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Sample records for spoiled apple juice

  1. Inactivation of spoiling microorganisms in apple juice by a combination of essential oils' constituents and physical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, Beatriz; Ramírez, Nayeli; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    A combination of different hurdles, such as mild heat (54 ℃ for 10 min) or pulsed electric field (25 pulses; 25 kV/cm; 3.35 kJ/cm per pulse) treatments and essential oils constituents (carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene), to reduce spoiling bacteria and yeasts in apple juice was evaluated. For this purpose, the heat and pulsed electric field resistances of five strains of Leuconostoc spp. and five Saccharomyces spp. strains were assayed, achieving different inactivation levels for each treatment and strain. For instance, Leuconostoc fallax 74, the most heat-resistant strain, was the second-most sensitive strain to pulsed electric field. The most resistant strains were exposed to combined processes of heat or pulsed electric field and 0.2 µl/ml essential oils constituents. The combination of heat and essential oils constituents proved to be synergistic against both microorganisms in apple juice. The most effective was the combination of mild heat and carvacrol, which caused the inactivation of 99% of L. fallax 74 and 99.99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CECT 1172 cells. Therefore, this study shows the great potential of carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene in combined treatments with mild heat to achieve a higher degree of inactivation of spoiling microorganisms in apple juice, and thus, to extend its shelf life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Composition of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.

  3. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

  4. Patulin reduction in apple juice by inactivated Alicyclobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Wang, X; Hatab, S; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Yue, T

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reduction of patulin (PAT) in apple juice by 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains. The reduction rate of PAT by each strain was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the removal of PAT was strain specific. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 92 and A. acidoterrestris 96 were the most effective ones among the 12 tested strains in the removal of PAT. Therefore, these two strains were selected to study the effects of incubation time, initial PAT concentration and bacteria powder amount on PAT removal abilities of Alicyclobacillus. The highest PAT reduction rates of 88·8 and 81·6% were achieved after 24-h incubation with initial PAT concentration of 100 μg l(-1) and bacteria powder amount of 40 g l(-1) , respectively. Moreover, it was found that the treatment by these 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains had no negative effect on the quality parameters of apple juice. Similar assays were performed in supermarket apple juice, where inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells could efficiently reduce PAT content. Taken together, these data suggest the possible application of this strategy as a means to detoxify PAT-contaminated juices. Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Melatonin in Apples and Juice: Inhibition of Browning and Microorganism Growth in Apple Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haixia; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Ting; Ji, Yazhen; Shi, Kun; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Kong, Jin

    2018-02-27

    Synthetic melatonin ( N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT) is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in 'Fuji' apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning). The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o -diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.

  6. Melatonin in Apples and Juice: Inhibition of Browning and Microorganism Growth in Apple Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in ‘Fuji’ apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning. The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o-diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.

  7. Stable-isotope composition of the water of apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricout, Jacques; Merlivat, Liliane

    1973-01-01

    By deuterium and oxygen 18 analysis, it was shown that apples' water is enriched in heavier isotopes as compared to rain water. The isotopic composition of the water of reconstituted apple juice is closed to the isotopic content of the rain water used for dilution. Thus, deuterium and oxyden 18 analysis allows a good analytical distinction between natural apple juice and reconstituted juices [fr

  8. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component content were determined, as well as total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract, determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent, was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice was examined on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice.

  9. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  10. Analytical characterization of some pasteurized apple juices during storage

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    Damian Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.

  11. Research on the Influencing Factors of China Apple Juice Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Du Juan

    2013-01-01

    China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is...

  12. Growth behavior of off-flavor-forming microorganisms in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Barbara; Pöllinger-Zierler, Barbara

    2007-08-08

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Streptomyces griseus griseus are two bacteria species that are frequently found in apple juice as spoilage bacteria. They both show thermoacidophilic behavior, adapting to the low pH of the juices and being able to survive high temperatures. They are able to regerminate in the shelf-stable product and spoil the juice by the formation of off-flavor compounds (i.e., guaiacol and 2,6-dibromophenol as metabolites of A. acidoterrestris and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-methylisoborneol, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and geosmin as important metabolites of S. griseus). In this study the growth behavior of the strains and the impact on apple juice were investigated under different conditions (i.e., temperature, oxygen supply, and mutual influence of the strains). The off-flavor formation was monitored by GC-MS after headspace SPME and subsequent calculation of the odor activity values. The results showed that S. griseus grows and consequently spoils the product even at 4 degrees C, whereas A. acidoterrestris needs at least room temperature to show significant growth. Limited oxygen supply did not significantly reduce off-flavor formation for any of the strains. The simultaneous presence of the strains in the juice reduced the growth of both species; nevertheless, off-flavor was detected.

  13. Cottage processing of cashew apple juice in Nigeria: physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some manually operated equipment were employed for cottage processing of cashew apples into juice. These include an extractor, mixer pasteuriser and a bottling machine. The apples were preheated with steam for 10, 20 and 30 minutes before juice extraction. The average capacity and efficiency of the extractor were ...

  14. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  15. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of juice from steamed cashew apple blended with orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, U E; Abah, U J

    1997-01-01

    Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg/100 ml. Steaming of the cashew apple prior to juice extraction resulted in a decreased (230 mg/100 ml) content of ascorbic acid. It also led to slight decreases in soluble solids and titratable acidity. A comparison of the chemical composition of the two juices showed that the orange juice contained more sugars, titratable acidity and soluble solids but less ascorbic acid than cashew apple juice. Consequently, the soluble solids, titratable acidity, reducing and total sugars of the blends increased with increase in the proportions of orange juice while the content of ascorbic acid was decreasing. In spite of the decrease in ascorbic acid content of the blends, results showed that blended juice would no doubt be a very good source of ascorbic acid. Result of the organoleptic evaluation revealed that a 60% cashew apple and 40% orange juice gave a good quality juice in terms of flavor, after taste and overall acceptability.

  16. Effect of probiotics on patulin removal from synbiotic apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan

    2017-06-01

    Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P apple juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

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    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  18. Storage test on apple juice after ultrasound treatment

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    Filomena Montemurro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice.

  19. Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of apple juice containing enzyme preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestes, Rosilene A.; Almeida, Denise Milleo; Barison, Andersson; Pinheiro, Luis Antonio; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2012-01-01

    In this work, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) was employed to evaluate changes in apple juice in response to the addition of Panzym Yieldmash and Ultrazym AFP-L enzymatic complexes and compare it with premium apple juice. The juice was processed at different temperatures and concentrations of enzymatic complexes. The differences in the results were attributed mainly to the enzyme concentrations, since temperature did not cause any variation. A quantitative analysis indicated that the concentration of fructose increased while the concentrations of sucrose and glucose decreased in response to increasing concentrations of the enzymatic complexes. (author)

  1. Disappearance of patulin during alcoholic fermentation of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, E E; Osman, S F; Huhtanen, C N; Bills, D D

    1978-10-01

    Eight yeast strains were used in three typical American processes to ferment apple juice containing 15 mg of added patulin per liter. Patulin was reduced to less than the minimum detectable level of 50 microgram/liter in all but two cases; in all cases, the level of patulin was reduced by over 99% during alcoholic fermentation. In unfermented samples of apple juice, the concentration of added patulin declined by only 10% when the juice was held for 2 weeks, a period equivalent to the time required for fermentation.

  2. Survey of molds, yeast and Alicyclobacillus spp. from a concentrated apple juice productive process

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    Beatriz de Cássia Martins Salomão

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and molds may spoil and/or contaminate apple juice either by direct microbial action or indirectly by the uptake of metabolites as off-flavours and toxins. Some of these microorganisms and/or metabolites may remain in the food even after extensive procedures. This study aim to identify the presence of molds (including heat resistant species and Alicyclobacillus spp., during concentrated apple juice processing. Molds were isolated at different steps and then identified by their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics after cultivation on standard media at 5, 25 and 37ºC, during 7 days. Among the 19 isolated found, 63% were identified as Penicillium with 50% belonging to the P. expansum specie. With regards to heat resistant molds, the species Neosartorya fischeri, Byssochlamys fulva and also the genus Eupenicillium sp., Talaromyces sp. and Eurotium sp. were isolated. The thermoacidophilic spore-forming bacteria were identified as A. acidoterrestris by a further investigation based on 16S rRNA sequence similarity. The large contamination found indicates the need for methods to eliminate or prevent the presence of these microorganisms in the processing plants in order to avoid both spoilage of apple juice and toxin production.

  3. Survey of molds, yeast and Alicyclobacillus spp. from a concentrated apple juice productive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cássia Martins Salomão, Beatriz; Muller, Chalana; do Amparo, Hudson Couto; de Aragão, Gláucia Maria Falcão

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria and molds may spoil and/or contaminate apple juice either by direct microbial action or indirectly by the uptake of metabolites as off-flavours and toxins. Some of these microorganisms and/or metabolites may remain in the food even after extensive procedures. This study aim to identify the presence of molds (including heat resistant species) and Alicyclobacillus spp., during concentrated apple juice processing. Molds were isolated at different steps and then identified by their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics after cultivation on standard media at 5, 25 and 37 °C, during 7 days. Among the 19 isolated found, 63% were identified as Penicillium with 50% belonging to the P. expansum specie. With regards to heat resistant molds, the species Neosartorya fischeri, Byssochlamys fulva and also the genus Eupenicillium sp., Talaromyces sp. and Eurotium sp. were isolated. The thermoacidophilic spore-forming bacteria were identified as A. acidoterrestris by a further investigation based on 16S rRNA sequence similarity. The large contamination found indicates the need for methods to eliminate or prevent the presence of these microorganisms in the processing plants in order to avoid both spoilage of apple juice and toxin production.

  4. Physical-Chemical Parameters of Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Riekstina-Dolge; Zanda Kruma; Daina Karklina; Fredijs Dimins

    2014-01-01

    Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab variety apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sugar content were determined. Crab apples produce more dry matter, total sugar and acid content compared to the dessert apples but it depends on the apple variety. Total sugar content of crab apple juices was 1.3 to 1.8 times larger than in dessert apple juices. Titr...

  5. Physico-chemical evaluation of radiation effects on apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Maria H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice

    1997-01-01

    Gala and Fuji varieties apple's juice were clarified with enzyme and irradiated aiming to extend the shelf-life without conservants and chemical additives. The juices were analysed for soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH and color. Results showed effect of storage periods in soluble solids, pH and color. The variety and storage period modified the titrable acidity. The pH was altered by irradiation dose and the storage period. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs

  6. SMB chromatography applied to the separation/purification of fructose from cashew apple juice

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    D.C.S. Azevedo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The simulated moving-bed (SMB technology has been successfully used in separations in petrochemical, food and fine chemical industries. This work is intended to show a potencial economic alternative for the industrial processing of the cashew apple juice. The cashew tree is a native tropical plant abundant in Northeastern Brazil, whose commercial value relies mainly on the processing of its nut. The penduncle of the fruit is called the cashew apple. Despite its high nutrition value, around 90% of the crop spoils on the soil. Simulation and experimental results are presented for SMB separation of fructose from glucose, both present (~40 kg/m³ in the aqueous phase of comercial cashew apple juice. Kinetic and equilibrium data for fructose and glucose on packed columns using cation-exchange resins are reported. Experimental results for SMB operation indicate close to 90% purity in each product (fructose-rich extract and glucose-rich raffinate. Simulated unit performance and internal profiles agree well with experimental values. To increase the added-value and versatility of the products, either a step of isomerization of the raffinate or diverse SMB fluid-solid flowrate ratios may be applied. By this way, a wide range of products may be obtained, from nearly pure fructose to 42%, 55% and 90% solutions, which are the standard high fructose syrup concentrations. If solids content is conveniently raised to the usual HFCS (high fructose corn syrup comercial standards, these products may be used as food additives, thus confirming a potentially attractive use of cashew apple juice.

  7. Isotope analysis (δ13C of pulpy whole apple juice

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    Ricardo Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop the method of isotope analysis to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in pulpy whole apple juice and to measure the legal limits based on Brazilian legislation in order to identify the beverages that do not conform to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA. This beverage was produced in a laboratory according to the Brazilian law. Pulpy juices adulterated by the addition of sugarcane were also produced. The isotope analyses measured the relative isotope enrichment of the juices, their pulpy fractions (internal standard and purified sugar. From those results, the quantity of C3 source was estimated by means of the isotope dilution equation. To determine the existence of adulteration in commercial juices, it was necessary to create a legal limit according to the Brazilian law. Three brands of commercial juices were analyzed. One was classified as adulterated. The legal limit enabled to clearly identify the juice that was not in conformity with the Brazilian law. The methodology developed proved efficient for quantifying the carbon of C3 origin in commercial pulpy apple juices.

  8. Study on biologically active substances in irradiated apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.

    1975-01-01

    The radiochemical changes proceeding by irradiation of foodstuffs rich in carbohydrates are studied. For the purpose pure solutions of D-glucose, D-fructose and sucrose and fresh apple juice, irradiated with 0,5 and 1,0 Mrad are investigated. Changes set in UV-spectra of the irradiated foodstuffs, the specific reaction of malonic dialdehyde formation with 2-thiobarbituric acid and the formation of carbonyl compounds reacting with 2,4-dinitro phenylhydrazine are studied. Results show that in the irradiated sample solutions of sugars and apple juice two peaks are formed. The malonic dialdehyde formation depends on the dose of irradiation applied. The newly formed carbonyl compounds both in the sample solutions and in the juice are 8 to 9 in number. (author)

  9. Inhibition of biological activity of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) by apple juice and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Friedman, Mendel

    2010-05-12

    The foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces the virulent staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), a single-chain protein that consists of 233 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 27 078 Da. SEA is a superantigen that is reported to contribute to animal (mastitis) and human (emesis, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, arthritis, and toxic shock) syndromes. Changes of the native structural integrity may inactivate the toxin by preventing molecular interaction with cell membrane receptor sites of their host cells. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of one commercial and two freshly prepared apple juices and a commercial apple polyphenol preparation (Apple Poly) to inhibit the biological activity of SEA. Dilutions of freshly prepared apple juices and Apple Poly inhibited the biological activity of SEA without any significant cytotoxic effect on the spleen cells. Additional studies with antibody-coated immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that SEA added to apple juice appears to be largely irreversibly bound to the juice constituents. The results suggest that food-compatible and safe anti-toxin phenolic compounds can be used to inactivate SEA in vitro and possibly also in vivo, even after induction of T-cell proliferation by long-term exposure to SEA. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health is discussed.

  10. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF SLOVENIAN APPLE JUICE WITH RESPECT TO ITS GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Bizjak Bat, Karmen

    2016-01-01

    Determination of food authenticity is an important issue in quality control and food safety. Recent studies predict a growing demand for natural and more authentic food and beverage products. The quality and authenticity of apple juice is also of a great economic importance since the popularity and demand for apple juice consumption has increased. The growth of the market for organically produced apples and apple juice is due to the increasing demand for healthy food requirements, protection ...

  12. Novel 1,3-dioxanes from apple juice and cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, D; Beuerle, T; Wein, M; Boss, B; König, T; Schwab, W

    1999-12-01

    Extracts obtained by XAD solid-phase extraction of apple juice and cider were separated by liquid chromatography on silica gel. Several new 1,3-dioxanes including the known 2-methyl-4-pentyl-1,3-dioxane and 2-methyl-4-[2'(Z)-pentenyl]-1,3-dioxane, were identified in the nonpolar fractions by GC/MS analysis and confirmed by chemical synthesis. The enantioselective synthesis of the stereoisomers of the 1,3-dioxanes was performed using (R)- and (R,S)-octane-1,3-diol and (R)- and (R,S)-5(Z)-octene-1,3-diol as starting material. Comparison with the isolated products indicated that the natural products consisted of a mixture of (2S,4R) and (2R,4R) stereoisomers in the ratio of approximately 10:1, except for 1,3-dioxanes generated from acetone and 2-butanone. It is assumed that the 1, 3-dioxanes are chemically formed in the apples and cider from the natural apple ingredients (R)-octane-1,3-diol, (R)-5(Z)-octene-1, 3-diol, (3R,7R)- and (3R,7S)-octane-1,3,7-triol, and the appropriate aldehydes and ketones, which are produced either by the apples or by yeast during fermentation of the apple juice.

  13. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice 1 Effect of existing production methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der A.A.; Dekker, M.; Skrede, G.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Apples are an important source of flavonoids in the human diet. The effect of processing apples into juice on polyphenolic antioxidant content and activity is described. Raw juice obtained from Jonagold apples by pulping and straight pressing or after pulp enzyming had an antioxidant activity that

  14. Inhibition of Shiga Toxin 2 (Stx2) in Apple Juices and its Resistance to Pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity...

  15. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-05

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects.

  16. Inhibition of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) in apple juices and its resistance to pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity of the bacterial toxin Stx2 produced by E. coli O157:H7 strains. Studies with immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that Stx2 activity was restored when removed from the apple juice. SDS gel electrophoresis revealed no difference (P pasteurize apple juice, but lost all activity when exposed to 100 degrees C for 5 min. The results suggest that pasteurization of apple juice used to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 has no effect on Stx2, and that food-compatible and safe antitoxin compounds can be used to inhibit the biological activity of the Shiga toxin.

  17. Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin.

  18. Kinetics of patulin degradation in model solution, apple cider and apple juice by ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2013-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a wide range of molds involved in fruit spoilage, most commonly by Penicillium expansum and is a health concern for both consumers and manufacturers. The current study evaluated feasibility of monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 253.7 nm as a possible commercial application for the reduction of patulin in fresh apple cider and juice. The R-52G MINERALIGHT® UV bench top lamp was used for patulin destruction. It was shown that 56.5%, 87.5%, 94.8% and 98.6% reduction of patulin can be achieved, respectively, in the model solution, apple cider, apple juice without ascorbic acid addition and apple juice with ascorbic acid addition in 2-mm thickness sample initially spiked by 1 mg·L(-1) of patulin after UV exposure for 40 min at UV irradiance of 3.00 mW·cm(-2). A mathematic model to compare the degradation rate and effective UV dose was developed. The effective UV doses that were directly absorbed by patulin for photochemical reaction were 430, 674, 724 and 763 mJ·cm(-3), respectively. The fluence-based decimal reduction time was estimated to 309.3, 31.3, 28.9 and 5.1 mW·cm(-2)·min, respectively, in four media mentioned above. The degradation of patulin followed the first-order reaction model. The time-based and fluence-based reaction rate constants were determined to predict patulin degradation. The time-based reaction rate constant of samples treated in dynamic regime with constant stirring (model solution: 2.95E-4 s(-1), juice: 4.31E-4 s(-1)) were significantly higher than samples treated in static regime (model solution: 2.79E-4 s(-1), juice: 3.49E-4 s(-1), p radiation may be an effective method for treating patulin-containing apple cider and juice.

  19. 75 FR 76754 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-841 (Second Review)] Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on non- frozen apple juice concentrate from China would...

  20. An actidione resistant Candida tropicalis from custard apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkarayya, H; Suresh, E R; Ethiraj, S

    1981-01-01

    An actidione resistant yeast, Candida tropicalis, was isolated from fermenting custard apple juice. Though a slight inhibition of growth was observed on the first day with 5000 ppm of actidione, growth was equal to control after one week. Sorbic acid at 500 ppm and above inhibited the growth of this yeast while sodium benzoate and potassium metabisulphite were unable to suppress the growth even at 1000 ppm. Fermentation and assimilation of different carbon sources were delayed in the presence of 1000 ppm of actidione suggesting the disruption of protein synthesis by actidione.

  1. 75 FR 61127 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-855] Non-Frozen Apple Juice... order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ This... currently due no later than October 28, 2010. \\1\\ See Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the...

  2. 75 FR 69628 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-855] Non-Frozen Apple Juice... order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). Because the... June 5, 2000, the Department issued an antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice...

  3. Adulteration of apple with pear juice: emphasis on major carbohydrates, proline, and arbutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Low, Nicholas H

    2006-06-28

    Detection of juice-to-juice adulteration based on chemical composition studies is a common method used by government regulatory agencies and food companies. This study investigated the use of major carbohydrate (fructose, glucose and sucrose), polyol (sorbitol), proline, and phenolic profiles as indicators of pear adulteration of apple juice (PAAJ). For this work, a total of 105 authentic apple juice samples from 13 countries and 27 authentic pear juice samples from 5 countries were analyzed. Because the major carbohydrate ranges for these juices showed significant overlap their use as markers for PAAJ detection would be very limited. It was found that sorbitol and proline means for apple and pear were significantly different; however, their broad natural ranges would afford PAAJ at levels up to 30% without detection. In addition, careful selection of the pear juice used as the adulterant would further limit the usefulness of these markers for PAAJ detection. Arbutin was conclusively identified as a marker for pear juice on the basis of its presence in all 27 authentic pear samples and its absence (apple juice samples analyzed in this study. The application of the developed HPLC-PDA method for arbutin analysis to detect PAAJ at levels as low as 2% (v/v) was demonstrated. A confirmation method for the presence of arbutin in pure pear juice and apple adulterated with pear juice was introduced on the basis of the hydrolysis of arbutin to hydroquinone employing beta-glucosidase, with reactant and product monitoring by HPLC-PDA.

  4. Traditional versus modern apple cultivars – a comparison of juice composition

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowolska-Iwanek Justyna; Gąstoł Maciej; Adamska Agnieszka; Krośniak Mirosław; Zagrodzki Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Apples are rich in components that are important for human health, such as polyphenols, organic acids and microelements, but their chemical composition varies with different apple cultivars. We aimed to find out if there is any superiority in traditionally grown apple cultivars in terms of their fruits’ bioactive components content. Juice from two traditionally grown apple cultivars, ‘Mutsu’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’, was compared to eight popular apple cultivars, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonagold Decosta...

  5. Chemometric classification of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin based on polyphenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong; Wang, Yutang

    2013-07-17

    To characterize and classify apple juices according to apple variety and geographical origin on the basis of their polyphenol composition, the polyphenolic profiles of 58 apple juice samples belonging to 5 apple varieties and from 6 regions in Shaanxi province of China were assessed. Fifty-one of the samples were from protected designation of origin (PDO) districts. Polyphenols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) and to a Q Exactive quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Chemometric techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) were carried out on polyphenolic profiles of the samples to develop discrimination models. SLDA achieved satisfactory discriminations of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin, providing respectively 98.3 and 91.2% success rate in terms of prediction ability. This result demonstrated that polyphenols could served as characteristic indices to verify the variety and geographical origin of apple juices.

  6. Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Adriano H.; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C.; de Macedo, André C.; Santana, Maria Helena A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass...

  7. Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Buch-Andersen, Tine

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors...... of CVD. METHODS: Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood......-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9 % with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). CONCLUSIONS...

  8. Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars O; Buch-Andersen, Tine; Jensen, Eva N; Jensen, Runa I; Németh-Balogh, Mária; Paulovicsová, Brigita; Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Licht, Tine R; Markowski, Jarosław; Bügel, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors of CVD. Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood pressure in a group of 23 healthy volunteers. The intervention significantly affected serum total and LDL-cholesterol. Trends towards a lower serum LDL-concentration were observed after whole apple (6.7%), pomace (7.9%) and cloudy juice (2.2%) intake. On the other hand, LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9% with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). Apples are rich in polyphenols and pectin, two potentially bioactive constituents; however, these constituents segregate differently during processing into juice products and clear juice is free of pectin and other cell wall components. We conclude that the fibre component is necessary for the cholesterol-lowering effect of apples in healthy humans and that clear apple juice may not be a suitable surrogate for the whole fruit in nutritional recommendations.

  9. Variation with the cultivar on the processing of apples as clear juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Lazar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The researches done at UASVM Cluj-Napoca in the frame of Horticultural product technology Department between 2014-2015 years followed the behavior of five apple cultivars at processing as clear juice. The apple juice characteristics (soluble solids content, organic acids content and clarification grade were analyzed at processing of apples as clear juice and three months later, in order to determine how the initial characteristics of raw material were found again in the finished product. In order to provide the microbiological stability of juice, preservation was done with two chemical methods (sulfur dioxide – SO2 and sodium benzoate and one physical method (pasteurization. The obtained results revealed ‘Florina’ cultivar, which had a processing efficiency as juice about 60%, high soluble solids content, 1% acidity, good clarification grade of juice, and pasteurization as microbiological stabilization method.

  10. A Fully Automatic Fresh Apple Juicer: Peeling, Coring, Slicing and Juicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Fuwen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fresh apple juice as an example, a fully automatic and intelligent juicer prototype was built via the integrated application of servo positioning modules, human-machine interface, image vision sensor system and 3D printing. All steps including peeling, coring, slicing and juicing were achieved automatically. The challenging technical problems about the identification and orientation of apple core, and adaptive peeling were settled creatively. The trial operation results illustrated that the fresh apple juice can be produced without manual intervention and the system has potential application in the crowded sites, such as mall, school, restaurant and hospital.

  11. Response surface optimization of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01 isolated from spoiled apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Habib; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Alidost, Leila; Bodagh, Atefe; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2013-01-01

    A potent biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain isolated from spoiled apples was identified by 16S rRNA as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracted biosurfactant was composed of high percentages of lipid (66%, w/w) and carbohydrate (32%, w/w). The surface tension of pure water decreased gradually with increasing biosurfactant concentration to 32.5 mN m(-1) with critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 10.1 mg L(-1). The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of extracted biosurfactant confirmed the glycolipid nature of this natural product. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the biosynthesis medium for the production of MA01 biosurfactant. Nineteen carbon sources and 11 nitrogen sources were examined, with soybean oil and sodium nitrate being the most effective carbon and nitrogen sources on biosurfactant production, respectively. Among the organic nitrogen sources examined, yeast extract was necessary as a complementary nitrogen source for high production yield. Biosurfactant production at the optimum value of fermentation processing factor (15.68 g/L) was 29.5% higher than the biosurfactant concentration obtained before the RSM optimization (12.1 g/L). A central composite design algorithm was used to optimize the levels of key medium components, and it was concluded that two stages of optimization using RSM could increase biosurfactant production by 1.46 times, as compared to the values obtained before optimization.

  12. Stable isotopic carbon composition of apples and their subfractions--juice, seeds, sugars, and nonvolatile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    The 13C:12C ratios of 8 authentic apple juice samples and their subfractions were determined by mass spectrometry. Apples from Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States were processed into juice; pulp was collected from the milled fruit and seeds were collected from the press-cake. Sugars, nonvolatile acids, and phenolics were isolated from the juice by treatment with ion-exchange resins and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP). The mean value for all juice samples was -24.2% which is close to the values reported by other investigators. Juice from apples grown in Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand did not differ from U.S. samples. The isotopic composition of the subfractions ranged from -22.0 to -31.0%. The values for the pulp were essentially the same as for juice. The sugar fraction was slightly less negative than the juice; the nonvolatile acid and phenolic fractions were more negative. The levels of nonvolatile acids and phenolics in apple juice are low, however, so these compounds contribute little to overall delta 13C values in juice.

  13. Dried apple enriched with mandarin juice counteracts tamoxifen induced oxidative stress in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    CODOÑER FRANCH, PILAR; Betoret Valls, María Ester; López Jaén, Ana Belén; Betoret Valls, Noelia; Fito Maupoey, Pedro; Valls Bellés, Maria Victoria

    2013-01-01

    [EN] The effect of a product made of dehydrated apples enriched with mandarin juice by vacuum impregnation on markers of oxidative stress (plasma antioxidant capacity, carbonyl groups (CGs), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) and alpha-tocopherol) was tested in rats. Six groups of animals were studied: one group was fed a standard diet; two groups were supplemented with dehydrated apple either impregnated or not with mandarin juice throughout 28 days; and three groups (one unsupplemented and two...

  14. 75 FR 81564 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-855] Certain Non-Frozen Apple... order covering certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China. See...: Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China, 65 FR 35606 (June 5, 2000...

  15. Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor in apple juice extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Melanie; Tjaden, Zeina; Ngiewih, Yufanyi; Puppel, Nicole; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut; Pahlke, Gudrun; Marko, Doris

    2005-04-01

    The polyphenol-rich extract of a consumer-relevant apple juice blend was found to potently inhibit the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT29 in vitro. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its subsequent signaling cascade play an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation in HT29 cells. The protein tyrosine kinase activity of an EGFR preparation was effectively inhibited by the polyphenol-rich apple juice extract. Treatment of intact cells with this extract resulted in the suppression of the subsequent mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Amongst the so far identified apple juice constituents, the proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as quercetin-3-glc (isoquercitrin) and quercetin-3-gal (hyperoside) were found to possess substantial EGFR-inhibitory properties. However, as to be expected from the final concentration of these potential EGFR inhibitors in the original polyphenol-rich extract, a synthetic mixture of the apple juice constituents identified and available so far, including both proanthocyanidins and the quercetin glycosides, showed only marginal inhibitory effects on the EGFR. These results permit the assumption that yet unknown constituents contribute substantially to the potent EGFR-inhibitory properties of polyphenol-rich apple juice extract. In summary, the polyphenol composition of apple juice possesses promising growth-inhibitory properties, affecting proliferation-associated signaling cascades in colon tumor cells.

  16. Calcium absorption from apple and orange juice fortified with calcium citrate malate (CCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Peacock, M; Kanerva, R L; De Castro, J A

    1996-06-01

    Determine calcium (Ca) absorption from Ca fortified orange and apple juice. Absorbability was assessed by measuring 45Ca absorption in healthy women (mean age 57 years, n = 57/group) and whole body 47Ca retention in adult female beagle dogs (n = 6/group) and young adult male rats (n = 6/group). Women received 6.24 mmol (250 mg) Ca as calcium citrate malate fortified orange juice (CCM-OJ) or apple juice (CCM-AJ). Dogs received 3.12 mmol (125 mg) Ca as CCM-OJ or CCM-AJ. Rats were administered 0.15 mmol (6 mg) Ca as either milk, CCM-OJ, or CCM-AJ. Additional 47Ca whole body retention experiments in rats measured the effects of differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of the juices on Ca absorption. Mean +/- SEM percent Ca fractional absorption was greater (p composition of Ca fortified juices, we found that the greater fructose and lower organic acid content of apple juice accounted for its greater Ca absorbability. CCM fortified versions of orange and apple juice have high Ca absorbability and are potentially important vehicles for increasing dietary Ca intake. The greater Ca absorption from CCM-AJ compared with CCM-OJ is accounted for by differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of the juices. These data suggest that by modifying common beverage ingredients, products with even greater Ca absorbability could be formulated.

  17. Activity and Concentration of Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Apple Juice. 2. Effect of Novel Production Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der A.A.; Dekker, M.; Skrede, G.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    There is a great interest in food components that possess possible health-protecting properties, as is the case with flavonoids. Previous research showed that conventional apple juice processing resulted in juices poor in flavonoids and with a low antioxidant activity. This paper shows that it is

  18. Impact of product information and repeated exposure on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations of local apple juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    The impact of product information and repeated exposure of local apple juice on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations was studied. Findings showed that consumers had high expectations towards the studied local apples juices. Consequently, the liking for the local apple juices...... did not fully determine consumer liking. Thus the sensory characteristics were also found to be of importance. Besides liking, the concept associations were also affected by product information. All local apple juices were associated as being more exclusive under informed tasting conditions....... No effects were found for liking of the apple juices over repeated exposure. Also, the consumers did not change their sensory perception over repeated consumption. However, the local apple juices were conceptualised as more familiar but remained exclusive after repeated consumption. When local producers have...

  19. Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Du Toit; van der Westhuizen, Francois H; Jerling, Johann

    2006-02-22

    The polyphenolic and ascorbate (ASC) components as well as the antioxidant capacity of Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) juice were analyzed and compared to three other fruit juices. The Kei-apple juice had significantly the highest total polyphenolic concentrations (1013 mg gallic acid equivalent/L), and solid phase (C(18)) fractionation identified the majority of these polyphenols to be phenolic acids. The Kei-apple juice also had significantly the highest ASC concentrations (658 mg/L), which showed exceptional heat stability with very little conversion to dehydroascorbate (DHA). Antioxidant capacities of both the unfractionated fruit juices and their solid phase-extracted fractions, as determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power analyses, correlated well to the polyphenol concentrations. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed caffeic acid as the most abundant polyphenol present (128.7 mg/L) in the Kei-apple juice; it contributed to 63% of the total antioxidant capacity (of all of the individual compounds identified). Other notable polyphenols identified in higher concentrations included p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and protocatechuic acid. Our results therefore support the putative high antioxidant value linked to this fruit and better define this potential in terms of the major antioxidants that exist in the Kei-apple.

  20. Ultraviolet Irradiation Effect on Apple Juice Bioactive Compounds during Shelf Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Enriquez, Edmundo; Salmerón, Ivan; Gutierrez-Mendez, Nestor; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Clarified and standardized apple juice was ultraviolet-irradiated to inactivate polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, and its effect on bioactive compounds and stability during storage was also evaluated. Apple juice was irradiated with 345.6 J/cm2 and treatment effect was evaluated in terms of color, antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids. Using a linear regression design, inactivation kinetic of polyphenol oxidase enzyme was also described. In addition, a repeated measures design was carried out to evaluate apple juice during 24 days of storage at 4 °C and 20 °C. After irradiation, reduction of antioxidant capacity was observed while during storage, ascorbic acid content decreased up to 40% and total polyphenol content remain stable. Ultraviolet irradiation achieved a complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, keeping apple juice antioxidants during ultraviolet treatment and storage available until juice consumption. UV-treated apple juice can be used as a regular beverage, ensuring antioxidant intake. PMID:28231106

  1. Ultraviolet Irradiation Effect on Apple Juice Bioactive Compounds during Shelf Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Juarez-Enriquez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clarified and standardized apple juice was ultraviolet-irradiated to inactivate polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, and its effect on bioactive compounds and stability during storage was also evaluated. Apple juice was irradiated with 345.6 J/cm2 and treatment effect was evaluated in terms of color, antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids. Using a linear regression design, inactivation kinetic of polyphenol oxidase enzyme was also described. In addition, a repeated measures design was carried out to evaluate apple juice during 24 days of storage at 4 °C and 20 °C. After irradiation, reduction of antioxidant capacity was observed while during storage, ascorbic acid content decreased up to 40% and total polyphenol content remain stable. Ultraviolet irradiation achieved a complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, keeping apple juice antioxidants during ultraviolet treatment and storage available until juice consumption. UV-treated apple juice can be used as a regular beverage, ensuring antioxidant intake.

  2. Dextransucrase production using cashew apple juice as substrate: effect of phosphate and yeast extract addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Clarice M A; Honorato, Talita L; Pinto, Gustavo A S; Maia, Geraldo A; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2007-05-01

    Cashew apples are considered agriculture excess in the Brazilian Northeast because cashew trees are cultivated primarily with the aim of cashew nut production. In this work, the use of cashew apple juice as a substrate for Leuconostoc mesenteroides cultivation was investigated. The effect of yeast extract and phosphate addition was evaluated using factorial planning tools. Both phosphate and yeast extract addition were significant factors for biomass growth, but had no significant effect on maximum enzyme activity. The enzyme activities found in cashew apple juice assays were at least 3.5 times higher than the activity found in the synthetic medium. Assays with pH control (pH = 6.5) were also carried out. The pH-controlled fermentation enhanced biomass growth, but decreased the enzyme activity. Crude enzyme free of cells produced using cashew apple juice was stable for 16 h at 30 degrees C at a pH of 5.0.

  3. Feature selection and recognition from nonspecific volatile profiles for discrimination of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong

    2012-10-01

    Apple juice is a complex mixture of volatile and nonvolatile components. To develop discrimination models on the basis of the volatile composition for an efficient classification of apple juices according to apple variety and geographical origin, chromatography volatile profiles of 50 apple juice samples belonging to 6 varieties and from 5 counties of Shaanxi (China) were obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography. The volatile profiles were processed as continuous and nonspecific signals through multivariate analysis techniques. Different preprocessing methods were applied to raw chromatographic data. The blind chemometric analysis of the preprocessed chromatographic profiles was carried out. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) revealed satisfactory discriminations of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin, provided respectively 100% and 89.8% success rate in terms of prediction ability. Finally, the discriminant volatile compounds selected by SLDA were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The proposed strategy was able to verify the variety and geographical origin of apple juices involving only a reduced number of discriminate retention times selected by the stepwise procedure. This result encourages the similar procedures to be considered in quality control of apple juices. This work presented a method for an efficient discrimination of apple juices according to apple variety and geographical origin using HS-SPME-GC-MS together with chemometric tools. Discrimination models developed could help to achieve greater control over the quality of the juice and to detect possible adulteration of the product. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of South African Cashew Apple Juice as a Biofuel Feedstock

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    Evanie Devi Deenanath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew apple juice (CAJ is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56 gL−1 and fructose (57.06 gL−1. Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34 mgL−1, Vitamin C (112 mg/100 mL, and total protein (1.78 gL−1. The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39 ppm, copper (2.18 ppm, magnesium (4.32 ppm, iron (1.32 ppm, sodium (5.44 ppm, and manganese (1.24 ppm. With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production.

  5. Acceleration of pH variation in cloudy apple juice using electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

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    Lam Quoc, A; Lamarche, F; Makhlouf, J

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to accelerate pH variation in cloudy apple juice using electrodialysis (ED). The testing was conducted using two ED configurations. The bipolar and cationic membrane configuration showed that reducing the spacing from 8 to 0.75 mm had little effect on treatment time, whereas stacking eight bipolar membranes reduced acidification time by 30%, although the treatment still took too long (21 min). Furthermore, it was not possible to acidify apple juice to a pH of 2.0 to completely inhibit enzymatic browning. The bipolar and anionic membrane configuration helped to accelerate the acidification step by a factor of 3, increasing the yield from 3.3 to 10 L of juice/m(2) membrane/min. Moreover, treatment time was inversely proportional to the size of the membrane stack. The speed at which the pH of acidified juice returned to its initial value was, however, 4 times slower than the speed of acidification, giving a yield of 2.5 L of juice/m(2) membrane/min. By accelerating the acidification step, ED treatment with bipolar and anionic membranes results in more effective polyphenol oxidase activity and more rapid control of juice browning at pH 2.0. Also, the treatment has very little effect on the chemical composition and organoleptic quality of apple juice.

  6. Stability of cashew apple juice in powder dehydrated in spouted bed

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    Sanyelle L. Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the stability of cashew apple juice in powder, dehydrated in spouted bed and stored in two vacuum-sealed packages (laminated and plastic for a period of 60 days. The parameters evaluated in this study were ascorbic acid, carotenoids, moisture, water activity, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, solubility and rehydration. Decreases in the contents of ascorbic acid and carotenoids were observed after 60 days. Moisture content remained practically unchanged during storage, and water activity showed a rising trend in the plastic package. In both packages, the powder showed low hygroscopicity and high caking formation. The solubility in both packages was higher than 90% and the time of rehydration of cashew apple juice in powder in the plastic package increased during storage. Cashew apple juice in powder stored in laminated package preserved better its physical and physico-chemical properties.

  7. Comparative behaviour of yeast strains for ethanolic fermentation of culled apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, D R; Garg, S K; Johri, B N

    1998-07-01

    The culled apple juice contained (% w/v): nitrogen, 0.036; total sugars, 11.6 and was of pH 3.9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3284, Pichia kluyeri and Candida krusei produced more ethanol from culled apple juice at its optimum initial pH 4.5, whereas S. cerevisiae NCIM 3316 did so at pH 5.0. An increase in sugar concentration of apple juice from natural 11.6% to 20% exhibited enhanced ethanol production and improved fermentation efficiency of both the S. cerevisiae strains, whereas P. kluyveri and C. krusei produced high ethanol at 11.6% and 16.0% sugar levels, respectively. Urea was stimulatory for ethanol production as well as fermentation efficiency of the yeast strains under study.

  8. Evaluation of Cashew Apple Juice for the Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Álvaro Daniel Teles; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Macedo, Gorete R.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    A commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for the production of ethanol by fermentation of cashew apple juice. Growth kinetics and ethanol productivity were calculated for batch fermentation with different initial sugar (glucose + fructose) concentrations. Maximal ethanol, cell, and glycerol concentrations were obtained when 103.1 g L-1 of initial sugar concentration was used. Cell yield (Yx/s) was calculated as 0.24 (g microorganism)/(g glucose + fructose) using cashew apple juice medium with 41.3 g L-1 of initial sugar concentration. Glucose was exhausted first, followed by fructose. Furthermore, the initial concentration of sugars did not influence ethanol selectivity. These results indicate that cashew apple juice is a suitable substrate for yeast growth and ethanol production.

  9. The Effects of Glucose Therapy Agents-Apple Juice, Orange Juice, and Cola-on Enteral Tube Flow and Patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Daphna J; Montreuil, Jasmine; Santoro, Andrea L; Zettas, Antonia; Lowe, Julia

    2016-06-01

    To develop evidence-based hypoglycemia treatment protocols in patients receiving total enteral nutrition, this study determined the effect on enteral tube flow of glucose therapy agents: apple juice, orange juice, and cola, and it also examined the effects of tube type and feed type with these glucose therapy agents. For this study, 12 gastrostomy tubes (6 polyethylene and 6 silicone) were set at 50 mL/h. Each feeding set was filled with Isosource HN with fibre or Novasource Renal. Each tube was irrigated with 1 glucose therapy agent, providing approximately 20 g of carbohydrate every 4 h. Flow-rate measurements were collected at 2 h intervals. The results showed that the glucose therapy agent choice affected flow rates: apple juice and cola had higher average flow rates than orange juice (P = 0.01). A significant difference was found between tube type and enteral formula: polyethylene tubes had higher average flow rates than silicone tubes (P orange juice, and thus may be considered as primary treatment options for hypoglycemia in enterally fed patients. Polyethylene tubes and Isosource HN with fibre were less likely to clog than silicone tubes and Novasource Renal.

  10. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by ozone treatment of apple juice at different pH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S; Valdramidis, V P; Cullen, P J; Frias, J; Bourke, P

    2010-09-01

    This research investigated the efficacy of gaseous ozone on the inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and NCTC 12900 strains in apple juice of a range of pH levels, using an ozone bubble column. The pH levels investigated were 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0. Apple juice inoculated with E. coli strains (10(6)CFU/mL) was treated with ozone gas at a flow rate of 0.12L/min and ozone concentration of 0.048 mg/min/mL for up to 18 min. Results show that inactivation kinetics of E. coli by ozone were affected by pH of the juice. The ozone treatment duration required for achieving a 5-log reduction was faster (4 min) at the lowest pH than at the highest pH (18 min) studied. The relationship between time required to achieve 5log reduction (t(5d)) and pH for both strains was described mathematically by two exponential equations. Ozone treatment appears to be an effective process for reducing bacteria in apple juice and the required applied treatment for producing a safe apple juice is dependant on its acidity level. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduction of diazinon and dimethoate in apple juice by pulsed electric field treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Hou, Yaxi; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Jie; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiaojun; Hu, Xiaosong

    2012-03-15

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) are widely used in agricultural production in China, and residues of OPPs in agro-products and foods have become a public health concern. Chronic exposure to OPPs can result in potential immunosuppressive effects, cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. Pulsed electric fields (PEFs) have the potential to be used as an alternative to conventional techniques of food production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of PEFs on the degradation of diazinon and dimethoate added to apple juice. PEF treatment significantly promoted the degradation of both pesticides (P apple juice and in mitigating sample toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Uric acid but not apple polyphenols is responsible for the rise of plasma antioxidant activity after apple juice consumption in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Krol, Maciej; Krol, Bogusław; Zwolinska, Anna; Kolodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Kasielski, Marek; Padula, Gianluca; Grebowski, Jacek; Grębocki, Jacek; Kazmierska, Paulina; Kazimierska, Paulina; Miatkowski, Marcin; Markowski, Jarosław; Nowak, Dariusz

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether (1) rapid consumption of 1 L of apple juice increases blood antioxidant capacity, measured as ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and serum 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, and (2) apple polyphenols or fructose-induced elevation of plasma uric acid contributes to post-juice increase of blood antioxidant activity. The study involved 12 (mean age 32 ± 5 years, mean body weight 73 ± 7 kg) healthy nonsmoking subjects. Tested subjects consumed 1 L of clear apple juice and then FRAP; serum DPPH-scavenging activity, serum uric acid, and total plasma phenolics and quercetin levels were measured just before juice ingestion and 1, 2.5, and 4 hours after ingestion. This was repeated 3 times with 4-day intervals, but volunteers drank either 1 L of clear apple juice without polyphenols (placebo), or 1 L of cloudy apple juice (positive control), or 1 L of water (negative control) at the time. All juices had similar content of sugars (i.e., saccharose, glucose, and fructose) and precisely defined composition of phenolics and antioxidant activity. Consumption of all 3 juices transiently increased FRAP and serum DPPH-scavenging activity, with peak values at 1 hour post-juice ingestion. This was paralleled by the rise of serum uric acid, but no significant changes in plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were observed after all dietary interventions. At the same time, no substantial differences were found between juices (especially between clear apple juice and clear apple juice without polyphenols) concerning the measured variables. A strong significant correlation was noted instead between serum uric acid and plasma antioxidant activity at all analyzed time points, before and after juice ingestion. Plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were not associated with FRAP and serum DPPH radical-scavenging activity. We have demonstrated that rapid consumption of apple juice increased plasma antioxidant activity in

  13. The Effect of Pasteurization Time on Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Two Apple Cultivars Juices

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    Vasile LASLO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize two varieties of apple (Florina and Liberty grown in the North-West of Romania, with a focus on their volatile compounds, bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. The content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity was also tracked during pasteurization at different times (15, 20 and 25 minutes. Among bioactive compounds, the total phenol content was determined, as well as the total flavonoid and vitamin C content. The antioxidant capacity of fruits and pasteurized juice was evaluated by three different methods (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS. Of the 2 apple cultivars, Florina showed a remarkably higher content of total phenolic compounds (657.97 mg GAE/kg fw, flavonoids (122.07 mg QE/kg fw and vitamin C (94.62 mg/kg, compared to the Liberty cultivar. Following pasteurization, the vitamin C contents decreased significantly relative to pasteurization time. However, in the case of total phenols content, only insignificant decreases were registered, compared to unpasteurized juice. The content of total flavonoids increased significantly after 15 minutes of pasteurization in apple cultivars juices. The apple varieties investigated are rich in bioactive compounds, and pasteurization treatment does not lead to drastic decreases in these compounds and in the antioxidant capacity of apple juices.

  14. Classification of juices and fermented beverages made from unripe, ripe and senescent apples based on the aromatic profile using chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Cíntia Maia; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Silva, Karolline Marques da; de Souza, Frederico Koch Fernandes; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Couto, Marcelo; Granato, Daniel; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to assess differences between apple juices and fermented apple beverages elaborated with fruits from different varieties and at different ripening stages in the aroma profile by using chemometrics. Ripening influenced the aroma composition of the apple juice and fermented apple. For all varieties, senescent fruits provided more aromatic fermented apple beverages. However, no significant difference was noticed in samples made of senescent or ripe fruits of the Lisgala variety. Regarding the juices, ripe Gala apple had the highest total aroma concentration. Ethanal was the major compound identified in all the samples, with values between 11.83mg/L (unripe Lisgala juice) and 81.05mg/L (ripe Gala juice). 3-Methyl-1-butanol was the major compound identified in the fermented juices. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied and classified the juices and fermented juices based on physicochemical and aroma profile, demonstrating their applicability as tools to monitor the quality of apple-based products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) juice preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinas, F C; Miguel, M A L; Lopes, M L M; Valente Mesquita, V L

    2008-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an alternative to thermal processing to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Cashew apple juice has a pleasant flavor and is rich in vitamin C. Studies to determine the effect of high pressure on microorganisms in cashew apple juice are still lacking. In this study, the inactivation of natural micropopulation and inoculated Escherichia coli by high pressure was evaluated in fresh cashew apple juice. The microbiological stability of pressure-treated juice was also evaluated. The applied high pressure levels ranged from 250 to 400 MPa for periods of 3 to 7 min. Treatments with 350 MPa for 7 min and 400 MPa for either 3 or 7 min reduced the aerobic mesophilic bacteria count to a level below the detection limit. Pressure treatments were also efficient in inactivating yeast and filamentous fungi. The inoculated E. coli (10(6) CFU/mL) was reduced to below 10 CFU/mL after a pressure treatment of 400 MPa for 3 min. The inactivation of this microorganism followed a 1st-order reaction kinetics. The decimal reduction time (D-value) ranged from 1.21 to 16.43 min, while pressure resistance value (z-value) was 123.46 MPa. Neither natural micropopulation growth nor E. coli repair was observed in postprocessed (400 MPa for 3 min) cashew apple juice kept under refrigerated storage (at 4 degrees C) during 8 wk. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high-pressure treatment for preserving cashew apple juice.

  16. Quality stability and sensory attributes of apple juice processed by thermosonication, pulsed electric field and thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Alifdalino; Farid, Mohammed; Silva, Filipa Vm

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide, apple juice is the second most popular juice, after orange juice. It is susceptible to enzymatic browning spoilage by polyphenoloxidase, an endogenous enzyme. In this study, Royal Gala apple juice was treated by thermosonication (TS: 1.3 W/mL, 58 ℃, 10 min), pulsed electric field (PEF: 24.8 kV/cm, 60 pulses, 169 µs treatment time, 53.8 ℃) and heat (75 ℃, 20 min) and stored at 3.0 ℃ and 20.0 ℃ for 30 days. A sensory analysis was carried out after processing. The polyphenoloxidase activity, antioxidant activity and total color difference of the apple juice were determined before and after processing and during storage. The sensory analysis revealed that thermosonication and pulsed electric field juices tasted differently from the thermally treated juice. Apart from the pulsed electric field apple juice stored at room temperature, the processed juice was stable during storage, since the pH and soluble solids remained constant and fermentation was not observed. Polyphenoloxidase did not reactivate during storage. Along storage, the juices' antioxidant activity decreased and total color difference increased (up to 6.8). While the antioxidant activity increased from 86 to 103% with thermosonication and was retained after pulsed electric field, thermal processing reduced it to 67%. The processing increased the total color difference slightly. No differences in the total color difference of the juices processed by the three methods were registered after storage. Thermosonication and pulsed electric field could possibly be a better alternative to thermal preservation of apple juice, but refrigerated storage is recommended for pulsed electric field apple juice.

  17. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric determination of patulin in apple juice using atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takino, Masahiko; Daishima, Shigeki; Nakahara, Taketoshi

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison between atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and the recently introduced atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique for the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) determination of patulin in clear apple juice. A column switching technique for on-line extraction of clear apple juice was developed. The parameters investigated for the optimization of APPI were the ion source parameters fragmentor voltage, capillary voltage, and vaporizer temperature, and also mobile phase composition and flow rate. Furthermore, chemical noise and signal suppression of analyte signals due to sample matrix interference were investigated for both APCI and APPI. The results indicated that APPI provides lower chemical noise and signal suppression in comparison with APCI. The linear range for patulin in apple juice (correlation coefficient >0.999) was 0.2-100 ng mL(-1). Mean recoveries of patulin in three apple juices ranged from 94.5 to 103.2%, and the limit of detection (S/N = 3), repeatability and reproducibility were 1.03-1.50 ng mL(-1), 3.9-5.1% and 7.3-8.2%, respectively. The total analysis time was 10.0 min. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Quality comparison of elephant apple juices after high-pressure processing and thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prakash Kumar; Rayaguru, Kalpana; Radha Krishnan, Kesavan

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) on the quality parameters (pH, °Brix, total acidity, viscosity, colour, antioxidant activity, total phenols, total flavonoids, microbial flora, and sensory analysis) of elephant apple (Dillenia indica) juice was investigated. The juice samples were analysed periodically (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days) during 60 days of storage period and results were compared with thermally processed as well as with untreated (fresh juice) samples. Slight variations had been observed in the quality parameters like pH, °Brix and total acidity. Other parameters like colour values, antioxidant activity, total phenols and total flavonoids were varied significantly (P apple juice was established as 60 days at 4 °C. This study showed that application of HPP effectively maintained quality attributes and extended shelf life of the elephant apple juice. It may be suggested that application of HPP could be considered for commercial application during storage and marketing. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Adriano H; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C; de Macedo, André C; Santana, Maria Helena A; Gonçalves, Luciana R B

    2013-12-01

    In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation) to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm) and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer.

  20. Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production

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    Adriano H. Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer.

  1. Yeast species diversity in apple juice for cider production evidenced by culture-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Simonato, Barbara; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2018-05-07

    Identification of yeasts isolated from apple juices of two cider houses (one located in a plain area and one in an alpine area) was carried out by culture-based method. Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient Agar was used as medium for isolation and preliminary yeasts identification. A total of 20 species of yeasts belonging to ten different genera were identified using both BLAST algorithm for pairwise sequence comparison and phylogenetic approaches. A wide variety of non-Saccharomyces species was found. Interestingly, Candida railenensis, Candida cylindracea, Hanseniaspora meyeri, Hanseniaspora pseudoguilliermondii, and Metschnikowia sinensis were recovered for the first time in the yeast community of an apple environment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a better resolution in identifying Metschnikowia and Moesziomyces isolates than comparative analysis using the GenBank or YeastIP gene databases. This study provides important data on yeast microbiota of apple juice and evidenced differences between two geographical cider production areas in terms of species composition.

  2. Quality Markers of Functional Tomato Juice with Added Apple Phenolic Antioxidants

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    Laura Massini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using natural antioxidants instead of synthetic additives for food stabilisation is at the forefront of research in food formulation. Matrix interactions and stability studies of the incorporated foods are necessary prior to further processing. In this study, apple peel phenolics were added to a commercial bottled tomato juice. The juice was opened and then stored in the presence of air in the headspace at 4 °C for four days to assess its physical-chemical stability (pH, turbidity, colour and total phenolic content and nutritional content (ascorbic acid and total carotenoids; it was also stored at 4 °C for 10 days for the microbiological analysis. The antimicrobial capacity of the phenolic extracts was tested against a range of food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Results showed that apple peel phenolics could form complexes with colloidal pectins thus increasing the turbidity, even though this effect was not significant during the four-day storage; the colour of the enriched juice was brighter with enhanced yellowness due to added pigments such as flavonol glycosides. The presence of other natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid and carotenoids in tomato juice was not affected by the addition of peel phenolics. Ascorbic acid was partially reduced during storage in all the juice samples; however, the presence of the added peel phenolics whose amount remained constant over time significantly contributed to a higher radical scavenging capacity compared to the control. The microbiological spoilage of the opened tomato juice was also delayed by two to three days in the presence of apple peel phenolics compared to the control. The antimicrobial capacity was due to a bacteriostatic effect of the phenolic extracts mostly against the growth of yeasts; the antimicrobial capacity was related to the acidity of phenolic acids and the presence of apple flavonoids such as flavan-3-ols.

  3. How many bad apples does it take to spoil the whole barrel? Social exclusion and toleration for bad apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerr, N.L.; Rumble, A.C.; Ouwerkerk, J.W.; Parks, C.D.; Gallucci, M.; van Lange, P.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In social dilemmas, where personal welfare is in conflict with collective welfare, there are inherent incentives to act non-cooperatively. Moreover, there is evidence that the example of a few uncooperative group members ("bad apples") is more influential than the example of comparable numbers of

  4. Traditional versus modern apple cultivars – a comparison of juice composition

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    Dobrowolska-Iwanek Justyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apples are rich in components that are important for human health, such as polyphenols, organic acids and microelements, but their chemical composition varies with different apple cultivars. We aimed to find out if there is any superiority in traditionally grown apple cultivars in terms of their fruits’ bioactive components content. Juice from two traditionally grown apple cultivars, ‘Mutsu’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’, was compared to eight popular apple cultivars, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonagold Decosta’, ‘Jonica’, ‘Šampion’, ‘Gloster’, ‘Elise’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Rubin’, and the results are presented. In the study we determined several major and minor nutrient elements, organic acids, phenolic content as well as the antioxidant activity of apple juice made from different cultivars, both modern and traditionally grown. Antioxidant activity determined as FRAP varied from 1.12 (‘Elise’ to 12.10 (‘Jonagold’ mmol Fe dm-3. The concentration of polyphenols fell between 0.16 (‘Elise’ and 1.30 (‘Jonagold’ mg ml-1 gallic acid equivalent. Malic acid concentration was highest in ‘Reinette Simirenko’ and ‘Mutsu’ (6.58 and 5.84 g dm-3, respectively and lowest for ‘Jonagold’ (3.73 g dm-3. The microelement concentrations for the apple cultivar juices were as follows: 8-24 mg dm-3 for Na, 567-1022 mg dm-3 for K, 26.9-59.4 mg dm-3 for Mg and 0.105-0.201 mg dm-3 for Zn. Statistical analysis confirmed a highly positive correlation between total polyphenols and antioxidant activity (r = 0.98, p = 0.001.

  5. THE APPLE JUICE CONCENTRATE ANTI-DUMPING CASE AGAINST CHINA: AN ESTIMATE OF CHANGE IN WASHINGTON'S REVENUES

    OpenAIRE

    van Voorthuizen, Hilde; Cho, Sung-Yeol; Schotzko, R. Thomas; Mittelhammer, Ronald C.

    2001-01-01

    Increasing volumes of apple juice concentrate imports from China into the U.S. began in the mid 90s as a result of low Chinese prices. In 1999, the U.S. Apple Association launched a complaint with the US International Trade Commission (USITC) regarding the Chinese price strategy. During the course of investigation, the U.S. Apple Association requested that the Department of Agricultural Economics at Washington State University analyze the impact on the total value of juice apples utilized in ...

  6. Immunomagnetic separation combined with polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in apple juice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouli Wang

    Full Text Available A combination of immunomagnetic separation (IMS and polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (A. acidoterrestris in apple juice. The optimum technological parameters of the IMS system were investigated. The results indicated that the immunocapture reactions could be finished in 60 min and the quantity of IMPs used for IMS was 2.5 mg/mL. Then the combined IMS-PCR procedure was assessed by detecting A. acidoterrestris in apple juice samples. The agarose gel electrophoresis results of 20 different strains showed that the IMS-PCR procedure presented high specificity to the A. acidoterrestris. The sensitivity of the IMS-PCR was 2×10(1 CFU/mL and the total detection time was 3 to 4 h. Of the 78 naturally contaminated apple juice samples examined, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of IMS-PCR compared with the standardized pour plate method were 90.9%, 97.0% and 96.2%, respectively. The results exhibited that the developed IMS-PCR method will be a valuable tool for detecting A. acidoterrestris and improving food quality in juice samples.

  7. Application of Freezing and Thawing in Apple (Malus domestica) Juice Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadulski, Rafał; Kobus, Zbigniew; Wilczyński, Kamil; Zawiślak, Kazimierz; Grochowicz, Józef; Guz, Tomasz

    2016-09-28

    The paper presents the results of the research on the impact of enzymatic liquefaction, freezing and thawing on the efficiency of juice pressure extraction from apple pulp and quality of the obtained juices. The research was conducted using three types of pretreatment prior the pressing: crushing and enzymatic liquefaction in temperature of 25 °C, crushing and enzymatic liquefaction in temperature of 45 °C and crushing followed by freezing and thawing of the pulp. The study included three varieties of apples. The juice was obtained using a laboratory basket press. It was determined that the pretreatment of the pulp as well as the varietal characteristics of the fruits have a significant impact on the efficiency of the pressure extraction process. The enzymatic treatment of the pulp, irrespective of the temperature at which it was conducted, significantly increased the efficiency of the process. No effect of the temperature (25 or 45 °C) of enzymatic treatment on the efficiency of the pressure extraction process was found. Pretreatment of the pulp based on freezing and thawing contributes to the increase of efficiency of pressing in the case of two apple cultivars, that is, Idared and Red Delicious. It was showed that total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, the soluble solids content and juice acidity (pH) depend on the pretreatment of the pulp and the varietal characteristics of apples. Following the application of pretreatment of the pulp, an increase was observed in the content of polyphenols and in the antioxidant activity of the juices obtained. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Variability of the polyphenolic composition of cider apple (Malus domestica) fruits and juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Sylvain; Marnet, Nathalie; Sanoner, Philippe; Drilleau, Jean-François

    2003-10-08

    Five French cider apple varieties were compared on the basis of their detailed polyphenol profile in the cortex and in the juices. Among the factors studied, variety was the most important variability factor in fruits, whereas polyphenol profiles showed an overall stability from one year to another, and a limited decrease of polyphenol concentration was observed during the starch regression period of fruit maturation. In juices, procyanidins remained the preponderant polyphenol class with concentrations up to 2.4 g/L even in centrifuged juices. Compared to the fruits, the average degree of polymerization of procyanidins was significantly reduced in the juice. Centrifugation of the crude juice had only minor effects on the polyphenol composition. For one variety, highly polymerized procyanidins with average degrees of polymerization of 25 were shown to be soluble in the centrifuged juice at a concentration of close to 1.2 g/L. Oxygenation of the juices during processing resulted in a significant decrease of all classes of native polyphenols. Catechins and procyanidins were particularly affected by oxidation, whereas caffeoylquinic acid was partly preserved. The transfer of polyphenols after pressing was maximal for dihydrochalcones and minimal for procyanidins with extraction yield values close to 80 and 30%, respectively.

  9. Factors influencing the inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores exposed to high hydrostatic pressure in apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, B.; Skąpska, S.; Fonberg-Broczek, M.; Niezgoda, J.; Chotkiewicz, M.; Dekowska, A.; Rzoska, S. J.

    2013-03-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, a thermoacidophilic and spore-forming bacterium, survives the typical pasteurization process and can cause the spoilage of juices, producing compounds associated with disinfectant-like odour (guaiacol, 2,6 - dibromophenol, 2,6 - dichlorophenol). Therefore, the use of other more effective techniques such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is considered for preserving juices. The aim of this study was to search for factors affecting the resistance of A. acidoterrestris spores to HHP. The baroprotective effect of increased solute concentration in apple juice on A. acidoterrestris spores during high pressure processing was observed. During the 45 min pressurization (200 MPa, 50°C) of the spores in concentrated apple juice (71.1°Bx), no significant changes were observed in their number. However, in the juices with a soluble solids content of 35.7, 23.6 and 11.2°Bx, the reduction in spores was 1.3-2.4 log, 2.6-3.3 log and 2.8-4.0 log, respectively. No clear effect of age of spores on the survival under high pressure conditions was found. Spores surviving pressurization and subjected to subsequent HHP treatment showed increased resistance to pressure, by even as much as 2.0 log.

  10. Optimization of ohmic heating parameters for polyphenoloxidase inactivation in not-from-concentrate elstar apple juice using RSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abedelmaksoud, Tarek; Mohsen, Sobhy Mohamed; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene

    2018-01-01

    In this study, optimization of ohmic heating (OH) process parameters (temperature and voltage gradient) to inactivate polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of not-from-concentrate (NFC) apple juice was conducted. Response surface methodology was used for optimization of OH parameters, where the voltage gradient...... and temperature on the PPO activity in the NFC apple juice was evaluated. Then the optimized condition was used to produce the NFC apple juice and the quality parameters were evaluated and compared to NFC apple juice prepared by conventional heating (CH). The studied parameters were: PPO activity, total phenolic......, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, cloud value, color as well as physical properties (i.e., TSS, acidity, electric conductivity and viscosity). The reduction of PPO activities was 97 and 91% for OH (at 40 V/cm and 80 °C) and CH (at 90 °C and 60 s), respectively. The reduction of the ascorbic acid...

  11. The effect of sporulation medium on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris guaiacol production in apple juice

    OpenAIRE

    Molva, Çelenk; Baysal, Ayşe Handan

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of sporulation medium on guaiacol formation from vanillin and vanillic acid by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 in the reconstituted apple juice (pH 3.82, °Brix 11.3). For sporulation, potato dextrose agar and Bacillus acidoterrestris agar were used. After heat-activation, spores were turned into vegetative cells and inoculated into juice samples to a final concentration of 103 or 105 CFU/mL. Samples were incubated at 37 °C for 264 h and guaiaco...

  12. Carvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roller Sibel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of food poisoning associated with drinking un-pasteurised apple juice contaminated with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 are a cause of serious illness and occasionally death. Whilst a well-established heat process (pasteurisation will readily eliminate the pathogen, some consumers are demanding more fresh-like foods that have not been subjected to processing methods that are perceived as severe and may lead to loss of flavour and vitamins. Therefore, alternative methods are being investigated to replace pasteurisation and improve the safety of minimally-processed juices. The addition of natural antimicrobial substances such as the phenolic substances carvacrol and p-cymene (derived from the essential oils of herbs and spices provides a potential new route to assure safety and extend the shelf-life of raw fruit juices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of very low concentrations (0.25–1.25 mM of carvacrol and p-cymene both individually and in combination as a novel means of controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 in un-pasteurised apple juice. Results When inoculated at a level of 4 log CFU/ml into un-pasteurised apple juice (pH 3.20 ± 0.06, Escherichia coli O157:H7 survived for up to 3 and 19 days at 25° and 4°C, respectively. Treatment of the juice with 1.25 mM carvacrol or p-cymene reduced the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 to undetectable levels within 1–2 days at both storage temperatures. The effective concentrations of carvacrol could be reduced even further by combining it at 0.5 mM with cymene at 0.25 mM. The phenolic compounds were biocidal against both spoilage yeasts and E. coli O157:H7 thereby increasing the shelf-life and improving the safety of un-pasteurised apple juice, particularly when stored at chill temperatures. Conclusion The results showed that the natural antimicrobial compounds carvacrol and p-cymene could potentially be used to extend the shelf life and improve

  13. Physico-chemical evaluation of radiation effects on apple juice; Avaliacao fisico-quimica do suco de maca irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Maria H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Gala and Fuji varieties apple`s juice were clarified with enzyme and irradiated aiming to extend the shelf-life without conservants and chemical additives. The juices were analysed for soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH and color. Results showed effect of storage periods in soluble solids, pH and color. The variety and storage period modified the titrable acidity. The pH was altered by irradiation dose and the storage period. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs.

  14. apple juice's clarification process by using cassava and rice starch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... TOX 56-81, NERICA 1, IR 841, and Special rice, were tested for cashew apple ..... the phenolic hydroxyl groups of the tannins and the carbonyl groups of the .... charge on the particles has to be neutralised to near zero charge.

  15. Optimization of Progressive Freeze Concentration on Apple Juice via Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsuri, S.; Amran, N. A.; Jusoh, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a progressive freeze concentration (PFC) system was developed to concentrate apple juice and was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of various operating conditions such as coolant temperature, circulation flowrate, circulation time and shaking speed to effective partition constant (K) were investigated. Five different level of central composite design (CCD) was employed to search for optimal concentration of concentrated apple juice. A full quadratic model for K was established by using method of least squares. A coefficient of determination (R2) of this model was found to be 0.7792. The optimum conditions were found to be coolant temperature = -10.59 °C, circulation flowrate = 3030.23 mL/min, circulation time = 67.35 minutes and shaking speed = 30.96 ohm. A validation experiment was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimization procedure and the best K value of 0.17 was achieved under the optimized conditions.

  16. The potential of kiwifruit puree as a clean label ingredient to stabilize high pressure pasteurized cloudy apple juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Junjie; Kebede, Biniam; Kristiani, Kristiani; Buvé, Carolien; Van Loey, Ann; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc

    2018-07-30

    In the fruit juice industry, high pressure (HP) processing has become a commercial success. However, enzymatic browning, cloud loss, and flavor changes during storage remain challenges. The aim of this study is to combine kiwifruit puree and HP pasteurization (600 MPa/3 min) to stabilize cloudy apple juice during storage at 4 °C. A wide range of targeted and untargeted quality characteristics was evaluated using a multivariate approach. Due to high ascorbic acid content and high viscosity, kiwifruit puree allowed to prevent enzymatic browning and phase separation of an apple-kiwifruit mixed juice. Besides, no clear changes in organic acids, viscosity, and particle size distribution were detected in mixed juice during storage. Sucrose of apple and mixed juices decreased with glucose and fructose increasing during storage. The volatile changes of both juices behaved similar, mainly esters being degraded. Sensory evaluation demonstrated consumer preferred the aroma of mixed juice compared to apple juice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 75 FR 5763 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review... concentrate (``apple juice'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), received on December 15, 2009... fifty-one days after the end of that POR. The Department finds that extending the POR to capture this...

  18. Impact of PEF and thermal processing on apple juice shelf life

    OpenAIRE

    Torkamani, AE

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pulsed electric field (PEF) is a novel emerging technology which is believed to have the potential to substitute conventional thermal pasteurization (HTST). In the current study PEF was compared with HTST based on microbial inactivation and quality attributes.Materials and Methods: Juice was prepared by extracting it from Semirum apples. They were chilled to 4ºC over night. Then were divided into two lots, one was treated by PEF and the other by HTST. The treated ju...

  19. NMR detected metabolites in complex natural fluids. Quinic acid in apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailiesei Gabriela Liliana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different types of 1D and 2D NMR experiments were used to completely characterize quinic acid and demonstrate its presence in complex mixtures. The identification of quinic acid in apple juice was done without any separation step. The NMR experiments presented in this study can be used to analyze other metabolites in different complex natural fluids, of vegetal or biological origin.

  20. Relative bioavailability of micronized, dispersible ferric pyrophosphate added to an apple juice drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Mark A; Collings, Rachel; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-03-01

    Food iron fortification is a sustainable and relatively simple strategy to reduce/prevent iron deficiency but is a challenge for the food industry because of possible adverse organoleptic changes caused by the added iron. A micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate, trademarked as SunActive Fe, has recently been developed. SunActive Fe has a small particle size, is water soluble and may be suitable for fortifying liquid products. To determine the relative bioavailability of SunActive Fe and its suitability for addition to pure apple juice. Iron absorption from SunActive Fe added to pure apple juice (Minute Maid) was compared with absorption from ferrous sulphate, a highly bioavailable form of iron, in 15 women with relatively low iron stores. Both forms of iron were enriched with an iron stable isotope and iron absorption from the apple juice drinks was calculated from the isotopic enrichment of red blood cells 14 days after the last test meal. Although mean absorption of iron from SunActive Fe was significantly lower than from ferrous sulphate (5.5% compared with 9.1%), the mean bioavailability of SunActive Fe iron relative to ferrous sulphate was 0.6, indicating that it is a good source of bioavailable iron. Iron Absorption from SunActive Fe was positively correlated (r = 0.97, P = 0.01) with absorption from ferrous sulphate, and negatively correlated with serum ferritin concentration (ferrous sulphate r = -0.81, P apple juice and is a potentially useful fortificant for liquid food products.

  1. Effect of aeration on the fermentative activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultured in apple juice

    OpenAIRE

    Estela-Escalante, W.; Rychtera, M.; Melzoch, K.; Hatta-Sakoda, B.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of aeration on the fermentative activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiaeRTVE V 15-1-416 was studied in order to evaluate the synthesis of fermentation by-products. To achieve this, the strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks and bioreactor containing sterilized and aroma removed apple juice. The chemical compounds produced during fermentations in shaken (200 min-¹) and static (without agitation) flasks and bioreactor, all in batch mode, were determined by GC and HPLC. The results s...

  2. Effect of thermal treatment on the quality of cloudy apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfenbauer, Gottfried; Kinner, Mathias; Gössinger, Manfred; Schönlechner, Regine; Berghofer, Emmerich

    2006-07-26

    Apple juice from eight different varieties of apples was heated at high-temperature (60-90 degrees C) and short-time (20-100 s) (HTST) combinations. To determine the effect of heating conditions on enzymatic browning and cloud stability in apple juices, the activity of polyphenol oxidase and pectinesterase was analyzed and correlated with the thermal treatment conditions and the quality of the juice. Additional investigations included the measurement of pH value, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, color, and turbidity after 3 and 6 months. The results showed that HTST treatment at 80 degrees C already inactivated polyphenol oxidase, whereas pectinesterase activity was reduced to half and could even at 90 degrees C not be inactivated completely. In fact, highest residual pectinesterase activity was found at 60 degrees C. Heating at 70 degrees C caused stable pectinesterase activity and even a slight increase for 50 and 100 s heating times. Turbidity and lightness increased after HTST treatment. In particular, differences in cloud stability between the varieties were measured. HTST parameters did not correlate with the residual cloud stability after 6 months. The sensory evaluation revealed that only a few combinations were distinguishable. The best stability of cloud and color in relation to heat impact was achieved by HTST treatment between 70 degrees C/100 s and 80 degrees C/20 s.

  3. Synergic effect of gamma radiation with thermal treatment for conserving natural apple juice from Gala variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, L.; Domarco, R.E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Walder, J.M.M.; Matraia, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper aims at the feasibility of a new method for conserving natural apple juice using no chemicals. The apple juice was extract from Gala apple variety and was bottled in sterile 100 ml amber vials. The samples were treated by: heat at 60 0 C for 20 minutes; heat at 80 0 C for 20 minutes; radiation; radiation plus heat (60 0 ); radiation plus heat 80 0 C. The radiation doses were 0,2,4 and 6 kGy at the dose rate of 1.6 kGy/h. The juice quality control was carried out by chemical analysis (total soluble solids, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid) following the AOAC methodology. The samples were stored under refrigeration conditions 5±3 0 C) up to 180 days. It was observed an alteration of the total soluble solids and the pH during the storage period for all treatments. The pH was also affected by the combined treatments (radiation plus heat). The acidity was affected by the interaction of storage period and heat temperature. The ascorbic acid was affected by the synergic effect of heat and radiation and by the interaction radiation and storage period. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs

  4. Effect of mash maceration on the polyphenolic content and visual quality attributes of cloudy apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalev, Kiril; Schieber, Andreas; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2004-12-01

    The effects of enzymatic mash treatments on yield, turbidity, color, and polyphenolic content of cloudy apple juice were studied. Using HPLC-ESI-MS, cryptochlorogenic acid was identified in cv. Brettacher cloudy apple juice for the first time. Commercial pectolytic enzyme preparations with different levels of secondary protease activity were tested under both oxidative and nonoxidative conditions. Without the addition of ascorbic acid, oxidation substantially decreased chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 contents due to enzymatic browning. The content of chlorogenic acid as the major polyphenolic compound was also influenced by the composition of pectolytic enzyme preparations because the presence of secondary protease activity resulted in a rise of chlorogenic acid. The latter effect was probably due to the inhibited protein-polyphenol interactions, which prevented binding of polyphenolic compounds to the matrix, thus increasing their antioxidative potential. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the advantage of the nonoxidative mash maceration for the production of cloud-stable apple juice with a high polyphenolic content, particularly in a premature processing campaign.

  5. Determination of patulin in commercial apple juice by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, M; González-Peñas, E; Amézqueta, S

    2008-01-01

    A novel and validated micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) method using ultraviolet detection (UV) has been applied to the quantitative analysis of patulin (PAT) in commercial apple juice. Patulin was extracted from samples with an ethylacetate solution. The micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECK) parameters studied for method optimization were buffer composition, voltage, temperature, and a separation between PAT and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (main interference in apple juice PAT analysis) peaks until reaching baseline. The method passes a series of validation tests including selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and quantification (0.7 and 2.5 microgL(-1), respectively), precision (within and between-day variability) and recovery (80.2% RSD=4%), accuracy, and robustness. This method was successfully applied to the measurement of 20 apple juice samples obtained from different supermarkets. One hundred percent of the samples were contaminated with a level greater than the limit of detection, with mean and median values of 41.3 and 35.7 microgL(-1), respectively.

  6. Application of decolourized and partially purified polygalacturonase and α-amylase in apple juice clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapati Bhanja Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase and α-amylase play vital role in fruit juice industry. In the present study, polygalacturonase was produced by Aspergillus awamori Nakazawa MTCC 6652 utilizing apple pomace and mosambi orange (Citrus sinensis var mosambi peels as solid substrate whereas, α-amylase was produced from A. oryzae (IFO-30103 using wheat bran by solid state fermentation (SSF process. These carbohydrases were decolourized and purified 8.6-fold, 34.8-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively by activated charcoal powder in a single step with 65.1%, 69.8% and 60% recoveries, respectively. Apple juice was clarified by these decolourized and partially purified enzymes. In presence of 1% polygalacturonase from mosambi peels (9.87 U/mL and 0.4% α-amylase (899 U/mL, maximum clarity (%T660nm = 97.0% of juice was attained after 2 h of incubation at 50 ºC in presence of 10 mM CaCl2. Total phenolic content of juice was reduced by 19.8% after clarification, yet with slightly higher %DPPH radical scavenging property.

  7. Application of decolourized and partially purified polygalacturonase and α-amylase in apple juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Tapati Bhanja; Banerjee, Rintu

    2014-01-01

    Polygalacturonase and α-amylase play vital role in fruit juice industry. In the present study, polygalacturonase was produced by Aspergillus awamori Nakazawa MTCC 6652 utilizing apple pomace and mosambi orange (Citrus sinensis var mosambi) peels as solid substrate whereas, α-amylase was produced from A. oryzae (IFO-30103) using wheat bran by solid state fermentation (SSF) process. These carbohydrases were decolourized and purified 8.6-fold, 34.8-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively by activated charcoal powder in a single step with 65.1%, 69.8% and 60% recoveries, respectively. Apple juice was clarified by these decolourized and partially purified enzymes. In presence of 1% polygalacturonase from mosambi peels (9.87 U/mL) and 0.4% α-amylase (899 U/mL), maximum clarity (%T(660 nm) = 97.0%) of juice was attained after 2 h of incubation at 50 °C in presence of 10 mM CaCl2. Total phenolic content of juice was reduced by 19.8% after clarification, yet with slightly higher %DPPH radical scavenging property.

  8. Osmotic distillation and quality evaluation of sucrose, apple and orange juices in hollow fiber membrane contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Waheed Ur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose solution, apple and orange juices were concentrated through osmotic distillation (OD process using a mini-module Liqui-CelTM hollow fibre membrane contactor. Mass transport characteristics of water molecules from feed to stripping solution were studied. Process parameters such as feed temperature, feed flow rate and concentration of stripping solution (CaCl2 were varied. Sucrose solution was concentrated from 135 to 510 g TSS kg-1 in 340 min using feed-in- -lumen flow configuration at a start-up water flux of 0.250 L m-2 h-1 and a temperature of 30°C. Similarly, it was concentrated up to 510 g TSS kg-1 in 200 min using feed-in-shell flow configuration at a start-up water flux of 0.505 L m-2 hr1 and a temperature of 30°C. In a total recycle time of 340 min, clarified apple and orange juices were concentrated up to 500 g TSS kg-1 using feed-in-lumen flow configuration at a start-up water flux of 0.204 and 0.294 L m-2 hr1, respectively. It was found that quality parameters of fruit juices were well improved after the osmotic distillation process. The process therefore has good potential for application in the fruit processing industry for concentration of fruit juices.

  9. Defining treatment conditions for pulsed electric field pasteurization of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, G; Puértolas, E; Monfort, S; Raso, J; Alvarez, I

    2011-11-15

    The influence of temperature and the presence of N(α)-lauroyl ethylester (ethyl lauroyl arginate, LAE) on the inactivation caused by continuous pulsed electric field treatments (PEF) in Escherichia coli O157:H7 suspended in apple juice have been investigated to define treatment conditions applicable at industrial scale that promote an equivalent safety level when compared with thermal processing. In the range of experimental conditions investigated (outlet temperature: 20-40 °C, electric field strength: 20-30 kV, treatment time: 5-125 μs) at outlet temperatures equal or lower than 55±1 °C, the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 treated in apple juice ranged from 0.4 to 3.6 Log₁₀ cycles reduction and treated in apple juice supplemented with LAE (50 ppm) ranged from 0.9 to 6.7 Log₁₀ cycles reduction. An empirical mathematical model was developed to estimate the treatment time and total specific energy input to obtain 5 Log₁₀ cycles reduction in the population of E. coli O157:H7 suspended in apple juice supplemented with 50 ppm of LAE at different electric field strengths and inlet temperatures. Treatment conditions established for E. coli O157:H7 were validated with other PEF resistant Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium) strains. When the treatment was applied to the apple juice, a treatment of 25 kV/cm for 63 μs corresponding with an outlet temperature of 65 °C and input energy of 125 kJ/kg was required to achieve more than 5 Log₁₀ cycles in the four strains investigated. The addition of LAE reduced the treatment time required to obtain an equivalent inactivation (>5 Log₁₀ cycles) in the four microorganisms to 38.4 μs, the outlet temperature to 55 °C, and the input energy to 83.2 kJ/kg. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of the Patulin toxicant using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC in apple juices supplied in Khorramabad City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Esmaeili Lashkarian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Making use of low quality moldy and worm-eaten fruits for juice production causes various irritations in human body due to its hazardous compounds. Today, Patulin toxicant is one of the most important compounds to be investigated in juices, particularly in apple juices. This research aims to measure the amount of Patulin toxicant and identify the molding factors in apple juices supplied in Khorramabad shops. After preparing a list of shops supplying and selling h\\juices in Khorramabad, 64 apple juices packs were collected at random. The Patulin measurement was accomplished using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and the molding factors identification also was performed using macroscopic, microscopic and other necessary tests after the sample were cultured in standard method. Out of 64 sample investigated from presence of lack of mold perspective, 61 (95.3% lacked mold and 1 (1.6% had Aspergillus terreus mold and 2 (3.1% had Penicillium mold. The Patulin level measured in 31 samples (48% was negative and in 33 ones (52% was positive in range 5.102-26.484 μg.l-1. The data obtained from samples was evaluated well in comparison to external standards and the correlation coefficient of 0.99 was indicated. The results obtained from this research indicated that the mean Patulin measured in apple juices studied was less than the EU and Iranian standards.

  11. Effect of enzymatic mash treatment and storage on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and turbidity of cloudy apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdylo, Aneta; Kolniak, Joanna

    2009-08-12

    The effects of different commercial enzymatic mash treatments on yield, turbidity, color, and polyphenolic and sediment of procyanidins content of cloudy apple juice were studied. Addition of pectolytic enzymes to mash treatment had positive effect on the production of cloud apple juices by improving polyphenolic contents, especially procyanidins and juice yields (68.3% in control samples to 77% after Pectinex Yield Mash). As summary of the effect of enzymatic mash treatment, polyphenol contents in cloudy apple juices significantly increased after Pectinex Yield Mash, Pectinex Smash XXL, and Pectinex XXL maceration were applied but no effect was observed after Pectinex Ultra-SPL I Panzym XXL use, compared to the control samples. The content of polymeric procyanidins represented 50-70% of total polyphenols, but in the present study, polymeric procyanidins were significantly lower in juices than in fruits and also affected by enzymatic treatment (Pectinex AFP L-4 and Panzym Yield Mash) compared to the control samples. The enzymatic treatment decreased procyanidin content in most sediment with the exception of Pectinex Smash XXL and Pectinex AFP L-4. Generally in samples that were treated by pectinase, radical scavenging activity of cloudy apple juices was increased compared to the untreated reference samples. The highest radical scavenging activity was associated with Pectinex Yield Mash, Pectinex Smash XXL, and Pectinex XXL enzyme and the lowest activity with Pectinex Ultra SP-L and Pectinex APFL-4. However, in the case of enzymatic mash treatment cloudy apple juices showed instability of turbidity and low viscosity. These results must be ascribed to the much higher hydrolysis of pectin by enzymatic preparation which is responsible for viscosity. During 6 months of storage at 4 degrees C small changes in analyzed parameters of apple juices were observed.

  12. Application of a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Cold Plasma (Dbd-Acp) for Eshcerichia Coli Inactivation in Apple Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xinyu; Li, Jiao; Muhammad, Aliyu Idris; Suo, Yuanjie; Chen, Shiguo; Ye, Xingqian; Liu, Donghong; Ding, Tian

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) is a promising non-thermal technology in food industry. In this study, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)-ACP exhibited strong bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli in apple juice. Under a 30 to 50 W input power, less than 40 s treatment time was required for DBD-ACP to result in 3.98 to 4.34 log CFU/mL reduction of E. coli in apple juice. The inactivation behavior of ACP on E. coli was well described by the Weibull model. During the treatment, the cell membrane of E. coli was damaged severely by active species produced by plasma, such as hydrogen peroxide, ozone and nitrate. In addition, the ACP exposure had slight effect on the °Brix, pH, titratable acidity (TA), color values, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of apple juice. However, higher level of DBD-ACP treatment, 50 W for more than 10 s in this case, resulted in significant change of the pH, TA, color and total phenolic content of apple juice. The results in this study have provided insight in potential use of DBD-ACP as an alternative to thermal processing for fruit juices in food industry. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice is a potential risk for public health. This study demonstrated that 30 s cold plasma treatment resulted in more than 4 log CFU/mL reduction under 50 W, while the quality attributes of apple juice were not significantly affected. Therefore, cold plasma technology is a promising alternative substitute of traditional thermal processing for juice pasteurization. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Impact of PEF and thermal processing on apple juice shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ae

    2011-09-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) is a novel emerging technology which is believed to have the potential to substitute conventional thermal pasteurization (HTST). In the current study PEF was compared with HTST based on microbial inactivation and quality attributes. Juice was prepared by extracting it from Semirum apples. They were chilled to 4°C over night. Then were divided into two lots, one was treated by PEF and the other by HTST. The treated juices were cultured on tryphtic soy broth (TSB) and results were recorded for 168 days. Quality changes were characterized by color and sensory test. Color changes were quantified using Hunter Lab equipment and equation. Sensory changes were evaluated by test panelists. Using selective media E. Coli was enumerated, the total count of the organism was noticeably lower than PEF treated specimen and after 168. The count didn't reach the initial population. Whereas in PEF treated juice bacterial count bounced back to the initial count and exceeds. Results from Hunter Lab indicated a of 3.04 and 3.08 system for PEF and HTST treated juices. Sensory panel showed that PEF is superior to thermal treatment. The study indicated HTST is more suitable based on food safety encounters. However PEF treated are closer to fresh juices based on quality factors. It can be concluded that PEF has the potential to become a suitable replacement to conventional process if improvements in design are applied.

  14. Minimizing quality changes of cloudy apple juice: The use of kiwifruit puree and high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Junjie; Kebede, Biniam; Kristiani, Kristiani; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2018-05-30

    Cloud loss, enzymatic browning, and flavor changes are important quality defects of cloudy fruit juices determining consumer acceptability. The development of clean label options to overcome such quality problems is currently of high interest. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of kiwifruit puree (clean label ingredient) and high pressure homogenization on quality changes of cloudy apple juice using a multivariate approach. The use of kiwifruit puree addition and high pressure homogenization resulted in a juice with improved uniformity and cloud stability by reducing particle size and increasing viscosity and yield stress (p < 0.01). Furthermore, kiwifruit puree addition reduced enzymatic browning (ΔE ∗  < 3), due to the increased ascorbic acid and contributed to a more saturated and bright yellow color, a better taste balance, and a more fruity aroma of juice. This work demonstrates that clean label options to control quality degradation of cloudy fruit juice might offer new opportunities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied.

  16. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC, blackcurrant concentrate (BCC and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  17. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, Lemuel M; Li, Siwei; Xu, Qianqian; Busch, Janette

    2013-09-12

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  18. Heat resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splittstoesser, D F; McLellan, M R; Churey, J J

    1996-03-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of cider composition on the heat resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The average D52 value in a model Empire apple juice was 18 min with a z value of 4.8 degrees C. Increasing the Brix from 11.8 to 16.5 degrees had no effect on thermal resistance, while increasing L-malic acid from 0.2 to 0.8%, or reducing the pH from 4.4 to 3.6 sensitized the cells to heat. The greatest effect on heat resistance was afforded by the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acids: D50 values in ciders containing 1,000 mg/l were 5.2 min in the presence of sorbic acid and only 0.64 min in the presence of benzoic acid. Commercial apple juice concentrates yielded lower numbers of survivors than single-strength juices even though their higher sugar concentrations of about 46 degrees Brix increased heat resistance.

  19. White Grape Juice Elicits a Lower Breath Hydrogen Response Compared with Apple Juice in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Wang, Qi; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    Diets low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS) are used to manage symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Although effective at reducing symptoms, the diet can be complex and restrictive. In addition, there are still large gaps in the literature and many foods with unclear effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like fruit juice. Although many fruits are allowable on a low-FODMAP diet, consumption of all fruit juice is generally cautioned due to the large fructose load contained in juice, regardless of the glucose concentration. Very little research exists regarding the importance of limiting fructose load during a low-FODMAP diet; therefore, individuals following a low-FODMAP diet may be unnecessarily restricting their diets. To determine whether there is a difference in GI tolerance between juice from a high-FODMAP fruit (apple juice) and juice from a low-FODMAP fruit (white grape juice) in healthy human subjects. The goal is to provide insight into the role of juice in a low-FODMAP diet. A double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study was conducted with 40 healthy adults. Fasted subjects consumed 12 oz of either apple juice or white grape juice. Breath hydrogen measures were taken at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 hours. Subjective GI tolerance surveys were completed at the same time intervals and at 12 and 24 hours. Breath hydrogen and GI symptoms were assessed with area under the curve analysis. Significance was determined with a two-sided t test with a P value juice resulted in a greater mean breath hydrogen area under the curve at 23.3 ppm/hour (95% CI 13.0 to 33.6) compared with white grape juice at 5.8 ppm/hour (95% CI -4.6 to 16.1) (Pjuices were well tolerated and neither produced any severe symptoms in healthy adults. White grape juice consumption resulted in only a small rise in breath hydrogen, which may suggest excluding foods only because of the high fructose load could be

  20. Aroma Profile and Sensory Properties of Ultrasound-Treated Apple Juice and Nectar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Petrović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonication is a nonthermal food processing method that is used in several applications (extraction, treatment before drying, freezing, inactivation of microorganisms, etc. in ultrasound processing. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of high power ultrasound and pasteurisation on the aroma profile and sensory properties of apple juice and nectar. Samples were treated according to the experimental design, with high power sonicator at ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz under various conditions (treatment time: 3, 6 and 9 min, sample temperature: 20, 40 and 60 °C, and amplitude: 60, 90 and 120 μm. The aromatic profiles of juices showed that, compared to the untreated samples of juices and nectars, ultrasonic treatment led to the formation of new compounds (which were not present in the untreated samples or to the disappearance of compounds that were found in the untreated samples. Samples treated at the highest amplitude (120 μm were used for evaluation and comparison with untreated and pasteurised samples using electronic tongue study. Principal component analysis confirmed the results of electronic tongue study, which showed that the ultrasound-treated and pasteurised juices had different scores compared to the untreated samples.

  1. HPLC-DAD-MS Profiling of Polyphenols Responsible for the Yellow-Orange Color in Apple Juices of Different French Cider Apple Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Deun, Erell; Van der Werf, Remmelt; Le Bail, Gildas; Le Quéré, Jean-Michel; Guyot, Sylvain

    2015-09-09

    The pigments responsible for the yellow-orange coloration of apple juices have remained largely unknown up to now. Four French cider apple juices were produced in conditions similar to those used in the cider-making industry. The oxidized juices, characterized using the CIE L a b parameters, displayed various colors depending on the apple variety and native phenolic composition. HPLC-DAD-MS revealed contrasting pigment profiles related to oxidized tanning and nontanning molecules. The latter were divided into two groups according to their polarity and their visible spectra. With regard to phenolic classes, flavanol monomers and hydroxycinnamic acids played an essential role in the formation of oxidation products. Interestingly, dihydrochalcones appeared to include precursors of some yellow compounds. Indeed, the yellow pigment phloretin xyloglucoside oxidation product (PXGOPj), derived from phloretin xyloglucoside, was clearly identified in apple juices as a xyloglucose analogue of the yellow pigment phloridzin oxidation product (POPj), previously characterized in a model solution by Le Guernevé et al. (Tetrahedron Lett. 2004, 45 (35), 6673-6677).

  2. High-pressure processing of apple juice: kinetics of pectin methyl esterase inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Esmaeil; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure (HP) inactivation kinetics of pectin methyl esterase (PME) in apple juice were evaluated. Commercial PME was dispensed in clarified apple juice, sealed in dual peel sterilizable plastic bags, and subjected to different high-pressure processing conditions (200-400 MPa, 0-180 min). Residual enzyme activity was determined by a titration method estimating the rate of free carboxyl group released by the enzyme acting on pectin substrate at pH 7.5 (30 degrees C). The effects of pressure level and pressure holding time on enzyme inactivation were significant (p < 0.05). PME from the microbial source was found to be more resistant (p < 0.05) to pressure inactivation than PME from the orange peel. Almost a full decimal reduction in the activity of commercial PME was achieved by HP treatment at 400 MPa for 25 min. Inactivation kinetics were evaluated on the basis of a dual effect model involving a pressure pulse effect and a first-order rate model, and the pressure sensitivity of rate constants was modeled by using the z-value concept.

  3. Kinetic study of biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 grown in clarified cashew apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Darlane Wellen Freitas; França, Italo Waldimiro Lima; Félix, Anne Kamilly Nogueira; Martins, João Jeferson Lima; Giro, Maria Estela Aparecida; Melo, Vânia Maria M; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros

    2013-01-01

    In this work a low cost medium for the production of a biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 and the kinetics of surfactin production considering the effect of initial substrate concentration were investigated. First, cashew apple juice supplementation for optimal production of biosurfactant by B. subtilis LAMI005 was studied. The medium formulated with clarified cashew apple juice and distilled water, supplemented with 1.0 g/L of (NH(4))(2)SO(4), proved to be the best among the nutrients evaluated. The crude biosurfactant had the ability to decrease the surface tension of water to 30 dyne/cm, with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 63.0 mg/L. Emulsification experiments indicated that this biosurfactant effectively emulsified kerosene (IE(24)=67%) and soybean oil (IE(24)=64%). Furthermore, the emulsion stability was always very high. It was shown by biochemical analysis, IR spectra, that there is no qualitative differences in the composition of the crude biosurfactant from a standard sample of surfactin from B. subtilis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of cashew apple juice for surfactin production by Bacillus subtilis LAMI008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte Rocha, Maria Valderez; Gomes Barreto, Raphaela V; Melo, Vânia Maria M; Barros Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha

    2009-05-01

    Bacillus subtilis LAMI008 strain isolated from the tank of Chlorination at the Wastewater Treatment Plant on Campus do Pici in Federal University of Ceará, Brazil has been screened for surfactin production in mineral medium containing clarified cashew apple juice (MM-CAJC). Results were compared with the ones obtained using mineral medium with glucose PA as carbon source. The influence on growth and surfactin production of culture medium supplementation with yeast extract was also studied. The substrate concentration analysis indicated that B. subtilis LAMI008 was able to degrade all carbon sources studied and produce biosurfactant. The highest reduction in surface tension was achieved with the fermentation of MM-CAJC, supplemented with yeast extract, which decreased from 58.95 +/- 0.10 to 38.10 +/- 0.81 dyn cm(-1). The biosurfactant produced was capable of emulsifying kerosene, achieving an emulsification index of 65%. Surfactin concentration of 3.5 mg L(-1) was obtained when MM-CAJC, supplemented with yeast extract, was used, thus indicating that it is feasible to produce surfactin from clarified cashew apple juice, a renewable and low-cost carbon source.

  5. The Study of Adsorption of Patulin by Nanocellulose Conjugated with Poly Guanine in Contaminated Apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghafori Bidakhavidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introdction: Patulin is a dangerous toxin produced by various fungi. Hence, the current study aimed to evaluate adsorption of Patulin by nanocellulose conjugated with Poly-guanine in contaminated apple juice. Methods: Firstly, nanocellulose was synthesized, and then it was bonded to poly-guanine by a cross-linker. Then, concentration serial of Patulin was prepared in the apple juice, conjugated nanoparticles were added to them, and all were incubated at 37 ºC. After incubation, the Patulin concentration was measured by HPLC, and finally the adsorption percentage was calculated for each tube. Regarding molecular simulation, the initial structures of Patulin and nanocellulose conjugated with Poly-guanine were inserted into Hyperchem software, and their intermolecular energy was calculated during 50 picoseconds. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that there was a significant direct correlation between the initial concentration of Patulin and the adsorption percentage of toxin. In addition, the adsorption maximum was reported 70±5 %, and the intermolecular energy between two structures was -20.3 Kcal/mol based on the computational simulation. Conclusions: It can be concluded that nanocellulose conjugated with Poly-guanine seems to be a good adsorbent for Patulin, which is demanded to be used in the future studies in regard with its application.

  6. Influence of ultra-high pressure homogenisation on antioxidant capacity, polyphenol and vitamin content of clear apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Jacobo, Angela; Rüfer, Corinna E; Gervilla, Ramón; Guamis, Buenaventura; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Saldo, Jordi

    2011-07-15

    Ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) is a recently developed technology and is still under study to evaluate its effect on different aspects of its application to food products. The aim of this research work was to evaluate the effect of UHPH treatments on quality characteristics of apple juice such as antioxidant capacity, polyphenol composition, vitamin C and provitamin A contents, in comparison with raw (R) and pasteurised (PA) apple juice. Several UHPH treatments that include combinations of pressure (100, 200 and 300MPa) and inlet temperatures (4 and 20°C) were assayed. Apple juice was pasteurised at 90°C for 4min. Antioxidant capacity was analysed using the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay while total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. According to the FRAP and DPPH assays, UHPH processing did not change apple juice antioxidant capacity. However, significant differences were detected between samples analysed by TEAC and ORAC assays. In spite of these differences, high correlation values were found between the four antioxidant capacity assays, and also with total polyphenol content. The analysis and quantification of individual phenols by HPLC/DAD analytical technique reflects that UHPH-treatment prevented degradation of these compounds. Vitamin C concentrations did not change in UHPH treated samples, retaining the same value as in raw juice. However, significant losses were observed for provitamin A content, but lower than in PA samples. UHPH-treatments at 300MPa can be an alternative to thermal treatment in order to preserve apple juice quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative study between spiral-filter press and belt press implemented in a cloudy apple juice production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, advantages and disadvantages of the innovative, low-oxygen spiral-filter press system were studied in comparison with the belt press, commonly applied in small and medium size enterprises for the production of cloudy apple juice. On the basis of equivalent throughput, a higher juice yield could be achieved with spiral-filter press. Also a more turbid juice with a higher content of suspended solids could be produced. The avoidance of enzymatic browning during juice extraction led to an attractive yellowish juice with an elevated phenolic content. Moreover, it was found that juice produced with spiral-filter press demonstrates a higher retention of phenolic compounds during the downstream processing steps and storage. The results demonstrates the advantage of the use of a spiral-filter press in comparison with belt press in the production of a high quality cloudy apple juice rich in phenolic compounds, without the use of oxidation inhibiting additives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of patulin in apple juice by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, B; Bengoechea, M L; Pérez-Ilzarbe, F J; Hernández, T; Estrella, I; Gómez-Cordovés, C

    1994-03-25

    A method is described for the detection of patulin in apple juice and the simultaneous determination of the phenolic composition. Spectral data obtained with diode-array detection showed that patulin can be easily distinguished from compounds eluting under the same conditions. The detection limit for patulin was 8.96 micrograms/l.

  9. The effect of apple (Malus Domestica juice on the damage of mice liver cells due to paracetamol treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Hartanto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver is an important organ for body metabolism process. Liver disease is one of serious health problems in developing countries including Indonesia. Liver damage is caused by viral infection, toxic agent exposure (medications, alcohol, hormonal disturbance, neoplasm and autoimmune diseases. The use of high dose paracetamol to reduce pain also leads to liver damage. Apple (Malus domestica juice is a natural anti oxidant agent. This laboratory experimental study was performed to discover the effect of giving apple juice on damaged cell regeneration due to the use of paracetamol. The study was performed in 21 male mice from Swiss-Webster strain that were divided into group I, II, and III. Group, I served as control while group II received 1 mg/ml paracetamol dose for 5 days and Group III received 1 mg/ml paracetamol for 5 days and 1 ml of apple juice on the 5th to 10th day. The observation of the mice liver cells was conducted using a light microscope with 400x magnification to get the number of necrotic liver cells per view field. The results of this study showed a difference in the number of necrotic liver cells between Group II and III. ANOVA statistical test ( = 0.05 concluded that apple juice significantly helps regeneration process in damaged liver cells caused by paracetamol.

  10. Development of a headspace trap HRGC/MS method for the assessment of the relevance of certain aroma compounds on the sensorial characteristics of commercial apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikfardjam, Martin Pour; Maier, Daniel

    2011-06-15

    A reliable and simple method was developed for the completely automatised analysis of apple juice aroma compounds. In total 26 flavour compounds could be measured by headspace trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). We used the method to analyse 85 commercially available apple juices, of which 67 apple juices were not from concentrate. Our results show that apple juices not from concentrate are mainly characterised by flavour compounds responsible for fruity, ripe, and sweet aroma impressions, such as 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, ethylbutyrate, and ethyl-2-methylbutyrate. On the contrary, apple juices made from concentrate were dominated by acetaldehyde, E-2-hexenal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl acetate, and hexanal, which are mainly responsible for sensory impressions, such as 'green, fresh, estery'. According to our data, neither of the single compounds nor indexes calculated thereof as suggested by some authors could be used for the reliable assessment of apple juice quality. Thus, these results suggest that sensory evaluation remains the ultimate mean to reliably assess apple juice quality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Discrimination between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus isolates in apple juice by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Holy, Murad A; Lin, Mengshi; Alhaj, Omar A; Abu-Goush, Mahmoud H

    2015-02-01

    Alicyclobacillus is a causative agent of spoilage in pasteurized and heat-treated apple juice products. Differentiating between this genus and the closely related Bacillus is crucially important. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify and discriminate between 4 Alicyclobacillus strains and 4 Bacillus isolates inoculated individually into apple juice. Loading plots over the range of 1350 and 1700 cm(-1) reflected the most distinctive biochemical features of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Multivariate statistical methods (for example, principal component analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogy) were used to analyze the spectral data. Distinctive separation of spectral samples was observed. This study demonstrates that FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis could serve as a rapid and effective tool for fruit juice industry to differentiate between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus and to distinguish between species belonging to these 2 genera. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Effect of irradiation and storage on patulin disappearance and some chemical constituents of apple juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegota, H; Zegota, A; Bachmann, S

    1988-10-01

    The effect of irradiation on the patulin content and on the chemical composition of apple juice concentrate during storage at 4 degrees C over a period of several weeks was investigated. The radiation-induced disappearance of the mycotoxin in relation to the absorbed dose followed an exponential relationship. The radiation dose (D50), i.e., the dose which reduced the patulin content to 50% of its initial value was equal to 0.35 kGy. Storage of the irradiated concentrate had no effect on the patulin content; however, storage did lead to a slight increase in the titratable acidity and a decrease in the amounts of the carbonyl compounds and the ascorbic acid concentration. The development of non-enzymatic browning during storage of the irradiated samples followed the same kinetics as that of the non-irradiated samples.

  13. Effect of irradiation on the patulin content and chemical composition of apple juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegota, H; Zegota, A; Bachman, S

    1988-09-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on the patulin content of apple juice concentrate was investigated. The results indicated that patulin, at an initial concentration of about 2 mg/kg, disappeared after irradiation of the concentrate with doses as low as 2.5 kGy. For lower doses, the extent of patulin degradation was proportional to the absorbed dose. Irradiation of the concentrate with doses sufficient for patulin disappearance did not change the titratable acidity, the content of reducing sugars and carbonyl compounds or the amino acid composition. The content of ascorbic acid slightly decreased and the colour of the concentrate brightened. The intensity of the patulin absorption spectra after irradiation of mycotoxin in aqueous solutions decreased.

  14. Effect of irradiation on the patulin content and chemical composition of apple juice concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zegota, H.; Zegota, A.; Bachmann, S.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on the patulin content of apple juice concentrate was investigated. The results indicated that patulin, at an initial concentration of about 2 mg/kg, disappeared after irradiation of the concentrate with doses as low as 2.5 kGy. For lower doses, the extent of patulin degradation was proportional to the absorbed dose. Irradiation of the concentrate with doses sufficient for patulin disappearance did not change the titratable acidity, the content of reducing sugars and carbonyl compounds or the amino acid composition. The content of ascorbic acid slightly decreased and the colour of the concentrate brightened. The intensity of the patulin absorption spectra after irradiation of mycotoxin in aqueous solutions decreased. (orig.) [de

  15. Amylase for Apple Juice Processing: Effects of pH, Heat, and Ca2+ Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana N. Ceci

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of pH, heat, and Ca2+ ions on the α-amylase activities in a commercial amylolytic enzyme (Tyazyme L300, used for apple juice processing. Kinetics of thermal inactivation was studied in acetate and citrate/phosphate buffers at different temperatures (55–70 °C and enzyme concentrations (0.276 and 0.552 mL/100 mL. Maximum α-amylase activity was observed at pH=3.4 in both buffers. Effects of the addition of calcium chloride during and after thermal treatments were also investigated. α-amylase activities were measured by an iodometric method and thermal inactivation constants and D values (time for reducing 90 % of the enzymatic activity were estimated. The enzyme was more sensible to pH changes and heat when citrate ions were present in the reaction medium. If Ca2+ in the enzyme structure is bound to citrate then the resistance of the enzyme to pH changes and heat is lowered. Kinetics obtained according to Arrhenius equation and two enzymatic fractions (thermo-labile and thermoresistant were observed too. In citrate buffer the following relation was observed for thermo-labile fraction: log (D value = -0.144 t/°C + 12.992. The level of thermal inactivation also depended on the enzyme concentration. Higher thermal inactivation rates were obtained by increasing the enzyme concentration in the case when citrate was present. It was also found that the addition of calcium chloride (1 g/L after thermal treatment in median containing citrate reactivated the enzyme treated at 60 and 65 °C. The possible implications of these findings in apple juice processing were discussed.

  16. Understanding Liking in Relation to Sensory Characteristics, Consumer Concept Associations, Arousal Potential and "Appropriateness for Use" Using Apple Juice as an Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender L P; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2016-01-01

    potential and appropriateness for use using apple juices as an application. First, a laboratory panel (n=15: F=10, M=5) determined the sensory profile of the apple juices using the methods Partial Napping and Ultra Flash Profiling based on taste and flavor. Next, consumers (n=196: F=136, M=60) evaluated key......It is crucial to understand influential parameters for acquisition of consumer liking to ensure succesful product introduction and competativeness in the marketplace. This article aims to study and understand liking in relation to sensory characteristics, consumer concept associations, arousal...... apple juice parameters. The basic tastes sweet and sour were key properties and played a central role in liking acquisition. Apple juices having a sweet/sour balance were most liked. The importance of balance in sensory properties was underlined by the fact that consumer liking was related...

  17. A sol-gel based solid phase microextraction fiber for the analysis of aliphatic alcohols in apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Khalil; Maleki, Ramin; Tahmasebi, Raheleh

    2010-01-01

    A new fiber based on titania-chitin sol-gel coated on a silver wire for the headspace solid phase microextraction of aliphatic alcohols from apple juice samples was developed. The influences of fiber coating composition and microextraction conditions (extraction temperature, extraction time, and ionic strength of the sample matrix) on the fiber performance were investigated. Also, the influence of temperature and time on desorption of analytes from fiber were studied. Under the optimized conditions, a porous fiber with a high extraction capacity and good thermal stability (up to 250 degrees C) was obtained. The proposed headspace solid-phase microextraction-GC method was successfully used for the analysis of aliphatic alcohols in apple juice and concentrate samples. The recovery values were from 92.8 to 98.6%. The RSD (n=5) for all analytes were below 7.8%.

  18. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in cashew apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, C.; Moreira, C. F. F.; Lavinas, F. C.; Lopes, M. L. M.; Fialho, E.; Valente-Mesquita, V. L.

    2010-12-01

    The cashew apple is native to Brazil, but there is insufficient information regarding the nutritional properties of this fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of high pressure processing (HPP) at room temperature (25 °C) on phenolic compound and ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant capacity of cashew apple juice. This study showed that HPP at 250 or 400 MPa for 3, 5 and 7 min did not change pH, acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid or hydrolysable polyphenol contents. However, juice pressurized for 3 and 5 min showed higher soluble polyphenol contents. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power method, was not altered by HPP, but when treated at 250 MPa for 3 min, it resulted in an increased value when 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was used. These data demonstrate that HPP can be used in the food industry for the generation of products with higher nutritional quality.

  19. Demand for carbon-neutral food – evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment for milk and apple juice

    OpenAIRE

    Breustedt, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    To internalize climate-related external costs from agricultural production and food consumption Pigou taxes and carbon credits increase private costs for food. Voluntary consumer choices for carbon-neutral food can be advantageous over such policy measures since they avoid higher food prices for the poor. We empirically analyze consumers’ willingness-to-pay for hypothetical carbon-reduced as well as carbon-neutral milk and apple juice. Data are collected in Discrete Choice Experiments in a Ge...

  20. The Use of Titrimetric, Nelson Somogyi and Hplc Methods for the Analysis of Cashew Apple Juice Fermentation Broths

    OpenAIRE

    Kantasubrata, Julia; T. Karossi, A; S. Pramudi, A

    1993-01-01

    In cashew apple juice fermentation to produce wine and vinegar, analysis of organic acids and sugars in fermentation broths is very important, due to the fact that optimum conditions of fermentation could only be established from results obtained on monitoring the concentrations of those components during the fermentation process. Analysis of organic acids by tiirimetric method and analysis of sugars by Nelson-Somogyi method only give a total amount of acids and sugars. HPLC is one of the pro...

  1. Inactivation of exopolysaccharide and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde-producing lactic acid bacteria in apple juice and apple cider by enterocin AS-48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Viedma, Pilar; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Valdivia, Eva; López, Rosario Lucas; Gálvez, Antonio

    2008-03-01

    The bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested against exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains of Lactobacillus collinoides, Lactobacillus dioliovorans and Pediococcus parvulus as well as two 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA)-producing Lb. collinoides strains causing apple cider spoilage. In fresh-made apple juice, a bacteriocin concentration of 2.5 microg/ml reduced the LAB viable cell counts below detection levels during the course of incubation at 10 and 22 degrees C for most strains tested, except for Lb. collinoides 5 and Lb. dioliovorans 29. These two strains were significantly inhibited at 10 degrees C by 5 microg/ml AS-48 or completely inactivated at 22 degrees C. In a commercial Basque apple cider, the added bacteriocin (2.5 microg/ml for Lb. collinoides strains 9 and 10, and 5 microg/ml for the rest of strains) completely inactivated all LAB strains tested during storage at 10 as well as 22 degrees C. In the commercial Asturian apple cider tested the LAB strains showed a poor capacity for survival, but the added bacteriocin was equally effective in reducing the numbers of survivors. When a cocktail of the five LAB strains was tested in commercial Basque apple cider, viable cell counts were reduced below detection levels after 2 days for a bacteriocin concentration of 12.5 microg/ml regardless of storage temperature. Comparison of RAPD-PCR profiles revealed that strain Lb. dioliovorans 29 was always the predominant survivor detected in bacteriocin-treated samples.

  2. Effect of treatment with adsorbent resin on the volatile profile and physicochemical characteristics of clarified cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dutra Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased preference for healthy and functional foods could be an opportunity to increase the consumption of clarified cashew apple juice. Given its level of fructose, glucose, and vitamin C, it can be used as a base in blends. However, its characteristic odor can interfere with the acceptance of these formulations, especially by consumers who are not familiar with cashew aroma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with macroporous resins (FPA54, FPX66, XAD761, and XAD4 on the volatile profile and physicochemical characteristics of clarified cashew apple juice. After the treatment with the resins, the volatile profile was evaluated using solid-phase microextraction (SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The physicochemical analyses performed were: pH, soluble solids (ºBrix, total titrable acidity, reducing sugars, and vitamin C. Gas chromatography analyses showed that XAD4 and FPX66 led to a reduction of the initial amount of volatile compounds to 14.05% and 15.72%, respectively. These two resins also did not affect the physicochemical characteristics of the clarified cashew apple juice.

  3. Substituting milk for apple juice does not increase kidney stone risk in most normocalciuric adults who form calcium oxalate stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, L K; Kynast-Gales, S A

    1998-03-01

    Increasing intake of dietary calcium from less than 400 mg to 800 mg daily may decrease the absorption of dietary oxalate, which in turn would decrease urinary oxalate excretion. The effect of substituting milk for apple juice on urine composition and risk of calcium oxalate precipitability was studied. Twenty-one normocalciuric adults with a history of at least 1 calcium oxalate stone and urinary oxalate excretion exceeding 275 micromol/day on their self-selected diet. Randomized crossover trial. Each participant consumed two moderate-oxalate (2,011 micromol/day) study diets, which were identical except that one contained 360 mL milk and the other contained 540 mL apple juice as the beverage with meals. Four days free-living then 2 days in the metabolic unit of a university nutrition department. Tiselius risk index for calcium oxalate precipitability calculated from urine composition. Paired t tests. Twenty-four hour urinary oxalate excretion was 18% lower (Pjuice diet: 423 vs 514 micromol, respectively. Calcium excretion was 17% higher (Pjuice diet: 4.7 vs 3.9 mmol, respectively. Urinary magnesium and citrate excretion, volume, and Tiselius risk index did not differ between diets. Substituting 360 mL milk daily for apple juice with meals in a diet containing moderate amounts of dietary oxalate from whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables does not increase the risk index of calcium oxalate precipitability in most normocalciuric adults who form stones.

  4. Conservation of apple and pear juice concentrates. Synergic effect of heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaupert, N.L.; Lescano, H.G.; Kotliar, N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper aims at assessing the feasibility for conserving apple and pear-juice concentrates through the synergic action of heat and radiation. The material was packed in sterile 100-μm polyethylene bags and, after the treatment was applied, the resulting fractions were stored under room temperature (25 0 C+-1 0 C). The temperature applied to the samples before irradiation was 50 0 C during 10 minutes and the doses were 100, 200, 300 and 400 krad. For such purposes, a 60 Co 165-krad/h source was used, located in a mobile irradiator. Periodical microbiological, chemical and organoleptic controls of the food were performed on both control and on irradiated samples, with or without heat. A single alterating microorganism was isolated from all the samples, which was featured as Saccharomyces rouxii. Adopting the temperature as an application variable and the absorbed dose as a constant, the above osmophilic yeast is considerably more sensitive to radiations when it is suspended in a 50% sucrose solution, after the latter was submitted to a 50 0 C temperature treatment. It has been proved that 72.5 krad are needed to attain the reduction of a logarithmic cycle in the Saccharomyces rouxii population irradiated at room temperature, while 36 krad are needed if the sample has been previously heated to 50 0 C for 10 minutes. An attempt was made to apply the synergism of such process to the juice concentrate. Below 50 0 C associated with 400 krad gamma radiation, a total inactivation took place in the Saccharomyces rouxii during the 150 days under analysis. Colour changes were detected in the concentrate; however, the acceptability features for consumption remained at a normal value (level 5) in a hedonic scale of 7 points. (author)

  5. Gamma radiation and thermal treatment effects on the conservation of natural apple (Malus domestica) juice, cv. gala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, Lucimara.

    1995-12-01

    This work studies the apple juice preservation without chemicals. The samples were exposed to the following treatments: heating (control, 60 0 C/20 min and 80 0 C/20 min); irradiation (control; 2, 4 and 6 kGy); heating plus irradiation. The quality control was carried out by physical and chemical analyses (soluble solids; titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and color), microbiological and sensorial analyses. The samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 ± 3 0 C) for 180 days. The results showed few variations in the soluble solids, acidity, pH and ascorbic acid for all treatments. However, the 6 kGy dose kept the chemical characteristics of the juice, providing a clear juice, with better appearance and microorganisms free. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs

  6. Influence of high power ultrasound on selected moulds, yeasts and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in apple, cranberry and blueberry juice and nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Režek Jambrak, Anet; Šimunek, Marina; Evačić, Silva; Markov, Ksenija; Smoljanić, Goran; Frece, Jadranka

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of non-thermal technology, high power ultrasound (HPU) on inactivation of Aspergillus ochraceus 318, Penicillium expansum 565, Rhodotorula sp. 74, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5 and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 in clear juices and nectars from apple, blueberry and cranberry juice concentrate. Inoculated juice and nectars were treated by high power ultrasound (20kHz) according to procedure set by central composite design (CCD). Three operational parameters, amplitude (60, 90 and 120μm), temperature (20, 40 and 60°C), and treatment time (3, 6 or 9min) were varied in order to observe the influence of ultrasound and combination of ultrasound and slight heating (thermosonication) on growth and inactivation of selected microorganisms. Number of vegetative cells of A. acidoterrestris DSM 3922 were not significantly reduced by high power ultrasound (p>0.05), except in apple juice, where statistical significant (pultrasound treatments at 60°C and the duration of the 3, 6 and 9min ranged from 3.556 to 5.934 log units, depending on the initial number of selected yeasts and moulds before treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of pomegranate and pomegranate-apple blend juices on the growth characteristics of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 type strain vegetative cells and spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molva, Celenk; Baysal, Ayse Handan

    2015-05-04

    The present study examined the growth characteristics of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 vegetative cells and spores after inoculation into apple, pomegranate and pomegranate-apple blend juices (10, 20, 40 and 80%, v/v). Also, the effect of sporulation medium was tested using mineral [Bacillus acidoterrestris agar (BATA) and Bacillus acidocaldarius agar (BAA)] and non-mineral containing media [potato dextrose agar (PDA) and malt extract agar (MEA)]. The juice samples were inoculated separately with approximately 10(5)CFU/mL cells or spores from different sporulation media and then incubated at 37°C for 336 h. The number of cells decreased significantly with increasing pomegranate juice concentration in the blend juices and storage time (ppomegranate juices, respectively while the cell counts attained approximately 7.17 log CFU/mL in apple juice after 336 h. On the other hand, the cell growth was inhibited for a certain time, and then the numbers started to increase after 72 and 144 h in 10% and 20% blend juices, respectively. After 336 h, total population among spores produced on PDA, BATA, BAA and MEA indicated 1.49, 1.65, 1.67, and 1.28 log reductions in pomegranate juice; and 1.51, 1.38, 1.40 and 1.16 log reductions in 80% blend juice, respectively. The inhibitory effects of 10%, 20% and 40% blend juices varied depending on the sporulation media used. The results obtained in this study suggested that pomegranate and pomegranate-apple blend juices could inhibit the growth of A. acidoterrestris DSM 3922 vegetative cells and spores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibacterial effects of roselle calyx extracts and protocatechuic acid in ground beef and apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Che-Yi; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2009-03-01

    The antibacterial effects of roselle calyx aqueous and ethanol extracts and protocatechuic acid against food spoilage bacteria Salmonella typhimurium DT104, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus were examined. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of roselle calyx aqueous and ethanol extracts and protocatechuic acid against these bacteria were in the range of 112-144, 72-96, and 24-44 microg/mL, respectively. Protocatechuic acid content in roselle calyx aqueous and ethanol extracts was 2.8 +/- 0.7 and 11.9 +/- 1.2 mg/g, respectively. Antibacterial activity of roselle calyx ethanol extract and protocatechuic acid was not affected by heat treatments from 25 degrees to 75 degrees C and 25 degrees to 100 degrees C, respectively. After 3 days storage at 25 degrees C, the addition of roselle calyx extracts and protocatechuic acid exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects against test bacteria in ground beef and apple juice, in which the roselle calyx ethanol extract showed greater antibacterial effects than the aqueous extract. These data suggest that roselle calyx ethanol extract and protocatechuic acid might be potent agents as food additives to prevent contamination from these bacteria.

  9. Investigation of optimum ohmic heating conditions for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kyu; Ha, Jae-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-05-19

    Control of foodborne pathogens is an important issue for the fruit juice industry and ohmic heating treatment has been considered as one of the promising antimicrobial interventions. However, to date, evaluation of the relationship between inactivation of foodborne pathogens and system performance efficiency based on differing soluble solids content of apple juice during ohmic heating treatment has not been well studied. This study aims to investigate effective voltage gradients of an ohmic heating system and corresponding sugar concentrations (°Brix) of apple juice for inactivating major foodborne pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes) while maintaining higher system performance efficiency. Voltage gradients of 30, 40, 50, and 60 V/cm were applied to 72, 48, 36, 24, and 18 °Brix apple juices. At all voltage levels, the lowest heating rate was observed in 72 °Brix apple juice and a similar pattern of temperature increase was shown in18-48 °Brix juice samples. System performance coefficients (SPC) under two treatment conditions (30 V/cm in 36 °Brix or 60 V/cm in 48 °Brix juice) were relatively greater than for other combinations. Meanwhile, 5-log reductions of the three foodborne pathogens were achieved after treatment for 60 s in 36 °Brix at 30 V/cm, but this same reduction was observed in 48 °Brix juice at 60 V/cm within 20 s without affecting product quality. With respect to both bactericidal efficiency and SPC values, 60 V/cm in 48 °Brix was the most effective ohmic heating treatment combination for decontaminating apple juice concentrates.

  10. Neosartorya glabra polygalacturonase produced from fruit peels as inducers has the potential for application in passion fruit and apple juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Elisa Pinheiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Polygalacturonases are enzymes with the biotechnological potential for use in fruit juice clarification and for the enhancement of filtration efficiency. The aim of this work was to assess the production of polygalacturonase by the fungus Neosartorya glabra by means of solid-state and submerged fermentation using fruit peel residues as the carbon source, and also apply the enzyme in the clarification and decrease in viscosity of passion fruit and apple juices. The highest polygalacturonase (4.52 U/g/h production was obtained by means of submerged fermentation in Vogel´s medium (1964 containing orange peel – Bahia variety (Citrus sinensis, at a concentration of 1.5% (w/v, dried mass at 30-35°C for 72 h. The polygalacturonase of the crude extract presented optimal activity at 60°C and pH 5.5. The enzyme retained around 90% of the initial activity after 180 minutes at 40°C, and 50% of the initial activity after 150 minutes at 50°C. The enzyme was shown to be stable at acid pH values (3.0-6.5 after 120 minutes at 25oC. All these favourable enzymatic properties make the polygalacturonase attractive for potential uses in the industry of pectin-rich fruit juices, since the application of the crude extract to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis juice caused an 80% reduction in viscosity and 75% decrease in light absorbance. In the processing of apple pulp juice (Malus domestica, there was a 50% reduction in viscosity and 78% decrease in light absorbance.

  11. Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts in sequential fermentations: Effect on phenolic acids of fermented Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnaar, P P; Jolly, N P; Paulsen, V; Du Plessis, H W; Van Der Rijst, M

    2017-09-18

    Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) is an evergreen tree indigenous to Southern Africa. The fruit contains high concentrations of l-malic acid, ascorbic acid, and phenolic acids. Kei-apple juice was sequentially inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. A reference fermentation using only S. cerevisiae was included. The fermentation was monitored by recording mass loss. At the end of fermentation, twelve untrained judges conducted free choice aroma profiling on the fruit wines. The Kei-apple juice and wines were analysed for total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, pH, alcohol, l-malic acid, and phenolic acids. Total titratable acidity was ca. 70% lower in Kei-apple wines produced with S. pombe+S. cerevisiae than in Kei-apple juice. Kei-apple wines produced with S. pombe+S. cerevisiae showed substantially lower concentrations of l-malic acid than Kei-apple wines produced with S. cerevisiae only. Wines produced with S. cerevisiae only proved higher in phenolic acid concentrations than wines produced with S. pombe+S. cerevisiae. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid measured in the Kei-apple wines, followed by protocatechuic acid. Judges described the Kei-apple wines produced with S. pombe+S. cerevisiae as having noticeable off-odours, while wines produced with S. cerevisiae were described as fresh and fruity. Kei-apple wines (S. pombe+S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae) were of comparable vegetative and organic character. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced Kei-apple wine with increased caffeic, chlorogenic, protocatechuic, and sinapic acids, whereas S. pombe+S. cerevisiae produced Kei-apple wines with increased ferulic, and p-coumaric acids and low l-malic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. SOLID PHASE MICRO EXTRACTION (SPME) FLAVOR ANALYSIS OF APPLE JUICE AND COFFEE MIXTURES USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC-MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Ja Kim; Jeehyun Lee; Jaeyoung Byun; Sunmi Choi; Wonsik Choi

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the flavor of apple juice and coffee mixtures and the sensory quality of SPME extracts using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three samples with different compositions were examined. Sample A1 contained85% apple juiceand 15% coffee, sample A2 had87.5% apple and 12.5% coffee, and sample A3 had90% apple juiceand 10% coffee. The sensory analysis involved 100 panelists and a sequential monadic test. Sample presentation orders were balanced in ...

  13. The performance of five fruit-derived and freeze-dried potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains in apple, orange and grape juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Estefânia Fernandes; de Oliveira Araújo, Amanda; Luciano, Winnie Alencar; de Albuquerque, Thatyane Mariano Rodrigues; de Oliveira Arcanjo, Narciza Maria; Madruga, Marta Suely; Dos Santos Lima, Marcos; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2018-03-30

    This study assessed the survival of the fruit-derived and freeze-dried L. plantarum 49, L. brevis 59, L. paracasei 108, L. fermentum 111 and L. pentosus 129 strains during frozen storage and when incorporated into apple, orange and grape juice stored under refrigeration. Physicochemical parameters of juices containing the freeze-dried Lactobacillus strains and the survival of the test strains in the fruit juices during in vitro digestion were also evaluated. No decreases in survival rates (log N/log N0) of the freeze-dried cells were observed up to 1 month of storage. The survival rates of the freeze-dried strains L. plantarum 49 and L. paracasei 108 were >0.75 up to 4 months of storage. All freeze-dried strains exhibited survival rates of >0.75 up to 2 weeks of storage in apple juice; only L. plantarum 49 and L. paracasei 108 showed similar survival rates in orange and grape juices up to 2 weeks of storage. The contents of the monitored organic acids or sugars during storage varied depending on the added strain and the type of fruit juice. At the end of the in vitro digestion, L. brevis 59, L. paracasei 108 and L. fermentum 111 showed survival rates of >0.80 in apple juice. Apple juice was as the best substrate to the survival of the tested freeze-dried Lactobacillus strains over time. L. paracasei 108 and L. plantarum 49 as the strains presenting the best performance for incorporation in potentially probiotic fruit juices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of aeration in the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata during fermentation of apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estela Escalante, Waldir D; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel; Guerrero Ochoa, Manuel R

    2012-01-01

    The influence of aeration on the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata RIVE 9-2-1 was studied in order to evaluate the production of metabolites of the fermentation. To achieve this, the strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks containing sterilized and aroma removed apple juice, and the chemical compounds produced during fermentation in shaken (200 min-1) and static (without agitation) cultivation were determined. The results showed that the agitation of the culture medium increases production of higher alcohols (till 591.0 mg/L) compared to static cultivation, whereas on the contrary, the production of acetic acid, ethyl acetate and glycerol (260.0 ± 11.0 mg/L, 196.0 ± 10.0 mg/L y 2.6±0.2 g/L) were higher compared to shaken cultivation (222.0 ± 8.0 mg/L, 96.0 ± 4.5 mg/L and 1.8 ± 0.2 g/L) respectively. Batch cultivations carried out in bioreactor with air flux of 25 l/h reported a growth rate μ of 0.17 h-1, production of ethanol (12.5 ± 2.0 g/L) and other compounds typically produced during alcoholic fermentation. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the fermentation medium affects its metabolism thus; insufficient amounts of oxygen would provoke a respirofermentative metabolism. The best results in terms of organoleptic quality of the fermented beverage regarding to aroma, taste and flavor was obtained when fermented in static cultivation. The control of aeration during fermentation can be used to control the synthesis of chemical compounds of sensory impact in the production of fermented beverages.

  15. Modeling growth of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 type strain vegetative cells in the apple juice with nisin and lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celenk Molva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of storage temperature on A. acidoterrestris DSM 3922 cells (105 CFU/mL was examined during growth in reconstituted apple juice (pH 3.8, °Brix 11.3 containing nisin (0–100 IU/mL and lysozyme (0–100 mg/L. The growth curves were obtained at three temperatures of 27, 35 and 43 °C using absorbance data (OD600 nm. Based on the results, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of nisin were found as 10 IU/mL at all tested temperatures. On the other hand, increasing the temperature decreased the amount of lysozyme for growth inhibition. The MICs of lysozyme were found as 10, 2.5 and 1.25 mg/L at 27, 35 and 43 °C, respectively. At selected non-inhibitory doses, nisin (1.25–5 IU/mL and lysozyme (0.3–2.5 mg/L prolonged the lag time compared to the controls at the corresponding temperatures. In addition, there was a strong linear relationship between the lag time and lysozyme concentrations at 27 and 35 °C (R2 > 0.98. The results of this study demonstrated that both nisin and lysozyme could be used to inhibit the growth of A. acidoterrestris cells in the apple juice. The results also indicated that the growth parameters were variable depending on the storage temperature and the type of the antimicrobial agent used in the apple juice.

  16. Apple juice improved behavioral but not cognitive symptoms in moderate-to-late stage Alzheimer's disease in an open-label pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Ruth; Chan, Amy; Lepore, Alicia; Kotlya, Elizabeth; Shea, Thomas B

    2010-06-01

    Preclinical studies demonstrate that apple juice exerts multiple beneficial effects including reduction of central nervous system oxidative damage, suppression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmarks, improved cognitive performance, and organized synaptic signaling. Herein, we initiated an open-label clinical trial in which 21 institutionalized individuals with moderate-to-severe AD consumed 2 4-oz glasses of apple juice daily for 1 month. Participants demonstrated no change in the Dementia Rating Scale, and institutional caregivers reported no change in Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study (ADCS)-Activities of Daily Living (ADL) in this brief study. However, caregivers reported an approximate 27% (P Inventory, with the largest changes in anxiety, agitation, and delusion. This pilot study suggests that apple juice may be a useful supplement, perhaps to augment pharmacological approaches, for attenuating the decline in mood that accompanies progression of AD, which may also reduce caregiver burden.

  17. The Production of Bioethanol from Cashew Apple Juice by Batch Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y2084 and Vin13

    OpenAIRE

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Rumbold, Karl; Iyuke, Sunny

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol as a fossil fuel additive to decrease environmental pollution and reduce the stress of the decline in crude oil availability is becoming increasingly popular. This study aimed to evaluate the concentration of bioethanol obtainable from fermenting cashew apple juice by the microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y2084 and Vin13. The fermentation conditions were as follows: initial sugar = 100 g/L, pH = 4.50, agitation = 150 rpm, temperatures = 30°C (Y2084) and 20°C (Vin13), oxygen sa...

  18. The effect of temperature on the growth of strains of Kloeckera apiculata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in apple juice fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, A; Irastorza, A; Dueñas, M; Fernandez, K

    1997-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10 degrees C and 25 degrees C) on the survival and growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kloeckera apiculata was examined in mixed and pure cultures during fermentation in apple juice. The growth reached by S. cerevisiae did not seem to be affected by temperature and the presence of K. apiculata. However, the growth and survival of K. apiculata, both in single and mixed cultures, were substantially enhanced at 10 degrees C. The highest amount of ethyl acetate was produced by K. apiculata in pure culture at 10 degrees C. Nevertheless, this concentration was lowest when both yeasts were fermented together at 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C.

  19. Biosurfactant-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01 isolated from spoiled apples: physicochemical and structural characteristics of isolated biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Habib; Hamedi, Mir Manochehr; Lotfabad, Tayebe Bagheri; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ortiz, Antonio; Amanlou, Massoud; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2012-02-01

    An extensive investigation was conducted to isolate indigenous bacterial strains with outstanding performance for biosurfactant production from different types of spoiled fruits, food-related products and food processing industries. An isolate was selected from 800 by the highest biosurfactant yield in soybean oil medium and it was identified by 16S rRNA and the two most relevant hypervariable regions of this gene; V3 and V6 as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01. The isolate was able to produce 12 g/l of a glycolipid-type biosurfactant and generally less efficient to emulsify vegetable oils compared to hydrocarbons and could emulsify corn and coconut oils more than 50%. However, emulsification index (E(24)) of different hydrocarbons including hexane, toluene, xylene, brake oil, kerosene and hexadecane was between 55.8% and 100%. The surface tension of pure water decreased gradually with increasing biosurfactant concentration to 32.5 mNm(-1) with critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 10.1mg/l. Among all carbon substrates examined, vegetable oils were the most effective on biosurfactant production. Two glycolipid fractions were purified from the biosurfactant crude extracts, and FTIR and ES-MS were used to determine the structure of these compounds. The analysis indicated the presence of three major monorhamnolipid species: R(1)C(10)C(10), R(1)C(10)C(12:1), and R(1)C(10)C(12); as well as another three major dirhamnolipid species: R(2)C(10)C(10), R(2)C(10)C(12:1), and R(2)C(10)C(12). The strain sweep experiment for measuring the linear viscoelastic of biosurfactant showed that typical behavior characteristics of a weak viscoelastic gel, with storage modulus greater than loss modulus at all frequencies examined, both showing some frequency dependence. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and optimization of a HPLC-RI method for the determination of major sugars in apple juice and evaluation of the effect of the ripening stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Antonio Ferreira Zielinski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sugars in apple juice prove its authenticity and its sensory and nutritional properties. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-RI to determinate and quantify the sugars sucrose, D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-sorbitol polyol in apple juices, as well as to analyze the juices from the Fuji suprema and Lis Gala cultivars at three ripening stages. The analytical performance parameters evaluated indicated that the method was specific for the compounds analyzed, and the linearity of the calibration curves of sugars showed high correlation coefficients (close to 1.0. The limits of detection and quantification are consistent with recommendations available in the literature for this type of matrix. Sample preparation is simple and generates small amount of residues. Over 70% of the sugars were determined in the juices of apples at the pre-ripe stage, with an increase during senescence. This method is applicable for the determination of sugars in juices and evaluation of apple ripening.

  1. Use of caprylic acid to control pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium) in apple juice at mild heat temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Rhee, M S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of caprylic acid (CA) on pathogens in apple juice having intrinsic organic acids, and to determine any synergistic effects. Bactericidal effects of CA were examined against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium present in apple juice at mild heating temperatures. Apple juice containing each of the pathogens was treated with CA (0·1, 0·2, 0·4, 0·6 or 0·8 mmol l(-1)) at 50 or 55°C. Treatment with 0·8 mmol l(-1) (0·013%) CA at 50°C for 5 min or with 0·6 mmol l(-1) (0·010%) CA at 55°C for 5 min resulted in the complete eradication of E. coli O157:H7 (initial population: 7·25-7·34 log CFU ml(-1)). Salmonella Typhimurium were more sensitive than E. coli O157:H7: all bacteria (7·81-7·55 log CFU ml(-1)) were eradicated by treatment with 0·2 mmol l(-1) (0·0032%) CA at 55°C for 5 min or with 0·6 mmol l(-1) CA at 50°C for 5 min. By contrast, when pH-adjusted apple juice (pH 7·0) was treated with 0·8 mmol l(-1) CA, there was no significant difference in bactericidal effects between CA-treated samples and controls (heat treatment alone or heat + 0·1% ethanol treatment). This result suggested that acidic pH in the apple juice boost the antibacterial effects of CA. CA treatment did not affect (P > 0·05) the pH, colour or °Brix of the apple juice. This study highlights the utility of CA as a natural antibacterial agent that can eliminate micro-organisms from apple juice at very low concentrations (≤0·013%) and temperatures (≤55°C) within a short time (≤10 min). The results of our study may contribute to the development of an efficient method for improving the microbiological safety of apple juice. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MSIC02 in cashew apple juice using a 24 full factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Maria Valderez Ponte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the production of biosurfactants from cashew apple juice by P. aeruginosa MSIC02 was investigate by carrying out a 24 full factorial experimental design, using temperature, glucose concentration from cashew apple juice, phosphorous concentration and cultivation time as variables. The response variable was the percentage of reduction in surface tension in the cell-free culture medium, since it indicates the surface-active agent production. Maximum biosurfactant production, equivalent to a 58% reduction in surface tension, was obtained at 37°C, with glucose concentration of 5.0 g/L and no phosphorous supplementation. Surface tension reduction was significant, since low values were observed in the cell-free medium (27.50 dyne/cm, indicating that biosurfactant was produced. The biosurfactant emulsified different hydrophobic sources and showed stability in the face of salinity, exposure to high temperatures and extreme pH conditions. These physiochemical properties demonstrate the potential for using biosurfactants produced by P. aeruginosa MSIC02 in various applications.

  3. Effective synthesis of magnetic porous molecularly imprinted polymers for efficient and selective extraction of cinnamic acid from apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuyun; Fan, Dengxin; Xiang, Haiyan; Li, Huan

    2017-12-15

    An effective strategy was proposed to prepare novel magnetic porous molecularly imprinted polymers (MPMIPs) for highly selective extraction of cinnamic acid (CMA) from complex matrices. Characterization and various parameters affecting adsorption and desorption behaviors were investigated. Results revealed adsorption behavior between CMA and MPMIPs followed Freundlich equation adsorption isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity at 4.35mg/g and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with equilibrium time at 60min. Subsequently, MPMIPs were successfully used to selectively extract CMA from apple juice with a relatively satisfactory recovery (92.7-101.4%). Coupling with high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV), the limit of detection (LOD) for CMA was 0.006µg/mL, and the linear range (0.02-10μg/mL) was wide with correlation coefficient at 0.9995. Finally, the contents of CMA in two kinds of apple juices were determined as 0.132 and 0.120μg/mL. Results indicated the superiority of MPMIPs in the selective extraction field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of dimethyl dicarbonate on the resistance of Escherichia coli to a combined UV-Heat treatment in apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouma, Maria; Gayán, Elisa; Raso, Javier; Condón, Santiago; Álvarez, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Commercial apple juice inoculated with Escherichia coli was treated with UV-C, heat (55°C) and dimethyl dicarbonate – DMDC (25, 50, and 75 mg/L)-, applied separately and in combination, in order to investigate the possibility of synergistic lethal effects. The inactivation levels resulting from each treatment applied individually for a maximum treatment time of 3.58 min were limited, reaching 1.2, 2.9, and 0.06 log10 reductions for UV, heat, and DMDC (75 mg/L), respectively. However, all the investigated combinations resulted in a synergistic lethal effect, reducing the total treatment time and UV dose, with the synergistic lethal effect being higher when larger concentrations of DMDC were added to the apple juice. The addition of 75 mg/L of DMDC prior to the combined UV-C light treatment at 55°C resulted in 5 log10 reductions after only 1.8 min, reducing the treatment time and UV dose of the combined UV-Heat treatment by 44%. PMID:26042117

  5. Effect of Dilute Apple Juice and Preferred Fluids vs Electrolyte Maintenance Solution on Treatment Failure Among Children With Mild Gastroenteritis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Stephen B; Willan, Andrew R; Boutis, Kathy; Schuh, Suzanne

    2016-05-10

    Gastroenteritis is a common pediatric illness. Electrolyte maintenance solution is recommended to treat and prevent dehydration. Its advantage in minimally dehydrated children is unproven. To determine if oral hydration with dilute apple juice/preferred fluids is noninferior to electrolyte maintenance solution in children with mild gastroenteritis. Randomized, single-blind noninferiority trial conducted between the months of October and April during the years 2010 to 2015 in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Study participants were children aged 6 to 60 months with gastroenteritis and minimal dehydration. Participants were randomly assigned to receive color-matched half-strength apple juice/preferred fluids (n=323) or apple-flavored electrolyte maintenance solution (n=324). Oral rehydration therapy followed institutional protocols. After discharge, the half-strength apple juice/preferred fluids group was administered fluids as desired; the electrolyte maintenance solution group replaced losses with electrolyte maintenance solution. The primary outcome was a composite of treatment failure defined by any of the following occurring within 7 days of enrollment: intravenous rehydration, hospitalization, subsequent unscheduled physician encounter, protracted symptoms, crossover, and 3% or more weight loss or significant dehydration at in-person follow-up. Secondary outcomes included intravenous rehydration, hospitalization, and frequency of diarrhea and vomiting. The noninferiority margin was defined as a difference between groups of 7.5% for the primary outcome and was assessed with a 1-sided α=.025. If noninferiority was established, a 1-sided test for superiority was conducted. Among 647 randomized children (mean age, 28.3 months; 331 boys [51.1%]; 441 (68.2%) without evidence of dehydration), 644 (99.5%) completed follow-up. Children who were administered dilute apple juice experienced treatment failure less often than those

  6. Chitosan as a novel clarifying agent on clear apple juice production: Optimization of process conditions and changes on quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taştan, Özge; Baysal, Taner

    2017-12-15

    In this study, the use of chitosan as a clarification agent in the production of clear apple juice (AJ) was investigated, the optimum conditions were determined using RSM, and the effects on the quality of AJ were analyzed during storage at 4°C and 20°C for 4months. Optimum conditions for clarifying the AJ were chitosan concentration of 191.6mg/100ml juice, the process temperature of 20°C and process time of 30min. Changes in quality characteristics such as turbidity, pH, acidity, color, total monomeric anthocyanin, total phenolic, and protein contents were evaluated and compared to traditional clarification. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris causes significant safety issues in fruit juice industry; therefore also the antimicrobial effect of chitosan on A. acidoterrestris during the clarification process was examined. The results showed that clear AJ production can be achieved by the clarification step with direct chitosan addition, without the need for enzymatic treatment. However, the microbial reduction of A. acidoterrestris during the clarification process was not found to be significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Investigation on bilayer structures of electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membrane and cellulose membrane used as filtration media for apple juice clarification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitri, Asti; Miftahul Munir, Muhammad; Edikresnha, Dhewa; Sandi, Ahzab; Fauzi, Ahmad; Rajak, Abdul; Natalia, Dessy; Khairurrijal, Khairurrijal

    2018-05-01

    Nanofibrous membrane has a potential to use in filtration technology with electrospinning as one of the techniques used in synthesizing nanofibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes with various fibers diameters were electrospun by varying its precursor solution concentration. The average fibers diameters of the PAN nanofibrous membranes obtained from the precursor solution concentrations of 6, 9, 12, and 14 wt% were 341, 534, 1274, and 2107 nm, respectively. Filtration media for apple juice clarification were bilayer-structured membranes made of PAN nanofibrous membranes on commercial cellulose microfibrous membranes. It has been shown that the reduction of apple juice color or turbidity performed by the cellulose microfibrous membrane was well enhanced by the presence of the PAN nanofibrous membrane in the bilayer-structured membrane. In addition, the apple-juice color and turbidity reductions increased with decreasing the average fibers diameter of the PAN nanofibrous membrane. Furthermore, the PAN nanofibrous membrane also helped the cellulose microfibrous membrane in the bilayer-structured membrane enhance the reductions of total phenols, protein, and glucose of the apple juice.

  8. Cellular damage of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in apple juice treated with high hydrostatic pressure and thermal death time disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in membrane damage including leakage of intracellular UV-materials and loss of viability of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteria in apple juice, pH 3.1 following thermal-death-time (TDT) disk and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments were investigated. Salmonella an...

  9. Membrane damage and viability loss of thermally treated and high hydrostatic pressurized E. coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in membrane damage including leakage of intracellular UV-materials and loss of viability of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteria in apple juice following thermal death time disk (TDT) and high hydrostatic pressure treatments were investigated. Salmonella and E. coli O157...

  10. Impact of noncovalent interactions between apple condensed tannins and cell walls on their transfer from fruit to juice: studies in model suspensions and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Le Quere, Jean-Michel; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2007-09-19

    The adsorption of procyanidins (condensed tannins) on cell-wall material was quantified by bringing into contact solutions of procyanidins and suspensions of cell-wall material. A model was developed on the basis of the Langmuir isotherm formulation and a factorial experimental design. The parameters that influenced the adsorption were the concentration and molecular weight of the procyanidins, the ionic strength of the solution, the temperature, and the apple cell-wall concentration. The model was applied to partitioning of procyanidins from apple between juice and mash. The parameters to be taken into account are the composition of the apples and, specifically, (i) the concentration and molecular weight of the procyanidins, (ii) their acidity and pH as a determinant of the ionic strength, and (iii) their cell-wall content and the temperature at pressing. To estimate the ability of the model to relate procyanidin concentrations in the juice to their concentration in the apple, apples of three varieties of widely different procyanidin compositions were pressed in conditions that prevent oxidation. In these conditions, yields in the juice were >80% for phenolic acids or catechin monomers but <50% for procyanidins, with the lowest rates obtained for the higher polymers in accordance with the model.

  11. Identification of crystaline sediments in apple juice concentrate with the method of structural rentgenography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorzelski, E.; Wieczorek, M.; Lubecka, I.

    2001-01-01

    The juice before concentrating was exposed to the pectinolysis and ultrafiltration. The researches to find the causes of coming to being the connection of the calcium with the malic acid are performing. It's supposed that raised quantity of calcium ions in the juice designed to concentration is the effect of pectinolysis. The preparations with low contents of pectinoestherase don't initiate the reaction of calcium precipitation with pectin acid after demethylation

  12. Free amino nitrogen concentration correlates to total yeast assimilable nitrogen concentration in apple juice

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau, Thomas F.; Peck, Gregory M.; O'Keefe, Sean F.; Stewart, Amanda C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) is essential for yeast growth and metabolism during apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cider fermentation. YAN concentration and composition can impact cider fermentation kinetics and the formation of volatile aroma compounds by yeast. The YAN concentration and composition of apples grown in Virginia, USA over the course of two seasons was determined through analysis of both free amino nitrogen (FAN) and ammonium ion concentration. FAN was the largest f...

  13. A green, reusable SERS film with high sensitivity for in-situ detection of thiram in apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbao; Liu, Hai; Wu, Yiyong

    2017-09-01

    We report a green and reusable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) film based on PMMA/Ag NPs/graphene. By using this Raman substrate, the SERS signals of R6G were significantly enhanced reaching a minimum detectable concentration of 5 × 10-8 M, due to having lots of hot spots adhered backside to the exposed graphene. The SERS film can be used for in-situ monitoring of trace thiram in apple juice with a detection limit of 1 × 10-6 M (0.24 ppm), which is below the maximal residue limit (MRL) of 7 ppm in fruit prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Furthermore, reusability studies show that the SERS film can be used repeatedly. In addition, the graphene-enhanced SERS technique shows great potential applications for the in-situ detection and identification of pesticide residues in environmental water, fruits and vegetables.

  14. Effect of pulsed electric fields treatment and mash size on extraction and composition of apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Mohammad F; Baron, Alain; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2010-09-08

    This study explored the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment (E=450 V/cm; tt=10 ms; Eapple mash size on juice yield, polyphenolic compounds, sugars, and malic acid. Juice yield increased significantly after PEF treatment of large mash (Y=71.4%) and remained higher than the juice yield obtained for a control small mash (45.6%). The acid sweet balance was not altered by PEF. A correlation was established between the decrease of light absorbance (control: 1.43; treated: 1.10) and the decline of native polyphenols yield due to PEF treatment (control: 9.6%; treated: 5.9% for small mash). An enhanced oxidation of phenolic compounds in cells due to electroporation of the inner cell membrane and the adsorption of the oxidized products on the mash may explain both the lower light absorbance and the lower native polyphenol concentration.

  15. Hydrodynamic cavitation: characterization of a novel design with energy considerations for the inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P J; Toledo, R T; Kerr, W L; Armstead, D

    2008-08-01

    A Shockwave Power Reactor consisting of an annulus with a rotating pock-marked inner cylinder was used to induce hydrodynamic cavitation in calcium-fortified apple juice flowing in the annular space. Lethality on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was assessed at processing temperatures of 65 and 76.7 degrees C. Details of the novel equipment design were presented and energy consumption was compared to conventional and pulsed electric fields processing technologies. The mean log cycle reduction of S. cerevisiae was 6.27 CFU/mL and all treatments resulted in nonrecoverable viable cells. Induced lethality from hydrodynamic cavitation on S. cerevisiae exceeded the predicted values based on experimentally determined thermal resistance. Rotation of 3000 and 3600 rpm at flow rates greater than 1.0 L/min raised product temperature from 20 to 65.6 or 76.7 degrees C, respectively, and energy input was less than 220 kJ/kg. Conversion efficiency from electrical to thermal was 55% to 84%. Hydrodynamic cavitation enhanced lethality of spoilage microorganisms in minimally processed juices and reduced energy usage.

  16. Screening of a Combinatorial Library of Organic Polymers for the Solid-Phase Extraction of Patulin from Apple Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoli, Cristina; Spano, Giulia; Di Nardo, Fabio; Anfossi, Laura; Baggiani, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Patulin is a water-soluble mycotoxin produced by several species of fungi. Governmental bodies have placed it under scrutiny for its potential negative health effects, and maximum residue limits are fixed in specific food matrices to protect consumers’ health. Confirmatory analysis of patulin in complex food matrices can be a difficult task, and sample clean-up treatments are frequently necessary before instrumental analyses. With the aim of simplifying the clean-up step, we prepared a 256-member combinatorial polymeric library based on 16 functional monomers, four cross-linkers and four different porogenic solvents. The library was screened for the binding towards patulin in different media (acetonitrile and citrate buffer at pH 3.2), with the goal of identifying polymer formulations with good binding properties towards the target compound. As a proof of concept, a methacrylic acid-co-pentaerithrytole tetraacrylate polymer prepared in chloroform was successfully used as a solid-phase extraction material for the clean-up and extraction of patulin from apple juice. Clean chromatographic patterns and acceptable recoveries were obtained for juice spiked with patulin at concentration levels of 25 (64 ± 12%), 50 (83 ± 5.6%) and 100 μg L−1 (76 ± 4.5%). The within-day and between-day reproducibility evaluated at a concentration level of 25 μg L−1 were 5.6 and 7.6%, respectively. PMID:28531103

  17. Selection of process conditions by risk assessment for apple juice pasteurization by UV-heat treatments at moderate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayán, E; Torres, J A; Alvarez, I; Condón, S

    2014-02-01

    The effect of bactericidal UV-C treatments (254 nm) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 suspended in apple juice increased synergistically with temperature up to a threshold value. The optimum UV-C treatment temperature was 55 °C, yielding a 58.9% synergistic lethal effect. Under these treatment conditions, the UV-heat (UV-H55 °C) lethal variability achieving 5-log reductions had a logistic distribution (α = 37.92, β = 1.10). Using this distribution, UV-H55 °C doses to achieve the required juice safety goal with 95, 99, and 99.9% confidence were 41.17, 42.97, and 46.00 J/ml, respectively, i.e., doses higher than the 37.58 J/ml estimated by a deterministic procedure. The public health impact of these results is that the larger UV-H55 °C dose required for achieving 5-log reductions with 95, 99, and 99.9% confidence would reduce the probability of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children by 76.3, 88.6, and 96.9%, respectively. This study illustrates the importance of including the effect of data variability when selecting operational parameters for novel and conventional preservation processes to achieve high food safety standards with the desired confidence level.

  18. Effect of pectinase treatment on extraction of antioxidant phenols from pomace, for the production of puree-enriched cloudy apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdyło, Aneta; Kolniak, Joanna

    2011-07-15

    Effects of pomace maceration on yield, turbidity, cloud stability, composition of phenolics, antioxidant activity and colour properties were studied, to evaluate the potential applicability of enzyme preparations in puree-enriched cloudy apple juice production. The yield of mixed juice and puree from pomace obtained in the enzymatic processing of apple ranged from 92.3% to 95.3%, significantly higher than the yield from the control without enzymatic pomace treatment (81.8%). Higher turbidity was obtained upon pomace treatment with Pectinex XXL and Pectinex Ultra SPL enzymes. The total content of phenolic compounds in apple pomace was higher than in raw juices (1520mg/kg and 441mg/L, respectively). The total polyphenol yields were higher in juices treated with Pectinex AFP L-4, Pectinex Yield Mash and Pectinex XXL, as compared to the control treatment. During 6months of storage, a significant change was observed in the content of polyphenols, especially in procyanidin fractions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of temperature, concentration and shear rate on the rheological behavior of malay apple (Syzygium malaccense juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Santos

    Full Text Available Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological behavior of malay apple, a traditional Amazonian fruit with high bioactive properties, at different temperatures and soluble solids concentrations. The experiments were carried out in a Brookfield R/S Plus rheometer with concentric cylinders geometry. Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley, Mizrahi-Berk, and Sisko rheological models were fitted to the experimental data. The malay apple juice (pulp and skin showed a pseudoplastic behavior for all temperatures and concentrations with flow behavior indexes lower than 1. The temperature effect on the samples’ apparent viscosity was analyzed by the Arrhenius equation. The activation energy increased with a decrease in the soluble solids concentration, showing that the lower the concentration, the greater the temperature influence on the apparent viscosity. The soluble solids effect was described by the exponential equation. The exponential factor increased with the temperature increasing, showing that the higher the temperature, the greater the effect of the soluble solids concentration on samples’ apparent viscosity. Finally, a triparametric mathematical model combining temperature, concentration, and shear rate was proposed aiming to evaluate its effects on the samples’ apparent viscosity and has accurately adjusted to the data with high correlation index R2.

  20. Fibres as carriers for Lactobacillus rhamnosus during freeze-drying and storage in apple juice and chocolate-coated breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Maria; Virkajärvi, Ilkka; Nohynek, Liisa; Vaari, Anu; Mättö, Jaana

    2006-11-01

    The capability of different fibre preparations to protect the viability and stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus during freeze-drying, storage in freeze-dried form and after formulation into apple juice and chocolate-coated breakfast cereals was studied. In freeze-drying trials wheat dextrin and polydextrose proved to be promising carriers for the L. rhamnosus strains: both freeze-drying survival and storage stability at 37 degrees C were comparable to the control carrier (sucrose). Using apple fibre and inulin carriers resulted in powders with fairly good initial freeze-drying survival but with poor storage stability at 37 degrees C. When fresh L. rhamnosus cells were added into apple juice (pH 3.5) together with oat flour with 20% beta-glucan the survival of the cells was much better at 4 degrees C and at 20 degrees C than with sucrose, wheat dextrin and polydextrose, whereas with freeze-dried cells no protective effect of oat flour could be seen. The stability of freeze-dried L. rhamnosus cells at 20 degrees C was higher in chocolate-coated breakfast cereals compared to low pH apple juice. Similar to freeze-drying stability, wheat dextrin and polydextrose proved to be better carriers than oat flour in chocolate-coated breakfast cereals. Regardless of their differing capability to adhere to fibre preparations the two L. rhamnosus strains studied gave parallel results in the stability studies with different carriers.

  1. Analytical method for the determination of various arsenic species in rice, rice food products, apple juice, and other juices by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, David; Zywicki, Richard; Sullivan, Darryl

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that there are detectable levels of arsenic (As) in rice, rice food products, and apple juice. This has created significant concern to the public, the food industry, and various regulatory bodies. Classic test methods typically measure total As and are unable to differentiate the various As species. Since different As species have greatly different toxicities, an analytical method was needed to separate and quantify the different inorganic and organic species of As. The inorganic species arsenite [As(+3)] and arsenate [As(+5)] are highly toxic. With this in mind, an ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma (IC-ICP/MS) method was developed and validated for rice and rice food products that can separate and individually measure multiple inorganic and organic species of As. This allows for the evaluation of the safety or risk associated with any product analyzed. The IC-ICP/MS method was validated on rice and rice food products, and it has been used successfully on apple juice. This paper provides details of the validated method as well as some lessons learned during its development. Precision and accuracy data are presented for rice, rice food products, and apple juice.

  2. Determination of some selected pesticide residues in apple juice by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography – mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hercegová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of solid phase microextraction (SPME for enrichment of pesticides from apple juice was investigated. Samples were diluted with water, extracted by solid-phase microextraction and analysed by gas chromatography using mass-spectrometry detector (MSD in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM. The method was tested for the following pesticides used mostly in fruit culturing at Slovakia: tebuthylazine, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos, myclobutanil, cyprodinil, phosalone, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, kresoxim-methyl, methidathion, penconazole. All pesticides were extracted with polydimethylsiloxane fibre 100 μm thickness. The linear concentration range of application was 0.05 μg dm−3–10 μg dm−3. The method described provides detectabilities complying with the maximum residue levels (MRLs set by regulatory organizations for pesticides in apple juice matrices. The solvent – free SPME procedure was found to be quicker and more cost effective then the solvent extraction methods commonly used.

  3. Effects of apple juice on risk factors of lipid profile, inflammation and coagulation, endothelial markers and atherosclerotic lesions in high cholesterolemic rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Setorki, Mahbubeh; Asgary, Sedighe; Eidi, Akram; rohani, Ali Haeri; Esmaeil, Nafiseh

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of apple juice on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty two male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1 cholesterol), 1% cholesterol suppleme...

  4. Enhanced bactericidal effect of enterocin AS-48 in combination with high-intensity pulsed-electric field treatment against Salmonella enterica in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Viedma, Pilar; Sobrino López, Angel; Ben Omar, Nabil; Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas López, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Martín Belloso, Olga; Gálvez, Antonio

    2008-12-10

    The effect of the broad spectrum cyclic antimicrobial peptide enterocin AS-48 combination with high-intensity pulsed-electric field (HIPEF) treatment (35 kV/cm, 150 Hz, 4 micros and bipolar mode) was tested on Salmonella enterica CECT 915 in apple juice. A response surface methodology was applied to study the bactericidal effects of the combined treatment. The process variables were AS-48 concentration, temperature, and HIPEF treatment time. While treatment with enterocin AS-48 alone up to 60 microg/ml had no effect on the viability of S. enterica in apple juice, an increased bactericidal activity was observed in combination with HIPEF treatments. Survival fraction was affected by treatment time, enterocin AS48 concentration and treatment temperature. The combination of 100 micros of HIPEF treatment, 30 microg/ml of AS-48, and temperature of 20 degrees C resulted in the lowest inactivation, with only a 1.2-log reduction. The maximum inactivation of 4.5-log cycles was achieved with HIPEF treatment for 1000 micros in combination with 60 microg/ml of AS-48 and a treatment temperature of 40 degrees C. Synergism between enterocin AS-48 and HIPEF treatment depended on the sequence order application, since it was observed only when HIPEF was applied in the presence of previously-added bacteriocin. The combined treatment could improve the safety of freshly-made apple juice against S. enterica transmission.

  5. Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils and their components against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Henika, Philip R; Levin, Carol E; Mandrell, Robert E

    2004-09-22

    We evaluated 17 plant essential oils and nine oil compounds for antibacterial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juices in a bactericidal assay in terms of % of the sample that resulted in a 50% decrease in the number of bacteria (BA(50)). The 10 compounds most active against E. coli (60 min BA(50) range in clear juice, 0.018-0.093%) were carvacrol, oregano oil, geraniol, eugenol, cinnamon leaf oil, citral, clove bud oil, lemongrass oil, cinnamon bark oil, and lemon oil. The corresponding compounds against S. enterica (BA(50) range, 0.0044-0.011%) were Melissa oil, carvacrol, oregano oil, terpeineol, geraniol, lemon oil, citral, lemongrass oil, cinnamon leaf oil, and linalool. The activity (i) was greater for S. enterica than for E. coli, (ii) increased with incubation temperature and storage time, and (iii) was not affected by the acidity of the juices. The antibacterial agents could be divided into two classes: fast-acting and slow-acting. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the bactericidal results are related to the composition of the oils. These studies provide information about new ways to protect apple juice and other foods against human pathogens.

  6. Free amino nitrogen concentration correlates to total yeast assimilable nitrogen concentration in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2018-01-01

    Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) is essential for yeast growth and metabolism during apple ( Malus x domestica Borkh.) cider fermentation. YAN concentration and composition can impact cider fermentation kinetics and the formation of volatile aroma compounds by yeast. The YAN concentration and composition of apples grown in Virginia, USA over the course of two seasons was determined through analysis of both free amino nitrogen (FAN) and ammonium ion concentration. FAN was the largest fraction of YAN, with a mean value of 51 mg N L -1 FAN compared to 9 mg N L -1 ammonium. Observed YAN values ranged from nine to 249 mg N L -1 , with a mean value of 59 mg N L -1 . Ninety-four percent of all samples analyzed in this study contained yeast to fully utilize all of the fermentable sugars. FAN concentration was correlated with total YAN concentration, but ammonium concentration was not. Likewise, there was no correlation between FAN and ammonium concentration.

  7. Optimization of processing conditions to improve antioxidant activities of apple juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Moosavi-Nasab, Marzieh

    2015-06-01

    A central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the effects of fermentation temperature (20-30 ºC) and kefir grains amount (2-8%w/v) on total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of apple juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains. The response surface methodology (RSM) showed that the significant second-order polynomial regression equation with high R(2) (>0.86) was successfully fitted for all response as function of independent variable. The overall optimum region was found to be at the combined level of 7.56%w/v kefir grains and temperature of 24.82 ºC with the highest value for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities. At this optimum point TPC, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, metal chelating effect, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation and inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation were 165.02 mgGA/l, 0.38 ml/1 ml, 0.757 (absorbance at 700 nm), 46.12 %, 65.33 % and 21 %, respectively. No significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between actual values and predicated values.

  8. The combined effect of high pressure and nisin or lysozyme on the inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, B.; Skąpska, S.; Fonberg-Broczek, M.; Niezgoda, J.; Chotkiewicz, M.; Dekowska, A.; Rzoska, S.

    2012-03-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, a thermoacidophilic and spore-forming bacterium is one of the important target micro-organisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. High pressure pasteurization (HPP) at 50°C was used for the inactivation of A. acidoterrestris spores in apple juice. Pressure applied both in a continuous and oscillatory mode gave the best results when 200 MPa was used. Increasing the pressure to 500 MPa, as well as lowering its value to 100 MPa, had an adverse effect on the effectiveness of the process. The best results were achieved with the use of a combined treatment, involving oscillatory pressurization at 200 MPa, followed by holding the sample for 60 min at atmospheric pressure and subsequent pressurization at 500 MPa, resulting in a reduction in the spore count of 6.15 log. Nisin significantly enhanced the effect of HPP at 300 MPa. Using pressure of 200 MPa for 45 min with a nisin concentration of 250 IU/mL enabled total spore inactivation (over 6 log). No significant effect of lysozyme at a concentration of 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L at 300 MPa was observed.

  9. Apple, grape or orange juice: Which one offers the best substrate for lactobacilli growth? — A screening study on bacteria viability, superoxide dismutase activity, folates production and hedonic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Carlin, Frederic; Renard, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation can contribute to improve functional aspects of foods. The first goal of this study was to determine amongst apple, grape and orange juices, the onewith the best bacterial growth performance during fermentation by Lactobacillus strains from commercial and artisanal food origins, at 40 °C for 48 h. The juice with the highest bacterial growth was evaluated for bacteria viability during 4 weeks of cold storage, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and folates production a...

  10. Effervescence-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using a solid effervescent agent as a novel dispersion technique for the analysis of fungicides in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenqing; Chen, Xiaochu; Liu, Fengmao; You, Xiangwei; Xue, Jiaying

    2014-11-01

    A novel effervescence-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method has been developed for the determination of four fungicides in apple juice samples. In this method, a solid effervescent agent is added into samples to assist the dispersion of extraction solvent. The effervescent agent is environmentally friendly and only produces an increase in the ionic strength and a negligible variation in the pH value of the aqueous sample, which does not interfere with the extraction of the analytes. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated including the composition of effervescent agent, effervescent agent amount, formulation of effervescent agent, adding mode of effervescent agent, type and volume of extraction solvent, and pH. Under optimized conditions, the method showed a good linearity within the range of 0.05-2 mg/L for pyrimethanil, fludioxonil, and cyprodinil, and 0.1-4 mg/L for kresoxim-methyl, with the correlation coefficients >0.998. The limits of detection for the method ranged between 0.005 and 0.01 mg/L. The recoveries of the target fungicides in apple juice samples were in the range of 72.4-110.8% with the relative standard deviations ranging from 1.2 to 6.8%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Mathematical modeling of the ethanol fermentation of cashew apple juice by a flocculent yeast: the effect of initial substrate concentration and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Álvaro Daniel Teles; da Silva Pereira, Andréa; Barros, Emanuel Meneses; Antonini, Sandra Regina Ceccato; Cartaxo, Samuel Jorge Marques; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha B

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of initial sugar concentration and temperature on the production of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCA008, a flocculent yeast, using cashew apple juice in a 1L-bioreactor was studied. The experimental results were used to develop a kinetic model relating biomass, ethanol production and total reducing sugar consumption. Monod, Andrews, Levenspiel and Ghose and Tyagi models were investigated to represent the specific growth rate without inhibition, with inhibition by substrate and with inhibition by product, respectively. Model validation was performed using a new set of experimental data obtained at 34 °C and using 100 g L -1 of initial substrate concentration. The model proposed by Ghose and Tyagi was able to accurately describe the dynamics of ethanol production by S. cerevisiae CCA008 growing on cashew apple juice, containing an initial reducing sugar concentration ranging from 70 to 170 g L -1 and temperature, from 26 to 42 °C. The model optimization was also accomplished based on the following parameters: percentage volume of ethanol per volume of solution (%V ethanol /V solution ), efficiency and reaction productivity. The optimal operational conditions were determined using response surface graphs constructed with simulated data, reaching an efficiency and a productivity of 93.5% and 5.45 g L -1  h -1 , respectively.

  12. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in synthetic gastric fluid after cold and acid habituation in apple juice or trypticase soy broth acidified with hydrochloric acid or organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljas, H E; Ingham, S C

    1998-08-01

    Extreme acid tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 has raised doubts about the safety of acidic foods. This study examined whether prior storage in acidic and/or cold conditions enhanced survival of E. coli O157:H7 in synthetic gastric fluid (SGF). Three E. coli O157:H7 strains were stored in trypticase soy broth (TSB; acidified with HCl, malic acid, citric acid, or lactic acid) or pH 3.5 and 6.5 (nonacidic control) apple juice at 4 and 21 degrees C for acids, suggesting that juice constituents other than organic acids protect E. coli O157:H7. Refrigeration combined with low pH best protected cells in apple juice and acidified TSB, but, compared to the nonacidic control, only acidified TSB enhanced subsequent survival in pH 2.5 SGF. Equal survival in SGF occurred after storage in pH 3.5 or 6.5 apple juice at 4 degrees C, suggesting that low temperature alone in apple juice enhanced acid tolerance. Two strains stored at 4 degrees C in TSB containing malic or citric acid subsequently survived better in SGF than cells stored in nonacidified TSB but poorer than cells stored in the presence of HCl. These differences reflect the higher pKa of these organic acids. However, subsequent survival of these strains in SGF was poorer after refrigerated storage in apple juice than in TSB containing citric or malic acids. Cells stored in lactic acid were most likely to be completely eliminated upon transfer to SGF. Differences in survival in storage media or SGF related to strain, storage conditions, or acidifier were consistent and often statistically significant (P acidic beverages may not be affected by the type of acidifier used, the subsequent survival in SGF of this pathogen may be critically dependent on this factor.

  13. Effect of electropermeabilization by ohmic heating for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in buffered peptone water and apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kyu; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The effect of electric field-induced ohmic heating for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in buffered peptone water (BPW) (pH 7.2) and apple juice (pH 3.5; 11.8 °Brix) was investigated in this study. BPW and apple juice were treated at different temperatures (55°C, 58°C, and 60°C) and for different times (0, 10, 20, 25, and 30 s) by ohmic heating compared with conventional heating. The electric field strength was fixed at 30 V/cm and 60 V/cm for BPW and apple juice, respectively. Bacterial reduction resulting from ohmic heating was significantly different (Pheating at 58°C and 60°C in BPW and at 55°C, 58°C, and 60°C in apple juice for intervals of 0, 10, 20, 25, and 30 s. These results show that electric field-induced ohmic heating led to additional bacterial inactivation at sublethal temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations and the propidium iodide (PI) uptake test were conducted after treatment at 60°C for 0, 10, 20, 25 and 30 s in BPW to observe the effects on cell permeability due to electroporation-caused cell damage. PI values when ohmic and conventional heating were compared were significantly different (Pheating can more effectively reduce bacterial populations at reduced temperatures and shorter time intervals, especially in acidic fruit juices such as apple juice. Therefore, loss of quality can be minimized in a pasteurization process incorporating ohmic heating.

  14. Toxicological aspects and occurrence of patulin in apple juice/ Aspectos toxicológicos e ocorrência de patulina em suco de maçã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Machinski Junior

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Patulin is a secondary metabolite produced by different species of fungi, being Penicillium expansum the most important species. Patulin is a mycotoxin that has been found mainly in mature apples used in the production of concentrated apple juice, but it can also be in other fruits, vegetables and nutritious products. Experiments carried out with laboratory animals have demonstrated that this mycotoxin produces several harmful effects, including mutagenicity, teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, immunosuppression and acute intoxications characterized by pulmonary oedema, hemorrhages, damages in the capillaries of liver, spleen and kidneys, as well as cerebral oedema. This revision article approaches physicochemical properties and toxicological aspects of the patulin, as well as its occurrence and strategies to prevent its presence in apple juices.A patulina é um metabólito secundário produzido por diferentes gêneros e espécies de fungos. Penicillium expansum é certamente a espécie mais importante. É uma micotoxina encontrada principalmente em maçãs maduras utilizadas na produção de suco de maçã concentrado, mas também pode estar presente em outras frutas, vegetais e produtos alimentícios. Experimentos em animais de laboratório demonstraram que esta micotoxina produz diversos efeitos nocivos, incluindo mutagenicidade, teratogenicidade, carcinogenicidade, imunossupressão e intoxicações agudas caracterizadas por edema pulmonar, hemorragias, danos nos capilares hepáticos, do baço e rins, bem como edema cerebral. O presente artigo de revisão aborda aspectos físico-químicos e toxicológicos da patulina, bem como a sua ocorrência e estratégias para prevenir a sua presença em sucos de maçã.

  15. 75 FR 47270 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... negotiate and sign contracts and other agreements; and (4) has autonomy from the government regarding the... concentrate. In addition, we have surrogate financial ratios from a Polish juice company. Of the countries...

  16. Effect of sporulation medium on wet-heat resistance and structure of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922-type strain spores and modeling of the inactivation kinetics in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molva, Celenk; Baysal, Ayse Handan

    2014-10-17

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a spoilage bacterium in fruit juices leading to high economic losses. The present study evaluated the effect of sporulation medium on the thermal inactivation kinetics of A. acidoterrestris DSM 3922 spores in apple juice (pH3.82±0.01; 11.3±0.1 °Brix). Bacillus acidocaldarius agar (BAA), Bacillus acidoterrestris agar (BATA), malt extract agar (MEA), potato dextrose agar (PDA) and B. acidoterrestris broth (BATB) were used for sporulation. Inactivation kinetic parameters at 85, 87.5 and 90°C were obtained using the log-linear model. The decimal reduction times at 85°C (D85°C) were 41.7, 57.6, 76.8, 76.8 and 67.2min; D87.5°C-values were 22.4, 26.7, 32.9, 31.5, and 32.9min; and D90°C-values were 11.6, 9.9, 14.7, 11.9 and 14.1min for spores produced on PDA, MEA, BATA, BAA and BATB, respectively. The estimated z-values were 9.05, 6.60, 6.96, 6.15, and 7.46, respectively. The present study suggests that the sporulation medium affects the wet-heat resistance of A. acidoterrestris DSM 3922 spores. Also, the dipicolinic acid content (DPA) was found highest in heat resistant spores formed on mineral containing media. After wet-heat treatment, loss of internal volume due to the release of DPA from spore core was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Since, there is no standardized media for the sporulation of A. acidoterrestris, the results obtained from this study might be useful to determine and compare the thermal resistance characteristics of A. acidoterrestris spores in fruit juices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. New Insights on the Apple and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Poulsen, Morten

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, Alzheimer disease etc. In this project, we focused on apples as a model fruit for some of this research due to its high contents of soluble and insoluble fibers......, flavonoids and phenolic acids and because of the high intakes of apples in northern parts of Europe. A series of 4-16 w rat feeding studies with fresh whole apples, dried apple, apple puree, clear and cloudy apple juices, apple pomace, and apple pectins have been conducted. A human cross-over dietary...... intervention study in 24 healthy volunteers with apple and apple products has also been performed. They supplemented a polyphenol and pectin restricted diet with whole apples, apple pomace, cloudy or clear apple juices or nothing for 4 weeks. Feeding rats with 10g apple/d reduced plasma total, HDL cholesterol...

  18. Screening of Natural Antimicrobials for Inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 in a Solidified Apple Juice Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Naturally occurring antimicrobials such as plant extracts and essential oils have been used in the food industry for years. Due to increased consumer demand for minimally processed juices there has been increased interest in the use of novel antimicrobial compounds isolated from natur...

  19. A review of cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-09-17

    Sep 17, 2015 ... the apple juice or powder with other tropical food to increase it vitamins and .... MANAGEMENT AND SPACING ON CASHEW APPLE. QUALITY. The quality ..... of beverages prepared from fruit and vegetable juices. (Gao and ...

  20. FACTORS EFFECTING TO THE AMOUNT OF PATULIN IN APPLE AND APPLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin KADAKAL

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. In nature, it is found diffusely at various products and also in apple and apple products. Because of the negative effects of patulin on human health, ıt ıs started to be used as an important quality parameter especially in apple juice and various apple products. On the other hand, having water solubility and stability to the heat treatment properties acquired another importance to the patulin in apple juice and apple juice concentrate. Removal of rotten parts of apples that will be processed to the apple juice and apple juice concentrate made the end product reliable in view of patulin. At apple juice and apple juice concentrate factories, activated charcoal is used diffusely for the removal of patulin passed to the apple juice. Exterior of activated charcoal, with the addition of ascorbic acid and/or sorbates, sulfhydryl (SH components or different food ingredients (cinnamon oil, potassium sorbate e.t.c and treatment of low dose radiation and modified atmosphere to the apple juice were being effective at the reduction of patulin. There are contradictory results about the inactivation of patulin with heat treatment and storage.

  1. Spoiled child syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, B J

    1989-01-01

    People often speak of children as being "spoiled" and many parents worry about the possibility of spoiling their infants and children. Many pediatricians, however, are uncomfortable with this term because it is a poorly defined and derogatory expression. Some would even deny that infants and children can be spoiled. Avoiding the use of the expression spoiled can create difficulties in communicating with parents concerned about their children's behavior. In this article, the spoiled child syndrome will be defined and those patterns of behavior that characterize it will be distinguished from other patterns of difficult behavior which may be confused with it. The spoiled child syndrome is characterized by excessive self-centered and immature behavior, resulting from the failure of parents to enforce consistent, age-appropriate limits. Many of the problem behaviors that cause parental concern are unrelated to spoiling as properly understood. Such behaviors are often age-related normal behaviors, reactions to family stresses, or patterns of behavior determined by factors inherent in the child. Pediatricians can provide counseling and reassurance for such behaviors and, by helping parents understand the etiology of true spoiling, can encourage the use of behavior modification techniques for its prevention and treatment.

  2. Spoils of Truce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Review of Spoils of Truce. Corruption and stat building in Postwar Lebanon Reinoud Leenders Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-8014-5100-3......Review of Spoils of Truce. Corruption and stat building in Postwar Lebanon Reinoud Leenders Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-8014-5100-3...

  3. Néctar de caju adoçado com mel de abelha: desenvolvimento e estabilidade Honey-sweetened cashew apple juice: development and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Alves Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os alimentos e bebidas desenvolvidos atualmente buscam cada vez mais associar sabor agradável com alegações funcionais, oferecendo aos consumidores produtos mais saudáveis. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um néctar de caju adoçado com mel de abelha em substituição à sacarose, estudando também sua estabilidade química, físico-química, sensorial e microbiológica durante 180 dias de armazenamento à temperatura de 28 ± 2 °C. No desenvolvimento do produto avaliaram-se, através de testes afetivos de sabor e aceitação global, quatro formulações (A, B, C e D com diferentes quantidades de suco de caju (15 e 20% associadas a diferentes quantidades de mel em sólidos solúveis (10 e 11 °Brix. A formulação mais aceita foi processada e avaliada após o processamento e a cada 45 dias até o final do período de armazenamento. Dentre as formulações testadas, a preferida pelos provadores foi a formulação D com 20% de suco de caju e 11 °Brix. No estudo de estabilidade o produto manteve boa aceitação sensorial até o final do armazenamento em relação aos atributos: cor, sabor, avaliação global e intenção de compra. O produto manteve padrões microbiológicos satisfatórios de acordo com a legislação durante o armazenamento. As alterações químicas e físico-químicas ocorridas não caracterizaram instabilidade do produto, com exceção da vitamina C que ao final da armazenagem teve um decréscimo acentuado. Trata-se, portanto, de uma alternativa viável ao mercado de bebidas.Food and beverages developed today search the association of pleasant flavor with functional claims, offering consumers healthier products. In this sense, the objective of this work was to develop a ready-to-drink cashew apple juice sweetened with honey in substitution to sucrose and to evaluate its chemical, physicochemical, sensory and microbiological stability during 180 days storage at a temperature of 28 ± 2 °C. In the

  4. Sugar composition of depectinized apple juices/ Composição de açúcares em sucos de maçãs despectinizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Denardi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, the second in the world consumption ranking, has glucose, fructose and sucrose as the main sugar components in fairly known proportion. Intentional adulteration maintaining such feature is possible by addition of high fructose syrup or inverted sugar and this attitude reflects losses from both economical and healthy aspects. The sugar profile in apple juices, although depending of the maturation degree, feature of cultivar and effect from growing places, may give some information in what concerns their authenticity. This article deals with the sugar composition of authentic depectinized apple juice made with selected samples 26 cultivars harvested in different growing places from 1994 to 2006. Total reducing sugar average content was 14.19±1.18 g.100mL-1, comprehending glucose (1.86±0.66 g.100mL-1, fructose (6.69±1.51 g.100mL-1 and sucrose (3,06±1,39 g.100mL-1. The relationship between the sugar concentration found was glucose: fructose: sucrose:: 1: 3,51: 1,64 what is in perfect agreement with the specialized literature. Sugar composition depends of the cultivars but the effects of growing places were not statistical significant in Brazilian geographical context.Suco de maçã, o segundo mais consumido no mundo, apresenta glucose, frutose e sacarose como os principais açúcares em proporções praticamente definidas. Adulterações intencionais mantendo as características de proporções de açúcares são possíveis pela adição de xarope com altos teores de frutose ou açúcar invertido, mas pode resultar em diminuição da qualidade sensorial e nutricional dos sucos. O perfil de açúcares em sucos de maçã, embora dependente do grau de maturação, da característica do cultivar e do efeito do local de crescimento pode dar algumas informações no que diz respeito à sua autenticidade. Este artigo avalia a composição de açúcares de sucos despectinizados autênticos de 26 cultivares de maçãs colhidas em diferentes

  5. Characterization of phenolics, glucosinolates and antioxidant activity of beverages based on apple juice with addition of frozen and freeze-dried curly kale leaves (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegańska-Marecik, Róża; Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Marecik, Roman

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the polyphenols, glucosinolates and ascorbic acid content as well as antioxidant activity of beverages on the base of apple juice with addition of frozen and freeze-dried curly kale leaves. Upon enrichment with frozen (13%) and freeze-dried curly kale (3%), the naturally cloudy apple juice was characterized by an increase in phenolic compounds by 2.7 and 3.3-times, accordingly. The antioxidant activity of beverages with the addition of curly kale ranged from 6.6 to 9.4μmol Trolox/mL. The obtained beverages were characterized glucosinolates content at 117.6-167.6mg/L and ascorbic acid content at 4,1-31,9mg/L. The results of sensory evaluation of colour, taste and consistency of apple juice and beverages with the addition of kale did not differ significantly prior to pasteurization (P≤0.05), whereas after the pasteurization the evaluated factors decreased significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synergic effect of gamma radiation with thermal treatment for conserving natural apple juice from Gala variety; Efeito sinergistico da radiacao gama com tratamento termico na conservacao de suco natural de maca da variedade Gala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, L.; Domarco, R.E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Walder, J.M.M.; Matraia, C. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This paper aims at the feasibility of a new method for conserving natural apple juice using no chemicals. The apple juice was extract from Gala apple variety and was bottled in sterile 100 ml amber vials. The samples were treated by: heat at 60{sup 0} C for 20 minutes; heat at 80{sup 0} C for 20 minutes; radiation; radiation plus heat (60{sup 0}); radiation plus heat 80{sup 0} C. The radiation doses were 0,2,4 and 6 kGy at the dose rate of 1.6 kGy/h. The juice quality control was carried out by chemical analysis (total soluble solids, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid) following the AOAC methodology. The samples were stored under refrigeration conditions 5{+-}3{sup 0} C up to 180 days. It was observed an alteration of the total soluble solids and the pH during the storage period for all treatments. The pH was also affected by the combined treatments (radiation plus heat). The acidity was affected by the interaction of storage period and heat temperature. The ascorbic acid was affected by the synergic effect of heat and radiation and by the interaction radiation and storage period. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs.

  7. Gamma radiation and thermal treatment effects on the conservation of natural apple (Malus domestica) juice, cv. gala; Efeito da radiacao gama e do tratamento termico na conservacao do suco natural de maca (Malus domestica), cv. gala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Lucimara

    1995-12-01

    This work studies the apple juice preservation without chemicals. The samples were exposed to the following treatments: heating (control, 60{sup 0} C/20 min and 80{sup 0} C/20 min); irradiation (control; 2, 4 and 6 kGy); heating plus irradiation. The quality control was carried out by physical and chemical analyses (soluble solids; titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and color), microbiological and sensorial analyses. The samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 {+-} 3{sup 0} C) for 180 days. The results showed few variations in the soluble solids, acidity, pH and ascorbic acid for all treatments. However, the 6 kGy dose kept the chemical characteristics of the juice, providing a clear juice, with better appearance and microorganisms free. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. A review of cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-09-17

    Sep 17, 2015 ... cashew apples, drying kinetics, and product quality were investigated. It was found ..... Cashew apple residues from fruit juice industry as dehydrated fruit ... surface tension of both media (Rocha et al., 2006). Cashew apple ...

  9. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry analysis linked with chemometrics for food classification - a case study: geographical provenance and cultivar classification of monovarietal clarified apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Heng-Hui; Soukoulis, Christos; Fisk, Ian

    2014-03-01

    In the present work, we have evaluated for first time the feasibility of APCI-MS volatile compound fingerprinting in conjunction with chemometrics (PLS-DA) as a new strategy for rapid and non-destructive food classification. For this purpose 202 clarified monovarietal juices extracted from apples differing in their botanical and geographical origin were used for evaluation of the performance of APCI-MS as a classification tool. For an independent test set PLS-DA analyses of pre-treated spectral data gave 100% and 94.2% correct classification rate for the classification by cultivar and geographical origin, respectively. Moreover, PLS-DA analysis of APCI-MS in conjunction with GC-MS data revealed that masses within the spectral ACPI-MS data set were related with parent ions or fragments of alkyesters, carbonyl compounds (hexanal, trans-2-hexenal) and alcohols (1-hexanol, 1-butanol, cis-3-hexenol) and had significant discriminating power both in terms of cultivar and geographical origin. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary supplementation with apple juice concentrate alleviates the compensatory increase in glutathione synthase transcription and activity that accompanies dietary- and genetically-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchantchou, F; Graves, M; Ortiz, D; Rogers, E; Shea, T B

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, which can arise from dietary, environmental and/or genetic sources, contributes to the decline in cognitive performance during normal aging and in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Supplementation with fruits and vegetables that are high in antioxidant potential can compensate for dietary and/or genetic deficiencies that promote increased oxidative stress. We have recently demonstrated that apple juice concentrate (AJC) prevents the increase in oxidative damage to brain tissue and decline in cognitive performance observed when transgenic mice lacking apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) are maintained on a vitamin-deficient diet and challenged with excess iron (included in the diet as a pro-oxidant). However, the mechanism by which AJC provided neuroprotection was not conclusively determined. Herein, we demonstrate that supplementation with AJC also prevents the compensatory increases in glutathione synthase transcription and activity that otherwise accompany maintenance of ApoE-/- mice on this vitamin-free diet in the presence of iron. Inclusion of the equivalent composition and concentration of sugars of AJC did not prevent these increases. These findings provide further evidence that the antioxidant potential of AJC can compensate for dietary and genetic deficiencies that otherwise promote neurodegeneration.

  11. Moderate effects of apple juice consumption on obesity-related markers in obese men: impact of diet-gene interaction on body fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Stephan W; Koch, Tatiana C L; Watzl, Bernhard; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Bub, Achim

    2012-10-01

    The effect of polyphenol-rich cloudy apple juice (CloA) consumption on plasma parameters related to the obesity phenotype and potential effects of interactions between CloA and allelic variants in obesity candidate genes were assessed in obese men. In this controlled, randomized, and parallel study, n = 68, non-smoking, non-diabetic men with a BMI ≥27 kg/m(2) received 750 mL/day CloA (802.5 mg polyphenols) or 750 mL/day control beverage (CB, isocaloric equivalent to CloA) for 4 weeks. Further, study participants were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PPARγ (rs1801282), UCP3 (rs1800849), IL-6 (rs1800795), FABP2 (rs1799883), INSIG2 (rs7566605), and PGC1 (rs8192678) genes. At the beginning and at the end of intervention plasma lipids, distinct adipokines and cytokines as well as anthropometric parameters were determined. CloA compared to CB had no significant effect on plasma lipids, plasma adipokine and cytokine levels, BMI, and waist circumference. However, CloA consumption significantly reduced percent body fat compared to CB (∆ % body fat: CloA: -1.0 ± 1.3 vs. CB: -0.2 ± 0.9, p diet-gene interaction might be a first indication for the impact of individual genetic background on CloA-mediated bioactivity on obesity-associated comorbidities.

  12. Dispersive solid-phase extraction for the determination of trace organochlorine pesticides in apple juices using reduced graphene oxide coated with ZnO nanocomposites as sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Sun, Hefeng; Zhao, Feng

    2017-09-01

    In this work, reduced graphene oxide coated with ZnO nanocomposites was used as an efficient sorbent of dispersive solid-phase extraction and successfully applied for the extraction of organochlorine pesticides from apple juice followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Several experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, including the amount of adsorbent, extraction time, and the pH of the sample solution, as well as the type and volume of eluent solvent, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, good linearity existed in the range of 1.0-200.0 ng/mL for all the analytes with the correlation coefficients (R 2 ) ranging from 0.9964 to 0.9994. The limits of detection of the method for the compounds were 0.011-0.053 ng/mL. Good reproducibilities were acquired with relative standard deviations below 8.7% for both intraday and interday precision. The recoveries of the method were in the range of 78.1-105.8% with relative standard deviations of 3.3-6.9%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. β-Chitin and chitosan from squid gladius: Biological activities of chitosan and its application as clarifying agent for apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Sila, Assaâd; Haddar, Anissa; Bougatef, Ali; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali

    2017-11-01

    Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide in biomass after cellulose and the term chitosan usually refers to a family of polymers obtained after chitin deacetylation. The aim of this work was the preparation and the characterization of chitin and chitosan from the gladius (pen) of the European squid (Loligo vulgaris). A high level of deproteinization (more than 80%) was recorded using Alcalase ® with an enzyme/protein ratio of 10U/mg. The demineralization of the gladius was completely achieved within 8h at room temperature in HCl. 13 C NMR, FTIR, and XRD diffractograms of prepared chitin and chitosan were taken and then degree of deacetylation of chitosan was calculated using 13 C CP/MAS-NMR Spectroscopic. Further, in vitro antioxidant capacity of chitosan was evaluated on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method (IC 50 =3.2mgmL -1 ) and the β-carotene bleaching assay (IC 50 =3.3mgmL -1 ). Antimicrobial activity was also investigated and assays indicated that prepared chitosan exhibited marked inhibitory activity against all microbial strains tested. Additionally, chitosan was tested such as clarifying agent for apple juice and showed powerful clarification capability, without affecting nutritional value. Furthermore, the results suggested that prepared chitosan could be used as alternative additive in pharmaceutical preparations and food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and some yeasts by selected essential oils and survival of L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple-carrot juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkin, Reyhan; Korukluoglu, Mihriban

    2009-04-01

    Food safety is a fundamental concern of both consumers and the food industry. The increasing incidence of foodborne diseases increases the demand of using antimicrobials in foods. Spices and plants are rich in essential oils and show inhibition activity against microorganisms, which are composed of many compounds. In this research, effects of garlic, bay, black pepper, origanum, orange, thyme, tea tree, mint, clove, and cumin essential oils on Listeria monocytogenes AUFE 39237, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Proteus mirabilis AUFE 43566, Bacillus cereus AUFE 81154, Saccharomyces uvarum UUFE 16732, Kloeckera apiculata UUFE 10628, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Candida oleophila UUPP 94365, and Metschnikowia fructicola UUPP 23067 and effects of thyme oil at a concentration of 0.5% on L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple-carrot juice during +4 degrees C storage (first to fifth day) were investigated. Strong antibacterial and antifungal activities of some essential oils were found. Thyme, origanum, clove, and orange essential oils were the most inhibitory against bacteria and yeasts. Cumin, tea tree, and mint oils inhibited the yeasts actively. It is concluded that some essential oils could be used as potential biopreservatives capable of controlling foodborne pathogens and food spoilage yeasts.

  15. The growth of Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum in fruit juices and its survival following elevated temperature treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michelle; Phillips, Carol A

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the growth of Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum in orange juice over a temperature range from 4 to 40 degrees C and its ability to multiply in tomato, grapefruit, apple, pineapple and cranberry juices at 30 and 35 degrees C. Survival after 10 min exposure to 50, 60, 70, 80, 85, 90 and 95 degrees C in culture medium and in orange juice was also assessed. In orange juice the organism was able to multiply by 2 logs at temperatures from 4 to 35 degrees C and survived for up to 52 days. However, at 40 degrees C viable counts were reduced after 6 days and no viable cells isolated after 17 days. The optimum growth temperature in orange juice over 6 days was 25 degrees C but over 4 days it was 35 degrees C. The growth of P. cyclohexanicum was monitored in tomato, grapefruit, cranberry, pineapple and apple juices at 30 and 35 degrees C over 29 days. Cranberry, grapefruit and apple juice did not support the growth of P. cyclohexanicum. At 30 degrees C no viable cells were detected after 8 days in cranberry juice or after 22 days in grapefruit juice while at 35 degrees C no viable cells were detected after 5 and 15 days, respectively. However, in apple juice, although a 5 log reduction occurred, viable cells could be detected after 29 days. P. cyclohexanicum was able to multiply in both tomato and pineapple juices. In tomato juice, there was a 2 log increase in viable counts after 8 days at 30 degrees C but no increase at 35 degrees C, while in pineapple juice there was a 1 log increase in numbers over 29 days with no significant difference between numbers of viable cells present at 30 and 35 degrees C. The organism survived at 50 degrees C for 10 min in culture medium without a significant loss of viability while similar treatment at 60, 70 and 80 degrees C resulted in approximately a 3-4 log reduction, with no viable cells detected after treatment at 85 or 90 or 95 degrees C but, when pre-treated at intermediate temperatures before exposure to higher

  16. Survival, injury and inactivation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7, salmonella and aerobic mesophilic bacteria in apple juice and cider amended with nisin-edta

    Science.gov (United States)

    For health reasons, people are consuming fresh juices or minimally processed fruit and vegetable juices, thereby, exposing themselves to the risk of foodborne illness if such juices are contaminated with bacteria pathogens. Behavior of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmon...

  17. Características analíticas dos sucos de maçã Gala, Golden Delicious e Fuji Analytical characteristics of Gala, Golden Delicious and Fuji apple juice from south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as frutas de clima temperado cultivadas no Brasil, a maçã apresentou maior expansão de produção nos últimos anos. Ela se destina principalmente ao consumo in natura, mas o suco se constitui em subproduto a ser considerado. Portanto, a elaboração de suco de maçã é uma alternativa para aproveitar as frutas consideradas como descarte. Com o objetivo de aproveitar o descarte das maçãs Gala, Golden Delicious e Fuji, foi estudada a composição de seus sucos. Nas safras de 1995 a 1997 foram analisados os sucos dessas cultivares de maçã colhidas de pomares comerciais dos municípios de Fraiburgo e São Joaquim - SC e de Vacaria e Caxias do Sul - RS. Além das análises básicas dos sucos, realizadas por métodos físico-químicos, foram determinados também os elementos minerais por absorção atômica. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de componentes principais (ACP, sendo que os três primeiros eixos explicaram 81,3% da variação total. Através da ACP, foi possível separar os sucos das três cultivares de maçã. As variáveis que apresentaram maior efeito na diferenciação do suco de maçã foram sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix, densidade (DEN, açúcares redutores (AR, relação ºBrix/acidez total (B/A, acidez total (ACT, ácido málico (ACM e os minerais Mg, Cu, Zn, Rb, P e K. Quanto à origem geográfica, os sucos de maçã de São Joaquim - SC e de Vacaria - RS mostraram maiores semelhanças em sua composição, principalmente nas cultivares Fuji e Golden Delicious.Among temperate fruits cultivated in Brazil, the production of apple increased the most in the last years. It is mainly addressed to the consumption in natura, but juice is becoming an important by-product. For this reason, it is an alternative to utilize rejected fruits to make juice. With the objective to reach this goal, the composition of Gala, Golden Delicious, and Fuji juices was studied. This experiment was conducted from 1995 to 1997

  18. Flavorings as new sources of contamination by deteriogenic Alicyclobacillus of fruit juices and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteiza, Juan Martin; Soto, Silvina; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Giannuzzi, Leda

    2014-02-17

    This study aimed to report the incidence of Alicyclobacillus and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in apple and pear flavorings (n=42) and to assess the effect of guaiacol-producing A. acidoterrestris strains on apple flavorings stored at 4, 20 and 45 °C. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used for simultaneous confirmation of alicyclobacilli. A total of six isolates were identified as A. acidoterrestris, and only one strain was not able to produce guaiacol. The storage of apple flavoring at the optimum growth temperature of A. acidoterrestris (45 °C) resulted in the reduction in the spores' counts within 30 days of storage. On the other hand, during chilling (4 °C) and ambient storage conditions (20 °C) the counts of spores that remained stable for up to 60 days. An A. acidoterrestris strain inoculated in flavoring and further added to apple juice was able to grow and produce guaiacol in high amounts between 1-7 days of storage at 30 °C. In the current study it was shown that flavorings may be contaminated by deteriogenic A. acidoterrestris strains that are able to survive during storage in a wide range of temperature for long periods and further contaminate and spoil formulated fruit juices and beverages. A novel potential source of fruit juices and beverages contamination by deteriogenic Alicyclobacillus was shown. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report on the incidence and fate of Alicyclobacillus and A. acidoterrestris in flavorings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20-30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-03-07

    There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20-30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003-2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ(2) was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20-7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults aged 20-30 years, possibly due to the

  20. PENERAPAN PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD PADA PASTEURISASI SARI BUAH APEL VARIETAS ANA: KAJIAN KARAKTERISTIK NILAI GIZI, SIFAT FISIK, SIFAT KIMIAWI DAN MIKROBIA TOTAL Application of Pulsed Electric Field in Pasteurization of Apple Juice of Ana Cultivar : Study on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Choviya Hawa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, extracted from apple of ana cultivar , was pasteurized using a pulsed electric field (PEF method. The aimof this research was to analyze the changes on nutritional, physical and chemical properties and total microbes from apple juice after pasteurization. The research was conducted from July until Oktober 2009 located in Malang. The PEF treatment was carried out using treatment time variation for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 seconds. Several parameters of vitamin A and C, water content, density, pH, total soluable solid and total microbes were observed. The results showed that PEF treatment did not significantly change nutritional, physical and chemical properties and total microbes after pasteurization with PEF in compared with no treatment pasteurization. The highest degradation was found in treatment time for 60 seconds, i.e. 93.53 %. ABSTRAK Sari buah apel, yang diekstrak dari apel varietas ana, dipasteurisasi dengan metode pulsed electric field (PEF. Tujuanpenelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perubahan karakteristik nilai gizi, sifat fisik, kimiawi dan total mikrobia sari buah apel sesudah dipasteurisasi. Penelitian dilaksanakan bulan Juli sampai dengan Oktober 2009 di Malang. Penelitian ini menggunakan variasi waktu pengolahan 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 dan 60 detik. Parameter pengamatan yaitu vitamin A dan C, kadar air, berat jenis, pH, total padatan terlarut dan total mikrobia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai gizi, sifat fisik dan kimiawi dari sari apel  tidak mengalami perubahan signifikan dibandingkan sari apel tanpa perlakuan PEF. Penurunan total mikrobia terbesar pada waktu perlakuan 60 detik dengan efektivitas pembunuhan sebesar 93,53%.

  1. Storage stability of cashew apple juice preserved by hot fill and aseptic processes Estabilidade do suco de caju preservado pelo método ''hot fill'' e processo asséptico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Oliveira Costa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. apples from Pacajus, Ceará State, Brazil, were processed into high pulp content juice. The juice was packed either by hot fill or an aseptic process and evaluated for physical, physical-chemical, and sensorial changes during a 12-month storage period at room temperature. The results indicated that pH, soluble solids, total acidity, total sugar content and color did not change significantly during storage nor were affected by the type of filling. The sensorial analysis showed that juice acceptance remained high throughout the storage period regardless of the filling system. Differences in juice viscosity persisted between both processes.Pedúnculos de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. de Pacajus, Estado do Ceará, Brasil, foram processados na forma de suco com alto teor de polpa. O suco foi acondicionado através do processo hot fill ou asséptico e verificada as alterações físicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais durante armazenagem por doze meses à temperatura ambiente. Os resultados indicaram que pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total, conteúdo de açúcar e cor não mudaram de modo significativo durante a armazenagem nem foram afetadas pelo modo de acondicionamento. Análise sensorial mostrou que a aceitação do suco foi mantida alta durante o período de armazenagem a despeito do sistema de enchimento. Diferenças na viscosidade dos sucos persistiram entre ambos processos.

  2. Bebida mista com propriedade estimulante à base de água de coco e suco de caju clarificado Mixed drink with stimulating properties consisting of coconut water and clarified cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelia Marques de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Na indústria de bebidas, uma alternativa para acrescentar valor nutricional ou simplesmente desenvolver novos sabores é a mistura de diferentes sucos de frutas na formulação de bebidas mistas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma bebida à base de água de coco e suco de caju clarificado (cajuína, com adição de cafeína, conferindo-lhe propriedades estimulantes. Foram avaliadas cinco formulações, com diferentes proporções de cajuína, tendo sido padronizados previamente o pH, teor de sólidos solúveis e cafeína. As formulações foram submetidas à caracterização físico-química (pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez, açúcares redutores, não redutores e totais e vitamina C, análises microbiológicas e avaliação sensorial de aceitação (atributos de cor, sabor, avaliação global e intenção de compra. Todas as formulações em estudo apresentaram boa aceitação sensorial, não havendo diferença entre as médias dos atributos avaliados. Na intenção de compra, a formulação mais aceita foi ACC 20 (20% de cajuína e 80% de água de coco. A incorporação de vitamina C na bebida através da adição da cajuína foi mais evidente até a formulação ACC 20. Os resultados indicaram que a formulação ACC 20 foi a mais viável para elaboração da bebida mista. Todas as formulações apresentaram padrões microbiológicos satisfatórios.In the beverage industry, an alternative to add nutritional quality or simply to develop new tastes is the blending of different kinds of fruit juices. The objective of this work was the development of blends consisting of coconut water and clarified cashew apple juice with the addition of caffeine so as to provide stimulating properties to the beverage. Five formulations with different concentration of clarified cashew apple juice and previously standardized for pH, total soluble solids and caffeine concentration were evaluated. The formulations were submitted to

  3. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  4. Produção de ácido lático e dextrana utilizando suco de caju como substrato Production of lactic acid and dextran using cashew apple juice as a substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Lopes Honorato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a utilização de excedentes agrícolas como substrato para produção de dextrana e ácido lático. As fermentações foram conduzidas com o microorganismo Leuconostoc mesenteroides B512F, em meio contendo suco de caju e sacarose. As concentrações de açúcar redutor e sacarose foram variadas de acordo com um planejamento experimental. No final da fermentação foram quantificados a dextrana, o ácido lático e a biomassa produzida. Os resultados foram avaliados através da metodologia de análise de superfície de resposta. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a elevação da concentração de açúcares favorece a produção de dextrana e de ácido lático. A utilização do suco de caju como substrato alternativo para produção de dextrana e ácido lático apresentou viabilidade técnica.The main aim of the present work was to study the use of agriculture excess as substrates for dextran and lactic acid production. The fermentations were carried out with the microorganism Leuconostoc mesenteroides B512F in a medium containing cashew apple juice and sucrose. The concentrations of reducing sugar and sucrose were varied according to factorial planning. At the end of the fermentation the dextran, the lactic acid and biomass produced were quantified.The results were analyzed by the surface response analysis methodology. According to the results increasing the sugar level favors dextran and lactic acid production. The use of cashew apple juice as an alternative substrate for dextran and lactic acid production presented technical viability.

  5. Aminoácidos livres majoritários no suco de caju: variação ao longo da safra Major free amino acids in cashew apple juice: behaviour during the harvest season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ELISABETH BARROS DE OLIVEIRA

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando a contribuir para o conhecimento dos aminoácidos livres majoritários presentes no suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L., estudou-se o seu comportamento ao longo da safra de 1995, no período de agosto a novembro, no clone de cajueiro-anão precoce, CCP 09, com aptidão para a produção de suco. O suco foi obtido de cajus cultivados no município de Pio IX, Estado do Piauí, Brasil. Os frutos foram colhidos em intervalos de 21 dias, perfazendo cinco amostragens. Os aminoácidos foram determinados utilizando-se um auto-analisador de aminoácidos. Preliminarmente, foram feitos ensaios para conhecer o espectro total dos aminoácidos livres presentes no suco; destes, foram escolhidos os oito majoritários, sobre os quais está baseado o estudo. Os aminoácidos majoritários encontrados, na ordem decrescente, foram: alanina, serina, fenilalnina, leucina, ácido glutâmico, ácido aspártico, prolina e tirosinaThe major free amino acids in cashew apple juice were studied during the crop season August to November 1995. The cashew apples were obtained from the clone CCP 09 cultivated in the county of Pio IX, state of Piauí-Brazil. Analysis were carried out in five samples harvested at twenty-one days intervals by using an amino acid analyser. The amino acids present in the juice were preliminary evaluated. Only the major eight ones were selected. The major amino acids detected, in decreasing order were: alanine, serine, phenylalanine, leucine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline and tyrosine.

  6. Thermal resistance parameters of acid-adapted and unadapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple-carrot juice blends: effect of organic acids and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usaga, Jessie; Worobo, Randy W; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

    2014-04-01

    Numerous outbreaks involving fresh juices contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 have occurred in the United States and around the world, raising concern for the safety of these products. Until now, only a few studies regarding the thermal tolerance of this pathogen in acidic juices over a wide range of pH values have been published. Therefore, the effect of varying the pH with different organic acids on the thermal inactivation of non-acid-adapted and acid-adapted E. coli O157:H7 (strain C7927) was determined. The decimal reduction times (D-values) and the change in temperature required for the thermal destruction curve to traverse 1 log cycle (z-values) were calculated for non-acid-adapted E. coli in an apple-carrot juice blend (80:20) adjusted to three pH values (3.3, 3.5, and 3.7) by the addition of lactic, malic, or acetic acid and at a pH of 4.5 adjusted with NaOH. Thermal parameters were also determined for acid-adapted cells in juices acidified with malic acid. The effect of the soluble solids content on the thermal tolerance was studied in samples with a pH of 3.7 at 9.4 to 11.5 °Brix. The D-values were determined at 54, 56, and 58 °C, and trials were conducted in triplicate. Non-acid-adapted E. coli exhibited the highest thermal tolerance at pH 4.5 (D-value at 54 °C [D54 °C] of 20 ± 4 min and z-value of 6.2 °C), although on average, the D-values increased significantly (P 0.01). The data from this study will be useful for establishing critical limits for safe thermal processing of pH-controlled juices and similar products.

  7. Clarificação e concentração de suco de caju por processos com membranas Clarification and concentration of cashew apple juice by membrane processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Cianci

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Os processos de separação por membranas têm sido estudados como alternativa aos processos térmicos de conservação de alimentos, por serem conduzidos em condições amenas de temperatura, permitindo, assim, a preservação de compostos termosensíveis como as vitaminas, por exemplo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização da microfiltração e da osmose inversa para a obtenção de suco de caju clarificado e concentrado. O processamento consistiu de três etapas principais: o tratamento enzimático do suco integral; a microfiltração para obtenção do suco clarificado; e a concentração do suco clarificado por osmose inversa. Para o tratamento enzimático, utilizou-se um complexo pectinolítico durante 1 hora. A clarificação foi conduzida em uma unidade de microfiltração tubular e, em seguida, foi utilizado um sistema de osmose inversa, do tipo quadro e placas, para concentrar o suco clarificado. Os fluxos médios de permeado obtidos foram de 184,0 e 11,3L/hm² para a microfiltração e a osmose inversa, respectivamente. Os taninos, responsáveis pela adstringência do suco, foram retidos pela membrana de microfiltração e, por isso, não foram detectados nos sucos clarificado e concentrado. O suco clarificado contendo 12,1° Brix foi concentrado até 28,6° Brix. A vitamina C aumentou de 162mg/100g no suco clarificado para 372mg/100g, no concentrado.Membrane separation processes have been studied as alternatives to heat processes due to their characteristics being conducted at low temperatures, permitting the preservation of heat sensitive compounds such as vitamins. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of microfiltration and reverse osmosis for obtaining clarified and concentrated cashew apple juice. Processing consisted of three main stages that were an enzymatic treatment of the pulp, microfiltration for obtaining the clarified juice and concentration of clarified juice by reverse osmosis. A

  8. Food-drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice: An update review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Zhou, Shu-Yi; Fabriaga, Erlinda; Zhang, Pian-Hong; Zhou, Quan

    2018-04-01

    This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice- 99m Tc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine), increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids). Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food-drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice-drug interactions and help

  9. Placement of acid spoil materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pionke, H B; Rogowski, A S

    1982-06-01

    Potentially there are several chemical and hydrologic problems associated with placement of acid spoil materials. The rationale for a deep placement well below the soil surface, and preferably below a water table, is to prevent or minimize oxidation of pyrite to sulfuric acid and associated salts by reducing the supply of oxygen. If, however, substantial sulfuric acid or associated salts are already contained within the spoil because of present or previous mining, handling and reclamation operations (or if large supplies of indigenous salts exist, placement below a water table) may actually increase the rate of acid and salt leaching. Specific placement of acid- and salt-containing spoil should be aimed at preventing contact with percolating water or rising water tables. We recommend placement based on chemical and physical spoil properties that may affect water percolation O/sub 2/ diffusion rates in the profile. Both the deeper placement of acid spoil and coarser particle size can substantially reduce the amount of acid drainage. Placement above the water table with emphasis on percolate control may be better for high sulfate spoils, while placement below the non-fluctuating water table may be better for pyritic spoils.

  10. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    OpenAIRE

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Therma...

  11. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, S S; Keshani

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality.

  12. Analysis of the Volatile Constituents of Irradiated Apple Juice; Analyse des Constituants Volatils des Jus de Pommes Irradies; Mezhdunarodnyj proekt po oblucheniyu fruktov i fruktovykh sokov; Analisis de los Componentes Volatiles de los Zumos de Manzana Irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, P.; Zenz, H.; Stehlik, G.; Kaindl, K. [Agence Europeenne pour l' Energie Nucleaire, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1966-11-15

    The organoleptic studies and wholesomeness tests that are being carried out as part of the International Programme on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices (Seibersdorf Project) entail analysis of the aromatic substances present in irradiated and non-irradiated juice. The volatile substances present in irradiated fruit juices were analysed by gas chromatography, with direct injection of the emitted vapours at ambient temperature and at 60 Degree-Sign C (Weurman's Head Space Technique). The volatile constituents were identified by comparing the amounts retained in the column with those for pure substances and by removing certain constituents from the vapour with the help of chemical reagents. To simplify the analyses, the first tests were carried out on concentrated apple juice from which the volatile substances had been removed before irradiation. Irradiation gave rise to five aldehydes in the normal apple juice (acetaldehyde, isobutyraldehyde, butyraldehyde, isovaldehyde and capronaldehyde), but only three in the concentrated juice (acetaldehyde, isobutyraldehyde and isovaleraldehyde). In addition, 2-butanone appeared in the concentrated juice; however, the peak corresponding to it on the chromatogram was completely masked by the ethanol peak in the case of non-concentrated juice. Furan was also detected, together with traces of two compounds that have not yet been identified. Similar results have been obtained by pasteurization, such as in bottling by heat. (author) [French] Dans le cadre du projet international de recherches sur la conservation des fruits et jus de fruits par irradiation (Seibersdorf), les etudes organoleptiques, de meme que les tests d'innocuite, rendent indispensable l'analyse des substances aromatiques des jus irradies et non irradies. Les substances volatiles des jus de pommes irradies ont ete analysees par chromatographie en phase gazeuse, par injection directe des vapeurs qu'ils emettent, soit a la temperature du laboratoire, soit a 60

  13. The microbiology of apples and apple products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doores, S

    1983-01-01

    The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year-round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple is a reflection of the orchard, handling, harvesting, and storage practices. Yeasts predominate on orchard fruit, molds may become a storage problem, and bacteria cause spoilage, off flavors, and loss of quality in juice products. Despite the microbial problems inherent in producing of quality product, the apple industry is faced with the occurrence of patulin. Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, has been associated with damaged fruit. Decreased temperatures, coupled with CA storage; can deter mold growth and patulin production. Laboratory detection methods for derivations of patulin are able to detect microgram quantities. Means to eliminate patulin formed in apple products include addition of ascorbate and SO2, extending fermentation, or charcoal filtering. However, degradation products of patulin have not been evaluated toxicologically.

  14. Useful materials from colliery spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J

    1975-08-01

    This article is based on a paper presented by the author at a recent symposium on ''The technology of reclamation.'' He discusses the research that is being carried out at the N.C.B.'s Coal Research Establishment into ways of utilizing colliery spoil: unburnt spoil may be used in road construction as fill material or as cement-stabilized sub-bases; the heat-treated spoil can be used as lightweight aggregate in concrete blocks or as dense aggregate for non-skid roadstone. Information is also given about a project to examine the drying of washery tailings in a fluidized-bed combustion system: the material remaining in the bed is immediately usable as a lightweight aggregate, and the fine material blown from the bed and collected in cyclones might be used in the manufacture of cheap artifacts.

  15. A review of cashew ( Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review including the processing techniques, properties and uses of cashew apple juice is reported. Cashew apple has multi-purpose; it can be processed to obtain human food. The process of cashew apple into several by-products can affect its nutritional, microbiological, and sensorial quality attributes. Therefore ...

  16. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vestergaard, H; Stahl Skov, P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...... frequency of reactions to placebo, probably due to the ingredients used for blinding. The sensitivity of the models with freshly grated apple and freeze-dried apple powder was 0.74/0.60. An increase in sensitivity is desirable. The freeze-dried apple powder proved to be useful for SPT, HR, and oral...

  17. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DO SUCO DE MAÇÃ PROCESSADO COM CASCA DE ARROZ COMO COADJUVANTE DE PRENSAGEM SENSORIAL EVALUATION OF APPLE JUICE PROCESSED TOGETHER WITH RICE HULL AS PRESSING AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul VICENZI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Suco de maçã da variedade Fuji processado com casca de arroz como auxiliar na prensagem foi avaliado sensorialmente. Na prensagem foi utilizada pressão de trabalho de 150 e 200kgf/cm² sobre a polpa triturada e adicionado casca de arroz nas concentrações de 0; 1; 3 e 5%. Após o processamento foram efetuadas avaliações de rendimento e sensoriais por equipe de julgadores treinados. A maior concentração de casca de arroz proporcionou maior incremento no rendimento de extração do suco de maçã, superior às médias das testemunhas. Na pressão de 150kgf/cm² a testemunha obteve um rendimento de 59,91%, enquanto a concentração com 5% de casca de arroz teve um rendimento de 76,09%. Para a pressão de 200kgf/cm², a testemunha apresentou média de 66,52% e a concentração com 5% de casca de arroz obteve o maior rendimento de extração, média de 73,19%. Na avaliação sensorial, observa-se diferença significativa entre as testemunhas e os tratamentos, especialmente quanto aos atributos cor, odor e sabor. Na qualidade geral, os sucos obtidos com o tratamento testemunha foram considerados de melhor qualidade que aqueles obtidos com os tratamentos onde foi adicionado auxiliar de prensagem casca de arroz, indicando que este tratamento influencia negativamente na qualidade final do produto.The apple juice of the Fuji variety went through a sensorial evaluation in which it was processed together with rice hull that served as a pressing aid. The triturated pulp was pressed under a working pressure of 150 and 200kgf/cm² and rice hull was added in a concentration of 0; 1; 3 and 5%. A group of trained testers submitted the product of the process to sensory and yield evaluations. The highest concentration of rice hull provided higher increase in the yield of the apple juice extraction, higher than the average of the witnesses. Using a working pressure of 150kgf/cm² the yield obtained with the witness was of 59.91% while the 5% rice hull

  18. Produção de goma xantana por fermentação do resíduo de suco de maçã Xanthan gum production by fermentation from residue of apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Izabel Druzian

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Goma xantana é um heteropolissacarídeo hidrosolúvel, produzida industrialmente por fermentação da sacarose por Xanthomonas campestris. Suas excelentes propriedades reológicas contribuem para o grande número de aplicações na indústria de alimentos e recuperação terciária de petróleo. Economicamnte a utilização petroquímica não é ainda viável em função do custo da sacarose, o que torna interessante estudar fontes de carbonos alternativas, como é o caso do resíduo do suco de maçã. As cepas de Xanthomonas campestris pv maniothis foram mantidas em agar YM a 4 °C, e o inóculo foi incubado em meio YM. A produção de goma foi realizada nos meios fermentativos I e II, com sacarose como fonte de carbono padrão, e como fonte alternativa o resíduo de maçã fuji. A fermentação em Incubadora/28 °C/150 rpm produziu goma precipitada em álcool. A condição otimizada de 45 g.L-1 de meio II (0,05% uréia, 0,5% de KH2PO4 e 70% de resíduo representou um rendimento 10 vezes maior do que o obtido com sacarose. Por CG-EM obteve-se 44,53% de manose, 34,76% de glicose e 20,71% de ácido glucurônico para a composição desta goma. O uso de resíduo de maçã para produção de goma xantana é viável porque pode ser usado com um substrato suplementar e apresentar rendimento de goma muito superior ao obtido com sacarose.Xanthan gum is heteropolysaccharide aquosoluble produced industrially for fermentation with sucrose by Xanthomonas campestris. Excellent gum rheological properties contribute to the use in a wide range of applications in the food industry and tertiary recovery of oil. Commercially, the use of petrochemical is no longer viable in the cost of sucrose, which makes it interesting to evaluate alternative carbon sources such as the residue from apple juice processing. The Xanthomonas campestris pv maniothis was maintained at 4 °C on YM agar slants and innocuous in a medium of YM. Gum production was carried out in

  19. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  20. comparative in vitro antioxidant properties of water juice from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JUICE FROM SELECTED AFRICAN FRUITS CONSUMED IN ... from African star apple (Chrysophyllumafricanum) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) were significantly (p<0.05) higher .... the formula as given by Chinaka and colleagues, and.

  1. Influence of aeration in the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata during fermentation of apple juice; Influencia de la aireacion en la actividad fermentativa de Kloeckera apiculata durante la fermentacion de jugo de manzana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estela Escalante, Waldir D; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel; Guerrero Ochoa, Manuel R

    2012-07-01

    The influence of aeration on the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata RIVE 9-2-1 was studied in order to evaluate the production of metabolites of the fermentation. To achieve this, the strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks containing sterilized and aroma removed apple juice, and the chemical compounds produced during fermentation in shaken (200 min-1) and static (without agitation) cultivation were determined. The results showed that the agitation of the culture medium increases production of higher alcohols (till 591.0 mg/L) compared to static cultivation, whereas on the contrary, the production of acetic acid, ethyl acetate and glycerol (260.0 ± 11.0 mg/L, 196.0 ± 10.0 mg/L y 2.6±0.2 g/L) were higher compared to shaken cultivation (222.0 ± 8.0 mg/L, 96.0 ± 4.5 mg/L and 1.8 ± 0.2 g/L) respectively. Batch cultivations carried out in bioreactor with air flux of 25 l/h reported a growth rate μ of 0.17 h-1, production of ethanol (12.5 ± 2.0 g/L) and other compounds typically produced during alcoholic fermentation. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the fermentation medium affects its metabolism thus; insufficient amounts of oxygen would provoke a respirofermentative metabolism. The best results in terms of organoleptic quality of the fermented beverage regarding to aroma, taste and flavor was obtained when fermented in static cultivation. The control of aeration during fermentation can be used to control the synthesis of chemical compounds of sensory impact in the production of fermented beverages.

  2. Food-drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice: An update review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice-99mTc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine, increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids. Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food–drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice

  3. Characterization of cider apples on the basis of their fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gomis, Domingo; Mangas Alonso, Juan J; Margolles Cabrales, Inmaculada; Arias Abrodo, Pilar

    2002-02-27

    In the current study, the fatty acids composition of 30 monovarietal apple juices from six cider apple varieties belonging to two categories was analyzed. The different apple juices were obtained from three consecutive harvests (1997, 1998, and 1999). The fatty acids concentration in apple juice together with chemometric techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), allowed us to differentiate apple juices on the basis of the sweet or sharp category to which the cider apple variety belongs. Fatty acids such as the unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids, and saturated caprylic, capric, stearic, and palmitic acids were related to the sweet cider apple category, while pentadecanoic acid is related to the sharp class.

  4. Opalescent and cloudy fruit juices: formation and particle stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Tom

    2002-07-01

    Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate is shown to be the true stable cloud and to contain considerable protein, carbohydrate, and lipid components. Often, tannin is present as well. The fine cloud probably arises from cell membranes and appears not to be simply cell debris. Factors relating to the stability of fruit juice cloud, including particle sizes, size distribution, and density, are described and discussed. Factors promoting stable cloud in juice are presented.

  5. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders; Poulsen, Morten; Krath, Britta N; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Dragsted, Lars O; Wilcks, Andrea

    2010-01-20

    Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles.A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet) for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P apple pectin (7% in the diet) increases the population of butyrate- and beta-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.

  6. Structural characterization of pectic hairy regions isolated from apple cell walls = Structuurkenmerken van vertakte pectine fragmenten afkomstig van de celwanden van appel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, H.

    1995-01-01

    Cell wall pectic substances have a great influence on the production and quality aspects of apple juice. Apple juices were characterized by their polysaccharide content and composition. A pectic fraction, retained by ultrafiltration of a liquefaction juice, was isolated and termed MHR

  7. Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Juice with Added Chokeberry Powder (Aronia melanocarpa)

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Šic Žlabur; Nadica Dobričević; Stjepan Pliestić; Ante Galić; Daniela Patricia Bilić; Sandra Voća

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the influence of ultrasound assisted extraction on the bioactive compounds content, nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of apple juice with added chokeberry powder. The juice samples with added chokeberry powder had higher antioxidant...

  8. Estudo da estabilidade quÍmica e microbiológica do suco de caju in natura armazenado em diferentes condições de estocagem Study of the chemical and microbiological stability of cashew apple juice in different storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Conde Lavinas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O caju, rico em nutrientes, apresenta alta perecibilidade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a estabilidade química, físico-química e microbiológica do suco de caju in natura mantido em temperatura ambiente por 24 h, estocado sob refrigeração por sete dias e sob congelamento por 120 dias. O teor de ácido ascórbico no suco recém-extraído foi de 147,29 ± 0,41 mg/100 mL e reduziu em 6,57% em temperatura ambiente. Durante a estocagem sob refrigeração e congelamento, as taxas de redução dessa vitamina foram 1,16% ao dia e 0,05% ao dia, respectivamente. Foi observado aumento na contagem de bactérias mesófilas totais e fungos filamentosos e leveduras no suco mantido em temperatura ambiente. Nos sucos estocados sob refrigeração durante sete dias houve redução da contagem de bactérias mesófilas totais e aumento na contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras. Nos sucos congelados, a contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras permaneceu inferior à inicial, enquanto a de bactérias mesófilas totais apresentou variação até o trigésimo dia. A partir deste período, esta permaneceu estável em menos de um ciclo logarítmico acima da contagem inicial. Nos períodos estudados, refrigeração e congelamento mostraram-se eficazes na preservação do ácido ascórbico e da qualidade microbiológica do suco de caju in natura.Cashew apple, which is rich in nutrients, is highly perishable. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical, physicochemical and microbiological stability of cashew apple juice kept at room temperature for 24 h, refrigerated for seven days or frozen for 120 days. The ascorbic acid content in fresh cashew apple juice was 147.29 ± 0.41 mg/ 100 mL and decreased 6.57% when kept under room temperature. In the juices stored when refrigerated and when frozen, a reduction rate of ascorbic acid was 1.16%/day and 0.05%/day, respectively. The chemical and physicochemical parameters remained stable

  9. Reclamation of opencut spoil piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    A successful reclamation program requires definite physical/engineering guidelines, a specific time commitment and to be fully integrated in the mining operation enabling most efficient use of available resources. This statement should be immediately qualified by saying that there must be enough flexibility to allow for varying mine layouts, plans and conditions. Mine conditions include physical and chemical spoil properties, climatic conditions and local topographic effects. Whilst reclamation is the responsibility of individual mine managers, the author undertakes a co-ordinating function amongst mine environmental officers to ensure that experience gained is recorded. Exchange of information between mines is maintained and there is a minimum duplication of effort.

  10. Impact of apple cultivar, ripening stage, fermentation type and yeast strain on phenolic composition of apple ciders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Oskar; Kuldjärv, Rain; Paalme, Toomas; Virkki, Mira; Yang, Baoru

    2017-10-15

    Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices. Furthermore, the apple cultivars were significantly different in their phenolic contents and compositions. Additionally, ciders and juices made from unripe apples contained more phenolic compounds than the ripe or overripe, but the effect was dependent on cultivar. The commercial yeast strains differed in the release of free HCAs, especially p-coumaric acid, during the yeast fermentation. In ciders inoculated with S. bayanus, the content was higher than in ciders fermented with S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of the Electrocatalytic Activity of Cerium Oxide and Gold-Studded Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Using a Sonogel-Carbon Material as Supporting Electrode: Electroanalytical Study in Apple Juice for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahim, M. Yahia M.; Benjamin, Stephen R.; Cubillana-Aguilera, Laura Ma; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Ignacio; Hidalgo-Hidalgo de Cisneros, Josè L.; Delgado, Juan Josè; Palacios-Santander, Josè Ma

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports a study of the electrocatalytic activity of CeO2 nanoparticles and gold sononanoparticles (AuSNPs)/CeO2 nanocomposite, deposited on the surface of a Sonogel-Carbon (SNGC) matrix used as supporting electrode and the application of the sensing devices built with them to the determination of ascorbic acid (AA) used as a benchmark analyte. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to investigate the electrocatalytic behavior of CeO2- and AuSNPs/CeO2-modified SNGC electrodes, utilizing different concentrations of CeO2 nanoparticles and different AuSNPs:CeO2 w/w ratios. The best detection and quantification limits, obtained for CeO2 (10.0 mg·mL−1)- and AuSNPs/CeO2 (3.25% w/w)-modified SNGC electrodes, were 1.59 × 10−6 and 5.32 × 10−6 M, and 2.93 × 10−6 and 9.77 × 10−6 M, respectively, with reproducibility values of 5.78% and 6.24%, respectively, for a linear concentration range from 1.5 μM to 4.0 mM of AA. The electrochemical devices were tested for the determination of AA in commercial apple juice for babies. The results were compared with those obtained by applying high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method. Recovery errors below 5% were obtained in most cases, with standard deviations lower than 3% for all the modified SNGC electrodes. Bare, CeO2- and AuSNPs/CeO2-modified SNGC electrodes were structurally characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). AuSNPs and AuSNPs/CeO2 nanocomposite were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and information about their size distribution and shape was obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM;. The advantages of employing CeO2 nanoparticles and AuSNPs/CeO2 nanocomposite in SNGC supporting material are also described. This research suggests that the modified electrode can be a very promising voltammetric sensor for the determination of

  12. Hydroseeding on anthracite coal-mine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; Ross Writer

    1970-01-01

    A study was made of the performance of selected species of legumes, grasses, and trees hydroseeded on anthracite coal-mine spoils in a slurry of lime, fertilizer, and mulch. Hydroseeding failed on coal-breaker refuse, but was partially successful on strip-mine spoils.

  13. Stable isotopes determination in some Romanian fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Puscas, Romulus

    2011-09-01

    The characterisation of 45 Romanian single-strength fruit juices (apples, pears, plums and grapes) collected from different Transylvanian areas by means of stable isotope approach are presented and discussed in this study. We measured (2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O ratios from water juice and (13)C/(12)C from pulp and compared these results with those already reported in the literature for single-strength juices, in order to see how the geographical and climatic conditions of Transylvania and the meteorological peculiarities of the year 2010 influence the isotopic composition of the investigated fruit juices. The δ(13)C mean values that we found for apple pulp picked up from different Transylvanian areas show slight differences, probably due to the environmental conditions of the plants. No significant correlation either between the variety of apple or the geographical origin and δ(13)C value was established.

  14. Chemical pattern of brazilian apples: a chemometric approach based on the Fuji and Gala varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,Renato Giovanetti; Prestes,Rosilene Aparecida; Denardi,Frederico; Nogueira,Alessandro; Wosiacki,Gilvan

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of apple juices may be used to discriminate between the varieties for consumption and those for raw material. Fuji and Gala have a chemical pattern that can be used for this classification. Multivariate methods correlate independent continuous chemical descriptors with the categorical apple variety. Three main descriptors of apple juice were selected: malic acid, total reducing sugar and total phenolic compounds. A chemometric approach, employing PCA and SIMCA, was us...

  15. Sugar composition of depectinized apple juices

    OpenAIRE

    Wosiacki, Gilvan; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Nogueira, Alessandro; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Denardi, Frederico; Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e de Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina; Vieira, Renato Giovanetti; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa

    2007-01-01

    Suco de maçã, o segundo mais consumido no mundo, apresenta glucose, frutose e sacarose como os principais açúcares em proporções praticamente definidas. Adulterações intencionais mantendo as características de proporções de açúcares são possíveis pela adição de xarope com altos teores de frutose ou açúcar invertido, mas pode resultar em diminuição da qualidade sensorial e nutricional dos sucos. O perfil de açúcares em sucos de maçã, embora dependente do grau de maturação, da característica do...

  16. Double-blind, placebo controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Vestergaard, H.S.; Skov, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...... the pollen season and took place from 1997 to 1999. The freeze-dried apple material was characterized by means of leukocyte histamine release (HR), skin prick test (SPT), and immunoblotting experiments. The study population consisted of birch pollen-allergic patients with a history of rhinitis in the birch......-pollen season and positive specific IgE to birch. For comparison of the DBPCFC models, 65 patients with a positive open oral challenge with apple were selected. In the characterization of the freeze-dried apple material, 46 birch pollen-allergic patients were included. The IgE reactivity to apple was evaluated...

  17. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  18. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed...

  19. Carbohydrate absorption from one serving of fruit juice in young children: age and carbohydrate composition effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobigrot, T; Chasalow, F I; Lifshitz, F

    1997-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that: the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption in childhood increases with age, and decreased carbohydrate absorption occurs more frequently with juices containing more fructose than glucose and/or sorbitol than with juices which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. One hundred and four healthy children were recruited from the Ambulatory Center at Maimonides Children's Center. They were assigned to one of three age groups: approximately 1, 3 and 5 years of age. Each child received one age-specific dose (by randomization) of one of four juices: a) pear juice which contains fructose in excess to glucose and a large amount of sorbitol; b) apple juice which is similar to pear juice in its fructose to glucose ratio but contains four times less sorbitol than pear juice; c) white grape juice or d) purple grape juice both of which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. Breath hydrogen excretion (BH2) was utilized as the index of carbohydrate absorption. It was measured in fasting children and at 30-minute intervals for 3 hours after drinking the single serving of juice. Multiple breath hydrogen related parameters were quantified and results were expressed as: BH2 peak, area under the curve, and degree of carbohydrate malabsorption. After the test, parents completed a questionnaire and recorded signs and symptoms of intestinal malabsorption for 24 hours. Pear juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher among children 1 and 3 years of age as compared to the levels achieved after the other juices. Apple juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher only among the youngest age group of children. There was no significant difference in carbohydrate absorption among the 5 year old children regardless of the juice consumed. Incomplete carbohydrate absorption (BH2 peak above 20 ppm) occurred more frequently after pear juice consumption (84%) than after apple juice (41%) or grape juice

  20. Apple wine processing with different nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7; 4.42 x 10(7 and 8.66 x 10(7 cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the maximum fermentation rates were dependent on the initial nitrogen level, corresponding to 1.4, 5.1 and 9.2 g/L.day, respectively. The nitrogen content in the apple musts was an important factor of growth and fermentation velocity.

  1. fruit juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  2. Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Juice with Added Chokeberry Powder (Aronia melanocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šic Žlabur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the influence of ultrasound assisted extraction on the bioactive compounds content, nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of apple juice with added chokeberry powder. The juice samples with added chokeberry powder had higher antioxidant capacity, irrespective of the extraction technique used. Apple juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound had significantly higher content of all analyzed bioactive compounds. The application of high intensity ultrasound significantly reduced the extraction time of the plant material. A positive correlation between vitamin C content, total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity was determined in juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound.

  3. Low dose irradiation influence on yield and quality of fruit juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.; Isaacs, A.R.; Williams, D.J.; McLauchlan, R.L.; Nottingham, S.M.; Hammerton, K.

    1991-01-01

    Granny Smith apples, Valencia oranges, and Pearlette grapes grown in Queensland, Australia were irradiated at 0, 75, 300 and 600 Gy. Following irradiation, juice was extracted and analysed for quality and compositional changes. Irradiation treatment significantly (p0.05) decreased yield of apple juice (by 6.3% w/w at 600 Gy) and grape juice (by 4.8% w/w at 600 Gy) but did not significantly (p0.05) affect yield of orange juice (OJ). Acceptability significantly (p0.05) decreased in OJ after 600 Gy treatment. Other changes in quality and composition were minimal. Juice from irradiated apples and oranges stored at 5 degrees C for 8 wk showed similar results

  4. Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Juice with Added Chokeberry Powder (Aronia melanocarpa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šic Žlabur, Jana; Dobričević, Nadica; Pliestić, Stjepan; Galić, Ante; Bilić, Daniela Patricia; Voća, Sandra

    2017-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the influence of ultrasound assisted extraction on the bioactive compounds content, nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of apple juice with added chokeberry powder. The juice samples with added chokeberry powder had higher antioxidant capacity, irrespective of the extraction technique used. Apple juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound had significantly higher content of all analyzed bioactive compounds. The application of high intensity ultrasound significantly reduced the extraction time of the plant material. A positive correlation between vitamin C content, total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity was determined in juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound.

  5. Development and Analysis of Quality Parameters of an Innovative Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca FARCAS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the functional products represent a sustainable trend in food industry due to the beneficial effects that they have on the human body as well as due to the increased interest of people for a healthy and balanced lifestyle. The aim of the present study was to develop and optimize a pumpkin and apple functional juice, respectively to accomplish the quality control in terms of its physicochemical and sensorial properties. The highest levels of vitamin C occurred in pumpkin and implicitly in the juice obtained in the 1:1 ratio, which also presented the highest antioxidant activity. The nitrates content was at very low level in all the analysed sample, with values between 24.7-41.2 mg/kg for apple and pumpkin, respectively between 28.41-30.94 mg/kg for juices. Also, the consumers were impressed by sensorial and nutritional properties of the new product, positively appreciating both variants of juice.

  6. The effects of apple pulp and probiotic on performance, egg quality traits and blood parameters of laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Shabaz Noranian; Ali Nobakht

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Apple is one of the most important fruits that is produced in the large amount in Iran. It is a good source of vitamins and minerals and active fiber. Most of the apples that product in Iran are use in food industry for producing different kinds of apple juices. After Juicing, more than 20% of apple, remain as waste. The remained matter contain considerable amount of vitamins and minerals that usually found in fresh apple, moreover it is rich source of pectin and crude fiber. Gen...

  7. Chemical pattern of brazilian apples: a chemometric approach based on the Fuji and Gala varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Giovanetti Vieira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of apple juices may be used to discriminate between the varieties for consumption and those for raw material. Fuji and Gala have a chemical pattern that can be used for this classification. Multivariate methods correlate independent continuous chemical descriptors with the categorical apple variety. Three main descriptors of apple juice were selected: malic acid, total reducing sugar and total phenolic compounds. A chemometric approach, employing PCA and SIMCA, was used to classify apple juice samples. PCA was performed with 24 juices from Fuji and Gala, and SIMCA, with 15 juices. The exploratory and predictive models recognized 88% and 64%, respectively, as belonging to a mixed domain. The apple juice from commercial fruits shows a pattern related to cv. Fuji and Gala with boundaries from 0.18 to 0.389 g.100 mL-1 (malic acid, from 8.65 to 15.18 g.100 mL-1 (total reducing sugar and from 100 to 400 mg.L-1 (total phenolic compounds, but such boundaries were slightly shorter in the remaining set of commercial apple juices, specifically from 0.16 to 0.36 g.100 mL-1, from 9.25 to 15.5 g.100 mL-1 and from 180 to 606 mg.L-1 for acidity, reducing sugar and phenolic compounds, respectively, representing the acid, sweet and bitter tastes.

  8. Avaliação da metodologia microbiológica para determinação de 5-metiltetrahidrofolato em suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Evaluation of a microbiological method for the determination of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in cashew apple juice (Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya de Oliveira Sancho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Embora o suco de caju seja bastante consumido no Brasil e muitos estudos sobre seu valor nutricional tenham sido publicados, a literatura não reporta estudos sobre a determinação de folatos nesse suco. Várias técnicas analíticas podem ser utilizadas visando à detecção da referida vitamina. Optou-se por utilizar o ensaio microbiológico oficial de determinação de folatos em alimentos, utilizando-se Lactobacillus casei como microrganismo de teste. Foram testados a utilização de ultrassom e tratamento enzimático como fases preparatórias, a fim de determinar qual a melhor metodologia a ser empregada. Foram comparados também o uso de padrões de ácido fólico e folato. Os resultados mostraram que o emprego de enzima é indicado como fase preparatória na determinação desta vitamina em suco de caju. A utilização de ultrassom não interferiu, significativamente, nos resultados encontrados, sendo seu emprego dispensável. Os teores de folato encontrados no suco de caju integral in natura indicam que o consumo de uma porção de 200 mL do suco equivale à ingestão de aproximadamente 500 µg de folato, valor superior à ingestão diária recomendada para adultos.Although cashew apple juice has been highly consumed in Brazil and several studies on its nutritional value have been published, no studies on the determination of folate contents in this juice were found in the literature. Several analytic techniques can be employed for the folate determination in foods. In this study, the microbiological assay using Lactobacillus casei was employed. Enzyme treatment and ultrasound waves were tested as pretreatment. The use of standards of folic acid and folate were also evaluated. The results showed that the enzyme treatment cannot be replaced by ultrasound treatment. The consumption of 200 mL of in natura cashew apple juice corresponds to a folate intake of 500 µg, which is higher than the recommended daily intake for adults.

  9. Haze in Apple-Based Beverages: Detailed Polyphenol, Polysaccharide, Protein, and Mineral Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Melanie; Poupard, Pascal; Le Quéré, Jean-Michel; Bauduin, Remi; Guyot, Sylvain

    2017-08-09

    Producers of apple-based beverages are confronted with colloidal instability. Haze is caused by interactions between molecules that lead to the formation of aggregates. Haze composition in three apple-based beverages, namely, French sparkling cider, apple juice, and pommeau, was studied. Phenolic compounds, proteins, polysaccharides, and minerals were analyzed using global and detailed analytical methods. The results explained apple juice hazes, where they were the main constituents (18 and 24%). Polysaccharides accounted for 0-30% of haze. Potassium and calcium were the main minerals.

  10. Newton's Apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  11. Determination of essential and toxic elements in commercially available fruit juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yawar, W.; Rahman, S.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out for the determination of Cr, Pb, Fe in different varieties of commercially available packed fruit juices like apple, mango orange and mixed flavour by using flame and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. These juices are available at a reasonable price and are commonly used by public. Like many other articles the baseline levels of essential and toxic elements in Pakistani fruit juices are generally not available. It was, therefore, considered to monitor the levels of essential as well toxic elements in the juices. Hence a variety of juices was collected from local market and measurements of the above mentioned elements were made. (author)

  12. Effects of Juice Matrix and Pasteurization on Stability of Black Currant Anthocyanins during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Gary; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2017-01-01

    The effects of juice matrix and pasteurization on the stability of total phenols and especially total and individual anthocyanins were examined in black currant (BC) juice and mixtures with apple, persimmon, and peach juices at 4 °C and 20 °C. Total phenol content decreased in all juices at both temperatures but there was a trend to lower levels in unpasteurized over pasteurized juices. Differences in the decline of total anthocyanins between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices varied according to the juice type and the storage temperature. At 4 °C storage, anthocyanins declined in all juices according to pseudo 1st-order kinetics and there were only small differences in the rates between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices. However, at 20 °C, although pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices and pasteurized mixed juices followed pseudo 1st-order kinetics, there was a different pattern in unpasteurized mixed juices; a rapid initial decline was followed by a slowing down. The effect of the added juice on anthocyanin decline was also different at either temperature. At 4 °C, the anthocyanins decreased faster in mixed juices than BC juice alone, but at 20 °C, at least in pasteurized mixed juices, the decline was similar or even slower than in BC juice; there were only small differences among the 3 mixed juices. At 20 °C, in pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices, the rate of decrease was essentially the same for all 4 individual anthocyanins but in the mixed juices the 2 glucosides decreased significantly faster than the 2 rutinosides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Inhibition of Nonenzymatic Protein Glycation by Pomegranate and Other Fruit Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 μL of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ∼90% at 5 μg/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

  14. Distribution of multiple pesticide residues in apple segments after home processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H. C. B.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of washing, storing, boiling, peeling, coring and juicing on pesticide residue were investigated for field-sprayed Discovery and Jonagold apples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, diazinon, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, iprodione, kre...

  15. Patulin contamination in apple products marketed in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poostforoushfard, Ali; Pishgar, Ahmad R; Berizi, Enayat; Nouraei, Hasti; Sobhani, Zahra; Mirzaie, Rohallah; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2017-12-01

    Patulin is one of the important mycotoxins, produced by a wide range of molds, including Penicillium , Aspergillus, and Bysochlamys. Patulin is mainly found in the rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, such as apples, pears, peach, apricots, and grapes. Currently, the Codex Alimentarius and Food and Drug Administration have recommended a maximum level of 50 µg/L patulin for apple products. The purpose of this study was to investigate patulin contamination of apple juice and cans in 75 samples collected from 15 manufacturers in Shiraz, southern Iran. The detection of patulin was accomplished using a high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector. A total of 38 apple juice samples (53%) and 17 apple cans (45%) were contaminated with patulin. Overall 50% and 3% of the apple juice and apple cans samples had a patulin level of > 3 µg/L. Although the maximum level of patulin in our samples was considerably lower than the permitted level established by the European Union (i.e., 50 µg/L), the high incidence of this mycotoxin in our samples should be lessen by improving their good manufacturing practice.

  16. The biological costs of not reclaiming bentonite mine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1982-01-01

    Bentonite clay has been mined in the northern Great Plains for more than 80 years. Until the late 1960's, mine spoil materials were left in steep piles and no effort was made to restore biological productivity to these disturbed sites. As a result, unreclaimed spoils are barren and eroded. The biological costs of not reclaiming these spoils are examined in this...

  17. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of ...

  18. Race, Commitment to Deviance, and Spoiled Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony R.

    1976-01-01

    Data generated by 234 young black and white inmates in 1971 challenge the assumption that spoiled identity is a necessary, socially invariant outcome of deviant commitment and self-definition. For blacks, the relationship between criminal self-typing and stability and esteem is negative but inconsequential; for whites, the relationship is negative…

  19. A Spectral Emissivity Library of Spoil Substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivovarník, Marek; Pikl, Miroslav; Frouz, J.; Zemek, František; Kopačková, V.; Notesco, G.; Ben Dor, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2016) E-ISSN 2306-5729 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : post-mining sites * spectral emissivity * spectral library * spoil substrates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  20. The Influence of Different Apple Based Supplements on the Intestinal Microbiota of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective: The present project is part of the large ISAFRUIT project, where one of the objectives is to identify effects of apple and apple product on parameters related to gut health. In a previous rat study we observed changes in the intestinal microbiota of rats fed whole apples......, pomace or apple pectin ([1], and we were interested in finding out if the same effect can be observed in humans. Method: The study was conducted as a randomized, controlled 5 x 28 days cross-over study with 24 healthy persons of both genders. The persons were following a pectin- and polyphenol free......-free), 3) cloudy juice (apple juice with pulp), and 4) pomace (press cake from the cloudy juice production process). Fecal samples were taken before and after each diet period. After DNA extraction, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) with universal primers and specific primers...

  1. Patulin in domestic and imported apple-based drinks in Belgium: occurrence and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangni, E K; Theys, R; Mignolet, E; Maudoux, M; Michelet, J Y; Larondelle, Y

    2003-05-01

    Apple-based beverages are regularly consumed by adults and children in Belgium. They are locally produced or imported from other countries. The apples used as starting material for these productions are frequently contaminated by mycotoxin-producing moulds and damaged during transport and handling. The current study was undertaken to investigate whether patulin (PAT) is present in the industrial or handicraft-made apple juices and ciders consumed by the Belgian population and to assess the population's exposure to this mycotoxin through apple-based drinks. Belgian (n = 29) and imported (14) apple juices as well as ciders (7) were assayed for PAT by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet light detection. PAT was detected respectively in 79, 86 and 43% of these tested samples. However, no contaminated sample exceeded the safe level of 50 microg PAT l(-1). Levels of PAT contamination were comparable in Belgian and imported juice samples. The overall mean PAT concentrations were 9.0 and 3.4 microg l(-1) for contaminated apple juices and ciders, respectively. This study also indicates that there was no statistically significant difference in the mean PAT contamination between clear (7.8 microg l(-1)) and cloudy (10.7 microg l(-1)) apple juices, as well as between handicraft-made apple juices (14.6 microg l(-1)) and industrial ones (7.0 microg l(-1)). On the basis of the mean results, a consumer exposure assessment indicates that a daily intake of 0.2 litres apple juice contributes to 45% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake for a child of 10 kg body weight.

  2. A STUDY OF MICROBES IN FRUIT JUICES, KIMS-AMALAPURAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fruit and sugarcane juices are nutritious drinks with great taste and health benefits. Food borne illnesses associated with consumption of Fruit and sugarcane juices at several places in India and elsewhere. Fruit juices were served with added ice pieces. Hygienic standards are not maintained while transporting from the field to the place of extraction and preparation. Hence a rapid review of the fruit juices from street vendors has been undertaken along with sugarcane juice. Raw sugarcane juice is a refreshing juice in many parts of Andhra Pradesh. The present study is to assess the prevalence of different organisms from different fruit juices collected from street vendors. METHODS Fruit juices are collected namely sugarcane, sweet lemon, orange, grape apple, pineapple pomegranate. A total 100 samples of fruit juices were collected from road side from different vendors. 150 ml of each variety of fruit juices were collected from different vendors in screw capped bottles and subjected to microbial analysis, processed with in 30mts in the department of microbiology at KIMS by standard methods. RESULTS The analysed samples of fruit juices are found to be contaminated with different bacteria, Escherichia coli 30% Klebsiella pneumoniae 10% Staphylococcus aureus 20% Enterococcus faecalis 04% Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10% ASB 04% (aerobic spore bearers Micrococci 02% Proteus 20% Salmonella. Shigella and Vibrios were not isolated. CONCLUSION It is high time that street vendors should have health education by volunteers, health workers from PHC (primary health centers and people well versed with community medicine practice for implementation of standard hygienic protocols may reduce contamination of fruit and sugarcane juices The concerned health authorities need to ensure and insist to follow the protocols by the vendors and license holders to the vendors.

  3. Effects of commonly consumed fruit juices and carbohydrates on redox status and anticancer biomarkers in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke M.; Nielsen, Salka E.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2003-01-01

    /kg of diet. However, no effects were observed on hepatic glutathione S-transferase or quinone reductase activities, plasma redox status, or the activity of red blood cell antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that commonly consumed fruit juices can alter lipid and protein......Administration of apple juice, black currant juice, ora 1:1 combination of the two juices significantly decreased the level of the lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde in plasma of female rats, whereas the protein oxidation biomarker 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde, was significantly increased...... following administration of orange juice, black currant juice, or the 1: 1 combination of apple and black currant juice. A significant increase in 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde was also observed in control rats given sucrose, fructose, and glucose in the drinking water at concentrations approximating...

  4. Protective-decorative revegetation of spoil banks in the Donbass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baklanov, V.I.; Podkopaev, A.A.

    1985-05-01

    Spoil bank reclamation in the Donbass is discussed, where there were 1195 spoil banks from underground coal mines in 1984, 80% of which were conic shaped. The average spoil bank was 60 to 80 m high, base surface was 4.2 ha, volume amounted to 1,144,000 mT. Ninety-five spoil banks were situated in cities or towns and were a source of environmental pollution. Reclamation of a spoil bank in the No 6/14 coal mine in the Makeevugol' association is analyzed. Buildup of the spoil bank started in 1930. The spoil bank was 72 m high, its base was 8.05 ha large, slopes were inclined at 25 to 36 degrees, volume of material amounted to 2.2 million mT. From 1973 to 1978 shape of the spoil bank was changed: its height was reduced to 40 m, slope inclination was reduced to 25 degrees. Spontaneous combustion was controlled by changing spoil bank shape. Slopes were divided into a number of terraces. The spoil bank was covered with a 0.3 m thick soil cover suitable for vegetation. Sainfoin (Onobrychis) was sown on leveled zones of the spoil bank and false acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) was planted on the terraces. Plant growth in the first and second years was satisfactory.

  5. An explorative study of the effect of apple and apple products on the human plasma metabolome investigated by LC–MS profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rago, Daniela; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide and it has been associated with several health effects, especially on plasma cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease both in human and animal studies. By using an untargeted metabolomics approach we wanted to investigate whether...... supplementation of whole apple or processed apple products affect the human plasma metabolome. Therefore, 24 healthy volunteers were recruited for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study and receiving supplement of whole apples (550 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), dried apple...... metabolome than the other apple products. We observed an effect on branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids degradation, and a decreased use of lipid fuels indicating an improvement in glucose utilisation. A reduced level of plasma bile acids after apple consumption may indicate less re...

  6. Influence of prefermentary clarification on the composition of apple musts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Bertrand; Baron, Alain; Le Quere, Jean-Michel; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2007-06-27

    The polyphenol contents and colors of cider apple juices were compared before (NCM, not clarified must) and after five clarification treatments: enzymatic depectinization by pectinases followed by (i) sedimentation (depectinized and decanted juice), (ii) tangential microfiltration (microfiltered juice) or (iii) fining using gelatin (gelatin-treated juice); (iv) enzymatic gelification of pectin by pectin methylesterase followed by natural keeving by a cider manufacturer (producer keeved juice), or (v) flotation (floated with nitrogen gas juice). The pressing of the apples led to the highly selective extraction of the flavan-3-ols with the lowest molecular weights: In the apples, the number average degree of polymerization of the flavanols was 14.7, and it dropped to 2.2 in the NCM. Keeving had the highest impact on the reduction of both flavanol content and number average degree of polymerization. The flavanol concentrations were decreased in the permeate by fining (30%) much more than by depectinization. The clarification step led to a further decrease of the number average degree of polymerization. Hydroxycinnamic acids were less affected by the extraction process (with extraction yields >50%) and not affected by clarification. The color evolved with all treatments: L*, a*, b*, and chromaticity distance index measures indicated a reduction of orange-yellow saturation except after sedimentation.

  7. Knowing Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Shannon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay employs a first-person fictional narrator to explore the nature of human-plant relations through the example of Thoreau’s Wild Apples and enacts the transformational process necessary to write in conjunction with non-conscious vegetal life by paying attention to the unthought known of the vegetative soul.

  8. Spoil characteristics and vegetation development of an age series of mine spoils in a dry tropical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, A K; Singh, J S [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany

    1991-12-01

    A series of coal mine spoils (5,10,12,16 and 20-yr old) in a dry tropical environment was sampled to assess the changes with time in spoil characteristics, species composition and plant biomass. Coarse fragments ({gt} 2 mm) decreased with age of mine spoil while the proportion of 0.2-0.1 mm particles increased. Total soil N, mineral N, NaHCO{sub 3}-extractable P, and exchangeable K increased with age of mine spoil and these parameters were lower in mine spoils than native forest soil even after 20 years of succession. Exchangeable Na decreased with age of mine spoil and in 20-yr old spoil it was higher than native forest soil. Plant community composition changed with age. Only a few species participated in community formation. Species richness increased with age, while evenness and species diversity declined from 5-yr old to 16-yr old community with an increase in the 20-yr old community. A reverse trend occurred for concentration of dominance. Area-weighted shoot and root biomass of other species increased with the age of the mine spoil while that of Xanthium strumarium patches declined with age. Data collection on spoil features, microbial C, N and P,and shoot and root biomass when subjected to Discriminant Analysis indicated a continued profound effect of age. 10 and 12-yr old mine spoils were closer to each other and 5 and 20-yr old spoils were farthest apart.

  9. Spoil characteristics and vegetation development of an age series of mine spoils in a dry tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, A.K.; Singh, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    A series of coal mine spoils (5,10,12,16 and 20-yr old) in a dry tropical environment was sampled to assess the changes with time in spoil characteristics, species composition and plant biomass. Coarse fragments (> 2 mm) decreased with age of mine spoil while the proportion of 0.2-0.1 mm particles increased. Total soil N, mineral N, NaHCO 3 -extractable P, and exchangeable K increased with age of mine spoil and these parameters were lower in mine spoils than native forest soil even after 20 years of succession. Exchangeable Na decreased with age of mine spoil and in 20-yr old spoil it was higher than native forest soil. Plant community composition changed with age. Only a few species participated in community formation. Species richness increased with age, while evenness and species diversity declined from 5-yr old to 16-yr old community with an increase in the 20-yr old community. A reverse trend occurred for concentration of dominance. Area-weighted shoot and root biomass of other species increased with the age of the mine spoil while that of Xanthium strumarium patches declined with age. Data collection on spoil features, microbial C, N and P,and shoot and root biomass when subjected to Discriminant Analysis indicated a continued profound effect of age. 10 and 12-yr old mine spoils were closer to each other and 5 and 20-yr old spoils were farthest apart

  10. Survey of South African fruit juices using a fast screening HILIC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stander, Marietjie A; Kühn, Wernich; Hiten, Nicholas F

    2013-01-01

    Adulteration of fruit juices--by the addition of sugar or other less expensive fruit juices as well as preservatives, artificial sweeteners and colours--was tested for by using a developed screening method. The method employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) using electrospray ionisation in the negative mode and ultraviolet light detection. Different fruit juices can be differentiated by the content of marker compounds like sorbitol, certain phenolic molecules and their saccharide profile. This method was used to test 46 fruit juice samples from the retail market as well as 12 control samples. The study focused on the main types of fruit juices consumed on the South African market including apple, orange, grape and blends of these juices with other fruits like mango, pear and guava. Overall, the 46 samples tested mostly agreed with label claims. One grape juice sample was adulterated, probably with apple juice. Natamycin above the legal limits was found in two samples. In addition, two samples contained natamycin and one sample benzoate without it being indicated on the label. The method is well suited as a quick screening method for fruit juice adulteration and if used routinely would reduce fruit juice adulteration without the cost of the current array of tests needed for authenticity testing.

  11. Spoil dump design and rehabilitation management practices (Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, E.K.H.; Aspinall, T.O.; Kuszmaul, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental impact of mining and evolving environmental legislation has been receiving increased attention worldwide in the last two decades. The potential impacts associated with unstable spoil dumps from mine operations is the focus of concern both by the mining industry, environmental legislative agencies and members of the public. Engineered slopes of mine spoils may be stable at the end of construction, but they can deteriorate over time. There is thus the need to increase the base of knowledge on the existing practices of spoil dump design and rehabilitation. Information concluded from the analysis of the industrial survey carried out on Australian spoil dump management practices at coal, gold and ore mines are presented in this paper. The questionnaire asked for details of soil type of spoils, and factors influencing the design of spoil dumps (climate, rate of erosion, height of dumps, slope gradient and length, overburden handling equipment, soil characteristics, legislation and wastes). 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

  13. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  14. Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  15. Patulin in apple-based foods: occurrence and safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, B; Gaiaschi, A; Galli, C L; Restani, P

    2000-05-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, often detectable in mouldy fruits and their derivatives. On the basis of a PMTDI of 0.4 microgram/kg bw, limit values of 50 micrograms/kg or 50 micrograms/l of patulin have been set in fruit derivatives. To estimate the quantity of patulin that can be taken in with the diet, we analysed by HPLC samples of apples and apple derivatives which are most likely to be contaminated with patulin. In apple juices and in homogenized baby-foods, the mycotoxin concentration was always below the established limits, while in some samples of juice with pulp the mycotoxin content exceeded the safe levels. In rotten apples, not only was the amount of patulin extraordinarily high in the rotten area, but the mycotoxin had also spread to the part unaffected by mould. The data presented in this study indicate that the intake of patulin with apple derivatives is usually below the tolerable level of 0.4 microgram/kg bw/day, but since the patulin content in apples can vary considerably, the quality of fruits used in the production of apple derivatives should be strictly controlled in order not to exceed the safe limits.

  16. New possibilities for slope stability assessment of spoil banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radl, A [Palivovy Kombinat, Vresova (Czechoslovakia)

    1991-03-01

    Discusses problems associated with slope stability of spoil banks consisting of sedimentary rocks from brown coal surface mining. Effects of rock physical properties on slope stability are analyzed: grain size distribution, compression strength, moisture content, angle of internal friction, etc. Mechanism of plastic slope deformation which occurs during a landslide is evaluated. Formulae for calculating slope stability considering stress distribution in a spoil bank (including all the main factors that influence stresses) are derived. Practical use of the gamma-gamma logging and logging schemes used in geodetic surveys of unstable spoil banks in Czechoslovakia (the Vintirov spoil bank in the Sokolov brown coal district) are discussed. 5 refs.

  17. Influence of processing on the quality of pomaceas juice (Pyrus communis and Malus domestica) - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i1.15360

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Andressa Schaia; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Ávila, Suelen; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Nogueira, Alessandro; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa

    2012-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus communis), which is intensively cultivated in subtropical and temperate climates, has recently attained the 3rd position in the world fruit ranking, just after apple and peach. This fruit exhibits certain similarities to apple with respect to the pulp, but pear is used as a raw material only when apple is no longer available, which suggests that the same technology line may be utilized. Both fruits do have processing compatibilities, and it is permissible to add pear juice to appl...

  18. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  19. Amino Acid profile as a feasible tool for determination of the authenticity of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpoor, Mostafa; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

    2014-12-01

    Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA). Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles with the standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can provide the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier juice. The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis.

  20. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results Principal Component Analysis (PCA of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks, while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa, as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals. Conclusions Our findings show that consumption of apple pectin (7% in the diet increases the population of butyrate- and β-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.

  1. Hydrologic modeling of reclaimed strip mine spoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, K.B.; Stoertz, M.W.; Turney, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) of a surface coal mine in southeast Ohio was calibrated under steady state conditions to match measured heads by varying hydraulic conductivity (K) and recharge (R). Sensitivity studies indicated that K was not largely dependent on the poorly quantified underclay elevation or on the lake boundary condition. The baseflow recharge was determined to be between 8 and 60 mm/yr (1 to 6% of annual rainfall) and K between 0.004 and 0.01 cm/s for the spoil aquifer

  2. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  3. Physical chemical and technological evaluation of the juice of seven apple tree cultivars/ Avaliação físico-química e tecnológica do suco de sete cultivares de macieira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvan Wosiacki

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The pomiculture in the Southern States of Brazil is responsible for 98% of the Brazilian apple production. Up to 80% of this production, (880 metric tons, are sold as fresh fruit and around 220 metric tons are apple with low commercial appeal, being utilized by industrial sector. Due to stepwise increase of apple production, the fruit composition becomes important both for commercial and processing sectors. To prepare this paper, five cultivars and two advanced selection were analyzed. The average results showed that almost all samples were statistically different at 5% level of significance but only acidity was not. Total sugars range was from 10.48 to 12.94 g/100mL for Daiane and Sansa cultivars, respectively. The indicator sugar/acidity ratio were quite high compared to the criteria used (index = 20, meaning that all samples have a low acid content, being of low fitness for processing. The cv. Sansa has the highest content of phenol compounds (624 mg/L, while all the other cultivars have less than 459 mg/L. The analyzed samples showed low total acidity and phenol compounds and only the cv Sansa seems to be feasible for use as blending.A pomicultura, concentrada na Região Sul, é responsável por 98% da produção brasileira. Cerca de 80% desta produção (880 mil toneladas, são destinadas ao consumo in natura e em torno de 220 mil toneladas representam o descarte comercial, utilizado pelo setor industrial. Devido ao aumento gradativo da produção, a composição destas frutas passa a ser de interesse, tanto comercial quanto industrial. Tendo isto em foco, foram feitas análises físico-químicas de cinco cultivares comerciais e duas seleções avançadas. Os valores médios das cultivares apresentaram diferenças significativas em todas as análises realizadas, salvo sobre o teor de ácidos, onde os valores não se diferenciaram ao nível de 5%. Os resultados demonstraram que os açúcares redutores totais variaram de 10,48 a 12,94 g/100m

  4. Development and optimisation by means of sensory analysis of new beverages based on different fruit juices and sherry wine vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez Dodero, M Carmen; Durán Guerrero, Enrique; Castro Mejías, Remedios; Natera Marín, Ramón; García Barroso, Carmelo

    2013-03-15

    Despite the long history of sherry wine vinegar, new alternatives of consumption are being developed, with the aim of diversifying its market. Several new acetic-based fruit juices have been developed by optimising the amount of sherry wine vinegar added to different fruit juices: apple, peach, orange and pineapple. Once the concentrations of wine vinegar were optimised by an expert panel, the aforementioned new acetic fruit juices were tasted by 86 consumers. Three different aspects were taken into account: habits of consumption of vinegar and fruit juices, gender and age. Based on the sensory analysis, 50 g kg(-1) of wine vinegar was the optimal and preferred amount of wine vinegar added to the apple, orange and peach juices, whereas 10 g kg(-1) was the favourite for the pineapple fruit. Based on the olfactory and gustatory impression, and 'purchase intent', the acetic beverages made from peach and pineapple juices were the most appreciated, followed by apple juice, while those obtained from orange juice were the least preferred by consumers. New opportunities for diversification of the oenological market could be possible as a result of the development of this type of new product which can be easily developed by any vinegar or fruit juice maker company. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Cécile; Marx, Céline; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2015-01-01

    Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86 g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14 g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48 g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition.

  6. A comparison of nutrient density scores for 100% fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, G C

    2007-05-01

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that consumers choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Nutrient density is usually defined as the quantity of nutrients per calorie. Food and nutrition professionals should be aware of the concept of nutrient density, how it might be quantified, and its potential application in food labeling and dietary guidance. This article presents the concept of a nutrient density score and compares nutrient density scores for various 100% fruit juices. One hundred percent fruit juices are popular beverages in the United States, and although they can provide concentrated sources of a variety of nutrients, they can differ considerably in their nutrient profiles. Six methodologies were used to quantify nutrient density and 7 100% fruit juices were included in the analysis: apple, grape, pink grapefruit, white grapefruit, orange, pineapple, and prune. Food composition data were obtained from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18. Application of the methods resulted in nutrient density scores with a range of values and magnitudes. The relative scores indicated that citrus juices, particularly pink grapefruit and orange juice, were more nutrient dense compared to the other nonfortified 100% juices included in the analysis. Although the methods differed, the relative ranking of the juices based on nutrient density score was similar for each method. Issues to be addressed regarding the development and application of a nutrient density score include those related to food fortification, nutrient bioavailability, and consumer education and behavior.

  7. Behavior of Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fresh and thermally processed orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwazeer, Duried; Cachon, Remy; Divies, Charles

    2002-10-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are acid-tolerant microorganisms that are able to spoil citrus juices before and after pasteurization. The growth of these microorganisms in orange juice with and without pasteurization was investigated. Two samples of orange juice were inoculated with ca. 10(5) CFU/ml of each microorganism. Others were inoculated with ca. 10(7) CFU/ml of each microorganism and then thermally treated. L. plantarum populations were reduced by 2.5 and 6 and 2 log10 CFU/ml, respectively. Samples of heated and nonheated juice were incubated at 15 degrees C for 20 days. Injured populations of L. plantarum decreased by ca. 2 log10 CFU/ml during the first 70 h of storage, but those of S. cerevisiae did not decrease. The length of the lag phase after pasteurization increased 6.2-fold for L. plantarum and 1.9-fold for S. cerevisiae, and generation times increased by 41 and 86%, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate the differences in the capabilities of intact and injured cells of spoilage microorganisms to spoil citrus juice and the different thermal resistance levels of cells. While L. plantarum was more resistant to heat treatment than S. cerevisiae was, growth recovery after pasteurization was faster for the latter microorganism.

  8. Carbon isotope analysis in apple nectar beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use the isotope analysis method to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial apple nectars and to determine the legal limit to identify the beverages that do not conform to the safety standards established by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. These beverages (apple nectars were produced in the laboratory according to the Brazilian legislation. Adulterated nectars were also produced with an amount of pulp juice below the permitted threshold limit value. The δ13C values of the apple nectars and their fractions (pulp and purified sugar were measured to quantify the C3 source percentage. In order to demonstrate the existence of adulteration, the values found were compared to the limit values established by the Brazilian Law. All commercial apple nectars analyzed were within the legal limits, which enabled to identify the nectars that were in conformity with the Brazilian Law. The isotopic methodology developed proved efficient to quantify the carbon of C3 origin in commercial apple nectars.

  9. Nondestructive evaluation of free acid content in apples using near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, M.R.; Cho, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    In non-destructive evaluation of free acid content in apples by near- infrared spectroscopy(NIRS), browning and heat treatment of squeezed apple juice affected to the accuracy but titratable alkali concentration did not. The free acid content in apples after harvest was able to determine using different apples in harvest time for calibration making. The result of MLR, multiple correlation coefficient(R) was 0.77 and standard error of prediction(SEP) was 0.03%. The free acid content in apples during storage was able to determine using calibration equation established with stored apples, R was 0.90 and SEP was ca. 0.04%. The prediction accuracy by NIR was not sufficient for use of quantitative analysis of free acid content in apple, but classification of low and high level in acid content was supposed to be applicable

  10. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Asadpoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA. Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis.

  11. Asfordby spoiled - remote disposal of spoil - the case of Asfordby mine in Leicestershire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D

    1988-03-01

    The Asfordby Mine Project in Leicestershire, UK is scheduled for completion in 1993/4 and should produce 3 mt of coal pa. An estimated 650 000 tpa of spoil would be generated, 10% of which could be used for backfilling elsewhere in the area. The creation of spoil heaps on site was rejected by the County Council on environmental and agricultural grounds, and remote disposal was investigated by a Working Party. Four remote sites were identified, having disposal costs varying from 3.82 to 11.34 UKL per tonne (compared with 2.10 UKL on site). A pilot remote disposal scheme involving two old clay pits was explored, but the costs were found to outweigh the other advantages and so the idea has been dropped. Appeals have been made to the Department of the Environment to reconsider the advantages of such an innovative approach and to seek funding for it from the site operator and the EEC.

  12. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. An inappropriate biochar may negatively impact plant growth conditions resulting in poor plant establishment and growth. Matching the appropriate biochar for each mine site requires reconnaissance of spoil chemical and physical conditions and then identifying which properties need rectified to promote plant growth. A rectification hierarchy needs to be established with the primary limiting factor being addressed first, then successive limitations addressed simultaneously or thereafter. We posit that spoils at each site will have a unique chemical, physical, and biological signature that will affect plant growth. For example, some spoils may be extremely acidic, possess phytotoxic concentrations of heavy metals, or have physical conditions that limits water storage and root penetration. Quantifying these and other conditions beforehand allows for the production of designer biochar with specific characteristics tailored for specific plant growth deficiencies within each spoil. Additionally, we recommend the use of proximally located, undisturbed soils to establish spoil remediation targets. In our work, we have developed a decision-tree flow-chart that identifies salient chemical,

  13. A screening method based on UV-Visible spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, Raffaella; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Hysenaj, Vilma; Oliveri, Paolo; Zunin, Paola

    2013-10-15

    Consumer demand for pomegranate juice has considerably grown, during the last years, for its potential health benefits. Since it is an expensive functional food, cheaper fruit juices addition (i.e., grape and apple juices) or its simple dilution, or polyphenols subtraction are deceptively used. At present, time-consuming analyses are used to control the quality of this product. Furthermore these analyses are expensive and require well-trained analysts. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose a high-speed and easy-to-use shortcut. Based on UV-VIS spectroscopy and chemometrics, a screening method is proposed to quickly screening some common fillers of pomegranate juice that could decrease the antiradical scavenging capacity of pure products. The analytical method was applied to laboratory prepared juices, to commercial juices and to representative experimental mixtures at different levels of water and filler juices. The outcomes were evaluated by means of multivariate exploratory analysis. The results indicate that the proposed strategy can be a useful screening tool to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films on the growth of Penicillium expansum in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonaitiene, Dovile; Brink, Ieva; Sipailiene, Ausra; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2015-05-01

    Penicillium expansum causes a major post-harvest disease of apples. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition effect of chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films containing different amounts of quince and cranberry juice against P. expansum on the simulation medium and on apples. The mechanical properties of films were also evaluated. The presence of cranberry and quince juice in the composition of chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in elasticity and decrease in tensile strength of films. Chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films with quince and cranberry juice demonstrated a significant (P ≤ 0.05) inhibition effect against P. expansum growth on the simulated medium and apples. The presence of cranberry juice in the composition of chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films resulted in a longer lag phase and a lower P. expansum growth rate on the simulation medium in comparison with films made with the addition of quince juice. These differences were not evident when experiment was conducted with apples. Addition of quince and cranberry juice to the chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films as natural antifungal agents has some potential for prolonging the shelf life of apples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Study of the possibility of the production of amino acid mixtures from yeast autolysates grown on the nutrient medium from grape and apple pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardzehveladze, E.G.; Mikeladze, G.G.; Gordienko, S.B.; Belikov, V.M.; Latov, V.K.

    1980-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. ellipsoideus were grown on the juices diffused from apple and grape pomace. The amino acid composition of the yeasts was very similar to the amino acid composition of yeast grown on molasses.

  16. Apple Coffee Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/applecoffeecake.html Apple Coffee Cake To use the sharing features on ... time: 50 minutes Number of Servings: 20 Tart apples and raisins make for a moist, delicious cake. ...

  17. Dredge spoil disposal off Kavaratti Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    Maintenance dredging has been carried out along the navigational channel at Kavaratii Island and dredge spoil is disposed in the open sea. This paper describes the movement of sediment plume while dredging and disposal. The study indicates...

  18. Stabilization of dredged spoils for pavement construction in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural soils underlying the East-West road are mainly clay and silt of poor quality ... on the dredged soils included particle size distribution, compaction and California Bearing Ratio. Cement stabilization was performed on the dredged spoil.

  19. stabilization of dredged spoils for pavement construction in the niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Tse

    Natural soils underlying the East-West road are mainly clay and silt of poor quality ... on the dredged soils included particle size distribution, compaction and California ... KEYWORDS: Stabilization, dredge spoil, pavement, Niger Delta, cement.

  20. Apple : CGN downloadable dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centrum voor genetische bronnen (CGN) in Nederland- -,

    2014-01-01

    By 2014-14-07 data on experiments was available for the following traits. / Acid/sugar ratio 102 observations on 102 accessions / Apple canker (Neonectria galligena) 169 observations on 169 accessions / Apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) 169 observations on 169 accessions / Apple scab

  1. Oleate functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as sorbent for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Rosa Ana; Albero, Beatriz; Tadeo, José Luis; Sánchez -Brunete, Consuelo

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic oleate-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were applied to the extraction of PCBs from fruit juices that were quantified by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Two methods were evaluated: The first method involves a two-step procedure that combines dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with dispersive micro-solid phase extraction, and the second one involves magnetic solid-phase extraction (mSPE) carried out in a single step. The mSPE procedure is shown to be more sensitive, and therefore, it was optimized and applied to the analysis of PCBs in juices. The detection limits for all target PCBs are below 6 ng∙L −1 for apple juice, and 3 ng∙L −1 for grape juice. The enrichment factor is 125. Analysis of spiked fruit juice samples gave relative recoveries higher than 70 % for all PCBs except for PCB28 and PCB52. (author)

  2. A Laboratory Exercise To Understand the Importance of Enzyme Technology in the Fruit-Processing Industry: Viscosity Decrease and Phenols Release from Apple Mash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinelo, Manuel; Nielsen, Michael Krogsgaard; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    In a 4-h laboratory exercise, students accomplish a series of enzymatic macerations of apple mash, assess the viscosity of the mash during the maceration, extract the juice by centrifugation, and measure the levels of antioxidant phenols extracted into the juice after different enzyme treatments....

  3. A Laboratory Exercise to Understand the Importance of Enzyme Technology in the Fruit-Processing Industry: Viscosity Decrease and Phenols Release from Apple Mash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelo, Manuel; Nielsen, Michael K.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    In a 4-h laboratory exercise, students accomplish a series of enzymatic macerations of apple mash, assess the viscosity of the mash during the maceration, extract the juice by centrifugation, and measure the levels of antioxidant phenols extracted into the juice after different enzyme treatments. The exercise shows the impact of enzyme-catalyzed…

  4. APPLE VINEGAR PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION IN PILOT SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna M., Leoncio; Robles, R.; Huamán R., M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Vinegar has been elaborated from apple juice by inmersed fermentation at room temperature. The process was developed in two stages, firstly, the alcoholic termentation was carried out using Saccharomyces Cerevísíae yeast, Ellipsoideus variety. Secondly, an acetic fermentation was carried out using acetobacter. The global yield of the process, based on row material usage was around 52%. The product obtained has an acidity of 6,8% in acetic acid and fulfill the market requirements. Se ha ela...

  5. Reclamation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juwarkar, A.S.; Thawale, P.R.; Mowade, S.; Shrivastava, S.; Deshbhratar, P.B.; Juwarkar, A.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were carried out to restore the fertility and productivity of coal mine spoil using primary clarifier sludge from paper mill effluent treatment plant and use of specialised culture of biofertilizers and mycorrhizal fungi. Plants namely Tectona grandis, Delbergia sissoo, Gmelina arporea, Emblica officinalis and Cassia seamea were grown. Sludge amendment enhanced the survival rate of plants to 80% compared to 20% in unamended spoil. Plants grown on unamended spoil showed stunted growth. Growth of plants increased by 188-484% when sludge was applied at the rate of 100 tonnes per hectare. At 100 tones per hectare sludge amendment, biofertilizer and mycorrhizae treatment there were 83.7 nodules in shishum as against only 4.6 nodules in case of spoil alone. Further root length was 276% and 281% more respectively in case of shishum and teak. Inoculation of plant saplings with respective biofertilizers and mycorrhizae further increased the plant growth by 144-198%. At Durgapur coal mine, 56,000 saplings of Tectona grandis, Gmelina arporea, Delbergia sissoo, Emblica officinalis, Azadirachta indica, Acacia ariculiformis, Prosopis etc were successfully planted on spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. 10 refs., 5 tabs

  6. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2008-07-15

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  7. Processing of mixed fruit juice from mango, orange and pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeda Begam

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to prepare mixed fruit juice by using mango pulp, pineapple and orange juices and the quality in terms of nutritional value, keeping quality, shelf life and consumers’ acceptability were investigated. Chemical analysis showed that TSS, acidity were increased slightly whereas vitamin C and pH were decreased gradually during the storage periods. Storage studies were carried out up to one month with an interval of one week and the result showed that all the samples were in good condition after one month, though little bit of faded color was found at the end of storage periods. Sample with 35% mango juice, 40% orange juice and 25% pineapple secured the highest score on sensory evaluation and showed the best consumer acceptance. This research reveals that perishable fruits can be converted to attractive mixed juice and thus increase the shelf-life, which increase value of the product. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 440-445

  8. Factors Affecting the Levels of Heavy Metals in Juices Processed with Filter Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jackson, Lauren S; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated factors that may contribute to the presence of arsenic and other heavy metals in apple and grape juices processed with filter aids. Different types and grades of filter aids were analyzed for arsenic, lead, and cadmium with inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry. Potential factors affecting the transfer of heavy metals to juices during filtration treatments were evaluated. Effects of washing treatments on removal of heavy metals from filter aids were also determined. Results showed that diatomaceous earth (DE) generally contained a higher level of arsenic than perlite, whereas perlite had a higher lead content than DE. Cellulose contained the lowest level of arsenic among the surveyed filter aids. All samples of food-grade filter aids contained arsenic and lead levels that were below the U.S. Pharmacopeia and National Formulary limits of 10 ppm of total leachable arsenic and lead for food-grade DE filter aids. Two samples of arsenic-rich (>3 ppm) food-grade filter aids raised the level of arsenic in apple and grape juices during laboratory-scale filtration treatments, whereas three samples of low-arsenic (filter aids did not affect arsenic levels in filtered juices. Filtration tests with simulated juices (pH 2.9 to 4.1, Brix [°Bx] 8.2 to 18.1, total suspended solids [TSS] 0.1 to 0.5%) showed that pH or sugar content had no effect on arsenic levels of filtered juices, whereas arsenic content of filtered juice was elevated when higher amounts of filter aid were used for filtration. Authentic unfiltered apple juice (pH 3.6, °Bx 12.9, TSS 0.4%) and grape juice (pH 3.3, °Bx 16.2, TSS 0.05%) were used to verify results obtained with simulated juices. However, body feed ratio did not affect the arsenic content of filtered authentic juices. Washing treatments were effective at reducing arsenic, but not cadmium or lead, concentrations in a DE filter aid. This study identified ways to reduce the amount of arsenic transferred to juices

  9. Phenolic Composition and Sensory Properties of Ciders Produced from Latvian Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riekstina-Dolge Rita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds are very important components of cider – they are responsible for the colour and the bitterness and astringency balance of cider. The polyphenolic profile of apples and apple drinks is influenced by several factors: apple variety, climate, maturity, and technological processes applied. This research paper concerns the influence of apple variety on the phenolic compounds and sensory properties of cider. Fermentation of 12 varieties of apple juice with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast ‘71B-1122’ (Lalvin, Canada was performed in a laboratory of the Faculty of Food Technology of the Latvia University of Agriculture. The total phenol content (TPC was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic compounds were analysed using HPLC. Sensory properties (clarity, the apple, fruit and yeast aroma, the apple and yeast taste, sourness, astringency, and bitterness were evaluated by trained panelists using a line scale. Special attention was paid to the use of dessert apples for the production of cider. The most important sensory properties of cider are the aroma and taste of apples and fruit. All cider samples showed the intensity of apple aroma ranging from 5.3 to 7.6 points, and higher results were obtained for cider from the bvariety ‘Auksis’ apples. The TPC in cider samples varied from 792.68 to 3399.78 mg L-1: Among crab apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Hyslop’ and ’Riku’ varieties, whereas among dessert apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Antonovka’ variety. Among the twelve phenols identified in cider samples, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were the dominating ones. Variation in the sensory properties of ciders was dependent on the physicochemical composition of the apples used.

  10. Antimutagenic effects of red apple and watermelon juices on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... Three groups of five mice each were given 100, 50 or 25% concentration of ... A critical factor in mutagenesis is cell division (Ames et al., 1993). .... PrimoStar microscope mounted with Canon camera model, Power. Shot A640.

  11. Choice probability for apple juice based on novel processing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Menichelli, E.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to investigate an old challenge for means-end chain (MEC) theory; the lack of demonstration for means-end chains choice relevance. Even though MEC has become a commonly used tool in commercial market research and has been widely used in applied consumer research, wit...

  12. Revegetation of metalliferous mine spoil contaminated by lead and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M S; McNeilly, T; Putwain, P D

    1977-04-01

    Plant growth and development on metalliferous mine spoil is restricted by the high concentrations of phytotoxic metals and by the low levels of macronutrients in the substrates. Swards established on innocuous amendments applied to the surface of mine spoil deteriorate when roots penetrate to the underlying toxic substratum. This deterioration is attributed to the accumulation of toxic metals. The rate of decline is determined by the inherent fertility of the amendment and the depth to which it is applied. Results of field trials on calcareous and acidic lead/zinc spoils indicate that inert amendments may be more suitable where revegetation is for amenity or recreational purposes. Legumes are essential components of low-maintenance swards established on substrates of low nutrient status.

  13. PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF JUICE FROM FRUIT RAW MATERIAL AND MEDALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Aleksandrovich Belyaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of technology development and the formulation of a fruit juice with honey, the study of the organoleptic, physical-chemical and microbiological properties of the resulting product. The best organoleptic properties are set for a sample containing small-fruited apple juice – 750 ml, honey – 25 ml, syrup hips – 50 ml, water – 175 ml. The results of the physicochemical tests showed that the content of soluble solids in the juice was 16.2% sugar – 37.6% titratable acids in terms of malic acid – 0.46%. Mesophilic clostridium, spore-forming mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms group asporogenous microorganisms, mold fungi, yeast in samples of blended juice is not detected. Inclusion in separate heat treatment technology for honey syrup – 60 degrees, and small-fruited apple juice – 75 degrees is necessary for the greatest saving in honey nutrients, and the receipt of the application of microbiological safety performance. In terms of industrial sterility of the sample corresponds to the technical regulations on juice products TR CU 023/2011.

  14. Development of Probiotic Fruit Juices Using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Fortified with Short Chain and Long Chain Inulin Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica White

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically, probiotics are consumed in dairy based products such as yogurt. However, given the rise in various diet types, non-dairy alternatives have been developed, such as inoculating fruit juices with probiotics. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic strain exerting a number of human health benefits such as the prevention of urinary tract infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1 in apple cider, orange, and grape juice when fortified with either 4% short chain or 4% long chain inulin fiber over 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. The secondary objective was to determine consumer acceptability of apple cider and orange juice samples using the hedonic scale. All of the fruit juice samples achieved a mean viable count of at least 107 CFU/mL during 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. According to the sensory evaluation, which evaluated samples according to appearance, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability, apple cider juice with long chain inulin fiber proved to have the highest score for all characteristics except appearance. Therefore, this study indicated a potential for probiotic fruit juices as a valid alternative to dairy based probiotic products.

  15. Apple pomace improves gut health in Fisher rats independent of seed content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta N.; Markowski, Jarosław

    2018-01-01

    The mechanism behind the cholesterol lowering effects of apple pomace, a polyphenol- and fibre rich by-product in apple juice production, was investigated. Groups of male F344 rats were fed a control feed or the same feed with 2.1% or 6.5% dry apple pomace with or without seeds for 4 weeks. Effects...... to the fibre and other fruit constituents present in the pomace. Presence of apple seeds seems to impart no toxicity even at 6.5% pomace in the feed and seeds also had no influence on the biological effect of the pomace. In the future, apple pomace could potentially be used as a bioactive and possibly health...

  16. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  17. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  18. Investigation on the spoiling of meat using PTR-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, D.; Maerk, T.D.; Margesin, R.; Schinner, F.

    2002-01-01

    The spoiling of meat was investigated. Beef (pork) were wrapped into different kinds of packages (air and vacuum) and stored at 4 o C for 10 (13) days. The emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the course of time were measured and a large increase in these emissions after a few days of storage was found. Also a large difference in the spoiling behavior between vacuum- and air- packed meat was observed. The measurements were performed using a proton-transfer-reaction-mass spectrometer(PTR-MS) system, it allows on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations. Ethylacetate, methylpropionate, and propylformate were detected as typical spoiling compounds in pork samples. After 3.5 days the concentrations started to exponentially increase, but after 6 days remained more or less unchanged. This VOCs behaviour corresponds to a typical bacterial growth curve. Therefore, it was concluded that bacteria produce these components. In a second measurements set, the VOCs emitted by beef under aerobic (normal packed) and anaerobic (vacuum packed) conditions were compared. In the case of normal air-packed beef, the above mentioned spoiling compounds strongly increased with the time, while with the vacuum-packed beef a strong increase of ethanol was detected. This method as a replacement of the bacteriological examinations of meat spoilage is proposed. (nevyjel)

  19. Distribution of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in coal, lignite and calcite mine spoils of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, V.; Ragupathy, S.; Parthipan, B.; Rani, D.B.R.; Mahadevan, A.

    1991-12-31

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorhizzal (VAM) status was assessed for coal, lignite and calcite mine spoils. The three study sites were: The Kothagudem coal field in the south central region where waste materials are piled 1 to 2 m high on the soil surface. Samples were collected from plants growing on the waste. Neyveli, on the southeastern coast, is a lignite coal mine where the spoil is piled 70 to 100 m high on the soil surface. Samples were collected from recently revegetated mine spoil and from 25 year old revegetated sites. The calcite mine at Thazhaiyuthu in the south where the spoil is piled up 2 to 3 m on the soil surface. Samples were collected from 4 to 7 year old reclaimed sites. The wastes generally supported different plant species. The level of VAM infection of plants was markedly different in each mine spoil, with the maximum infection in the coal and calcite spoils, and the least in the lignite spoil. There was more infection in the 25 year old lignite spoil than in the newly revegetated spoil. There were different VAM species in each spoil, and no one species was present in all of the samples. The authors conclude that one of the factors leading to the differences between spoils is the amount of topsoil contained in the spoil (least in the lignite spoils which are very deep). The other is age of the spoils. Unfortunately the authors concluded that the best approach is to enrich the spoils with VAM rather than salvaging and replacing topsoil

  20. Prunus fruit juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The juice drinks obtained from Prunus fruit species, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica), are gaining increasing interest as a convenient alternative to fresh fruits. The conventional

  1. Surfactant mediated extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruits juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy for metabonomic analysis of apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermathen, Martina; Marzorati, Mattia; Vermathen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Classical liquid-state high-resolution (HR) NMR spectroscopy has proved a powerful tool in the metabonomic analysis of liquid food samples like fruit juices. In this paper the application of (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy to apple tissue is presented probing its potential for metabonomic studies. The (1)H HR-MAS NMR spectra are discussed in terms of the chemical composition of apple tissue and compared to liquid-state NMR spectra of apple juice. Differences indicate that specific metabolic changes are induced by juice preparation. The feasibility of HR-MAS NMR-based multivariate analysis is demonstrated by a study distinguishing three different apple cultivars by principal component analysis (PCA). Preliminary results are shown from subsequent studies comparing three different cultivation methods by means of PCA and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of the HR-MAS NMR data. The compounds responsible for discriminating organically grown apples are discussed. Finally, an outlook of our ongoing work is given including a longitudinal study on apples.

  3. Phytoremediation of spoil coal dumps in Western Donbass (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Kharytonov, Mykola; Wiche, Oliver; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    At the moment, in Ukraine about 150 thousand hectares of fertile land are occupied by spoil dumps. Moreover, this figure increases every year. According to the technology used about 1500 m3 of adjacent stratum is dumped at the surface per every 1000 tons of coal mined. Apart from land amortization, waste dumps drastically change the natural landscape and pollute air, soil and water sources as the result of water and wind erosion, as well as self-ignition processes. A serious concern exists with respect to the Western Donbass coal mining region in Ukraine, where the coal extraction is made by the subsurface way and solid wastes are represented by both spoil dumps and wastes after coal processing. Sulphides, mostly pyrite (up to 4% of waste material), are widely distributed in the waste heaps freshly removed due to coal mining in Western Donbass.The oxidation of pyrite with the presence of oxygen and water is accompanied by a sharp drop in the pH from the surface layer to the spoil dumps(from 5.2-6.2 to 3.9-4.2 in soil substrates with chernozen and from 8.3-8.4 to 6.7-7.2 in soil substrates with red-brown clay, stabilizing in dump material in both cases at 2.9-3.2). Low pH generates the transformation of a number of toxic metals and other elementspresent in waste rock (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, U) into mobile forms. To stabilize and reduce metal mobility the most resistant plants that occur naturally in specified ecosystems can be used. On coal spoil dumpsin Western Donbas the dominant species are Bromopsis inermis, subdominant Artemisia austriaca; widespread are also Festucas pp., Lathyrus tuberosus, Inula sp., Calamagrostis epigeios, Lotus ucrainicus, and Vicias pp. Identification of plants tolerant to target metals is a key issue in phytotechnology for soil restoration. It is hypothesized that naturally occurring plants growing on coal spoil dumps can be candidates for phytostabilization, phytoextraction (phytoaccumulation) and phytomining

  4. Inhibition of Biological Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A (SEA) by Apple Juice and Apple Polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    The foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces the virulent staphylococcal entertoxin A (SEA), a single-chain protein that consists of 233 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 27 078 Da. SEA is a superantigen that is reported to contribute to animal (mastitis) and human (emesis, dia...

  5. Ispitivanje nutritivne vrednosti osušenog jabučnog tropa i mogućnosti njegove upotrebe u industrijskoj proizvodnji hrane za životinje

    OpenAIRE

    Maslovarić, Marijana

    2017-01-01

    Apple pomace is a by-product of the industrial production of apple juice, amounting to approximately 20-30% of freshly processed apples. Several million tonnes of apple pomace is produced in the world annually. Fresh apple pomace is characterised by high sugar and moisture content, which makes it susceptible to microbial contamination, uncontrolled fermentation and spoiling. Despite increasingly stricter legal regulations in managing biodegradable waste, large quantities of apple pomace are s...

  6. [Effect of fruit and vegetable juices on the changes in the production of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in human gastric juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilńitskiĭ, A P; Iurchenko, V A

    1993-01-01

    The study was made of the effect of apple, grapefruit, orange and beet juices on in vitro formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from sodium nitrite and amidopirin in human gastric juice (GJ). Experimental samples of GJ from outpatients attending the outpatient department of the AMS Cancer Research Center were used. The patients had various forms of gastritis and gastric cancer. It was found that fruit and beet juices may inhibit or enhance NDMA formation depending on the GJ composition, pH in particular. In acid medium (pH-1.3-3.4) there was a trend to inhibition of NDMA synthesis, while in neutral and alkaline (pH = 7.4-8.5) medium NDMA synthesis is activated. Practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Are Fruit Juice Categories Separable?

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Erika P.; House, Lisa; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Spreen, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Supermarket shelves are saturated with numerous varieties and brands of juice beverages. This high level of assortment has dramatically changed beverage consumption patterns and trends throughout the United States. In fact, during 2004-2005, energy and sport drinks experienced significant increases in sales, 65.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. During the same period of time, refrigerated juice sales increased a mere 2.2%, shelved non-fruit drinks decreased 0.9%, bottled juices and cocktails both ...

  8. Prediction of the acid generating potential of coal mining spoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monterroso, C.; Macias, F.

    1998-01-01

    The sulfide oxidation impact on mined land reclamation makes it necessary for mine spoils to be classified according to their acidifying potential. In this paper predictions were made of the acid generating potential of sulfide-containing spoils from the Puentes lignite mine (Galicia, NW Spain), and the limits of sulfur contents allowable for their storage in aerobic conditions, were established. Using samples of fresh spoils, analyses were made of the content and speciation of sulfur, pH was measured after oxidation of the sample with H 2 O 2 (pH of oxidation = pH OX ), and titration of the oxidation extract with 0.1N NaOH to pH = 7 was carried out (Net Acid Production = NAP). The total sulfur content (S T ) varied between 3%, with pyritic-S being the most common form (> 80%). pH OX varied between 1.6 and 6.4 and NAP between 1.2 and 85.0 Kg-CaCO 3 t -1 . A high correlation was found between the NAP and the S T (r-0.98, p T > 0.15% cause high risks of mine-soil acidification, and create the need for large doses of CaCO 3 to be used on final surface of the mine dump. Use of fly ash, produced from the combustion of lignite, as an alternative to commercial lime is more effective in the control of acidity generated by spoils with high S T . 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Pomegranate juice and punicalagin attenuate oxidative stress and apoptosis in human placenta and in human placental trophoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuli, Methodius G.; Longtine, Mark S.; Shin, Joong Sik; Lawrence, Russell; Inder, Terrie; Michael Nelson, D.

    2012-01-01

    The human placenta is key to pregnancy outcome, and the elevated oxidative stress present in many complicated pregnancies contributes to placental dysfunction and suboptimal pregnancy outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that pomegranate juice, which is rich in polyphenolic antioxidants, limits placental trophoblast injury in vivo and in vitro. Pregnant women with singleton pregnancies were randomized at 35∼38 wk gestation to 8 oz/day of pomegranate juice or apple juice (placebo) until the time of delivery. Placental tissues from 12 patients (4 in the pomegranate group and 8 in the control group) were collected for analysis of oxidative stress. The preliminary in vivo results were extended to oxidative stress and cell death assays in vitro. Placental explants and cultured primary human trophoblasts were exposed to pomegranate juice or glucose (control) under defined oxygen tensions and chemical stimuli. We found decreased oxidative stress in term human placentas from women who labored after prenatal ingestion of pomegranate juice compared with apple juice as control. Moreover, pomegranate juice reduced in vitro oxidative stress, apoptosis, and global cell death in term villous explants and primary trophoblast cultures exposed to hypoxia, the hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride, and the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. Punicalagin, but not ellagic acid, both prominent polyphenols in pomegranate juice, reduced oxidative stress and stimulus-induced apoptosis in cultured syncytiotrophoblasts. We conclude that pomegranate juice reduces placental oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro while limiting stimulus-induced death of human trophoblasts in culture. The polyphenol punicalagin mimics this protective effect. We speculate that antenatal intake of pomegranate may limit placental injury and thereby may confer protection to the exposed fetus. PMID:22374759

  10. Apple otsib kohta mobiiliturul / Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Apple tahab siseneda mobiiliturule, demonstreeriti Motorola mudelit Rokr, mis mängib lugusid Apple'i Tunes'i online-muusikapoest. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia. Vt. samas: Apple on Eesti investorite meelisaktsiaid

  11. A comparative study of pH modulation and trace elements of various fruit juices on enamel erosion: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.S.G Nirmala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular worldwide with children of all ages as they are sweet and perceived to be healthful. This in vitro study was sought to measure pH of 10 different fruit juices, to find out possible erosive effects on human dental enamel of 40 extracted sound premolars and also to measure fluoride and trace elements of these juices. The estimation of pH of fruit juices was done by using Systronic upH 362 pH meter. The erosive effects of fruit juices were tested by using polarized light microscope. Orion electrode was used to measure fluoride. The trace elements were estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer No. 6501F. The pH values in different juices were observed at different levels, and pH values of these juices were more acidic than baseline after 24 hours. As the time increased, the erosion effect became more in pineapple; grape and sugarcane juices, and they had more cariogenic trace elements like selenium, iron and manganese. So, these juices were found to be cariogenic. To conclude, orange, mousambi, mango, pomegranate, apple, chikku and watermelon juices had no erosive effect on the human enamel, with the presence of highest amount of trace elements like fluoride and phosphorous which are considered as strongly cariostatic.

  12. Distribution and molecular detection of apple mosaic virus in apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) is one of the most important diseases limiting the production of hazelnut and apple in Turkey ... success of those programs depends on specific and sensitive ..... Applied Biostatistics Inc. Rott ME ...

  13. Depletion-Mode GaN HEMT Q-Spoil Switches for MRI Coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jonathan Y; Grafendorfer, Thomas; Zhang, Tao; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Robb, Fraser; Pauly, John M; Scott, Greig C

    2016-12-01

    Q-spoiling is the process of decoupling an MRI receive coil to protect the equipment and patient. Conventionally, Q-spoiling is performed using a PIN diode switch that draws significant current. In this work, a Q-spoiling technique using a depletion-mode Gallium Nitride HEMT device was developed for coil detuning at both 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. The circuits with conventional PIN diode Q-spoiling and the GaN HEMT device were implemented on surface coils. SNR was measured and compared for all surfaces coils. At both 1.5 T and 3 T, comparable SNR was achieved for all coils with the proposed technique and conventional Q-spoiling. The GaN HEMT device has significantly reduced the required power for Q-spoiling. The GaN HEMT device also provides useful safety features by detuning the coil when unpowered.

  14. The effect of Coca-Cola and fruit juices on the surface hardness of glass-ionomers and 'compomers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliping-McKenzie, M; Linden, R W A; Nicholson, J W

    2004-11-01

    The interaction of tooth-coloured dental restorative materials (a conventional glass-ionomer, two resin-modified glass-ionomers and two compomers) with acidic beverages has been studied with the aim of investigating how long-term contact affects solution pH and specimen surface hardness. For each material (ChemFil Superior, ChemFlex, Vitremer Core Build-Up/Restorative, Fuji II LC, Dyract AP and F2000) disc-shaped specimens were prepared and stored in sets of six in the following storage media: 0.9% NaCl (control), Coca-Cola, apple juice and orange juice. After time intervals of 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 4 months, 6 months and 1 year, solution pH and Vickers Hardness Number were determined for each individual specimen. Differences were analysed by anova followed by Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc analysis. All materials were found to reduce the pH of the 0.9% NaCl, but to increase the pH of the acidic beverages. The conventional glass-ionomers dissolved completely in apple juice and orange juice, but survived in Coca-Cola, albeit with a significantly reduced hardness after 1 year. The other materials survived in apple juice and orange juice, but showed greater reductions in surface hardness in these beverages than in Coca-Cola. Fruit juices were thus shown to pose a greater erosive threat to tooth coloured materials than Coca-Cola, a finding which is similar to those concerning dentine and enamel towards these drinks.

  15. Hybrid Model Based on Genetic Algorithms and SVM Applied to Variable Selection within Fruit Juice Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fernandez-Lozano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the background of the use of Neural Networks in problems of apple juice classification, this paper aim at implementing a newly developed method in the field of machine learning: the Support Vector Machines (SVM. Therefore, a hybrid model that combines genetic algorithms and support vector machines is suggested in such a way that, when using SVM as a fitness function of the Genetic Algorithm (GA, the most representative variables for a specific classification problem can be selected.

  16. Apple Watch for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Saltzman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Your all-encompassing guide to the Apple Watch Are you an Apple Watch enthusiast and want to master all of its features to impress friends and intimidate enemies? Or perhaps you're a less-than-tech-savvy newcomer to the ""wearable"" craze and want to get the most out of it? In Apple Watch For Dummies, you'll discover how this incredible device does way more than simply tell time. Through hands-on, easy-to-follow instruction, you'll find out how to send and receive text messages and emails, use Siri, find movie times, access your favorite apps and get directions]. Plus, you'll get a handle on

  17. About APPLE II Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented

  18. Danish apple cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Pedersen, Carsten; Ørgaard, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S-alleles was dev......Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S...

  19. Microorganisms in Fermented Apple Beverages: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Le Guellec, Rozenn; Schlusselhuber, Margot; Dalmasso, Marion; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Cretenet, Marina

    2017-07-25

    Production of fermented apple beverages is spread all around the world with specificities in each country. 'French ciders' refer to fermented apple juice mainly produced in the northwest of France and often associated with short periods of consumption. Research articles on this kind of product are scarce compared to wine, especially on phenomena associated with microbial activities. The wine fermentation microbiome and its dynamics, organoleptic improvement for healthy and pleasant products and development of starters are now widely studied. Even if both beverages seem close in terms of microbiome and process (with both alcoholic and malolactic fermentations), the inherent properties of the raw materials and different production and environmental parameters make research on the specificities of apple fermentation beverages worthwhile. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cider microbial ecosystem, associated activities and the influence of process parameters. In addition, available data on cider quality and safety is reviewed. Finally, we focus on the future role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the development of even better or new beverages made from apples.

  20. Fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of apple seed oil obtained from apple pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Mayanka; Rawat, Kiran; Bhushan, Shashi; Padwad, Yogendra S; Singh, Bikram

    2014-03-30

    Apple pomace is generated in huge quantities in juice-processing industries the world over and continuous efforts are being made for its inclusive utilization. In this study, apple seeds separated from industrial pomace were used for extraction of oil. The fatty acid composition, physicochemical and antioxidant as well as in vitro anticancer properties of extracted oil were studied to assess its suitability in food and therapeutic applications. The fatty acid composition of seed oil revealed the dominance of oleic (46.50%) and linoleic acid (43.81%). It had high iodine (121.8 g I 100 g⁻¹) and saponification value (184.91 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil). The acid value, refractive index and relative density were 4.28 mg KOH g⁻¹, 1.47 and 0.97 mg mL⁻¹, respectively. The antioxidant potential (IC₅₀) of apple seed oil was 40.06 µg mL⁻¹. Cytotoxicity of apple seed oil against CHOK1, SiHa and A549 cancer cell lines ranged between 0.5 ± 0.06% and 88.6 ± 0.3%. The physicochemical properties of apple seed oil were comparable with edible food oil, indicating its better stability and broad application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Apple seed oil could be a good source of natural antioxidants. Also, the in vitro cytotoxic activity against specific cell lines exhibited its potential as an anticancer agent. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Survival of Bacillus anthracis spores in fruit juices and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Oriana N; Johnson, Miranda J; Labuza, Theodore P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Foods have been identified as a potential target for bioterrorism due to their essential nature and global distribution. Foods produced in bulk have the potential to have large batches of product intentionally contaminated, which could affect hundreds or thousands of individuals. Bacillus anthracis spores are one potential bioterrorism agent that may survive pasteurization and remain viable throughout the shelf life of fruit juices and cause disease if consumed. This project examined B. anthracis spore survival in orange, apple, and grape juices, as well as wine. Samples of beverages were inoculated with spores of two nonpathogenic B. anthracis strains at approximately 10(6) CFU/ml, and the spore count was determined periodically during storage for 30 days at 4°C. After this time, the counts of survival spores never declined more than 1 log CFU/ml in any of the beverage types. These results indicate that spores can survive, with little to no loss in viability, for at least a month in fruit juices and wine.

  2. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2007-10-03

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different productionstages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assessits potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategicrole in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detectionduring production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clearidentification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washedand crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm -1 (typical of pectin) which disappears in theRaman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by thepresence of four peaks at 823 cm -1 , 872 cm -1 , 918 cm -1 and 975 cm -1 . In the case of apricotjuice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm -1 were alsohighlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods forthe quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of thebiochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and requiredifferent chemical reagents for each of them.

  3. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lepore

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different productionstages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assessits potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategicrole in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detectionduring production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clearidentification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washedand crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin which disappears in theRaman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by thepresence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricotjuice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were alsohighlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods forthe quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of thebiochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and requiredifferent chemical reagents for each of them.

  4. An acidic pectin lyase from Aspergillus niger with favourable efficiency in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S X; Qin, X; Liu, B; Zhang, D Q; Zhang, W; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H

    2015-02-01

    The pectin lyase gene pnl-zj5a from Aspergillus niger ZJ5 was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PNL-ZJ5A was purified by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel chromatography. The Km and Vmax values determined using citrus pectin were 0.66 mg ml(-1) and 32.6 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) , respectively. PNL-ZJ5A exhibited optimal activity at 43°C and retained activity over 25-50°C. PNL-ZJ5A was optimally active at pH 5 and effective in apple juice clarification. Compared with controls, PNL-ZJ5A increased the fruit juice yield significantly. Furthermore, PNL-ZJ5A reduced the viscosity of apple juice by 38.8% and increased its transmittance by 86.3%. PNL-ZJ5A combined with a commercial pectin esterase resulted in higher juice volume. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by the...

  6. Reclamation of colliery mine spoil founded on natural succession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochimsen, M.E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Reclamation of derelict land is of great concern for industrial countries. Technically produced and biologically inactive soils are said to be hostile to plants. Therefore, great effort is applied, in order to reintegrate them into the landscape. Ordinarily plant settlement starts with pioneer plants, especially herbs. Reafforestation, in this case, is an ecological misunderstanding. A method of mimicking natural succession including its ecological and economic advantages is described. The results of an applied experiment on virgin mine spoil with respect to species number, plant cover degree, and above ground phytomass production in the course of six years are reported in this paper. 12 refs., 4 figs

  7. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  8. 'Braeburn' apple culti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... and orderly function of most physical and chemical reactions occurring in a functional fruit cell (Song and. Bangerth, 2003). Fatty acids are one of major precursors representing ... constituents synthesized in apple fruits (Ackermann et al.,. 1992; Wu et al., 2007). Especially, genetic structure controls enzyme ...

  9. Determination of patulin in fruit juices using HPLC-DAD and GC-MSD techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukas, Athanasios; Panagiotopoulou, Vasiliki; Markaki, Panagiota

    2008-08-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer (GC-MSD) are described for the determination of patulin (PAT) in apple juice. The limits of detection (DL) and quantification (QL) for the HPLC-DAD and GC-MSD method were found to be (DL=0.23μgkg(-1) QL=1.2μgkg(-1)) and (DL=5.8μgkg(-1) and QL=13.8μgkg(-1)), respectively. The recovery factors for HPLC-DAD and GC-MSD were found to be 99.5% (RSD%=0.73) and 41% (RSD%=10.03), respectively. The HPLC-DAD method was used to determine the occurrence of PAT in 90 samples of fruit juices. Results revealed the presence of PAT in 100% of the samples examined. The mean values of PAT in concentrated fruit juices and in the commercial fruit juices collected from the Greek market were found to be 10.54μg PAT kg(-1) and 5.57μg PAT kg(-1) juice, respectively. The most contaminated samples were four concentrated juices ranging from 18.10μg PAT kg(-1) to 36.8μg PAT kg(-1) juice. The daily exposure to patulin for the consumers of all ages in Greece, is ranging from 0.008μg PAT kg(-1) bw to 0.1μg PAT kg(-1) bw if the daily intake of fruit juices is from 0.1 to 0.5kg. With the exception to the most contaminated sample, the daily exposure due to the samples examined, is below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake for PAT (0.4μg PAT kg(-1) bw). Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  11. The use of fuzzy logic to determine the concentration of betel leaf essential oil and its potency as a juice preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Suradeep

    2018-02-01

    The present study was attempted to determine organoleptically acceptable concentration of betel leaf essential oil (BLEO) in raw apple juice using fuzzy logic approach, and to evaluate the efficacy of the acceptable concentration in the juice under refrigerated storage. The presence of BLEO components in treated juice was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Based on similarity values, the acceptable concentration in the juice was found to be 0.19µl/ml of BLEO. Total antioxidant capacity of untreated juice was found to be 16% less than treated juice at the end of storage. The treated juice exceeded total aerobic plate count of 2 log 10 (cfu/ml) on 15th day of storage. Based on safe limits of microbial load, the shelf life of treated juice was extended by 6days as compared to untreated juice under refrigerated storage. BLEO contributes to green consumerism and its application as food preservative will add value to the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Internationalization of Boost Juice to Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane L. Menzies; Stuart C. Orr

    2014-01-01

    This case describes the process that the Australian juice retail chain, Boost Juice, has used to internationalize to Malaysia. The main objective of this case is to demonstrate good practice in regard to internationalization. The case provides the background of the juice bar industry in Malaysia and determines that it is an attractive market for new start-up juice bars. An analysis of Boost Juice's capability determined that the company utilized the skills of its staff, product innovations, b...

  13. Reestablishing natural succession on acidic mine spoils at high elevations: long-term ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray W. Brown; Michael C. Amacher; Walter F. Mueggler; Janice Kotuby-Amacher

    2003-01-01

    Methods for restoring native plant communities on acidic mine spoils at high elevations were evaluated in a "demonstration area" in the New World Mining District of southern Montana. Research plots installed in 1976 were assessed for 22 years and compared with adjacent native reference plant communities. A 1.5-acre (0.61-ha) area of mine spoils was shaped and...

  14. Initial vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal development of slender wheatgrass on two amended mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zak, J.C.; Parkinson, D. (University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology)

    1982-01-01

    The initial vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal development of slender wheatgrass on extracted oil-sands and subalpine coal-mine spoils, amended with either fertilizer, peat, or liquid sewage sludge, was examined. Plants were sampled at 2,6 and 10 weeks after plant emergence and the level of infection was expressed as length of mycorrhizal root per plant and length of root which contained arbuscules, vesicles, or only hyphae. Mycorrhizal infection of slender wheatgrass on the oil sands was limited to plants on the peat-amended spoil. Infection of plants on the peat-amended oil-sands spoil was detected by 2 weeks. Plants on the subalpine spoil were infected at 2 weeks only on the peat-amended spoil. While slender wheatgrass on the control and fertilizer-amended spoil developed mycorrhizae by 6 weeks, infection was not observed in plants on the sewage-amended spoil until 10 weeks. At 10 weeks, there were no significant differences in lengths of mycorrhizal root per plant among the amendments. Increased P levels in the fertilizer- and sewage-amended subalpine spoil did not suppress VA mycorrhizal development. 43 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  16. Vegetational stabilization of uranium spoil areas, grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    Factors that could be detrimental to vegetative stabilization of uranium mine and mill waste material were examined. Physical and chemical analyses of materials from an open-pit uranium mine and material from three inactive mill tailing piles in New Mexico were performed. Analyses for selected trace elements in mill tailing material and associated vegetation from piles in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah were also performed. Field and laboratory experiments identified problems associated with establishing vegetation on spoil material. Problems of uptake and concentration of toxic elements by plants growing on specific spoil material were also identified. Ecological observations in conjunction with physical and chemical analyses of specific geologic units, which form the overburden and waste dumps at the open-pit mine, identified a specific geologic material that, if segregated and placed on the surface of the dumps, would pose the least set of problems for a revegetation program. A pilot revegetation project verified that segregation and use of specific geologic material in the overburden could be utilized successfully and economically for reestablishment of native vegetation on mine waste material

  17. Reduction of patulin in apple cider by UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qingfang; Manns, David C; Feng, Guoping; Yue, Tianli; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2010-01-01

    The presence of the mycotoxin patulin in processed apple juice and cider presents a continual challenge to the food industry as both consumer health and product quality issues. Although several methods for control and/or elimination of patulin have been proposed, no unifying method has been commercially successful for reducing patulin burdens while maintaining product quality. In the present study, exposure to germicidal UV radiation was evaluated as a possible commercially viable alternative for the reduction and possible elimination of the patulin mycotoxin in fresh apple cider. UV exposure of 14.2 to 99.4 mJ/cm(2) resulted in a significant and nearly linear decrease in patulin levels while producing no quantifiable changes in the chemical composition (i.e., pH, Brix, and total acids) or organoleptic properties of the cider. For the range of UV doses tested, patulin levels decreased by 9.4 to 43.4%; the greatest reduction was achieved after less than 15 s of UV exposure. The method of UV radiation (the CiderSure 3500 system) is an easily implemented, high-throughput, and cost-effective method that offers simultaneous UV pasteurization of cider and juice products and reduction and/or elimination of patulin without unwanted alterations in the final product.

  18. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  19. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Hard Cider and Apple Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...

  20. Comparison of the phenolic composition of fruit juices by single step gradient HPLC analysis of multiple components versus multiple chromatographic runs optimised for individual families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, P D; Blacklock, C J; Paganga, G; Mullen, W; Rice-Evans, C A; Crozier, A

    2000-06-01

    After minimal sample preparation, two different HPLC methodologies, one based on a single gradient reversed-phase HPLC step, the other on multiple HPLC runs each optimised for specific components, were used to investigate the composition of flavonoids and phenolic acids in apple and tomato juices. The principal components in apple juice were identified as chlorogenic acid, phloridzin, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid. Tomato juice was found to contain chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, naringenin and rutin. The quantitative estimates of the levels of these compounds, obtained with the two HPLC procedures, were very similar, demonstrating that either method can be used to analyse accurately the phenolic components of apple and tomato juices. Chlorogenic acid in tomato juice was the only component not fully resolved in the single run study and the multiple run analysis prior to enzyme treatment. The single run system of analysis is recommended for the initial investigation of plant phenolics and the multiple run approach for analyses where chromatographic resolution requires improvement.

  1. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  2. Comparison of Flavour and Volatile Flavour Compounds of Mixed Elderberry Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vítová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find the best composition for fruit drink based on elderberries with optimal flavour characteristics. For this purpose elderberry juice was mixed with various fruit juices (grape, black currant, apple, orange, carrot in various ratios, flavour was evaluated sensorially and instrumentally as the content of aroma compounds. Five flavour characteristics (sweet, acid/sour, bitter, astringent, characteristic elderberry, off-flavour, odour, texture (mouth-feel, colour and overall acceptability were evaluated sensorially using scale. Aroma compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction and assessed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The significant differences (P < 0.05 in flavour were found between samples, which could be explained by differences in their volatile profiles. In total 57 compounds were identified in fruit juices and included 20 alcohols, 10 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 7 acids, 7 esters and 5 other compounds. Alcohols were quantitatively the most important group of all juices. The grape-elderberry juice, in optimum ratio 7:3 (70% v/v of elderberry, was proposed for practical use owing to the pleasant sweetish, elderberry flavour, and excellent other sensory characteristics.

  3. Apple As A Functional Food

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMIR, Yasin; AKÇAY, M. Emin; ÖZKAN, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Many studies are being carried out in order to expose and determine the beneficial health effects of fresh fruits and vegetables. Together with these activities, there is an increased consumer interest on fresh fruits and vegetables. Among the fruits, apple has come into prominence because of its beneficial effects. Apple is known since ancient times and praised in inscriptions for its therapeutic properties. Apple contains valuable compounds especially phenolics and flavonoids. Latest resear...

  4. Osmotic dehydration of Braeburn variety apples in the production of sustainable food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurzyńska, Agnieszka; Cichowska, Joanna; Kowalska, Hanna; Czajkowska, Kinga; Lenart, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of osmotic dehydration conditions on the properties of osmotically pre-treated dried apples. The scope of research included analysing the most important mass exchange coefficients, i.e. water loss, solid gain, reduced water content and water activity, as well as colour changes of the obtained dried product. In the study, apples were osmotically dehydrated in one of two 60% solutions: sucrose or sucrose with an addition of chokeberry juice concentrate, for 30 and 120 min, in temperatures of 40 and 60°C. Ultrasound was also used during the first 30 min of the dehydration process. After osmotic pre-treatment, apples were subjected to innovative convective drying with the puffing effect, and to freeze-drying. Temperature and dehydration time increased the effectiveness of mass exchange during osmotic dehydration. The addition of chokeberry juice concentrate to standard sucrose solution and the use of ultrasound did not change the value of solid gain and reduced water content. Water activity of the dried apple tissue was not significantly changed after osmotic dehydration, while changes in colour were significant.

  5. Teach yourself visually Apple Watch

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Master your new smartwatch quickly and easily with this highly visual guide Teach Yourself VISUALLY Apple Watch is a practical, accessible guide to mastering the powerful features and functionality of your new smartwatch. For Apple devotees and new users alike, this easy-to-follow guide features visually rich tutorials and step-by-step instructions that show you how to take advantage of all of the Apple watch's capabilities. You'll learn how to track your health, control household devices, download and install apps, sync your music, sync other Apple devices, and efficiently use the current O

  6. Non-invasive estimation of firmness in apple fruit using VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, M.; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2012-01-01

    Better and steady fruit quality evaluation at harvest is a major challenge for commercial growers of apples in Denmark. Those fruits not meeting the requirements for the fresh market traditionally go to the juice concentrate industry where low cost products are obtained. Special fruit qualities...... are needed to develop commodities that can obtain a premium added value on the market. Nowadays in the food industry, quality evaluation is commonly performed non-destructively by means of optical sensors such as spectrometers, hyperspectral and multispectral cameras, that allow rapid measurements of fruit...... as for eating apples. Invasive and non-invasive measurements of firmness, on the shaded and exposed side of the fruits were carried out for three Danish apple cultivars of known commercial usage. Resulting data determined wavelengths between 415 to 715 nm to be predictive for firmness. A PLS model for all three...

  7. Non-invasive estimation of firmness in apple using VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Vega, Mabel Virginia; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2012-01-01

    Better and steady fruit quality evaluation at harvest is a major challenge for commercial growers of apples in Denmark. Those fruits not meeting the requirements for the fresh market traditionally go to the juice concentrate industry where low cost products are obtained. Special fruit qualities...... are needed to develop commodities that can obtain a premium added value on the market. Nowadays in the food industry, quality evaluation is commonly performed non-destructively by means of optical sensors such as spectrometers, hyperspectral and multispectral cameras, that allow rapid measurements of fruit...... as for eating apples. Invasive and non-invasive measurements of firmness, on the shaded and exposed side of the fruits were carried out for three Danish apple cultivars of known commercial usage. Resulting data determined wavelengths between 415 to 715 nm to be predictive for firmness. A PLS model for all three...

  8. Changes in quality of apple (Malus domestica) cultivars due to γ-irradiation and storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, P.R.; Dar, M.A.; Meena, R.S.; Wani, A.M.; Mir, M.A.; Shafi, F.

    2008-01-01

    Ambri, Golden Delicious and Royal Delicious apple varieties were γ-irradiated (0.1-0.5 kGy) and stored under ambient (15 ±2 degC, 80%RH) and refrigerated (3±1 degC, 90%RH) conditions. They were evaluated periodically for firmness, total soluble solids, acidity, juice yield, physiological loss in weight, overall acceptability and yeast and mold counts. The γ-irradiation doses of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 kGy proved beneficial in maintaining the overall quality of all the 3 varieties of apple under both the storage conditions. γ-irradiation significantly reduced the yeast and mold counts of apples under storage. (author)

  9. Bryophytes and revegetation of coal spoils in southern Iowa. [14 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvey, K.; Farrar, D.R.; Glenn-Lewin, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Strip mining of coal in southern Iowa has left many scattered areas of coal spoils which provide a type of habitat unique to the region. The occurrence and distribution of 29 mosses and 2 liverworts on these spoils was determined and related to the general process of spoil revegetation. The spoil bryophyte flora was compared with Conard's (1956) list of bryophytes for the region. An increase in per cent cover and in species diversity of bryophytes was observed with increasing age of spoils, and was correlated with increased vascular plant cover. Dicranella heteromalla and Ceratodon purpureus were found to be common throughout the spoils, whereas all other species were limited to more protected sites, especially on north-facing slopes. Mosses did not appear to colonize very exposed areas on the spoils, but were limited to areas with some protection provided, especially by vascular plants. Several disjunct or highly localized moss populations were found including one new state record and thirteen new county records.

  10. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza Lespedeza striata (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by 'Bragg' soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl > DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  12. Polyphenol profiles of French cider apple varieties (Malus domestica sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanoner, P; Guyot, S; Marnet, N; Molle, D; Drilleau, J P

    1999-12-01

    The cortex of 14 French apple varieties (12 cider and 2 juice varieties), one English cider variety, and one dessert apple (i.e., Golden Delicious) were studied for their polyphenol composition. Total polyphenols were assayed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the precise polyphenolic composition (monomeric catechins, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and dihydrochalcones) was obtained by HPLC following thiolysis. ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS analyses showed that chlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid were methylated under the conditions of thiolysis. Depending on the variety, the global polyphenol concentration varied from 1 to 7 g per kilogram of fresh cortex. Cider varieties globally showed a higher polyphenol concentration than the dessert apple Golden Delicious, bitter varieties being the more concentrated. The proportion of the polyphenol classes varied greatly from one cultivar to another. For all varieties, procyanidins were always the predominant class. They were mainly constituted of (-)-epicatechin units with a small proportion of (+)-catechin as a terminal unit. The average degree of polymerization ranged between 4.2 and 7.5 depending upon the variety with an exception for the sharp varieties Guillevic and Avrolles which showed significant concentrations of procyanidins with DPn of 40 and 50, respectively.

  13. Consumer attitudes towards hypoallergenic apples that alleviate mild apple allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Maas, van der M.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) foods with benefits for consumers may be more acceptable than GM foods with benefits that accrue to industry or producers. The Santana apple is a novel hypoallergenic product suitable for many apple allergic consumers with mild symptomology. The Santana

  14. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine inventory and will be properly identified. Juice or concentrated juice to which wine spirits are added will...

  15. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fruit juice market is growing for several years, and will be continuing to expand, ... Several changes are taking place in the fruit juice distribution channels ... using the strategic SWOT (strong and weak points, opportunities and threats) ...

  16. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  17. At PS170 (APPLE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    APPLE stands for Antiproton-Proton to Pair of LEptons (an acronym of the ancestor experiment PAPLEP), the PS170 experiment setup at LEAR to study e+e-pair production in antiproton-proton annihilation by Padova-(CEN) Saclay- Torino Collaboration. It consisted of a liquid hydrogen target surrounded by several layers of proportional chambers in the vertical field of a C-magnet (this photo), a gas Cerenkov counter, wire chambers, hodoscopes, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (see photo 8302539X, 8302540X). See also photo 8301539X for the setup assembly at an early stage.

  18. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  19. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  20. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  1. JUICE space mission to Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme. Planned for launch in 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in 2029, it will spend at least three years making detailed observations of the giant gaseous planet Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto would complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. Jupiter is the archetype for the giant planets of the Solar System and for the numerous giant planets now known to orbit other stars. Moreover, Jupiter's diverse Galilean satellites - three of which are believed to harbour internal oceans - are central to understanding the habitability of icy worlds. JUICE spacecraft will carry the most powerful remote sensing, geophysical, and in situ paylo...

  2. Occurrence of patulin in organic and conventional apple-based food marketed in Catalonia and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqué, Ester; Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Gómez-Catalán, Jesús; Lapuente, Joaquin de; Llobet, Joan Maria

    2013-10-01

    In the last years, consumption of organic foods has become increasingly popular. Nevertheless, safety of organic foods is still unclear, and needs to be thoroughly evaluated. Patulin is a mycotoxin mainly present in rotten apples and apple-based products. The aim of this study is to analyse the content of patulin in apple juices and purees derived from organic and conventional production systems, in order to assess the risk to consumers, particularly in children. A total of 93 apple-based products marketed in Catalonia were analysed, 49 of which were derived from conventional and 44 from organic farming. The results showed higher incidence of positive samples and higher concentration of patulin in organic apple purees when comparing with conventional ones. In the case of juices, significant differences were found between conventional and organic samples, but applying a multivariate analysis the type of agriculture did not seem to have a relevant contribution to patulin occurrence, being cloudiness the main factor involved. The estimated daily intake of patulin for infants and young children (0-3 years old), children (4-18 years old) and adults (19-66 years old), were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.4 μg/kg bw in all scenarios considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  4. Analysis of components and study on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in apple seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping; Li, Kai-Xiong

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the comprehensive utilization of major by-products in apple-juice processing, the components, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in two species apple seeds, Fuji and New Red Star, were investigated. The Soxhlet extracted oil content of apple seeds raged from 20.69 to 24.32 g/100 g. The protein, fiber and ash contents were found to be 38.85-49.55 g/100 g, 3.92-4.32 g/100 g and 4.31-5.20 g/100 g, respectively; the extracted oils exhibited an iodine value of 94.14-101.15 g I/100 g oil; refractive index (40 degrees C) was 1.465-1.466; density (25 degrees C) was 0.902-0.903 mg/ml; saponification value was 179.01-197.25 mg KOH/g oil; and the acid value was 4.036-4.323 mg KOH/g oil. The apple seed oils mainly consisted of linoleic acid (50.7-51.4 g/100 g) and oleic acid (37.49-38.55 g/100 g). Other prominent fatty acids were palmitic acid (6.51-6.60 g/100 g), stearic acid (1.75-1.96 g/100 g) and arachidic acid (1.49-1.54 g/100 g). Apple seed oil was proven to possess interesting properties, emerging from its chemical composition and from the evaluation of its in vitro biological activities. The apple seed oil was almost completely active against bacteria, mildews were less sensitive to apple seed oil than yeasts, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of apple seed oil ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml. The observed biological activities showed that the oil had a good potential for use in the food industry and pharmacy.

  5. Application of Cross-Flow Filtration Technique in Purification and Concentration of Juice from Vietnamese Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Cang Mai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is to offer a 1st insight in the use of membrane process for the purification and concentration of Vietnamese fruit juices: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Line., dragon fruit (Cactus hémiépiphytes, pineapple (Ananas comosus, pomelo (Citrus grandis L., and gac aril oil (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.. On a laboratory scale, the effect of different operating parameters such as trans-membrane pressures (TMP, temperature and membrane pore sizes on permeate flux was determined in order to optimize process conditions that would ensure acceptable flux with adequate juice quality. The quality of the samples coming from the ultrafiltration (UF process was evaluated in terms of: total soluble solids (TSS, suspended solids (SS, and vitamin C. For example, the purification process of cashew apple juice by cross-flow filtration was optimized at 0.5 μm membrane pore size, 2.5 bars TMP, and 60 min filtration time. Besides, this technique was applied to enhance carotenoids concentration from gac oil. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. Carotenoids were concentrated higher than that in feeding oil.

  6. Development of a Method for Rapid Determination of Morpholine in Juices and Drugs by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengsi Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable derivatization method has been developed to detect and quantify morpholine in apple juices and ibuprofen with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Morpholine can react with sodium nitrite under acidic condition to produce stable and volatile N-nitrosomorpholine derivative. In this experiment, various factors affecting the derivatization and extraction process were optimized, including volume and concentration of hydrochloric acid, quantity of sodium nitrite, derivatization temperature, derivatization time, extraction reagents, and extraction time. The derivative was extracted with dichloromethane and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linearity range of morpholine was 10–500 μg·L−1 with good correlation, and limits of detection (LOD and limits of quantification (LOQ were 7.3 μg·L−1 and 24.4 μg·L−1, respectively. Low, medium, and high concentrations of morpholine were added in apple juices and ibuprofen samples to evaluate standard recovery rate and relative standard deviation. The spiked recovery rate ranged from 94.3% to 109.0%, and the intraday repeatability and interday reproducibility were 2.0%–4.4% and 3.3%–7.0%, respectively. The developed method has good accuracy and precision. This quantitative method for morpholine is simple, sensitive, rapid, and low cost and can successfully be applied to analyze the residual morpholine in apple juices and drug samples.

  7. Heavy metal concentration in forage grasses and extractability from some acid mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A and M University, Normal (United States). Department of Plant and Soil Science)

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted on several forage grasses, bermudagrass ([ital Cynodon dactylon]), creeping red fescue ([ital Festuca rubra]), Kentucky 31-tall fescue ([ital Festuca arundinacea]), oat ([ital Avena sativa]), orchardgrass ([ital Dactylis glomerata]), perennial ryegrass ([ital Lolium perenne]), sorghum ([ital Sorghum bicolor]), triticale (X. [ital triticosecale Wittmack]), and winter wheat ([ital Triticum aestivum]) grown on three Alabama acid mine spoils to study heavy metal accumulation, dry matter yield and spoil metal extractability by three chemical extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl). Heavy metals removed by these extractants were correlated with their accumulation by several forage grasses. Among the forages tested, creeping red fescue did not survive the stressful conditions of any of the spoils, while orchard grass and Kentucky 31-tall fescue did not grow in Mulberry spoil. Sorghum followed by bermudagrass generally produced the highest dry matter yield. However, the high yielding bermudagrass was most effective in accumulating high tissue levels of Mn and Zn from all spoils (compared to the other grasses) but did not remove Ni. On the average, higher levels of metals were extracted from spoils in the order of 0.1 M HCl[gt] Mehlich 1[gt] DTPA. However, DTPA extracted all the metals from spoils while Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract detectable levels of Ni. All of the extractants were quite effective in determining plant available Zn from the spoils. For the other metals, the effective determination of plant availability depended on the crop, the extractant, and the metal in concert. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Definition of rehabilitation strategies for pre-strip tertiary spoil at coal mines in central Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.C.; Mulligan, D.R.; Mitchell, R.J.; Philp, M.W.; Roe, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    In the open-cut coal mines of central Queensland, the conventional dragline removal of overburden results in a spoil surface dominated by Permian sediments. In recent years, however, a number of mines have changed their coal exposure methods to include a pre-stripping operation to create a bench for the dragline up to 50 m below the surface. This approach has allowed economic coal recovery from greater depths, but, since this pre-strip material is being deposited on existing spoil piles, it has resulted in a major change in the type of spoil material on the surface. The aims of this project were, firstly, to define the characteristics of this pre-strip material that could cause problems for the establishment and growth of both introduced pasture grasses and native tree species, and secondly, to explore possible spoil amendments which could ameliorate some or all of these limitations. Analyses on the range of spoils included pH, EC and sodicity. Straw mulch also reduced the crust strength and was an effective means of improving vegetative establishment. A complementary field trial was established at Saraji mine in April 1991, and after 4 months, treatments which involved a 30 cm capping of soil on the spoil resulted in the highest densities of tree seedling

  10. Utilizing sediments from biological waste water treatment for spraying spoil banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrov, O G; Zaitsev, Yu S; Kessariiskii, Yu V

    1985-04-01

    Use of anaerobic sludge for prevention of spontaneous combustion of spoil banks consisting of coal and mine stones from underground coal mines and effects of sludge treatment on soil properties which influence spoil bank reclamation are discussed. Sludge from water treatment rich in organic matter (50 to 60%), nitrogen (2 to 5%), phosphorus anhydride (up to 2%), calcium oxide (up to 5%) and humus was used in the Donbass. A spoil bank consisted of sedimentary rocks (sandstones, limestones, shales, clays, mudstone) and coal (size 0 to 200 mm). Coal content ranged from 7-13%, sulfur content amounted to about 5%. Content of coal, sulfur and timber exceeded 20%. The spoil bank was treated with sludge suspension in water. Evaluations showed that the sludge treatment improved soil properties which influenced spoil bank reclamation. Humus content increased 7 to 16 times, content of nitrogen trioxide and phosphorus anhydride increased 10 to 50 times. Chemical activity of rocks forming the spoil bank declined 20 to 25%. Hazards of coal spontaneous combustion decreased. The results of investigations are shown in a table.

  11. Reforestation of bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Krishnakumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted indegradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth.However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum(Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum(Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings of E. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantlyhigher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher inAM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings.

  12. Reforestation of Bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karthikeyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted in degradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth. However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum (Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings ofEucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings ofE. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantly higher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher in AM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings. 

  13. Patulin in apple leather in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

    2014-01-01

    Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from leather.

  14. Development of new apple beverages rich in isothiocyanates by using extracts obtained from ultrasound-treated cauliflower by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amofa-Diatuo, Tracy; Anang, Daniel M.; Barba Orellana, Francisco Jose

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new apple juice beverage enriched with isothiocyanates (ITC) - rich extracts obtained from cauliflower by-products. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) at different amplitudes (20-100%) and extraction times (0-10. min) at a frequency of 24. kHz was em......The objective of this study was to develop a new apple juice beverage enriched with isothiocyanates (ITC) - rich extracts obtained from cauliflower by-products. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) at different amplitudes (20-100%) and extraction times (0-10. min) at a frequency of 24. k......) and UAE (20%, 3. min), respectively. Moreover, the highest recovery of total phenolic compounds (TPC) (≈105. mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L) μM) was found after UAE (100% amplitude, 3. min) of TPC from stems. ITC-rich extracts obtained from caulifower by-products at the optimum UAE conditions were...

  15. Phytoextraction from mine spoils: insights from New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losfeld, Guillaume; Mathieu, Romain; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Jaffré, Tanguy; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Increasing pressure on mineral resources has drawn research efforts into innovative supply and recycling. Metal-rich biomass produced in phytoextraction recently proved an interesting starting material for green chemistry. It allows the production of new catalysts, referred to as ecocatalysts. Ecocatalysts provide increased yields in chemical production and increased regio- and chemo-selectivity, which result in high added value. This new approach to using metal-rich biomass could spur the development of phytoextraction, a technique considered promising for long, yet without credible economic outlets. In this regard, metallophyte biodiversity hotspots, such as New Caledonia, are of particular interest for biomass supply. Potential phytoextraction from mine spoils using two species endemic to New Caledonia is discussed here. Geissois pruinosa, a hypernickelophore, and Grevillea exul, a Mn accumulator, were selected for these original experiments. The results presented here 20 months after plantation of young trees from a nursery show the interest of the approach. Mean Ni concentrations of up to 1513 mg kg(-1) are reported in G. pruinosa, as well as 2000 mg kg(-1) Mn in G. exul. Concentrations of Ni and Mn in the leaves of each species appear to be correlated with leaf age. Plantation of these species may also ensure mine reclamation, and experiments were conducted with the principles of ecological restoration in mind adding a further dimension to the approach.

  16. Antioxidant and cyto/DNA protective properties of apple pomace enriched bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, M L; Dharmesh, Shylaja M; Pynam, Hasitha; Bhimangouder, Shivaleela V; Eipson, Sushma W; Somasundaram, Rajarathnam; Nanjarajurs, Shashirekha M

    2016-04-01

    Apple pomace (AP), the residue that remains after the extraction of juice from apple accounts for ~25 % of total apple weight. Current study is aimed at identification of phytochemicals and utilization of Dehydrated apple pomace (DAP) in the preparation of bakery products with potential health benefits. DAP was prepared by drying the pomace obtained by crushing peeled apple fruits. DAP was incorporated into bakery products such as bun, muffin and cookies for value addition. Bioactivity such as free radical scavenging, cyto/DNA protectivity was evaluated in these products. DAP contained 17 g/100 g starch, 49.86 g/100 g fructose and 37 g/100 g dietary fibre. The phenolics and flavonoids content was 1.5 mg/g and 3.92 mg/g, respectively. Increase in DAP resulted in decreased volume and enhanced firmness of buns and muffins. DAP at 15 % in buns, 30 % in muffins and 20 % in cookies were found to be acceptable. DAP blended products exhibited better free radical scavenging as well as cyto/DNA protective properties suggesting the retention of bioactivity after baking. Addition of DAP potentially enhanced the bioactivity of the products evaluated.

  17. Fractionation and anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenol-enriched extracts from apple pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianli Yue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive polyphenols are the predominant ingredients in apple pomace, an agro-industrial byproduct in apple juice processing. The present work focused on fractionation of ethanol extract of apple pomace using macroporous absorbent resin chromatography and HPLC analysis of all fractions recovered from polyphenol-enriched extract and their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in lipo-polysaccharides (LPS -induced mouse RAW 264.7 cell line. Six fractions API-VI were achieved through fractionation eluting with aqueous alcohol. HPLC analysis indicated that APIII eluted by 40% ethanol had the highest content of total phenolics, which was 148.1 ± 3.11 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry apple pomace. Anti-inflammatory assays showed that APIII had the strongest activity against COX-2 expression at 5 ?g mL-1 and procyanidin B2 and quercetin exhibited positive correlation with their anti-inflammatory effects. Our data suggested that phenolics could be prepared from apple pomace and applied in the management of inflammatory diseases.

  18. Microbiological safety of street vended fresh fruit juices, drinks and conventional blends in multan-pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.; Riaz, M.; Ismail, T.; Farooq, U.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at exploring the safety of various fresh fruit juices, blends and drinks sold in the streets of Multan, Pakistan. The city was divided into 4 zones for the purpose of sample collection. Bacteriological analysis of 72 samples of fresh fruit juices, blends and drinks indicated the presence of total viable counts (2.48 +- 0.16 to 7.91 +- 0.62 log CFU/mL), total coliforms (0.70 +- 0.04 to 4.86 +- 0.29 log CFU/mL) and Escherichia coli (0.6 +- 0.03 to 3.83 +- 0.32 log CFU/mL). Qualitative data depicted apple juice to be highly contaminated with fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. Coliforms prevalence was highest in Zone IV and Zone II while that of Salmonella spp., in Zone IV and Zone III. The pragmatic levels of contaminants elucidate poor sanitary status of major entities deployed in juice manufacturing process adopted by the street vendors. (author)

  19. Alicyclobacillus spp. in the fruit juice industry: history, characteristics, and current isolation/detection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Sen; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2004-01-01

    The first Alicyclobacillus spp. was isolated in 1982, and was originally thought to be strictly limited to thermophilic and acidic environments. Two years later, another Alicyclobacillus sp., A. acidoterrestris, was identified as the causative agent in spoilage of commercially pasteurized apple juice. Subsequent studies soon found that Alicyclobacillus spp. are soilborne bacteria, and do not strictly require thermophilic and acidic environments. Alicyclobacillus spp. posess several distinct characteristics; the major one is their ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes and produce off-flavors in fruit juices. The fruit juice industry has acknowledged Alicyclobacillus spp. as a major quality control target microorganism. Guaiacol and halophenols were identified as the offensive smelling agent in many Alicyclobacillus spp. related spoilage. Though the exact formation pathway of these off-flavors by Alicyclobacillus spp. are not yet identified, studies report that the presence of Alicyclobacillus spp. in the medium may be a major contributor to the formation of these off-flavors. Many identification methods and isolation media were developed in the last two decades. However, most of these methods were developed specifically for A. acidoterrestris, which was the first identified off-flavor producing Alicyclobacillus. However, recent studies indicate that other species of Alicyclobacillus may also produce guaiacol or the halophenols. In this respect, all Alicyclobacillus spp. should be monitored as potential spoilage bacteria in fruit juices. This article includes an overall review of the history of Alicyclobacillus spp., characteristics, suggested off-flavor production pathways, and commonly used identification methods for the currently identified Alicyclobacillus spp.

  20. Analysis of apple beverages treated with high-power ultrasound: a quality function deployment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Režek Jambrak, Anet; Šimunek, Marina; Grbeš, Franjo; Mandura, Ana; Djekic, Ilija

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to demonstrate application of quality function deployment in analysing effects of high power ultrasound on quality properties of apple juices and nectars. In order to develop a quality function deployment model, joint with instrumental analysis of treated samples, a field survey was performed to identify consumer preferences towards quality characteristics of juices/nectar. Based on field research, the three most important characteristics were 'taste' and 'aroma' with 28.5% of relative absolute weight importance, followed by 'odour' (16.9%). The quality function deployment model showed that the top three 'quality scores' for apple juice were treatments with amplitude 90 µm, 9 min treatment time and sample temperature 40 °C; 60 µm, 9 min, 60 °C; and 90 µm, 6 min, 40 °C. For nectars, the top three were treatments 120 µm, 9 min, 20 °C; 60 µm, 9 min, 60 °C; and A2.16 60 µm, 9 min, 20 °C. This type of quality model enables a more complex measure of large scale of different quality parameters. Its simplicity should be understood as its practical advantage and, as such, this tool can be a part of design quality when using novel preservation technologies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Response of alkali sacaton and fourwing saltbush to various amendments on coal mine spoils from northwestern New Mexico. II. Sodic spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, D G; Miyamoto, S

    1984-03-01

    Effects of chemical amendments on properties of two sodic mine spoils (sandstone and shale origins) and on growth of two range plants (alkali sacaton and fourwing saltbush) were studied in search of promising revegetation methods. The chemical amendments included applications of concentrated sulfuric acid, gypsum and phosphorus. On the shale spoil, these chemicals were applied in combination with physical amendments consisting of sand mulching, sand top-dressing, or sand incorporation. The sand used for the physical amendment was aeolian sand, which is locally available in the mine area. Laboratory water penetration tests and greenhouse plant growth tests were performed. Results indicate the following amendments to be promising: for sandstone-based spoils, sulfuric acid treatment, gypsum plus phosphorus application or phosphorus fertilization alone, depending on severity of sodium problems; for shale-based spoils, acid treatment can best be combined with either sand mulching, sand top-dressing, or sand incorporation. Gypsum plus phosphorus treatment in combination with sand top-dressing may provide an alternative treatment. 9 references.

  2. Inoculum density of Glomus mosseae and growth of onion plants in unsterilized bituminous coal spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of inoculum, density (number of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) propagules g/sup -1/ of inoculum) on the growth of onions (Allium cepa L.) infected by Glomus mosseae (Nicol and Gerd). Gerdemann and Trappe, Comb nov in unsterilized coal spoil containing indigenous VAM fungi, including G. mosseae, was investigated. The amount of onion roots converted to mycorrhizas by inoculant fungus, estimated by a gridline intersect method, increased with inoculum density (..gamma..0.62, P0.05) until a plateau was reached. Onion growth responses also increased significantly (P<0.05) with the amount of VAM inoculum present in the coal spoil. The initial linear relationship between inoculum propagules (MPN estimates), percent colonization of onion roots and onion shoot dry weight became quadratic as the number of infection propagules increased. VAM infection had no significant effect on root:shoot ratios. Similarly there was no significant interaction (P>0.05) between the inoculum density, VAM-colonized root mass and the onion root:shoot fresh weight ratios. The amount of the windswept bituminous coal spoil bound to VAM (presumably because of VAM external hyphae) also increased as inoculum density increased (..gamma..0.63, P<0.05). There was a stronger correlation (ga0.85, P<0.05) between the amount of spoil adhered per plant and the root fresh wt plant/sup -1/ indicating that root effects were primarily responsible for increasing spoil adherence. There were negative correlations (P<0.05) between root fresh wt plant/sup -1/ (..gamma..-0.68), inoculum density (..gamma..-0.589), percent root elngth infected (..gamma..-0.73) and the amount of spoil adhered g/sup -1/ root fresh wt. The possible exploitation of VAM in revegetation of bituminous coal spoil is discussed. 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mya Mya Than, Daw; Molly Ahad, Daw; Khin Khin Lay, Daw

    1997-10-01

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  4. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or with...

  5. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in § 146.135...

  6. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  7. Thermal death rate of ascospores of Neosartorya fischeri ATCC 200957 in the presence of organic acids and preservatives in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekhara, E; Suresh, E R; Ethiraj, S

    1998-10-01

    Heat-resistant molds, including Neosartorya fischeri, are known to spoil thermally processed fruit products. The control measures required for such problems must not cause an appreciable loss of the organoleptic qualities of the final products. In the present study we determined the thermal death rates of ascospores of N. fischeri ATCC 200957 in fruit juices containing organic acids and preservatives. The ascospores were able to survive for more than 6 h of heating at 75 degrees C, 5 h at 80 degrees C, and 3 to 4 h at 85 degrees C in mango or grape juice. Of the four organic acids tested, citric acid exhibited the maximal destruction of ascospores in mango juice at 85 degrees C (1/k = 27.22 min), and tartaric acid the least (1/k = 61.73 min). The effect of common preservatives on the thermal death rates of ascospores at .85 degrees C in mango and grape juices was studied. Almost similar effects on thermal inactivation of ascospores were noted when potassium sorbate (1/k = 29.38 min) or sodium benzoate (1/k = 27.64 min) or the combination of both (1/k = 27.53 min) was used in mango juice. In grape juice, potassium sorbate (1/k = 25.07 min) was more effective than sodium benzoate (1/k = 50.08 min) or the combination of both (1/k = 40.79 min) in inactivation of ascospores of the mold. The thermal death rate (1/k) values in mango and grape juices in the absence of any preservative were 63.51 and 69.27 min respectively.

  8. Det globale marked for juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    inden for æblejuice er Kina vigtig og står for 35 pct. af verdens samlede eksport. Den internationale handel med juice er meget omfattende, og mange lande er store både importører og eksportører. Den danske import af æblejuice kommer især fra Tyskland og Østrig, som dog også har en stor import fra Kina...

  9. Establishment of native species on amended and unamended coal mine spoil in central Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.C.; Mulligan, D.R.; Orr, M.S.; Johnstone, P.

    1994-01-01

    At the Curragh open-cut coal mine in central Queensland, tree and shrub growth on amended and unamended spoil was assessed over a 5-year period. The most successful media in terms of seedling densities were bare spoil and spoil covered by a thin layer of coarse coal reject. Where soil was replaced, very few native species established due to the intense competition from exotic grasses. Given this poor establishment on soil, the question of how well an ecosystem would develop on non-soil media was addressed by assessing the ability of each of the media to support sustainable communities in the longer term. Early results from direct-seeding tree and shrub species onto non-soil media have been quite encouraging, but analysis of the surface horizons has shown that after several years, there are still some characteristics which could either limit the re-establishment, and/or prevent the sustainability, of new communities. Due primarily to the high sulfate levels originally in the coal reject, the surface salinity in these treatments was much higher than in the uncapped spoil. Substrate analyses have shown also that there was a much lower concentration of mineralizable N in the spoil and coal reject than in the soil, revealing that the potential of these non-soil substrates to continue supplying nitrogen to the system is greatly reduced. Furthermore, the concentration of microbial biomass carbon was significantly lower in these media, and the percentage ground cover after 5 years was generally <10%

  10. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross G; Sutherland, Paul W; Johnston, Sarah L; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Hallett, Ian C; Mitra, Deepali; Brummell, David A; Schröder, Roswitha; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J

    2012-08-02

    While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1), there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in 'Royal Gala' apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. PG1-suppressed 'Royal Gala' apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. These findings confirm PG1's role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  11. Polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of traditional juices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... traditional juices consumed in Côte d'Ivoire. Amoin Georgette ... Baobab fruit juice and Roselle calices juices exhibited the highest ... from plants involved in this study must be considered for their ..... by liquid carbon dioxide.

  12. Multilaboratory Validation of First Action Method 2016.04 for Determination of Four Arsenic Species in Fruit Juice by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubachka, Kevin; Heitkemper, Douglas T; Conklin, Sean

    2017-07-01

    Before being designated AOAC First Action Official MethodSM 2016.04, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's method, EAM 4.10 High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Four Arsenic Species in Fruit Juice, underwent both a single-laboratory validation and a multilaboratory validation (MLV) study. Three federal and five state regulatory laboratories participated in the MLV study, which is the primary focus of this manuscript. The method was validated for inorganic arsenic (iAs) measured as the sum of the two iAs species arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)], dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) by analyses of 13 juice samples, including three apple juice, three apple juice concentrate, four grape juice, and three pear juice samples. In addition, two water Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analyzed. The method LODs and LOQs obtained among the eight laboratories were approximately 0.3 and 2 ng/g, respectively, for each of the analytes and were adequate for the intended purpose of the method. Each laboratory analyzed method blanks, fortified method blanks, reference materials, triplicate portions of each juice sample, and duplicate fortified juice samples (one for each matrix type) at three fortification levels. In general, repeatability and reproducibility of the method was ≤15% RSD for each species present at a concentration >LOQ. The average recovery of fortified analytes for all laboratories ranged from 98 to 104% iAs, DMA, and MMA for all four juice sample matrixes. The average iAs results for SRMs 1640a and 1643e agreed within the range of 96-98% of certified values for total arsenic.

  13. Traditional method of fish treatment, microbial count and palatability studies on spoiled fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Aziz, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the microbial count and palatability acceptance of spoiled fish after treatment with traditionally used naturalsolution.Methodology and results: To compare microbial count of spoiled fish before and after treatment with natural solution practicedby local people in Malaysia, 10 g of spoiled fish was respectively rinsed with 100 mL of 0.1% of natural solution such as Averrhoabilimbi extract, rice rinsed water, rice vinegar, Citrus aurantifolia extract, salt, flour, and Tamarindus indica extract. Flesh of fishrinsed with rice vinegar was found to be able to reduce microbial count (CFU/mL = 0.37 X 107 more than 4.5 times whencompared to spoiled fish (CFU/mL=1.67x 107. Spoiled fish that was treated with rice vinegar was prepared into a cutlet and fried.The cutlet was subjected to palatability acceptance study by a group of residents in Palm Court Condominium, Brickfields, KualaLumpur. The palatability study from the Cronbach alpha shown that the taste have the reliability of 0.802, the aroma has thereliability of 0.888, colour with the reliability of 0.772, texture or mouth feel have reliability of 0.840 and physical structure of thecutlet is 0.829.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Treatment of spoiled fish using rice vinegar as practice by local peopletraditionally shown a significant reduction in microbial count and the vinegar-treated fish could be developed into a product that issafe and acceptable by the consumer.

  14. Remediation of an acidic mine spoil: Miscanthus biochar and lime amendment affects metal availability, plant growth and soil enzymatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar is proposed as an amendment for mine spoil remediation; however, its effectiveness at achieving this goal remains unclear. Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) biochar was tested for potentially improving acidic mine spoil (pH < 3; Formosa mine near Riddle, Oregon) health conditions by sequeste...

  15. The Pometum Apple Key - an internet tool for genebank data including cultivar identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Korsgaard, Maren; Nordling, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    by Robert Hogg in 1880s. Other parameters focus on quality for use (table fruit, cooking, juice), flowering characteristics and tree growth and health (disease sensitivity). The development and use of the Apple Key is demonstrated and the stability of different characters in cultivar identification......Cultivar descriptions and correct identification are central for the work with genetic material, especially in Genebanks. The data collection of many descriptive parameters is very laborious in itself, but the handling of the data is also a challenge. However, when it comes to the level of use....... A dual aim was; firstly to present the diversity of apples in terms of appearance and qualities and also allow the inclusion of unique historical and cultural information including photos, pomological drawings and paintings. Secondly, the aim was to develop a tool for identification of cultivars and easy...

  16. Quality Of Starking Apples After Exposure To Gamma Radiation As A Quarantine Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.; Al-Bachir, M.

    2004-01-01

    Starking apples approaching physiological maturity were exposed, immediately after harvest, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 100 to 400 Gy. The irradiated fruit were stored for six months in a cold storage facility at 1±1 deg. C and 90±5 % RH. Effects of gamma radiation on weight loss, fruit firmness, pH of fruit juice, fruit taste, color and visible injuries were evaluated. The results showed that gamma irradiation increased weight loss, particularly in the first 45 days of storage. Doses higher than 200 Gy, on the other hand, reduced apple firmness after 45 days of storage while a 400 Gy dose decreased fruit pH immediately after irradiation. (Authors)

  17. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING APPLE PRODUCTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Research Organisation scientists working directly with apple farmers ... be productive up to 40 years, it was more realistic to consider .... to determine the factors that affect apple production. ..... profit maximising model using flexible production ...

  18. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  19. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Brian G.; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  20. Consumption of various forms of apples is associated with a better nutrient intake and improved nutrient adequacy in diets of children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A. Nicklas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consumption on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the association between apple (various forms consumption with nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in a nationally representative sample of children. Design: Participants were children aged 2–18 years (n=13,339, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010. Least square means of total energy and nutrient intake, and the percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement (EAR or above the adequate intake (AI among apple consumers and non-consumers were examined. Results: Consumers of total apple products had higher (p<0.01 total intakes of fiber, magnesium, and potassium and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, and sodium than non-consumers. Apple consumers had higher (p<0.01 total sugar intake, but lower intake of added sugars compared to non-consumers. A lower (p<0.01 percentage of apple consumers were below the EAR for 13 of the 16 nutrients studied. Apple consumers had approximately a 10 percentage unit difference below the EAR for calcium and magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E, than non-consumers. The percentage above the AI for fiber was significantly (p<0.0001 higher among total apple consumers (6.24±0.45 g compared to non-consumers (0.57±0.07 g. The results were similar for individual apple products (i.e. apple juice, applesauce, and whole apples. Conclusion: Consumption of any forms of apples provided valuable nutrients in the diets of children.

  1. Towards sustainable intensification of apple production in China - Yield gaps and nutrient use efficiency in apple farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Na; Wolf, Joost; Zhang, Fu Suo

    2016-01-01

    China is in a dominant position in apple production globally with both the largest apple growing area and the largest export of fresh apple fruits. However, the annual productivity of China's apple is significantly lower than that of other dominant apple producing countries. In addition, apple

  2. Evaluation of yeasts obtained from Antarctic soil samples as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vero, Silvana; Garmendia, Gabriela; González, M Belén; Bentancur, Oscar; Wisniewski, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Psychrotrophic yeasts were isolated from Antarctic soils, selected based on their ability to grow in apple juice at low temperatures, and were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple during cold storage. Among the species recovered, an isolate of Leucosporidium scottii, designated At17, was identified as a good biocontrol agent for blue and gray mold of two apple cultivars. The selected isolate produced soluble and volatile antifungal substances that were inhibitory to apple pathogens. Siderophore production was also demonstrated, but it did not appear to play a role in pathogen inhibition. The selected yeast had the capacity to form a biofilm when grown in apple juice, which is considered an important attribute of postharvest antagonists to successfully colonize wounds and intact fruit surfaces. At17 was resistant to commonly used postharvest fungicides, so application of a combination of low-dose fungicide along with the biocontrol agent could be used as an integrated management practice. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Information Security of Apple Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinru

    2016-01-01

    In the era of high-tech, the mode of payment is no longer just use cash or credit card. There are various payments come to our daily life. Online payment and other kinds of electronic payments are wildly in use by people. Apple Pay is a tool that provides easier and safer payment service for consumer. The main objective of this thesis is to understand deeply and analyze how easy and convenient Apple Pay is to use and why it is known as most secure form of payment. Besides that, there is a ...

  4. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's an Adam's Apple? Print You're at the high school baseball ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  5. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornille, A.; Giraud, T.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Gladieux, P.

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple

  6. Deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main interest in the energy cane is the bioenergy production from the bagasse. The juice obtained after the cane milling may constitute a feedstock for the first-generation ethanol units; however, little attention has been dedicated to this issue. In order to verify the feasibility of the energy cane juice as substrate for ethanol production, the objectives of this research were first to determine the microbiological characteristics and deterioration along the time of the juices from two clones of energy cane (Type I and second, their fermentability as feedstock for utilization in ethanol distilleries. There was a clear differentiation in the bacterial and yeast development of the sugarcane juices assayed, being much faster in the energy canes than in sugarcane. The storage of juice for 8 hours at 30oC did not cause impact in alcoholic fermentation for any sample analyzed, although a significant bacterial growth was detected in this period. A decrease of approximately seven percentage points in the fermentative efficiency was observed for energy cane juice in relation to sugarcane in a 24-hour fermentation cycle with the baking yeast. Despite the faster deterioration, the present research demonstrated that the energy cane juice has potential to be used as feedstock in ethanol-producing industries. As far as we know, it is the first research to deal with the characteristics of deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juices.

  7. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of maintaining essential composition and quality factors of... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  8. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating Does grape juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... juices may provide some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  9. Effect of beetroot juice on lowering blood pressure in free-living, disease-free adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coles Leah T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of beetroot juice on a low nitrate diet may lower blood pressure (BP and therefore reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is unknown if its inclusion as part of a normal diet has a similar effect on BP. The aim of the study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial with free-living adults to investigate if consuming beetroot juice in addition to a normal diet produces a measureable reduction in BP. Method Fifteen women and fifteen men participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Volunteers were randomized to receive 500 g of beetroot and apple juice (BJ or a placebo juice (PL. Volunteers had BP measured at baseline and at least hourly for 24-h following juice consumption using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM. Volunteers remained at the clinic for 1-h before resuming normal non-strenuous daily activities. The identical procedure was repeated 2-wk later with the drink (BJ or PL not consumed on the first visit. Results Overall, there was a trend (P=0.064 to lower systolic blood pressure (SBP at 6-h after drinking BJ relative to PL. Analysis in men only (n=13 after adjustment for baseline differences demonstrated a significant (P Conclusions Beetroot juice will lower BP in men when consumed as part of a normal diet in free-living healthy adults. Trial registration anzctr.org.au ACTRN12612000445875

  10. Distribution and molecular detection of apple mosaic virus in apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pair for real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of coat protein gene for Turkish ApMV isolates. Apple mosaic virus isolates were collected in 2007 to 2010 and the presence of the pathogen was detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and RT-PCR tests.

  11. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  12. Growth strategy of heterotrophic bacterial population along successional sequence on spoil of brown coal colliery substrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištůfek, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Chroňáková, Alica; Dostálková, I.; Picek, T.; Kalčík, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2005), s. 427-435 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1259 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : growth strategy * heterotrophic bacterial population * brown coal colliery spoil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  13. Heavy metals in soil on spoil heap of an abandoned lead ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    (Ti, Fe and Al) of a soil profile on spoil heap were examined. 54 soil samples were .... move gravel and rocks, put in plastic bags then sent to the Service. Central du ..... micro- organisms and microbial processes in agricultural soils. A review.

  14. Forest-biological erosion control on coal-mine spoil banks in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, M.J.; Gentcheva-Kostadinova, S.; Zheleva, E.

    1995-01-01

    The forest fallowing of coal-mine spoils helps re-establish the processes of natural, self-sustaining, soil formation. Environmental monitoring in Bulgaria demonstrates that forestation can moderate soil pH (from ph> 3.0 to pH 1.3 g/cm 3 in the 0-5 cm layer) in the case of coal briquette spoils at Pernik, near Sofia. Ground losses from forested, 16-17 degree slope, coal briquette-spoils at Pernik are a quarter of those from an entirely unvegetated section of the same embankment (48.5 vs 12. 1 mm in the period 1988-1994) despite the absence of ground cover beneath the trees. On lignite spoil banks, at Maritsa-Iztok, central Bulgaria, forestation increases the organic content of the soil to greater depths than revegetation with grass, and to a greater degree than conventional agricultural cultivation. On Pinus nigra forested crest sites at Pernik, and in Robinia pseudacacia forested groves on the lignite minespoil banks at Maritsa-Iztok, slopes showed ground advance rather than ground retreat. Slopes protected by mechanical means alone did not allow soil growth and, where the structure broke down, they suffered as much erosion as untreated sites. In sum, the forest fallowing of surface coal-mine disturbed land accelerates organic matter accumulation in the soil, helps improve soil structure, reduces erosion, and may transform soil loss into soil gain, even on steeply sloping sites. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.72 Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels...

  16. In vivo quantitative NMR imaging of fruit tissues during growth using Spoiled Gradient Echo sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenouche, S.; Perrier, M.; Bertin, N.

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to design a robust and accurate quantitative measurement method based on NMR imaging combined with contrast agent (CA) for mapping and quantifying water transport in growing cherry tomato fruits. A multiple flip-angle Spoiled Gradient Echo (SGE) imaging sequence was used to evaluate...

  17. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... does not slake in water or degrade to soil material, and which is free of coal, clay or other... of the soil. (2) Excess spoil shall be transported and placed in a controlled manner in horizontal... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to...

  18. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... does not slake in water or degrade to soil materials, and which is free of coal, clay or other... of the soil. (2) Excess spoil shall be transported and placed in a controlled manner in horizontal... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to...

  19. Earthworm succession in afforested colliery spoil heaps in the Sokolov region, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2001), s. 359-364 ISSN 1061-2971 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworms * colliery spoil heaps * succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2001

  20. Raptor use of revegetated coal strip mine spoils in interior Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    Raptors associated with reclaimed coal strip mine spoils on the Usibelli Coal Mine in southcentral Alaska were observed in 1981 and 1982. Of the 10 raptor species identified on the mine, 6 (red-tailed hawk, golden eagle, Northern harrier, American kestrel, hawk owl, and short-eared owl) were observed hunting on the reclaimed areas

  1. Colonization of spoil benches of an opencast lignite mine in northwest Spain by amphibians and reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, P. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Faculty of Biology

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the colonization by reptiles and amphibians of the spoil benches of the Meirama opencast lignite mine in northwest Spain over 10 years, following the start of the revegetation process. At Meirama, spoil benches are initially fertilized and hydroseeded with a pasture mix, but are subject to little subsequent management and are gradually colonized by scrub vegetation characteristic of the region. Herpetofauna censuses were carried out yearly on a single 2 ha plot over 6 years following hydroseeding, and in a single year on ten 2 ha plots which had been hydroseeded between 0 and 10 years previously. In addition, censuses were carried out on three undisturbed `control` plots close to the mine. Fifteen species (nine amphibians and six reptiles) were detected in one or more of the spoil-bench plots. Recolonization was particularly rapid after the first 2-3 years post-hydroseeding, and was closely related to habitat development due to revegetation and natural succession. Species composition was most similar to that in control plots in the oldest (ten-year-old) spoil plots.

  2. Kei Apple Plant Thorn Synovitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We noted 2 visible pieces of broken thorn within the joint space (Figure. 1). The pieces were retrieved and upon examination found to be thorns of Kei apple plant .The child was allowed home on the 3rd post operative day on antibiotics for 6 weeks. He has been reviewed 2 weeks post operatively with better range of motion.

  3. Thinning 'Elstar' apple with benzyladenine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    ‘Elstar’, the main apple cultivar grown in the Netherlands, requires adequate thinning to reach marketable fruit sizes and to achieve regular yields by preventing alternate bearing. At the moment, chemical thinning of ‘Elstar’ is the only economically feasible way of thinning. Thinning by hand is

  4. Apples for Teachers Pay Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Irving, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current trends in the educational market for microcomputers and software. As of June 1982, about 214,000 microcomputers were installed in schools, with Apple Computer (followed by Radio Shack and others) leading the field. A new federal program virtually eliminating how schools use funds may benefit computer assisted instruction. (JN)

  5. Stabilization of metals in acidic mine spoil with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, László

    2005-12-01

    Stabilization of metals with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra, cv. Keszthelyi 2) growth was studied on an acidic and phytotoxic mine spoil (pH(KCl) 3.20-3.26; Cd 7.1 mg kg(-1), Cu 120 mg kg(-1), Pb 2154 mg kg(-1) and Zn 605 mg kg(-1)) from Gyöngyösoroszi, Hungary in a pot experiment. Raising the pH above 5.0 by lime (CaCO(3)), and supplementing with 40 mg kg(-1)nitrogen (NH(4)NO(3)) made this material suitable for plant growth. All cultures were limed with 0.5% (m/m) CaCO(3) (treatment 1), which was combined with 5% (m/m) municipal sewage sludge compost (treatment 2), 5% (m/m) peat (treatment 3), 7.5% (m/m) natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) (treatment 4), and 0.5 (m/m) KH(2)PO(4) (treatment 5). Treatments 1-5 were combined with each other (treatment 6). After 60 days of red fescue growth, pH of the limed mine spoil decreased in all cultures units. Application of peat caused the highest pH decrease (1.15), while decrease of pH was less than 0.23 in treatments 2, 5 or 6. Application of lime significantly reduced concentrations of metals in the 'plant available' fraction of mine spoil compared to non-limed mine spoil. Amendments added to limed mine spoil changed variously the ratio of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in exchangeable or 'plant available' fractions, differently influencing the phytoavailability of these metals. Most of the metals were captured in the roots of test plants. Treatment 2 caused the appearance of less Cd in shoots (spoil, however the application of 0.5 phosphate was less favourable. Liming, application of amendments and growth of red fescue can stabilize metals in acidic and phytotoxic mine spoil, and by phytostabilization they can reduce the risk of metal contamination of the food chain.

  6. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  7. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be added...

  8. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards for...

  9. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is not...

  10. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  11. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing,

  12. Survival and growth of wildlife shrubs and trees on acid mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, D.K.; Adkisson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the survival and growth of selected wildlife plants over a wide range of acid mine spoil conditions and to identify species suitable for surface mine reclamation. A major criterion in selection of study sites was inclusion of a wide range of spoil acidity conditions. The Ollis Creek (Study Area A) and Farrell (Study Area B) coal surface mines located in Campbell and Scott Counties, Tennessee, were selected for study. Seven plant species, all of which had been used in past reclamation demonstrations, were introduced on the 22 plots during March 1972. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) was included as a control plant. Ten additional plant species were introduced during March 1973. With the exception of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum var.). European filbert (Corylus avellana), and red maple (Acer rubrum), these species had not been used in TVA reclamation demonstrations. To assess the effects of spoil pH on the plants, the plots were grouped into seven pH categories, and mean percent survival and growth for each species were calculated. Results indicate that autumn olive, elaeagnus cherry, arnot locust, sawtooth oak, red maple, and Toringo crabapple are suitable for quick improvement of surface mine habitat over a wide range of spoil acidity in the Appalachian coalfield. Bessey cherry and European filbert need further study before a decision can be made regarding their reclamation utility. Species that are not recommended for quick habitat improvement over a wide range of surface mine spoil pH conditions include bush honeysuckle, barberry, Siberian crabapple, Manchu cherry, American beautyberry, bear oak, blueberry, rem-red honeysuckle, and redcedar.

  13. Dry flue gas desulfurization byproducts as amendments for reclamation of acid mine spoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, W.A.; Stehouwer, R.C.; Beeghly, J.H.; Bigham, J.M.; Lal, R.

    1994-01-01

    Development of beneficial reuses of highly alkaline, dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts can impact the economics of adopting these FGD technologies for retrofit on existing powerplants. Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the use of two dry FGD byproducts for reclamation of acid mine spoil (pH, 3.1 to 5.8). Treatment rates of FGD ranges from 0% to 32% by dry weight and most treatments also included 6% by dry weight of sewage sludge. Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was harvested monthly for a total of six harvests. Plant tissue composition and root growth were determined after the sixth harvest. Leachate analyses and pH determination of mixes were done at the beginning and end of the experiments. Both FGD byproducts were effective in raising the spoil pH and in improving fescue growth. At the highest FGD application rate, fescue growth decreased from the optimum due to high pH and reduced rooting volume caused by cementation reactions between the FGD and spoil. Trace elements, with the exception of B, were decreased in the fescue tissue when FGD was applied. Leachate pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, Ca, Mg, and S tended to increase with increased FGD application rate; Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn decreased. pH was the most important variable controlling the concentrations of these elements in the leachate. Concentrations of elements of environmental concern were near or below drinking water standard levels. These results indicate that FGD applied at rates equivalent to spoil neutralization needs can aid in the revegetation of acid spoil revegetation with little potential for introduction of toxic elements into the leachate water or into the food chain

  14. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  15. Determination of the 13C/12C ratio of ethanol derived from fruit juices and maple syrup by isotope ratio mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, Eric; Martin, Frédérique; Martin, Gilles G

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative study of the carbon-13 isotope ratio mass spectrometry (13C-IRMS) method based on fermentation ethanol for detecting some sugar additions in fruit juices and maple syrup is reported. This method is complementary to the site-specific natural isotope fractionation by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method for detecting added beet sugar in the same products (AOAC Official Methods 995.17 and 2000.19), and uses the same initial steps to recover pure ethanol. The fruit juices or maple syrups are completely fermented with yeast, and the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield (>96%). The carbon-13 deviation (delta13C) of ethanol is then determined by IRMS. This parameter becomes less negative when exogenous sugar derived from plants exhibiting a C4 metabolism (e.g., corn or cane) is added to a juice obtained from plants exhibiting a C3 metabolism (most common fruits except pineapple) or to maple syrup. Conversely, the delta13C of ethanol becomes more negative when exogenous sugar derived from C3 plants (e.g., beet, wheat, rice) is added to pineapple products. Twelve laboratories analyzed 2 materials (orange juice and pure cane sugar) in blind duplicate and 4 sugar-adulterated materials (orange juice, maple syrup, pineapple juice, and apple juice) as Youden pairs. The precision of that method for measuring delta13C was similar to that of other methods applied to wine ethanol or extracted sugars in juices. The within-laboratory (Sr) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.16%o (r = 0.17 to 0.46 percent per thousand), and the among-laboratories (SR) values ranged from 0.17 to 0.26 percent per thousand (R = 0.49 to 0.73 percent per thousand). The Study Directors recommend that the method be adopted as First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL.

  16. Two weeks of watermelon juice supplementation improves nitric oxide bioavailability but not endurance exercise performance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, Jamie R; Williams, Ewan; Vanhatalo, Anni; Wylie, Lee J; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

    2016-09-30

    This study tested the hypothesis that watermelon juice supplementation would improve nitric oxide bioavailability and exercise performance. Eight healthy recreationally-active adult males reported to the laboratory on two occasions for initial testing without dietary supplementation (control condition). Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned, in a cross-over experimental design, to receive 16 days of supplementation with 300 mL·day(-1) of a watermelon juice concentrate, which provided ∼3.4 g l-citrulline·day(-1) and an apple juice concentrate as a placebo. Participants reported to the laboratory on days 14 and 16 of supplementation to assess the effects of the interventions on blood pressure, plasma [l-citrulline], plasma [l-arginine], plasma [nitrite], muscle oxygenation and time-to-exhaustion during severe-intensity exercise. Compared to control and placebo, plasma [l-citrulline] (29 ± 4, 22 ± 6 and 101 ± 23 μM), [l-arginine] (74 ± 9, 67 ± 13 and 116 ± 9 μM) and [nitrite] (102 ± 29, 106 ± 21 and 201 ± 106 nM) were higher after watermelon juice supplementation (P watermelon juice (130 ± 11) and placebo (131 ± 9) conditions compared to the control condition (124 ± 8 mmHg; P watermelon juice condition than the placebo and control conditions (P watermelon juice: 550 ± 143 s) was not significantly different between conditions (P watermelon juice supplementation increased baseline plasma [nitrite] and improved muscle oxygenation during moderate-intensity exercise, it increased resting blood pressure and did not improve time-to-exhaustion during severe-intensity exercise. These findings do not support the use of watermelon juice supplementation as a nutritional intervention to lower blood pressure or improve endurance exercise performance in healthy adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to which...

  18. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  19. [Comparative characteristics of the isotopic D/H composition and antioxidant activity of freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different geographical regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, M I; Dzhimak, S S; Basov, A A; Arcybasheva, O M; Shashkov, D; Baryshev, M G

    2015-01-01

    Data presented in this paper reflect changes in antioxidant activity, the content of prooxidant factors and deuterium concentration in freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different climatic regions (10 samples of juices from wholesale and retail trade network of 8 kinds of vegetables and fruits, 28 manufacturers from 14 countries). Determination of the concentration of deuterium was performed using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Total antioxidant activity of fresh juices was determined amperometrically after dilution in 2.2 mM H3PO4 in a ratio of 1:100. Prooxidant performance was evaluated by a maximum and area of flash of chemiluminescence induced by the introduction of 0.3% hydrogen peroxide. It was found that the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from fruits and vegetables grown within the same climatic region can differ by several times. In this case, most of the fruits and vegetables of russian producers were not inferior, than antioxidant activity of the fresh juices from the same plant products grown abroad. It should be noted that the indicators of the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from Russian pears exceeded this indicator of all fresh juices from pears, imported from Argentina, South Africa and the United States of America by 21.1, 30.4 and 32.7%, respectively. In assessing the prooxidant properties of fresh juices should be noted the almost complete absence of factors with prooxidant nature only in 36% of the studied fresh juices, whose maximum performance and area of flash of chemiluminescence were less than 0.1%, including a pear and apple juices from the russian production. It should be noted that the area of chemiluminescence of the juice from potatoes, grown in Russia, was at 103.1 and 115.2% lower than in juice obtained respectively from potatoes produced in Israel and Egypt (pcomposition of fresh juices it was found that the highest deuterium content was in the juice from the pears, imported from

  20. Assessment of the reduced allergenic properties of the Santana apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Helmi S.; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple varieties. To

  1. Assessment of the reduced allergenic properties of the Santana apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Helmi S.; Vlleg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple

  2. Chitosan-immobilized pectinolytics with novel catalytic features and fruit juice clarification potentialities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Muhammad; Murtza, Aimen; Zafar, Muddassar; Bhatti, Khizar Hayat; Rehman, Abdul; Anwar, Zahid

    2017-11-01

    Biological macromolecules are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen microbial growth for the production of industrially relevant enzymes. The presence of polysaccharides in the form of the disrupted cell wall and cell materials are among major challenges in the fruit juice industry. The breakdown of such biological macromolecules including cellulose and pectin is vital for the juices processing. In this background, pectinolytic enzymes including polygalacturonase (PG), pectin lyase (PL), and pectin methylesterase (PME) were isolated from Aspergillus ornatus, statistically optimized and purified via ammonium sulfate fractionation (ASF), dialysis, and Sephadex G-100 gel permeation chromatography. After passing through Sephadex G-100 column, PG, PL, and PME were 2.60-fold, 3.30-fold, and 4.52-fold purified with specific activities of 475.2U/mg, 557.1U/mg, and 205.7U/mg. The active PG, PL, and PME, each separately, were surface immobilized using various concentrations of chitosan and dextran polyaldehyde as a macromolecular crosslinking agent. Prior to exploit for juice clarification purposes, various parameters including pH, thermal and Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants of purified and chitosan-immobilized fractions were investigated. A considerable improvement in the pH and thermal profiles was recorded after immobilization. However, the negligible difference between the K m and V max values of purified free and chitosan-immobilized fractions revealed that the conformational flexibility of pectinolytics was retained as such. A significant color and turbidity reductions were recorded after 60min treatment with CTS-PG, followed by CTS-PME, and CTS-PL. It can be concluded that the clarification of apples, mango, peach, and apricot juices was greatly affected by CTS-PG, CTS-PME, and CTS-PL treatments rendering them as potential candidatures for food industry applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  4. Experimental Study on Gastric Juice Secretion by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    管理平台

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Study on stomach physiological functions by ... mechanism of regulating gastric electrical activity and gastric juice secretion might become true by the .... samples was used in comparism among these different groups.

  5. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food. The lemon oil and lemon essence (derived from lemons) content may be adjusted in accordance with... juice, as defined in this paragraph, may be preserved by heat sterilization (canning), refrigeration...

  6. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  7. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant (OR, 1.19; 95%CI, 0.93–1

  8. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  9. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality

  10. Effect of lemon juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    SARI, Aysel; SELİM, Nevzat; DİLEK, Melda; AYDOĞDU, Turkan; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; BÜYÜKKAYA, Piltan; AKPOLAT, Tekin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon juice has commonly been used by hypertensive patients in order to lower blood pressure (BP) acutely when BP is raised or as an alternative/complementary therapy for expectation of chronic improvement. Grapefruit, a citrus fruit like lemon, causes clinically significant interactions with a variety of drugs including calcium antagonists. The aims of this study were to investigate acute and chronic effects of lemon juice on BP among hypertensive patients. Ninty-eight patients were included...

  11. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis

  12. Morphological and mineral analysis of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Sheila Regina Maia; De Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; De Oliveira, Elisabeth; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated and compared in vitro the morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice. Human enamel specimens were submitted to erosive challenge using gastric juice (from endoscopy exam) (n = 10), and orange juice (commercially-available) (n = 10), as follows: 5 min in 3 mL of demineralization solution, rinse with distilled water, and store in artificial saliva for 3 h. This cycle was repeated four times a day for 14 days. Calcium (Ca) loss after acid exposure was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. The presence of carbonate (CO) and phosphate (PO) in the specimens was evaluated before and after the erosive challenge by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Data were tested using t-tests (P enamel was observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean loss of Ca was: 12.74 ± 3.33 mg/L Ca (gastric juice) and 7.07 ± 1.44 mg/L Ca (orange juice). The analysis by atomic emission spectroscopy showed statistically significant difference between erosive potential of juices (P = 0.0003). FT-Raman spectroscopy found no statistically significant difference in the ratio CO/PO after the erosive challenge. The CO/PO ratios values before and after the challenge were: 0.16/0.17 (gastric juice) (P = 0.37) and 0.18/0.14 (orange juice) (P = 0.16). Qualitative analysis by SEM showed intense alterations of enamel surface. The gastric juice caused more changes in morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel than orange juice. The atomic emission spectroscopy showed to be more suitable to analyze small mineral loss after erosive challenge than FT-Raman. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Weathering processes under various moisture conditions in a lignite mine spoil from As Pontes (N.W. Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoane, S.; Leiros, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Processes contributing to acid release/consumption during weathering of a lignite mine spoil (2.3% w/w S as sulfides) from As Pontes (N.W. Spain) were studied under three moisture conditions (at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying or forced percolation), which were simulated in laboratory experiments. Oxidation of sulfides to sulfates was favoured under all three moisture conditions, releasing most acid in spoil kept at field capacity. Hydroxysulfates formed in spoil kept at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying conditions, thereby contributing to acid release. Acid consumption by dissolution of clay minerals, especially micas, was favoured under all three moisture conditions, but was particularly intense in spoil at field capacity. Dissolution of aluminium oxides was also favoured under all the moisture conditions studied. 27 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  14. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittman, Mark E.; Callahan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  15. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on bitter pit of apple fruits (Malus Domestica Borkh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.

    2000-12-01

    Tow varieties of apple fruits Golden and Starking were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 kGy and with 0, 1.0, 1.5 kGy respectively. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 centigrade and relative humidity of 80 to 90%. Fruit quality (firmness, skin thickness and bitter pit) and juice characteristics (moisture, ash, carbohydrates, organic acids, Ph, and viscosity), were determined during storage periods (0, 3 and 6 months). The used doses of gamma irradiation significantly decreased the percentage and intensity of bitter pit. Irradiated fruits were softer immediately after irradiation and through storage periods, there were no differences in firmness between irradiated and unirradiated fruits. Gamma irradiation increased the thickness of skin in Golden fruits and decreased it in Starking. Juice production from both varieties immediately after irradiation was not affected by gamma irradiation. However the juice produced from irradiated fruits had higher organic acids (citric and malic acids), viscosity and Ph values than the control. (author)

  17. Analýza akcie Apple

    OpenAIRE

    Kereibayev, Alisher

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is dedicated to the analysis of Apple stock title. Analysis of stock title is provided on the basis of methods of fundamental and technical analysis, taking into account sectoral and fundamental analysis. The main objective of this thesis is to derive investment recommendations in relation to the stock Apple title, based on the evaluation of the related fundamental and technical factors on the price of the shares it operates. The hypothesis is the following statement: Apple sh...

  18. Apples in the Alps aid atomic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.

    1983-01-01

    The use of 2 Apple microcomputers by the radiation protection group working with CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is described. The first Apple is used primarily to process the data from the radiation monitoring system around the ring before the maintenance engineers can commence work on the SPS. The second Apple is being developed to help in the calibration of the ring's 1,100 monitors. (U.K.)

  19. The copper spoil heap Knappenberg, Austria, as a model for metal habitats – Vegetation, substrate and contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Weiss, Yasmin S. [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Sassmann, Stefan [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); University of Exeter, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Biosciences, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Steinhauser, Georg [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Radioecology and Radiation Protection, Herrenhäuser Straße 2, D30419 Hannover (Germany); Hofhansl, Florian [University of Vienna, Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Coordenação de Dinâmica Ambiental, Manaus (Brazil); Baumann, Nils [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Division of Biogeochemistry, Bautzner Landstraße 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Lichtscheidl, Irene K. [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Lang, Ingeborg, E-mail: ingeborg.lang@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    Historic mining in the Eastern Alps has left us with a legacy of numerous spoil heaps hosting specific, metal tolerant vegetation. Such habitats are characterized by elevated concentrations of toxic elements but also by high irradiation, a poorly developed substrate or extreme pH of the soil. This study investigates the distribution of vascular plants, mosses and lichens on a copper spoil heap on the ore bearing Knappenberg formed by Prebichl Layers and Werfener Schist in Lower Austria. It serves as a model for discriminating between various ecological traits and their effects on vegetation. Five distinct clusters were distinguished: (1) The bare, metal rich Central Spoil Heap was only colonised by highly resistant specialists. (2) The Northern and (3) Southern Peripheries contained less copper; the contrasting vegetation was best explained by the different microclimate. (4) A forest over acidic bedrock hosted a vegetation overlapping with the periphery of the spoil heap. (5) A forest over calcareous bedrock was similar to the spoil heap with regard to pH and humus content but hosted a vegetation differing strongly to all other habitats. Among the multiple toxic elements at the spoil heap, only Cu seems to exert a crucial influence on the vegetation pattern. Besides metal concentrations, irradiation, humidity, humus, pH and grain size distribution are important for the establishment of a metal tolerant vegetation. The difference between the species poor Northern and the diverse Southern Periphery can be explained by the microclimate rather than by the substrate. All plant species penetrating from the forest into the periphery of the spoil heap originate from the acidic but not from the calcareous bedrock. - Highlights: • Strong impact on plant diversity by isolation and extreme abiotic conditions • Both, microclimate and substrate explain species distribution. • Increased cellular metal tolerance of plants from the Central Spoil Heap • Among toxic elements

  20. Measurements of line overlap for resonant spoiling of x-ray lasing transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Elliott, S.R.; MacGowan, B.J.; Nilsen, J.

    1994-06-01

    High-precision measurements are presented of candidate line pairs for resonant spoiling of x-ray lasing transitions in the nickel-like W 46+ , the neon-like Fe 16+ , and the neon-like La 47+ x-ray lasers. Our measurements were carried out with high-resolution crystal spectrometers, and a typical precision of 20--50 ppM was achieved. While most resonances appear insufficient for effective photo-spoiling, two resonance pairs are identified that provide a good overlap. These are the 4p 1/2 → 3d 3/2 transition in nickel-like W 46+ with the 2p 3/2 → 1s 1/2 transition in hydrogenic Al 12+ , and the 3s 1/2 → 2p 3/2 transition in neon-like La 47+ with the 1 1 S 0 -2 1 P 1 line in heliumlike Ti 20+