limited. These data are required to derive parameters for erosion prediction models which can be used in the design of re-formed landscapes after mining. In this study, laboratory rainfall simulation data were used to derive CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems) interfill erodibility parameters K and n{sub bov} for Central Queensland coal mine overburden spoils. For the spoils studied, K values ranged from 0.0111 to 0.1398 Mg ha h/(ha MJ mm) and n{sub bov} values ranged from 0.0004 to 0.0081. Sediment yield was transport controlled. Results for 1 spoil, South Blackwater Terang, showed that total soil loss increased linearly with slope, and both K and n{sub bov} varied non-linearly with slope. If a constant set of K and n{sub bov} values is used in modelling, CREAMS over-predicts spoil loss for slopes greater than that for which the parameter values were determined, and under-predicts spoil loss for slopes less than that for which the parameter values were determined.

  2. Influences of humic and fulvic acids and organic matter on leachate chemistry from acid coal spoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentry, C.E.; Davidson, W.H.; Wade, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    Column-leaching experiments were conducted on an acid pyritic coal spoil to determine the influence of acid rain, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and undecomposed organic matter (OM) on pH and Al, Fe, Mn, and SO 4 concentrations in the spoil leachate and on the spoil. Simulated acid rain of pH 4.0 was applied for 50 weeks under laboratory conditions to spoil columns modified with 0.5% FA or HA, or 2.0% OM from four forest trees and two herbs. Quality-control methods were used to evaluate treatment effects. Addition of HA and tall fescue leaf material to a Lily, KY, spoil created a greater and longer lasting desirable effect on leachate pH and Al, Fe, Mn, and SO 4 than additions of FA or OM of five other species. Results suggest that revegetation resulting in rapid production of matured soil OM may reduce the amount of some ions commonly leached from acid mine spoils

  3. Reforestation of Bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karthikeyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted in degradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth. However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum (Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings ofEucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings ofE. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantly higher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher in AM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings. 

  4. Reforestation of bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Krishnakumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted indegradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth.However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum(Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum(Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings of E. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantlyhigher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher inAM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings.

  5. The Microfloras of Traditional Greek Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, Evanthia; Tzanetakis, Nikolaos

    2014-02-01

    Many traditional cheeses are made in Greece. Some of them are, in fact, types of the same cheese variety, whether or not they have different cheesemaking technologies, but are known by different local names. Twenty of them have been granted protected designation of origin status. In the 8th century BCE, Homer described a cheese thought to be the ancestor of feta, the main cheese manufactured in Greece from the ancient times until today. Meanwhile, various cheese types evolved through the centuries, and almost every area in Greece has its own cheesemaking tradition. Some cheese varieties are local, handcrafted products whose production has been handed down from generation to generation, and without interest in their continued production, these varieties will disappear. Other local varieties are made at small factories from pasteurized milk and commercial rennet and starter and are very different from the traditional versions. However, some milk producers still make their cheeses at home or at small dairies from raw milk, without any starter, or sometimes from thermized milk, with traditional yogurt as the starter. Their cheeses are the basis for the information presented in this review.

  6. Proteolysis and consistency of Meshanger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de L.

    1978-01-01

    Proteolysis in Meshanger cheese, estimated by quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is discussed. The conversion of α s1 -casein was proportional to rennet concentration in the cheese. Changes in consistency, after a maximum, were correlated to breakdown of

  7. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    . In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TEPEQUE CHEESE FROM “LA TIERRA CALIENTE” OF THE STATE OF MICHOACÁN: A CHEESE PRODUCED IN AN INTENSIVE SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Solís Méndez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to describe the characteristics of the Tepeque cheese from “La Tierra Caliente” of the State of Michoacán, Mexico. Its region of origin, manufacturing process, physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics, were investigated. In addition the changes that occurred in the milk and cheese due to the introduction of a feeding system based on the use of an intensive silvo-pastoral system (ISPS were described. The methodological approach consisted of field visits for data collection, semi-structured interviews to farmers in order to know the milk production systems and the cheese elaboration process. The physical (pH and density and chemical characteristics (protein, fat, lactose, non fat solids and added water of the milk used to elaborate the Tepeque cheese were determined. For the cheese the protein, fat, salt, moisture and ash contents and the pH were determined. The microbiological characteristics were determined for both milk and cheese, these included presence of mesophilic bacteria coliforms bacteria, yeast, fungus, Listeria spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The field study was carried out in 2010; it was divided in two experimental periods of six months each, named rainfall season and dry season. Fifteen milk-cheese producers were sampled, eight of them practice the traditional milk production systems and seven the ISPS. It was observed that the Tepeque cheese is a dairy product of excellent quality from the point of view of its main nutritional components, it is made with good quality milk too and it has a long history and great tradition that is older than 300 years. On the other hand, the cheese elaborated with milk from the ISPS had higher fat content (P0.05. Finally, it was observed that the sanitary characteristics of the milk and cheese were deficient in both systems; this problem is attenuated with the maturing process of cheese since as the cheese matures the number of

  9. Investigation of enzyme modified cheese production by two species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Cheese curd which has been treated with enzymes to generate a concentrated cheese flavor is considered to be enzyme-modified cheese (EMC). EMCs provide the .... was brine salted and was kept for one month as the ripening period. For production of EMC, the cheese curd (65%), distilled water.

  10. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... harmless lactic-acid-producing bacteria, present in such milk or added thereto. Harmless artificial... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for...

  11. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  12. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated... pasteurization. Cheese made from unpasteurized milk shall be cured for a period of 60 days at a temperature not...

  13. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should be...

  14. Cheese powder as an ingredient in emulsion sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiang; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    modified their profile of volatile compounds. Blue cheese increased some ketones, alcohols, and esters, while brown cheese brought typical Maillard reaction compounds. Overall, addition of cheese powders to sausages enhanced the intensity of flavour traits. A mixture of hard and blue cheese powder showed...

  15. Kinetic Behavior of on Various Cheeses under Constant and Dynamic Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed kinetic models to predict the growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli on cheeses during storage at constant and changing temperatures. A five-strain mixture of pathogenic E. coli was inoculated onto natural cheeses (Brie and Camembert and processed cheeses (sliced Mozzarella and sliced Cheddar at 3 to 4 log CFU/g. The inoculated cheeses were stored at 4, 10, 15, 25, and 30°C for 1 to 320 h, with a different storage time being used for each temperature. Total bacteria and E. coli cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar and MacConkey sorbitol agar, respectively. E. coli growth data were fitted to the Baranyi model to calculate the maximum specific growth rate (μmax; log CFU/g/h, lag phase duration (LPD; h, lower asymptote (log CFU/g, and upper asymptote (log CFU/g. The kinetic parameters were then analyzed as a function of storage temperature, using the square root model, polynomial equation, and linear equation. A dynamic model was also developed for varying temperature. The model performance was evaluated against observed data, and the root mean square error (RMSE was calculated. At 4°C, E. coli cell growth was not observed on any cheese. However, E. coli growth was observed at 10°C to 30°C with a μmax of 0.01 to 1.03 log CFU/g/h, depending on the cheese. The μmax values increased as temperature increased, while LPD values decreased, and μmax and LPD values were different among the four types of cheese. The developed models showed adequate performance (RMSE = 0.176–0.337, indicating that these models should be useful for describing the growth kinetics of E. coli on various cheeses.

  16. Quality and safety of artisan cheese produced in the serrana region of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giane Helenita Pontarolo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The serrano artisan cheese produced from raw milk of dairy cattle is a typical product of high-altitude farms in the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. However, marketing of the cheeses occurs illegally because they lack the minimum maturation period required for cheese produced from raw milk. The production of artisan cheeses is required to follow strict hygiene standards. This study aimed to test the quality and safety of cheeses that were produced in 31 farms of the Serrana region in Santa Catarina after 14 and 28 days of maturation. Coliform count was measured at 35 °C, and presence of other microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Listeria spp., and Salmonella spp. were also tested. Fat and protein percentages, acidity, salt content, and humidity were also evaluated. Data were subjected to statistical analyses using the SAS® software. After 14 and 28 days of maturation, 74.19% (23/31 and 64.52% (20/31 of samples, respectively, showed higher numbers of coliforms at 35 °C than those permissible by law. Higher than permissible numbers of E. coli were observed in 45.16% (14/31 and 48.39% (15/31 of the samples analyzed after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. Coagulase-positive staphylococci values above 103 CFU/g were observed in 54.84% (17/31 and 51.61% (16/31 of cheese samples after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. Contamination with Salmonella spp. was not detected. However, Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b was isolated in 3.23% (1/31 and 6.45% (2/31 of samples after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. The results of humidity tests classified the cheese samples into three categories: low, medium, and high humidity. Semi fat cheeses were predominant in both maturation periods, although the samples were classified in thin, semi fat, and fat cheeses. The main variations in the compositions of analyzed samples occurred for salt and acidity levels. The maturation process has not proven

  17. Evaluation of Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus Aureus Contamination in Lighvan Cheese on Retail Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salehi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, non-sporulated, lack of capsule, immovable, aerobic and anaerobic and able to tolerate high levels of salt (up to 15 percent. Therefore, foods containing salt provides an ideal environment for bacterial growth. It is also one of the most important bacterial born of spoilable food products, especially in dairy products. Lighvan traditional cheese is consumed in many regions of Iran, especially consumption of these cheeses is very high in Tehran which in the manufacture of such cheeses, the unpasteurized and raw milk is used and the sanitary conditions during processing and subsequent storage are low. So, considering the importance of this issue in the release of poisoning, the coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus contamination in Lighvan cheese on Retail Stores was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In order to perform this study, 22 samples of traditional Lighvan cheese were collected randomly from Tehran stores and according to Iran national standards and by using of bird-parker, Cook Meat cultures and coagulase test were evaluated. Results: Total of 22 samples, 14 samples (63/6% were contaminated by S. aureus over standard and 5 (22/7% were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus coagulase positive. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that sanitary conditions should be observed during the production and Use of pasteurized milk in cheese production.

  18. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence. PMID:25918702

  19. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine McIntyre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft ripened cheese (SRC caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC, Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m., an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant’s water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant’s open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence.

  20. Evaluation of quality measurement of Olomouc cake of cheese (Olomoucké tvarůžky during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Strnadová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Olomouc cake of cheese (Olomoucké tvarůžky is smear-ripened cheese, which is produced from sour industrial curd. Brevibacterium linens, which are added during the production process, are reproducing and make gold-yellow smear cover. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical analysis of the quality of Olomouc cake of cheese. Changes in chemical composition were evaluated during different stages of production and at the same time it was detected whether changes in chemical composition during the manufacturing process are same in spring as well as in summer, without statistically significant differences. Dry matter of Olomouc cake of cheese was ranged from 35 % to 39 %. The increase of dry matter during production is evident, but these changes were in the most cases not statistically signifiant (P > 0.05. The value of titratable acidity of the cheese considerably changes during the manufacturing process, it has a decreasing tendency. Titratable acidity of cheese after shaping was 106.64 (136.12 SH and at the end of life it was 49.91 (65.06 SH. These changes were very highly statistically significant (P 0.05 in cheese from summer period. Content of salt is increased from 5.30 % to 5.98 %, respectively 6.10 %. In spring period the oposite changes in most cases occured (P 0.05.

  1. Commercial ripening starter microorganisms inoculated into cheese milk do not successfully establish themselves in the resident microbial ripening consortia of a South german red smear cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerges, Stefanie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C; Gelsomino, Roberto; Heise, Valeska; Beduhn, Rüdiger; Cogan, Timothy M; Vancanneyt, Marc; Scherer, Siegfried

    2008-04-01

    Production of smear-ripened cheese critically depends on the surface growth of multispecies microbial consortia comprising bacteria and yeasts. These microorganisms often originate from the cheese-making facility and, over many years, have developed into rather stable, dairy-specific associations. While commercial smear starters are frequently used, it is unclear to what degree these are able to establish successfully within the resident microbial consortia. Thus, the fate of the smear starters of a German Limburger cheese subjected to the "old-young" smearing technique was investigated during ripening. The cheese milk was supplemented with a commercial smear starter culture containing Debaryomyces hansenii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Additionally, the cheese surface was inoculated with an extremely stable in-house microbial consortium. A total of 1,114 yeast and 1,201 bacterial isolates were identified and differentiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, repetitive PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis analyses were used to type selected isolates below the species level. The D. hansenii starter strain was primarily found early in the ripening process. The G. geotrichum starter strain in particular established itself after relocation to a new ripening room. Otherwise, it occurred at low frequencies. The bacterial smear starters could not be reisolated from the cheese surface at all. It is concluded that none of the smear starter strains were able to compete significantly and in a stable fashion against the resident microbial consortia, a result which might have been linked to the method of application. This finding raises the issue of whether addition of starter microorganisms during production of this type of cheese is actually necessary.

  2. Acetobacter oeni sp. nov., isolated from spoiled red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luis R; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Rivas, Raúl; Swings, Jean; Trujillo, Martha E; Willems, Anne; Velázquez, Encarna

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated B13T, was isolated from spoiled red wine from the Dão region, Portugal. The strain was Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped and motile. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that B13T belonged to the genus Acetobacter within the Alphaproteobacteria. The closest related species was Acetobacter aceti, with 98.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that B13T constituted a taxon separate from the Acetobacter species with validly published names. The DNA G+C content of B13T was 58.1 mol%. Phenotypic characteristics of B13T allowed its differentiation from the recognized Acetobacter species. B13T produced 5-ketogluconic acid from glucose, but no 2-ketogluconic acid. It produced catalase, but no oxidase. It utilized glycerol, but not maltose, ethanol or methanol as carbon sources. On the basis of the results obtained, B13T represents a novel species for which the name Acetobacter oeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B13T (= LMG 21952T = CECT 5830T).

  3. Merits of partial shielding in dumping sediment spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob Hjelmager; Saremi, Sina; Jimenez, Carlos; Hadjioannou, Louis

    2015-12-15

    The commonly adopted method of dumping dredge spoil at sea using split-hull barges leads to considerable sediment loss to the water column and a subsequent dispersion of fine material that can pose a risk to sensitive "downstream" habitats such as coral reefs. Containing sediment loads using stitched closed geotextile bags is practiced for minimizing loss of contaminated sediment, but is expensive in terms of operational efficiency. Following promising observations from initial laboratory trials, the plunging of partially shielded sediment loads, released on open sea, was studied. The partial shielding was achieved with rigid, open containers as well as flexible, open bags. The loss of sediment from these modes of shielding was measured, and it was observed that even limited and unstitched shielding can be effective in debilitating the entrainment of water into the descending load. In particular, long-sleeved flexible bags practically self-eliminated the exposure of the load and thus losses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cheese yield in Brazil: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cavalcanti SALES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This literature review discusses the concepts and factors that influence industrial cheese yield and compiles the latest studies conducted in Brazil involving this theme. In seeking to support managerial decision-making, cheese yield can be measured at the end of processing or estimated prior to this. In research and industry, measuring and estimating yield can be evaluated under the effect of processing, from different proportions and characteristics of ingredients (mainly milk quality, to processing factors involving the steps of the actual production (handling of the raw material and the curd coagulation conditions, salting, maturation, etc. and the equipment. The number of Brazilian studies that have sought to answer questions about this topic in recent years was reasonable. The vast majority of them considered yield in its most basic aspect, which is obtained by measuring what was produced. Few studies used the perspective of prediction, indicating that there is room for a more empirical approach that allows for obtaining other types of answers regarding efficiency in the production of cheese, and which is shown as an opportunity for Brazilian research to advance.

  5. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort cheese...

  6. Sampling and farm stories prompt consumers to buy specialty cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Barbara A.; Bruhn, Christine M.

    2003-01-01

    California specialty cheese makers need information on what drives product sales so they can effectively market their products. Focus group and telephone research revealed that specialty cheese consumers have a strong preference for sampling cheese before making a purchase. Consumers also rely heavily on staff recommendations to select cheese. They appreciate unlimited sampling in an unhurried, low-pressure environment. Specialty cheese consumers consider themselves “food experimenters”; they...

  7. Characterization of microflora in Latin-style cheeses by next-generation sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusk Tina S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cheese contamination can occur at numerous stages in the manufacturing process including the use of improperly pasteurized or raw milk. Of concern is the potential contamination by Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic bacteria that find the high moisture levels and moderate pH of popular Latin-style cheeses like queso fresco a hospitable environment. In the investigation of a foodborne outbreak, samples typically undergo enrichment in broth for 24 hours followed by selective agar plating to isolate bacterial colonies for confirmatory testing. The broth enrichment step may also enable background microflora to proliferate, which can confound subsequent analysis if not inhibited by effective broth or agar additives. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to provide a preliminary survey of bacterial species associated with three brands of Latin-style cheeses after 24-hour broth enrichment. Results Brand A showed a greater diversity than the other two cheese brands (Brands B and C at nearly every taxonomic level except phylum. Brand B showed the least diversity and was dominated by a single bacterial taxon, Exiguobacterium, not previously reported in cheese. This genus was also found in Brand C, although Lactococcus was prominent, an expected finding since this bacteria belongs to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB commonly found in fermented foods. Conclusions The contrasting diversity observed in Latin-style cheese was surprising, demonstrating that despite similarity of cheese type, raw materials and cheese making conditions appear to play a critical role in the microflora composition of the final product. The high bacterial diversity associated with Brand A suggests it may have been prepared with raw materials of high bacterial diversity or influenced by the ecology of the processing environment. Additionally, the presence of Exiguobacterium in high proportions (96% in Brand B and, to a lesser extent, Brand C (46%, may

  8. Preliminary findings on the effect of light-oxidation on Asiago d’allevo vecchio protected designation of origin cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Balzan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food is exposed to light during processing, packaging, distribution and retail storage, resulting in deterioration of the product quality. Milk and other dairy products are among the most sensitive due to the high content of riboflavin, vitamin B2, which is an efficient photosensitizer for oxidative processes. Photooxidation in cheese induces degradation of nutritional quality such as proteins, lipids, and vitamins. Moreover, it causes formation of off-flavours, off-odours and gradual bleaching. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of light exposition on sliced Asiago d’allevo cheese (lowland vs alpine aerobically packaged stored for 336 h under both fluorescent light and in the dark. Alpine cheese showed higher b* (P<0.001 and a* indexes (P<0.001 and also a higher lipid oxidation (P<0.01 than lowland one. Riboflavin content was significantly higher (P<0.001 in lowland cheese. Cheese samples exposed to the light were significantly lighter (P<0.001 than those exposed in the dark and they also showed a decrease in yellowness (P<0.001 and redness (P<0.001 as well as in riboflavin content (P<0.001. Lipid oxidation did not produce statistically significant change. Storage time significantly affected riboflavin content (P<0.001, TBARs (P<0.001 and cheese colour (P<0.001. Results suggest that light exposition had a pronounced effect on cheese characteristics.

  9. Influence of four single fresh forages on volatile organic compound (VOC content and profile and sensory properties of goat Caciotta cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Fedele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the trial was to evaluate the effect of fresh single-species herbage on the VOC and sensory properties of cheese, in order to individuate specific descriptors linked to the use of fresh herbage in pureness. Two groups of Siriana housed goats were fed alternately with 2 grasses: Avena sativa (AS and Lolium perenne (LP and 2 legumes: Medicago sativa (MS and Trifolium incarnatum (TI in pureness. The milk was processed as Caciotta cheese and ripened for 20 days. The VOC analyses (by GC-MS showed the highest VOC total content in AS cheeses (226.55a.u., where alcohols was the dominant class; the lowest value (79.96a.u. was found in TI cheeses, and the dominant class was hydrocarbons. The panel test (for colour, odour, taste and final acceptability showed that cheeses from grasses’ groups were described with astringent and blue taste, those from legumes with acidic, bitter and light goaty taste. All cheeses showed goaty taste, except LP cheeses. Grasses’ cheeses showed higher final acceptability than those from legumes. The results showed that each meadow’s species, with its specific content of secondary metabolites, at specific phenological stage, was able to characterise the derived cheese products at sensorial level.

  10. Formation of biogenic amines in raw milk Hispánico cheese manufactured with proteinases and different levels of starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-García, E; Tomillo, J; Nuñez, M

    2000-11-01

    Two proteinases, a neutral proteinase from Bacillus subtilis and a cysteine proteinase from Micrococcus sp., were used to accelerate the ripening process of raw cow's milk Hispánico cheese, a semihard variety. Two levels (0.1% and 1%) of a commercial starter culture containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris were added for cheese manufacture. The influence of both factors, proteinase addition and level of starter culture, on the growth of amino acid-decarboxylating microorganisms and on the formation of biogenic amines during cheese ripening was investigated in duplicate experiments. The population of tyrosine decarboxylase-positive bacteria, which represented less than 1% of the total bacterial population in most cheese samples, and tyrosine decarboxylase-positive lactobacilli was not influenced by proteinase addition or level of starter culture. Tyramine was detected in all batches of cheese from day 30. Its concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by proteinase addition but not by the level of starter culture and increased with cheese age. After 90 days of ripening, 103 to 191 mg/kg of tyramine was found in the different cheese batches. Histamine was not detected until day 60 in cheese with neutral proteinase and 1% starter culture and until day 90 in the rest of the cheeses. The concentration of this amine did not exceed 20 mg/kg in any of the batches investigated. Phenylethylamine and tryptamine were not found in any of the samples.

  11. The effects spicing on quality of mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Akarca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 3 different spice mixes were added just after blanching to mozzarella cheese produced by high moisture production method. The dough was kneaded and filled into to fibrous cases. After filling process, cheeses were stored for 28 days at 4 °C and 85 % of relative humidity. The following characteristics were measured: color parameters, milk acidity, total dry matter, maturation index, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, coagulase positive staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, species of Lactococcus bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, lipolytic bacteria and mold /yeast count were examined on 0, 5, 15,21 and 28 days after storage. Although L* (lightness and a* (redness values decreased during storage period, while moreover b* (yellowness values increased. In addition acidity, dry matter and maturation index values increased during storage. Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus spp., lipolytic bacteria and mold/ yeast counts decreased, but proteolytic bacteria count increased.

  12. Biodiversity of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages isolated from cheese whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Miriam; Bonvini, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Meucci, Aurora; Giraffa, Giorgio; Carminati, Domenico

    2015-05-01

    Twenty-one Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages, 18 isolated from different cheese whey starters and three from CNRZ collection, were phenotypically and genetically characterised. A biodiversity between phages was evidenced both by host range and molecular (RAPD-PCR) typing. A more detailed characterisation of six phages showed similar structural protein profiles and a relevant genetic biodiversity, as shown by restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. Latent period, burst time and burst size data evidenced that phages were active and virulent. Overall, data highlighted the biodiversity of Lb. helveticus phages isolated from cheese whey starters, which were confirmed to be one of the most common phage contamination source in dairy factories. More research is required to further unravel the ecological role of Lb. helveticus phages and to evaluate their impact on the dairy fermentation processes where whey starter cultures are used.

  13. Determination of staphylococcal enterotoxins in cheese by immunoenzyme assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most common foodborne diseases resulting from the ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs preformed in foods by enterotoxigenic strains of coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS, mainly Staphylococcus aureus. The presence of enterotoxigenic strains of coagulase-positive staphylococci in raw milk during the production process leads to the contamination of products and outbreaks of alimentary intoxication. The problem of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese remains significant on a global level. Domestic cheese contaminated with enterotoxigenic staphylococci can result in the formation of enterotoxin, which can produce foodborne illness when the product is ingested. Due to microbiological contamination, microbiological criteria are tools that can be used in assessing the safety and quality of foods. In order to avoid foodborne illness, the Serbian Regulation on General and Special Conditions for Food Hygiene (Official Gazette of RS, No. 72/10 provides microbiological criteria for staphylococcal enterotoxins in dairy products.

  14. Farm to Fork Quantitative Risk Assessment of Listeria monocytogenes Contamination in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Cheese in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Uma; Cummins, Enda; Valero, Antonio; Walsh, Des; Dalmasso, Marion; Jordan, Kieran; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to model and quantify the level of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk cheese (RMc) and pasteurized milk cheese (PMc) from farm to fork using a Bayesian inference approach combined with a quantitative risk assessment. The modeling approach included a prediction of contamination arising from the farm environment as well from cross-contamination within the cheese-processing facility through storage and subsequent human exposure. The model predicted a high concentration of L. monocytogenes in contaminated RMc (mean 2.19 log10 CFU/g) compared to PMc (mean -1.73 log10 CFU/g). The mean probability of illness (P1 for low-risk population, LR) and (P2 for high-risk population, HR, e.g., immunocompromised) adult Irish consumers following exposure to contaminated cheese was 7 × 10(-8) (P1 ) and 9 × 10(-4) (P2 ) for RMc and 7 × 10(-10) (P1 ) and 8 × 10(-6) (P2 ) for PMc, respectively. In addition, the model was used to evaluate performance objectives at various stages, namely, the cheese making and ripening stages, and to set a food safety objective at the time of consumption. A scenario analysis predicted various probabilities of L. monocytogenes contamination along the cheese-processing chain for both RMc and PMc. The sensitivity analysis showed the critical factors for both cheeses were the serving size of the cheese, storage time, and temperature at the distribution stage. The developed model will allow food processors and policymakers to identify the possible routes of contamination along the cheese-processing chain and to reduce the risk posed to human health. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Evolution of the microbiological profile of vacuum-packed ricotta salata cheese during shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Casti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ricotta salata cheese is a salted variety of ricotta traditionally made in Sardinia (Italy from the whey remaining after the production of Pecorino Romano protected designation of origin or other sheep milk cheeses. Ricotta salata cheese is very critical for the possible growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Sporadic cases of listeriosis associated with ricotta salata cheese have been reported over recent years. The objective of the present study was to assess the evolution of spoilage and pathogen microorganism of vacuum-packed ricotta salata cheese during the entire product shelf-life. The durability study was conducted on 18 vacuum-packed ricotta salata cheese samples analysed at the beginning of the shelf-life and after 60 and 90 days of refrigerated storage. Pathogens as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus were never detected. During shelf-life total bacterial counts ranged between 7.90±0.64 and 9.19±0.58 CFU g-1 on the rind and between 2.95±0.68 and 4.27±1.10 CFU g-1 in the inner paste, while Enterobacteriaceae ranged between 4.22±0.66 and 5.30±0.73 CFU g-1 on the rind and 3.13±1.80 and 2.80±0.88 CFU g-1 in the inner paste. By considering the technology used, the intrinsic properties and the almost total absence of competing microflora, ricotta salata cheese can support the growth of spoilage and pathogen microorganisms originating from the processing environment. The high level of total bacterial counts and Enterobacteriaceae observed both on the rind and in the inner paste suggests contamination of the product from the processing environment. Therefore, a strict implementation of hygiene during processing is essential in order to reduce the load of environmental contaminants that may grow during refrigerated storage.

  16. Evolution of the Microbiological Profile of Vacuum-Packed Ricotta Salata Cheese During Shelf-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casti, Daniele; Scarano, Christian; Pala, Carlo; Cossu, Francesca; Lamon, Sonia; Spanu, Vincenzo; Ibba, Michela; Mocci, Anna Maria; Tedde, Francesco; Nieddu, Gavino; Spanu, Carlo; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2016-04-19

    Ricotta salata cheese is a salted variety of ricotta traditionally made in Sardinia (Italy) from the whey remaining after the production of Pecorino Romano protected designation of origin or other sheep milk cheeses. Ricotta salata cheese is very critical for the possible growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Sporadic cases of listeriosis associated with ricotta salata cheese have been reported over recent years. The objective of the present study was to assess the evolution of spoilage and pathogen microorganism of vacuum-packed ricotta salata cheese during the entire product shelf-life. The durability study was conducted on 18 vacuum-packed ricotta salata cheese samples analysed at the beginning of the shelf-life and after 60 and 90 days of refrigerated storage. Pathogens as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus were never detected. During shelf-life total bacterial counts ranged between 7.90±0.64 and 9.19±0.58 CFU g -1 on the rind and between 2.95±0.68 and 4.27±1.10 CFU g -1 in the inner paste, while Enterobacteriaceae ranged between 4.22±0.66 and 5.30±0.73 CFU g -1 on the rind and 3.13±1.80 and 2.80±0.88 CFU g -1 in the inner paste. By considering the technology used, the intrinsic properties and the almost total absence of competing microflora, ricotta salata cheese can support the growth of spoilage and pathogen microorganisms originating from the processing environment. The high level of total bacterial counts and Enterobacteriaceae observed both on the rind and in the inner paste suggests contamination of the product from the processing environment. Therefore, a strict implementation of hygiene during processing is essential in order to reduce the load of environmental contaminants that may grow during refrigerated storage.

  17. Liking of traditional cheese and consumer willingness to pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We review herein the relevance of credence and sensory attributes for cheese liking as a basis for subsequent discussion on attributes related to traditional dairy products such as place of origin, process characteristics, etc. Several studies suggest that place of origin may have a positive impact on consumer evaluation. In addition, protected designation of origin labels generally affects consumers’ purchasing decisions, with a premium price paid for traditional products. Some of the main dimensions of traditional food products are: familiarity of the product, processing through traditional recipes, sensory properties and origins. However, different dimensions can be relevant for consumers of different countries. Southern European regions frequently tend to associate the concept of traditional with broad concepts such as heritage, culture or history; whereas central and northern European regions tend to focus mainly on practical issues such as convenience, health or appropriateness. Sensitivity to traditional cheese attributes may also vary according to different groups of consumers with older, more educated and wealthier subjects showing higher willingness to pay and acceptance levels. Given that sensory properties play a central role in product differentiation, we can conclude that information about credence attributes, if reliable, positively perceived and directed to sensitive groups of consumers, is able to affect consumer liking and willingness to pay for traditional cheese. Thus, it provides a further potential tool for product differentiation to small-scale traditional farms, where husbandry is often based on extensive rearing systems and production costs tend to be higher.

  18. Tracing and inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus in barbecue cheese production after product recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johler, S; Zurfluh, K; Stephan, R

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne intoxication worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of enterotoxins formed by Staphylococcus aureus during growth in the food matrix. Following a recall of barbecue cheese due to the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in Switzerland in July 2015, we analyzed the production process of the respective dairy. Although most cheese-making processes involve acidification to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, barbecue cheese has to maintain a pH >6.0 to prevent undesired melting of the cheese. In addition, the dairy decided to retain the traditional manual production process of the barbecue cheese. In this study, therefore, we aimed to (1) trace Staph. aureus along the barbecue cheese production process, and (2) develop a sustainable strategy to inhibit growth of Staph. aureus and decrease the risk of staphylococcal food poisoning without changing the traditional production process. To this end, we traced Staph. aureus in a step-wise blinded process analysis on 4 different production days using spa (Staphylococcus protein A gene) typing, DNA microarray profiling, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. We subsequently selected a new starter culture and used a model cheese production including a challenge test assay to assess its antagonistic effect on Staph. aureus growth, as well as its sensory and technological implications. We detected Staph. aureus in 30% (37/124) of the collected samples taken from the barbecue cheese production at the dairy. This included detection of Staph. aureus in the final product on all 4 production days, either after enrichment or using quantitative detection. We traced 2 enterotoxigenic Staph. aureus strains (t073/CC45 and t282/CC45) colonizing the nasal cavity and the forearms of the cheesemakers to the final product. In the challenge test assay, we were able to show that the new starter culture inhibited growth of Staph. aureus while meeting

  19. Growth of Pseudomonas spp. in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Dalgaard, Paw

    of spoilage microorganisms in cottage cheese can cause undesirable alterations in flavour, odour, appearance and texture. Contamination and growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads including Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas putida has been reported for cottage cheese but the influence of these bacteria...... (pH 7.0) showed interesting results. Despite a lower pH value in the cottage cheese, compared to the dressing, more rapid growth was observed. This may be caused by insufficient amounts of oxygen in the cream dressing having a negative effect on growth of Pseudomonas spp. At 15˚C growth...

  20. Lactobacillus cerevisiae sp. nov., isolated from a spoiled brewery sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, Jennifer; Jacob, Fritz; Wenning, Mareike; Hutzler, Mathias

    2017-09-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated TUM BP 140423000-2250T (=DSM 100836T=LMG 29073T), was isolated from spoiled beer. This bacterium did not form spores, and was catalase-negative and facultatively anaerobic. Its taxonomic position was determined in a polyphasic study. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity data showed that the strain belonged to the Lactobacillus genus with the nearest neighbours being Lactobacillus koreensis DCY50T (sequence similarity 99.5 %), Lactobacillus yonginensis THK-V8T (99.2 %) and Lactobacillus parabrevis LMG 11984T (98.7 %). Sequence comparisons of additional phylogenetic markers, pheS and rpoA, confirmed the 16S rRNA gene sequence tree topology. The maximum rpoA sequence similarity was 92.3 % with L. yonginensis THK-V8T. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 50.0 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness showed that strain TUM BP 140423000-2250T could be clearly distinguished from L. koreensis DCY 50T (30.8±0.4 %) and L. yonginensis THK-V8T (23.6±5.9 %). The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, summed feature 7 (comprised of C19 : 0 cyclo ω10c/C19 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. Based on phenotypic and genotypic studies, the authors propose classifying the new isolate as a representative of a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus cerevisiae sp. nov. The type strain is deposited at the Research Centre Weihenstephan for Brewing and Food Quality as TUM BP 140423000-2250T (=DSM 100836T=LMG 29073T).

  1. Dynamic correlations between microbiota succession and flavor development involved in the ripening of Kazak artisanal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoji; Liu, Fei; Shi, Xuewei; Wang, Bin; Li, Kaixiong; Li, Baokun; Zhuge, Bin

    2018-03-01

    Cheese is a typical handcrafted fermented food in Kazak minority from the Uighur Autonomy Region in China. The ripening process of the cheese is crucial for quality and flavor. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper knowledge on the bacterial and fungal community diversity at different time points during the post-ripening of the cheese and to understand the relationship between bacterial and fungal profiles and the chemical components including amino acids, fatty acids and volatile compounds related the cheese flavor. Cheese samples were collected from days 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 after the starting point of post-ripening. The bacterial and fungal compositions were analyzed with next generation sequencing targeting the 16S rDNA loci for bacteria and ITS loci for fungi. The amino acids contents were analyzed by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography combined with UV detection. The fatty acids and the volatile components were analyzed by Solid Phase Micro Extraction followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry. We found that Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Kluyveromyces and Torulaspora were the dominant cheese's population. Bidirectional orthogonal partial least squares (O2PLS) based correlation analysis between microbiota succession and flavor dynamics showed that bacteria made more contributions to flavor formation than fungi. Eight bacteria genera and seven fungi genera were determined as functional core microbiota for the flavor production based on their dominance and functionality in microbial community. This study provided a comprehensive picture of the dynamic changes of microbiota profiles through the post-ripening process. The elucidation of the causal relationship between microbiota and the flavor components has advanced our understanding of the mechanism underlying the cheese development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamics of bacterial communities during manufacture and ripening of traditional Caciocavallo of Castelfranco cheese in relation to cows' feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giello, Marina; La Storia, Antonietta; Masucci, Felicia; Di Francia, Antonio; Ercolini, Danilo; Villani, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Traditional Caciocavallo of Castelfranco is a semi-hard "pasta-filata" cheese produced from raw cows' milk in Campania region. The aim of the present research is mainly focused on the study, by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and viable counts, of the dynamics of bacterial communities during manufacture and ripening of traditional Caciocavallo cheese. Moreover, the possible correlation between cheese microbiota and cows' feeding based on silage or hay was also evaluated. In general, except for enterococci, the technological process significantly affected all the microbial groups. According to 16S rRNA, raw cows' milk was dominated by Streptococcus thermophilus, L. lactis and Pseudomonas sp. in hay cheese production, whereas Lactococcus lactis and Acinetobacter sp. dominated silage production. Differences in the taxonomic structure of the milk's microbiota within diet groups were not related to silage and hay cows' feeding. Moreover, S. thermophilus was the unique species that dominate from raw milks to fermented intermediates and cheese in both hay and silage cheese productions. Feeding and ripening time influenced significantly sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vetiver Grass: a potential tool for phytoremediation of iron ore mine site spoil dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mining has lead to the generation of a large amount of spoil dumps that has become dangerous to human health, wildlife and biodiversity. Thus it is essential that the post mining areas and waste land generated need to be rapidly vegetated. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Roberty is a tropical plant which grows naturally in various soil conditions and is well known for its ability to resist DNA damage while growing on typically polluted soil conditions. The spoil dumps from the iron mine site is unstable and inhospitable for plant growth due to presence of various toxic heavy metals like - Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd etc. Vetiver system is an efficient bio-engineering tool for reclaiming such spoil dumps. There are 12 known species of Vetiver grass, and many hundreds of different cultivars that are exploited by users depending on need. In the present study we selected the polyploid infertile variety of vetiver and carried pot experiments. Vetiver plants grown on the iron ore mine spoil dump show distinct differences in their growth with fewer numbers of tillers, reduced chlorophyll content, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and increased proline content. To investigate the level of DNA damage incurred and change in the genetic stability Comet assay and RAPD analysis were performed. Results confirmed that Vetiver grass can serve as a model species for phytoremediating the iron ore mine spoil dumps.

  4. Establishment of native species on amended and unamended coal mine spoil in central Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.C.; Mulligan, D.R.; Orr, M.S.; Johnstone, P.

    1994-01-01

    At the Curragh open-cut coal mine in central Queensland, tree and shrub growth on amended and unamended spoil was assessed over a 5-year period. The most successful media in terms of seedling densities were bare spoil and spoil covered by a thin layer of coarse coal reject. Where soil was replaced, very few native species established due to the intense competition from exotic grasses. Given this poor establishment on soil, the question of how well an ecosystem would develop on non-soil media was addressed by assessing the ability of each of the media to support sustainable communities in the longer term. Early results from direct-seeding tree and shrub species onto non-soil media have been quite encouraging, but analysis of the surface horizons has shown that after several years, there are still some characteristics which could either limit the re-establishment, and/or prevent the sustainability, of new communities. Due primarily to the high sulfate levels originally in the coal reject, the surface salinity in these treatments was much higher than in the uncapped spoil. Substrate analyses have shown also that there was a much lower concentration of mineralizable N in the spoil and coal reject than in the soil, revealing that the potential of these non-soil substrates to continue supplying nitrogen to the system is greatly reduced. Furthermore, the concentration of microbial biomass carbon was significantly lower in these media, and the percentage ground cover after 5 years was generally <10%

  5. Determination of endogenous concentrations of nitrites and nitrates in different types of cheese in the United States: method development and validation using ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan; Jeong, Nahyun; DeJager, Lowri

    2018-04-01

    Nitrites and nitrates can be present in dairy products from both endogenous and exogenous sources. In the European Union (EU), 150 mg kg - 1 of nitrates are allowed to be added to the cheese milk during the manufacturing process. The CODEX General Standard for Food Additives has a maximum permitted level of 50 mg kg - 1 residue in cheese, while in the United States (U.S.) nitrates are unapproved for use as food additives in cheese. In order to be able to investigate imported cheeses for nitrates intentionally added as preservatives and the endogenous concentrations of nitrates and nitrites present in cheeses in the U.S. marketplace, a method was developed and validated using ion chromatography with conductivity detection. A market sampling of cheese samples purchased in the Washington DC metro area was performed. In 64 samples of cheese, concentrations ranged from below the method detection limit (MDL) to 26 mg kg - 1 for nitrates and no concentrations of nitrites were found in any of the cheese samples above the MDL of 0.1 mg kg - 1 . A majority of the samples (93%) had concentrations below 10 mg kg - 1 , which indicate the presence of endogenous nitrates. The samples with concentrations above 10 mg kg - 1 were mainly processed cheese spread, which can contain additional ingredients often of plant-based origin. These ingredients are likely the cause of the elevated nitrate concentrations. The analysis of 12 additional cheese samples that are liable to the intentional addition of nitrates, 9 of which were imported, indicated that in this limited study, concentrations of nitrate in the U.S.-produced cheeses did not differ from those in imported samples.

  6. Response surface optimization of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01 isolated from spoiled apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Habib; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Alidost, Leila; Bodagh, Atefe; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2013-01-01

    A potent biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain isolated from spoiled apples was identified by 16S rRNA as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracted biosurfactant was composed of high percentages of lipid (66%, w/w) and carbohydrate (32%, w/w). The surface tension of pure water decreased gradually with increasing biosurfactant concentration to 32.5 mN m(-1) with critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 10.1 mg L(-1). The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of extracted biosurfactant confirmed the glycolipid nature of this natural product. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the biosynthesis medium for the production of MA01 biosurfactant. Nineteen carbon sources and 11 nitrogen sources were examined, with soybean oil and sodium nitrate being the most effective carbon and nitrogen sources on biosurfactant production, respectively. Among the organic nitrogen sources examined, yeast extract was necessary as a complementary nitrogen source for high production yield. Biosurfactant production at the optimum value of fermentation processing factor (15.68 g/L) was 29.5% higher than the biosurfactant concentration obtained before the RSM optimization (12.1 g/L). A central composite design algorithm was used to optimize the levels of key medium components, and it was concluded that two stages of optimization using RSM could increase biosurfactant production by 1.46 times, as compared to the values obtained before optimization.

  7. 21 CFR 133.102 - Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese. 133.102... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.102 Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese. (a) Asiago fresh cheese...

  8. The Physicochemical Quality of Traditional Burduf Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pop

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the assessmentof the quality control of raw milk and traditional burduf cheese obtained fromcow milk mixed with 10% sheep milk. Appreciation of the integrity and freshness assessmentof milk (cow and sheep was tested by physico-chemical analysis.On theshelf-live were determined the physico-chemical parameters in cheese samples. Theantibiotics residues were tested of the milk samples with portable analyser,model Rosa Charm Reader. Theresults of physico-chemical determinations for the milk and cheese samples werewithin the maximum permissible by data legislation. Regardingthe content of antibiotics, the results were negative both for cow milk and forsheep milk. The sensorycharacteristics of burduf cheese are influenced by the different types of milk.

  9. The Lactose and Galactose Content of Cheese Suitable for Galactosaemia: New Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoi, P A; MacDonald, A

    2016-01-01

    The UK Medical Advisory Panel of the Galactosaemia Support Group report the lactose and galactose content of 5 brands of mature Cheddar cheese, Comte and Emmi Emmental fondue mix from 32 cheese samples. The Medical Advisory Panel define suitable cheese in galactosaemia to have a lactose and galactose content consistently below 10 mg/100 g. A total of 32 samples (5 types of mature Cheddar cheese, Comte and "Emmi Swiss Fondue", an emmental fondue mix) were analysed by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) technology used to perform lactose and galactose analysis. Cheddar cheese types: Valley Spire West Country, Parkham, Lye Cross Vintage, Lye Cross Mature, Tesco West Country Farmhouse Extra Mature and Sainsbury's TTD West Country Farmhouse Extra Mature had a lactose and galactose content consistently below 10 mg/100 g (range <0.05 to 12.65 mg). All Comte samples had a lactose content below the lower limit of detection (<0.05 mg) with galactose content from <0.05 to 1.86 mg/100 g; all samples of Emmi Swiss Fondue had lactose below the lower limit of detection (<0.05 mg) and galactose between 2.19 and 3.04 mg/100 g. All of these cheese types were suitable for inclusion in a low galactose diet for galactosaemia. It is possible that the galactose content of cheese may change over time depending on its processing, fermentation time and packaging techniques.

  10. Dynamics and rRNA transcriptional activity of lactococci and lactobacilli during Cheddar cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desfossés-Foucault, Émilie; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2013-08-16

    Cheddar cheese is a complex ecosystem where both the bacterial population and the cheese making process contribute to flavor and texture development. The aim of this study was to use molecular methods to evaluate the impact of milk heat treatment and ripening temperature on starter lactococci and non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) throughout ripening of Cheddar cheese. Eight Cheddar cheese batches were manufactured (four with thermized and four with pasteurized milk) and ripened at 4, 7 and 12°C to analyze the bacterial composition and rRNA transcriptional activity reflecting the ability of lactococci and lactobacilli to synthesize proteins. Abundance and rRNA transcription of lactococci and lactobacilli were quantified after DNA and RNA extraction by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) targeting the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Results showed that lactococci remained dominant throughout ripening, although 16S rRNA genome and cDNA copies/g of cheese decreased by four and two log copy numbers, respectively. Abundance and rRNA transcription of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus buchneri/parabuchneri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus coryniformis as well as total lactobacilli were also estimated using specific 16S rRNA primers. L. paracasei and L. buchneri/parabuchneri concomitantly grew in cheese made from thermized milk at 7 and 12°C, although L. paracasei displayed the most rRNA transcription among Lactobacillus species. This work showed that rRNA transcriptional activity of lactococci decreased throughout ripening and supports the usefulness of RNA analysis to assess which bacterial species have the ability to synthesize proteins during ripening, and could thereby contribute to cheese quality. © 2013.

  11. Use of human lysozyme transgenic goat milk in cheese making: effects on lactic acid bacteria performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfen, E C; Mills, D A; Maga, E A

    2007-09-01

    Genetically engineered goats expressing elevated levels of the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme in their milk were developed to improve udder health, product shelf life, and consumer well-being. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of lysozyme on the development of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) throughout the cheese-making process. Raw and pasteurized milk from 7 lysozyme transgenic goats and 7 breed-, age-, and parity-matched nontransgenic controls was transformed into cheeses by using industry methods, and their microbiological load was evaluated. The numbers of colony-forming units of LAB were determined for raw and pasteurized goat milk, whey, and curd at d 2 and at d 6 or 7 of production. Selective plating media were used to enumerate lactococcal species separately from total LAB. Although differences in the mean number of colony-forming units between transgenic and control samples in raw milk, whey, and cheese curd were non-significant for both total LAB and lactococcal species from d 2 of production, a significant decrease was observed in both types of LAB among d 6 transgenic raw milk cheese samples. In pasteurized milk trials, a significant decrease in LAB was observed only in the raw milk of transgenic animals. These results indicate that lysozyme transgenic goat milk is not detrimental to LAB growth during the cheese-making process.

  12. Microbiological quality and safety assessment in the production of moderate and high humidity cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise da Fontoura Prates

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Moderate and high humidity cheeses are described as important vehicles of pathogens in many foodborne diseases outbreaks. Microbial contamination can occur in raw material or in the different steps of the product processing due to inadequate hygiene practices. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety in the production of moderate and high humidity cheese. Samples from raw milk, handlers’ hands surface, final product were collected in three cheese manufacturing plants located in southern Brazil, with different levels of sanitary control. Effectiveness of milk pasteurization was also evaluated. Thermotolerant coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated. Raw milk samples showed the highest contamination levels, with enumeration of 1.1x105 most probable number (MPN mL-1 for thermotolerant coliforms, 4x105 colony-forming units (CFU mL-1 for CPS and presence of Salmonella spp. CPS were also reported in one sample of handler’s hands surface. However, only one sample of the final product was out of Brazilian regulatory standards, exceeding the limit allowed for CPS. Milk pasteurization process used in cheese preparation was effective, regardless the level of sanitary control of the industries. Results highlighted the need for better hygiene practices, in obtaining the raw milk and in the handling during the cheese manufacturing steps.

  13. Control of superficial mould in Provolone Valpadana cheese with environmental treatments. Preliminary trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, C.; Innocente, N.

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of relying on technological systems as an alternative to the use of additives in controlling the development of surface mould was evaluated on Valpadana Provolone cheese made on an industrial scale. Experimental tests were performed to evaluate the effect of sanitising the environment with ultraviolet radiation of the dryer area instead of the classic method of fumigation, as well as the effectiveness of direct treatment of the cheese with UV radiation, in order to prevent contamination with mould. Monitoring at the dairy, as well as analyses of the cheese at different stages in the maturation process, revealed that treating the rooms with UV radiation was just as effective as fumigation in preventing the development of mould. Likewise, the direct treatment of the cheese with UV proved to be a valid alternative physical method to the use of surface chemical additives, although it was difficult to radiate uniformly over the whole cheese owing to the presence of shaded areas at the cords. Lastly, it was considered that the application of suitable plastic coatings, instead of paraffin, applied after the rind has formed, could also be used as alternative antifungus additives. In this case, it was observed that the use of the Plasticoat polymer led to a decrease in the humidity of the curd with respect to paraffin treatment, also affecting the maturation process [it

  14. Ripening-induced changes in microbial groups of artisanal Sicilian goats’ milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Di Marco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the microbial flora of “Caprino dei Nebrodi”, a raw goat’s milk cheese produced in Sicily, were studied during ripening. From 2 batches of cheese, 4 samples were taken at day 0, 2, 15, and 30 of ripening. Also, samples of curd and milk used in the manufacturing process were analyzed. By the end of the ripening process (day 30, high log10 cfu/g were found for Lactobacilli (7.20, Lattococci (7.10, and Enterococci (7.00, whereas counts of Enterobacteriaceae (3.91, Escherichia coli (3.30, and Staphylococcus (3.89 were found to be lower. The study provides useful information on the microbiological properties of “Caprino dei Nebrodi” cheese, and the results obtained suggest that in order to increase the quality of this artisanal product, it is necessary to improve the sanitary conditions of milking and cheese-making. The study was intended as a preliminary step towards the isolation and identification of bacterial species found in this type of goat’s cheese.

  15. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  16. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in European cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    2017-01-01

    Both in Europe and worldwide cheese has caused important outbreaks of listeriosis and can be a vehicle for transmission of Listeria monocytogenes to consumers. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted using scientific literature and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reports...... to summarize available data on the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in different types of cheeses produced in Europe. Meta-analysis models were used to estimate mean prevalence of the pathogen and to compare prevalence among types of cheeses (fresh, ripened, veined, smear and brined) and cheeses produced using.......5-1.1%). The prevalence differed among types of cheeses including fresh (0.8%; CI: 0.3-1.9%), ripened (2.0%; CI: 0.8-4.9%), veined (2.4%; CI: 0.9-6.3%), smear (5.1%; CI: 1.9-13.1%) and brined (11.8%; CI: 3.5-33.3%). Mean prevalence of L. monocytogenes in soft/semi-soft cheeses were not significantly different (P > 0...

  17. Effect of Operational Parameters in the Continuous Anaerobic. Fermentation of Cheese Whey on Titers, Yields, Productivities, and Microbial Community Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Domingos, Joana M. B.; Martinez, Gonzalo A.; Scoma, Alberto; Fraraccio, Serena; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Boon, Nico; Reis, Maria A. M.; Fava, Fabio; Bertin, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced using cheese whey as feedstock. A mixed culture packed bed bioreactor was set up to digest anaerobically, under an acidogenic condition, a water solution of a cheese whey powder. Batch tests pointed out that the whole VFAs production process occurred via two sequential phases: (a) conversion of lactose into lactic acid and (b) conversion of lactic acid into a mixture of VFAs. Furthermore, the same tests showed that the ceramic material Vukopor S10 can...

  18. Modeling structure-sensory texture relations in semi-hard cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, T. J. Timo; Schreurs, P. J. G. Piet; Luyten, J. M. J. G. Hannemieke; Meijer, H. E. H. Han

    2015-01-01

    Product and process design in the food industry often still remains a very empirical activity. This will not lead to leap changes in product functionality or composition. We aim at developing quantitative models which relate the microstructure of semi-hard cheese to sensory texture. With these models we want to design more resource efficient process routes and healthier options for full fat semi-hard cheese. In this paper the role of multi-scale simulations using a Finite Element Method in developing these models will be discussed.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence for Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32, an Industrial Cheese Starter and Cheese Flavor Adjunct

    OpenAIRE

    Broadbent, Jeff R.; Hughes, Joanne E.; Welker, Dennis L.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Steele, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is a lactic acid bacterium widely used in the manufacture of cheese and for production of bioactive peptides from milk proteins. We present the complete genome sequence for L.?helveticus CNRZ 32, a strain particularly recognized for its ability to reduce bitterness and accelerate flavor development in cheese.

  20. A large factory-scale application of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria for PDO Pecorino Siciliano cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarcello, Rosa; Carpino, Stefania; Gaglio, Raimondo; Pino, Alessandra; Rapisarda, Teresa; Caggia, Cinzia; Marino, Giovanni; Randazzo, Cinzia L; Settanni, Luca; Todaro, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    The main hypothesis of this study was that the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) selected for their dairy traits are able to stabilize the production of PDO (Protected Denomination of Origin) Pecorino Siciliano cheese, preserving its typicality. The experimental plan included the application of a multi-strain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) culture, composed of starter (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CAG4 and CAG37) and non starter (Enterococcus faecalis PSL71, Lactococcus garviae PSL67 and Streptococcus macedonicus PSL72) strains, during the traditional production of cheese at large scale level in six factories located in different areas of Sicily. The cheese making processes were followed from milk to ripened cheeses and the effects of the added LAB were evaluated on the microbiological, chemico-physical and sensorial characteristics of the final products. Results highlighted a high variability for all investigated parameters and the dominance of LAB cocci in bulk milk samples. The experimental curds showed a faster pH drop than control curds and the levels of LAB estimated in 5-month ripened experimental cheeses (7.59 and 7.27 Log CFU/g for rods and cocci, respectively) were higher than those of control cheeses (7.02 and 6.61 Log CFU/g for rods and cocci, respectively). The comparison of the bacterial isolates by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR evidenced the dominance of the added starter lactococci over native milk and vat LAB, while the added non starter LAB were found at almost the same levels of the indigenous strains. The sensory evaluation showed that the mixed LAB culture did not influence the majority of the sensory attributes of the cheeses and that each factory produced cheeses with unique characteristics. Finally, the multivariate statistical analysis based on all parameters evaluated on the ripened cheeses showed the dissimilarities and the relationships among cheeses. Thus, the main hypothesis of the work was accepted since the

  1. Cheese Classification, Characterization, and Categorization: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almena-Aliste, Montserrat; Mietton, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Cheese is one of the most fascinating, complex, and diverse foods enjoyed today. Three elements constitute the cheese ecosystem: ripening agents, consisting of enzymes and microorganisms; the composition of the fresh cheese; and the environmental conditions during aging. These factors determine and define not only the sensory quality of the final cheese product but also the vast diversity of cheeses produced worldwide. How we define and categorize cheese is a complicated matter. There are various approaches to cheese classification, and a global approach for classification and characterization is needed. We review current cheese classification schemes and the limitations inherent in each of the schemes described. While some classification schemes are based on microbiological criteria, others rely on descriptions of the technologies used for cheese production. The goal of this review is to present an overview of comprehensive and practical integrative classification models in order to better describe cheese diversity and the fundamental differences within cheeses, as well as to connect fundamental technological, microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics to contribute to an overall characterization of the main families of cheese, including the expanding world of American artisanal cheeses.

  2. Brucella melitensis survival during manufacture of ripened goat cheese at two temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-González, Karla Y; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Monroy, Jorge F; López-Merino, Ahide; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the current work was to assess the influence of two temperatures, 4°C and 24°C, on pH and water activity and their association with Brucella melitensis survival during the traditional manufacture of ripened goat cheese. Raw milk from a brucellosis-free goat herd was used for the manufacture of ripened cheese. The cheese was inoculated with 5×10(9) of the B. melitensis 16M strain during the tempering stage. The cheeses were matured for 5, 20, and 50 days at both temperatures. To assess Brucella survival, the pH and a(w) were recorded at each stage of the process (curd cutting, draining whey, immersion in brine, ripening I, ripening II, and ripening III). B. melitensis was detected at ripening stage III (1×10(3) colony-forming unit [CFU]/mL) from cheeses matured at 4°C with a pH of 5.0 and a(w) of 0.90, and at a ripening stage II (1×10(4) CFU/mL) from cheeses ripened at 24°C with a pH of 4.0 and a(w) of 0.89. The remaining stages were free from the inoculated pathogen. In addition, viable B. melitensis was recovered in significant amounts (1-2×10(6) CFU/mL) from the whey fractions of both types of cheese ripened at 24°C and 4°C. These results revealed the effects of high temperature (24°C vs. 4°C) on the low pH (4) and a(w) (0.89) that appeared to be associated with the suppression of B. melitensis at the early stages of cheese ripening. In the ripened goat cheeses, B. melitensis survived under a precise combination of temperature during maturation, ripening time, and a(w) in the manufacturing process.

  3. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FLORA OF KONYA KUFLU CHEESE: A TRADITIONAL CHEESE FROM KONYA PROVINCE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Guley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the lactic acid bacteria flora of mature Konya Kuflu cheese. Konya Kuflu cheese is a traditional blue cheese which is produced from raw milk without starter culture addition and mould growth occurs in uncontrolled conditions during its ripening. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from 9 mature Konya Kuflu cheese samples were investigated using a combination of conventional biochemical tests, API test kits, and molecular approaches. For some isolates, different results were obtained according to the identification technique. The overall LAB profile of Konya Kuflu cheese samples revealed that Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paracasei/Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis are the predominant species. In addition, 1 Pediococcus parvulus and 1 Enterococcus durans were also identified.

  4. Redemption of the "spoiled identity:" the role of HIV-positive individuals in HIV care cascade interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camlin, Carol S; Charlebois, Edwin D; Geng, Elvin; Semitala, Fred; Wallenta, Jeanna; Getahun, Monica; Kampiire, Leatitia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Sang, Norton; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Clark, Tamara D; Petersen, Maya L; Kamya, Moses R; Havlir, Diane V

    2017-12-01

    The concept of "therapeutic citizenship" has drawn attention to ways in which public testimony, the "story-telling in the public sphere" undertaken by people living with HIV (PLHIV), has shaped the global response to the epidemic. This paper presents qualitative findings from two large studies in eastern Africa that reveal how the advent of population-based HIV testing campaigns and efforts to accelerate antiretroviral "treatment for all" has precipitated a rapidly expanding therapeutic citizenship "project," or social movement. The title of this paper refers to Goffman's original conceptualization of stigma as a social process through which a person's identity is rendered "spoiled." Data were derived from qualitative studies embedded within two clinical trials, Sustainable East African Research in Community Health (SEARCH) (NCT# 01864603) in Kenya and Uganda, and START-ART (NCT# 01810289) in Uganda, which aimed to offer insights into the pathways through which outcomes across the HIV care continuum can be achieved by interventions deployed in the studies, any unanticipated consequences, and factors that influenced implementation. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted among cohorts of adults in 2014 through 2015; across both studies and time periods, 217 interviews were conducted with 166 individuals. Theoretically informed, team-based analytic approaches were used for the analyses. Narratives from PLHIV, who have not always been conceptualized as actors but rather usually as targets of HIV interventions, revealed strongly emergent themes related to these individuals' use of HIV biomedical resources and discourses to fashion a new, empowered subjecthood. Experiencing the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) emboldens many individuals to transform their "spoiled" identities to attain new, valorized identities as "advocates for ART" in their communities. We propose that the personal revelation of what some refer to as the "gospel of ARVs

  5. Use of Sunkist Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis Juice In Mozzarella Cheese Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Data collecting of this research was administered since February until March 2006 in the Animal Product Technology Laboratory of Animal Husbandry Faculty Brawijaya University Malang, Biological Laboratory of Muhammadiyah University Malang and Engineering Laboratory Centre Food and Laboratory  Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta. The objective of this research was to know the best concentration of Sunkist orange fruit juice with direct acidification in Mozzarella cheese manufactured considered on yield, protein content, moisture content, stretchability and meltability. Hopefully the result would support in producing cheese earlier and better quality processed with direct acidification from Sunkist orange fruit juice. Method of this research was experiment used Completely Randomized Design and repeats four times. The treatment was Sunkist orange fruit juice concentration of 3% (P1, 3.5% (P2, 4% (P3 and 4.5% (P4 from milk volume. Variables measured would be yield, protein content, moisture content, stretchability and meltability. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and  Duncans Multiple Range Test. The result showed that Sunkist orange fruit juice did not give significant different effect (P>0.05 on yield, stretchability and meltability, in the otherwise give highly significant different effect (P<0.01 on protein and moisture content of Mozzarella cheese. The conclusion of this research was the Sunkist orange fruit juice concentration of 3% was the best concentration and suggested to use on Mozzarella cheese manufacturing.   Keyword : Mozzarella cheese, orange fruit.

  6. Rapid assessment of selected free amino acids during Edam cheese ripening by near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Mlček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on rapid determination of free amino acids produced during the ripening of cheese, by using near infrared spectroscopy. Analyses of 96 samples of Edam cheese (30% and 45% of fat in dry matter were performed at monthly intervals up to the ripening age of 6 months. In total, 19 amino acids were analysed with infrared spectrometer using two different methods, either in the regime of reflectance in the integrating sphere of the apparatus or using a fibre optic apparatus with the fibre optic probe. Reference data based on high-performance liquid chromatography were used for calibration of the spectrophotometer. Calibration models were developed using a partial least square algorithm and tested by means of cross-validation. When measured with the integrating sphere and with the probe, the values of correlation coefficients ranged from 0.835 to 0.993 and from 0.739 to 0.995, respectively. Paired t-test did not show significant differences between the reference and predicted values (P < 0.05. The results of this new calibration method showed the possibility of near infrared technology for fast determination of free amino acids, which occur during the ripening of Edam cheese. The content of free amino acids allow us to prepare Edam cheese quickly and efficiently for sale or to prepare the material for processed cheese.

  7. Biotechnological Utilization with a Focus on Anaerobic Treatment of Cheese Whey: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspasia A. Chatzipaschali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese whey utilization is of major concern nowadays. Its high organic matter content, in combination with the high volumes produced and limited treatment options make cheese whey a serious environmental problem. However, the potential production of biogas (methane, hydrogen or other marketable products with a simultaneous high COD reduction through appropriate treatment proves that cheese whey must be considered as an energy resource rather than a pollutant. The presence of biodegradable components in the cheese whey coupled with the advantages of anaerobic digestion processes over other treatment methods makes anaerobic digestion an attractive and suitable treatment option. This paper intends to review the most representative applications of anaerobic treatment of cheese whey currently being exploited and under research. Moreover, an effort has been made to categorize the common characteristics of the various research efforts and find a comparative basis, as far as their results are concerned. In addition, a number of dairy industries already using such anaerobic digestion systems are presented.

  8. Proteolysis in goat "coalho" cheese supplemented with probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Taliana Kênia Alves; de Araujo, Ana Rita Ribeiro; do Nascimento, Edilza Santos; de Matos Paz, José Eduardo; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi; Pacheco, Maria Teresa Bertoldo; do Egypto Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos; de Oliveira, Maria Elieidy Gomes; Madruga, Marta Suely

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to analyse the proteolytic effects of adding isolated and combined probiotic strains to goat "coalho" cheese. The cheeses were: QS - with culture Start, composed by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris (R704); QLA - with Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5); QLP - with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (L. casei 01); QB - with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB 12); and QC, co-culture with the three probiotic microorganisms. The cheeses were analysed during 28 days of storage at 10°C. The probiotic cell count was higher than 6.5 and 7 log colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) of cheese at the 1st and 28th days of storage, respectively. The addition of co-culture influenced (pcheese and resulted in a higher content of soluble protein and release of amino acids at the 1st day after processing. However, over all 28 days, the cheese supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis in its isolated form showed the highest proteolytic activity, particularly in the hydrolysis of the alpha-s2 and kappa-casein fractions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and validation of an APCI-MS/GC–MS approach for the classification and prediction of Cheddar cheese maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Heng Hui; Yan, Bingnan; Linforth, Robert S.T.; Fisk, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Headspace techniques have been extensively employed in food analysis to measure volatile compounds, which play a central role in the perceived quality of food. In this study atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS), coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), was used to investigate the complex mix of volatile compounds present in Cheddar cheeses of different maturity, processing and recipes to enable characterisation of the cheeses based on their ripening stages. Partial least squares-linear discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) provided a 70% success rate in correct prediction of the age of the cheeses based on their key headspace volatile profiles. In addition to predicting maturity, the analytical results coupled with chemometrics offered a rapid and detailed profiling of the volatile component of Cheddar cheeses, which could offer a new tool for quality assessment and accelerate product development. PMID:26212994

  10. Suitability of the infrared spectroscopy and the rheological method for distinguishing traditional cheese from industrial Turoš cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Valkaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine suitability of the infrared spectroscopy and the rheological method for distinguishing traditional cheese from industrial Turoš cheese. Turoš cheese belongs to the group of sour, dried, cone shaped cheeses with added salt and red dry pepper. Cheeses were sampled from 15 family farms and from market (industrial cheeses from five different batches. The rheological parameters of analysed cheeses were in accordance with the chemical composition of the same samples. Infrared spectroscopy of cheeses show good relation with the chemical composition and it has been proved to be a fast and effective method when compared to textural and standard chemical analysis for monitoring the standard procedure of production of sour, dried cheeses such as Turoš cheese. The extensive variability of all the parameters was a result of unbalanced production of Turoš cheese among family farms. Industrial production of Turoš cheese demonstrates more uniformity in relation to traditional on-farm cheese production.

  11. Chemical composition and microbial load of cheese produced using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aframomum sceptrum) on the chemical composition and microbial load of cheese was evaluated in a Completely Randomized Design. Cheese produced with 1% bear berry (Aframomum sceptrum) had the highest (P < 0.05) crude protein content ...

  12. Chemometrics approach to substrate development, case: semisyntetic cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Hansen, Birgitte Vedel

    1998-01-01

    from food production facilities.The Chemometrics approach to substrate development is illustrated by the development of a semisyntetic cheese substrate. Growth, colour formation and mycotoxin production of 6 cheese related fungi were studied on 9 types of natural cheeses and 24 synthetic cheese...... substrates and compared using principal component analysis (PCA). The synthetic cheese substrates contained various amounts of Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, lactate, lactose and casein. In this manner a robust, well-defined and easy prepared laboratory cheese substrate was developed for Penicillium commune......, the most frequently occurring contaminant on semi-hard cheese. Growth experiments on the substrate were repeatable and reproducible. The substrate was also suitable for the starter P. camemberti. Mineral elements in cheese were shown to have strong effect on growth, mycotoxin production and colour...

  13. Assessment of workers' exposure to bioaerosols in a French cheese factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Xavier; Duquenne, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    concentrations of airborne culturable fungi, sometimes very high, throughout the manufacturing process. In addition to fungi, culturable bacteria and endotoxins are also present in the work atmosphere. All these microbial organisms thus contribute in a complex manner to total worker exposure. Despite the lack of both occupational exposure limit values and standardized measuring methods, our results suggest that an immunological risk may occur among workers, especially for cheese brushers, cheese washers, and packagers who are the most exposed workers in the factory. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  14. Chemical Characteristics of Goat Cheese with Different Percentages of Mixed Indigenous Probiotic Culture during Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Setyawardani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the chemical characteristic of goat cheese that used various concentrations of probiotic starter with combinations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus TW2 and Lactobacillus plantarum TW14 isolates. The experiment was conducted with a completely randomized design with a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement. The first factor was the concentration of probiotic starter consisted of 4 lavels i.e., 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10% v/v. All probiotic concentrations used the same ratio of L. rhamnosus TW2 and L. plantarum TW14, i.e. 1:1. The second factor was the duration of ripening process consisted of 4 levels i.e., 0 (no ripening, 10, 20, and 30 days at 5oC. The observed variables were cheese chemical properties including water content, protein, fat, ash, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA, free fatty acids (FFA, and proteolysis profile. The results showed that addition of probiotic starter at a concentration of 5% mixture of L. rhamnosus TW2 and L. plantarum TW14 increased (P<0.01 only on ash content. The duration of ripening process up to 30 d significantly increased (P<0.01 protein and fat. Combination of probiotic starter concentrations and duration of ripening process increased (P<0.01 fat and ash contents. Proteolysis profile showed that protein was degraded into 72 and 52kDa proteins, but no 17kDa protein was found in cheese ripened for 30 d. It is concluded that 30 d duration of ripening at 5oC was the main contributing factor to chemical characteristics of cheese including chemical properties, pH, TTA, FFA, and proteolysis profile of probiotic goat cheese, while the concentration of mixed probiotics affected ash content, TTA and FFA of cheese.

  15. Hot topic: Antilisterial activity by endolysin PlyP100 in fresh cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tassell, Maxwell L; Ibarra-Sánchez, Luis A; Hoepker, Garrett P; Miller, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of a Listeria bacteriophage endolysin that may address limitations of current antilisterial processes for fresh cheeses. Listeria monocytogenes is highly problematic in the manufacture and processing of ready-to-eat foods due to its environmental persistence and its ability to grow under refrigerated storage. Special care must be taken to prevent listerial contamination during the production of fresh cheeses, as their delicate flavor and texture are incompatible with many of the antimicrobial processes and additives commonly used for other foods. Bacteriophage-derived cell wall hydrolytic enzymes, known as endolysins, comprise one possible intervention that may not suffer from the high strain specificity of their parent bacteriophages or the development of resistant strains. We recombinantly expressed endolysin PlyP100 and compared its lytic activity in vitro across several environmental parameters and target organisms, then incorporated it into a fresh cheese model challenged with a cocktail of L. monocytogenes. We show that PlyP100 demonstrates optimal activity under pH and salt concentrations consistent with a low-acid food matrix such as fresh cheese. Furthermore, we show that PlyP100 exhibits target specificity for gram-positive organisms with directly crosslinked peptidoglycan and displays considerable inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes in fresh cheese for at least 4 wk under refrigerated storage. As PlyP100 demonstrates considerable promise for preventing the propagation of L. monocytogenes in fresh cheeses, this novel preservation method could help safeguard consumer health and the market expansion of an otherwise high-risk food with few other viable preservatives. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The nutritional significance of cheese in the UK diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ash, Anthony; Wilbey, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Cheese currently suffers from an adverse nutritional image largely due to a perceived association between saturated fatty acid, cholesterol and the salt content of cheese with cardiovascular disease. However, cheese is also a rich source of essential nutrients such as, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals that play an integral part of a healthy diet. This review outlines the composition, structure and physiological characteristics of the nutritionally significant components of cheese, whil...

  17. Derived Demand for Fresh Cheese Products Imported into Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Andreas P.; Kilmer, Richard L.; Stearns, James A.; Feleke, Shiferaw T.; Ge, Jiaoju

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the derived demand for imported fresh cheese products into Japan when fresh cheese import data are disaggregated by source country of production. We provide empirical measures of the sensitivity of demand to changes in total imports, own-price, and cross-prices among exporting countries for fresh cheese. Japan's derived demand for U.S. fresh cheese products is perfectly inelastic. Thus, the import demand competition among importing countries should...

  18. Molecular characterization of dominant bacterial population in “Vastedda della Valle del Belice” cheese: preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Todaro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensory characteristics of raw-milk cheeses are linked to the cheese-making process, to the environmental factors as animal feeding and to the biochemical and microbiological composition of the milk. In this report we temped to characterize the microflora in the typical Sicilian historical cheese as Vastedda della valle del Belice. Each cheese was previous subjected to microbial isolation on specific media (M17 and MRS. The colony obtained on the solid medium were subject to biochemical tests and DNA extraction. The microbial diversity occurring in the strains was evaluated by PCR, RFLP and sequencing targeted on 16S ribosomal DNA. A number of closest relatives species of lactic and contaminating bacteria were identified in a total of 18 cheeses. The more represented genus were: Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Pediococcus. Moreover it was found only one strain Lactococcus lactis for producing bacteriocines. The different bacteria species probably could play a key role in the maturation of the cheese. The preliminary obtained data show the optimized method is usefully to detect and characterize the bacteria having implications in the fermentation process as well as preservation of traditional products.

  19. Quantificação de coliformes, Staphylococcus aureus e mesófilos presentes em diferentes etapas da produção de queijo frescal de leite de cabra em laticínios Enumeration of coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and aerobic mesofilic bacteria throughout the manufacture process of a goat unripened cheese produced in a dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ulrich Picoli

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi acompanhar a produção de queijo frescal de leite de cabra, avaliando a qualidade higiênica do processamento pela quantificação de coliformes, S. aureus e mesófilos totais. A produção de três diferentes lotes de queijo foi acompanhada, sendo coletadas amostras de várias etapas do processamento. Além disso, amostras de queijo pertencente ao lote acompanhado foram coletadas na prateleira de um estabelecimento comercial durante seu período de validade. Os suabes coletados foram semeados em ágar sangue ovino; as amostras de água foram submetidas à Colimetria; as demais amostras foram submetidas à contagem de S. aureus, coliformes e mesófilos totais por meio de protocolos de rotina. Verificou-se que, apesar da pasteurização ter diminuído consideravelmente as populações microbianas presentes no leite cru, a falta de sanificação adequada de um equipamento que entrava em contato com o leite cru e que dá acesso ao tanque de coagulação, resultou na recontaminação da matéria-prima. Ao final do processamento, o queijo encontrava-se dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação, contudo a elevada contagem de mesófilos totais sugere que sejam melhoradas as medidas de sanitização durante o processamento, a fim de garantir a qualidade higiênica e uma maior vida de prateleira ao queijo produzido.The aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions throughout the manufacture process of a goat unripened cheese, using the enumeration of coliforms, S. aureus and aerobic mesofilic bacteria as indicators. The production of three different lots of cheese was followed, being collected samples throughout the processing steps. Furthermore, samples of cheese belonging to the same sampled lot were collected in the shelf of a commercial establishment throughout the shelf life period. Swabs were streaked onto blood agar plates; water samples were submitted to colimetric assays; all other samples were

  20. Construction and potential application of controlled autolytic systems for Lactobacillus casei in cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Kong, Jian

    2013-07-01

    The rapid release of intracellular enzymes into the curd by the autolysis of lactic acid bacteria starters is universally recognized as a critical biological process to accelerate cheese ripening. Lactobacillus casei is typically the dominant nonstarter lactic acid bacterium in the ripening cheese. In this study, two controlled autolytic systems were established in L. casei BL23, based on the exploitation of the autolysins sourced from Lactococcus lactis (AcmA) and Enterococcus faecalis (AtlA). The lysis abilities of the systems were demonstrated both in broth and a model cheese, in which a fivefold increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity was detected in the curd with sufficient viable starter cells being maintained, indicating that they could lead to the timely release of intracellular enzymes.

  1. Preparation of fresh cheese from caprine milk as a model for the reduction of allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Katagiri, Mitsuaki; Fujita, Masaru; Yamato, Masayuki

    2009-06-01

    Fresh cheese was prepared from caprine milk by isoelectric precipitation as a model experiment for reducing the allergenicity of milk. After acidic precipitation of casein, the beta-lactoglobulin content in curd was determined by ELISA using monoclonal antibody (MAb-beta209). The beta-lactoglobulin content was very high in the fresh cheese obtained from heat-treated (85 degrees C) bovine or caprine milk, while that obtained from untreated milk contained none of this protein. Taking it into account that caprine milk has only a small amount of alpha(s1)-casein, one of the major bovine milk allergens, the caprine fresh cheese sterilized after processing by precipitation may be useful as a protein source of low allergenicity.

  2. Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc volatilomes in cheese conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogačić, Tomislav; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Leclerc, Aurélie; Hervé, Christophe; Chuat, Victoria; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

    2016-03-01

    New strains are desirable to diversify flavour of fermented dairy products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in the production of aroma compounds by metabolic fingerprints of volatiles. Eighteen strains, including five Lactobacillus species (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus sakei) and three Leuconostoc species (Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc lactis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides) were incubated for 5 weeks in a curd-based slurry medium under conditions mimicking cheese ripening. Populations were enumerated and volatile compounds were analysed by headspace trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A metabolomics approach followed by multivariate statistical analysis was applied for data processing and analysis. In total, 12 alcohols, 10 aldehydes, 7 esters, 11 ketones, 5 acids and 2 sulphur compounds were identified. Very large differences in concentration of volatile compounds between the highest producing strains and the control medium were observed in particular for diacetyl, 2-butanol, ethyl acetate, 3-methylbutanol, 3-methylbutanoic acid and 2-methylbutanoic acid. Some of the characterized strains demonstrated an interesting aromatizing potential to be used as adjunct culture.

  3. Does the sequence of plant dominants affect mycorrhiza development in simulated succession on spoil banks?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Püschel, David; Rydlová, Jana; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 302, 1-2 (2008), s. 273-282 ISSN 0032-079X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * plant succession * spoil banks Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.998, year: 2008

  4. Earthworm succession in afforested colliery spoil heaps in the Sokolov region, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2001), s. 359-364 ISSN 1061-2971 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworms * colliery spoil heaps * succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2001

  5. Photobacterium piscicola sp. nov., isolated from marine fish and spoiled packed cod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figge, Marian; Cleenwerck, Ilse; van Uijen, Astrid; de Vos, Paul; Huys, Geert; Robertson, Lesley

    Five isolates from marine fish (W3T, WM, W1S, S2 and S3) and three isolates misclassified as Photobacterium phosphoreum, originating from spoiled modified atmosphere packed stored cod (NCIMB 13482 and NCIMB 13483) and the intestine of skate (NCIMB 192), were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic

  6. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stable under all conditions of construction. (c) Compliance with permit. You, the permittee or operator... (excavations to stable bedrock) or rock-toe buttresses to ensure fill stability. (e) Placement of excess spoil... provided to minimize surface erosion at the site. All disturbed areas, including diversion channels that...

  7. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stable under all conditions of construction. (c) Compliance with permit. You, the permittee or operator... (excavations to stable bedrock) or rock-toe buttresses to ensure fill stability. (e) Placement of excess spoil... provided to minimize surface erosion at the site. All disturbed areas, including diversion channels that...

  8. The effect of quality properties on Tulum cheese using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheese samples produced from pasteurized milk were found to have higher dry matter, fat and protein contents and acidity values than cheese samples produced from raw milk. No significant difference was found in the sensory properties of cheese produced from raw and pasteurized milk. In view of these findings, the use ...

  9. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  10. Who Moved My Cheese? Adjusting to Age-Related Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Nieli

    2012-01-01

    The popular book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998) is a metaphor for change. This parable-like story has particular resonance with older adults who face many potential life-altering changes. The four characters in the book are looking for their cheese in a maze. Cheese represents whatever makes people happy. How each character adjusts to the…

  11. Cheese from ultrafiltered milk : whey proteins and chymosin activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, C.A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of (semi-)hard cheese from ultrafiltered milk (UF-cheese) enables the partial incorporation of whey proteins in the cheese, thereby increasing its yield. The transfer of whey proteins in curd from (UF-)milk was studied in relation to the degree of ultrafiltration of the milk

  12. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be...

  13. Using milk and cheese to demonstrate food chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students usually do not realize how much chemistry is involved in making a food like cheese, and teachers may use milk and cheese to reveal interesting principles. Cheese is made by lowering the pH of milk, coagulating the protein with enzymes, and removing the whey with heat and pressure. Studies b...

  14. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416. When...

  15. Factors affecting proteolytic action of Lactococcus lactis in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, Y.B.

    1992-01-01

    Model cheeses were developed to study the behaviour of proteolytic agents involved in cheese maturation under conditions that closely resemble those in normal cheese. The models were applied to study protein breakdown by Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris HP , as a

  16. Soil quality and carbon sequestration in a reclaimed coal mine spoil of Jharia coalfield, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Masto, Reginald; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of coal mine spoil helps in carbon storage and the success of remediation depend on the selection of appropriate tree species. A study was conducted at the coalmine overburden dumps of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India to evaluate the impact of revegetation on the overall soil quality and carbon sequestration. Morphological parameters (tree height, diameter at breast height, tree biomass, wood specific gravity) of the dominant tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo and Leucaena leucocephala) growing on the mine spoil was recorded. Mine spoil samples were collected under the canopy cover of different tree species and analyzed for soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters. In general reclaimed sites had better soil quality than the reference site. For instance, D. sissoo and C. siamea improved soil pH (+28.5%, +27.9%), EC (+15.65%, +19%), cation exchange capacity (+58.7%, +52.3%), organic carbon (+67.5%, +79.5%), N (+97.2%, +75.7%), P (+98.2%, +76.9%), K (+31.8%, +37.4%), microbial biomass carbon (+143%, +164%) and dehydrogenase activity (+228%, +262%) as compared to the unreclaimed reference coal mine site. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) decreased significantly in the reclaimed site than the reference spoil, C. siamea was found to be more promising for PAH degradation. The overall impact of tree species on the quality of reclaimed mine spoil cannot be assessed by individual soil parameters, as most of the parameters are interlinked and difficult to interpret. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more meaningful assessment of reclamation potential of tree species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity were the most critical properties controlling growth of tree

  17. Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M. [University of Lleida, Lleida (Spain). Dept. of Environmental & Soil Science

    2009-07-01

    A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

  18. Comparison of Physicochemical and Sensory Properties between Cholesterol-removed Gouda Cheese and Gouda Cheese during Ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Ho-Jung; Ko, Eun-Jung; Kwak, Hae-Soo

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to compare physicochemical and sensory properties of cholesterol-removed Gouda cheese (CRGC) and Gouda cheese made in the laboratory during ripening. Composition, short-chain free fatty acids (SCFFA), texture, color, and sensory properties were measured. In chemical composition analyses, moistures were significantly different between control cheeses (42.86%) and sample cheese (48.32%) (p0.05). The amount of cholesterol in control was 82.52 mg/100 g and the percentage ...

  19. Nitrogen matter changes during ripening of semihard cheese based on milk protein coaggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Jovanović

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses made on milk protein coaggregate basis are different thantraditionally made cheeses, in technological production process and sensory characteristics, especially texture and taste. In this research it was assumed that applied milk thermal treatment, as well as curd processing, will have appropriate influence on proteins as substratum. During ripening, due to a presence of whey proteins, which influence decrease of casein content in total cheese proteins, substratum is hydrolyzed. In traditionally made cheeses, casein is the basis of protein matrix. In comparison to whey proteins, casein is substantially faster changed during ripening, while whey proteins incorporated in the curd give so called «unspecific» ripening. Besides, application of high temperatures influences decrease of plasmin activity in cheese, regardless of its significant thermal stability. During 4 months ofexperimental cheeses ripening, changes of nitrogen matter were investigated. Significant changes of milk proteins, such as increase of soluble nitrogen matter content, the primary and secondary nitrogen products of protein breakdown during cheese ripening, as well as non-protein nitrogen (12 % TCA and phospho-tungstic-soluble nitrogen (5 % PTA were observed. The average content of soluble nitrogen after production after 15, 30, 60 and 120 days of ripening were: 135.48 mg %, 358.72 mg %, 473.52 mg %, 672.32 mg % and 845.13 mg %,respectively. According to soluble nitrogen content increase, coefficient of ripening also increased and for the same ripening period was: 4.42 %, 10.14 %, 12.95 %, 18.21 % and 23.60 %, respectively. Content of primary and secondary products of protein breakdown during cheese ripening had significant rising trend from the first day of production to 120th day of ripening. At the end of investigated ripening period, content of primary products of protein decomposition was 4.90 times higher compared to the first day of ripening, while content of

  20. Viscoelasticity of Edam cheese during its ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of the indentation of the ball (10 mm in diameter by the constant speed into blocks of Edam cheese has been conducted. The indentation tests were performed at different speeds (1, 5, 10, 20 and 100 mm/min, and the corresponding force–displacement responses were fitted with an analytical solution to obtain the time-dependent constants and the instantaneous force–displacement response. The measurement has been performed for the cheeses of different stages of their maturity. The dependence of the indentation force on the penetration depth has been evaluated. This dependence can be fitted by a polynom. The indentation force decreases with cheese fat content. It increases with the loading rate. Its value also decreases with the time of the cheese ripening. The recently proposed method for the indenation of the ball into viscoelastic solids has been used for our data analysis. This procedure, which needs the use of the numeric methods, enables to obtain stress relaxation moduli, which describe the viscoelasticity of the tested materials. The obtained moduli describe the stage of the cheese maturity.

  1. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, José M.; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J.; Ribeiro, José I.; Furtado, Mauro M.; Ferreira, Célia L.L.F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April–September) and rainy season (October–March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g −1 ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g −1 ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  2. Isolation of antifungally active lactobacilli from edam cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuma, S.; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Plocková, M.

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal activity of 322 lactobacilli strains isolated from Edam cheese at different stages of the ripening process was tested against Fusarium proliferatum M 5689 using a dual overlay spot assay. Approximately 21% of the isolates showed a certain level of inhibitory activity. Seven strains....... The newly isolated lactobacilli strains exhibited the strongest inhibition against F. proliferatum M 5689, followed by Penicillium sp. DMF 0006 and Aspergillus niger DMF 0801. The level of mould growth inhibition of several new isolates, namely Lb. paracasei ST 68, Lb. fermentum ST 40 and Lb. fermentum ST...

  3. Survival and growth of wildlife shrubs and trees on acid mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, D.K.; Adkisson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the survival and growth of selected wildlife plants over a wide range of acid mine spoil conditions and to identify species suitable for surface mine reclamation. A major criterion in selection of study sites was inclusion of a wide range of spoil acidity conditions. The Ollis Creek (Study Area A) and Farrell (Study Area B) coal surface mines located in Campbell and Scott Counties, Tennessee, were selected for study. Seven plant species, all of which had been used in past reclamation demonstrations, were introduced on the 22 plots during March 1972. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) was included as a control plant. Ten additional plant species were introduced during March 1973. With the exception of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum var.). European filbert (Corylus avellana), and red maple (Acer rubrum), these species had not been used in TVA reclamation demonstrations. To assess the effects of spoil pH on the plants, the plots were grouped into seven pH categories, and mean percent survival and growth for each species were calculated. Results indicate that autumn olive, elaeagnus cherry, arnot locust, sawtooth oak, red maple, and Toringo crabapple are suitable for quick improvement of surface mine habitat over a wide range of spoil acidity in the Appalachian coalfield. Bessey cherry and European filbert need further study before a decision can be made regarding their reclamation utility. Species that are not recommended for quick habitat improvement over a wide range of surface mine spoil pH conditions include bush honeysuckle, barberry, Siberian crabapple, Manchu cherry, American beautyberry, bear oak, blueberry, rem-red honeysuckle, and redcedar.

  4. Acetobacter aceti fast identification by Real Time PCR in spoiled wine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a beverage that made from grape berries. However, without beneficial bacteria, we would not produce good wine. But very often wines contain acetic acid bacteria, which are undesirable in winemaking process. Acetic acid bacteria as known as a vinegar bacteria are Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and ubiquitous bacteria. This study was focused on species of acetic acid bacteria, specifically Acetobacter aceti that make spoilage in wine.The aim of our study was the identification of Acetobacter aceti in spoiled red wine samples, with plate dilution method on agar plates and using sensitive Real-time PCR (qPCR method. We cultivated Acetobacter aceti on GYC agar at 30°C, 48h. The one of main objective in the present work was the test fast, sensitive and reliable technique such as quantitative Real-time PCR and detecting the presence of Acetobacter aceti in wine samples with positive Acetobacteraceti control on amplification plot and melting curve. The next objective before  qPCR analysis was DNA extraction from wine samples incubated for one week at 28°C aerobically. We used five different red wine samples for this experiment: Alibernet 2013, Blaufränkisch 2013, Cabernet Sauvignon 2013, Dunaj 2012 and Saint-Laurent 2012. Next we extracted DNA from wine samples and from pure Acetobacter aceti CCM 3620T strain purchased from Czech collection of microorganisms in Brno. Susceptibility ofAcetobacter aceti was varied in different isolates from 102 to 107 CFU.mL-1. The number of Acetobacter cells on GYC medium ranged from 4.05 to 4.83log CFU.mL-1 in differentwine samples.The higher number of Acetobacter cells (4.83 log CFU.mL-1 was found in Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 wine.

  5. Geochemical assessments and classification of coal mine spoils for better understanding of potential salinity issues at closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Li, Xiaofang; Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas; Kirsch, Bernie

    2013-06-01

    Coal mining wastes in the form of spoils, rejects and tailings deposited on a mine lease can cause various environmental issues including contamination by toxic metals, acid mine drainage and salinity. Dissolution of salt from saline mine spoil, in particular, during rainfall events may result in local or regional dispersion of salts through leaching or in the accumulation of dissolved salts in soil pore water and inhibition of plant growth. The salinity in coal mine environments is from the geogenic salt accumulations and weathering of spoils upon surface exposure. The salts are mainly sulfates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium and sodium. The objective of the research is to investigate and assess the source and mobility of salts and trace elements in various spoil types, thereby predicting the leaching behavior of the salts and trace elements from spoils which have similar geochemical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis, total digestion, sequential extraction and column experiments were conducted to achieve the objectives. Sodium and chloride concentrations best represented salinity of the spoils, which might originate from halite. Electrical conductivity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the leachate decreased sharply with increasing leaching cycles. Leaching of trace elements was not significant in the studied area. Geochemical classification of spoil/waste defined for rehabilitation purposes was useful to predict potential salinity, which corresponded with the classification from cluster analysis based on leaching data of major elements. Certain spoil groups showed high potential salinity by releasing high sodium and chloride concentrations. Therefore, the leaching characteristics of sites having saline susceptible spoils require monitoring, and suitable remediation technologies have to be applied.

  6. Novel methodology for the in situ assessment of CO2production rate and its application to anaerobic ripened cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, F; Guillard, V; Aliani, M; Guillaume, C; Gontard, N

    2015-12-01

    CO 2 is produced by many microorganisms present in cheese and it can affect cheese quality both during processing and storage. The knowledge of the extent of CO 2 production by cheese microorganism (CO 2 production rate coefficients) may be used to predict gas exchange in cheese/packaging systems, helping dairy industries in the right choice of the packaging (higher/lower gas permeability) and mastering of cheese ripening. However very few coefficients for CO 2 production rate have been published and the ones assessed in vitro (not inside real food) may not well describe the activity of the microorganisms in situ. We have therefore developed a methodology for the in situ assessment of CO 2 production rate and applied it to cheese with propionic acid fermentation. The proposed methodology is based on infra-red measurement of CO 2 and it allows measuring its accumulation up to 1% with 0.001% resolution, while monitoring the level of oxygen. The method showed a good repeatability, with a low coefficient of variation within samples (6.6%) and between samples (8.4%) compared to 10-30% between samples found in literature. The method was compared with a gas chromatography based method, which is also described. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbiological quality of Pecorino Siciliano "primosale" cheese on retail sale in the street markets of Palermo, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, Giovanni M; Pepe, Arcangelo; Aleo, Aurora; D'Agostino, Valentina; Milone, Samuela; Mammina, Caterina

    2011-04-01

    Pecorino Siciliano (PS) "primosale" is a traditional Sicilian fresh soft cheese made from sheep's milk. Short-ripening time and production from unpasteurized or raw milk can facilitate bacterial contamination of PS "primosale". The microbiological quality of "primosale" on retail sale in the street markets of Palermo, Italy was studied by detecting the common food pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and indicator microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae. In our study, 4% and 44% of the samples, respectively, did not comply with the acceptability levels fixed by European regulations for S. aureus and E. coli. A high contamination of bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae was found in 42% and 50% of the cheeses analyzed, respectively. Such results indicate poor husbandry and poor hygiene practices during milk collection or preservation or during cheese production processes and handling. In addition, the retail sale conditions may have played a role in cheese contamination since a correlation was found between poor microbiological quality and some selling parameters. This study emphasizes the need to improve production hygiene throughout the PS food chain in line with the traditional cheese-making procedures. Labelling of PS with clear information on whether the cheese was prepared from raw milk also requires improvement.

  8. Production and chemical composition of Istria and Pag whey cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Antunac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Istria and Pag curd are specific products that are mostly consumed fresh made in coastal areas and on islands. Curd is a sort of soft cheese. Due to its structure, it is very healthy. It has a high nutritional value which is the result of a great amount of proteins that are easy to digest and have a high level of utilization. The aim of this study was to describe the technological process of production, to determine the chemical structure and to suggest the value of standardization on the basis of sensory evaluation. The total of 28 curd samples were physically and chemically analyzed according to standard and accredited scientific methods. Statistical data analysis was carried out by using the procedures of Microsoft Office Excel (2007. According to water content in cheese, Istria and Pag curd belongs to a group of soft cheeses. On average the water content in Istrian curd was 56.62 %, and in Pag curd was 63.03 %. Istrian curd showed higher values of the fat content (28.9 % and the fat in a dry matter (64.47 % than Pag curd (23.25 % and 59.65 %. The sensory quality of Istrian curd was not as homogenous as of Pag curd. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that the physical and chemical structure of Istria and Pag curd was uneven, which is understandable if the production terms and conditions and the way of draining the curd are taken into account. The description of technological process of production and the understanding of physical and chemical structure of the curd, represent the significant contribution to the research and knowledge of domestic dairy products, which certainly should not be neglected in our dairy industry. In any case, these products deserve the experts full attention.

  9. Training small producers in Good Manufacturing Practices for the development of goat milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Noemí RAMÓN

    Full Text Available Abstract Training in Good Manufacturing Practices enhances quality during food processing. This paper evaluates GMP training aimed at improving the chemical, sensory and microbiological quality of goat milk cheese. We worked with 26 families that produce cheese as their main source of income. Semi-structured interviews and observation were conducted to select relevant topics. The manufacturing processes were compared and samples were analyzed before and after GMP training. We trained 80% of the producers. Before receiving training, they used to make cheese from raw milk in unhygienic conditions and with little equipment. The products obtained had bad sensory characteristics, cracks, eyes on the pasta, a high number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and total coliforms. After training, the producers pasteurized the milk and standardized processing procedures, resulting in final products that contained higher protein and calcium content, suitable sensory characteristics, and a significant reduction in microorganisms, with total coliforms falling to ≤ 5.103 UFC/g. Therefore, this study shows that the manufacturing process and the chemical, sensory and microbiological parameters of goat milk cheese improved after GMP training.

  10. Flavour formation by lactic acid bacteria and biochemical flavour profiling of cheese products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Smit, B.A.; Engels, W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Flavour development in dairy fermentations, most notably cheeses, results from a series of (bio)chemical processes in which the starter cultures provide the enzymes. Particularly the enzymatic degradation of proteins (caseins) leads to the formation of key-flavour components, which contribute to the

  11. Perspectives on the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cheese flavor development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steele, James; Broadbent, Jeffery; Kok, Jan

    It has been known since the 1960s that lactic acid bacteria are essential for the development of cheese flavor. In the ensuing 50 years significant research has been directed at understanding the microbiology, genetics and biochemistry of this process. This review briefly covers the current status

  12. Composition and sensory profiling of probiotic Scamorza ewe milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Braghieri, A; Sevi, A; Napolitano, F

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of the addition of different usually recognized as probiotic bacterial strains on chemical composition and sensory properties of Scamorza cheese manufactured from ewe milk. To define the sensory profile of Scamorza cheese, a qualitative and quantitative reference frame specific for a pasta filata cheese was constructed. According to the presence of probiotic bacteria, cheeses were denoted S-BB for Scamorza cheese made using a mix of Bifidobacterium longum 46 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, and S-LA for Scamorza cheese made using Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5. The designation for control Scamorza cheese was S-CO. Analyses were performed at 15d of ripening. The moisture content of Scamorza ewe milk cheese ranged between 44.61 and 47.16% (wt/wt), showing higher values in S-CO and S-BB cheeses than in S-LA cheese; the fat percentage ranged between 25.43 and 28.68% (wt/wt), showing higher value in S-LA cheese. The NaCl percentage in Scamorza cheese from ewe milk was 1.75 ± 0.04% (wt/wt). Protein and casein percentages were the highest in Scamorza cheese containing a mix of bifidobacteria; also, the percentage of the proteose-peptone fraction showed the highest value in S-BB, highlighting the major proteolysis carried out by enzymes associated with B. longum and B. lactis strains. Texture and appearance attributes were able to differentiate probiotic bacteria-added cheeses from the untreated control product. In particular, S-BB and S-LA Scamorza cheeses showed higher color uniformity compared with S-CO cheese. Furthermore, the control cheese showed higher yellowness and lower structure uniformity than S-BB. The control product was less creamy and grainy than S-BB; conversely, the inclusion of probiotics into the cheese determined lower adhesivity and friability in S-BB and S-LA than in S-CO. This study allowed the definition of the principal composition and sensory properties of Scamorza ewe milk cheese. The specific

  13. Pulsed-light inactivation of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria on cheese surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, J; Hsu, L C; Miller, B M; Sullivan, G; Paradis, K; Moraru, C I

    2015-09-01

    Cheese products are susceptible to postprocessing cross-contamination by bacterial surface contamination during slicing, handling, or packaging, which can lead to food safety issues and significant losses due to spoilage. This study examined the effectiveness of pulsed-light (PL) treatment on the inactivation of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fluorescens, the nonenterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (nonpathogenic surrogate of Escherichia coli O157:H7), and Listeria innocua (nonpathogenic surrogate of Listeria monocytogenes) on cheese surface. The effects of inoculum level and cheese surface topography and the presence of clear polyethylene packaging were evaluated in a full factorial experimental design. The challenge microorganisms were grown to early stationary phase and subsequently diluted to reach initial inoculum levels of either 5 or 7 log cfu/slice. White Cheddar and process cheeses were cut into 2.5×5 cm slices, which were spot-inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspension. Inoculated cheese samples were exposed to PL doses of 1.02 to 12.29 J/cm(2). Recovered survivors were enumerated by standard plate counting or the most probable number technique, as appropriate. The PL treatments were performed in triplicate and data were analyzed using a general linear model. Listeria innocua was the least sensitive to PL treatment, with a maximum inactivation level of 3.37±0.2 log, followed by P. fluorescens, with a maximum inactivation of 3.74±0.8 log. Escherichia coli was the most sensitive to PL, with a maximum reduction of 5.41±0.1 log. All PL inactivation curves were nonlinear, and inactivation reached a plateau after 3 pulses (3.07 J/cm(2)). The PL treatments through UV-transparent packaging and without packaging consistently resulted in similar inactivation levels. This study demonstrates that PL has strong potential for decontamination of the cheese surface. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  14. Restoration Practices Used on Post Mining Sites and Industrial Deposits in the Czech Republic with an Example of Natural Restoration of Granodiorite Quarries and Spoil Heaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuman Tomáš

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mining of minerals that have significant impact on landscape and landscape functions affects 1% of the land surface worldwide. In the Czech Republic the extent of mining sites is estimated to be more than 800 km2 and according to the state legislation the land affected by mining should be reclaimed. There are several approaches to land restoration, which are shortly reviewed in this article, from pure technical approach to one adopting natural processes. The review shows increasing appeal of scientist and conservationist to use natural processes e.g. natural or directed succession as an alternative method of post-mining sites or industrial deposits restoration due to growing evidence of conservational value of such sites in human dominated landscapes. The natural processes used for land restoration are often argued to be slow therefore the rate of spontaneous vegetation succession was assessed in stone quarries and on spoil heaps using a sequence of panchromatic aerial images. The results showed that natural processes act fast and vegetation can reach 100% cover within 10-15 years in granodiorite quarries and on spoil heaps.

  15. Major defects in artisanal Minas cheese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Sobral

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The consumer’s preference for artisanal raw milk cheeses has been growing steadily, because of its taste intensity and variation compared to pasteurized cheese. The development of flavor and aroma in raw milk cheese is governed mainly by diversified endogenous microbiota and naturals milk enzymes. The weather, altitude, native pasture and others regional characteristics allow the artisanal Minas cheese to have a typical and unique flavor. However, most of artisanal cheeses are manufactured in a rudimentary way, following technologies used by their ancestor, and this fact can cause defects in cheeses, thus resulting in economic losses for producers. Many defects may be originated from the quality of milk for manufacture, as well as quality and quantity of the ingredients used, manufacturing and ripening procedures. In this review will be presented the major defects that arise specifically in artisanal cheeses, as well as their origins, prevention and repair.

  16. Microbial hazards reduction during creamy cream cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Miarka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to identify the hazards relevant to the production of safe food and to assess the effects of a possible infection. The paper presents the microbiological hazards that can occur throughout the production of creamy cream cheese and indicates the means to their minimization or elimination. The analysis of microbiological hazards showed that in the manufacturing process of the type of cheese mentioned, there are a few critical steps that should be specifically overseen. In order to acquire a high quality product it is important to monitor a quality of raw material, the parameters of pasteurization and souring, temperature of product packaging, storage conditions of the finished product and maintain hygiene throughout the production. The process of heat treatment, which is pasteurization, is a critical step (critical control points - CCP for the whole process. Monitoring this stage and consistent adherence to Operational Pre-Condition Programs at the thermisation and centrifuging and later packaging, guarantees a safe product and its long shelf life.

  17. Autochthonous facility-specific microbiota dominates washed-rind Austrian hard cheese surfaces and its production environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Narciso M; Mann, Evelyne; Wagner, Martin; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Hernández, Marta; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2018-02-21

    Cheese ripening involves the succession of complex microbial communities that are responsible for the organoleptic properties of the final products. The food processing environment can act as a source of natural microbial inoculation, especially in traditionally manufactured products. Austrian Vorarlberger Bergkäse (VB) is an artisanal washed-rind hard cheese produced in the western part of Austria without the addition of external ripening cultures. Here, the composition of the bacterial communities present on VB rinds and on different processing surfaces from two ripening cellars was assessed by near full length 16S rRNA gene amplification, cloning and sequencing. Non-inoculated aerobic bacteria dominated all surfaces in this study. VB production conditions (long ripening time, high salt concentration and low temperatures) favor the growth of psychro- and halotolerant bacteria. Several bacterial groups, such as coryneforms, Staphylococcus equorum and Halomonas dominated VB and were also found on most environmental surfaces. Analysis of OTUs shared between different surfaces suggests that VB rind bacteria are inoculated naturally during the ripening from the processing environment and that cheese surfaces exert selective pressure on these communities, as only those bacteria better adapted flourished on VB rinds. This study analyzed VB processing environment microbiota and its relationship with VB rinds for the first time, elucidating that the processing environment and the cheese microbiota should be considered as microbiologically linked ecosystems with the goal of better defining the events that take place during cheese maturation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. Part-skim...

  19. 21 CFR 133.136 - Washed curd and soaked curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. 133.136... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.136 Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. (a) Description. (1...

  20. 21 CFR 133.156 - Low-moisture mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-moisture mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.156 Low-moisture mozzarella and scamorza cheese. (a...

  1. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality

  2. Comparative study of flavor in cholesterol-removed Gouda cheese and Gouda cheese during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H J; Ganesan, P; Lee, S J; Kwak, H S

    2013-04-01

    This study was performed to compare the flavor compounds of cholesterol-removed Gouda cheese (CRGC) and those of Gouda cheese (control) during ripening. The CRGC was made using milk treated with cross-linked β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was used to extract flavor compounds from Gouda cheese. In both CRGC and control cheese, 31 flavor compounds were identified, including 6 free fatty acids, 5 esters, 5 ketones, 1 aldehyde, 3 lactones, 5 alcohols, and 6 miscellaneous compounds. Free fatty acids were the most abundant flavor compounds quantified in CRGC and control cheese. In the early stage of ripening, concentrations of flavor compounds in CRGC and control cheese were 16.42 and 10.38 mg/kg, respectively. At 6 mo, they increased to 40.90 and 67.89 mg/kg, respectively. A group of esters was the second abundant flavor compound in CRGC and control cheese. At the initial stage of ripening, total concentrations of esters were 12.94 (CRGC) and 10.95 mg/kg (control) and they increased to 22.73 (CRGC) and 27.68 mg/kg (control). Total concentrations of ketones were 1.96 (CRGC) and 6.49 mg/kg (control) at the initial stage of ripening. After 6 mo of ripening, total concentrations reached 11.32 (CRGC) and 52.43 mg/kg (control). In the case of the lactones, at the early stage of ripening, total concentrations of CRGC and control cheese were 0.63 and 0.84mg/kg, respectively, and then increased to 1.73 (CRGC) and 3.25mg/kg (control) at the end of ripening. Based on the results of this study, the flavor compounds of CRGC and control showed slightly different profiles during ripening. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of whey concentration on protein recovery in fresh ovine ricotta cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, E; Pes, M; Falchi, G; Pagnozzi, D; Furesi, S; Fiori, M; Roggio, T; Addis, M F; Pirisi, A

    2014-01-01

    Ricotta cheese, particularly the ovine type, is a typical Italian dairy product obtained by heat-coagulation of the proteins in whey. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of whey protein concentration, obtained by ultrafiltration, on yield of fresh ovine ricotta cheese. Ricotta cheeses were obtained by thermocoagulation of mixtures with protein content of 1.56, 3.10, 4.16, and 7.09g/100g from the mixing of skim whey and ultrafiltered skim whey. A fat-to-protein ratio of 1.1 (wt/wt) was obtained for all mixtures by adding fresh cream. The initial mixtures, as well as the final ricotta cheeses, were analyzed for their composition and by SDS-PAGE. Protein bands were quantified by QuantityOne software (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Significant differences in the composition of the ricotta cheese were observed depending on protein concentration. Particularly, ricotta cheese resulting from the mixture containing 7.09g/100g of protein presented higher moisture (72.88±1.50g/100g) and protein (10.18±0.45g/100g) contents than that prepared from the mixture with 1.56g/100g of protein (69.52±1.75 and 6.70±0.85g/100g, respectively), and fat content was lower in this sample (12.20±1.60g/100g) compared with the other treatments, with mean values between 15.72 and 20.50g/100g. Each protein fraction presented a different behavior during thermocoagulation. In particular, the recovery of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in the cheese increased as their content increased in the mixtures. It was concluded that concentrating ovine rennet whey improved the extent of heat-induced protein aggregation during the thermal coagulation process. This resulted in a better recovery of each protein fraction in the product, and in a consequent increase of ricotta cheese yield. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja K; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Astrup, Arne; Tholstrup, Tine; Raben, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. We explored the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full-diet periods of 2-wk duration were provided separated by 2-wk washout periods. The isocaloric diets were as follows: 1) a high-cheese (96-120-g) intervention [i.e., intervention containing cheese (CHEESE)], 2) a macronutrient-matched nondairy, high-meat control [i.e., nondairy control with a high content of high-fat processed and unprocessed meat in amounts matching the saturated fat content from cheese in the intervention containing cheese (MEAT)], and 3) a nondairy, low-fat, high-carbohydrate control (i.e., nondairy low-fat control in which the energy from cheese fat and protein was isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates and lean meat (CARB). The CHEESE diet caused a 5% higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration (P = 0.012), an 8% higher apo A-I concentration (P cholesterol concentration (P cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoB, and triacylglycerol were similar with the 3 diets. Fecal fat excretion was 1.8 and 0.9 g higher with the CHEESE diet than with CARB and MEAT diets (P CHEESE and MEAT diets caused higher fecal bile acid excretion than did the CARB diet (P CHEESE and MEAT diets. Diets with cheese and meat as primary sources of SFAs cause higher HDL cholesterol and apo A-I and, therefore, appear to be less atherogenic than is a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Also, our findings confirm that cheese increases fecal fat excretion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01739153

  5. The copper spoil heap Knappenberg, Austria, as a model for metal habitats – Vegetation, substrate and contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Weiss, Yasmin S. [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Sassmann, Stefan [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); University of Exeter, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Biosciences, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Steinhauser, Georg [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Radioecology and Radiation Protection, Herrenhäuser Straße 2, D30419 Hannover (Germany); Hofhansl, Florian [University of Vienna, Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Coordenação de Dinâmica Ambiental, Manaus (Brazil); Baumann, Nils [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Division of Biogeochemistry, Bautzner Landstraße 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Lichtscheidl, Irene K. [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Lang, Ingeborg, E-mail: ingeborg.lang@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    Historic mining in the Eastern Alps has left us with a legacy of numerous spoil heaps hosting specific, metal tolerant vegetation. Such habitats are characterized by elevated concentrations of toxic elements but also by high irradiation, a poorly developed substrate or extreme pH of the soil. This study investigates the distribution of vascular plants, mosses and lichens on a copper spoil heap on the ore bearing Knappenberg formed by Prebichl Layers and Werfener Schist in Lower Austria. It serves as a model for discriminating between various ecological traits and their effects on vegetation. Five distinct clusters were distinguished: (1) The bare, metal rich Central Spoil Heap was only colonised by highly resistant specialists. (2) The Northern and (3) Southern Peripheries contained less copper; the contrasting vegetation was best explained by the different microclimate. (4) A forest over acidic bedrock hosted a vegetation overlapping with the periphery of the spoil heap. (5) A forest over calcareous bedrock was similar to the spoil heap with regard to pH and humus content but hosted a vegetation differing strongly to all other habitats. Among the multiple toxic elements at the spoil heap, only Cu seems to exert a crucial influence on the vegetation pattern. Besides metal concentrations, irradiation, humidity, humus, pH and grain size distribution are important for the establishment of a metal tolerant vegetation. The difference between the species poor Northern and the diverse Southern Periphery can be explained by the microclimate rather than by the substrate. All plant species penetrating from the forest into the periphery of the spoil heap originate from the acidic but not from the calcareous bedrock. - Highlights: • Strong impact on plant diversity by isolation and extreme abiotic conditions • Both, microclimate and substrate explain species distribution. • Increased cellular metal tolerance of plants from the Central Spoil Heap • Among toxic elements

  6. Chemical properties and particle-size distribution of 39 surface-mine spoils in southern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Plass; Willis G. Vogel

    1973-01-01

    A survey of 39 surface-mine sites in southern West Virginia showed that most of the spoils from current mining operations had a pH of 5.0 or higher. Soil-size material averaged 37 percent of the weight of the spoils sampled. A major problem for the establishment of vegetation was a deficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus. This can be corrected with additions of...

  7. Lipase in milk, curd and cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, T.J.; Lettink, F.J.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Presence of lipase in milk, curd, whey and cheese was studied. A small amount of the product was added to a large volume of lipase-free whole milk that had been made sensitive to lipolysis by homogenization. Increase of the acidity of the fat in the mixture, determined after incubation, was

  8. 21 CFR 133.185 - Samsoe cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It has a small amount of eye formation of... the forms and is further salted by immersing in a concentrated salt solution for about 3 days. The... formation. Further curing is conducted at a lower temperature. One or more of the other optional ingredients...

  9. PEMANFAATAN BUAH LOKAL SEBAGAI KOAGULAN SOY CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risza Fawzia Rakhmah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Keju merupakan salah satu produk pangan dengan proses penggumpalan  protein susu. Penelitian ini memanfaatan buah lokal sebagai koagulan untuk menggumpalkan susu kedelai menjadi keju. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh buah lokal sebagai koagulan pada soy cheese terhadap kadar protein, organoleptik dan daya terima masyarakat. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL 2 faktor 6 taraf perlakuan  yaitu faktor 1:  jenis buah (nanas, jeruk lemon dan asam sitrat (kontrol dan konsentrasi (0,12 %; 2%; 3 %, masing-masing perlakuan dilakukan 3 ulangan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode eksperimen, observasi, kepustakaan dan dokumentasi. Pengujian kadar protein menggunakan metode biuret, analisis data kadar protein menggunakan uji Two Way ANOVA dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT, sedangkan pada pengujian organoleptik dan daya terima masyarakat menggunakan analisis deskriptif kualitatif berupa data angket. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Kadar protein tertinggi soy cheese  pada perlakuan ekstrak nanas 3 % sebesar 11,68g,  sedangkan kadar protein terendah soy cheese  pada perlakuan ekstrak jeruk lemon 3 % sebesar 4,57 g. keju paling dominan bertekstur lembut, warna putih tulang, rasa gurih dan sedikit asam. Daya terima panelis  menyukai keju  dengan penambahan ekstrak jeruk lemon 3 %. Penambahan ekstrak nanas dan jeruk lemon sebagai koagulan pada  soy cheese berpengaruh terhadap kadar protein.

  10. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy

    2015-01-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r b =50 h −1  Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D A / D-bar A |∼< 10 −4 . We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%

  11. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy, E-mail: mikko.lavinto@helsinki.fi, E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi [Physics Department, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r{sub b}=50 h{sup −1} Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D{sub A}/ D-bar {sub A}|∼< 10{sup −4}. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  12. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius rb=50 h-1 Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ DA/bar DA|lesssim 10-4. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  13. Keberadaan Bakteri Listeria monocytogenes pada Keju Gouda Produksi Lokal dan Impor (PRESENCE OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN LOCAL AND IMPORTED GOUDA CHEESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Fadhilah Pazra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is included in the foodborne pathogen, which has been associated with severaloutbreaks of human listeriosis especially in high risk groups. Listeria monocytogenes could be found inGouda cheeses because of poor hygienic and sanitation practices. In addition, this bacteria could surviveduring the making of cheese and cheese ripening process. The purpose of this study was to identify thepresence of L. monocytogenes in local and imported Gouda cheeses and how the safety level of the Goudacheese against contamination of L. monocytogenes. This study used the conventional method in accordancewith the Bacteriological Analytical Manual, US Food and Drug Administration and Bergey’s Manual ofDeterminative Bacteriology to detect the presence of L. monocytogenes at 15 samples of local Gouda cheeseand 15 samples of imported Gouda cheese sold in supermarkets in Jakarta and Bogor. The results of thisstudy showed that was not found L. monocytogenes in local and imported Gouda cheese. It could be concludedthat is Gouda cheese relatively safe from L. monocytogenes and meets Indonesian National Standard.

  14. Marketing of the autochthonous dried cheese in Zagreb region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Radman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for specific, value added food products is constantlyincreasing. In order to prepare such products for the market it is necessary to understand consumers’ attitudes and preferences towards food products. Dried cheese, one of the traditional products of wider Zagreb region is produced nowadays exclusively on the family farms without proper control of the used inputs and final product, and without any marketing activities. It is possible to add value and to increase the control of dried cheese production bydeveloping county brand of the cheese. The introduction of county brand of dried cheese in the market requires very good preparation in terms of fulfilling consumers’ needs and wishes. In this paper the results of the consumer survey are presented and could be used for the determination of the technological parameters of production and especially for marketing of the cheese and its distribution. The results showed that majority of the consumers prefer harder, compact, bright yellow cheese, with less intensive odour, packed in transparent plastic foil. Certain number of the respondents confused dried cheese with other cheeses sold in the market and therefore it is necessary to educate consumers about dried cheese and its characteristics compared to other cheeses.

  15. H, C, N and S stable isotopes and mineral profiles to objectively guarantee the authenticity of grated hard cheeses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camin, Federica; Wehrens, Ron; Bertoldi, Daniela; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Perini, Matteo; Nicolini, Giorgio; Nocetti, Marco; Larcher, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Random Forest model based on δ 13 C, δ 2 H, δ 15 N, δ 34 S and the content of Sr, Cu, Mo, Re, Na, U, Bi, Ni, Fe, Mn, Ga, Se, Er, Dy, Pb, Li, usable for the protection of PDO Parmigiano Reggiano cheese from mislabelling. The correct classification rate in cross-validation is 98.6%. Highlights: ► The isotopic and elemental profile of over 260 hard cheese samples are discussed. ► Two validated and immediately applicable statistical models are presented. ► One model is able to predict the origin of seven types of European hard cheeses. ► The other one allows to discriminate the PDO Parmigiano Reggiano cheese from imitators. ► The most significant variables are δ 13 C, δ 2 H, δ 15 N, δ 34 S and the content of 16 elements. - Abstract: In compliance with the European law (EC No. 510/2006), geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs must be protected against mislabelling. This is particularly important for PDO hard cheeses, as Parmigiano Reggiano, that can cost up to the double of the no-PDO competitors. This paper presents two statistical models, based on isotopic and elemental composition, able to trace the origin of cheese also in grated and shredded forms, for which it is not possible to check the logo fire-marked on the rind. One model is able to predict the origin of seven types of European hard cheeses (in a validation step, 236 samples out of 240 are correctly recognised) and the other specifically to discriminate the PDO Parmigiano Reggiano cheese from 9 European and 2 extra-European imitators (260 out of 264 correct classifications). Both models are based on Random Forests. The most significant variables for cheese traceability common in both models are δ 13 C, δ 2 H, δ 15 N, δ 34 S and Sr, Cu, Mo, Re, Na, U, Bi, Ni, Fe, Mn, Ga, Se, and Li. These variables are linked not only to geography, but also to cow diet and cheese making processes.

  16. Reduction of Flow Artifacts by Using Partial Saturation in RF-Spoiled Gradient-Echo Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Misung; Hargreaves, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF)-spoiled gradient-echo imaging provides a signal intensity close to pure T1 contrast by using spoiler gradients and RF phase cycling to eliminate net transverse magnetization. Generally, spins require many RF excitations to reach a steady-state magnetization level; therefore, when unsaturated flowing spins enter the imaging slab, they can cause undesirable signal enhancement and generate image artifacts. These artifacts can be reduced by partially saturating an outer slab u...

  17. Heavy metals in soil on spoil heap of an abandoned lead ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Total concentrations of 4 heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mn), non-metal As and three reference elements. (Ti, Fe and Al) of a soil profile on spoil heap were examined. 54 soil samples were collected in the soil profile at different depths: 15 to 45, 45 to 75, 75 to 105, 105 to 135 and 135 to 150 cm. The first 15 cm of top layer ...

  18. The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza in two simulated stages of spoil-bank succession

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Püschel, David; Rydlová, Jana; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2007), s. 363-369 ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/04/0996; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mycorrhiza * plant succession * spoil bank s Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2007

  19. Development of Soil Characteristics and Plant Communities On Reclaimed and Unreclaimed Spoil Heaps After Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudlín, Ondřej; Řehák, Zdeněk; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare soil characteristics, plant communities and the rate of selected ecosystem function performance on reclaimed and unreclaimed plots (left for spontaneous succession) of different age on spoil heaps. Twelve spoil heaps (three circle plots of radius 12.5 m) near the town Kladno in north-west direction from Prague, created after deep coal mining, were compared. Five mixed soil samples from organo-mineral horizons in each plot were analysed for total content of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, active soil pH (pHH2O) was determined. Plant diversity was determined by vegetation releves. The biodiversity value of the habitat according to the Habitat Valuation Method was assessed and the rate of evapotranspiration function by the Method of Valuation Functions and Services of Ecosystems in the Czech Republic were determined. The higher organo-mineral layers and higher amount of total nitrogen content were found on the older reclaimed and unreclaimed plots than in younger plots. The number of plant species and the total contents of carbon and nitrogen were significantly higher at the unreclaimed plots compared to reclaimed plots. The biodiversity values and evapotranspiration function rate were also higher on unreclaimed plots. From this perspective, it is possible to recommend using of spontaneous succession, together with routine reclamation methods to restore habitats after coal mining. Despite the relatively high age of vegetation in some of selected plots (90 years), both the reclaimed and unreclaimed plots have not reached the stage of potential vegetation near to natural climax. Slow development of vegetation was probably due to unsuitable substrate of spoil heaps and a lack of plant and tree species of natural forest habitats in this area. However, it is probable that vegetation communities on observed spoil heaps in both type of management (reclaimed and unreclaimed) will achieve the stage of natural climax and they

  20. Remediation of Acid Generating Colliery Spoil Using Steel Slag – Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghataora Gurmel S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the legacies of the coal mining industry is the existence of numerous colliery spoil mounds. Run-off waters from some of these mounds result in oxidation of sulphur compounds causing pH to drop to perhaps as low as 2.5. At this pH, mobility for metals increases and it results in destruction of both flora and fauna. In order to reduce acidity, a number of solutions have been investigated with varying degree of success. A recent study to reduce acidity in spoil run-off water included the use of Basic Oxygen Steel slag. Its slow release of lime resulted in longer term remediation compared with other techniques. In addition to this, steel slag contains elements which are essential for plant growth and can be regarded as a weak fertiliser. This was substantiated in two field trials, which had the aim of not only remediating acidity from two different types of colliery spoils, but also to develop a composition that supports grass growth. The objectives were achieved at both sites and some of the results of over 5000 chemical tests conducted during these studies are reported in this paper.

  1. Remediation of Acid Generating Colliery Spoil Using Steel Slag - Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghataora, Gurmel S.; Ghazireh, Nizar; Hall, Nigel

    2015-06-01

    One of the legacies of the coal mining industry is the existence of numerous colliery spoil mounds. Run-off waters from some of these mounds result in oxidation of sulphur compounds causing pH to drop to perhaps as low as 2.5. At this pH, mobility for metals increases and it results in destruction of both flora and fauna. In order to reduce acidity, a number of solutions have been investigated with varying degree of success. A recent study to reduce acidity in spoil run-off water included the use of Basic Oxygen Steel slag. Its slow release of lime resulted in longer term remediation compared with other techniques. In addition to this, steel slag contains elements which are essential for plant growth and can be regarded as a weak fertiliser. This was substantiated in two field trials, which had the aim of not only remediating acidity from two different types of colliery spoils, but also to develop a composition that supports grass growth. The objectives were achieved at both sites and some of the results of over 5000 chemical tests conducted during these studies are reported in this paper.

  2. Impact of plantation on ecosystem development in disturbed coal mine overburden spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Mishra, T.K.; Singh, A.K.; Jain, A. [Tropical Forest Research Inst., Jabalpur (India)

    2004-07-15

    Eleven nitrogen fixing and one non-nitrogen fixing tree species were planted in coal mine overburden spoils of Bisrampur colliery at Surguja district, Chattisgarh, India in 1993. Their growth performance at one, two, four, six and eight years was recorded. It was observed that after eight years of planting, Acacia mangium performed very well in respect to all the growth parameters followed by A. holoserecia, Dalbergia sissoo, Albiziaprocera, Pithecellobium dulce, Acacia auriculiformis and Gmelina arborea. Acacia nilotica showed very poor performance. The number of natural colonisers increased with increasing age of the planted species. Nutrient status of the spoils also increased gradually with the increase in age of the plants. Organic carbon increased greatly and, as a result, activities of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi accelerated. This study indicated that the spoil environment, which is extremely harsh just after mining, could be improved gradually and the ecosystem restored by planting suitable species. Therefore, for early development of the ecosystem, afforestation with suitable leguminous species is recommended.

  3. Magnetization spoiling in radial FLASH contrast-enhanced MR digital subtraction angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Parmede; Ansari, Sameer A; Hurley, Michael C; Bhat, Himanshu; Batjer, H Hunt; Bendok, Bernard R; Eddleman, Christopher S; Carroll, Timothy J

    2012-07-01

    To increase the in-plane spatial resolution and image update rates of 2D magnetic resonance (MR) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) pulse sequences to 0.57 × 0.57 mm and 6 frames/sec, respectively, for intracranial vascular disease applications by developing a radial FLASH protocol and to characterize a new artifact, not previously described in the literature, which arises in the presence of such pulse sequences. The pulse sequence was optimized and artifacts were characterized using simulation and phantom studies. With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, the pulse sequence was used to acquire time-resolved images from healthy human volunteers and patients with x-ray DSA-confirmed intracranial vascular disease. Artifacts were shown to derive from inhomogeneous spoiling due to the nature of radial waveforms. Gradient spoiling strategies were proposed to eliminate the observed artifact by balancing gradient moments across TR intervals. The resulting radial 2D MR DSA sequence (2.6 sec temporal footprint, 6 frames/sec with sliding window factor 16, 0.57 × 0.57 mm in-plane) demonstrated small vessel detail and corroborated x-ray DSA findings in intracranial vascular imaging studies. Appropriate gradient spoiling in radial 2D MR DSA pulse sequences improves intracranial vascular depiction by eliminating circular banding artifacts. The proposed pulse sequence may provide a useful addition to clinically applied 2D MR DSA scans. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Analysis of neutral volatile aroma components in Tilsit cheese using a combination of dynamic headspace technique, capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillinger, K.H.

    2000-03-01

    Tilsit cheese is made by the influence of lab ferment and starter cultures on milk. The ripening is done by repeated inoculation of the surface of the Tilsit cheese with yeasts and read smear cultures. This surface flora forms the typical aroma of the Tilsit cheese during the ripening process. The aim of the work was to receive general knowledge about the kind and amount of the neutral volatile aroma components of Tilsit cheese. Beyond this the ability of forming aroma components by read smear cultures and the dispersion of these components in cheese was to be examined. The results were intended to evaluate the formation of aroma components in Tilsit cheese. The semi-quantitative analyses of the aroma components of all samples were done by combining dynamic headspace extraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this process the neutral volatile aroma components were extracted by dynamic headspace technique, adsorbed on a trap, thermally desorbed, separated by gas chromatography, detected and identified by mass spectrometry. 63 components belonging to the chemical classes of esters, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and sulfur containing substances as well as aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons were found in the analysed cheese samples of different Austrian Tilsit manufacturing plants. All cheese samples showed a qualitative equal but quantitative varied spectrum of aroma components. The cultivation of pure cultures on a cheese agar medium showed all analysed aroma components to be involved in the biochemical metabolism of these cultures. The ability to produce aroma components greatly differed between the strains and it was not possible to correlate this ability with the taxonomic classification of the strains. The majority of the components had a non-homogeneous concentration profile in the cheese body. This was explained by effects of diffusion and temporal and spatial different forming of components by the metabolism of the

  5. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to predict cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits from unprocessed bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis of fresh unprocessed milk samples for predicting cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were obtained from 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows. Individual measurements of 7 new cheese yield-related traits were obtained from the laboratory cheese-making procedure, including the fresh cheese yield, total solid cheese yield, and the water retained in curd, all as a percentage of the processed milk, and nutrient recovery (fat, protein, total solids, and energy) in the curd as a percentage of the same nutrient contained in the milk. All individual milk samples were analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 over the spectral range from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). Two spectral acquisitions were carried out for each sample and the results were averaged before data analysis. Different chemometric models were fitted and compared with the aim of improving the accuracy of the calibration equations for predicting these traits. The most accurate predictions were obtained for total solid cheese yield and fresh cheese yield, which exhibited coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation (1-VR) of 0.95 and 0.83, respectively. A less favorable result was obtained for water retained in curd (1-VR=0.65). Promising results were obtained for recovered protein (1-VR=0.81), total solids (1-VR=0.86), and energy (1-VR=0.76), whereas recovered fat exhibited a low accuracy (1-VR=0.41). As FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid, cheap, high-throughput technique that is already used to collect standard milk recording data, these FTIR calibrations for cheese yield and nutrient recovery highlight additional potential applications of the technique in the dairy industry, especially for monitoring cheese

  6. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pleva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g‑1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 mg.kg-1 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 mg.kg-1. The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 mg.kg-1. The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 mg.kg-1 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR FUNCTIONAL CHEESE PRODUCT USING NON-TRADITIONAL VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. As a result of application of the developed technology for the production of cheeses with cheddaring received a high quality product, balanced food and biological value, high organoleptic indices. With biomedical positions obtained proteins are a unique drug: amino acid composition of the protein complex component, the content of essential amino acids almost corresponds to ideal protein, easily digested in the body. Cheese production this group does not require expensive facilities and reduces the flow of milk. The product is characterized by high protein content, stable functional and technological properties, versatility, affordability. The choice of complex enzyme preparation in the production of cheese products was due to the presence in the mixture of prescription extract lentils. When working with this drug mixture normalized hydrolyzed twice as fast, it does not lead to the formation of bitterness. The obtained experimental data testify that cheese products enriched products processed products lentil have a high nutritional and biological value and can be recommended for functional food of the population of all age groups. Based on the described concept, the obvious need for further research and development works on priority directions of complex issues of healthy nutrition of the population and reduces the flow of milk.

  8. Identification of Lipid Biomarkers To Discriminate between the Different Production Systems for Asiago PDO Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segato, Severino; Galaverna, Gianni; Contiero, Barbara; Berzaghi, Paolo; Caligiani, Augusta; Marseglia, Angela; Cozzi, Giulio

    2017-11-15

    The lipid fraction of Asiago Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese was analyzed to identify specific biomarkers of its main production systems through a canonical discriminant analysis. The three main production systems of the cheese were considered. Two were located in the upland (UL): pasture-based (P-UL) vs hay-based total mixed rations (H-UL). The third was located in the lowland (LL) and processed milk from cows fed maize silage-based rations (maize silage lowland: MS-LL). The discriminant analysis selected nine fatty acids and vitamin A as lipid biomarkers useful to separate the three production systems. High contents of conjugated linoleic acids, anteiso-C15:0, and vitamin A were discriminant factors for P-UL cheese. The separation between H-UL and MS-LL cheese was less marked with the former having the higher content of conjugated linoleic acids and some polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids and with the latter being identified by cyclopropane fatty acid and C9:0.

  9. Biodiversity and Microbial Resistance of Lactobacilli Isolated From the Traditional Greek Cheese Kopanisti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Rozos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kopanisti is a Greek artisan cheese produced from raw milk in the island of Mykonos, Greece. The milk is left to rest for 12–24 h and then the rennet is added. After its formation the curd is left to drain for 2–3 days and is ready either for consumption (as tyrovolia fresh cheese, or with the addition of extra salt, the curd is left to ripen through further fermentation and surface development of Penicillium fungi, aprocess leading to the production of the traditional Greek cheese Kopanisti. From 120 samples of kopanisti, 574 Lactobacillus strains were isolated, distributed in 17 species (16 of them isolated from tyrovolia as well. Strains from 15 species were found resistant or multiresistant against 15 antimicrobial agents, representing all categories of antibiotics. Analysis revealed that the resistance was moderated during ripening of the curd from tyrovolia to Kopanisti. Resistance against penicillin G, ampicillin/sulbactam, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, trimethoprim, metronidazole, vancomycin, teichoplanin, and quinupristin/dalvopristin was significantly enhanced, while the resistance against ampicillin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline, gentamycin, and fucidic acid was significantly reduced. These changes during ripening suggest that resistance to antimicrobials is a dynamic process subjected to environmental factors. The biodiversity of isolated Lactobacillus strains is impressive and explains the exquisite sensorial characteristics of the cheese. However, the extent of the resistance is alarming.

  10. Detailed fatty acid profile of milk, cheese, ricotta and by products, from cows grazing summer highland pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Matteo; Bittante, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    In this research two-dimensional GC was used to analyse, for the first time, the detailed fatty acid (FA) profiles of 11 dairy matrices: raw milk (evening whole, evening partially skimmed, morning whole, and vat milk), cream, fresh cheese, whey, ricotta, scotta, 6- and 12-month-ripened cheeses, obtained across artisanal cheese- and ricotta-making trials carried out during the summer period while cows were on highland pastures. Samples were collected during 7 cheese- and ricotta-making procedures carried out at 2-week intervals from bulk milk to study possible differences in the transfer and modification of FA. Compared with morning milk, evening milk had fewer de novo synthetised FA. The detailed FA profile of partially skimmed milk differed little from that of evening whole milk before skimming, but the cream obtained differed from partially skimmed milk and from fresh cheese in about half the FA, due mainly to higher contents of all de novo FA, and lower contents of n-3 and n-6 FA. Fresh cheese and whey had similar FA profiles. The ricotta manufacturing process affected the partition of FA between ricotta and scotta, the FA profile of the latter differing in terms of groups and individual FA from the former, whereas ricotta and fresh cheese had similar composition of FA. In general, there was an increase in medium-chain saturated FA, and a decrease in many polyunsaturated FA during the first 6 months of ripening, but not during the second 6 months. Two-dimensional GC yielded a very detailed and informative FA profile on all the 11 dairy products and by-products analysed.

  11. Strain-level characterization of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria in Norvegia cheese by high-resolution melt analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcellato, D; Østlie, H M; Liland, K H; Rudi, K; Isaksson, T; Skeie, S B

    2012-09-01

    The nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) constitute an important microbial group found during cheese ripening and they are thought to be fundamental to the quality of cheese. Rapid and accurate diagnostic tests for NSLAB are important for cheese quality control and in understanding the cheese ripening process. Here, we present a novel rapid approach for strain-level characterization through combined 16S rRNA gene and repetitive sequence-based high-resolution melt analysis (HRM). The approach was demonstrated through the characterization of 94 isolates from Norvegia, a Gouda-type cheese. The HRM profiles of the V1 and V3 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolates were compared with the HRM profiles of 13 reference strains. The HRM profile comparison of the V1 and V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene allowed discrimination of isolates and reference strains. Among the cheese isolates, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei (62 isolates) and Lactobacillus plantarum/Lactobacillus pentosus (27 isolates) were the dominant species, whereas Lactobacillus curvatus/Lactobacillus sakei were found occasionally (5 isolates). The HRM profiling of repetitive sequence-based PCR using the (GTG)(5) primer was developed for strain-level characterization. The clustering analysis of the HRM profiles showed high discriminatory power, similar to that of cluster analysis based on the gel method. In conclusion, the HRM approach in this study may be applied as a fast, accurate, and reproducible method for characterization of the NSLAB microflora in cheese and may be applicable to other microbial environments following selective plate culturing. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of pH at drainage on the physicochemical, textural and microstructural characteristics of mozzarella cheese from goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Fernanda PAZ

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was a contribution to standardazation the process of making mozzarella cheese from goat milk by draining at different pH values 5.0 (MC50, 5.3 (MC53 and 5.6 (MC56, so as to obtain a product with suitable physicochemical, microstructural and textural characteristics. MC50 had lower protein and calcium, with very few strands. MC53 had adequate moisture content, fat, protein and calcium. The cheese yield was higher, the hardness parameters were lower, and the microstructure revealed the presence of long, thin strands, giving it the distinctive texture for this type of cheese. MC56 curd did not reach a good stretching property, requiring longer exposure to heating to obtain the yarn. This resulted in lower retention of fat, lower cheese yield, increased calcium and hardness values, and absence of strands. Overall, the goat milk presented aptitude for processing this type of cheese, however the pH 5.3 was selected to obtain a product with suitable physicochemical, textural and microstructural characteristics.

  13. Optimal growth of Lactobacillus casei in a Cheddar cheese ripening model system requires exogenous fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W S; Budinich, M F; Ward, R; Broadbent, J R; Steele, J L

    2012-04-01

    Flavor development in ripening Cheddar cheese depends on complex microbial and biochemical processes that are difficult to study in natural cheese. Thus, our group has developed Cheddar cheese extract (CCE) as a model system to study these processes. In previous work, we found that CCE supported growth of Lactobacillus casei, one of the most prominent nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) species found in ripening Cheddar cheese, to a final cell density of 10(8) cfu/mL at 37°C. However, when similar growth experiments were performed at 8°C in CCE derived from 4-mo-old cheese (4mCCE), the final cell densities obtained were only about 10(6) cfu/mL, which is at the lower end of the range of the NSLAB population expected in ripening Cheddar cheese. Here, we report that addition of Tween 80 to CCE resulted in a significant increase in the final cell density of L. casei during growth at 8°C and produced concomitant changes in cytoplasmic membrane fatty acid (CMFA) composition. Although the effect was not as dramatic, addition of milk fat or a monoacylglycerol (MAG) mixture based on the MAG profile of milk fat to 4mCCE also led to an increased final cell density of L. casei in CCE at 8°C and changes in CMFA composition. These observations suggest that optimal growth of L. casei in CCE at low temperature requires supplementation with a source of fatty acids (FA). We hypothesize that L. casei incorporates environmental FA into its CMFA, thereby reducing its energy requirement for growth. The exogenous FA may then be modified or supplemented with FA from de novo synthesis to arrive at a CMFA composition that yields the functionality (i.e., viscosity) required for growth in specific conditions. Additional studies utilizing the CCE model to investigate microbial contributions to cheese ripening should be conducted in CCE supplemented with 1% milk fat. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An assessment of iodine in cheese in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1998-01-01

    We assessed some products in Macedonian food containing iodine: milk, bread, eggs, iodized salt. These nutritional items are deficient in iodine compared to western technology of,food preparation. Cheese prepared as white cheese from sheep and cow's milk is a much-used nutritional product. According to the Central Macedonian Statistical Bureau at the. Ministry of Health the laboratory measured iodine dosage in order to have an estimation of what the contribution of cheese is in the daily Macedonian diet. The collection of cheese was independently performed by the food inspectors in all regions of Macedonia. In June 1998 all specimens were in the laboratory. Macedonian white cheese has 57 micro g/dl iodine. In comparison to other nutritional items as milk, eggs and bread with a low contingent of iodine, the Macedonian cheese covers a good part of daily iodine necessity. We present our results with a brief comment on iodine metabolism. (Original)

  15. Response of Edam cheese to non-destructive impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of the Edam cheese during its maturation under dynamic loading has been studied. The block of tested cheese has been loaded by the impact of an aluminium bar. The force between bar and cheese has been recorded. The surface displacements as well as the surface velocities have been obtained at the different points from the point of the bar impact using of the laser vibrometers. Response functions have been evaluated both in the time and frequency domains. It has been found that the degree of the cheese maturity is well characterized by the attenuation of the surface displacement maximum. This maturation is also described by the maximum of the impact force. The spectral analysis of the response functions revealed that there was a dominant frequency, which depends only on the degree of the cheese maturity. The developed method represents a promising procedure for the continuous recording of the cheese ripening.

  16. Production of farmstead lactose-free Pecorino di Osilo and ricotta cheeses from sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Pulinas

    2017-02-01

    ±250 mg/kg in Ricotta mustia. The results of the present study showed that the production of farmstead lactose-free Pecorino di Osilo cheese and ricotta cheeses from raw sheep’s milk is easily achievable. The main issue for farmstead production of artisanal lactose-free products is the implementation of permanent procedures based on hazard-analysis and critical control principles aimed at guaranteeing the effectiveness of the process and at acquiring analytical evidences to demonstrate the fulfilment of law requirements for labelling.

  17. From artisans to “factories”: the interpenetration of craft and industry in English cheese-making, c1650-1950

    OpenAIRE

    Blundel, Richard; Tregear, Angela

    2006-01-01

    This article traces the uneven development of English cheese-making, from its early commercialization to the eventual triumph of the “cheese factory.” The narrative shows how contemporary actors initiated and adapted to changes in technology, distribution, consumption, and regulation. It indicates that artisanal practices have both borrowed from, and become integrated with, industrial logics and strategies, exemplifying a process that Charles F. Sabel and Jonathan Zeitlin termed the “recombin...

  18. Use of Protease and Lipase Enzymes by Different Methods to Accelerate Kaşar Cheese Ripening 1. The Effect on Cheese Physical and Chemical Properties (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pasteurized cow milk was used for Kaşar cheese processing. One lipase (Palatase M, one protease (Neutrase, and combination of both enzymes were added to milk which was processed into cheese. Three different enzymes with the levels (based on raw milk amount of 0.0001% Palatese M. 0.004% Neutrase and 0.0001% Palatase M + 0.004% Neutrase were evaluated for physical and chemical properties at 2nd, 30th, 60th and 90th day of the ripening periods. Enzyme added cheese samples were compared with the Control-I (from fresh milk and Control-II (from pasteurized and starter added cheese samples. The 1% starter composed of Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris (1:1 was added into the milk. Experiment was set up according to random block design with factorial arrangement, and the analysis were carried out in duplicate. Cheese yields of all the cheese samples produced with the enzyme addition were lower than the control groups. But, 0.0001% Palatase M(Mik-L added with microencapsulation technique gave the higher cheese yield which is closer to the control groups. With the enzyme addition, dry-matter; fat, protein, salt, acidity, fat in dry-matter, salt in dry-matter and the ripening degree; with the ripening period dry-matter, fat, protein, ash, salt, acidity, salt in dry-matter and the ripening degree gave statistically (P<0.01 significant results. It was determined that the interaction of enzyme addition x ripened period had an significant influence on dry-matter, fat, protein, acidity, fat in dry-matter and ripening degree of the cheeses produced in this research (P<0.01. The best ripened condition was achieved by adding lipase+protease enzymes together into milk with direct technique (Di-L+P. The same ripened state in the cheeses was reached in 30-60 days ripened period with the direct incorporation of lipase + protease enzymes together (Di+L+P or protease only (Di-P, but in 90 days in control groups containing no enzymes.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus in locally produced white cheese in Tirana market

    OpenAIRE

    ELVIRA BELI; RENIS MAÇI; SONILA ÇOÇOLI; HALIT MEMOÇI

    2014-01-01

    Cheese has nutritional value, its consumption is very common in Albania, but is also excellent medium for bacterial growth, source of bacterial infection, particularly when it is produced from raw poor quality or unpasteurized milk. Microbial safety of cheeses may be enhanced by usage good quality raw milk, pasteurized milk, following GMP in aim to prevent cross-contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and amount of Staphylococcus aureus in white cheeses, as an Albani...

  20. Effective Antibiotic Resistance Mitigation during Cheese Fermentation ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinhui; Li, Yingli; Alvarez, Valente; Harper, Willis James; Wang, Hua H.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling antibiotic-resistant (ART) bacteria in cheese fermentation is important for food safety and public health. A plant-maintained culture was found to be a potential source for ART bacterial contamination in cheese fermentation. Antibiotics had a detectable effect on the ART population from contamination in the finished product. The decrease in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in retail cheese samples from 2010 compared to data from 2006 suggested the effectiveness of targ...

  1. Determination of nitrate and nitrite content of Turkish cheeses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of nitrate and nitrite were determined in 185 samples of Turkish cheese having high consumption rate. All cheese samples contained nitrate and its level in Turkish white cheese produced from cow's and sheep's milk were found between 0.92 - 22.40 (mean 8.96±4.93) mg/kg and 0.47 - 23.68 (mean 12.35±6.28) ...

  2. Physical, chemical and texture characteristics of Aro cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, M.L.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, Mexico’s total annual production of cheese was 375,181 tons. Cheese is widely consumed among all socioeconomic groups, and the decision to purchase this product is based on income, with a wide variety of cheeses, brands, and styles available. The fresco cheese is the most popular type and is mostly produced according to traditional or artisanal methods in small family businesses, and small and medium-sized enterprises. It is made with the milk of the producers' livestock, giving it an added value. In Mexico, however, there is not enough scientific information related to the characterization of various dairy products of artisanal production, for example, Aro cheese. The aim of the present study was to define the physical, chemical, and rheological characteristics of the Aro cheese that is commercialized in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, Oaxaca, Mexico. Twenty-four samples of Aro cheese were collected in four establishments with high sales in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, Oaxaca, for analysis physical (Diameter, weight, height and color, chemical (pH, acidity, aw, chlorides, moisture, ashes, protein and fat, and texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness. No difference was found in weight, diameter, height, and color (L* and b*. However, differences in hardness and cohesiveness were found. Although Aro cheese is characterized as an enzymatically coagulated cheese, pH values of 5.82 to 6.08 were recorded, and the data relating to moisture, protein, fat, and chlorides are similar to other Mexican fresh cheeses. The cheese of Aro that is commercialized in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, presents similar physical, chemical and texture characteristics to other fresh cheeses of artisanal production.

  3. Effects of coal spoil amendment on heavy metal accumulation and physiological aspects of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growing in copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhaoxia; Wang, Xingming; Wang, Yunmin; Liu, Guijian; Dong, Zhongbing; Lu, Xianwen; Chen, Guangzhou; Zha, Fugeng

    2017-12-21

    Copper mine tailings pose many threats to the surrounding environment and human health, and thus, their remediation is fundamental. Coal spoil is the waste by-product of coal mining and characterized by low levels of metals, high content of organic matter, and many essential microelements. This study was designed to evaluate the role of coal spoil on heavy uptake and physiological responses of Lolium perenne L. grown in copper mine tailings amended with coal spoil at rates of 0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20%. The results showed that applying coal spoil to copper mine tailings decreased the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents in tailings and reduced those metal contents in both roots and shoots of the plant. However, application of coal spoil increased the DTPA-extractable Cr concentration in tailings and also increased Cr uptake and accumulation by Lolium perenne L. The statistical analysis of physiological parameters indicated that chlorophyll and carotenoid increased at the lower amendments of coal spoil followed by a decrease compared to their respective controls. Protein content was enhanced at all the coal spoil amendments. When treated with coal spoil, the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) responded differently. CAT activity was inhibited, but POD activity was increased with increasing amendment ratio of coal spoil. SOD activity increased up to 1% coal spoil followed by a decrease. Overall, the addition of coal spoil decreased the oxidative stress in Lolium perenne L., reflected by the reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the plant. It is concluded that coal spoil has the potential to stabilize most metals studied in copper mine tailings and ameliorate the harmful effects in Lolium perenne L. through changing the physiological attributes of the plant grown in copper mine tailings.

  4. When cheese gets the blues: Pseudomonas fluorescens as the causative agent of cheese spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N H; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2011-06-01

    A bacterial contamination of fresh, low-acid cheese that resulted in production of a blue fluorescent pigment on the surface of the cheese was determined to be caused by Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar IV, a gram-negative bacteria that produces a blue, nondiffusible pigment as well as the soluble pigment pyoverdin, which fluoresces under UV light. Ten isolates collected from contaminated cheese and environmental samples were initially identified as P. fluorescens using 16S rDNA sequencing, but only 8 of the isolates produced blue pigment and fluoresced under UV light when re-inoculated onto fresh, low-acid cheese. The Biolog Metabolic Fingerprint system (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA) and the Analytical Profile Index (BioMerieux Vitek Inc., Hazelwood, MO) for nonenteric gram-negative species as well as EcoRI ribotyping did not differentiate between the isolates that produced blue color and those that did not. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis with the enzyme XbaI was able to distinguish between the isolates that produced pigment and those that did not and allowed for identification of a specific environmental site (i.e., an overhead cheese vat agitator system) as the likely source of product contamination. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensory and protein profiles of Mexican Chihuahua cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Moushumi; Nuñez, Alberto; Van Hekken, Diane L; Renye, John A

    2014-11-01

    Native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including the Mexican variety Queso Chihuahua, contribute to flavor development through degradation of milk proteins. The effects of proteolysis were studied in four different brands of Mexican Queso Chihuahua made from raw milk. All of the cheeses were analyzed for chemical and sensory characteristics. Sensory testing revealed that the fresh cheeses elicited flavors of young, basic cheeses, with slight bitter notes. Analysis by gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed that the Queseria Blumen (X) and Queseria Super Fino (Z) cheeses show little protein degradation over time while the Queseria America (W) and Queseria Lago Grande (Y) samples are degraded extensively when aged at 4 °C for 8 weeks. Analysis of the mixture of water-soluble cheese proteins by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of short, hydrophobic peptides in quantities correlating with bitterness. All cheese samples contained enterococcal strains known to produce enterocins. The W and Y cheese samples had the highest number of bacteria and exhibited greater protein degradation than that observed for the X and Z cheeses.

  6. Edaphic restoration of the spoil banks of lignite mines in Galicia. Recuperacion edafica de los escombreras de minas de lignito en Galicia. Caracterizacion de los materiales esteriles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiros de la Pena, M.C.; Gil Sotres, F.; Carballas Fernandez, M.; Codesido Lopez, C.; Gonzalez Sangregorio, M.V.; Seoane Lavandeira, S.; Guitian Ojea, F. (Univ. of Santiago, La Coruna (Spain). Fac. Farm., Lab. Edafol.)

    1989-01-01

    We report physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of four lignite spoils from the mines at Meirama and As Pontes (La Coruna, NW Spain). The low acidity, zero pyrite content and balanced texture of the Meirama spoils suggest that their recovery as viable soil will not be difficult, whereas recovery of the As Pontes spoils (P1 and P2) is hindered by their low pH, high total acidity and the presence of pyrites. The greatest contribution to total acidity is the residual fraction in P1 and the soluble and exchange fractions in P2. Different recovery strategies should be used for these two spoils. 2 figs., 10 tabs., 20 refs.

  7. Population dynamics of two antilisterial cheese surface consortia revealed by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasler Madlen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surface contamination of smear cheese by Listeria spp. is of major concern for the industry. Complex smear ecosystems have been shown to harbor antilisterial potential but the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the inhibition mostly remain unclear, and are likely related to complex interactions than to production of single antimicrobial compounds. Bacterial biodiversity and population dynamics of complex smear ecosystems exhibiting antilisterial properties in situ were investigated by Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE, a culture independent technique, for two microbial consortia isolated from commercial Raclette type cheeses inoculated with defined commercial ripening cultures (F or produced with an old-young smearing process (M. Results TTGE revealed nine bacterial species common to both F and M consortia, but consortium F exhibited a higher diversity than consortium M, with thirteen and ten species, respectively. Population dynamics were studied after application of the consortia on fresh-produced Raclette cheeses. TTGE analyses revealed a similar sequential development of the nine species common to both consortia. Beside common cheese surface bacteria (Staphylococcus equorum, Corynebacterium spp., Brevibacterium linens, Microbacterium gubbeenense, Agrococcus casei, the two consortia contained marine lactic acid bacteria (Alkalibacterium kapii, Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans that developed early in ripening (day 14 to 20, shortly after the growth of staphylococci (day 7. A decrease of Listeria counts was observed on cheese surface inoculated at day 7 with 0.1-1 × 102 CFU cm-2, when cheeses were smeared with consortium F or M. Listeria counts went below the detection limit of the method between day 14 and 28 and no subsequent regrowth was detected over 60 to 80 ripening days. In contrast, Listeria grew to high counts (105 CFU cm-2 on cheeses smeared with a defined surface culture

  8. Swiss cheese and a cheesy CMB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkenburg, Wessel

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that the Swiss-Cheese cosmology can mimic Dark Energy, when it comes to the observed luminosity distance-redshift relation. Besides the fact that this effect tends to disappear on average over random directions, we show in this work that based on the Rees-Sciama effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Swiss-Cheese model can be ruled out if all holes have a radius larger than about 35 Mpc. We also show that for smaller holes, the CMB is not observably affected, and that the small holes can still mimic Dark Energy, albeit in special directions, as opposed to previous conclusions in the literature. However, in this limit, the probability of looking in a special direction where the luminosity of supernovae is sufficiently supressed becomes very small, at least in the case of a lattice of spherical holes considered in this paper

  9. Could cheese be the missing piece in the French paradox puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petyaev, Ivan M; Bashmakov, Yuriy K

    2012-12-01

    The low rates of cardiovascular mortality which have existed in France for decades despite high saturated fat consumption constitute an epidemiological phenomenon called the "French paradox". This phenomenon was originally attributed to consumption of red wine and its major constituent resveratrol. However, recent studies have revealed the limitations of this link outside France. These observations indicate that consumption of red wine alone cannot explain the paradox and perhaps some other constituents of the typical French diet could be responsible for reduced cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesize that cheese consumption, especially of molded varieties, may contribute to the occurrence of the "French paradox". This assumption is well supported by newly discovered facts revealing the positive effect of cheese ingestion on lipoprotein turnover and plasma lipid profile, haemorheological parameters and inflammatory status. Recent advances in cheese proteomics have allowed the identification and isolation of novel peptides capable of inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme which controls systemic blood pressure. A complex time-dependent enzymatic transformation of the cheese core controlled by probiota, temperature and humidity during the ripening process has been shown to result in the formation of substances reducing major pro-inflammatory markers and cytokines (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha). Molded cheeses, including Roquefort, may be even more favorable to cardiovascular health due to the presence of secondary metabolites produced by Penicillium roqueforti and other fungi. Among them are andrastins A-D and roquefortine, whose ability to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and bacterial growth may be a key mechanism in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Derivation of multivariate indices of milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yield in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, M G; Serdino, J; Gaspa, G; Urgeghe, P; Ibba, I; Contu, M; Fresi, P; Macciotta, N P P

    2016-06-01

    Milk composition and its technological properties are traits of interest for the dairy sheep industry because almost all milk produced is processed into cheese. However, several variables define milk technological properties and a complex correlation pattern exists among them. In the present work, we measured milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yields in a sample of 991 Sarda breed ewes in 47 flocks. The work aimed to study the correlation pattern among measured variables and to obtain new synthetic indicators of milk composition and cheese-making properties. Multivariate factor analysis was carried out on individual measures of milk coagulation parameters; cheese yield; fat, protein, and lactose percentages; somatic cell score; casein percentage; NaCl content; pH; and freezing point. Four factors that were able to explain about 76% of the original variance were extracted. They were clearly interpretable: the first was associated with composition and cheese yield, the second with udder health status, the third with coagulation, and the fourth with curd characteristics. Factor scores were then analyzed by using a mixed linear model that included the fixed effect of parity, lambing month, and lactation stage, and the random effect of flock-test date. The patterns of factor scores along lactation stages were coherent with their technical meaning. A relevant effect of flock-test date was detected, especially on the 2 factors related to milk coagulation properties. Results of the present study suggest the existence of a simpler latent structure that regulates relationships between variables defining milk composition and coagulation properties in sheep. Heritability estimates for the 4 extracted factors were from low to moderate, suggesting potential use of these new variables as breeding goals. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of pasteurization and lactic acid bacteria on physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of costeño cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Serpa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pasteurization and starter cultures on physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of costeño cheese was determined. A completely randomized design was conducted, three treatments (T and three replicates: Treatment 1 (T1: cheese manufactured with pasteurized milk without starter cultures, Treatment 2 (T2: cheese manufactured with pasteurized milk with Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus cremoris (1:1 and treatment 3 (T3: cheese manufactured with pasteurized milk with Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus cremoris and Streptococcus thermophillus (0.5:0.5:1. Treatments were compared to a control sample that was prepared with raw milk without starter cultures. Concentration of 1.5% (v/v of culture was used in relation to the amount of used milk in each treatment. Moisture content was higher in all treatments compared to the control and protein and fat content were significantly lower. Acidity was significantly higher in samples from T2 y T3 compared to T1 and control, due to the metabolism of starter cultures. Total coliforms, yeast and mold counts showed a significant reduction due to pasteurization process in all treatments. Regarding sensorial analysis, hedonic test showed a greater preference in cheese manufactured with T2 (P<0.05. There were no significant preferences between T1, T3 and control. Additionally, yield was significantly higher with T1 (22% and T3 (23% compared to control.

  12. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Ansung, Gyunggi-do 456-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Jun-Sang [Animal Products Processing Division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keehyuk [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejeon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang-Do [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Ansung, Gyunggi-do 456-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun, E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.k [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (10{sup 1} CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D{sub 10} values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  13. Determination of some virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from locally produced cheese in Diyala Governorate-Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Jawdat Fadihl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Locally produced cheese which called (Gibin Al arab is one of the most common dairy products in Iraq, it has an economic importance and great social value. This research aimed to identify yeast species from locally produced cheese (Gibin Al Arab in Diyala city which traditionally made and sold in markets of old town in Baquba, and study some of virulence factors (Esterase production, Phospholipase and Hemolytic production of yeasts belong to genus of Candida . All cheese samples showed contamination with varying number of yeast, total 88 yeast isolates obtained from 70 cheese samples, they were Geotrichum candidum(20.5%, Rhodotorela species(19.4%, Candida parapsilosis (18%, Candida albicans (13.6%, Candida  tropicalis (10.5%, Candida krusei (8%, Saccharomyces cerevisice (3.3% and mixed yeast (un identified at rate of (6.7%. Species of Candida formed half of the total isolates and the most prevalent isolate of Candida spp. was Candida parapsilosis .According to the results determining of  (Esterase production, Phospholipase and Hemolytic production as a virulence factors identifying Candida spp. these activities referred that all isolates of Candida spp. show one or more of these activities and that isolates of  medically important species Candida albicans were the most virulent isolates. this referred to the importance of take attention about consuming of such types of dairy products and need for applying more hygienic measures during handling, processing of milk and form of storage and/or selling of cheese.

  14. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Ham, Jun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Keehyuk; Ha, Sang-Do; Jo, Cheorun

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens ( Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 10 2 to 10 3 Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (10 1 CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D 10 values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  15. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Ham, Jun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Keehyuk; Ha, Sang-Do; Jo, Cheorun

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 10 2 to 10 3 Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (10 1 CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D 10 values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  16. Light propagation in Swiss-cheese cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szybka, Sebastian J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of inhomogeneities on light propagation. The Sachs equations are solved numerically in the Swiss-cheese models with inhomogeneities modeled by the Lemaitre-Tolman solutions. Our results imply that, within the models we study, inhomogeneities may partially mimic the accelerated expansion of the Universe provided the light propagates through regions with lower than the average density. The effect of inhomogeneities is small and full randomization of the photons' trajectories reduces it to an insignificant level.

  17. Effect of temperature, pH, and water activity on Mucor spp. growth on synthetic medium, cheese analog and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Sardin, Stéphanie; Rigalma, Karim; Coroller, Louis; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The Mucor genus includes a large number of ubiquitous fungal species. In the dairy environment, some of them play a technological role providing typical organoleptic qualities to some cheeses while others can cause spoilage. In this study, we compared the effect of relevant abiotic factors for cheese production on the growth of six strains representative of dairy technological and contaminant species as well as of a non cheese related strain (plant endophyte). Growth kinetics were determined for each strain in function of temperature, water activity and pH on synthetic Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), and secondary models were fitted to calculate the corresponding specific cardinal values. Using these values and growth kinetics acquired at 15 °C on cheese agar medium (CA) along with three different cheese types, optimal growth rates (μopt) were estimated and consequently used to establish a predictive model. Contrarily to contaminant strains, technological strains showed higher μopt on cheese matrices than on PDA. Interestingly, lag times of the endophyte strain were strongly extended on cheese related matrices. This study offers a relevant predictive model of growth that may be used for better cheese production control but also raises the question of adaptation of some Mucor strains to the cheese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy for authentication of cheese and cheese analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2016-04-01

    Food authentication and the detection of adulterated products are recent major issues in the food industry as these topics are of global importance for quality control and food safety. To effectively address this challenge requires fast, reliable and non-destructive analytical techniques. Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS) is well suited for identification purposes as it combines the chemically specific information obtained by Raman spectroscopy with the ability for efficient fluorescence rejection. The two slightly shifted excitation wavelengths necessary for SERDS are realized by specially designed microsystem diode lasers. At 671 nm the laser (optical power: 50 mW, spectral shift: 0.7 nm) is based on an external cavity configuration whereas an emission at 783 nm (optical power: 110 mW, spectral shift: 0.5 nm) is achieved by a distributed feedback laser. To investigate the feasibility of SERDS for rapid and nondestructive authentication purposes four types of cheese and three different cheese analogues were selected. Each sample was probed at 8 different positions using integration times of 3-10 seconds and 10 spectra were recorded at each spot. Principal components analysis was applied to the SERDS spectra revealing variations in fat and protein signals as primary distinction criterion between cheese and cheese analogues for both excitation wavelengths. Furthermore, to some extent, minor compositional differences could be identified to discriminate between individual species of cheese and cheese analogues. These findings highlight the potential of SERDS for rapid food authentication potentially paving the way for future applications of portable SERDS systems for non-invasive in situ analysis.

  19. Cheese cultures: transforming American tastes and traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Although the history of cheesemaking in the United States tells largely a tale of industrialization, there is a submerged yet continuous history of small-batch, hands-on, artisan cheese manufacture. This tradition, carried on in artisan cheese factories across the country, although concentrated in Wisconsin, is often overlooked by a new generation of artisan cheesemakers. Continuities in fabrication methods shared by preindustrial and post-industrial artisan creameries have been obscured by changes in the organization and significance of artisan production over the last one hundred years. Making cheese by hand has morphed from chore to occupation to vocation; from economic trade to expressive endeavor; from a craft to an art. American artisan cheesemaking tradition was invented and reinvented as a tradition of innovation. Indeed, ideological commitment to innovation as modern, progressive, American—and thus a marketable value—further obscures continuities between past and present, artisan factories, and new farmstead production. The social disconnect between the current artisan movement and American's enduring cheesemaking tradition reproduces class hierarchies even as it reflects growing equity in gendered occupational opportunities.

  20. Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria volatilomes produced using cheese components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarbi, E; Lazzi, C; Tabanelli, G; Gatti, M; Neviani, E; Gardini, F

    2013-07-01

    In long-ripened cheese, flavor formation occurs during ripening. The metabolism of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) leads to the production of different compounds that contribute to the flavor of cheese. The contribution of LAB to the formation of cheese flavor has previously been studied. However, the specific nonstarter LAB (NSLAB) metabolic reactions in ripened cheese that lead to the formation of flavor compounds remain unclear. In ripened cheese, the nutrient sources available include small peptides or amino acids, citrate, lactate, free fatty acids, and starter LAB cell lysis products. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of NSLAB to produce volatile flavor compounds by using an in vitro system that used only the nutrients available in ripened cheese as the energy source. Moreover, the potential contribution of the NSLAB volatilome on total cheese flavor is discussed. For this purpose, the production of volatile compounds on cheese-based medium (CBM) and on starter LAB lysed cell medium (LCM) by 2 Lactobacillus casei and 2 Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, previously isolated from ripened Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, was investigated. The generated volatile compounds were analyzed with head-space gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Overall, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, and acids were the most abundant compounds produced. Differences in volatilome production were found between NSLAB grown in LCM and CBM. The catabolic metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids were required for NSLAB growth on LCM. Conversely, pyruvate metabolism was the main catabolic pathway that supported growth of NSLAB in CBM. This study can be considered a first step toward a better understanding of how microbiota involved in the long ripening of cheese may contribute to the development of cheese flavor. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A.M. O’ Callaghan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.

  2. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Callaghan, Karen A M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-06-20

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  4. Richness, diversity and evenness of vegetation upon rehabilitation of gypsum mine spoiled lands in the Indian arid zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Sharma, K.D.; Sharma, U.K.; Gough, L.P.

    1998-01-01

    Richness, diversity and evenness of vegetation, after rehabilitation of gypsum mine spoils at Barmer were investigated in plots protected and planted one year and four years ago. There were four water harvesting treatments, viz., half-moon terraces, micro-catchments with 5% slope, ridge and furrow and control, wherein, indigenous and exotic trees and shrubs were planted at 5 ?? 5 m spacing. Sampling of the planted and natural vegetation, using quadrats and transacts, revealed much less species richness in unplanted control as compared to all treatments and in all the years. The species richness that increased initially (within one year) gradually declined over time (during four year), though the extent varied in different treatments. The water harvesting treatment showing maximum initial increase in richness also showed maximum decline over time, though decline was more in annual species. Two perennial species increased in richness with time. This was further proved from the trends in diversity and evenness indices. It was concluded that natural successional process was accelerated by rehabilitation providing stability to the habitat.

  5. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist

  6. Physical and chemical characteristics of cheese bread, using fermented broken rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa CORADO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of new food products, taking as raw material the subproducts obtained during industrial process become an economic and nutritious alternative, since these are usually discarded, caning be a significant nutritional source good. This research aimed to develop cheese bread using fermented broken rice instead of sour starch in four different concentrations (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. After the development of formulations, was performed physics and chemicals characterization of products obtained, performing analysis of: proximate composition, dietary fiber, acidity, pH, ºBrix, total soluble sugars, reducing and sucrose. The increased formulations didn’t present significant differences, highlighting the average values of protein 7%, dietary fiber 9% and ash 1.9%. Broken rice, after fermentation process, becomes a profitable alternative instead of the sour starch on cheese breads, saving all the physical and chemical characteristics and being inexpensive.

  7. RESEARCH CONCERNING ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN MILK PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA POPESCU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study case concerning economic efficiency of dairy products atAgro Industrial Milk Processing Company Baneasa , Bucharest . The most effectivedairy products are pressed cheese, green cheese, superior cow cheese, sheep cottagecheese, fresh cow cheese and whip cream. Production cost varies according toprocessing technology, specific consumption, price of raw materials, auxiliarymaterials, labor, energy, water. The company registered the highest profit Euro18,421 and the highest profit rate 15.32 % in the year 2004. The continuousincrease of inputs and manufacturing costs has a deep impact on efficiency.

  8. Acceptance and storage of fresh cheese made with essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelmir Grassi Presente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the acceptance and conservation of Minas fresh cheese with essential oils added of oregano and ginger in its formulation. The quality of the milk used as raw material was evaluated for pH, acidity, alizarol, total solids, density, and total microbial load. The cheeses produced were characterized as pH, acidity, moisture, lipids, proteins and ashes. The cheeses were also evaluated by sensorial affective tests using hedonic and attitude scales, in order to determine the acceptance and purchase intention by judges. The count of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was used to estimate the shelf-life of cheeses. The milk used as raw material is presented within the quality standards required by legislation. The cheeses made with essential oils showed pH and acidity around 6.9 and 0.87%, respectively, 57.6% moisture, 31.3% lipids, 11.4% protein and 0.9% ash. The cheese added essential oil of oregano and the control cheese were those given by the judges the best values for acceptance (7.5 and 7.6, respectively and purchase intention (4.2 and 4.4 respectively. Regarding the estimated shelf-life, the cheeses added essential oil of oregano and ginger had lower overall microbial load values compared to the control (no oil and mixed (two oils addition, presented counts values with up 106 UFC/g only from the 28th day of storage.

  9. Trial of Lime Juice on Mozzarella Cheese Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwadi Purwadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research which had a purpose for studying a potency of lime juice as acidifier in the making of Mozzarella cheese was done to know its influence on Mozzarella cheese physical quality. The method used in this research was Completely Randomized Design. Optimum concentration lime juice as acidifier for making Mozzarella cheese repeated 6 times had variation treatment, including : P1 = 0.5%, P2 = 1.0%, P3 = 1.5%, and P4 = 2.0% (w/v. All variables examined were rendement, meltability, stretchability, and elasticity. Variation analysis on rendemnet and strechability of Mozzarella cheese showed that those variation  of lime juice gave no significant difference effect (P>0,05 on Mozzarella cheese physical quality. But, those treatments gave very significant difference effect (P<0,01 on meltability and gave significant difference (P<0,05 on elasticity Mozzarella cheese. The range of result of cheese rendement was about 11,76-12,17%. The highest meltability was resulted from the use of 2.0% lime juice and its value was 8,57. The highest elasticity was from the highest concentration of lime just 2,0% and its value was 63,64% and based on statistic gave significant defference (P<0,05 compared with other concentration.   Keywords : lime juice, Mozzarella cheese, acidifier

  10. We tasted a genetically modified cheese - and we like it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish consumers´ preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of benefits. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well as across countries....... In general, the genetically modified cheese was rejected, but this was modified somewhat by health and taste benefits....

  11. Sodium chloride distribution in Reino cheese along the ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Barbosa Taveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to determine the minimum time necessary for equal distribution of salt in all parts of Reino cheese, from surface to center, and check if there was significant difference in this distribution in different ripening conditions. The cheeses of the same lot were subjected to two treatments, with different temperatures, relative humidity and with and without packaging. In the first treatment the cheese was ripened without heat-shrinkable packaging at a temperature of 18 °C to 22 ° C with 55% - 65% relative humidity. In the second treatment, the cheese was initially ripened without packaging (only the first five days and under the same conditions as the first treatment and after this period was packaged in heat-shrinkable packaging and ripening at 5 °C - 10 °C with 70% - 80% relative humidity, until completing all the prescribed time maturation. The characterization of the salt distribution profile in Reino cheese was conducted by determining the percentage content of sodium chloride (w/w in the central, intermediate and superficial portions. Analysis of variance indicated that there was no difference between treatments in the distribution of salt in Reino cheese, however, there were differences between cheese portion analyzed and maturation time, which showed dependence of the distribution of salt depending on these variables. It follows that from the 27th day after manufacturing, salt is distributed equally in all parts of the Reino cheese, regardless of different ripening conditions used.

  12. Studies on Traditional Cheese (Woagashie) Production in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheese production has been in existence for more than 4000 years as a way of preserving milk and also serve as a source of protein supply and food or meat substitute. In Ghana as in other Sub-Sahara African countries, traditional cheese termed 'Woagashie', is gradually gaining popularity. A study was thus carried out to ...

  13. [Yeast microbiota in artisanal cheeses from Corrientes, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Marina C; Fusco, Ángel J V; Carrasco, Marta S

    2017-10-24

    The artisanal cheese from Corrientes (from the Spanish acronym QAC-Queso Artesanal de Corrientes/Artisanal Cheese from Corrientes) is a soft cheese elaborated with raw cow milk and an artisanal coagulant agent. Lactic bacteria contitute the main flora of this cheese although yeasts are also present in high quantities as secondary microbiota and might play a relevant role in cheese ripening. The aim of this work was to evaluate yeast occurrence during QAC elaboration and ripening, and the effect of seasonal variation. Yeasts were isolated and purified from raw materials and cheese at different ripening stagesl elaborated during the different seasons. Yeast sample counts were in the order of 10 3 - 10 7 UFC/ml o UFC/g. Ninety yeast strains were classified: 9 from milk, 28 from the coagulant agent, 10 from curd and 43 from cheese. Candida predominated in milk samples while other yeast genera had low incidence. Candida also predominated in the coagulant agent samples, followed by genera Myxozyma and Debaryomyces. The isolates obtained from cheese belonged to the same genera predominating in the coagulant agent, and showed the same order of prevalence. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Cheese samples treated with Honey and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control treatment (A) was cheese kept in the whey, while Treatments B and C were cheese samples kept in Thyme and Honey solutions respectively. ... The crude protein was significantly higher (p<0.05) for Treatment B, then treatment A and least for treatment C. The ether extract followed the same trend as crude ...

  15. Characteristics of cheeses manufactured using pepsin from adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cheese making quality of pepsin extracted from adult cattle abomasa using dilute HCI (HP) and commercial vinegar (VP) was assessed using three types of cheeses namely Alpine, Tilister and Pastafilata (Pasta). The level of each extract was substituted with commercial calf rennet (CR) at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100%.

  16. original article microbial contamination of locally produced cheese

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    25. Sangoyomi TE, Owoseni AA, Okerokun O (2010):. Prevalence of enteropathogenic and lactic acid bacteria species in wara: A local cheese from Nigeria. Afr J Microbiol Res 4(15): 1624-1630. 26. Abou Dawood AI, Soada HT, Mohamed MA. (2005): Chemical and microbiological quality of raw milk, soft and hard cheeses ...

  17. 7 CFR 58.423 - Cheese vacuumizing chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vacuumizing chamber. 58.423 Section 58.423 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....423 Cheese vacuumizing chamber. The vacuum chamber shall be satisfactorily constructed and maintained...

  18. Physiological characterization of common fungi associated with cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    A multivariate statistical method (PLS) was used for a physiological characterization of fungi associated with the cheese environment. The combined effects of pH, salt content, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels on growth and sporulation were studied. Significant factors affecting growth were salt...... may aid in eliminating unwanted fungal growth during cheese production....

  19. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine

  20. Nutritional and Rheological evaluation of West African Soft cheese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storage of West African soft cheese “Waranski” for up to 15 weeks in a refrigerator was examined for the composition, protein fractions (non casein nitrogen, non protein nitrogen, casein nitrogen, total nitrogen) hardness, cohesiveness gumminess, elasticity, chewiness, adhesiveness and pH. Whereas cheese hardness ...