WorldWideScience

Sample records for spoil general requirements

  1. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stable under all conditions of construction. (c) Compliance with permit. You, the permittee or operator... (excavations to stable bedrock) or rock-toe buttresses to ensure fill stability. (e) Placement of excess spoil... provided to minimize surface erosion at the site. All disturbed areas, including diversion channels that...

  2. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stable under all conditions of construction. (c) Compliance with permit. You, the permittee or operator... (excavations to stable bedrock) or rock-toe buttresses to ensure fill stability. (e) Placement of excess spoil... provided to minimize surface erosion at the site. All disturbed areas, including diversion channels that...

  3. Spoils of Truce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Review of Spoils of Truce. Corruption and stat building in Postwar Lebanon Reinoud Leenders Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-8014-5100-3......Review of Spoils of Truce. Corruption and stat building in Postwar Lebanon Reinoud Leenders Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-8014-5100-3...

  4. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. An inappropriate biochar may negatively impact plant growth conditions resulting in poor plant establishment and growth. Matching the appropriate biochar for each mine site requires reconnaissance of spoil chemical and physical conditions and then identifying which properties need rectified to promote plant growth. A rectification hierarchy needs to be established with the primary limiting factor being addressed first, then successive limitations addressed simultaneously or thereafter. We posit that spoils at each site will have a unique chemical, physical, and biological signature that will affect plant growth. For example, some spoils may be extremely acidic, possess phytotoxic concentrations of heavy metals, or have physical conditions that limits water storage and root penetration. Quantifying these and other conditions beforehand allows for the production of designer biochar with specific characteristics tailored for specific plant growth deficiencies within each spoil. Additionally, we recommend the use of proximally located, undisturbed soils to establish spoil remediation targets. In our work, we have developed a decision-tree flow-chart that identifies salient chemical,

  5. General lighting requirements for photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, D.R. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review of the general lighting requirements for photosynthesis reveals that four aspects of light are important: irradiance, quality, timing and duration. These properties of light affect photosynthesis by providing the energy that drives carbon assimilation as well as by exerting control over physiology, structure and morphology of plants. Irradiance, expressed as energy flux, W m{sup -2}, or photon irradiance, {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, determines the rate at which energy is being delivered to the photosynthetic reaction centers. Spectral quality, the wavelength composition of light, is important because photons differ in their probability of being absorbed by the light harvesting complex and hence their ability to drive carbon assimilation. Also the various light receptors for light-mediated regulation of plant form and physiology have characteristic absorption spectra and hence photons differ in their effectiveness for eliciting responses. Duration is important because both carbon assimilation and regulation are affected by the total energy or integrated irradiance delivered during a given period. Many processes associated with photosynthesis are time-dependent, increasing or decreasing with duration. Timing is important because the effectiveness of light in the regulation of plant processes varies with the phase of the diumal cycle as determined by the plant`s time-measuring mechanisms.

  6. Reduction of Flow Artifacts by Using Partial Saturation in RF-Spoiled Gradient-Echo Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Misung; Hargreaves, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF)-spoiled gradient-echo imaging provides a signal intensity close to pure T1 contrast by using spoiler gradients and RF phase cycling to eliminate net transverse magnetization. Generally, spins require many RF excitations to reach a steady-state magnetization level; therefore, when unsaturated flowing spins enter the imaging slab, they can cause undesirable signal enhancement and generate image artifacts. These artifacts can be reduced by partially saturating an outer slab u...

  7. 46 CFR 184.100 - General requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirement. 184.100 Section 184.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 184.100 General requirement...

  8. 10 CFR 4.21 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements. 4.21 Section 4.21 Energy NUCLEAR... and Title IV of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 Assurances Required § 4.21 General requirements... purpose involving the provision of similar services or benefits. In the case of personal property the...

  9. 10 CFR 61.40 - General requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirement. 61.40 Section 61.40 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Performance Objectives § 61.40 General requirement. Land disposal facilities must be sited, designed, operated, closed...

  10. 40 CFR 35.6450 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Copyright Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6450 General requirements. The recipient... comply with the requirements regarding contract copyright provisions described in § 35.6595(b)(2). Use of...

  11. 23 CFR 1313.4 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING PREVENTION PROGRAMS § 1313.4 General requirements. (a) Qualification requirements... enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving prevention programs in § 1313.6 and other associated costs permitted... certification that it has an alcohol-impaired driving prevention program that meets the requirements of 23 U.S.C...

  12. 27 CFR 26.272 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 26.272 General requirements. Except as provided in § 26.273, every person, other than a tourist... under this part with respect of liquors while in customs custody. (Approved by the Office of Management...

  13. 40 CFR 35.6500 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Use of Recipient Employees (âforce Accountâ) Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6500 General.... Procurement Requirements Under a Cooperative Agreement ...

  14. 10 CFR 20.2001 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements. 20.2001 Section 20.2001 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2001 General... disposal; or (2) Treatment or disposal by incineration; or (3) Decay in storage; or (4) Disposal at a land...

  15. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engineer or other qualified professional specialist experienced in the construction of earth and rockfill... minesite. (11) Coal processing wastes shall not be disposed of in head-of-hollow or valley fills, and may... require a flatter slope. (c) Head-of-hollow fills. Disposal of spoil in the head-of-hollow fill shall meet...

  16. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils. [USA - Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A M University, Normal, AL (USA). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza {ital Lespedeza striata} (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza {ital Lespedeza cuneata} (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by Bragg' soybean {ital Glycine max} (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl {gt} DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. 10 CFR 11.11 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... non-power reactor facilities and storage of fuel incident thereto and facilities and plants in which... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements. 11.11 Section 11.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER...

  18. 7 CFR 322.22 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements. 322.22 Section 322.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Transit of...

  19. 7 CFR 322.5 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements. 322.5 Section 322.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult...

  20. 23 CFR 645.209 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... associated with injury or accident to the highway user, as indicated by accident history or safety studies... Accommodation of Utilities § 645.209 General requirements. (a) Safety. Highway safety and traffic safety are of... economic public policy and law, utilities have used public road right-of-way for transmitting and...

  1. 21 CFR 211.160 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General requirements. 211.160 Section 211.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS..., drug product container, or closure that is subject to deterioration. (2) Determination of conformance...

  2. 21 CFR 820.180 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General requirements. 820.180 Section 820.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... minimize deterioration and to prevent loss. Those records stored in automated data processing systems shall...

  3. 19 CFR 146.21 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Inventory Control and Recordkeeping System § 146.21 General requirements. (a) Systems capability. The operator shall maintain either manual or automated inventory control... English language copy of its written inventory control and recordkeeping systems procedures manual in...

  4. 47 CFR 52.9 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... telecommunications carriers; (2) Not unduly favor or disfavor any particular telecommunications industry segment or... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements. 52.9 Section 52.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2725 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulation for Control of Atmospheric Pollution could, in some circumstances, prohibit the disclosure of... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements. 52.2725 Section 52.2725 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...

  6. 30 CFR 817.102 - Backfilling and grading: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (k) of this section; (2) Eliminate all highwalls, spoil piles, and depressions, except as provided... combustible materials exposed, used, or produced during mining shall be adequately covered with nontoxic and... regulatory authority may allow the existing spoil or underground development waste pile to remain in place...

  7. Requirements Engineering for General Recommender Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, Ivens; Alencar, Paulo; Cowan, Donald

    2015-01-01

    In requirements engineering for recommender systems, software engineers must identify the data that drives the recommendations. This is a labor-intensive task, which is error-prone and expensive. One possible solution to this problem is the adoption of automatic recommender system development approach based on a general recommender framework. One step towards the creation of such a framework is to determine the type of data used in recommender systems. In this paper, a systematic review has b...

  8. REQUIREMENTS FOR A GENERAL INTERPRETATION THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Laura Lungu Petruescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Time has proved that Economic Analysis is not enough as to ensure all the needs of the economic field. The present study wishes to propose a new approach method of the economic phenomena and processes based on the researches made outside the economic space- a new general interpretation theory- which is centered on the human being as the basic actor of economy. A general interpretation theory must assure the interpretation of the causalities among the economic phenomena and processes- causal interpretation; the interpretation of the correlations and dependencies among indicators- normative interpretation; the interpretation of social and communicational processes in economic organizations- social and communicational interpretation; the interpretation of the community status of companies- transsocial interpretation; the interpretation of the purposes of human activities and their coherency – teleological interpretation; the interpretation of equilibrium/ disequilibrium from inside the economic systems- optimality interpretation. In order to respond to such demands, rigor, pragmatism, praxiology and contextual connectors are required. In order to progress, the economic science must improve its language, both its syntax and its semantics. The clarity of exposure requires a language clarity and the scientific theory progress asks for the need of hypotheses in the building of the theories. The switch from the common language to the symbolic one means the switch from ambiguity to rigor and rationality, that is order in thinking. But order implies structure, which implies formalization. Our paper should be a plea for these requirements, requirements which should be fulfilled by a modern interpretation theory.

  9. Responsible gambling: general principles and minimal requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczynski, Alex; Collins, Peter; Fong, Davis; Ladouceur, Robert; Nower, Lia; Shaffer, Howard J; Tavares, Hermano; Venisse, Jean-Luc

    2011-12-01

    Many international jurisdictions have introduced responsible gambling programs. These programs intend to minimize negative consequences of excessive gambling, but vary considerably in their aims, focus, and content. Many responsible gambling programs lack a conceptual framework and, in the absence of empirical data, their components are based only on general considerations and impressions. This paper outlines the consensus viewpoint of an international group of researchers suggesting fundamental responsible gambling principles, roles of key stakeholders, and minimal requirements that stakeholders can use to frame and inform responsible gambling programs across jurisdictions. Such a framework does not purport to offer value statements regarding the legal status of gambling or its expansion. Rather, it proposes gambling-related initiatives aimed at government, industry, and individuals to promote responsible gambling and consumer protection. This paper argues that there is a set of basic principles and minimal requirements that should form the basis for every responsible gambling program.

  10. 30 CFR 816.102 - Backfilling and grading: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (k) of this section; (2) Eliminate all highwalls, spoil piles, and depressions, except as provided..., acid- and toxic-forming materials, and combustible materials exposed, used, or produced during mining...

  11. Laboratory rainfall simulator studies of selected open-cut coal mine overburden spoils from Central Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K.G.; Loch, R.J.; Aspinall, T.O.; Bell, L.C. [Eros and Hydrology Group, Jabiru, NT (Australia)

    1997-05-01

    Data on the erodibility of overburden spoils resulting from open-cut coal mining are limited. These data are required to derive parameters for erosion prediction models which can be used in the design of re-formed landscapes after mining. In this study, laboratory rainfall simulation data were used to derive CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems) interfill erodibility parameters K and n{sub bov} for Central Queensland coal mine overburden spoils. For the spoils studied, K values ranged from 0.0111 to 0.1398 Mg ha h/(ha MJ mm) and n{sub bov} values ranged from 0.0004 to 0.0081. Sediment yield was transport controlled. Results for 1 spoil, South Blackwater Terang, showed that total soil loss increased linearly with slope, and both K and n{sub bov} varied non-linearly with slope. If a constant set of K and n{sub bov} values is used in modelling, CREAMS over-predicts spoil loss for slopes greater than that for which the parameter values were determined, and under-predicts spoil loss for slopes less than that for which the parameter values were determined.

  12. 40 CFR 141.80 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... service line replacement, and public education. These requirements are triggered, in some cases, by lead... requirements. (1) All water systems shall install and operate optimal corrosion control treatment as defined in... specified by the State under § 141.83. (f) Lead service line replacement requirements. Any system exceeding...

  13. Reduction of flow artifacts by using partial saturation in RF-spoiled gradient-echo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Misung; Hargreaves, Brian A

    2011-05-01

    Radiofrequency (RF)-spoiled gradient-echo imaging provides a signal intensity close to pure T(1) contrast by using spoiler gradients and RF phase cycling to eliminate net transverse magnetization. Generally, spins require many RF excitations to reach a steady-state magnetization level; therefore, when unsaturated flowing spins enter the imaging slab, they can cause undesirable signal enhancement and generate image artifacts. These artifacts can be reduced by partially saturating an outer slab upstream to drive the longitudinal magnetization close to the steady state, while the partially saturated spins generate no signal until they enter the imaging slab. In this work, magnetization evolution of flowing spins in RF-spoiled gradient-echo sequences with and without partial saturation was simulated using the Bloch equations. Next, the simulations were validated by phantom and in vivo experiments. For phantom experiments, a pulsatile flow phantom was used to test partial saturation for a range of flip angles and relaxation times. For in vivo experiments, the technique was used to image the carotid arteries, abdominal aorta, and femoral arteries of normal volunteers. All experiments demonstrated that partial saturation can provide consistent T(1) contrast across the slab while reducing inflow artifacts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. 27 CFR 7.28 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption within Puerto Rico may, if desired, state the information required by this subpart solely in the... millimeters for containers larger than 40 fl. oz. (c) English language. All information, other than the brand name, required by this subpart to be stated on labels shall be in the English language. Additional...

  15. 46 CFR 182.410 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... where flexible hoses are permitted to be clamped: (1) Double hose clamping is required where practicable... hose clamp can be used if the pipe ends are expanded or beaded to provide a positive stop against hose...

  16. 21 CFR 211.180 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records and Reports § 211.180... immediately retrieved from another location by computer or other electronic means shall be considered as...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.303 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... component, or member, except for testing methods involving one-piece metal roofing as would be required in... quality of material modified by the terms of minimum, not less than, at least, and similar expressions are...) (e) New materials and methods. (1) Any new material or method of construction not provided for in...

  18. 50 CFR 222.301 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... written in the English language. Such records shall be retained for 5 years from the date of issuance of... Administrator may approve variations from the requirements of parts 222, 223, and 224 of this chapter when the Assistant Administrator finds that an emergency exists and that the proposed variations will not hinder...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.403 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... considered to be grounded. Working space is not required in back of assemblies such as dead-front... that walls or other obstructions do not prevent the free circulation of air through the equipment. (e... joints and the free ends of conductors shall be covered with an insulation equivalent to that of the...

  20. 29 CFR 780.604 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... follows: (a) Employment of the employee “primarily” in agriculture in the particular workweek. (b) This primary employment by a farmer. (c) Engagement by the farmer in raising livestock. (d) Engagement by the... employee. These requirements will be separately discussed in the following sections of this subpart. ...

  1. 14 CFR 1204.403 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... transaction has already been set-aside for small business by the contracting officer. (b) The appropriate... conferences and training sessions to inform small businesses of contracting opportunities with the Agency. (e) In accordance with Public Law 95-507, NASA will require contractors having contracts in excess of $1...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.132 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., situations where: (i) Changes in the workplace render previous training obsolete; or (ii) Changes in the... selection. (1) The employer shall assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to... required workplace hazard assessment has been performed through a written certification that identifies the...

  3. 10 CFR 63.131 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are within the limits assumed in the licensing review; and (2) Natural and engineered systems and components required for repository operation, and that are designed or assumed to operate as barriers after... information on those parameters and natural processes pertaining to the geologic setting that may be changed...

  4. 10 CFR 60.140 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assumed in the licensing review; and (2) Natural and engineered systems and components required for repository operation, or which are designed or assumed to operate as barriers after permanent closure, are... of the natural and engineered elements of the geologic repository to meet the performance objectives...

  5. 49 CFR 178.801 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS... transportation and are considered minimum requirements. Each packaging must be manufactured and assembled so as... design type refers to an IBC that does not differ in structural design, size, material of construction...

  6. 30 CFR 250.800 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... API RP 2RD (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198); (3) Design all stationkeeping... requirements. (a) Production safety equipment shall be designed, installed, used, maintained, and tested in a... platforms (TLPs); spars, etc.), you must do all of the following: (1) Comply with API RP 14J (incorporated...

  7. The biological costs of not reclaiming bentonite mine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1982-01-01

    Bentonite clay has been mined in the northern Great Plains for more than 80 years. Until the late 1960's, mine spoil materials were left in steep piles and no effort was made to restore biological productivity to these disturbed sites. As a result, unreclaimed spoils are barren and eroded. The biological costs of not reclaiming these spoils are examined in this...

  8. Geochemical assessments and classification of coal mine spoils for better understanding of potential salinity issues at closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Li, Xiaofang; Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas; Kirsch, Bernie

    2013-06-01

    Coal mining wastes in the form of spoils, rejects and tailings deposited on a mine lease can cause various environmental issues including contamination by toxic metals, acid mine drainage and salinity. Dissolution of salt from saline mine spoil, in particular, during rainfall events may result in local or regional dispersion of salts through leaching or in the accumulation of dissolved salts in soil pore water and inhibition of plant growth. The salinity in coal mine environments is from the geogenic salt accumulations and weathering of spoils upon surface exposure. The salts are mainly sulfates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium and sodium. The objective of the research is to investigate and assess the source and mobility of salts and trace elements in various spoil types, thereby predicting the leaching behavior of the salts and trace elements from spoils which have similar geochemical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis, total digestion, sequential extraction and column experiments were conducted to achieve the objectives. Sodium and chloride concentrations best represented salinity of the spoils, which might originate from halite. Electrical conductivity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the leachate decreased sharply with increasing leaching cycles. Leaching of trace elements was not significant in the studied area. Geochemical classification of spoil/waste defined for rehabilitation purposes was useful to predict potential salinity, which corresponded with the classification from cluster analysis based on leaching data of major elements. Certain spoil groups showed high potential salinity by releasing high sodium and chloride concentrations. Therefore, the leaching characteristics of sites having saline susceptible spoils require monitoring, and suitable remediation technologies have to be applied.

  9. 47 CFR 61.41 - Price cap requirements generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price cap requirements generally. 61.41 Section... (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.41 Price cap requirements generally. (a... companies shall not bar a carrier from electing price cap regulation provided the carrier is otherwise...

  10. Establishment of native species on amended and unamended coal mine spoil in central Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.C.; Mulligan, D.R.; Orr, M.S.; Johnstone, P.

    1994-01-01

    At the Curragh open-cut coal mine in central Queensland, tree and shrub growth on amended and unamended spoil was assessed over a 5-year period. The most successful media in terms of seedling densities were bare spoil and spoil covered by a thin layer of coarse coal reject. Where soil was replaced, very few native species established due to the intense competition from exotic grasses. Given this poor establishment on soil, the question of how well an ecosystem would develop on non-soil media was addressed by assessing the ability of each of the media to support sustainable communities in the longer term. Early results from direct-seeding tree and shrub species onto non-soil media have been quite encouraging, but analysis of the surface horizons has shown that after several years, there are still some characteristics which could either limit the re-establishment, and/or prevent the sustainability, of new communities. Due primarily to the high sulfate levels originally in the coal reject, the surface salinity in these treatments was much higher than in the uncapped spoil. Substrate analyses have shown also that there was a much lower concentration of mineralizable N in the spoil and coal reject than in the soil, revealing that the potential of these non-soil substrates to continue supplying nitrogen to the system is greatly reduced. Furthermore, the concentration of microbial biomass carbon was significantly lower in these media, and the percentage ground cover after 5 years was generally <10%

  11. Race, Commitment to Deviance, and Spoiled Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony R.

    1976-01-01

    Data generated by 234 young black and white inmates in 1971 challenge the assumption that spoiled identity is a necessary, socially invariant outcome of deviant commitment and self-definition. For blacks, the relationship between criminal self-typing and stability and esteem is negative but inconsequential; for whites, the relationship is negative…

  12. A Spectral Emissivity Library of Spoil Substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivovarník, Marek; Pikl, Miroslav; Frouz, J.; Zemek, František; Kopačková, V.; Notesco, G.; Ben Dor, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2016) E-ISSN 2306-5729 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : post- mining sites * spectral emissivity * spectral library * spoil substrates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  13. 14 CFR 147.21 - General curriculum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General curriculum requirements. 147.21... Requirements § 147.21 General curriculum requirements. (a) An applicant for an aviation maintenance technician school certificate and rating, or for an additional rating, must have an approved curriculum that is...

  14. 40 CFR 26.1116 - General requirements for informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1116 General requirements for...

  15. Directives and general design requirements for a small PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta, L.A.

    1992-08-01

    A proposal of directives and general requirements for the development of a small PWR conceptual design is presented. These directives address the main safety, performance and economic design aspects. The purpose is to use this work as a base for a wide discussion, involving all project participants, culminating with the definition of the final directives and general requirements. (author)

  16. 7 CFR 322.28 - General requirements; restricted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements; restricted articles. 322.28... EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.28 General requirements; restricted articles. (a) The following articles from any region are restricted articles: (1) Dead bees of any genus; (2...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.212 - General requirements for all machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for all machines. 1910.212 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.212 General requirements for all machines. (a) Machine guarding—(1) Types of guarding. One or more methods of...

  18. 49 CFR 172.504 - General placarding requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.504 General placarding requirements. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this subchapter, each bulk packaging, freight container, unit load device, transport vehicle or rail car containing any quantity of a hazardous material must be placarded on each side and...

  19. 34 CFR 97.116 - General requirements for informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for informed consent. 97.116 Section 97.116 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS... Subjects) § 97.116 General requirements for informed consent. Except as provided elsewhere in this policy...

  20. 49 CFR 376.11 - General leasing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General leasing requirements. 376.11 Section 376.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Leasing Regulations § 376.11 General leasing requirements. Other than through the...

  1. 46 CFR 120.370 - General grounding requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General grounding requirements. 120.370 Section 120.370... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.370 General grounding requirements. (a) A vessel's... grounding pole and a grounding conductor in the portable cord. (c) Each nonmetallic mast and top mast must...

  2. 40 CFR 79.51 - General requirements and provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel products formulated with mixed alkyl esters of plant and/or animal origin (i.e., “biodiesel” fuels... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.51 General requirements and provisions. (a) Overview of requirements. (1) All manufacturers of fuels and fuel...

  3. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  4. 47 CFR 15.407 - General technical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... National Information Infrastructure Devices § 15.407 General technical requirements. (a) Power limits: (1... information or the use of repetitive codes used by certain digital technologies to complete frame or burst...

  5. Required Postdoctoral Education Programs in General Dentistry: Accreditation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Mario V.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the history and current status of both the predoctoral dental curriculum and general dentistry programs gives insight into the nature and scope of the movement to make postdoctoral dental education a requirement. (MSE)

  6. 40 CFR 75.40 - General demonstration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General demonstration requirements. 75.40 Section 75.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.40 General demonstration...

  7. 46 CFR 183.370 - General grounding requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General grounding requirements. 183.370 Section 183.370... TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.370 General grounding... more, must have a grounding pole and a grounding conductor in the portable cord. (c) Each nonmetallic...

  8. 40 CFR 205.55-1 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements. 205.55-1 Section 205.55-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-1 General...

  9. 48 CFR 9903.202-1 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... immediately preceding cost accounting period was less than $25 million. (ii) Any business unit that is....202-1 Section 9903.202-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program Requirements 9903.202-1 General requirements. (a) A...

  10. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements...

  11. General-purpose heat source development. Phase I: design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.

    1978-09-01

    Studies have been performed to determine the necessary design requirements for a 238 PuO 2 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). Systems and missions applications, as well as accident conditions, were considered. The results of these studies, along with the recommended GPHS design requirements, are given in this report

  12. Promising native forbs for seeding on mine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardell J. Bjugstad; Warren C. Whitman

    1989-01-01

    Twenty nine species of perennial forbs and 2 biennial forbs were directly seeded into coal mine spoil materials at Dickinson, North Dakota to determine which species would be most successful for direct seeding into coal mine spoil. Those which showed exceptionally good emergence and vigorous growth of seedlings in a two year study were: white prairie clover (...

  13. Soil quality and carbon sequestration in a reclaimed coal mine spoil of Jharia coalfield, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Masto, Reginald; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of coal mine spoil helps in carbon storage and the success of remediation depend on the selection of appropriate tree species. A study was conducted at the coalmine overburden dumps of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India to evaluate the impact of revegetation on the overall soil quality and carbon sequestration. Morphological parameters (tree height, diameter at breast height, tree biomass, wood specific gravity) of the dominant tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo and Leucaena leucocephala) growing on the mine spoil was recorded. Mine spoil samples were collected under the canopy cover of different tree species and analyzed for soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters. In general reclaimed sites had better soil quality than the reference site. For instance, D. sissoo and C. siamea improved soil pH (+28.5%, +27.9%), EC (+15.65%, +19%), cation exchange capacity (+58.7%, +52.3%), organic carbon (+67.5%, +79.5%), N (+97.2%, +75.7%), P (+98.2%, +76.9%), K (+31.8%, +37.4%), microbial biomass carbon (+143%, +164%) and dehydrogenase activity (+228%, +262%) as compared to the unreclaimed reference coal mine site. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) decreased significantly in the reclaimed site than the reference spoil, C. siamea was found to be more promising for PAH degradation. The overall impact of tree species on the quality of reclaimed mine spoil cannot be assessed by individual soil parameters, as most of the parameters are interlinked and difficult to interpret. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more meaningful assessment of reclamation potential of tree species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity were the most critical properties controlling growth of tree

  14. Improving surface stability of elevated spoil landforms using natural landform analogy and geological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Bevan; Burgess, Jon; Esterle, Joan; Erskine, Peter; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale open cut mining in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia has undergone an evolutionary process over the period of a few decades, transitioning from shallow mining depths, limited spoil elevation and pasture based rehabilitation to increased mining depths, escalating pre-stripping, elevated mesa-like landforms and native woody species rehabilitation. As a consequence of this development, the stabilisation of recent constructed landforms has to be assured through means other than the establishment of vegetative cover. Recent developments are the specific selection and partitioning of resilient fragmental spoil types for the construction of final landform surface. They can also be used as cladding resources for stabilizing steep erosive batters and this has been identified as a practical methodology that has the potential to significantly improve rehabilitation outcomes. Examples of improvements are an increase of the surface rock cover, roughness and infiltration and reducing inherent erodibility and runoff and velocity of surface flow. However, a thorough understanding of the properties and behavior of individual spoil materials disturbed during mining is required. Relevant information from published literature on the geological origins, lithology and weathering characteristics of individual strata within the Bowen Basin Coal Measures located in Queensland, Australia (and younger overlying weathered strata) has been studied, and related both to natural landforms and to the surface stability of major strata types when disturbed by mining. The resulting spoil classification developed from this study is based primarily on inherent geological characteristics and weathering behaviour of identifiable lithologic components, and as such describes the expected fragmental resilience likely within disturbed materials at Bowen Basin coal mines. The proposed classification system allows the allocation of spoil types to use categories which have application in pre

  15. 7 CFR 322.13 - General requirements; restricted organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements; restricted organisms. 322.13 Section 322.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING...

  16. 12 CFR 229.15 - General disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General disclosure requirements. 229.15 Section 229.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... _____ business day after” the day of deposit. In this calculation, the first business day is the business day...

  17. 49 CFR 659.21 - System security plan: general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System security plan: general requirements. 659.21 Section 659.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the...

  18. Video-Games: Do They Require General Intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, M. A.; Herranz, M.; Gomez-Abad, M.; Kebir, M.; Ruiz, J.; Colom, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Here we test if playing video-games require intelligence. Twenty-seven university undergraduate students were trained on three games from Big Brain Academy (Wii): Calculus, Backward Memory and Train. Participants did not have any previous experience with these games. General intelligence was measured by five ability tests before the training…

  19. 14 CFR 171.259 - Performance requirements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... System (ISMLS) § 171.259 Performance requirements: General. (a) The ISMLS consists of the following basic... purposes, the tolerances given in parentheses indicated by an asterisk apply to the test instruments used to measure these parameters. Elevation, 0 to 10,000 ft. above sea level. Duty, continuous, unattended...

  20. 14 CFR 63.31 - Eligibility requirements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 63.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.31 Eligibility requirements; general. To be eligible for a flight engineer certificate, a person must— (a) Be at least 21...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.701 - General requirements for test fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for test fuels. 1065.701 Section 1065.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... procedure 1 Light distillate and light blends with residual ASTM D975-07b. Diesel Middle distillate ASTM...

  2. 14 CFR 65.71 - Eligibility requirements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.71 Eligibility requirements: General. (a) To be eligible for a mechanic certificate and associated ratings, a person must— (1... sections of this subpart that apply to the rating he seeks. (b) A certificated mechanic who applies for an...

  3. 12 CFR 404.28 - Notification of General Counsel required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....28 Section 404.28 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Demands for Testimony of Current and Former Ex-Im Bank Personnel and for Production of Ex-Im Bank Records § 404.28 Notification of General Counsel required. Ex-Im Bank personnel receiving a demand for testimony...

  4. 18 CFR 12.32 - General inspection requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT WORKS Inspection by Independent Consultant § 12.32 General inspection requirement. In accordance... inspected and evaluated by or under the responsibility and direction of at least one independent consultant...

  5. 42 CFR 423.401 - General requirements for PDP sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sponsor is organized and licensed under State law as a risk bearing entity eligible to offer health insurance or health benefits coverage in each State in which it offers a prescription drug plan. If not... with State Law and Preemption by Federal Law § 423.401 General requirements for PDP sponsors. (a...

  6. 31 CFR 50.30 - General participation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities; Workers' Compensation Funds § 50.30 General participation requirements. (a) Insurers. As defined in § 50.5(f), all State residual market... entities do not receive direct earned premiums. (b) Mandatory Participation. State residual market...

  7. 28 CFR 33.50 - General financial requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information on cost allowability, methods of payment, audit, accounting systems and financial records. ... additional information and guidance are contained in “Financial and Administrative Guide for Grants... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General financial requirements. 33.50...

  8. 40 CFR 26.116 - General requirements for informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... obtain informed consent provided the IRB finds and documents that: (1) The research or demonstration... obtain informed consent provided the IRB finds and documents that: (1) The research involves no more than... Supported by EPA § 26.116 General requirements for informed consent. Except as provided elsewhere in this...

  9. 31 CFR 128.1 - General reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General reporting requirements. 128.1 Section 128.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REPORTING OF... credit that are, in whole or part, denominated in a foreign currency; and (iii) The creation or...

  10. 7 CFR 1788.2 - General insurance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... borrower or of the telecommunications industry in the case of a telecommunications borrowers prior thereto... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS... with generally accepted utility industry standards for such classes and amounts of coverage for...

  11. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general... gas mask 70 85 20 Chin-style gas mask 65 80 20 Powered air-purifying 2 2 50 2 70 20 Chemical Cartridge...

  12. 40 CFR 92.124 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92...) For the testing of locomotives and engines, the atmospheric pressure shall be between 31.0 inches Hg... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test sequence; general requirements...

  13. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON REGULATIONS AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR QUADRICYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pavlovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a new class of compact vehicles has been emerging and wide-spreading all around Europe: the quadricycle. These four-wheeled motor vehicles, originally derived from motorcycles, are a small and fuel-efficient mean of transportation used in rural or urban areas as an alternative to motorbikes or city cars. In some countries, they are also endorsed by local authorities and institutions which support small and environmentally-friendly vehicles. In this paper, several general considerations on quadricycles will be provided including the vehicle classification, evolution of regulations (as homologation, driver licence, emissions, etc, technical characteristics, safety requirements, most relevant investigations, and other additional useful information (e.g. references, links. It represents an important and actual topic of investigation for designers and manufacturers considering that the new EU regulation on the approval and market surveillance of quadricycles will soon enter in force providing conclusive requirements for functional safety environmental protection of these promising vehicles.

  14. Context generalization in Drosophila visual learning requires the mushroom bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wolf, Reinhard; Ernst, Roman; Heisenberg, Martin

    1999-08-01

    The world is permanently changing. Laboratory experiments on learning and memory normally minimize this feature of reality, keeping all conditions except the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli as constant as possible. In the real world, however, animals need to extract from the universe of sensory signals the actual predictors of salient events by separating them from non-predictive stimuli (context). In principle, this can be achieved ifonly those sensory inputs that resemble the reinforcer in theirtemporal structure are taken as predictors. Here we study visual learning in the fly Drosophila melanogaster, using a flight simulator,, and show that memory retrieval is, indeed, partially context-independent. Moreover, we show that the mushroom bodies, which are required for olfactory but not visual or tactile learning, effectively support context generalization. In visual learning in Drosophila, it appears that a facilitating effect of context cues for memory retrieval is the default state, whereas making recall context-independent requires additional processing.

  15. Development Approach of General Regulatory Requirements for SFR in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, Young Gill; Song, Jae Ho; Huh, Chang Wook; Jin, Chang Yong; Bae, Moo Hoon; Kim, Kyun Tae

    2011-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission of Korea established a long-term R and D plan for future reactor systems including sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) in Dec. 2008. According to the plan, an application for the design approval of an SFR demonstration reactor is scheduled in 2017. A project to develop the SFR was launched in 2010 to implement the long-term R and D plan. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) also started to develop general regulatory requirements (GRRs) for SFR for the preparation of the licensing application of the SFR. In this paper, the development approach of KINS was introduced. The GRRs for SFR are developed based on the current GRRs for LWR, 'Regulations on Technical Standards for Nuclear Reactor Facilities, Etc.'. And design characteristics of SFRs are reflected in the current GRRs. Also, the following items are considered: strengthening of safety by the IAEA, foreign regulatory requirements for SFR, risk-informed regulations, and the lessons learned from Hukushima accident

  16. A GENERALIZATION OF TRADITIONAL KANO MODEL FOR CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Turisová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The theory of attractiveness determines the relationship between the technically achieved and customer perceived quality of product attributes. The most frequently used approach in the theory of attractiveness is the implementation of Kano‘s model. There exist a lot of generalizations of that model which take into consideration various aspects and approaches focused on understanding the customer preferences and identification of his priorities for a selling  product. The aim of this article is to outline another possible generalization of Kano‘s model.Methodology/Approach: The traditional Kano’s model captures the nonlinear relationship between reached attributes of quality and customer requirements. The individual attributes of quality are divided into three main categories: must-be, one-dimensional, attractive quality and into two side categories: indifferent and reverse quality. The well selling product has to contain the must-be attribute. It should contain as many one-dimensional attributes as possible. If there are also supplementary attractive attributes, it means that attractiveness of the entire product, from the viewpoint of the customer, nonlinearly sharply rises what has a direct positive impact on a decision of potential customer when purchasing the product. In this article, we show that inclusion of individual quality attributes of a product to the mentioned categories depends, among other things, also on costs on life cycle of the product, respectively on a price of the product on the market.Findings: In practice, we are often encountering the inclusion of products into different price categories: lower, middle and upper class. For a certain type of products the category is either directly declared by a producer (especially in automotive industry, or is determined by a customer by means of assessment of available market prices. To each of those groups of a products different customer expectations can be assigned

  17. Groundwater hydrogeochemical characteristics in rehabilitated coalmine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomo, M.; Masemola, E.

    2016-04-01

    The investigation aims to identify and describe hydrogeochemical processes controlling the evolution of groundwater chemistry in rehabilitated coalmine spoils and their overall influence on groundwater quality at a study area located in the Karoo basin of South Africa. A good understanding of the processes that controls the evolution of the mine water quality is vital for the planning, application and management of post-mining remedial actions. The study utilises scatter plots, statistical analysis, PHREEQC hydrogeochemical modelling, stoichiometric reaction ratios analysis, and the expanded Durov diagram as complimentary tools to interpret the groundwater chemistry data collected from monitoring boreholes from 1995 to 2014. Measured pH ranging between 6-8 and arithmetic mean of 7.32 shows that the groundwater system is characterised by circumneutral hydrogeochemical conditions period. Comparison of measured groundwater ion concentrations to theoretical reaction stoichiometry identifies Dolomite-Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) neutralisation as the main hydrogeochemical process controlling the evolution of the groundwater chemistry. Hydrogeochemical modelling shows that, the groundwater has temporal variations of calcite and dolomite saturation indices characterised by alternating cycles of over-saturation and under-saturation that is driven by the release of sulphate, calcium and magnesium ions from the carbonate-AMD neutralization process. Arithmetic mean concentrations of sulphate, calcium and magnesium are in the order of 762 mg/L, 141 mg/L and 108 mg/L. Calcium and magnesium ions contribute to very hard groundwater quality conditions. Classification based on total dissolved solids (TDS), shows the circumneutral water is of poor to unacceptable quality for drinking purposes. Despite its ability to prevent AMD formation and leaching of metals, the dolomite-AMD neutralisation process can still lead to problems of elevated TDS and hardness which mines should be aware of

  18. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2008-07-15

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  19. 24 CFR 570.429 - Hawaii general and grant requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonentitlement areas of the State; and (iii) The extent of housing overcrowding in that eligible unit of general local government and the extent of housing overcrowding in all the eligible units of general local...

  20. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  1. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  2. The Characteristics and Fertility Status of Tin Mine Spoils of the Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... include reclaimed cropped spoil (RCS), reclaimed uncropped spoil (RUS), mining (intermound) depressions (MD), spoil mounds (SM) and surrounding flat land (SFL). Unmined Ropp soil (URS) was included as control. RCS had significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of total nitrogen (1.6 g kg-1) and organic carbon (13.7 ...

  3. 24 CFR 5.315 - Content of pet rules: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities General Requirements § 5.315 Content of pet rules: General requirements. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content of pet rules: General...

  4. 46 CFR 113.50-5 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... general emergency alarm and fire detecting and alarm systems. The public address system must be protected... amplifier-type announcing system that will supplement the general emergency alarm. This system must provide... alarm contact maker must activate all speakers in the system, except that a separate crew alarm may be...

  5. 10 CFR 503.9 - Use of mixtures-general requirement for certain permanent exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of mixtures-general requirement for certain permanent... General Requirements for Exemptions § 503.9 Use of mixtures—general requirement for certain permanent... mixtures, section 213(a)(1) of the Act requires a demonstration that the use of a mixture of natural gas...

  6. Spoiling the womb”: Definitions, Aetiologies and responses to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spoiling the womb”: Definitions, Aetiologies and responses to infertility in North West Province, Cameroon. ... Now, family planning is promoted nationwide to reduce population growth, and infertility is not addressed by public health policy or services. In contrast to the biomedical definition used by planners, at the local level ...

  7. Investigation on the spoiling of meat using PTR-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, D.; Maerk, T.D.; Margesin, R.; Schinner, F.

    2002-01-01

    The spoiling of meat was investigated. Beef (pork) were wrapped into different kinds of packages (air and vacuum) and stored at 4 o C for 10 (13) days. The emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the course of time were measured and a large increase in these emissions after a few days of storage was found. Also a large difference in the spoiling behavior between vacuum- and air- packed meat was observed. The measurements were performed using a proton-transfer-reaction-mass spectrometer(PTR-MS) system, it allows on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations. Ethylacetate, methylpropionate, and propylformate were detected as typical spoiling compounds in pork samples. After 3.5 days the concentrations started to exponentially increase, but after 6 days remained more or less unchanged. This VOCs behaviour corresponds to a typical bacterial growth curve. Therefore, it was concluded that bacteria produce these components. In a second measurements set, the VOCs emitted by beef under aerobic (normal packed) and anaerobic (vacuum packed) conditions were compared. In the case of normal air-packed beef, the above mentioned spoiling compounds strongly increased with the time, while with the vacuum-packed beef a strong increase of ethanol was detected. This method as a replacement of the bacteriological examinations of meat spoilage is proposed. (nevyjel)

  8. stabilization of dredged spoils for pavement construction in the niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Tse

    to which dredge spoils can be deployed, including use as fill and construction materials, placing the dredged material at specific locations to combat erosion, and manufacturing bricks, etc. These uses will be particularly beneficial given the high rainfall intensity, extensive marsh land and frequent oil spills in the study area.

  9. stabilization of dredged spoils for pavement construction in the niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Tse

    spoils by stabilization produces a 'conditioned' soil mix with improved strength properties suitable for use in civil engineering construction. In view of the large volumes of sand dredged from rivers along the East-West road alignment, it is thought that a beneficial scheme to use such large quantity of otherwise waste material ...

  10. 14 CFR 61.153 - Eligibility requirements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the English language. If the applicant is unable to meet one of these requirements due to medical... rating issued under this part; (2) Meet the military experience requirements under § 61.73 of this part... military pilot or former rated military pilot of an Armed Force of the United States; or (3) Holds either a...

  11. 46 CFR 160.032-2 - General requirements for davits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....032-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... requirements for davits. (a) The requirements of this section apply to all new construction. Davits approved... designed to be swung out by screws, gears, or other means, using manual power for operation. Radial type...

  12. Prediction of the acid generating potential of coal mining spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterroso, C.; Macias, F. [Universidad de Santiago, Santiago (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola

    1998-07-01

    The sulfide oxidation impact on mined land reclamation makes it necessary for mine spoils to be classified according to their acidifying potential. In this paper predictions were made of the acid generating potential of sulfide-containing spoils from the Puentes lignite mine (Galicia, NW Spain), and the limits of sulfur contents allowable for their storage in aerobic conditions, were established. Using samples of fresh spoils, analyses were made of the content and speciation of sulfur, pH was measured after oxidation of the sample with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (pH of oxidation = pH{sub OX}), and titration of the oxidation extract with 0.1N NaOH to pH = 7 was carried out (Net Acid Production = NAP). The total sulfur content (S{sub T}) varied between {lt} 0.01% and {gt} 3%, with pyritic-S being the most common form ({gt} 80%). pH{sub OX} varied between 1.6 and 6.4 and NAP between 1.2 and 85.0 Kg-CaCO{sub 3}t{sup -1}. A high correlation was found between the NAP and the S{sub T}(r-0.98, p{lt} 0.001). Spoils with S{sub T} {gt} 0.15% cause high risks of mine-soil acidification, and create the need for large doses of CaCO{sub 3} to be used on final surface of the mine dump. Use of fly ash, produced from the combustion of lignite, as an alternative to commercial lime is more effective in the control of acidity generated by spoils with high S{sub T}. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Water and materials balances of a spoil bank of an abandoned uranium mine in the Freital district, Sachsen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biehler, D.

    2000-01-01

    Sanitation of former uranium mines started immediately after uranium mining in East Germany was abandoned in 1990. In the case of shaft 1 of the Dresden-Gittersee mine, a multilayer mineral sealing system was decided. As required by the radiation protection authorities, the Wismut GmbH initiated a detailed hydrogeological expert's opinion including a forecast of the long-term effects of sealing on the basis of hydrogeological data and a material flow analysis for the spoil bank [de

  14. 22 CFR 62.8 - General program requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General... possible reciprocity in the exchange of persons. (d) Cross-cultural activities. Sponsors shall: (1) Offer or make available to exchange visitors a variety or appropriate cross-cultural activities. The extent...

  15. 10 CFR 712.11 - General requirements for HRP certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or recertification; (7) A psychological evaluation consisting of a generally accepted psychological assessment (test) and a semi-structured interview; (8) An initial drug test and random drug tests for the use... test and random alcohol tests at least once each 12 months using an evidential-grade breath alcohol...

  16. 14 CFR 1216.204 - General implementation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the general public as well as employees. These plans will include the integration of adequate warning... new authorizations or appropriations transmitted to the Office of Management and Budget shall indicate... would not impact the floodplain or wetlands. (ii) The only alternative would be to construct new...

  17. Overview of contaminant arrival distributions as general evaluation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The environmental consequences of subsurface contamination problems can be completely and effectively evaluated by fulfilling the following five requirements: Determine each present or future outflow boundary of contaminated groundwater; provide the location/arrival-time distributions; provide the location/outflow-quantity distributions; provide these distributions for each individual chemical or biological constituent of environmental importance; and use the arrival distributions to determine the quantity and concentration of each contaminant that will interface with the environment as time passes. The arrival distributions on which these requirements are based provide a reference point for communication among scientists and public decision makers by enabling complicated scientific analyses to be presented as simple summary relationships

  18. 12 CFR 226.17 - General disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mandatory compliance date of §§ 226.46, 47, and 48, the creditor need not make the following disclosures...) Form of disclosures. (1) The creditor shall make the disclosures required by this subpart clearly and... segregated from everything else, and shall not contain any information not directly related 37 to the...

  19. 46 CFR 57.03-1 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... QW 480 and QB 480 of section IX of the ASME Code. (2) Each manufacturer or contractor must submit to... required by section IX of the ASME Code. (b) (Modifies QW 202.1 and QW 451). To obtain approval of the... ASME Code, plus toughness tests and a macro-etch specimen. (2) To obtain approval the fabricator must...

  20. 28 CFR 91.3 - General eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recognition of the rights and needs of crime victims. States are not required to adopt any specific set of... recognition of the rights and needs of crime victims in the following areas: (i) Providing notice to victims..., development, expansion, modification, operation or improvement of correctional facilities designed to ensure...

  1. 21 CFR 101.14 - Health claims: general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Health claim... health leading to such dysfunctioning (e.g., hypertension); except that diseases resulting from essential nutrient deficiencies (e.g., scurvy, pellagra) are not included in this definition (claims pertaining to...

  2. 33 CFR 155.1030 - General response plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (40 CFR part 300) and the Area Contingency Plan(s... management team; (4) An appendix containing the training procedures required by 155.1045(f); and (5) An... effective date of this final rule, the owner or operator of each vessel may elect to comply with any or all...

  3. 47 CFR 15.615 - General administrative requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Point of contact: Electromagnetic Spectrum Manager, National Science Foundation, Division of... required. (d) A licensed spectrum user experiencing harmful interference that is suspected to be caused by.... (f) Federal government spectrum users and other radio service users. An entity operating an Access...

  4. 49 CFR 229.137 - Sanitation, general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Cabs and... for duty or occupying the cab for duty; and (6) Equipped with a trash receptacle, unless the railroad otherwise provides portable trash receptacles to employees upon reporting for duty or occupying the cab for...

  5. 40 CFR 230.93 - General compensatory mitigation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Considerations. (i) A watershed approach to compensatory mitigation considers the importance of landscape... higher. (i) Buffers. District engineers may require the restoration, establishment, enhancement, and preservation, as well as the maintenance, of riparian areas and/or buffers around aquatic resources where...

  6. 33 CFR 332.3 - General compensatory mitigation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... importance of landscape position and resource type of compensatory mitigation projects for the sustainability... compensation ratios shall be higher. (i) Buffers. District engineers may require the restoration, establishment, enhancement, and preservation, as well as the maintenance, of riparian areas and/or buffers around aquatic...

  7. 23 CFR 500.203 - TMS general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... design or construction of an FHWA funded project; or (7) The data are required as part of a federally... inspection and copying as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7, appendix D. (c) The TMS shall cover all public roads except those functionally classified as local or rural minor collector or those that are federally owned...

  8. 14 CFR 65.113 - Eligibility requirements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... years of age; (2) Be able to read, write, speak, and understand the English language, or, in the case of a citizen of Puerto Rico, or a person who is employed outside of the United States by a U.S. air carrier, and who does not meet this requirement, be issued a certificate that is valid only in Puerto Rico...

  9. 14 CFR 65.101 - Eligibility requirements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., appropriate to the job for which he is employed; (3) Be employed for a specific job requiring those special... aircraft or components, appropriate to the job for which he is employed; (5) Have either— (i) At least 18 months of practical experience in the procedures, practices, inspection methods, materials, tools...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1330-90 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the maximum torque curve generation. (f) Petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel engines. (1)(i... measurements (e.g., governed petroleum-fueled or methanol-fueled diesel engine high idle speed, petroleum... preconditioning, or at the manufacturer s convenience subject to the requirements of good engineering practice. ...

  11. 30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... foundation and abutments must be stable under all conditions of construction. (d) Foundation. Sufficient foundation investigations, as well as any necessary laboratory testing of foundation material, shall be performed in order to determine the design requirements for foundation stability. The analyses of the...

  12. 30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1.5. The foundation and abutments must be stable under all conditions of construction. (d) Foundation. Sufficient foundation investigations, as well as any necessary laboratory testing of foundation material, shall be performed in order to determine the design requirements for foundation stability. The...

  13. Phytoremediation of spoil coal dumps in Western Donbass (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Kharytonov, Mykola; Wiche, Oliver; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    At the moment, in Ukraine about 150 thousand hectares of fertile land are occupied by spoil dumps. Moreover, this figure increases every year. According to the technology used about 1500 m3 of adjacent stratum is dumped at the surface per every 1000 tons of coal mined. Apart from land amortization, waste dumps drastically change the natural landscape and pollute air, soil and water sources as the result of water and wind erosion, as well as self-ignition processes. A serious concern exists with respect to the Western Donbass coal mining region in Ukraine, where the coal extraction is made by the subsurface way and solid wastes are represented by both spoil dumps and wastes after coal processing. Sulphides, mostly pyrite (up to 4% of waste material), are widely distributed in the waste heaps freshly removed due to coal mining in Western Donbass.The oxidation of pyrite with the presence of oxygen and water is accompanied by a sharp drop in the pH from the surface layer to the spoil dumps(from 5.2-6.2 to 3.9-4.2 in soil substrates with chernozen and from 8.3-8.4 to 6.7-7.2 in soil substrates with red-brown clay, stabilizing in dump material in both cases at 2.9-3.2). Low pH generates the transformation of a number of toxic metals and other elementspresent in waste rock (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, U) into mobile forms. To stabilize and reduce metal mobility the most resistant plants that occur naturally in specified ecosystems can be used. On coal spoil dumpsin Western Donbas the dominant species are Bromopsis inermis, subdominant Artemisia austriaca; widespread are also Festucas pp., Lathyrus tuberosus, Inula sp., Calamagrostis epigeios, Lotus ucrainicus, and Vicias pp. Identification of plants tolerant to target metals is a key issue in phytotechnology for soil restoration. It is hypothesized that naturally occurring plants growing on coal spoil dumps can be candidates for phytostabilization, phytoextraction (phytoaccumulation) and phytomining

  14. Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. General Safety Requirements Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are a large number of facilities and activities around the world in which radioactive material is produced, handled and stored. This Safety Requirements publication presents international consensus requirements for the management of radioactive waste prior to its disposal. It provides the safety imperatives on the basis of which facilities can be designed, operated and regulated. The publication is supported by a number of Safety Guides that provide up to date recommendations and guidance on best practices for management of particular types of radioactive waste, for storage of radioactive waste, for assuring safety by developing safety cases and supporting safety assessments, and for applying appropriate management systems. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Responsibilities associated with the predisposal management of radioactive waste; 4. Steps in the predisposal management of radioactive waste; 5. Development and operation of predisposal radioactive waste management facilities and activities; Annex: Predisposal management of radioactive waste and the fundamental safety principles.

  15. Leadership and Management for Safety. General Safety Requirements (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements that support Principle 3 of the Fundamental Safety Principles in relation to establishing, sustaining and continuously improving leadership and management for safety and an integrated management system. It emphasizes that leadership for safety, management for safety, an effective management system and a systemic approach (i.e. an approach in which interactions between technical, human and organizational factors are duly considered) are all essential to the specification and application of adequate safety measures and to the fostering of a strong safety culture. Leadership and an effective management system will integrate safety, health, environmental, security, quality, human-and-organizational factors, societal and economic elements. The management system will ensure the fostering of a strong safety culture, regular assessment of performance and the application of lessons from experience. The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies, operating organizations and other organizations concerned with facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks.

  16. Leadership and Management for Safety. General Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements that support Principle 3 of the Fundamental Safety Principles in relation to establishing, sustaining and continuously improving leadership and management for safety and an integrated management system. It emphasizes that leadership for safety, management for safety, an effective management system and a systemic approach (i.e. an approach in which interactions between technical, human and organizational factors are duly considered) are all essential to the specification and application of adequate safety measures and to the fostering of a strong safety culture. Leadership and an effective management system will integrate safety, health, environmental, security, quality, human-and-organizational factor, societal and economic elements. The management system will ensure the fostering of a strong safety culture, regular assessment of performance and the application of lessons from experience. The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies, operating organizations (registrants and licensees) and other organizations concerned with facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks

  17. Leadership and Management for Safety. General Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements that support Principle 3 of the Fundamental Safety Principles in relation to establishing, sustaining and continuously improving leadership and management for safety and an integrated management system. It emphasizes that leadership for safety, management for safety, an effective management system and a systemic approach (i.e. an approach in which interactions between technical, human and organizational factors are duly considered) are all essential to the specification and application of adequate safety measures and to the fostering of a strong safety culture. Leadership and an effective management system will integrate safety, health, environmental, security, quality, human-and-organizational factors, societal and economic elements. The management system will ensure the fostering of a strong safety culture, regular assessment of performance and the application of lessons from experience. The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies, operating organizations and other organizations concerned with facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks.

  18. Leadership and Management for Safety. General Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements that support Principle 3 of the Fundamental Safety Principles in relation to establishing, sustaining and continuously improving leadership and management for safety and an integrated management system. It emphasizes that leadership for safety, management for safety, an effective management system and a systemic approach (i.e. an approach in which interactions between technical, human and organizational factors are duly considered) are all essential to the specification and application of adequate safety measures and to the fostering of a strong safety culture. Leadership and an effective management system will integrate safety, health, environmental, security, quality, human-and-organizational factors, societal and economic elements. The management system will ensure the fostering of a strong safety culture, regular assessment of performance and the application of lessons from experience. The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies, operating organizations and other organizations concerned with facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks.

  19. General survey of applications which require actinide nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.

    1976-01-01

    This review paper discusses the actinide waste problem, the buildup of toxic isotopes in the fuel, the neutron activity associated with irradiated fuel, the 252 Cf buildup problem, and the production of radioisotope power sources as broad areas that require actinide cross-section data. Decay data enter into the area of radiological safety and health physics. This paper also discusses a few cross-section measurements in progress at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator. The availability of actinide samples through the Transuranium Program at Oak Ridge is discussed in considerable detail. The present data status with respect to the various applications is reviewed along with recommendations for improving the data base

  20. 46 CFR 27.201 - What are the requirements for general alarms on towing vessels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... your towing vessel instead of a general alarm, if the system— (1) Is capable of notifying persons in... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for general alarms on towing... TOWING VESSELS Fire-Protection Measures for Towing Vessels § 27.201 What are the requirements for general...

  1. 46 CFR 161.002-8 - Automatic fire detecting systems, general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic fire detecting systems, general requirements... Systems § 161.002-8 Automatic fire detecting systems, general requirements. (a) General. An automatic fire... combined with other power failure alarm systems when specifically approved. (b) [Reserved] [21 FR 9032, Nov...

  2. 49 CFR 180.205 - General requirements for requalification of specification cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for requalification of... Cylinders § 180.205 General requirements for requalification of specification cylinders. (a) General. Each... subchapter. (b) Persons performing requalification functions. No person may represent that a repair or...

  3. 40 CFR 63.4300 - What are my general requirements for complying with this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are my general requirements for complying with this subpart? 63.4300 Section 63.4300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Fabrics and Other Textiles General Compliance Requirements § 63.4300 What are my general...

  4. Assessment of biochar and iron filing amendments for the remediation of a metal, arsenic and phenanthrene co-contaminated spoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneath, Helen E.; Hutchings, Tony R.; Leij, Frans A.A.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Sites contaminated with mixtures of metals, metalloids and organics are difficult to remediate as each contaminant type may require a different treatment. Biochar, with high metal sorption capacity, used singly and in combination with iron filings, is investigated in microcosm trials to immobilise metal(loid)s within a contaminated spoil, thereby enabling revegetation and degradation of organic pollutants. A mine spoil, contaminated with heavy metals, arsenic and spiked with phenanthrene was treated with either 1%w/w biochar, 5%w/w iron or their combination, enhancing phenanthrene degradation by 44–65%. Biochar treatment reduced Cu leaching and enabled sunflower growth, but had no significant effect on As mobility. Iron treatment reduced Cu and As leaching but negatively impacted soil structure and released high levels of Fe causing sunflower plant mortality. The combined treatment reduced both Cu and As leaching and enabled sunflower growth suggesting this could be a useful approach for treating co-contaminated sites. -- Highlights: ► 56 day microcosm trials examine biochar for remediation of co-contaminated sites. ► Biochar reduces leachable Cu concentrations but phytotoxicity remains. ► Iron filings are investigated as a co-amendment with biochar to reduce As leaching. ► Removal of metal toxicity stimulates phenanthrene degradation. ► Biochar could enable revegetation of contaminated sites. -- Biochar and iron filings incorporated into contaminated spoils reduce Cu and As leaching and stimulate phenanthrene degradation, but do not prevent phytotoxicity to sunflowers

  5. General review of quality assurance system requirements. The utility or customer requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    What are the customer's Quality Assurance requirements and how does he convey these to his contractor, or apply them to himself. Many documents have been prepared mostly by countries with high technology availability and it is significant to note that many of the documents, particularly those of the United States of America, were prepared for nuclear safety related plant, but the logic of these documents equally applied to heavy engineering projects that are cost effective, and this is the current thinking and practice within the CEGB (Central Electricity Generating Board). Some documents have legislative backing, others rely on contractual disciplines, but they all appear to repeat the same basic requirements, so why does one continue to write more documents. The basic problem is that customers have to satisfy differing national legislative, economic and commercial requirements and, like all discerning customers, wish to reserve the right to satisfy their own needs, which are very often highly specialized. The CEGB are aware of this problem and are actively co-operating with most of the national and international authorities who are leading in this field, with a view to obtaining compatibility of requirements, but now there still remains the problem of satisfying national custom and practice. (author)

  6. 77 FR 18 - General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment; Approval of Information Collection Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1915 RIN 1218-AB50 General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment; Approval of Information Collection Requirements AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health... information requirements contained in the General Working Conditions Standard under the Paperwork Reduction...

  7. 40 CFR 280.40 - General requirements for all UST systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for all UST systems. 280.40 Section 280.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Release Detection § 280.40 General requirements for all UST systems. (a...

  8. 30 CFR 57.13001 - General requirements for boilers and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for boilers and pressure... NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13001 General requirements for boilers and pressure vessels. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  9. 30 CFR 56.13001 - General requirements for boilers and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for boilers and pressure... MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13001 General requirements for boilers and pressure vessels. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with the...

  10. 33 CFR 149.505 - What are the general requirements for aids to navigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for aids to navigation? 149.505 Section 149.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation General § 149.505 What are the general requirements for aids to navigation? The following requirements apply to navigation aids under this subpart: (a) Section 66.01-5 of this chapter, on...

  11. 32 CFR 22.305 - General policy and requirement for competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General policy and requirement for competition... GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.305 General policy and requirement for competition. (a) It is DoD policy to maximize use of competition in the...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.124 - General requirements for dipping and coating operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for dipping and coating operations... Dipping and Coating Operations § 1910.124 General requirements for dipping and coating operations. (a... coating operation using flammable or combustible liquids is: (i) Free of any solid particulate that poses...

  13. 40 CFR 60.4120 - General Hg budget trading program permit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Hg budget trading program... and Compliance Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Permits § 60.4120 General Hg budget trading program permit requirements. (a) For each Hg Budget source required to have a title V...

  14. Reestablishing natural succession on acidic mine spoils at high elevations: long-term ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray W. Brown; Michael C. Amacher; Walter F. Mueggler; Janice Kotuby-Amacher

    2003-01-01

    Methods for restoring native plant communities on acidic mine spoils at high elevations were evaluated in a "demonstration area" in the New World Mining District of southern Montana. Research plots installed in 1976 were assessed for 22 years and compared with adjacent native reference plant communities. A 1.5-acre (0.61-ha) area of mine spoils was shaped and...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1800 - General requirements related to the station log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements related to the station log... requirements related to the station log. (a) The licensee of each station must maintain a station log as required by § 73.1820. This log shall be kept by station employees competent to do so, having actual...

  16. 9 CFR 113.300 - General requirements for live virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.300 Section 113.300 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.300 General requirements for live virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a live virus vaccine shall meet the...

  17. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus vaccine...

  18. 30 CFR 285.525 - What general requirements must a financial assurance instrument meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What general requirements must a financial assurance instrument meet? 285.525 Section 285.525 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... CONTINENTAL SHELF Payments and Financial Assurance Requirements Requirements for Financial Assurance...

  19. Vegetational stabilization of uranium spoil areas, grants, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    Factors that could be detrimental to vegetative stabilization of uranium mine and mill waste material were examined. Physical and chemical analyses of materials from an open-pit uranium mine and material from three inactive mill tailing piles in New Mexico were performed. Analyses for selected trace elements in mill tailing material and associated vegetation from piles in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah were also performed. Field and laboratory experiments identified problems associated with establishing vegetation on spoil material. Problems of uptake and concentration of toxic elements by plants growing on specific spoil material were also identified. Ecological observations in conjunction with physical and chemical analyses of specific geologic units, which form the overburden and waste dumps at the open-pit mine, identified a specific geologic material that, if segregated and placed on the surface of the dumps, would pose the least set of problems for a revegetation program. A pilot revegetation project verified that segregation and use of specific geologic material in the overburden could be utilized successfully and economically for reestablishment of native vegetation on mine waste material.

  20. Vegetational stabilization of uranium spoil areas, grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    Factors that could be detrimental to vegetative stabilization of uranium mine and mill waste material were examined. Physical and chemical analyses of materials from an open-pit uranium mine and material from three inactive mill tailing piles in New Mexico were performed. Analyses for selected trace elements in mill tailing material and associated vegetation from piles in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah were also performed. Field and laboratory experiments identified problems associated with establishing vegetation on spoil material. Problems of uptake and concentration of toxic elements by plants growing on specific spoil material were also identified. Ecological observations in conjunction with physical and chemical analyses of specific geologic units, which form the overburden and waste dumps at the open-pit mine, identified a specific geologic material that, if segregated and placed on the surface of the dumps, would pose the least set of problems for a revegetation program. A pilot revegetation project verified that segregation and use of specific geologic material in the overburden could be utilized successfully and economically for reestablishment of native vegetation on mine waste material

  1. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1.

  2. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1

  3. General requirements for pressure-retaining systems and components in CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This standard specifies the general requirements for the design, fabrication and installation of pressure-retaining systems, components, and their supports in CANDU nuclear power plants. (16 figs., 2 tabs., 25 refs.)

  4. 7 CFR 322.2 - General requirements for interstate movement and importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 322.2 General requirements for interstate movement and importation..., honeybee germ plasm, and beekeeping byproducts into the United States only in accordance with this part. (2...

  5. 20 CFR 604.3 - Able and available requirement-general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Able and available requirement-general principles. 604.3 Section 604.3 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...—general principles. (a) A State may pay UC only to an individual who is able to work and available for...

  6. 26 CFR 1.25A-1 - Calculation of education tax credit and general eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Calculation of education tax credit and general... tax credit and general eligibility requirements. (a) Amount of education tax credit. An individual taxpayer is allowed a nonrefundable education tax credit against income tax imposed by chapter 1 of the...

  7. General University Requirements at Hong Kong Polytechnic University: Evaluation Findings Based on Student Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel Tan Lei; Yu, Lu; Wu, Florence Ka Yu; Chai, Wen Yu

    2015-01-01

    Under the new four-year undergraduate programme, a general education framework titled "General University Requirements" (GUR) has been developed and implemented since 2012/2013 at Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU). To evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of the GUR in its first year, focus group interviews with students…

  8. 76 FR 36989 - Medical Devices; Exception From General Requirements for Informed Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ..., radiological, or nuclear agent. For the exception to apply, it is necessary for the investigator and an.... FDA-2003-N-0212; (formerly Docket No. 2003N-0355)] Medical Devices; Exception From General... interim final rule (IFR) entitled ``Medical Devices; Exception From General Requirements for Informed...

  9. 10 CFR 30.33 - General requirements for issuance of specific licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements for issuance of specific licenses. 30.33 Section 30.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY TO DOMESTIC... other benefits against environmental costs and considering available alternatives, that the action...

  10. 30 CFR 7.504 - Refuge alternatives and components; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuge alternatives and components; general... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Refuge Alternatives § 7.504 Refuge alternatives and components; general requirements. (a) Refuge alternatives and...

  11. 40 CFR 267.198 - What are the general operating requirements for my tank systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Tank Systems § 267.198 What are the general operating... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the general operating requirements for my tank systems? 267.198 Section 267.198 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  12. 40 CFR 80.59 - General test fleet requirements for vehicle testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General test fleet requirements for... test fleet requirements for vehicle testing. (a) The test fleet must consist of only 1989-91 MY... test fleet shall have no fewer than 4,000 miles of accumulated mileage prior to being included in the...

  13. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to prevent the loss of...

  14. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements. 264.97 Section 264.97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements... statistical procedures to comply with § 264.97(i)(5), the pql must be proposed by the owner or operator and...

  15. Teaching Management Information Systems as a General Education Requirement (GER) Capstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoanca, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Although many IS programs nationwide use capstone courses in the major, this paper reports on the use of an upper division Management Information Systems (MIS) class as a general education requirements (GER) capstone. The class is a core requirement for all majors in the Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) program at the University of Alaska…

  16. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  17. Effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Paul M.; Garza, Eric L.; Butcher, Jason T.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated dredge spoil is a national concern due to its scope and effects on biota, water quality, and the physical environment. This literature review discusses the effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities. Plant communities naturally shift over time with changing environmental conditions. Addition of toxins and nutrients and changes in hydrology may influence plant community structure. The storage and disposal of nutrient and metal contaminated dredge spoils may cause shifts in nearby plant communities. Shifts in species composition and diversity may not be observed for decades after nutrient enrichment, causing any disturbance to remain undetected. Plant community shifts often have great amounts of inertia and are difficult to reverse.

  18. Plains hydrology and reclamation project: Spoil ground-water chemistry and its impacts on surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudell, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Description of the chemical makeup of spoil groundwater at Diplomat and Vesta mines in the Battle River mining area, 200 km southeast of Edmonton within the Lower Horseshoe Canyon coal zone; and at Highvale and Whitewood Mines in the Lake Wabamun mining area, 100 km west of Edmonton within the Ardley coal zone. This report compares the chemical characteristics of the spoil groundwater for each mine to those of the principal premining aquifer that is disrupted by surface mining. The characterization of spoil groundwater chemistry is based on the sampling and analyses of groundwater from piezometers installed in reclaimed areas. Forty-three samples were collected from 23 piezometers at Vesta Mine, and 54 samples were collected from 32 piezometers at Diplomat Mine. At Highvale Mine, 29 samples were collected from 13 piezometers installed in the reclaimed area at Pit 01. Eleven samples were also collected from piezometers installed in spoil at Whitewood Mine to augment a study of that site.

  19. Medical devices; exception from general requirements for informed consent. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final regulation to confirm, with one change, the interim final rule (IFR) entitled "Medical Devices; Exception From General Requirements for Informed Consent." This final rule confirms the IFR's establishment of a new exception from the general requirements for informed consent to permit the use of investigational in vitro diagnostic devices to identify chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agents without informed consent in certain circumstances. FDA has created this exception to help ensure that individuals who may have been exposed to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agent are able to benefit from the timely use of the most appropriate diagnostic devices, including those that are investigational. This final rule adds a requirement that the investigator submit the required documentation to FDA, in addition to submitting it to the reviewing Institutional Review Board (IRB).

  20. Load Bearing and Deformation Characteristics of Granular Spoils under Unconfined Compressive Loading for Coal Mine Backfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The load bearing capacity and deformation response of granular spoils under uniaxial compression are numerically and experimentally investigated, aiming to shed light on the performance of back filled waste spoils while controlling ground subsidence after coal extraction. In numerical study, the particles are assembled in PFC commercial code in light of the digitized real shape of spoils with image technique, which is proved to be consistent with the physical test. The results from numerical and laboratory experiments showed that the complete compressive process of spoils tended to have spatial and temporal characteristics. The load-strain curves of investigated specimens could be divided into three stages (stage I, rearranging stage; stage II, breaking stage; stage III, consolidating stage and three zones (I, rearranging zone; II, interlocking zone; III, consolidated zone from outside to inside. During stage I, the load increasing rate of smaller spoils is relatively low, but it increases faster than larger ones in stages II and III. In addition, spoils with Talbot’s gradation are greater than single gradations. The magnitude of the density in consolidated zone is maximum, indicating that it is the main part holding the overlying strata weight.

  1. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influences of humic and fulvic acids and organic matter on leachate chemistry from acid coal spoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentry, C.E.; Davidson, W.H.; Wade, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    Column-leaching experiments were conducted on an acid pyritic coal spoil to determine the influence of acid rain, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and undecomposed organic matter (OM) on pH and Al, Fe, Mn, and SO 4 concentrations in the spoil leachate and on the spoil. Simulated acid rain of pH 4.0 was applied for 50 weeks under laboratory conditions to spoil columns modified with 0.5% FA or HA, or 2.0% OM from four forest trees and two herbs. Quality-control methods were used to evaluate treatment effects. Addition of HA and tall fescue leaf material to a Lily, KY, spoil created a greater and longer lasting desirable effect on leachate pH and Al, Fe, Mn, and SO 4 than additions of FA or OM of five other species. Results suggest that revegetation resulting in rapid production of matured soil OM may reduce the amount of some ions commonly leached from acid mine spoils

  3. Reforestation of Bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karthikeyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted in degradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth. However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum (Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings ofEucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings ofE. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantly higher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher in AM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings. 

  4. Reforestation of bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Krishnakumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted indegradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth.However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum(Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum(Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings of E. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantlyhigher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher inAM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings.

  5. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas cylinders; general requirements. 75.1106-4 Section 75.1106-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... compressed gas unit, consisting of one oxygen cylinder and one additional gas cylinder, shall be used to...

  6. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99...

  7. General requirements for concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This standard provides the general requirements used in the design, construction, testing, and commissioning of concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants designated as class containment and is directed to the owners, designers, manufacturers, fabricators, and constructors of the concrete components and parts

  8. 38 CFR 61.80 - General operation requirements for supportive housing and service centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General operation requirements for supportive housing and service centers. 61.80 Section 61.80 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... assuring safety from fire; (10) All food preparation areas must contain suitable space and equipment to...

  9. 75 FR 22540 - Review of Arbitration Awards; Miscellaneous and General Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... and 2429 Review of Arbitration Awards; Miscellaneous and General Requirements AGENCY: Federal Labor..., and labor organizations representing Federal employees. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 This rule... #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0; Federal Register #0; #0; #0;This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER...

  10. 34 CFR 350.10 - What are the general requirements for Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rehabilitation Research Projects? 350.10 Section 350.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Projects Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.10 What are the general requirements for Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects...

  11. 29 CFR 4.172 - Meeting requirements for particular fringe benefits-in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Meeting requirements for particular fringe benefits-in... particular fringe benefits—in general. Where a fringe benefit determination specifies the amount of the..., as such costs are properly a business expense of the employer. If prevailing fringe benefits for...

  12. 76 FR 52271 - Institutions and Lender Requirements Relating to Education Loans, Student Assistance General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Part 668 [Docket ID ED-2009-OPE-0003] RIN 1840-AC95 Institutions and Lender Requirements Relating to Education Loans, Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan...

  13. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be a...

  14. 26 CFR 54.6011-1 - General requirement of return, statement, or list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... individuals and section 403(b)(7)(A) custodial accounts. Any employer or individual liable for tax under section 4971, 4972 or 4973(a)(2) (for a custodial account under section 403(b)(7)(A)) shall file an annual... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.6011-1 General requirement of...

  15. 40 CFR 1033.201 - General requirements for obtaining a certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificate of conformity. 1033.201 Section 1033.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....201 General requirements for obtaining a certificate of conformity. Certification is the process by... certificate of conformity for freshly manufactured locomotives. Anyone meeting the definition of...

  16. 40 CFR 63.11173 - What are my general requirements for complying with this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Miscellaneous Surface Coating Operations at Area Sources General Compliance Requirements § 63... operation that is an affected area source must implement management practices to minimize the evaporative... paint strippers containing MeCl to reduce MeCl evaporation (e.g., if the stripper must be heated, make...

  17. 21 CFR 1271.80 - What are the general requirements for donor testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.80 What are... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the general requirements for donor... donor specimen for testing at the time of recovery of cells or tissue from the donor; or up to 7 days...

  18. 75 FR 964 - Acquisition Regulation: Subchapter E-General Contracting Requirements, Subchapter F-Special...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... review and determined that, to the extent permitted by law, this rule meets the relevant standards of... entities (5 U.S.C. 605(b)). This rule updates references in the DEAR that apply to public contracts and... 952 RIN 1991-AB88 Acquisition Regulation: Subchapter E--General Contracting Requirements, Subchapter F...

  19. Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, M. M.; Pina, S.; García-Orenes, F.; Almendro-Candel, M. B.; García-Sánchez, E.

    2008-07-01

    The ecologic restoration criteria in areas degraded from extraction activities require making use of their mine spoils. These materials do not meet fertility conditions to guarantee restoration success and therefore, need the incorporation of organic amendments to obtain efficient substratum. Reducing the deficiencies in the organic material and restoration material nutrients with the contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed in this work. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was conducted with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcium carbonate. The first mineral, of poor quality, came from the formation of aggregates of crushed limestone ( Z). The other residual material examined originated in limestone extraction, formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils ( D). Two treatments were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge), in addition to a control treatment. The water contribution was carried out with a device that simulated either short-duration rain or a flooding irrigation system in order to cover the surface and then percolate through the soil. The collection of leached water took place 24 h after the applications. Different parameters of the leached water were determined, including pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate anions, ammonium, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. The values obtained for each irrigation application are discussed, and the nitrate values obtained were very elevated.

  20. Acetobacter oeni sp. nov., isolated from spoiled red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luis R; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Rivas, Raúl; Swings, Jean; Trujillo, Martha E; Willems, Anne; Velázquez, Encarna

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated B13T, was isolated from spoiled red wine from the Dão region, Portugal. The strain was Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped and motile. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that B13T belonged to the genus Acetobacter within the Alphaproteobacteria. The closest related species was Acetobacter aceti, with 98.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that B13T constituted a taxon separate from the Acetobacter species with validly published names. The DNA G+C content of B13T was 58.1 mol%. Phenotypic characteristics of B13T allowed its differentiation from the recognized Acetobacter species. B13T produced 5-ketogluconic acid from glucose, but no 2-ketogluconic acid. It produced catalase, but no oxidase. It utilized glycerol, but not maltose, ethanol or methanol as carbon sources. On the basis of the results obtained, B13T represents a novel species for which the name Acetobacter oeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B13T (= LMG 21952T = CECT 5830T).

  1. Merits of partial shielding in dumping sediment spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob Hjelmager; Saremi, Sina; Jimenez, Carlos; Hadjioannou, Louis

    2015-12-15

    The commonly adopted method of dumping dredge spoil at sea using split-hull barges leads to considerable sediment loss to the water column and a subsequent dispersion of fine material that can pose a risk to sensitive "downstream" habitats such as coral reefs. Containing sediment loads using stitched closed geotextile bags is practiced for minimizing loss of contaminated sediment, but is expensive in terms of operational efficiency. Following promising observations from initial laboratory trials, the plunging of partially shielded sediment loads, released on open sea, was studied. The partial shielding was achieved with rigid, open containers as well as flexible, open bags. The loss of sediment from these modes of shielding was measured, and it was observed that even limited and unstitched shielding can be effective in debilitating the entrainment of water into the descending load. In particular, long-sleeved flexible bags practically self-eliminated the exposure of the load and thus losses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Generalized Information Architecture for Managing Requirements in IBM?s Rational DOORS(r) Application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Kathryn M.; Eaton, Shelley M.; McCornack, Marjorie Turner; Shannon, Sharon A.

    2014-12-01

    When a requirements engineering effort fails to meet expectations, often times the requirements management tool is blamed. Working with numerous project teams at Sandia National Laboratories over the last fifteen years has shown us that the tool is rarely the culprit; usually it is the lack of a viable information architecture with well- designed processes to support requirements engineering. This document illustrates design concepts with rationale, as well as a proven information architecture to structure and manage information in support of requirements engineering activities for any size or type of project. This generalized information architecture is specific to IBM's Rational DOORS (Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System) software application, which is the requirements management tool in Sandia's CEE (Common Engineering Environment). This generalized information architecture can be used as presented or as a foundation for designing a tailored information architecture for project-specific needs. It may also be tailored for another software tool. Version 1.0 4 November 201

  3. Generalized requirements and decompositions for the design of test parts for micro additive manufacturing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2015-01-01

    The design of experimental test parts to characterize micro additive manufacturing (AM) processes is challenging due to the influence of the manufacturing and metrology processes. This work builds on the lessons learned from a case study in the literature to derive generalized requirements and high...... level decompositions for the design of test parts and the design of experiments to characterize micro additive manufacturing processes. While the test parts and the experiments described are still work in progress, the generic requirements derived from them can serve as a starting point for the design...... of other micro additive manufacturing related studies and their decompositions can help structure future work....

  4. General requirements to be met by quality assurance measures. Version 6/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The principles of quality assurance apply to all components of relevance to safety in stationary nuclear power plants. They refer to general definitions concerning planning, organisation, procedures and defined procedural steps, documentation, and inspections. The quality requirements to be met by manufactured parts, structural components and technical and systems are an integral part of quality management and plant monitoring throughout the entire lifetime of the power plant until permanent shutdown. (DG) [de

  5. Defense Management: DOD’s Conference Policy Is Generally Consistent with OMB’s Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    of the Inspector General, Audit Division, Audit of Department of Justice Conference Planning and Food and Beverage Costs Audit Report 11-43 (Oct...with industry or foreign nationals. DOD personnel attend conferences on a range of topics, such as antiterrorism activities, force requirements, and...facilities instead of a hotel or convention center. Further, where evidence of a key element was missing, we found that in some cases, a record of the key

  6. Lactobacillus cerevisiae sp. nov., isolated from a spoiled brewery sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, Jennifer; Jacob, Fritz; Wenning, Mareike; Hutzler, Mathias

    2017-09-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated TUM BP 140423000-2250T (=DSM 100836T=LMG 29073T), was isolated from spoiled beer. This bacterium did not form spores, and was catalase-negative and facultatively anaerobic. Its taxonomic position was determined in a polyphasic study. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity data showed that the strain belonged to the Lactobacillus genus with the nearest neighbours being Lactobacillus koreensis DCY50T (sequence similarity 99.5 %), Lactobacillus yonginensis THK-V8T (99.2 %) and Lactobacillus parabrevis LMG 11984T (98.7 %). Sequence comparisons of additional phylogenetic markers, pheS and rpoA, confirmed the 16S rRNA gene sequence tree topology. The maximum rpoA sequence similarity was 92.3 % with L. yonginensis THK-V8T. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 50.0 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness showed that strain TUM BP 140423000-2250T could be clearly distinguished from L. koreensis DCY 50T (30.8±0.4 %) and L. yonginensis THK-V8T (23.6±5.9 %). The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, summed feature 7 (comprised of C19 : 0 cyclo ω10c/C19 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. Based on phenotypic and genotypic studies, the authors propose classifying the new isolate as a representative of a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus cerevisiae sp. nov. The type strain is deposited at the Research Centre Weihenstephan for Brewing and Food Quality as TUM BP 140423000-2250T (=DSM 100836T=LMG 29073T).

  7. Vetiver Grass: a potential tool for phytoremediation of iron ore mine site spoil dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mining has lead to the generation of a large amount of spoil dumps that has become dangerous to human health, wildlife and biodiversity. Thus it is essential that the post mining areas and waste land generated need to be rapidly vegetated. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Roberty is a tropical plant which grows naturally in various soil conditions and is well known for its ability to resist DNA damage while growing on typically polluted soil conditions. The spoil dumps from the iron mine site is unstable and inhospitable for plant growth due to presence of various toxic heavy metals like - Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd etc. Vetiver system is an efficient bio-engineering tool for reclaiming such spoil dumps. There are 12 known species of Vetiver grass, and many hundreds of different cultivars that are exploited by users depending on need. In the present study we selected the polyploid infertile variety of vetiver and carried pot experiments. Vetiver plants grown on the iron ore mine spoil dump show distinct differences in their growth with fewer numbers of tillers, reduced chlorophyll content, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and increased proline content. To investigate the level of DNA damage incurred and change in the genetic stability Comet assay and RAPD analysis were performed. Results confirmed that Vetiver grass can serve as a model species for phytoremediating the iron ore mine spoil dumps.

  8. Generic functional requirements for a NASA general-purpose data base management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Generic functional requirements for a general-purpose, multi-mission data base management system (DBMS) for application to remotely sensed scientific data bases are detailed. The motivation for utilizing DBMS technology in this environment is explained. The major requirements include: (1) a DBMS for scientific observational data; (2) a multi-mission capability; (3) user-friendly; (4) extensive and integrated information about data; (5) robust languages for defining data structures and formats; (6) scientific data types and structures; (7) flexible physical access mechanisms; (8) ways of representing spatial relationships; (9) a high level nonprocedural interactive query and data manipulation language; (10) data base maintenance utilities; (11) high rate input/output and large data volume storage; and adaptability to a distributed data base and/or data base machine configuration. Detailed functions are specified in a top-down hierarchic fashion. Implementation, performance, and support requirements are also given.

  9. General Approaches and Requirements on Safety and Security of Radioactive Materials Transport in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, V.N.; Buchel'nikov, A.E.; Komarov, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    Development and implementation of safety and security requirements for transport of radioactive materials in the Russian Federation are addressed. At the outset it is worth noting that the transport safety requirements implemented are in full accordance with the IAEA's ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (2009 Edition)''. However, with respect to security requirements for radioactive material transport in some cases the Russian Federation requirements for nuclear material are more stringent compared to IAEA recommendations. The fundamental principles of safety and security of RM managements, recommended by IAEA documents (publications No. SF-1 and GOV/41/2001) are compared. Its correlation and differences concerning transport matters, the current level and the possibility of harmonization are analysed. In addition a reflection of the general approaches and concrete transport requirements is being evaluated. Problems of compliance assessment, including administrative and state control problems for safety and security provided at internal and international shipments are considered and compared. (author)

  10. Remote-handling devices for radioactive materials. Part 1: General requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ISO 17874 consists of the following parts, under the general title Remote handling devices for radioactive materials: Part 1: General requirements; Part 2: Mechanical master-slave manipulators; Part 3: Electrical master-slave manipulators; Part 4: Power manipulators; and Part 5: Remote-handling tongs. ISO 17874 deals mainly with multipurpose remote-handling devices for nuclear applications. These devices replace hands and arms in areas inaccessible to personnel (mostly behind shielding walls). It should be noted that there are special remote-handling devices designed for narrow fields of application or for special purposes only, but these are beyond the scope of ISO 17874. Multipurpose remote-handling devices have five to ten, or even more, possibilities of movement in order to cope with the planned range of tasks. Four categories of such remote-handling devices are used worldwide for the handling of radioactive materials. These categories are as follows: mechanical master-slave manipulators; electrical master-slave manipulators; power manipulators; remote-handling tongs. Various special designs, prototypes, experimental devices and obsolete types cannot be assigned to any category or do not correspond to all the requirements of ISO 17874. These devices are not covered by ISO 17874. This part 1. of ISO 17874 describes requirements concerning devices for remote handling of radioactive materials

  11. General practitioners knowledge, practice and training requirements in relation to doping in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, C B; Moynihan, A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined General Practitioner's (GP) knowledge, practice and training requirements in relation to doping in sport in Ireland. All 2083 GPs on the Irish College of General Practitioners (ICGP) register received a postal questionnaire, yielding a 37% response rate (N=771, 63% male, average age 46.2 +/- 9SD, range 28-74 years). Results revealed that 14% (112) deemed their knowledge of doping agents to be good or very good, 12% (94) had completed specific training modules in doping or sport, and 24% (183) were connected with a specific sport as a team doctor/advisor. Over one in four (28%: 217) had been consulted for advice on doping in Sport, 33% (256) possessed the current list of prohibited substances, and 25% (190) knew of the Irish Sports Council's drug-testing procedures. The current initiatives to discourage doping in sport were felt to be ineffective, and although 92% (716) indicated that GPs had a role to play in the prevention of doping in sport, only 9% (66) felt adequately trained for such a role. There was overwhelming support for further training among GPs, although the most appropriate method of providing training is complex and requires strategic planning.

  12. Mission reliability of semi-Markov systems under generalized operational time requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoyue; Hillston, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Mission reliability of a system depends on specific criteria for mission success. To evaluate the mission reliability of some mission systems that do not need to work normally for the whole mission time, two types of mission reliability for such systems are studied. The first type corresponds to the mission requirement that the system must remain operational continuously for a minimum time within the given mission time interval, while the second corresponds to the mission requirement that the total operational time of the system within the mission time window must be greater than a given value. Based on Markov renewal properties, matrix integral equations are derived for semi-Markov systems. Numerical algorithms and a simulation procedure are provided for both types of mission reliability. Two examples are used for illustration purposes. One is a one-unit repairable Markov system, and the other is a cold standby semi-Markov system consisting of two components. By the proposed approaches, the mission reliability of systems with time redundancy can be more precisely estimated to avoid possible unnecessary redundancy of system resources. - Highlights: • Two types of mission reliability under generalized requirements are defined. • Equations for both types of reliability are derived for semi-Markov systems. • Numerical methods are given for solving both types of reliability. • Simulation procedure is given for estimating both types of reliability. • Verification of the numerical methods is given by the results of simulation

  13. 29 CFR 1918.51 - General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix III of this part).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix III of this part). 1918.51 Section 1918.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.51 General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix III...

  14. Does the sequence of plant dominants affect mycorrhiza development in simulated succession on spoil banks?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Püschel, David; Rydlová, Jana; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 302, 1-2 (2008), s. 273-282 ISSN 0032-079X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * plant succession * spoil banks Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.998, year: 2008

  15. Forest-biological erosion control on coal-mine spoil banks in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, M.J.; Gentcheva-Kostadinova, S.; Zheleva, E.

    1995-01-01

    The forest fallowing of coal-mine spoils helps re-establish the processes of natural, self-sustaining, soil formation. Environmental monitoring in Bulgaria demonstrates that forestation can moderate soil pH (from ph> 3.0 to pH 1.3 g/cm 3 in the 0-5 cm layer) in the case of coal briquette spoils at Pernik, near Sofia. Ground losses from forested, 16-17 degree slope, coal briquette-spoils at Pernik are a quarter of those from an entirely unvegetated section of the same embankment (48.5 vs 12. 1 mm in the period 1988-1994) despite the absence of ground cover beneath the trees. On lignite spoil banks, at Maritsa-Iztok, central Bulgaria, forestation increases the organic content of the soil to greater depths than revegetation with grass, and to a greater degree than conventional agricultural cultivation. On Pinus nigra forested crest sites at Pernik, and in Robinia pseudacacia forested groves on the lignite minespoil banks at Maritsa-Iztok, slopes showed ground advance rather than ground retreat. Slopes protected by mechanical means alone did not allow soil growth and, where the structure broke down, they suffered as much erosion as untreated sites. In sum, the forest fallowing of surface coal-mine disturbed land accelerates organic matter accumulation in the soil, helps improve soil structure, reduces erosion, and may transform soil loss into soil gain, even on steeply sloping sites. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Earthworm succession in afforested colliery spoil heaps in the Sokolov region, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2001), s. 359-364 ISSN 1061-2971 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworms * colliery spoil heaps * succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2001

  17. Photobacterium piscicola sp. nov., isolated from marine fish and spoiled packed cod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figge, Marian; Cleenwerck, Ilse; van Uijen, Astrid; de Vos, Paul; Huys, Geert; Robertson, Lesley

    Five isolates from marine fish (W3T, WM, W1S, S2 and S3) and three isolates misclassified as Photobacterium phosphoreum, originating from spoiled modified atmosphere packed stored cod (NCIMB 13482 and NCIMB 13483) and the intestine of skate (NCIMB 192), were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic

  18. Implications of modifying the duration requirement of generalized anxiety disorder in developed and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Tsang, A; Ruscio, A M; Haro, J M; Stein, D J; Alonso, J; Angermeyer, M C; Bromet, E J; Demyttenaere, K; de Girolamo, G; de Graaf, R; Gureje, O; Iwata, N; Karam, E G; Lepine, J-P; Levinson, D; Medina-Mora, M E; Oakley Browne, M A; Posada-Villa, J; Kessler, R C

    2009-07-01

    A number of western studies have suggested that the 6-month duration requirement of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) does not represent a critical threshold in terms of onset, course, or risk factors of the disorder. No study has examined the consequences of modifying the duration requirement across a wide range of correlates in both developed and developing countries. Population surveys were carried out in seven developing and 10 developed countries using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (total sample=85,052). Prevalence and correlates of GAD were compared across mutually exclusive GAD subgroups defined by different minimum duration criteria. Lifetime prevalence estimates for GAD lasting 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months were 7.5%, 5.2%, 4.1% and 3.0% for developed countries and 2.7%, 1.8%, 1.5% and 1.2% for developing countries, respectively. There was little difference between GAD of 6 months' duration and GAD of shorter durations (1-2 months, 3-5 months) in age of onset, symptom severity or persistence, co-morbidity or impairment. GAD lasting >or=12 months was the most severe, persistently symptomatic and impaired subgroup. In both developed and developing countries, the clinical profile of GAD is similar regardless of duration. The DSM-IV 6-month duration criterion excludes a large number of individuals who present with shorter generalized anxiety episodes which may be recurrent, impairing and contributory to treatment-seeking. Future iterations of the DSM and ICD should consider modifying the 6-month duration criterion so as to better capture the diversity of clinically salient anxiety presentations.

  19. Solid speciation and availability of nickel and chromium in Ni mining spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raous, Sophie; Garnier, Jérémie; Sterckeman, Thibaul; Echevarria, Guillaume; Becquer, Thierry; Thomas, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    Nickel mining of ultramafic laterites generates different types of wastes, topsoils and ores that are too poor in Ni to be currently processed. These are mixed and stored on heaps which could be a potential source of Ni and Cr pollution. Chemical reactivity of the main metal bearing phases present in the mining spoils of Goiás (Brasil) was investigated. Principally a silicated 'saprolite' material and a Fe-oxide rich limonitic material were isolated from the wastes. Their total Ni and Cr content are high, respectively for Ni and Cr : 7,170 and 54,970 mg kg-1 in limonite and 12,200 and 12,650 mg kg-1 in saprolite. The main metal-bearing minerals, identified and localized using XRD, TEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and Mossbaüer spectrometry are well-crystallized minerals: goethite (75%), hematite (13%) and chromite in limonite and ferruginous smectite, talc and chromite in saprolite. Single and sequential extractions showed that the amounts of 1M KCl exchangeable Ni and Cr reached respectively 7.1% and 0.03% of total contents in saprolite. Moreover, Cr(VI) extraction by KH2PO4 showed that more than 2% (980 mg kg-1) of total Cr was under this labile toxic form in limonite. This study allowed us to determine the main reactions controlling the Ni and Cr mobility in the spoils i.e. Ni2+ cationic exchange in saprolitic spoil and CrO32- surface complexation in limonitic spoil. This study allowed us to demonstrate the need of chemical rehabilitation of mining wastes in order to avoid the dispersion of the high contents of Ni and Cr available. It constitutes the system definition needed to predict the Cr and Ni mobility in ultramafic mining spoils.

  20. Survival and growth of wildlife shrubs and trees on acid mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, D.K.; Adkisson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the survival and growth of selected wildlife plants over a wide range of acid mine spoil conditions and to identify species suitable for surface mine reclamation. A major criterion in selection of study sites was inclusion of a wide range of spoil acidity conditions. The Ollis Creek (Study Area A) and Farrell (Study Area B) coal surface mines located in Campbell and Scott Counties, Tennessee, were selected for study. Seven plant species, all of which had been used in past reclamation demonstrations, were introduced on the 22 plots during March 1972. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) was included as a control plant. Ten additional plant species were introduced during March 1973. With the exception of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum var.). European filbert (Corylus avellana), and red maple (Acer rubrum), these species had not been used in TVA reclamation demonstrations. To assess the effects of spoil pH on the plants, the plots were grouped into seven pH categories, and mean percent survival and growth for each species were calculated. Results indicate that autumn olive, elaeagnus cherry, arnot locust, sawtooth oak, red maple, and Toringo crabapple are suitable for quick improvement of surface mine habitat over a wide range of spoil acidity in the Appalachian coalfield. Bessey cherry and European filbert need further study before a decision can be made regarding their reclamation utility. Species that are not recommended for quick habitat improvement over a wide range of surface mine spoil pH conditions include bush honeysuckle, barberry, Siberian crabapple, Manchu cherry, American beautyberry, bear oak, blueberry, rem-red honeysuckle, and redcedar.

  1. Manual on radiation protection in hospitals and general practice. Basic protection requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braestrup, C.B.; Vikterloef, K.J.

    1974-01-01

    The manual as a whole deals with the radiation protection of patients, occupationally exposed persons, and the public. Volume 1, on basic protection requirements, is a general review common to all medical applications of ionizing radiation and radionuclides. Radiation protection is required for patients and staff, and with regard to medical research and chemical trials of new methods; radiation equipment and operating procedures are discussed in connection with diagnostic x-ray installations, x-ray beam therapy, gamma-ray installations for teletherapy, brachytherapy, unsealed sources for therapeutic use, and the diagnostic use of unsealed sources in nuclear medicine. In planning of radiation facilities, attention is paid to levels at which medical care is given, the centralization and decentralization of radiation facilities, diagnostic x-ray facilities and therapy facilities, and nuclear medicine and therapy with unsealed sources. Shielding design is discussed applicable to diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and the therapeutic use of radionuclides. Assignment of responsibilities, legal responsibilities, safety checks, refresher courses and symposia are discussed in the context of organizing radiation protection. Radiation surveys are necessary, and such surveys are described for x-ray and gamma-ray beams, sealed radioactive sources and nuclear medicine. A whole section is devoted to personnel monitoring and health surveillance. An annex gives a list of commonly used radionuclides, another deals with the design of protective shielding

  2. General technical requirements (GTR) for inventory monitoring systems (IMS) for the trilateral initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pshakin, Gennady M.; Kuleshov, I. (Igor); Shea, T.; Puckett, J. M. (John M.); Zhukov, I.; Mangan, Dennis L.; Matter, John C.; Waddoups, I. (Ivan); Smathers, D. (Douglas); Abhold, M. E. (Mark E.); Hsue, S.-T. (Sin-Tao); Chiaro, P. (Peter)

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant to the Trilateral Initiative, the three parties (The Russian Federation, the United States, and the International Atomic Energy Agency) have been engaged in discussions concerning the structure of reliable monitoring systems for storage facilities having large inventories. The intent of these monitoring systems is to provide the capability for the IAEA to maintain continuity of knowledge in a sufficiently reliable manner that should there be equipment failure, loss of continuity of knowledge would be restricted to a small population of the inventory, and thus reinventory of the stored items would be minimized These facility-specific monitoring systems, referred to as Inventory Monitoring Systems (IMS) are to provide the principal means for the M A to assure that the containers of fissile material remain accounted under the Verification Agreements which are to be concluded between the IAEA and the Russian Federation and the lAEA and the United States for the verification of weapon-origin and other fissile material specified by each State as released from its defense programs. A technical experts working group for inventory monitoring systems has been meeting since Feb- of 2000 to formulate General Technical Requirements (GTR) for Inventory Monitoring Systems for the Trilateral Initiative. Although provisional agreement has been reached by the three parties concerning the GTR, it is considered a living document that can be updated as warranted by the three parties. This paper provides a summary of the GTR as it currently exists.

  3. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality

  4. Safety Assessment for Facilities and Activities. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Safety Fundamentals publication, Fundamental Safety Principles, establishes principles for ensuring the protection of workers, the public and the environment, now and in the future, from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The objective of this Safety Requirements publication is to establish the generally applicable requirements to be fulfilled in safety assessment for facilities and activities, with special attention paid to defence in depth, quantitative analyses and the application of a graded approach to the ranges of facilities and of activities that are addressed. The publication also addresses the independent verification of the safety assessment that needs to be carried out by the originators and users of the safety assessment. This publication is intended to provide a consistent and coherent basis for safety assessment across all facilities and activities, which will facilitate the transfer of good practices between organizations conducting safety assessments and will assist in enhancing the confidence of all interested parties that an adequate level of safety has been achieved for facilities and activities. The requirements, which are derived from the Fundamental Safety Principles, relate to any human activity that may cause people to be exposed to radiation risks arising from facilities and activities, as follows: Facilities includes: (a) Nuclear power plants; (b) Other reactors (such as research reactors and critical assemblies); (c) Enrichment facilities and fuel fabrication facilities; (d) Conversion facilities used to generate UF6; (e) Storage and reprocessing plants for irradiated fuel; (f) Facilities for radioactive waste management where radioactive waste is treated, conditioned, stored or disposed of; (g) Any other places where radioactive materials are produced, processed, used, handled or stored; (h) Irradiation facilities for medical, industrial, research and other purposes, and any places where radiation generators are installed; (i

  5. Safety assessment for facilities and activities. General safety requirements. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Safety Fundamentals publication, Fundamental Safety Principles, establishes principles for ensuring the protection of workers, the public and the environment, now and in the future, from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The objective of this Safety Requirements publication is to establish the generally applicable requirements to be fulfilled in safety assessment for facilities and activities, with special attention paid to defence in depth, quantitative analyses and the application of a graded approach to the ranges of facilities and of activities that are addressed. The publication also addresses the independent verification of the safety assessment that needs to be carried out by the originators and users of the safety assessment. This publication is intended to provide a consistent and coherent basis for safety assessment across all facilities and activities, which will facilitate the transfer of good practices between organizations conducting safety assessments and will assist in enhancing the confidence of all interested parties that an adequate level of safety has been achieved for facilities and activities. The requirements, which are derived from the Fundamental Safety Principles, relate to any human activity that may cause people to be exposed to radiation risks arising from facilities and activities, as follows: Facilities includes: (a) Nuclear power plants; (b) Other reactors (such as research reactors and critical assemblies); (c) Enrichment facilities and fuel fabrication facilities; (d) Conversion facilities used to generate UF 6 ; (e) Storage and reprocessing plants for irradiated fuel; (f) Facilities for radioactive waste management where radioactive waste is treated, conditioned, stored or disposed of; (g) Any other places where radioactive materials are produced, processed, used, handled or stored; (h) Irradiation facilities for medical, industrial, research and other purposes, and any places where radiation generators are installed; (i

  6. 46 CFR 32.70-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Steel Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10... least equivalent to the requirements of a recognized classification society for the particular service... was converted into a tank vessel. In the absence of such classification requirements, the Officer in...

  7. General

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page S20: NMR compound 4i. Page S22: NMR compound 4j. General: Chemicals were purchased from Fluka, Merck and Aldrich Chemical Companies. All the products were characterized by comparison of their IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic data and their melting points with reported values. General procedure ...

  8. Weathering processes under various moisture conditions in a lignite mine spoil from As Pontes (N.W. Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoane, S.; Leiros, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Processes contributing to acid release/consumption during weathering of a lignite mine spoil (2.3% w/w S as sulfides) from As Pontes (N.W. Spain) were studied under three moisture conditions (at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying or forced percolation), which were simulated in laboratory experiments. Oxidation of sulfides to sulfates was favoured under all three moisture conditions, releasing most acid in spoil kept at field capacity. Hydroxysulfates formed in spoil kept at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying conditions, thereby contributing to acid release. Acid consumption by dissolution of clay minerals, especially micas, was favoured under all three moisture conditions, but was particularly intense in spoil at field capacity. Dissolution of aluminium oxides was also favoured under all the moisture conditions studied. 27 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  9. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... foundation investigations, as well as any necessary laboratory testing of foundation material, to determine the design requirements for foundation stability for each site. The analyses of foundation conditions...

  10. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... foundation investigations, as well as any necessary laboratory testing of foundation material, to determine the design requirements for foundation stability for each site. The analyses of foundation conditions...

  11. The copper spoil heap Knappenberg, Austria, as a model for metal habitats – Vegetation, substrate and contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Weiss, Yasmin S. [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Sassmann, Stefan [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); University of Exeter, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Biosciences, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Steinhauser, Georg [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Radioecology and Radiation Protection, Herrenhäuser Straße 2, D30419 Hannover (Germany); Hofhansl, Florian [University of Vienna, Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Coordenação de Dinâmica Ambiental, Manaus (Brazil); Baumann, Nils [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Division of Biogeochemistry, Bautzner Landstraße 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Lichtscheidl, Irene K. [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Lang, Ingeborg, E-mail: ingeborg.lang@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Core Facility Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    Historic mining in the Eastern Alps has left us with a legacy of numerous spoil heaps hosting specific, metal tolerant vegetation. Such habitats are characterized by elevated concentrations of toxic elements but also by high irradiation, a poorly developed substrate or extreme pH of the soil. This study investigates the distribution of vascular plants, mosses and lichens on a copper spoil heap on the ore bearing Knappenberg formed by Prebichl Layers and Werfener Schist in Lower Austria. It serves as a model for discriminating between various ecological traits and their effects on vegetation. Five distinct clusters were distinguished: (1) The bare, metal rich Central Spoil Heap was only colonised by highly resistant specialists. (2) The Northern and (3) Southern Peripheries contained less copper; the contrasting vegetation was best explained by the different microclimate. (4) A forest over acidic bedrock hosted a vegetation overlapping with the periphery of the spoil heap. (5) A forest over calcareous bedrock was similar to the spoil heap with regard to pH and humus content but hosted a vegetation differing strongly to all other habitats. Among the multiple toxic elements at the spoil heap, only Cu seems to exert a crucial influence on the vegetation pattern. Besides metal concentrations, irradiation, humidity, humus, pH and grain size distribution are important for the establishment of a metal tolerant vegetation. The difference between the species poor Northern and the diverse Southern Periphery can be explained by the microclimate rather than by the substrate. All plant species penetrating from the forest into the periphery of the spoil heap originate from the acidic but not from the calcareous bedrock. - Highlights: • Strong impact on plant diversity by isolation and extreme abiotic conditions • Both, microclimate and substrate explain species distribution. • Increased cellular metal tolerance of plants from the Central Spoil Heap • Among toxic elements

  12. Chemical properties and particle-size distribution of 39 surface-mine spoils in southern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Plass; Willis G. Vogel

    1973-01-01

    A survey of 39 surface-mine sites in southern West Virginia showed that most of the spoils from current mining operations had a pH of 5.0 or higher. Soil-size material averaged 37 percent of the weight of the spoils sampled. A major problem for the establishment of vegetation was a deficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus. This can be corrected with additions of...

  13. Heavy metals in soil on spoil heap of an abandoned lead ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Total concentrations of 4 heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mn), non-metal As and three reference elements. (Ti, Fe and Al) of a soil profile on spoil heap were examined. 54 soil samples were collected in the soil profile at different depths: 15 to 45, 45 to 75, 75 to 105, 105 to 135 and 135 to 150 cm. The first 15 cm of top layer ...

  14. The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza in two simulated stages of spoil-bank succession

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Püschel, David; Rydlová, Jana; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2007), s. 363-369 ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/04/0996; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mycorrhiza * plant succession * spoil bank s Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2007

  15. Development of Soil Characteristics and Plant Communities On Reclaimed and Unreclaimed Spoil Heaps After Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudlín, Ondřej; Řehák, Zdeněk; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare soil characteristics, plant communities and the rate of selected ecosystem function performance on reclaimed and unreclaimed plots (left for spontaneous succession) of different age on spoil heaps. Twelve spoil heaps (three circle plots of radius 12.5 m) near the town Kladno in north-west direction from Prague, created after deep coal mining, were compared. Five mixed soil samples from organo-mineral horizons in each plot were analysed for total content of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, active soil pH (pHH2O) was determined. Plant diversity was determined by vegetation releves. The biodiversity value of the habitat according to the Habitat Valuation Method was assessed and the rate of evapotranspiration function by the Method of Valuation Functions and Services of Ecosystems in the Czech Republic were determined. The higher organo-mineral layers and higher amount of total nitrogen content were found on the older reclaimed and unreclaimed plots than in younger plots. The number of plant species and the total contents of carbon and nitrogen were significantly higher at the unreclaimed plots compared to reclaimed plots. The biodiversity values and evapotranspiration function rate were also higher on unreclaimed plots. From this perspective, it is possible to recommend using of spontaneous succession, together with routine reclamation methods to restore habitats after coal mining. Despite the relatively high age of vegetation in some of selected plots (90 years), both the reclaimed and unreclaimed plots have not reached the stage of potential vegetation near to natural climax. Slow development of vegetation was probably due to unsuitable substrate of spoil heaps and a lack of plant and tree species of natural forest habitats in this area. However, it is probable that vegetation communities on observed spoil heaps in both type of management (reclaimed and unreclaimed) will achieve the stage of natural climax and they

  16. Bottom fauna of dredging and dredge spoil disposal sites of a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Devi, S.K.

    gathered at a single point in time. These studies are valuable even though they give only very little insight into the biotic constraints which are highly important in the dynamic processes which establish the real niches of animals. Niche concept.... 1967. Environmental effects of dredging and spoil deposition. Proceedings of WODCOM, World Dredging Conference (Palos Verdes Estates, California): 353-359. Heip, C. 1974. A new index measuring evenness. Journal of the Marine Biology Association (UK...

  17. Remediation of Acid Generating Colliery Spoil Using Steel Slag – Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghataora Gurmel S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the legacies of the coal mining industry is the existence of numerous colliery spoil mounds. Run-off waters from some of these mounds result in oxidation of sulphur compounds causing pH to drop to perhaps as low as 2.5. At this pH, mobility for metals increases and it results in destruction of both flora and fauna. In order to reduce acidity, a number of solutions have been investigated with varying degree of success. A recent study to reduce acidity in spoil run-off water included the use of Basic Oxygen Steel slag. Its slow release of lime resulted in longer term remediation compared with other techniques. In addition to this, steel slag contains elements which are essential for plant growth and can be regarded as a weak fertiliser. This was substantiated in two field trials, which had the aim of not only remediating acidity from two different types of colliery spoils, but also to develop a composition that supports grass growth. The objectives were achieved at both sites and some of the results of over 5000 chemical tests conducted during these studies are reported in this paper.

  18. Remediation of Acid Generating Colliery Spoil Using Steel Slag - Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghataora, Gurmel S.; Ghazireh, Nizar; Hall, Nigel

    2015-06-01

    One of the legacies of the coal mining industry is the existence of numerous colliery spoil mounds. Run-off waters from some of these mounds result in oxidation of sulphur compounds causing pH to drop to perhaps as low as 2.5. At this pH, mobility for metals increases and it results in destruction of both flora and fauna. In order to reduce acidity, a number of solutions have been investigated with varying degree of success. A recent study to reduce acidity in spoil run-off water included the use of Basic Oxygen Steel slag. Its slow release of lime resulted in longer term remediation compared with other techniques. In addition to this, steel slag contains elements which are essential for plant growth and can be regarded as a weak fertiliser. This was substantiated in two field trials, which had the aim of not only remediating acidity from two different types of colliery spoils, but also to develop a composition that supports grass growth. The objectives were achieved at both sites and some of the results of over 5000 chemical tests conducted during these studies are reported in this paper.

  19. Impact of plantation on ecosystem development in disturbed coal mine overburden spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Mishra, T.K.; Singh, A.K.; Jain, A. [Tropical Forest Research Inst., Jabalpur (India)

    2004-07-15

    Eleven nitrogen fixing and one non-nitrogen fixing tree species were planted in coal mine overburden spoils of Bisrampur colliery at Surguja district, Chattisgarh, India in 1993. Their growth performance at one, two, four, six and eight years was recorded. It was observed that after eight years of planting, Acacia mangium performed very well in respect to all the growth parameters followed by A. holoserecia, Dalbergia sissoo, Albiziaprocera, Pithecellobium dulce, Acacia auriculiformis and Gmelina arborea. Acacia nilotica showed very poor performance. The number of natural colonisers increased with increasing age of the planted species. Nutrient status of the spoils also increased gradually with the increase in age of the plants. Organic carbon increased greatly and, as a result, activities of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi accelerated. This study indicated that the spoil environment, which is extremely harsh just after mining, could be improved gradually and the ecosystem restored by planting suitable species. Therefore, for early development of the ecosystem, afforestation with suitable leguminous species is recommended.

  20. Magnetization spoiling in radial FLASH contrast-enhanced MR digital subtraction angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Parmede; Ansari, Sameer A; Hurley, Michael C; Bhat, Himanshu; Batjer, H Hunt; Bendok, Bernard R; Eddleman, Christopher S; Carroll, Timothy J

    2012-07-01

    To increase the in-plane spatial resolution and image update rates of 2D magnetic resonance (MR) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) pulse sequences to 0.57 × 0.57 mm and 6 frames/sec, respectively, for intracranial vascular disease applications by developing a radial FLASH protocol and to characterize a new artifact, not previously described in the literature, which arises in the presence of such pulse sequences. The pulse sequence was optimized and artifacts were characterized using simulation and phantom studies. With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, the pulse sequence was used to acquire time-resolved images from healthy human volunteers and patients with x-ray DSA-confirmed intracranial vascular disease. Artifacts were shown to derive from inhomogeneous spoiling due to the nature of radial waveforms. Gradient spoiling strategies were proposed to eliminate the observed artifact by balancing gradient moments across TR intervals. The resulting radial 2D MR DSA sequence (2.6 sec temporal footprint, 6 frames/sec with sliding window factor 16, 0.57 × 0.57 mm in-plane) demonstrated small vessel detail and corroborated x-ray DSA findings in intracranial vascular imaging studies. Appropriate gradient spoiling in radial 2D MR DSA pulse sequences improves intracranial vascular depiction by eliminating circular banding artifacts. The proposed pulse sequence may provide a useful addition to clinically applied 2D MR DSA scans. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Long Range Spoil Disposal Study. Part I. General Data for the Delaware River,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The total drainage areas at the teet at the mouth to 6.9 feet at Trenton. mouth and Trenton, New Jersey, which rep- The normal tidal current in the...tween 1930 and 1932, each of which vnried sisted of brush mattress and stone and its as to type of construction. The types of top elevation was at +5...upstream end of line, and a 2,900-ft. long leg constructed of New Castle range. This area experienced timber cribbing filled with brush and stone

  2. General Requirements to the Preparation of Tinctures, Decoctions. Dosage of Phytopreparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Yershovа

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the advantages and disadvantages of using herbal medicine, general information for the collection of medicinal plants. According to the World Health Organization, the classification of herbal medicine is an integral part of traditional medicine. It refers to the variety of metabolic therapy. This treatment meets the requirements of pathogenetic therapy. Currently, more than 30 % of medicines on the pharmaceutical market have herbal origin. According to the World Health Organization, about 80 % of the world population use mainly traditional medicines of natural origin within the framework of primary health care system. Analysis of publications on phytotherapy revealed insufficient coverage of contraindications and side effects of certain plants. This was the basis for opening in our magazine this column, and we wanted to start with what would be the advantages and disadvantages of phytotherapy. Benefits of herbal medi­cine: biological proximity of the active substances of plants and active substances of the body, harmony therapy for the human body, the prolonged effect of herbal medicines after the completion of therapy, the opportunity to prepare a wide variety of different dosage forms, for both indoor and outdoor use, compatibility with many synthetic pharmaceuticals drugs, comprehensive multilateral action of plants, no side effects, simplicity and ease of preparation of herbal remedies at home, the availability for the majority of patients due to the low cost of the medicines. Limitations of herbal medicine: the complexity of the standardization of the treatment effect of herbal drugs, the complexity of establishing a dose, selectivity of diseases, in which typical herbal remedies are prescribed, the risk of poisoning, particularly in self-collection of medicinal plants. The article also provides methods for the preparation of various forms of herbal remedies, dosage for adults and children. With all the advantages of

  3. Effects of coal spoil amendment on heavy metal accumulation and physiological aspects of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growing in copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhaoxia; Wang, Xingming; Wang, Yunmin; Liu, Guijian; Dong, Zhongbing; Lu, Xianwen; Chen, Guangzhou; Zha, Fugeng

    2017-12-21

    Copper mine tailings pose many threats to the surrounding environment and human health, and thus, their remediation is fundamental. Coal spoil is the waste by-product of coal mining and characterized by low levels of metals, high content of organic matter, and many essential microelements. This study was designed to evaluate the role of coal spoil on heavy uptake and physiological responses of Lolium perenne L. grown in copper mine tailings amended with coal spoil at rates of 0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20%. The results showed that applying coal spoil to copper mine tailings decreased the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents in tailings and reduced those metal contents in both roots and shoots of the plant. However, application of coal spoil increased the DTPA-extractable Cr concentration in tailings and also increased Cr uptake and accumulation by Lolium perenne L. The statistical analysis of physiological parameters indicated that chlorophyll and carotenoid increased at the lower amendments of coal spoil followed by a decrease compared to their respective controls. Protein content was enhanced at all the coal spoil amendments. When treated with coal spoil, the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) responded differently. CAT activity was inhibited, but POD activity was increased with increasing amendment ratio of coal spoil. SOD activity increased up to 1% coal spoil followed by a decrease. Overall, the addition of coal spoil decreased the oxidative stress in Lolium perenne L., reflected by the reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the plant. It is concluded that coal spoil has the potential to stabilize most metals studied in copper mine tailings and ameliorate the harmful effects in Lolium perenne L. through changing the physiological attributes of the plant grown in copper mine tailings.

  4. 40 CFR 112.7 - General requirements for Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General... described in § 112.1(b) that are the result of natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism); and (2...

  5. Physical environment. [environmental impact statement required for general aviation airport construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Environmental legislation affecting airports and the more common environmental effects resulting from airport construction are discussed with special emphasis on general aviation airports. The discussion is focused on the regulation of noise, pollution, and water quality.

  6. Reserve Component General and Flag Officers: A Review of Requirements and Authorized Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    a senior civilian—SES, Defense Intelligence Senior Executive Service ( DISES ), or Defense Intelligence Senior Level (DISL). RAND researchers selected...serve as the superior of flag or general officers or SES civil - ians.3 It is also commonly held that a flag or general officer should be the superior...ing with allied and interagency communities on intelligence and counterintelligence issues, so any potential conversion to DISES /DISL would have to

  7. Edaphic restoration of the spoil banks of lignite mines in Galicia. Recuperacion edafica de los escombreras de minas de lignito en Galicia. Caracterizacion de los materiales esteriles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiros de la Pena, M.C.; Gil Sotres, F.; Carballas Fernandez, M.; Codesido Lopez, C.; Gonzalez Sangregorio, M.V.; Seoane Lavandeira, S.; Guitian Ojea, F. (Univ. of Santiago, La Coruna (Spain). Fac. Farm., Lab. Edafol.)

    1989-01-01

    We report physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of four lignite spoils from the mines at Meirama and As Pontes (La Coruna, NW Spain). The low acidity, zero pyrite content and balanced texture of the Meirama spoils suggest that their recovery as viable soil will not be difficult, whereas recovery of the As Pontes spoils (P1 and P2) is hindered by their low pH, high total acidity and the presence of pyrites. The greatest contribution to total acidity is the residual fraction in P1 and the soluble and exchange fractions in P2. Different recovery strategies should be used for these two spoils. 2 figs., 10 tabs., 20 refs.

  8. 9 CFR 113.100 - General requirements for inactivated bacterial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from each serial shall be tested for safety in young adult mice in accordance with the test provided in... in poultry as defined in the specific Standard Requirement or Outline of Production for the product...

  9. 48 CFR 873.109 - General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... market research, including the determination that the acquisition involves health-care resources; (3) The.... Statements of work or specifications must define the requirement and should, in most instances, include...

  10. Facility Systems, Ground Support Systems, and Ground Support Equipment General Design Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    KSC-DE-512-SM establishes overall requirements and best design practices to be used at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the development of ground systems (GS) in support of operations at launch, landing, and retrieval sites. These requirements apply to the design and development of hardware and software for ground support equipment (GSE), ground support systems (GSS), and facility ground support systems (F-GSS) used to support the KSC mission for transportation, receiving, handling, assembly, test, checkout, servicing, and launch of space vehicles and payloads and selected flight hardware items for retrieval. This standards manual supplements NASA-STD-5005 by including KSC-site-specific and local environment requirements. These requirements and practices are optional for equipment used at manufacturing, development, and test sites.

  11. 42 CFR 84.1140 - Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1140 Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements...

  12. Intimate terrorism and situational couple violence in general surveys: ex-spouses required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael P; Leone, Janel M; Xu, Yili

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we argue that past efforts to distinguish among types of intimate partner violence in general survey data have committed a critical error--using data on current spouses to develop operationalizations of intimate terrorism and situational couple violence. We use ex-spouse data from the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS) to develop new operationalizations. We then demonstrate that NVAWS current spouse data contain little intimate terrorism; we argue that this is likely to be the case for all general surveys. In addition, the ex-spouse data confirm past findings regarding a variety of differences between intimate terrorism and situational couple violence, including those predicted by feminist theories.

  13. 34 CFR 364.20 - What are the general requirements for a State plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reasonable accommodation to individuals with disabilities who rely on alternative modes of communication in... who rely on alternative modes of communication. (h) The State plan must assure that, at the public... provided at least 30 days prior to the public meeting through various media available to the general public...

  14. 38 CFR 59.130 - General requirements for all State home facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... design and construct the project to provide sufficient space and equipment in dining, health services... safety of participants, personnel and the public. (b) A State home must meet the general conditions of..., including the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) (24 CFR part 40, appendix A), during the design...

  15. Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety. General Safety Requirements. Part 1, Revision 1 (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements in respect of the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. It covers the essential aspects of the framework for establishing a regulatory body and taking other actions necessary to ensure the effective regulatory control of facilities and activities utilized for peaceful purposes. Other responsibilities and functions, such as liaison within the global safety regime and on support services for safety (including radiation protection), emergency preparedness and response, nuclear security, and the State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material, are also covered. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  16. Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety. General Safety Requirements. Part 1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements in respect of the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. It covers the essential aspects of the framework for establishing a regulatory body and taking other actions necessary to ensure the effective regulatory control of facilities and activities utilized for peaceful purposes. Other responsibilities and functions, such as liaison within the global safety regime and on support services for safety (including radiation protection), emergency preparedness and response, nuclear security, and the State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material, are also covered. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication

  17. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82... Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.82 General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. (a) Unless...

  18. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  19. 21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... culinary purposes. 1240.80 Section 1240.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. Only potable water shall be provided for drinking and culinary purposes by any operator of a conveyance engaged in interstate traffic, except as...

  20. 78 FR 77557 - Releasing Information; General Provisions; Accounting and Reporting Requirements; Reports of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... institutions and a disciplined and secure delivery of information. The final rule authorizes a Reporting Entity... Entity to facilitate the collection, enhancement, and reporting of data to FCA. DATES: Effective Date... date, except the Reporting Entity's requirements under Sec. 621.15(b)(1) through (b)(6). We are...

  1. 40 CFR 80.65 - General requirements for refiners and importers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to all gasoline produced, imported, transported, stored, sold, or dispensed: (1) At any location... gasoline or RBOB it produces or imports, shall meet: (i) Those standards and requirements it designated... importer of gasoline shall designate the gasoline it produces or imports as follows: (1) All gasoline...

  2. 49 CFR 172.302 - General marking requirements for bulk packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rail cars; (2) Have a width of at least 4.0 mm (0.16 inch) and a height of at least 25 mm (one inch... with a proper shipping name, common name or identification number as required by this subpart must... “NITRIC OXIDE” need not be remarked “NITRIC OXIDE, COMPRESSED”. (g) A rail car, freight container, truck...

  3. 40 CFR 35.6300 - General personal property acquisition and use requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Personal Property Requirements Under A Cooperative... may be acquired only when authorized in the Cooperative Agreement. (2) The recipient must acquire the...

  4. 7 CFR 4290.600 - General requirement for RBIC to maintain and preserve records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) All your accounting and other financial records; (2) All minutes of meetings of directors... liquidation: (i) All your accounting ledgers and journals, and any other records of assets, asset valuations... INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Examination Requirements for RBICs...

  5. 33 CFR 149.665 - What are the requirements for a general alarm system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Design... activated by using alarm boxes; (b) Is audible in all parts of the pumping platform complex, except in areas of high ambient noise levels where hearing protection is required under § 150.613 of this chapter...

  6. Message generalizations that support evidence-based persuasive message design: specifying the evidentiary requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based persuasive message design can be informed by dependable research-based generalizations about the relative persuasiveness of alternative message-design options. Five propositions are offered as specifying what constitutes the best evidence to underwrite such generalizations: (1) The evidence should take the form of replicated randomized trials in which message features are varied. (2) Results should be described in terms of effect sizes and confidence intervals, not statistical significance. (3) The results should be synthesized using random-effects meta-analytic procedures. (4) The analysis should treat attitudinal, intention, and behavioral assessments as yielding equivalent indices of relative persuasiveness. (5) The replications included in research syntheses should not be limited to published studies or to English-language studies.

  7. General laws of competition duel and universal requirements to technical-tactic fitness of elite wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine and formulate general technical-tactic laws (rules of competition duel in modern free style wrestling. Material: competition functioning of free style wrestlers at Olympic Games has been analyzed. Results of authors’ own pedagogic observations and advanced experience of free style wrestling specialists have been generalized. Results: it was found that victory in duel can be resulted only from attacking tactic of duel. It was determined that wrestlers’ activity (quantity of actual attacks in unit of time varies from 1 to 2.2 attacks per minute. Reliability of attack (ratio of quantity of assessed attacks to quantity of actually fulfilled attacks is within 0.33-0.63. Reliability of defense (ratio of quantity of successfully repelled opponent’s attacks to general quantity of his actual attacks is from 0.55-0.78. Efficiency of fighting in stance is within 0.6-1.3 points per minute. Efficiency of ground fighting is 1.3-2.3 points per minute. Conclusions: coach shall bring the formulated laws in compliance with specificity of his functioning and consider them, when planning training process of junior wrestlers.

  8. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist

  9. Anthropogenic soils on spoil rock banks in North Bohemian Coal Basin, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raclavska, H.; Raclavsky, K.; Matysek, D.; Stalmachova, B.

    1997-01-01

    The area of the North Bohemian Coal Basin is devastated by the extensive exploitation of brown coal by open pit mining. Knowledge of newly formed soils, their properties, development and contamination is important from the point of view of biological regeneration of the landscape. The mineralogy of anthropogenic soils from the mining area is presented together with the geochemistry of nutrients and trace elements. Attention is paid to the soil-forming processes in the non-reclaimed spoil rock banks with the development of spontaneous vegetation. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  10. Does caries risk assessment predict the incidence of caries for special needs patients requiring general anesthesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Juhea; Kim, Hae-Young

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate the caries-related variables of special needs patients to the incidence of new caries. Data for socio-demographic information and dental and general health status were obtained from 110 patients treated under general anesthesia because of their insufficient co-operation. The Cariogram program was used for risk assessment and other caries-related variables were also analyzed. Within a defined follow-up period (16.3 ± 9.5 months), 64 patients received dental examinations to assess newly developed caries. At baseline, the mean (SD) values of the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) and DT (decayed teeth) for the total patients were 9.2 (6.5) and 5.8 (5.3), respectively. During the follow-up period, new caries occurred in 48.4% of the patients and the mean value (SD) of the increased DMFT (iDMFT) was 2.1 (4.2). The patients with a higher increment of caries (iDMFT ≥3) showed significantly different caries risk profiles compared to the other patients (iDMFT dentistry. Past caries experience and inadequate oral hygiene maintenance were largely related to caries development in special needs patients.

  11. Material properties requirements for LMFBR structural design: general considerations and data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, C.E.; Purdy, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    A statement is given of material properties information needed in connection with the structural design technology for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) primary circuit components. Implementation of current analysis methods and criteria is considered with an emphasis on data and data correlations for performing elastic-plastic and creep analyses, for establishing allowable stress limits, and for computing creep-fatigue damage. Further development of the technology is discussed in relation to properties information. Emphasis is placed on improved constitutive equations for representing inelastic material behavior, on procedures for treating time-dependent fatigue, and on criteria for creep rupture. The properties are generally discussed without regard to specific alloys, since most categories of information are needed for each major structural material. Some sample experimental results are given for type 304 stainless steel and 2 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo steel

  12. Ecological study of revegetated coal mine spoil of an Indian dry tropical ecosystem along an age gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R S; Tripathi, N; Chaulya, S K

    2012-11-01

    Mineral nitrogen (MN), belowground (root) biomass (BGB), soil nitrogen (N) mineralization (NM), microbial biomass N (MBN) and mine dump stability of a revegetated mine spoil were studied after 2, 6, 10 and 12 years of re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. MN in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 7.4 to 11.6 kg ha(-1), NM from 38.4 to 252 kg ha(-1) year(-1), MBN from 86 to 426 kg ha(-1), and BGB from 380 to 3,750 kg ha(-1). Mining caused decline of physico-chemical characteristics of soil like MN by 46 %, N-mineralization by 92 %, MBN values by 91 %, respectively compared to forest ecosystems and reduction of total plant biomass (above ground and below ground). Revegetation of mine spoil caused increase in MN values by 12, 36 and 76 %, BGB values by 380, 1770 and 3750 times, NM values by 0.6, 3.58 and 9.5 times and MBN values by 0.43, 2.77, and 6.07 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. BGB was highly correlated with MN and MBN. Clay content was positively correlated to MN, NM, and the age of revegetation (P < 0.01). Numerical modelling indicated that revegetation increased the dump slope stability with a factor of safety from 1.2 to 1.4, 1.7, 1.9 and 2.1 after 2, 6, 10 and 12 years, respectively. Thus, long-term revegetation was found to enhance the dump stability and the soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil.

  13. Blood utilisation in elective general surgery cases: requirements, ordering and transfusion practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhute M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: For elective surgeries, over ordering of blood is a common practice. This can be decreased by simple means of changing the blood cross matching and ordering schedule depending upon the type of surgery performed. The principle aim of the study was to improve the efficacy of ordering system for maximum utilisation of blood and formulation of maximum surgical blood order schedule (MSBOS for procedures where a complete cross-match appears mandatory. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated blood ordering and transfusion practices in 500 elective general surgical procedures at our institute. With the help of different indices such as cross-match to transfusion ratio (C/T ratio, transfusion probability (% T and transfusion index (TI, blood ordering pattern was changed in the next 150 patients. RESULTS: Out of 1145 units of blood crossmatched for the first 500 patients only 265 were transfused with non-utilisation of 76.86% of ordered blood. With the help of the indices the wastage was reduced in next 150 patients, i.e. from 76.86% to 25.26% and improved the utilisation of blood, i.e. from 23.14% to 74.74%. CONCLUSIONS: Change of blood ordering patterns with use of MSBOS can avoid the over ordering of blood.

  14. Acidification - neutralization processes in a lignite mine spoil amended with fly ash or limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoane, S.; Leiros, M.C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola

    2001-08-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the long-term effects of amending sulfide-rich lignite mine spoil with fly ash (originating from a coal-fired power station and largely comprised of aluminosilicates) and/or agricultural limestone. The experiment was carried out with soil moisture maintained at field capacity or alternate cycles of wetting and drying. Results obtained suggest that the principal acidification processes were oxidation of sulfide and formation of hydroxysulfate (FeOHSO{sub 4}), whereas the main neutralization processes were weathering of aluminosilicates in fly ash-treated samples. The highest dose of limestone rapidly raised the pH of the spoil, but this increase was not maintained throughout the one-year experiment. In contrast, fly ash-treated samples showed a more sustained increase in pH, attributable to the gradual weathering of aluminosilicates. The best results (i.e., good short- and long-term neutralization) were obtained in samples treated with both fly ash and limestone. The low liming capacity of the fly ash (47.85 cmol kg{sup -1}) means that it must be used in large quantities, an advantage in achieving the further aim of disposing of the fly ash. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Understanding ACGME Scholarly Activity Requirements for General Surgery Programs in the Era of Single Accreditation and the Next Accreditation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Joseph J; Lamb, Donna L; Stain, Steven C; Termuhlen, Paula M

    2018-02-01

    Becoming compliant with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements for scholarly activity and remaining compliant over time requires time and attention to the development of an environment of inquiry, which is reflected in detailed documentation submitted in program applications and annual updates. Since the beginning of the next accreditation system, all ACGME programs have been required to submit evidence of scholarly activity of both residents and faculty on an annual basis. Since 2014, American Osteopathic Association-accredited programs have been able to apply for ACGME accreditation under the Single Graduate Medical Education Accreditation initiative. The Residency Program Director, Chair, Designated Institutional Official, Faculty, and coordinator need to work cohesively to ensure compliance with all program requirements, including scholarly activity in order for American Osteopathic Association-accredited programs to receive Initial ACGME Accreditation and for current ACGME-accredited programs to maintain accreditation. Fortunately, there are many ways to show the type of scholarly activity that is required for the training of surgeons. In this article, we will review the ACGME General Surgery Program Requirements and definitions of scholarly activity. We will also offer suggestions for how programs may show evidence of scholarly activity.

  16. Biosurfactant-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01 isolated from spoiled apples: physicochemical and structural characteristics of isolated biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Habib; Hamedi, Mir Manochehr; Lotfabad, Tayebe Bagheri; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ortiz, Antonio; Amanlou, Massoud; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2012-02-01

    An extensive investigation was conducted to isolate indigenous bacterial strains with outstanding performance for biosurfactant production from different types of spoiled fruits, food-related products and food processing industries. An isolate was selected from 800 by the highest biosurfactant yield in soybean oil medium and it was identified by 16S rRNA and the two most relevant hypervariable regions of this gene; V3 and V6 as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01. The isolate was able to produce 12 g/l of a glycolipid-type biosurfactant and generally less efficient to emulsify vegetable oils compared to hydrocarbons and could emulsify corn and coconut oils more than 50%. However, emulsification index (E(24)) of different hydrocarbons including hexane, toluene, xylene, brake oil, kerosene and hexadecane was between 55.8% and 100%. The surface tension of pure water decreased gradually with increasing biosurfactant concentration to 32.5 mNm(-1) with critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 10.1mg/l. Among all carbon substrates examined, vegetable oils were the most effective on biosurfactant production. Two glycolipid fractions were purified from the biosurfactant crude extracts, and FTIR and ES-MS were used to determine the structure of these compounds. The analysis indicated the presence of three major monorhamnolipid species: R(1)C(10)C(10), R(1)C(10)C(12:1), and R(1)C(10)C(12); as well as another three major dirhamnolipid species: R(2)C(10)C(10), R(2)C(10)C(12:1), and R(2)C(10)C(12). The strain sweep experiment for measuring the linear viscoelastic of biosurfactant showed that typical behavior characteristics of a weak viscoelastic gel, with storage modulus greater than loss modulus at all frequencies examined, both showing some frequency dependence. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Colonization of colliery spoil heaps by millipedes (Diplopoda) and terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea) in the Sokolov region, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2001), s. 365-369 ISSN 1061-2971 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : colliery spoil heaps * succession * rekultivation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2001

  18. Efficacy of Designer Biochars with or without Lime Application for Remediating Heavy Metals in Mine Spoil Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigua, Gilbert C.; Novak, Jeffrey; Johnson, Mark; Ippolito, James; Spokas, Kurt; Ducey, Thomas; Trippe, Kristin

    2017-04-01

    A multitude of research investigations have confirmed that biochars can increase soil carbon sequestration, improve critical plant nutrient concentrations, and improve the fertility, chemical, and physical properties of degraded agricultural soils. Recently, biochars ability to sequester metals has caught the attention of the mine reclamation sector. It is proposed that biochar is a suitable amendment to remediate heavy metals in mine spoils, as well as improve chemical conditions for enhanced plant growth. Better plant growth will improve phytostabilization, increase containment of metal-laden sediment, while also reducing potential metal uptake by plants. As such, utilization of a biochar with appropriate chemical and physical characteristics is crucial for effective binding of heavy metals while also improving plant growth conditions in mine spoils. Using two different mine spoils, we conducted laboratory and greenhouse experiments to determine the ability of designer biochar with or without lime application to favorably improve soil pH, reduce heavy metal bioavailability, and improve grass (e.g., wild blue rye) plant nutrient uptake. Preliminary results showed that our designer biochars did increase pH of acid mine spoils significantly (pheavy metals (e.g. aluminum, chromium, zinc, nickel, zinc, manganese, copper and cadmium) in the soils.

  19. Dump stability and soil fertility of a coal mine spoil in Indian dry tropical environment: a long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Nimisha; Singh, Raj Shekhar; Chaulya, Swadesh K

    2012-10-01

    Plant available nitrogen, belowground (root) biomass, soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and microbial biomass N (MBN) were studied for 12 years at the interval of 2 years (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 years) and mine dump stability at the intervals of 6 years (0, 6 and 12 years) after re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. Plant available nitrogen in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 4.51 to 6.59 μg g(-1), net N-mineralization from 1.87 to 13.85 μg g(-1) month(-1), MBN from 10 to 22.63 μg g(-1), and root biomass from 28 to 566 g(-2). Mining activity has caused a change in soil characteristics including plant available nutrients like nitrate-N, ammonium-N and phosphate-P by 70, 67, and 76 %, respectively, N-mineralization by 93 %, root biomass values by 97 % and MBN values by 91 % compared to forest ecosystems. Revegetation of mine spoil produced increase in root biomass values by 1.3, 7.6 and 17.2 times, mineral N values by 1.22, 1.43 and 1.79 times, N-mineralization values by 1.8, 5.2 and 12.6 times and MBN values by 1.6, 2.0, and 3.4 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. Below ground biomass was highly co-related with microbial biomass and plant available nutrients. N-mineralization, plant available nutrients and the clay content were positively correlated with age of revegetation (P soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil.

  20. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the development of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three types of coal mine spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Renxin; Fu, Ruiying; Bi, Na; Wang, Lixin; Zhao, Wenjing; Guo, Jiangyuan; Zhang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Coal mine spoils are usually unfavorable for plant growth and have different properties according to dumping years, weathering degree, and the occurrence of spontaneous combustion. The establishment of plant cover in mine spoils can be facilitated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the importance of AMF in plant adaptation to different mine spoils and the potential role of AMF for revegetation practices. We investigated the effects of Glomus aggregatum, Rhizophagus intraradices (syn. Glomus intraradices), and Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) on the growth, nutritional status, and metal uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in recent discharged (S1), weathered (S2), and spontaneous combusted (S3) coal mine spoils. Symbiotic associations were successfully established between AMF and maize in three substrates. Mycorrhizal colonization effectively promoted plant growth by significantly increasing the uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), adjusting C:N:P stoichiometry and alleviating toxic effects of heavy metals. G. aggregatum, R. intraradices, and F. mosseae exhibited different mycorrhizal effects in response to mine spoil types. F. mosseae was the most effective in the development of maize in S1 and may be the most appropriate for revegetation of this substrate, while R. intraradices played the most beneficial role in S2 and S3. Our results suggest that inoculation with AMF can enhance plant adaptation to different types of coal mine spoils and play a positive role in the revegetation of coal mine spoil banks.

  1. In vivo quantitative NMR imaging of fruit tissues during growth using Spoiled Gradient Echo sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenouche, S.; Perrier, M.; Bertin, N.

    2014-01-01

    the intrinsic parameters maps M 0 and T 1 of the fruit tissues. Water transport and paths flow were monitored using Gd 3+/[Fe(CN)6]3-/D - mannitol nanoparticles as a tracer. This dynamic study was carried out using a compartmental modeling. The CA was preferentially accumulated in the surrounding tissues...... of this study was to design a robust and accurate quantitative measurement method based on NMR imaging combined with contrast agent (CA) for mapping and quantifying water transport in growing cherry tomato fruits. A multiple flip-angle Spoiled Gradient Echo (SGE) imaging sequence was used to evaluate...... of columella and in the seed envelopes. The total quantities and the average volume flow of water estimated are: 198 mg, 1.76 mm 3/h for the columella and 326 mg, 2.91 mm 3/h for the seed envelopes. We demonstrate in this paper that the NMR imaging technique coupled with efficient and biocompatible CA...

  2. Behavior of Psychrotrophic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Spoiling Cooked Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Yoshikatsu; Ayaki, Mitsuko; Fuchu, Hidetaka; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Morita, Hidetoshi

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spoiling cooked meat products stored below 10°C. They were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Leuconostoc citreum. All three strains grew well in MRS broth at 10°C. In particular, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and L. citreum grew even at 4°C, and their doubling times were 23.6 and 51.5 h, respectively. On the other hand, although the bacteria were initially below the detection limit (<10 CFU/g) in model cooked meat products, the bacterial counts increased to 108 CFU/g at 10°C after 7 to 12 days. PMID:12788779

  3. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  4. Rapid soil toxicity assessment at Rum Jungle, Northern Territory - a requirement for rehabilitation design, quality control and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, A.

    1986-01-01

    The rehabilitation of degraded land at the old Rum Jungle mine site was largely designed and constructed over a three year period from November, 1982 to December, 1985 under a strict schedule of time and budget constraints. Reliable information on the potential toxicity of affected soil or spoil to plant growth could not be gathered by pot or field trials due to time constraints but was still required to develop cost effective and successful rehabilitation options. Detailed chemical analyses of heavy metals, cations and anions were to costly and time-consuming to form a regular part of a routine toxicity assessment program. Therefore the detailed chemical data from earlier investigations were related to the general parameters of pH, electrical conductivity and lime requirement to assess the degree of soil toxicity. These rapidly determined parameters were found to be reproducible and representative indications of soil conditions. The rapid soil toxicity assessment was a sufficient source of information to develop options for soil or spoil removal, depth or type of soil cover or amount of lime treatment to overcome soil toxicity and allow successful revegetation

  5. Hydrological remedial actions for polluted overburden dumps, spoils and landfills. Papers and posters; Wasserwirtschaftliche Sanierung von Bergbaukippen, Halden und Deponien. Vortraege und Posterbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, A. [ed.; Haefner, F.; Schmidt, J.; Merkel, B. [comps.

    2000-07-01

    This publication contains the papers and posters presented at the conference 'Hydrological remedial actions for polluted overburden dumps, spoils and landfills. 35 Papers have been recorded as separate citations in this database.

  6. Subterranean clover enhances production of [open quote]Coastal[close quote] bermudagrass in the revegetation of lignite mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, P.A. (Kansas Agriculture Experimental Station, Hays (United States)); Zuberer, D.A. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States))

    Lignite mine spoils in Texas are commonly revegetated with [open quote]Coastal[close quote] bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. Legumes have been overseeded in bermudagrass in reclamation programs in Texas, but information regarding establishment and persistence in mine spoil is limited. A field study investigated the effects of fertilization and inoculation with Rhizobium spp. on subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.; subclover) establishment and production in mine spoil and to assess the effect of subclover on Coastal bermudagrass. Subclover seed was broadcast into a 6-mo-old bermudagrass sod in October 1986. Individual plots were fertilized, or left unfertilized at the beginning of each clover season (Sept.-Oct.); however, all plots were fertilized at the start of each grass season (April-May). Although native rhizobia was present in plots, inoculation with a commercial, multi-strain inoculant increases subclover forage production (100%) and total N and P yields of subclover. The overseeding of subclover into the bermuda grass sod increased grass production and total N and P yields later in the first year and in the second season. However, inoculation of subclover had little effect on subsequent grass production. There was an apparent positive benefit of P fertilization on subclover and bermudagrass production. The effect of subclover on grass production was apparent by the end of the first grass season, and it became even more evident in the second year. The results showed that subclover was established and maintained for at least two seasons in a bermudagrass sod on reclaimed lignite spoil, and that the clover benefited the subsequent grass crop when fertilized with P and K, apparently by providing extra [open quotes]fixed[close quotes] N for grass production. 22 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. A systematic investigation into the extraction of aluminum from coal spoil through kaolinite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X C; Si, P; Yu, J G

    2008-11-15

    This research has applied kaolin and active carbon (AC) to the investigation of the recovery of aluminum from coal spoil (CS). The kaolin, AC-containing kaolin mixture, and CS have been calcined at 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 degrees C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The transformation of kaolinite and aluminum extraction that occurred in each calcined sample have been characterized using XRD, TG, IR, and hydrochloric acid leaching methods. The dehydroxylation of kaolinite and the decomposition of metakaolin were influenced by thermal treatment temperature and time. The metakaolin had kept a portion of OH- in its structure until it was calcined at a temperature of 800 degrees C. Under 60 min treatment, new SiO2 phase was able to be formed at 500 degrees C, kaolinite was totally converted to metakaolin at 600 degrees C, and the SiO2 rejoined the reaction at 800 degrees C. The decompositions of CS were similar to those of kaolin mixture containing 20 wt % AC (MKC). The combustion of combustible matter accelerated the decomposition of kaolinite in the CS and MKC. Higher AC content led to lower aluminum extraction. The treatment at 600 degrees C was optimal for both CS and MKC.

  8. Data-driven optimized flip angle selection for T1 estimation from spoiled gradient echo acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Christina M; Hurley, Samuel A; Meyerand, M Elizabeth; Koay, Cheng Guan

    2016-09-01

    Define criteria for selection of optimal flip angle sets for T1 estimation and evaluate effects on T1 mapping. Flip angle sets for spoiled gradient echo-based T1 mapping were selected by minimizing T1 estimate variance weighted by the joint density of M0 and T1 in an initial acquisition. The effect of optimized flip angle selection on T1 estimate error was measured using simulations and experimental data in the human and rat brain. For two-point acquisitions, optimized angle sets were similar to those proposed by other groups and, therefore, performed similarly. For multipoint acquisitions, optimal angle sets for T1 mapping in the brain consisted of a repetition of two angles. Implementation of optimal angles reduced T1 estimate variance by 30-40% compared with a multipoint acquisition using a range of angles. Performance of the optimal angle set was equivalent to that of a repetition of the two-angle set selected using criteria proposed by other researchers. Repetition of two carefully selected flip angles notably improves the precision of resulting T1 estimates compared with acquisitions using a range of flip angles. This work provides a flexible and widely applicable optimization method of particular use for those who repeatedly perform T1 estimation. Magn Reson Med 76:792-802, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Response surface optimization of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01 isolated from spoiled apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Habib; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Alidost, Leila; Bodagh, Atefe; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2013-01-01

    A potent biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain isolated from spoiled apples was identified by 16S rRNA as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracted biosurfactant was composed of high percentages of lipid (66%, w/w) and carbohydrate (32%, w/w). The surface tension of pure water decreased gradually with increasing biosurfactant concentration to 32.5 mN m(-1) with critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 10.1 mg L(-1). The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of extracted biosurfactant confirmed the glycolipid nature of this natural product. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the biosynthesis medium for the production of MA01 biosurfactant. Nineteen carbon sources and 11 nitrogen sources were examined, with soybean oil and sodium nitrate being the most effective carbon and nitrogen sources on biosurfactant production, respectively. Among the organic nitrogen sources examined, yeast extract was necessary as a complementary nitrogen source for high production yield. Biosurfactant production at the optimum value of fermentation processing factor (15.68 g/L) was 29.5% higher than the biosurfactant concentration obtained before the RSM optimization (12.1 g/L). A central composite design algorithm was used to optimize the levels of key medium components, and it was concluded that two stages of optimization using RSM could increase biosurfactant production by 1.46 times, as compared to the values obtained before optimization.

  10. Identifying yeast isolated from spoiled peach puree and assessment of its batch culture for invertase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vega FERREIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of yeasts isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree using the API 20C AUX method and a commercial yeast as witness were studied. Subsequently, the yeast’s growth potential using two batch culture treatments were performed to evaluate number of colonies (N, reducing sugar concentration (RS, free-invertase (FI, and culture-invertase activity (CI. Stock cultures were maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA slants at 4 °C and pH 5 for later use for batch-culture (150 rpm at 30°C for 24 h, then they were stored at 4 °C for subsequent invertase extraction. The FI extract was obtained using NaHCO3 as autolysis agent, and CI activity was determined on the supernatant after batch-cultured centrifugation. The activity was followed by an increase in absorbance at 490 nm using the acid 3,5-DNS method with glucose standard. Of the four yeasts identified, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen for legal reasons. It showed logarithmic growth up to 18 h of fermentation with positive correlation CI activity and inverse with RS. FI showed greater activity by the end of the log phase and an inverse correlation with CI activity. Finally, it was concluded that treatment “A” is more effective than “B” to produce invertase (EC 3.2.1.26.

  11. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in Hirschfeldia incana, a Mediterranean Brassicaceae from Metalliferous Mine Spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; Brugel, Anaïs; Laplaze, Laurent; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Doumas, Patrick; Smouni, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal of particular concern with respect to environmental quality and health. The lack of plant species that accumulate and tolerate Pb is a limiting factor to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in Pb tolerance. In this study we identified Hirschfeldia incana, a Brassicaceae collected from metalliferous mine spoils in Morocco, as a Pb accumulator plant. H. incana exhibited high Pb accumulation in mine soils and in hydroponic cultures. Major Pb accumulation occurred in the roots and a part of Pb translocated from the roots to the shoots, even to the siliques. These findings demonstrated that H. incana is a Pb accumulator species. The expression of several candidate genes after Pb-exposure was measured by quantitative PCR and two of them, HiHMA4 and HiMT2a, coding respectively for a P1B-type ATPase and a metallothionein, were particularly induced by Pb-exposure in both roots and leaves. The functional characterization of HiHMA4 and HiMT2a was achieved using Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants. Pb content and primary root growth analysis confirmed the role of these two genes in Pb tolerance and accumulation. H. incana could be considered as a good experimental model to identify genes involved in lead tolerance and accumulation in plants. PMID:23667449

  12. The general transcriptional repressor Tup1 is required for dimorphism and virulence in a fungal plant pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Elías-Villalobos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A critical step in the life cycle of many fungal pathogens is the transition between yeast-like growth and the formation of filamentous structures, a process known as dimorphism. This morphological shift, typically triggered by multiple environmental signals, is tightly controlled by complex genetic pathways to ensure successful pathogenic development. In animal pathogenic fungi, one of the best known regulators of dimorphism is the general transcriptional repressor, Tup1. However, the role of Tup1 in fungal dimorphism is completely unknown in plant pathogens. Here we show that Tup1 plays a key role in orchestrating the yeast to hypha transition in the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. Deletion of the tup1 gene causes a drastic reduction in the mating and filamentation capacity of the fungus, in turn leading to a reduced virulence phenotype. In U. maydis, these processes are controlled by the a and b mating-type loci, whose expression depends on the Prf1 transcription factor. Interestingly, Δtup1 strains show a critical reduction in the expression of prf1 and that of Prf1 target genes at both loci. Moreover, we observed that Tup1 appears to regulate Prf1 activity by controlling the expression of the prf1 transcriptional activators, rop1 and hap2. Additionally, we describe a putative novel prf1 repressor, named Pac2, which seems to be an important target of Tup1 in the control of dimorphism and virulence. Furthermore, we show that Tup1 is required for full pathogenic development since tup1 deletion mutants are unable to complete the sexual cycle. Our findings establish Tup1 as a key factor coordinating dimorphism in the phytopathogen U. maydis and support a conserved role for Tup1 in the control of hypha-specific genes among animal and plant fungal pathogens.

  13. Dynamic MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint arthrosis using spoiled GRASS sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, Shigeaki; Hamamoto, Sadatoshi; Kawano, Kazunori (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dental School) (and others)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate contrast enhancement effects of the posterior disk attachment in the temporomandibular joint arthrosis using dynamic MRI with bilateral surface coils. One hundred twenty-four temporomandibular joints in 96 symptomatic patients and 27 control subjects were examined with a spoiled GRASS pulse sequence (TR: 35 ms, TE: 8 ms, flip angle: 60deg). One sagittal scan was performed prior to injection, then 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA was given as a rapid bolus injection, immediately after which scans were performed at 30 seconds intervals for a period of 5 minutes. Signal intensity (SI) was measured from the ROI of the posterior disk attachment region. The contrast enhancement effects may be calculated by SI ratio (SIR) = ( SI[sup post]-SI[sup pre])/SI[sup pre], where SI[sup post] and SI[sup pre] were the signal intensities after and before administration of contrast medium. The time intensity curve of SIR versus time after injection was obtained on each symptoms. Join pain group (85 joints) tended to show a rapid enhancement pattern, while control group (54 joints), joint sound or opening limitation group (39 joints), and asymptomatic group (68 joints) showed a relatively gradual enhancement pattern. The drop of SIR in four groups were hardly observed during examination. Mean peak SIR of control group, joint pain group, joint sound or opening limitation group, and asymptomatic group was 0.62[+-]0.24 (SD), 1.53[+-]0.69, 0.73[+-]0.38 and 0.78[+-]0.44 respectively. The mean SIR of pain group was significantly (P<0.001, t-test) higher than that of other groups. These results suggested that dynamic MRI of the temporomandibular joint may effectively depict the inflammatory changes of the posterior disk attachment. (author).

  14. Dynamic MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint arthrosis using spoiled GRASS sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, Shigeaki; Hamamoto, Sadatoshi; Kawano, Kazunori

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate contrast enhancement effects of the posterior disk attachment in the temporomandibular joint arthrosis using dynamic MRI with bilateral surface coils. One hundred twenty-four temporomandibular joints in 96 symptomatic patients and 27 control subjects were examined with a spoiled GRASS pulse sequence (TR: 35 ms, TE: 8 ms, flip angle: 60deg). One sagittal scan was performed prior to injection, then 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA was given as a rapid bolus injection, immediately after which scans were performed at 30 seconds intervals for a period of 5 minutes. Signal intensity (SI) was measured from the ROI of the posterior disk attachment region. The contrast enhancement effects may be calculated by SI ratio (SIR) = ( SI post -SI pre )/SI pre , where SI post and SI pre were the signal intensities after and before administration of contrast medium. The time intensity curve of SIR versus time after injection was obtained on each symptoms. Join pain group (85 joints) tended to show a rapid enhancement pattern, while control group (54 joints), joint sound or opening limitation group (39 joints), and asymptomatic group (68 joints) showed a relatively gradual enhancement pattern. The drop of SIR in four groups were hardly observed during examination. Mean peak SIR of control group, joint pain group, joint sound or opening limitation group, and asymptomatic group was 0.62±0.24 (SD), 1.53±0.69, 0.73±0.38 and 0.78±0.44 respectively. The mean SIR of pain group was significantly (P<0.001, t-test) higher than that of other groups. These results suggested that dynamic MRI of the temporomandibular joint may effectively depict the inflammatory changes of the posterior disk attachment. (author)

  15. Acetobacter aceti fast identification by Real Time PCR in spoiled wine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a beverage that made from grape berries. However, without beneficial bacteria, we would not produce good wine. But very often wines contain acetic acid bacteria, which are undesirable in winemaking process. Acetic acid bacteria as known as a vinegar bacteria are Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and ubiquitous bacteria. This study was focused on species of acetic acid bacteria, specifically Acetobacter aceti that make spoilage in wine.The aim of our study was the identification of Acetobacter aceti in spoiled red wine samples, with plate dilution method on agar plates and using sensitive Real-time PCR (qPCR method. We cultivated Acetobacter aceti on GYC agar at 30°C, 48h. The one of main objective in the present work was the test fast, sensitive and reliable technique such as quantitative Real-time PCR and detecting the presence of Acetobacter aceti in wine samples with positive Acetobacteraceti control on amplification plot and melting curve. The next objective before  qPCR analysis was DNA extraction from wine samples incubated for one week at 28°C aerobically. We used five different red wine samples for this experiment: Alibernet 2013, Blaufränkisch 2013, Cabernet Sauvignon 2013, Dunaj 2012 and Saint-Laurent 2012. Next we extracted DNA from wine samples and from pure Acetobacter aceti CCM 3620T strain purchased from Czech collection of microorganisms in Brno. Susceptibility ofAcetobacter aceti was varied in different isolates from 102 to 107 CFU.mL-1. The number of Acetobacter cells on GYC medium ranged from 4.05 to 4.83log CFU.mL-1 in differentwine samples.The higher number of Acetobacter cells (4.83 log CFU.mL-1 was found in Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 wine.

  16. Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as urban solid waste dump; Utilizacion de Escombreras de Carbon como Vertedero Controlado de Residuos Solidos Urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the coordinated project DISPOSAL OF SOLID RESIDUES FROM COAL it is included the project Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as Urban Solid Waste Dump. The main target of this project consisted of determining the viability of using coal mining spoil heaps, as controlled dubbish dump of urban solid wastes. The working plan to achieve this objective was composed of the following stages: 1. Urban solid wastes characterization. 2. Methodology to be followed for the selection of coal mining spoil heaps as controlled dump of urban solid wastes. 2.1 Classification and preliminary assessment of the possibility of using spoil heaps as urban solid waste dumps (APT/NON APT). 2.2 Realization of geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies applied to the spoil heaps classified as APT. 2.3 Analysis of the compatibility of the mining activity with the urban solid wastes dumped on the spoil heap. 2.4 Analysis of the use of coal mining wastes in the rubbish dump operative life. 3. Extraction of conclusions. The works were focused in the Leon province. As result of the researches we obtained the following results and conclusions: In the areas studied, only two emplacements are optima to dump urban solid wastes; spoil heap n. 13. Roguera Mine (Cinera-Matallana) and the open pit mine n. 4, Las Chaviadas, in Villablino. The active spoil heap use as controlled rubbish dump can cause, if not managed adequately, several coperating and occupational problems to the mine and to the company that manages the urban solid wastes. The abandoned spoil heap utilisation is difficult due to the problems that would arise when conditioning the site to be use as rubbish dump. The use of abandoned open pit mines, as controlled rubbish dump is feasible if geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies support it. It's possible the use of the coal mining wastes in the different operatives phases of the controlled rubbish dump. The evaluation methodology

  17. Chemical and isotopic tracing of underground water in relation with leaching of mine spoils, Nord-Pas-de-Calais Coal Basin (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denimal, S.; Tribovillard, N.; Meilliez, F.; Barbecot, F.; Dever, L.

    2001-01-01

    Coal mining activity in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (Northern France) has generated many mine spoils. The oxidation of the pyrite content of such coal shales and their leaching can be a source of sulfate pollution for the underlying chalk aquifer, i.e. the main drinking water resource of the region. Two sites of study have been retained: one in the free water table zone and the other in the confined water table zone. Samples from both mine spoils have been analyzed with respect to their carbon and sulfur content and a superficial leaching of these elements has been evidenced. Water has been sampled in piezometers and boreholes close to the mine spoils and also along natural flux lines. The use of sulfur isotopes as markers of the different sulfate sources has confirmed the spoils source but has permitted to identify another source in the second site which is the Tertiary gypsum-bearing Ostricourt sands. This study has shown also that in the confined water table zone, part of the exported sulfates is reduced. This bacterial reduction of sulfates is due to a joint leaching of both carbon and sulfur in the mine spoils. A self-purification phenomenon occurs when the chalk aquifer is confined beneath the Cenozoic cover. (J.S.)

  18. Bioavailability and microbial adaptation to elevated levels of uranium in an acid, organic topsoil forming on an old mine spoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joner, E.J.; Munier-Lamy, C.; Gouget, B.

    2007-01-01

    An old mine spoil at a 19. century mining site with considerable residues of uranium (400-800 mg U/kg) was investigated with respect to U concentrations in soil and plants and tolerance to U in the soil microbial community in order to describe the bioavailability of U. Measurements of soil fractions representing water-soluble U, easily exchangeable U, and U bound to humidified organic matter showed that all fractions contained elevated concentrations of U. Plant U concentrations were only 10 times higher at the mine spoil site compared to the reference site (3 mg U/kg vs 0.3 mg U/kg), while the most easily available soil fractions contained 0.18 to 0.86 mg U/kg soil at the mine spoil. An eco-toxicity bioassay using incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into the indigenous microbial communities of the two soils in the presence of increasing U concentrations showed that microorganisms at the mining site were sensitive to U but also that they had acquired a substantial tolerance toward U (EC50, the effective concentration reducing activity by 50% of UO 2 -citrate was similar to 120 μM as compared to 30 μM in the reference soil). In the assay, more than 40% of the microbial activity was maintained in the presence of 1 mM UO 2 -citrate versus 3% in the reference soil. We conclude that U-enriched mining waste can contain sufficiently elevated concentrations of bio-available U to affect indigenous microorganisms and that bio-available U imposes a selection pressure that favors the development of a highly uranium-tolerant microbial community, while plant uptake of U remains low. (authors)

  19. Comparative growth behaviour and leaf nutrient status of native trees planted on mine spoil with and without nutrient amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Singh, J.S. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany

    2001-07-01

    The effect of nutrient amendment on growth of nine indigenous tree species planted on coal mine spoil was studied. Greater growth in fertilized plots was accompanied by greater foliar N and P concentrations in all species. The response to fertilization varied among species and was greater in non-leguminous than in leguminous species. Furthermore, leguminous species exhibited higher growth rates compared to non-leguminous species. Acacia catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Gmelina arborea and Azadirachta indica fitted the elastic similarity model of tree growth; whereas Pongamia pinnata and Phyllanthus emblica followed the constant stress model. Tectona grandis was the only species which fitted the geometric similarity model.

  20. 78 FR 12676 - Timing Requirements for the Submission of a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    .... The requirements apply to all entities operating to develop renewable resources on the OCS. Unfunded... protection, Incorporation by Reference, Marine resources, Natural resources, Payments, Public lands, Public... water), land use, subsistence resources and harvest practices, recreation, recreational and commercial...

  1. Nuclear power plants. Instrumentation and control for systems important to safety. General requirements for systems (STN IEC 61513:2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2004-10-01

    I and C systems important to safety may be implemented using conventional hard-wired equipment, computer-based (CB) equipment or by using a combination of both types of equipment. This International Standard provides requirements and recommendations for the total I and C system architecture which may contain either or both technologies. In the following, the term requirements is used as a comprehensive term for both requirements and recommendations. The distinction appears at the level of the specific provisions. where requirements are expressed by 'shall' and recommendations by 'should'. This standard highlights the need for complete and precise requirements, derived from the plant safety goals, as a pre-requisite for generating the comprehensive requirements for the total I and C system architecture, and hence for the individual I and C systems important to safety. This standard introduces the concept of a safety life cycle for the total I and C system architecture, and a safety life cycle for the individual systems. The life cycles illustrated in, and followed by, this standard are not the only ones possible; other life cycles may be followed, provided that the objectives stated in this standard are satisfied.

  2. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled raw salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macé, Sabrina; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; Cardinal, Mireille; Malcheva, Mariya; Cornet, Josiane; Lalanne, Valérie; Chevalier, Frédérique; Sérot, Thierry; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The spoilage potential of eight bacterial groups/species (Serratia spp., Hafnia alvei, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Shewanella baltica, Lactococcus piscium, Photobacterium phosphoreum, "other Enterobacteriaceae" [containing one strain of Moellerella sp., Morganella sp. and Pectobacterium sp.]) isolated from spoiled raw salmon fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated by inoculation into sterile raw salmon cubes followed by storage for 12days at 8°C. Microbial growth and sensory changes were monitored during the storage period. The dominant spoilage bacteria were C. maltaromaticum, H. alvei and P. phosphoreum. In order to further characterize their spoilage potential and to study the effect of their interactions, each of these 3 specific spoilage organisms (SSO) and two mixed-cultures, C. maltaromaticum/H. alvei and C. maltaromaticum/P. phosphoreum were tested in the sterile salmon model system using a combination of complementary methods: molecular (PCR-TTGE), sensory, chemical and conventional microbiological analyses. It was concluded that, in the mixed-culture inoculated samples, the dominant species determined the spoilage characteristics. The volatile fraction of P. phosphoreum inoculated samples was analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the specific volatile compounds present on P. phosphoreum spoiled inoculated samples, acetic acid was correlated with sensory analysis and can be proposed as a raw salmon spoilage marker. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation-induced enhancement of antifungal activity of chitosan on fruit-spoiling fungi during postharvest storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diep, Tran Bang; Lam, Nguyen Duy; Quynh, Tran Minh; Kume, Tamikazu

    2001-01-01

    Experiment conducted four fruit-spoiling fungal strains that were isolated from spoilt fruits (mango and dragon fruit) and were identified as follows: Fusarium dimerum Penzig, Aspergillus nidulans Wint, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius and Aspergillus japonicus Saito. Chitosan samples with various deacetylation degree (70-99%) were irradiated at doses ranging from 20 to 200kGy, then were supplemented to liquid medium for growth of fungi. We have found that chitosan possesses not only well known antibacterial activity but also the antifungal one on fruit-spoiling fungi. Method of fungal cultivation using liquid medium showed that it has higher sensitivity compared with the cultivation on agar plate, so we recommend this method should be used for evaluation of antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Our study also indicated that deacetylation degree of chitosan clearly affects its antifungal activity, the higher the deacetylation of chitosan, stronger antifungal activity can be observed. This finding recommends the use of chitosan with higher deacetylation for fruit coating and other pharmacology utilization. Results from the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) on fungal growth showed that radiation treatment increased antifungal activity of chitosan and dose of 60kGy gave highest activity. (author)

  4. Radiation-induced enhancement of antifungal activity of chitosan on fruit-spoiling fungi during postharvest storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diep, Tran Bang; Lam, Nguyen Duy; Quynh, Tran Minh [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique-VAEC, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Experiment conducted four fruit-spoiling fungal strains that were isolated from spoilt fruits (mango and dragon fruit) and were identified as follows: Fusarium dimerum Penzig, Aspergillus nidulans Wint, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius and Aspergillus japonicus Saito. Chitosan samples with various deacetylation degree (70-99%) were irradiated at doses ranging from 20 to 200kGy, then were supplemented to liquid medium for growth of fungi. We have found that chitosan possesses not only well known antibacterial activity but also the antifungal one on fruit-spoiling fungi. Method of fungal cultivation using liquid medium showed that it has higher sensitivity compared with the cultivation on agar plate, so we recommend this method should be used for evaluation of antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Our study also indicated that deacetylation degree of chitosan clearly affects its antifungal activity, the higher the deacetylation of chitosan, stronger antifungal activity can be observed. This finding recommends the use of chitosan with higher deacetylation for fruit coating and other pharmacology utilization. Results from the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) on fungal growth showed that radiation treatment increased antifungal activity of chitosan and dose of 60kGy gave highest activity. (author)

  5. Quantitative determination of sediment movement at the landward spoil ground in the Yangtze Estuary with radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhangsu

    1993-01-01

    A radioactive tracer experiment was carried out at the landward spoil ground of the North Passage in the Yangtze Estuary in June of 1991. The scandium-46 was selected as the tracer, the total activity released is 17.95 x 10 10 Bq(4.85 Ci), the amount of the scandium-46 glass is 495 g. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the sediment movement direction, path, velocity and transport rate. The experiment provides the direct evidence for using the landward spoil ground in the future. The experiment results show the sediment movement was governed by the ebb tide current during the period of middle and neap tides when the radioactive tracer was injected both on the flood and ebb tides, and the sediment moved from the injection points to the middle of the North Passage near the navigation buoy No. 269. The direction of the sediment movement is 110 degree, the particle velocity is 758 m/d, and the sediment transport rate per unit width is 47.8 m 3 /md

  6. Development of U.S. Government General Technical Requirements for UAS Flight Safety Systems Utilizing the Iridium Satellite Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jennifer; Birr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of technical requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) utilization of the Iridium Satellite Constellation to provide flight safety. The Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) required an over-the-horizon communication standard to guarantee flight safety before permitting widespread UAS flights in the National Air Space (NAS). This is important to ensure reliable control of UASs during loss-link and over-the-horizon scenarios. The core requirement was to utilize a satellite system to send GPS tracking data and other telemetry from a flight vehicle down to the ground. Iridium was chosen as the system because it is one of the only true satellite systems that has world wide coverage, and the service has a highly reliable link margin. The Iridium system, the flight modems, and the test flight are described.

  7. 39 CFR 230.15 - What must an Office of Inspector General employee do if served with a demand requiring the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an Office of Inspector General employee do if served with a demand requiring the production of documents or an appearance in court? 230.15 Section 230.15 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OFFICE OF...

  8. 40 CFR 98.3 - What are the general monitoring, reporting, recordkeeping and verification requirements of this...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator's satisfaction that it is not reasonably feasible to acquire, install, and operate a required... elements listed in this paragraph (g)(5)(i). (A) Identification of positions of responsibility (i.e., job... the manufacturer's recommended procedures, an appropriate industry consensus standard, or a method...

  9. Understanding the role of mirror neurons in action understanding will require more than a domain-general account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-01

    Cook et al. propose that mirror neurons emerge developmentally through a domain-general associative mechanism. We argue that experience-sensitivity does not rule out an adaptive or genetic argument for mirror neuron function, and that current evidence suggests that mirror neurons are more specialized than the authors' account would predict. We propose that future work integrate behavioral and neurophysiological techniques used with primates to examine the proposed functions of mirror neurons in action understanding.

  10. Ameliorating effects of industrial sugar residue on the Jales gold mine spoil (NE Portugal) using Holcus lanatus and Phaseolus vulgaris as indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, P.M.; Teiga, P.M.; Santos, M.H.; Koe, T. de; Verkleij, J.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    A residue of the sugar industry can be used in revegetation programs on metal contaminated sites. - Phytostabilisation of bare heavily contaminated substrate, such as abandoned mine sites, is considered a very appropriate technology in order to diminish erosion and dispersion of contaminants into the surroundings. In this short-term pot study, application of industrial sugar residue (ISR), a waste product of the sugar industry, proved to ameliorate spoils conditions for plant performance by elevating pH and immobilising several metals. Although arsenate concentrations were positively correlated to spoil pH and spoil treatment with ISR mobilised As, growth of both Phaseolus vulgaris and Holcus lanatus improved significantly after applications of 3.75 g ISR kg -1 dry spoil. Nutrient uptake from the substrate, with the exception of potassium, was elevated by ISR. As a remediation technique ISR application could be effective although in As-contaminated sites application might be restricted to areas where leaching to (ground) water does not form a risk

  11. Redemption of the "spoiled identity:" the role of HIV-positive individuals in HIV care cascade interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camlin, Carol S; Charlebois, Edwin D; Geng, Elvin; Semitala, Fred; Wallenta, Jeanna; Getahun, Monica; Kampiire, Leatitia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Sang, Norton; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Clark, Tamara D; Petersen, Maya L; Kamya, Moses R; Havlir, Diane V

    2017-12-01

    The concept of "therapeutic citizenship" has drawn attention to ways in which public testimony, the "story-telling in the public sphere" undertaken by people living with HIV (PLHIV), has shaped the global response to the epidemic. This paper presents qualitative findings from two large studies in eastern Africa that reveal how the advent of population-based HIV testing campaigns and efforts to accelerate antiretroviral "treatment for all" has precipitated a rapidly expanding therapeutic citizenship "project," or social movement. The title of this paper refers to Goffman's original conceptualization of stigma as a social process through which a person's identity is rendered "spoiled." Data were derived from qualitative studies embedded within two clinical trials, Sustainable East African Research in Community Health (SEARCH) (NCT# 01864603) in Kenya and Uganda, and START-ART (NCT# 01810289) in Uganda, which aimed to offer insights into the pathways through which outcomes across the HIV care continuum can be achieved by interventions deployed in the studies, any unanticipated consequences, and factors that influenced implementation. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted among cohorts of adults in 2014 through 2015; across both studies and time periods, 217 interviews were conducted with 166 individuals. Theoretically informed, team-based analytic approaches were used for the analyses. Narratives from PLHIV, who have not always been conceptualized as actors but rather usually as targets of HIV interventions, revealed strongly emergent themes related to these individuals' use of HIV biomedical resources and discourses to fashion a new, empowered subjecthood. Experiencing the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) emboldens many individuals to transform their "spoiled" identities to attain new, valorized identities as "advocates for ART" in their communities. We propose that the personal revelation of what some refer to as the "gospel of ARVs

  12. Autophosphorylation of alphaCaMKII is not a general requirement for NMDA receptor-dependent LTP in the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Sam F; Wu, Jianqun; Plattner, Florian; Errington, Michael; Rowan, Michael; Peters, Marco; Hirano, Ayumi; Bradshaw, Karl D; Anwyl, Roger; Bliss, Timothy V P; Giese, K Peter

    2006-08-01

    Autophosphorylation of alpha-Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II (alphaCaMKII) at Thr286 is thought to be a general effector mechanism for sustaining transcription-independent long-term potentiation (LTP) at pathways where LTP is NMDA receptor-dependent. We have compared LTP at two such hippocampal pathways in mutant mice with a disabling point mutation at the Thr286 autophosphorylation site. We find that autophosphorylation of alphaCaMKII is essential for induction of LTP at Schaffer commissural-CA1 synapses in vivo, but is not required for LTP that can be sustained over days at medial perforant path-granule cell synapses in awake mice. At these latter synapses LTP is supported by cyclic AMP-dependent signalling in the absence of alphaCaMKII signalling. Thus, the autophosphorylation of alphaCaMKII is not a general requirement for NMDA receptor-dependent LTP in the adult mouse.

  13. Autophosphorylation of αCaMKII is not a general requirement for NMDA receptor-dependent LTP in the adult mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Sam F; Wu, Jianqun; Plattner, Florian; Errington, Michael; Rowan, Michael; Peters, Marco; Hirano, Ayumi; Bradshaw, Karl D; Anwyl, Roger; Bliss, Timothy V P; Giese, K Peter

    2006-01-01

    Autophosphorylation of α-Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II (αCaMKII) at Thr286 is thought to be a general effector mechanism for sustaining transcription-independent long-term potentiation (LTP) at pathways where LTP is NMDA receptor-dependent. We have compared LTP at two such hippocampal pathways in mutant mice with a disabling point mutation at the Thr286 autophosphorylation site. We find that autophosphorylation of αCaMKII is essential for induction of LTP at Schaffer commissural–CA1 synapses in vivo, but is not required for LTP that can be sustained over days at medial perforant path–granule cell synapses in awake mice. At these latter synapses LTP is supported by cyclic AMP-dependent signalling in the absence of αCaMKII signalling. Thus, the autophosphorylation of αCaMKII is not a general requirement for NMDA receptor-dependent LTP in the adult mouse. PMID:16728448

  14. Plant cell wall glycosyltransferases: High-throughput recombinant expression screening and general requirements for these challenging enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditte Hededam Welner

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization of plant cell wall glycosyltransferases is a critical step towards understanding the biosynthesis of the complex plant cell wall, and ultimately for efficient engineering of biofuel and agricultural crops. The majority of these enzymes have proven very difficult to obtain in the needed amount and purity for such molecular studies, and recombinant cell wall glycosyltransferase production efforts have largely failed. A daunting number of strategies can be employed to overcome this challenge, including optimization of DNA and protein sequences, choice of expression organism, expression conditions, co-expression partners, purification methods, and optimization of protein solubility and stability. Hence researchers are presented with thousands of potential conditions to test. Ultimately, the subset of conditions that will be sampled depends on practical considerations and prior knowledge of the enzyme(s being studied. We have developed a rational approach to this process. We devise a pipeline comprising in silico selection of targets and construct design, and high-throughput expression screening, target enrichment, and hit identification. We have applied this pipeline to a test set of Arabidopsis thaliana cell wall glycosyltransferases known to be challenging to obtain in soluble form, as well as to a library of cell wall glycosyltransferases from other plants including agricultural and biofuel crops. The screening results suggest that recombinant cell wall glycosyltransferases in general have a very low soluble:insoluble ratio in lysates from heterologous expression cultures, and that co-expression of chaperones as well as lysis buffer optimization can increase this ratio. We have applied the identified preferred conditions to Reversibly Glycosylated Polypeptide 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, and processed this enzyme to near-purity in unprecedented milligram amounts. The obtained preparation of Reversibly Glycosylated

  15. Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M. [University of Lleida, Lleida (Spain). Dept. of Environmental & Soil Science

    2009-07-01

    A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

  16. Historical Generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Gordon Geoffrey

    1980-01-01

    Discusses controversies concerning the use of generalizations in history. Generalizations lead to national stereotypes and confusion over definitions. Concludes, however, that historical understanding requires criteria to determine what in general may be of importance to the human condition. Classificatory or labeling generalizations are…

  17. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled cooked whole tropical shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) stored under modified atmosphere packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Mace, Sabrina; Cardinal, Mireille; Jaffres, Emmanuel; Cornet, Josiane; Lalanne, Valerie; Chevalier, Frederique; Serot, Thierry; Pilet, Marie-france; Dousset, Xavier; Joffraud, Jean-jacques

    2014-01-01

    The spoilage potential of isolates belonging to five bacterial groups/species (Shewanella baltica, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio sp., “other Gamma-Proteobacteria” [containing one strain of Pseudoalteromonas sp. and one strain of Psychrobacter sp.]) isolated from spoiled cooked and whole tropical shrimp stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated by inoculation into ionized cooked and peeled tropical shrimp followed by storage for 32 days at 8°...

  18. Nomograms to calculate stability in slate and granite spoil heaps; Abacos para el calculo de estabilidad en escombreras de pizarra y granito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz Freire, M.; Taboada Castro, J.; Rivas Brea, T.; Giraldez Perez, E.; Araujo Fernandez, M.

    2011-07-01

    One of the main problems involved in the mining of slate and ornamental granite is the unavoidable generation of waste rock, which must be stored in spoil heaps under suitably integrated, secure and stable conditions. Our work here focuses on this last point. To study the risk of instability within spoil heaps we have analysed the performance of a wide number of models with regard to circular slope failure, taking into account the different degrees of compactness of the material, the characteristics of the material itself, the effect of water pressure and the geometry of the heap. From this analysis we obtained more than 300 safety criteria, which were then used to draw up a series of nomograms to allow us to determine the risk of sliding in any granite or slate spoil heap. Thus, nomograms prove themselves to be suitable, quick, easy-to-use tools for preliminary studies of new structures, for periodic analyses of existing structures and to investigate structures that are due to be modified. (Author) 24 refs.

  19. Integration of thermal digital 3D model and a MASW (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave as a means of improving monitoring of spoil tip stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewińska Paulina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spoil tips are anthropogenic terrain structures built of leftover (coal mining materials. They consist mostly of slate and sandstone or mudstone but also include coal and highly explosive coal dust. Coal soil tip fires cause an irreversible degradation to the environment. Government organizations notice the potential problem of spoil tip hazard and are looking for ways of fast monitoring of their temperature and inside structure. In order to test new monitoring methods an experimental was performed in the area of spoil tip of Lubelski Węgiel „Bogdanka” S.A. A survey consisted of creating a 3D discreet thermal model. This was done in order to look for potential fire areas. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave was done in order to find potential voids within the body of a tip. Existing data was digitalized and a 3D model of object’s outside and inside was produced. This article provides results of this survey and informs about advantages of such an approach.

  20. Integration of thermal digital 3D model and a MASW (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave) as a means of improving monitoring of spoil tip stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewińska, Paulina; Matuła, Rafał; Dyczko, Artur

    2018-01-01

    Spoil tips are anthropogenic terrain structures built of leftover (coal) mining materials. They consist mostly of slate and sandstone or mudstone but also include coal and highly explosive coal dust. Coal soil tip fires cause an irreversible degradation to the environment. Government organizations notice the potential problem of spoil tip hazard and are looking for ways of fast monitoring of their temperature and inside structure. In order to test new monitoring methods an experimental was performed in the area of spoil tip of Lubelski Węgiel "Bogdanka" S.A. A survey consisted of creating a 3D discreet thermal model. This was done in order to look for potential fire areas. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) was done in order to find potential voids within the body of a tip. Existing data was digitalized and a 3D model of object's outside and inside was produced. This article provides results of this survey and informs about advantages of such an approach.

  1. Association Between Flexible Duty Hour Policies and General Surgery Resident Examination Performance: A Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Eddie; Hewitt, D Brock; Chung, Jeanette W; Biester, Thomas; Fiore, James F; Dahlke, Allison R; Quinn, Christopher M; Lewis, Frank R; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2017-02-01

    Concerns persist about the effect of current duty hour reforms on resident educational outcomes. We investigated whether a flexible, less-restrictive duty hour policy (Flexible Policy) was associated with differential general surgery examination performance compared with current ACGME duty hour policy (Standard Policy). We obtained examination scores on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination, Qualifying Examination (written boards), and Certifying Examination (oral boards) for residents in 117 general surgery residency programs that participated in the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial. Using bivariate analyses and regression models, we compared resident examination performance across study arms (Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy) for 2015 and 2016, and 1 year of the Qualifying Examination and Certifying Examination. Adjusted analyses accounted for program-level factors, including the stratification variable for randomization. In 2016, FIRST trial participants were 4,363 general surgery residents. Mean American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination scores for residents were not significantly different between study groups (Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy) overall (Flexible Policy: mean [SD] 502.6 [100.9] vs Standard Policy: 502.7 [98.6]; p = 0.98) or for any individual postgraduate year level. There was no difference in pass rates between study arms for either the Qualifying Examination (Flexible Policy: 90.4% vs Standard Policy: 90.5%; p = 0.99) or Certifying Examination (Flexible Policy: 86.3% vs Standard Policy: 88.6%; p = 0.24). Results from adjusted analyses were consistent with these findings. Flexible, less-restrictive duty hour policies were not associated with differences in general surgery resident performance on examinations during the FIRST Trial. However, more years under flexible duty hour policies might be needed to observe an effect. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons

  2. An analysis of the uncertainty and bias in DCE-MRI measurements using the spoiled gradient-recalled echo pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subashi, Ergys; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI have been used in more than 100 phase I trials and investigator led studies. A comparison of the absolute values of these quantities requires an estimation of their respective probability distribution function (PDF). The statistical variation of the DCE-MRI measurement is analyzed by considering the fundamental sources of error in the MR signal intensity acquired with the spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) pulse sequence. Methods: The variance in the SPGR signal intensity arises from quadrature detection and excitation flip angle inconsistency. The noise power was measured in 11 phantoms of contrast agent concentration in the range [0–1] mM (in steps of 0.1 mM) and in onein vivo acquisition of a tumor-bearing mouse. The distribution of the flip angle was determined in a uniform 10 mM CuSO 4 phantom using the spin echo double angle method. The PDF of a wide range of T1 values measured with the varying flip angle (VFA) technique was estimated through numerical simulations of the SPGR equation. The resultant uncertainty in contrast agent concentration was incorporated in the most common model of tracer exchange kinetics and the PDF of the derived pharmacokinetic parameters was studied numerically. Results: The VFA method is an unbiased technique for measuringT1 only in the absence of bias in excitation flip angle. The time-dependent concentration of the contrast agent measured in vivo is within the theoretically predicted uncertainty. The uncertainty in measuring K trans with SPGR pulse sequences is of the same order, but always higher than, the uncertainty in measuring the pre-injection longitudinal relaxation time (T1 0 ). The lowest achievable bias/uncertainty in estimating this parameter is approximately 20%–70% higher than the bias/uncertainty in the measurement of the pre-injection T1 map. The fractional volume parameters derived from the extended Tofts model were found to be

  3. Two-Dimensional Spoiled Gradient-Recalled Echo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Liver Using Respiratory Navigator-Gating Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Hata, Hirofumi; Matsunaga, Keiji; Nakajima, Ai; Komi, Shotaro; Abe, Yutaka; Miyatake, Hiroki

    We assessed the feasibility of T1-weighted 2-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled (2D SPGR) acquisition in steady-state imaging of the liver with various respiratory navigator gating techniques. A total of 12 healthy volunteers underwent in-phase and out-of-phase 2D SPGR imaging of the liver during breath-holding and free-breathing. Four techniques for respiratory navigation, 2 conventional navigator techniques and 2 self-navigator techniques, were used for free-breathing imaging. Good navigator waveforms were obtained in conventional navigation, whereas fluctuations were evident in self navigation. All of the 4 navigator-based methods provided better images in terms of background signals and visual image quality compared with images obtained with no respiratory control. However, differences remained in comparison with breath-holding. Superiority of self-navigation to conventional navigation was not shown. Navigator-gating techniques improved 2D SPGR images of the liver acquired during free-breathing, suggesting feasibility and beneficial effects, although navigator-based images were still inferior to breath-hold images.

  4. Plant Communities Rather than Soil Properties Structure Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities along Primary Succession on a Mine Spoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kohout

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF community assembly during primary succession has so far received little attention. It remains therefore unclear, which of the factors, driving AMF community composition, are important during ecosystem development. We addressed this question on a large spoil heap, which provides a mosaic of sites in different successional stages under different managements. We selected 24 sites of c. 12, 20, 30, or 50 years in age, including sites with spontaneously developing vegetation and sites reclaimed by alder plantations. On each site, we sampled twice a year roots of the perennial rhizomatous grass Calamagrostis epigejos (Poaceae to determine AMF root colonization and diversity (using 454-sequencing, determined the soil chemical properties and composition of plant communities. AMF taxa richness was unaffected by site age, but AMF composition variation increased along the chronosequences. AMF communities were unaffected by soil chemistry, but related to the composition of neighboring plant communities of the sampled C. epigejos plants. In contrast, the plant communities of the sites were more distinctively structured than the AMF communities along the four successional stages. We conclude that AMF and plant community successions respond to different factors. AMF communities seem to be influenced by biotic rather than by abiotic factors and to diverge with successional age.

  5. Aluminum-Tolerant Pisolithus Ectomycorrhizas Confer Increased Growth, Mineral Nutrition, and Metal Tolerance to Eucalyptus in Acidic Mine Spoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Egerton-Warburton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM may increase the tolerance of their host plants to Al toxicity by immobilizing Al in fungal tissues and/or improving plant mineral nutrition. Although these benefits have been demonstrated in in vitro (pure culture or short-term nutrient solution (hydroponic experiments, fewer studies have examined these benefits in the field. This study examined the growth, mineral nutrition, and Al levels in two Eucalyptus species inoculated with three Pisolithus ecotypes that varied in Al tolerance (in vitro and grown in mine spoil in the greenhouse and field. All three ecotypes of Pisolithus improved Eucalyptus growth and increased host plant tolerance to Al in comparison to noninoculated plants. However, large variations in plant growth and mineral nutrition were detected among the Pisolithus-inoculated plants; these differences were largely explained by the functional properties of the Pisolithus inoculum. Seedlings inoculated with the most Al-tolerant Pisolithus inoculum showed significantly higher levels of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K and lower levels of Al than seedlings inoculated with Al-sensitive ecotypes of Pisolithus. These findings indicate an agreement between the fungal tolerance to Al in vitro and performance in symbiosis, indicating that both ECM-mediated mineral nutrient acquisition and Al accumulation are important in increasing the host plant Al tolerance.

  6. CCR7 expressing mesenchymal stem cells potently inhibit graft-versus-host disease by spoiling the fourth supplemental Billingham's tenet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    Full Text Available The clinical acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD-therapy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is not as satisfactory as expected. Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs are the major niches serve to initiate immune responses or induce tolerance. Our previous study showed that CCR7 guide murine MSC line C3H10T1/2 migrating to SLOs. In this study, CCR7 gene was engineered into murine MSCs by lentivirus transfection system (MSCs/CCR7. The immunomodulatory mechanism of MSCs/CCR7 was further investigated. Provoked by inflammatory cytokines, MSCs/CCR7 increased the secretion of nitric oxide and calmed down the T cell immune response in vitro. Immunofluorescent staining results showed that transfused MSCs/CCR7 can migrate to and relocate at the appropriate T cell-rich zones within SLOs in vivo. MSCs/CCR7 displayed enhanced effect in prolonging the survival and alleviating the clinical scores of the GvHD mice than normal MSCs. Owing to the critical relocation sites, MSCs/CCR7 co-infusion potently made the T cells in SLOs more naïve like, thus control T cells trafficking from SLOs to the target organs. Through spoiling the fourth supplemental Billingham's tenet, MSCs/CCR7 potently inhibited the development of GvHD. The study here provides a novel therapeutic strategy of MSCs/CCR7 infusion at a low dosage to give potent immunomodulatory effect for clinical immune disease therapy.

  7. Relationship between the trochlear groove angle and patellar cartilage morphology defined by 3D spoiled gradient-echo imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Yuko; Tokuda, Osamu; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi (Japan); Fukuda, Kouji [Shunan Memorial Hospital, Division of Radiological Technology, Yamaguchi (Japan); Shiraishi, Gen; Motomura, Tetsuhisa [Shunan Memorial Hospital, Department of Orthopedics Surgery, Yamaguchi (Japan); Kimura, Motoichi [Customer Application Gr., GE Healthcare MR Sales and Marketing Department, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    To examine whether the femoral trochlear groove angle (TGA) is a determinant of the patellar cartilage volume and patellar cartilage damage. Patellar cartilage was evaluated by MR imaging in 66 patients (22 males and 44 females) with knee pain. Fat-suppressed 3D spoiled gradient-echo images were used to calculate the cartilage volume and to grade the cartilage damage. The proximal and distal TGAs were measured from axial PD-weighted FSE MR images with fat suppression. For every increase in the TGA at the distal femur, the patellar cartilage volume was significantly increased by 6.07 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 3} (95% CI: 1.27 x 10{sup -3}, 10.9 x 10{sup -3}) after adjustment for age, gender, and patellar bone volume (P < 0.05). The MR grade of medial patellar cartilage damage progressed as the distal TGA became narrower, although there was no significant correlation between the distal TGA and the MR grading of patellar cartilage damage. A more flattened distal TGA was associated with increased patellar cartilage volume. However, there was no association between TGA and patellar cartilage defects. (orig.)

  8. Multiparameter estimation using multi-echo spoiled gradient echo with variable flip angles and multicontrast compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Daiki; Wakayama, Tetsuya; Onishi, Hiroshi; Motosugi, Utaroh

    2018-02-24

    To develop multiparameter mapping including T 1 , R2*, and proton density fat fraction with a single breath-hold to evaluate liver disease and liver function. A 6-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence with dual flip angles was used to acquire a 12-set MRI volume data set. To shorten the scan time, undersampling and multicontrast compressed-sensing reconstruction were used. The scan time was 18 seconds. R2* and proton density fat fraction mapping were achieved by using the iterative least-squares method. T 1 mapping was estimated using driven equilibrium single-pulse observation of T 1 . Quantitative values were validated by performing phantom and volunteer studies. Statistical analysis showed that the quantitative values measured using the proposed methods agreed with those measured using conventional methods. T 1 values of water proton measured by the proposed method in phantom and volunteer studies were in good agreement with those by MRS. The results showed that accurate quantitative mapping of T 1 , R2*, and proton density fat fraction with a single breath-hold was achieved using our approach. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Richness, diversity and evenness of vegetation upon rehabilitation of gypsum mine spoiled lands in the Indian arid zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Sharma, K.D.; Sharma, U.K.; Gough, L.P.

    1998-01-01

    Richness, diversity and evenness of vegetation, after rehabilitation of gypsum mine spoils at Barmer were investigated in plots protected and planted one year and four years ago. There were four water harvesting treatments, viz., half-moon terraces, micro-catchments with 5% slope, ridge and furrow and control, wherein, indigenous and exotic trees and shrubs were planted at 5 ?? 5 m spacing. Sampling of the planted and natural vegetation, using quadrats and transacts, revealed much less species richness in unplanted control as compared to all treatments and in all the years. The species richness that increased initially (within one year) gradually declined over time (during four year), though the extent varied in different treatments. The water harvesting treatment showing maximum initial increase in richness also showed maximum decline over time, though decline was more in annual species. Two perennial species increased in richness with time. This was further proved from the trends in diversity and evenness indices. It was concluded that natural successional process was accelerated by rehabilitation providing stability to the habitat.

  10. "Right to recommend, wrong to require"- an empirical and philosophical study of the views among physicians and the general public on smoking cessation as a condition for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Joar; Juth, Niklas; Lynøe, Niels

    2018-01-08

    In many countries, there are health care initiatives to make smokers give up smoking in the peri-operative setting. There is empirical evidence that this may improve some, but not all, operative outcomes. However, it may be feared that some support for such policies stems from ethically questionable opinions, such as paternalism or anti-smoker sentiments. This study aimed at investigating the support for a policy of smoking cessation prior to surgery among Swedish physicians and members of the general public, as well as the reasons provided for this. A random sample of general practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons (n = 795) as well as members of the general public (n = 485) received a mail questionnaire. It contained a vignette case with a smoking 57-year old male farmer with hip osteoarthritis. The patient had been recommended hip replacement therapy, but told that in order to qualify for surgery he needed to give up smoking four weeks prior to and after surgery. The respondents were asked whether making such qualifying demands is acceptable, and asked to rate their agreement with pre-set arguments for and against this policy. Response rates were 58.2% among physicians and 53.8% among the general public. Of these, 83.9% and 86.6%, respectively, agreed that surgery should be made conditional upon smoking cessation. Reference to the peri-operative risks associated with smoking was the most common argument given. However, there was also strong support for the argument that such a policy is mandated in order to achieve long term health gains. There is strong support for a policy of smoking cessation prior to surgery in Sweden. This support is based on considerations of peri-operative risks as well as the general long term risks of smoking. This study indicates that paternalistic attitudes may inform some of the support for peri-operative smoking cessation policies and that at least some respondents seem to favour a "recommendation strategy" vis-à-vis smoking

  11. Dgp71WD is required for the assembly of the acentrosomal Meiosis I spindle, and is not a general targeting factor for the γ-TuRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Reschen

    2012-03-01

    Dgp71WD/Nedd1 proteins are essential for mitotic spindle formation. In human cells, Nedd1 targets γ-tubulin to both centrosomes and spindles, but in other organisms the function of Dgp71WD/Nedd1 is less clear. In Drosophila cells, Dgp71WD plays a major part in targeting γ-tubulin to spindles, but not centrosomes, while in Xenopus egg extracts, Nedd1 acts as a more general microtubule (MT organiser that can function independently of γ-tubulin. The interpretation of these studies, however, is complicated by the fact that some residual Dgp71WD/Nedd1 is likely present in the cells/extracts analysed. Here we generate a Dgp71WD null mutant lacking all but the last 12 nucleotides of coding sequence. The complete loss of Dgp71WD has no quantifiable effect on γ-tubulin or Centrosomin recruitment to the centrosome in larval brain cells. The recruitment of γ-tubulin to spindle MTs, however, is severely impaired, and spindle MT density is reduced in a manner that is indistinguishable from cells lacking Augmin or γ-TuRC function. In contrast, the absence of Dgp71WD leads to defects in the assembly of the acentrosomal female Meiosis I spindle that are more severe than those seen in Augmin or γ-TuRC mutants, indicating that Dgp71WD has additional functions that are independent of these complexes in oocytes. Moreover, the localisation of bicoid RNA during oogenesis, which requires γ-TuRC function, is unperturbed in Dgp71WD120 mutants. Thus, Dgp71WD is not simply a general cofactor required for γ-TuRC and/or Augmin targeting, and it appears to have a crucial role independent of these complexes in the acentrosomal Meiosis I spindle.

  12. Effect of a national requirement to introduce named accountable general practitioners for patients aged 75 or older in England: regression discontinuity analysis of general practice utilisation and continuity of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Isaac; Lloyd, Therese; Steventon, Adam

    2016-09-16

    To assess the effect of introducing named accountable general practitioners (GPs) for patients aged 75 years on patterns of general practice utilisation, including continuity of care. Regression discontinuity design applied to data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to estimate the treatment effect for compliers aged 75. 200 general practices in England. 255 469 patients aged between 65 and 85, after excluding those aged 75. From April 2014, general practices in England were required to offer patients aged 75 or over a named accountable GP. This study compared having named accountable GPs for patients aged just over 75 with usual care provided for patients just under 75. Number of contacts (face-to-face or telephone) with GPs, longitudinal continuity of care (usual provider of care, or UPC, index), number of referrals to specialist care and numbers of common diagnostic tests. Outcomes were measured over 9 months following assignment to a named accountable GP and for a comparable period for those unassigned. The proportion of patients with a named accountable GP increased from 3.5% to 79.8% at age 75. No statistically significant effects were detected for continuity of care (estimated treatment effect 0.00, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.02) or the number of GP contacts per person (estimated treatment effect -0.11, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.09) over 9 months. No significant change was seen in the number of referrals, blood pressure or HbA1c diagnostic tests per person. A statistically significant treatment effect of -0.05 cholesterol tests per person (95% CI -0.07 to -0.02) was estimated; however, sensitivity analysis indicated that this effect predated the introduction of named accountable GPs. Continuity of care is valued by patients, but the named accountable GP initiative did not improve continuity of care or change patterns of GP utilisation in the first 9 months of the policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  13. Association between Exposure of Young Children to Procedures Requiring General Anesthesia and Learning and Behavioral Outcomes in a Population-based Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Danqing; Flick, Randall P; Zaccariello, Michael J; Colligan, Robert C; Katusic, Slavica K; Schroeder, Darrell R; Hanson, Andrew C; Buenvenida, Shonie L; Gleich, Stephen J; Wilder, Robert T; Sprung, Juraj; Warner, David O

    2017-08-01

    Exposure of young animals to general anesthesia causes neurodegeneration and lasting behavioral abnormalities; whether these findings translate to children remains unclear. This study used a population-based birth cohort to test the hypothesis that multiple, but not single, exposures to procedures requiring general anesthesia before age 3 yr are associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. A retrospective study cohort was assembled from children born in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1996 to 2000 (inclusive). Propensity matching selected children exposed and not exposed to general anesthesia before age 3 yr. Outcomes ascertained via medical and school records included learning disabilities, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and group-administered ability and achievement tests. Analysis methods included proportional hazard regression models and mixed linear models. For the 116 multiply exposed, 457 singly exposed, and 463 unexposed children analyzed, multiple, but not single, exposures were associated with an increased frequency of both learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (hazard ratio for learning disabilities = 2.17 [95% CI, 1.32 to 3.59], unexposed as reference). Multiple exposures were associated with decreases in both cognitive ability and academic achievement. Single exposures were associated with modest decreases in reading and language achievement but not cognitive ability. These findings in children anesthetized with modern techniques largely confirm those found in an older birth cohort and provide additional evidence that children with multiple exposures are more likely to develop adverse outcomes related to learning and attention. Although a robust association was observed, these data do not determine whether anesthesia per se is causal.

  14. SNF project's MCO compliance assessment with DOE ''general design criteria,'' order 6430.1A and ''SNF project MCO additional NRC requirements,'' HNF-SD-SNF-DB-005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOLDMANN, L.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document is presented to demonstrate the MCOs compliance to the major design criteria invoked on the MCO. This document is broken down into a section for the MCO's evaluation against DOE Order 6430.1A General Design Criteria sixteen divisions and then the evaluation of the MCO against HNF-SD-SNF-DB-005 ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Multi-Canister Overpack Additional NRC Requirements.'' The compliance assessment is presented as a matrix in tabular form. The MCO is the primary container for the K-basin's spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the basin pools and through to the 40 year interim storage at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The MCO and its components interface with; the K basins, shipping cask and transportation system, Cold Vacuum Drying facility individual process bays and equipment, and CSB facility including the MCO handling machine (MHM), the storage tubes, and the MCO work stations where sampling, welding, and inspection of the MCO is performed. As the MCO is the primary boundary for handling, process, and storage, its main goals are to minimize the spread of its radiological contents to the outside of the MCO and provide for nuclear criticality control. The MCO contains personnel radiation shielding only on its upper end, in the form of a shield plug, where the process interfaces are located. Shielding beyond the shield plug is the responsibility of the using facilities. The design of the MCO and its components is depicted in drawings H-2-828040 through H-2-828075. Not every drawing number in the sequence is used. The first drawing number, H-2-828040, is the drawing index for the MCO. The design performance specification for the MCO is HW-S-0426, and was reviewed and approved by the interfacing design authorities, the safety, regulatory, and operations groups, and the local DOE office. The current revision for the design performance specification is revision 5. The designs of the MCO have been reviewed and approved in a similar way and the reports

  15. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  16. Succession of insects on unreclaimed coal strip mine spoil banks in Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Selected sites at a western Indiana unreclaimed coal strip mine and adjacent undisturbed area sampled by Munsee in 1964 were restudied in 1981. Slope and exposure, soil pH and texture, vegetation and tree tallies, on-site rainfall and local weather records were used to characterize 18 spoilbanks and two unmined sites. Surface-active arthropods were sampled by replicated pitfall taps the summer of 1981 at the same locations and dates trapped by Munsee in 1964. Plant cover was sampled by a modified point-contact method. Trees over one inch dbh were tallied and measured for basal area. Clustering by similarity based on chi-square differences was performed for plants, trees, ants, springtails and ground beetles, using the undisturbed forest and a highly acid un-revegetated mined site as the extremes. Soil pH and texture changed rapidly on one moist spoilbank. Soil moisture levels generally decreased between 1964 and 1981 and depth of water penetration generally increased. Ant, springtail and carabid populations changed on revegetating sites. Myrmica spatulata and Smithistruma clypeata were major new ants on the sites in 1981. Iridomyrmex pruinosus analis and Pheidole bicarinata characteristic of barren spoilbanks in 1964 survived on only one remaining barren site in 1981. The collembolan Entomobrya quadrilineata decreased while Hypogastrura denticulata increased on the revegetating sites. Known habitat preference of some of these insects matched their occurrence on the spoilbanks.

  17. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil potential by woody plants on Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wei; Bao, Jianguo; Zheng, Jin; Xu, Fen; Wang, Liuming

    2018-01-02

    Fast-growing metal-accumulating woody plants are considered potential candidates for phytoremediation of metals. Tonglushan mining, one of the biggest Cu production bases in China, presents an important source of the pollution of environment. The sample was collected at Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap. The aims were to measure the content of heavy metal in the soil and woody plants and to elucidate the phytoremediation potential of the plants. The result showed that soil Cu, Cd and Pb were the main contamination, the mean contents of which were 3166.73 mg/kg, 3.66 mg/kg and 137.06 mg/kg respectively, which belonged to severe contamination. Fourteen species from 14 genera of 13 families were collected and investigated; except for Ligutrum lucidum, the other 13 woody plants species were newly recorded in this area. In addition, to assess the ability of metal accumulation of these trees, we proposed accumulation index. Data suggested that Platanus × acerilolia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ligutrum lucidum, Viburnum awabuki, Firmiana simplex, Robina pseudoacacia, Melia azedarach and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited high accumulated capacity and strong tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore, Platanus × acerilolia and Broussonetia papyrifera can be planted in Pb contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Firmiana simplex, Robina pseudoacacia and Melia azedarach are the suitable trees for Cd contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Melia azedarach, Ligutrum lucidum, Firmiana simplex, Osmanthus fragrans and Robina pseudoacacia are appropriate to Cu, Pb and Cd multi-metal contaminated areas.

  18. Mycorrhizal status of plants in two successional stages on spoil heaps from fireloam mining in Lower Silesia (SW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kasowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal status of two plant communities representing an initial stage (1-2 year-old and a 8-9-year-old stage of succession on spoil heaps from fireloam mining in Lower Silesia, Poland, was determined. In the initial stage, the mycorrhizal structures were not observed in 39% of the investigated species; they were members of the Polygonaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae families. The relative cover of non-mycorrhizal plants exceeded 50% and the major role was played by the Polygonum aviculare population, which predominated the whole community. Mycorrhizal species (arbuscular mycorrhizae contributed to 61 % of the composition of the initial phyto-coenosis. The most numerous taxa were those with 20-40% of the root length colonized, with a small number of arbuscules (0.2-3.1% of the root length containig arbuscules and no vesicles. In the advanced stage of succession, mycorrhizal plants definitely dominated and the major role was played by the Tussilago farfara population. Compared with the initial stage, the later one also harboured more plants with mycorrhizas occupied >40% of the root length, as well as containing numerous arbuscules (>20% of the root length and vesicles. The non-mycorrhizal species, i.e., Equisetum arvense and Poa compressa, represented 11 % o': the community composition and their relative cover amounted to 3%. Despite the relatively frequent occurrence of the arbuscular mycorrhizae in the initial stage of succession, the qualitative properties of the colonization indicated a low effectiveness of symbiosis. This could be caused by the lack of adaptation of the fungal symbiont to the edaphic conditions which were changed after disturbance.

  19. Application of bacteriophages in post-harvest control of human pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Bacteriophages have attracted great attention for application in food biopreservation. Lytic bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic bacteria can be isolated from natural sources such as animal feces or industrial wastes where the target bacteria inhabit. Lytic bacteriophages have been tested in different food systems for inactivation of main food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Cronobacter sakazkii, and also for control of spoilage bacteria. Application of lytic bacteriophages could selectively control host populations of concern without interfering with the remaining food microbiota. Bacteriophages could also be applied for inactivation of bacteria attached to food contact surfaces or grown as biofilms. Bacteriophages may receive a generally recognized as safe status based on their lack of toxicity and other detrimental effects to human health. Phage preparations specific for L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica serotypes have been commercialized and approved for application in foods or as part of surface decontamination protocols. Phage endolysins have a broader host specificity compared to lytic bacteriophages. Cloned endolysins could be used as natural preservatives, singly or in combination with other antimicrobials such as bacteriocins.

  20. Treatment with different fining agents of white musts from spoiled wine grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Meistermann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fining agents have evolved significantly over the last twenty years. The need for winemakers to have objective references about the new products has prompted this study. The experiment consists in comparing the new fining products (charcoal, pea proteins, derivatives of chitin and composite products generally mixing PVPP + various proteins + bentonite with reference products such as casein and PVPP and with non-treated controls. Fining agents were applied during clarification of 15 different musts obtained from wine grapes affected by different degrees and types of rot: fresh and dry Botrytis cinerea rot, powdery mildew and Botrytis contaminated with other fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Basidiomycetes, giving the bunches offflavours that were earthy and resembled fresh mushrooms. This study highlights the importance of good clarification of musts. The quality of control wines, without any treatment, increases with the clarity of the must. In most experiments, clarification of the must around 50 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU can eliminate or reduce any organoleptic defects in wine without fining. Use of pectolytic enzymes may be necessary in order to reach this level of clarity. The new allergen-free fining agents have the same effectiveness as reference products such as casein and polyvinylpolypyrolidone (PVPP. Composite products are more efficient than pea protein alone and less than products including charcoal. However, the improvement of aromatic quality goes hand in hand with loss of body and persistence.

  1. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation on coal mine spoils reclaimed with maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Hakan; Makineci, Ender

    2009-08-01

    Mining operations on open coal mines in Agacli-Istanbul have resulted in the destruction of vast amounts of land. To rehabilitate these degraded lands, plantations on this area began in 1988. Twelve tree species were planted, however, the most planted tree species was maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). This study performed on 14 sample plots randomly selected in maritime pine plantations on coal mine soil/spoils in 2005. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil layers (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples; fine soil fraction (carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated, and results were compared statistically among soil layers. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 17,973.20 kg ha(-1). Total nitrogen and organic matter amounts of forest floor were 113.90 and 14,640.92 kg ha(-1) respectively. Among soil layers, the highest levels of organic carbon (1.77%) and total nitrogen (0.096%) and the lowest pH value (pH 5.38) were found in 0-1 cm soil layer, and the variation differs significantly among soil layers. Both organic carbon and total nitrogen content decreased, pH values increased from 0-1 to 5-10 cm layer. In conclusion, according to results obtained maritime pine plantations on coal mine spoils; slow accumulation and decomposition of forest floor undergo simultaneously. Depending on these changes organic carbon and total nitrogen contents increased in upper layer of soil/spoil.

  2. An experimental study on dredge spoil of estuarine sediments in the bay of seine (France): A morphosedimentary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmin, Stella; Lesueur, Patrick; Dauvin, Jean Claude; Samson, Sandrine; Tournier, Patrice; Gallicher Lavanne, Albert; Dubrulle-Brunaud, Carole; Thouroude, Coralie

    2016-03-01

    Studies on the consequences of dredging on estuarine morphology and its sedimentary dynamics are common, but the impacts of dumping dredge spoil in coastal open settings are rarely found in scientific literature. An experimental study was conducted over the period 2012-2013 to monitor the physical impacts of dredged material dumped at two adjacent sites (one million cubic metres at each) on the inner shelf of the Bay of Seine in France (eastern part of the English Channel, La Manche). As recently reinforced in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), knowledge on the location and intensity of human impacts (e.g. on marine ecosystems) is critical for effective marine management and conservation. So, two methods of disposition were tested to evaluate the impacts of dumping on the environment and thus propose recommendations for future dumping. The strategy is based on a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) approach, in which the spatio-temporal variability was studied by analysing the morphological and sedimentological characteristics over a period of 28 months, from November 2011 to April 2014, also including recovery of the seafloor after cessation of the dumping activities. The first experimental dumping operation (MASED) was carried out regularly for 8 months at a single point and generating a conical deposit of 5 m in height, while the second dumping (MABIO) lasted for 12 months involving four steps in the dumping process. In the second case, a wider area was covered, leading to the formation of a smaller deposit of 2 m in height. The dumped deposits consisted of muddy fine sand, whereas the inner shelf seafloor in this area is covered with fine to medium sand. As a result, muddy fine sand accumulated at or near the two dumping sites, with a maximum mud (i.e. particles4 Φ) content of 50% compared tostudy area. For the latter, a spreading of fine particles was observed extending from the conical deposit towards the south west. To favour long

  3. Characteristics of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Hafnia alvei H4 Isolated from Spoiled Instant Sea Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Man Hou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL produced by Hafnia alvei H4, which was isolated from spoiled instant sea cucumber, and to investigate the effect of AHLs on biofilm formation. Two biosensor strains, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens KYC55, were used to detect the quorum sensing (QS activity of H. alvei H4 and to confirm the existence of AHL-mediated QS system. Thin layer chromatography (TLC and high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis of the AHLs extracted from the culture supernatant of H. alvei H4 revealed the existence of at least three AHLs: N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL, N-(3-oxo-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL, and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL. This is the first report of the production of C4-HSL by H. alvei. In order to determine the relationship between the production of AHL by H. alvei H4 and bacterial growth, the β-galactosidase assay was employed to monitor AHL activity during a 48-h growth phase. AHLs production reached a maximum level of 134.6 Miller unites at late log phase (after 18 h and then decreased to a stable level of about 100 Miller unites. AHL production and bacterial growth displayed a similar trend, suggesting that growth of H. alvei H4 might be regulated by QS. The effect of AHLs on biofilm formation of H. alvei H4 was investigated by adding exogenous AHLs (C4-HSL, C6-HSL and 3-oxo-C8-HSL to H. alvei H4 culture. Biofilm formation was significantly promoted (p < 0.05 by 5 and 10 µM C6-HSL, inhibited (p < 0.05 by C4-HSL (5 and 10 µM and 5 µM 3-oxo-C8-HSL, suggesting that QS may have a regulatory role in the biofilm formation of H. alvei H4.

  4. Experiments on the survival of six brackish macro-invertebrates from the Baltic Sea after dredged spoil coverage and its implications for the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powilleit, M.; Graf, G.; Kleine, J.; Riethmüller, R.; Stockmann, K.; Wetzel, M. A.; Koop, J. H. E.

    2009-02-01

    Physical disturbance by disposal of dredged materials in estuarine and coastal waters may result in burial of benthic fauna. Survival rates depend on a variety of factors including the type and amount of disposed materials and the lifestyle of the organisms. Laboratory burial experiments using six common macrobenthic invertebrates from a brackish habitat of the western Baltic Sea were performed to test the organisms' escape reaction to dredged material disposal. Experimental lab-results were then extrapolated to a field situation with corresponding bottom topography and covering layer thicknesses at experimental field disposal study sites. Resulted survival rates were then verified by comparison with results of an earlier field study at the same disposal sites. Our experimental design in the lab included the disposal of two types of dredged material (i.e. 'till' and 'sand/till mixture') and two covering layer depths (i.e. 10-20 cm and 14-40 cm). All three bivalves Arctica islandica (Linnaeus), Macoma balthica (Linnaeus), Mya arenaria (Linnaeus) and the polychaete Nephtys hombergii (Savigny) successfully burrowed to the surface of a 32-41 cm deposited sediment layer of till or sand/till mixture and restored contact with the overlying water. These high escape potentials could partly be explained by the heterogeneous texture of the till and sand/till mixture with 'voids'. The polychaete Bylgides ( Harmothoe) sarsi (Malmgren) successfully burrowed through a 16 cm covering layer whereas the polychaete Lagis koreni (Malmgren) showed almost no escaping reaction. No general differences in escape behaviour after burial were detected between our test species from the brackish habitat and those reported in the literature for the same species in marine environments. However, a size-dependence in mobility of motile polychaetes and M. arenaria was apparent within our study. In comparison to a thick coverage, thin covering layers (i.e. 15-16 cm and 20 cm) increased the chance of

  5. Possibilities for production of medicinal aromatic plants on the spoil bank of the Pljevlja coal mine. Mogucnost gajenja ljekovitog i aromaticnog bilja na jalovistu rudnika uglja - Pljevlja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memic, M.; Bajovic, L. (Rudnik Uglja Pljevlja (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    Presents results obtained from experimental recultivation of the Potrlica surface coal mine spoil bank (810 m elevation, continental climate) during 1986-1990. Two experimental fields - Potrlica-I (600 m[sup 2]) and Potrlica-II (300 m[sup 2]) - were prepared by spreading a 10-20 cm thick layer of low-quality soil over the marly waste of the spoil bank. Soil composition was: 2.10% and 74% Ca, 4.5% and 0.70% humus, l3.5% and 5.5% P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and 23.0% and 6.0% K[sub 2]O in Potrlica-I and II respectively. Soil pH values were 7.2 and 7.60; 500 kg/ha NPK (15:15:15) were spread. Seventeen species of aromatic and medicinal plants were grown. After four years the plants were classified into 3 groups (thriving, satisfactory and non-thriving). It was found that the following plants can yield satisfactory crops and profits: valeriana officinalis, hyssopus officinalis, artemis dracunculus, cynaris scolimus, foenculum vulgare and malva silvestris. Unsatisfactory results were obtained with melisa officinalis, coriandrum sativum, pimpinela anisum and angelica archangelica. Experiments will be continued.

  6. Restoration Practices Used on Post Mining Sites and Industrial Deposits in the Czech Republic with an Example of Natural Restoration of Granodiorite Quarries and Spoil Heaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuman Tomáš

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mining of minerals that have significant impact on landscape and landscape functions affects 1% of the land surface worldwide. In the Czech Republic the extent of mining sites is estimated to be more than 800 km2 and according to the state legislation the land affected by mining should be reclaimed. There are several approaches to land restoration, which are shortly reviewed in this article, from pure technical approach to one adopting natural processes. The review shows increasing appeal of scientist and conservationist to use natural processes e.g. natural or directed succession as an alternative method of post-mining sites or industrial deposits restoration due to growing evidence of conservational value of such sites in human dominated landscapes. The natural processes used for land restoration are often argued to be slow therefore the rate of spontaneous vegetation succession was assessed in stone quarries and on spoil heaps using a sequence of panchromatic aerial images. The results showed that natural processes act fast and vegetation can reach 100% cover within 10-15 years in granodiorite quarries and on spoil heaps.

  7. Homogeneity spoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Boesch, C.; Martin, E.; Grutter, R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the problems of in vivo MR spectroscopy of P-31 is spectra localization. Surface coil spectroscopy, which is the method of choice for clinical applications, suffers from the high-intensity signal from subcutaneous muscle tissue, which masks the spectrum of interest from deeper structures. In order to suppress this signal while maintaining the simplicity of surface coil spectroscopy, the authors introduced a small sheet of ferromagnetically dotted plastic between the surface coil and the body. This sheet destroys locally the field homogeneity and therefore all signal from structures around the coil. The very high reproducibility of the simple experimental procedure allows long-term studies important for monitoring tumor therapy

  8. Prescription drugs for human use generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded: drugs used in research: radioactive drugs for certain research uses; amended reporting requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This amendment revises the reporting requirements for research studies in which radioactive drugs are used. It deletes the requirement for detailed measurements and calculations for each subject in the study; instead, it permits submission of data on a representative subject. The effect will be to decrease the burden in reporting required of the Radioactive Drug Research Committee, but still provide the agency with data to evaluate the risk attributable to radioactive drugs

  9. Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model With Mappings to ACE Requirements for the General Availability User Environment Capabilities Release Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil,Benny Manuel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ballance, Robert [SNL; Haskell, Karen [SNL

    2012-08-09

    Cielo is a massively parallel supercomputer funded by the DOE/NNSA Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program, and operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES), a partnership between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The primary Cielo compute platform is physically located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model documents the capabilities and the environment to be provided for the Q1 FY12 Level 2 Cielo Capability Computing (CCC) Platform Production Readiness Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, or Sandia National Laboratories, but also addresses the needs of users working in the unclassified environment. The Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model maps the provided capabilities to the tri-Lab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) Version 8.0 requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the Production Readiness Milestone user environment capabilities of the ASC community. A description of ACE requirements met, and those requirements that are not met, are included in each section of this document. The Cielo Computing Environment, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and reviewed throughout the tri-Lab community.

  10. Analysis of technology requirements and potential demand for general aviation avionics systems in the 1980's. [technology assessment and technological forecasting of the aircraft industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, D. M.; Kayser, J. H.; Senko, G. M.; Glenn, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    The trend for the increasing need for aircraft-in-general as a major source of transportation in the United States is presented (military and commercial aircraft are excluded). Social, political, and economic factors that affect the aircraft industry are considered, and cost estimates are given. Aircraft equipment and navigation systems are discussed.

  11. Patient enablement requires physician empathy: a cross-sectional study of general practice consultations in areas of high and low socioeconomic deprivation in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Stewart W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient 'enablement' is a term closely aligned with 'empowerment' and its measurement in a general practice consultation has been operationalised in the widely used patient enablement instrument (PEI, a patient-rated measure of consultation outcome. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the factors that influence enablement, particularly the effect of socio-economic deprivation. The aim of the study is to assess the factors influencing patient enablement in GP consultations in areas of high and low deprivation. Methods A questionnaire study was carried out on 3,044 patients attending 26 GPs (16 in areas of high socio-economic deprivation and 10 in low deprivation areas, in the west of Scotland. Patient expectation (confidence that the doctor would be able to help was recorded prior to the consultation. PEI, GP empathy (measured by the CARE Measure, and a range of other measures and variables were recorded after the consultation. Data analysis employed multi-level modelling and multivariate analyses with the PEI as the dependant variable. Results Although numerous variables showed a univariate association with patient enablement, only four factors were independently predictive after multilevel multivariate analysis; patients with multimorbidity of 3 or more long-term conditions (reflecting poor chronic general health, and those consulting about a long-standing problem had reduced enablement scores in both affluent and deprived areas. In deprived areas, emotional distress (GHQ-caseness had an additional negative effect on enablement. Perceived GP empathy had a positive effect on enablement in both affluent and deprived areas. Maximal patient enablement was never found with low empathy. Conclusions Although other factors influence patient enablement, the patients' perceptions of the doctors' empathy is of key importance in patient enablement in general practice consultations in both high and low deprivation settings.

  12. A protein binding AT-rich sequence in the soybean leghemoglobin c3 promoter is a general cis element that requires proximal DNA elements to stimulate transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, N B; Larsen, K; Knudsen, J Y

    1994-01-01

    that the interaction between NAT2 and NAT2 BS1 is responsible for the observed reactivation. Further activation experiments with the lbc3 and the leaf-specific Nicotiana plumbaginifolia ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (rbcS-8B) promoter suggested that another specific cis element...... in combination with other trans-acting factor(s) to increase expression. The finding of NAT2-like binding activities in different plant organs and the specific expression of the hybrid NAT2 BS1/-312 rbcS-8B promoter in leaves suggest that NAT2 is a general activator of transcription. Udgivelsesdato: 1994-May...

  13. Quality assurance review of training in oral and maxillofacial surgery by the General Medical Council: areas of good practice, requirements, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Davinder P S; Dover, Michael Stephen; Lay, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the outcome of the 2012/13 UK-wide quality assurance review of postgraduate training in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) by the General Medical Council (GMC), as part of its review of small specialties. OMF surgeons need to be aware of the evidence on which the conclusions are based, and to know about the strengths of the specialty and the areas for future development so that postgraduate training, and ultimately the outcomes for patients, can be improved. This paper, by the authors involved in the review, summarises the salient points and is not a verbatim report. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. [Requirements for final year medical studies in the era of generation Y - implementation for general and visceral surgery at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsmeier, M; Pratschke, S; Raes, P; Werner, J; Angele, M K

    2014-12-01

    The revision of the medical licensing regulations in 2012 has changed the underlying conditions for the practical year (PY), especially in the sense of markedly more flexibility for the medical students. The driving force for these and future changes, however, is not the legislature but rather the students themselves who are explicitly demanding that their training be adapted to their requirements and wishes. Time for the realisation of personal aims, planning of leisure time activities, for the family and social contacts as well as an altogether balanced work-life balance have replaced the wish for professional advancement as premise for the lifestyle of generation Y. Many hospitals, especially the privately-supported, attract students with special offers - university hospitals are called upon to defend their position in the competition for newly qualified students. The present article describes the changes of 2012 as part of a programme for a sustainable increase in the attractivity of the surgical PY at the Ludwig-Maximilian University (LMU) in Munich. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fascinating theory ofgeneralized polygons for both the graduate student and the specialized researcher in the field. It gathers together a lot of basic properties (some of which are usually referred to in research papers as belonging to folklore) and very recent and sometimes deep results. I have chosen a fairly strict geometrical approach, which requires some knowledge of basic projective geometry. Yet, it enables one to prove some typically group-theoretical results such as the determination of the automorphism groups of certain Moufang polygons. As such, some basic group-theoretical knowledge is required of the reader. The notion of a generalized polygon is a relatively recent one. But it is one of the most important concepts in incidence geometry. Generalized polygons are the building bricks of Tits buildings. They are the prototypes and precursors of more general geometries such as partial geometries, partial quadrangles, semi-partial ge­ ometries, near...

  16. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Straumann, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a completely revised and expanded version of the previous classic edition ‘General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics’. In Part I the foundations of general relativity are thoroughly developed, while Part II is devoted to tests of general relativity and many of its applications. Binary pulsars – our best laboratories for general relativity – are studied in considerable detail. An introduction to gravitational lensing theory is included as well, so as to make the current literature on the subject accessible to readers. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes. This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel’s proof of his uniqueness theorem, and a derivation of the basic laws of black hole physics. Part II ends with Witten’s proof of the positive energy theorem, which is presented in detail, together with the required tools on spin structures and spinor analysis. In Part III, all of the differential geomet...

  17. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  18. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when the ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures Implementation process. Under CERCLA, the actions follow the preliminary assessment/site investigation/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. This document incorporates requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA in the form of an RI report for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2

  19. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2

  20. General data relating to the arrangements for disposal of radioactive waste required under Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty. Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    This document submitted by the Danish Government has been produced to satisfy the requirements of Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty as recommended by the Commission of the European Communities (Annex 2 of Commission Recommendation 1999/829/Euratom of 6 December 1999). The above Recommendations include the dismantling of nuclear reactors and reprocessing plants in the list of operations to which Article 37 applies. Under paragraph 5.1 of the Recommendation, a submission of General Data in respect of such dismantling operations is only necessary when the proposed authorised limits and other requirements are less restrictive than those in force when the plant was operational. However, in the case of Risoe National Laboratory, no previous submission of general data has been made under Article 37 and no Opinion given by the Commission on a plan for the disposal of radioactive waste. For this reason, general data are submitted in respect of the proposed dismantling operations, even though no change to a less restrictive authorisation is envisaged at this time. This submission is for the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory, which are owned by the Danish Government and managed by a Board of Governors for the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. (BA)

  1. Dietary Protein Intake in Young Children in Selected Low-Income Countries Is Generally Adequate in Relation to Estimated Requirements for Healthy Children, Except When Complementary Food Intake Is Low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Brown, Kenneth H

    2017-05-01

    Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein. Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality. Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6-35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, and Zambia) were reanalyzed to estimate protein and amino acid intake and assess adequacy. The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of each child's diet was calculated and multiplied by the original (crude) protein intake to obtain an estimate of available protein intake. Distributions of usual intake were obtained to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake for each cohort according to Estimated Average Requirements. Results: The prevalence of inadequate protein intake was highest in breastfeeding children aged 6-8 mo: 24% of Bangladeshi and 16% of Peruvian children. With the exception of Bangladesh, the prevalence of inadequate available protein intake decreased by age 9-12 mo and was very low in all sites (0-2%) after 12 mo of age. Inadequate protein intake in children <12 mo of age was due primarily to low energy intake from complementary foods, not inadequate protein density. Conclusions: Overall, most children consumed protein amounts greater than requirements, except for the younger breastfeeding children, who were consuming low amounts of complementary foods. These findings reinforce previous evidence that dietary protein is not generally limiting for children in LICs compared with estimated requirements for healthy children, even after accounting for protein quality. However, unmeasured effects of infection

  2. SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF BARU (Dipterix alata Vog. TREATED WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE, COMPOSTED GARBAGE OR CATTLE MANURE ON MINED SPOILS IN THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Queiroz Pinheiro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge and composted garbage are available in large quantities to be employed assources of organic matter for revegetation projects of mined spoils in the Brazilian FederalDistrict (DF. These sources were used for growing baru (Dipterix alata Vog. on minedspoils in the Brazilian Cerrado and the growth and mortality of 99 seedlings treated with theseorganic matter soruces were measured. In 4 months, rates of survival ranged from 56.7%, fortrees treated with compost, to 96.7% for plants treated with sewage sludge. The compostseems to have toxic effects on seedlings, since the treatments with 35, 45 and 50 L/hollow hadno survivals. After the first period of growth, the study was able to show that the best rate forplant development with sewage sludge was 20 and 30 L/hollow (57% and 47. For plantstreated with compost, the best result was obtained with the smallest dosage (5L/hollow,where the growth is similar to the best results obtained with the sludge (47%. In larger dosesthe growth varied between 6% and 24%, span in which the results obtained in the controltreatments, chemical treatment (16% and no treatment (12% are also found. Therefore, theincrease in growth of the seedlings is a function of the dosage and type of organic materialemployed.

  3. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled cooked whole tropical shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) stored under modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macé, Sabrina; Cardinal, Mireille; Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Cornet, Josiane; Lalanne, Valérie; Chevalier, Frédérique; Sérot, Thierry; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques

    2014-06-01

    The spoilage potential of isolates belonging to five bacterial groups/species (Shewanella baltica, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio sp., "other Gamma-Proteobacteria" [containing one strain of Pseudoalteromonas sp. and one strain of Psychrobacter sp.]) isolated from spoiled cooked and whole tropical shrimp stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated by inoculation into ionized cooked and peeled tropical shrimp followed by storage for 32 days at 8 °C. Microbial growth and sensory changes were monitored during the storage period. The major spoilage bacterial isolate groups were C. maltaromaticum and S. baltica. In order to characterize their spoilage potential further and to study the effect of their interactions, each of these two specific spoilage organisms (SSO) and one mixed-culture, C. maltaromaticum/S. baltica, were tested using a combination of complementary methods: molecular (PCR-TTGE), sensory, chemical, and conventional microbiological analyses. It was concluded that, in the mixed-culture-inoculated samples, both species groups imposed their spoilage characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus and Zygosaccharomyces bailii as primary microbial contaminants of a spoiled herbal food supplement and evaluation of their survival during shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Franca; Gaio, Elena; Torriani, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    This investigation was carried out to identify the microbiota in a spoiled commercial food supplement consisting of a syrup suspension of a mixture of dried herbs and herb extracts. The product did not contain alkyl-p-hydroxybenzoates (parabens) as preservatives, was kept at room temperature and showed abundant gas formation. Colonies of distinct morphology were recovered on bacteria- and yeast-specific media, and tested for their ability to grow in the product. Genetic differentiation and identification of the microbial contaminants were achieved by RAPD-PCR and rDNA sequence analysis. The bacteria Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Paenibacillus humicus, Paenibacillus glycanilyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and the yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii were detected. Of the two S. aureus strains isolated, one was enterotoxigenic, as indicated by the presence of five SE genes. Quantitative Real-Time PCR tests, specific for this pathogen and for Z. bailii, a microbial agent causing fermentation processes and consequent food spoilage, were carried out to quantify these microorganisms in the product and identify their source among the herbal ingredients and the fructose syrup used as sweetener. Most components appeared to be contaminated by both S. aureus and Z. bailii. These findings indicate the need to improve hygienic practices in the industrial manufacturing of the food supplement, starting with herbal ingredients, to ensure a high quality of the product. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 49 CFR 177.834 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... thereof nor any discharge of the contents of any container between point of origin and point of billed... removing the cargo heater fuel tank; and (ii) disconnecting the heater's power source. (2) When... heater fuel tank, if other than LPG, must be emptied or removed. (2) Each LPG fuel tank for automatic...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.701 - General requirements.

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    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Concrete and Masonry Construction § 1926.701... from a person who is qualified in structural design, that the structure or portion of the structure is...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.451 - General requirements.

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    ... scaffold's structural integrity is maintained by the user. Scaffold components manufactured by different..., whichever is greater). (2) Suspension scaffold outrigger beams, when used, shall be made of structural metal... scaffold systems. Construction materials such as, but not limited to, masonry units and rolls of roofing...

  8. 49 CFR 178.955 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (glass, plastic, metal, etc.) offers resistance to impact and stacking forces equal to or greater than... openings and the closure is of similar design (e.g., screw cap, friction lid, etc.); (iv) Sufficient...

  9. 49 CFR 178.601 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., etc.); (B) The material of construction of the inner packagings (glass, plastic, metal, etc.) offers... (e.g., screw cap, friction lid, etc.); (D) Sufficient additional cushioning material is used to take... successfully tested in accordance with § 178.603 with fragile (e.g. glass) inner packagings containing liquids...

  10. 27 CFR 26.163 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... person, other than a tourist, bringing liquor into the United States from Puerto Rico shall keep records... while in customs custody. 1 (“Alcohol Beverage Dealers”) (Approved by the Office of Management and...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.603 - General requirements.

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    2010-04-01

    ... receive or discharge liquid waste or sewage shall be connected to the manufactured home drainage system in...) Fittings, connections, devices, or methods of installation that obstruct or retard the flow of sewage, or... piping. All piping, pipe threads, hangers, and support exposed to the weather, water, mud, and road...

  12. 46 CFR 119.410 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operating station. (c) In systems and applications where flexible hoses are permitted to be clamped: (1... can be used if the pipe ends are expanded or beaded to provide a positive stop against hose slippage...

  13. 40 CFR 68.12 - General requirements.

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    2010-07-01

    ...), shall: (1) Develop and implement a management system as provided in § 68.15; (2) Conduct a hazard... offsite impacts provided in the risk management program rule (40 CFR 68.10(b)(1)). No additional measures... a release of a regulated substance from the process(es), entry within the distance to the specified...

  14. 40 CFR 52.224 - General requirements.

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    ... County APCD. (xvi) Shasta County APCD. (xvii) Sacramento County APCD. (xviii)-(xix) (xx) Lake County APCD...) (xxvi) San Luis Obispo County APCD. (xxvii) Kings County APCD. (xxviii) Plumas County APCD. (xxix...

  15. 40 CFR 94.503 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing..., manufacturers shall test production line engines in accordance with sampling procedures specified in § 94.505... conduct alternate production line testing programs for Category 1 and Category 2 engines, provided the...

  16. 5 CFR 1320.5 - General requirements.

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    2010-01-01

    ... use of automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms... taken by the agency in response to the comments, and the date and page of the publication in the Federal... notice in the Federal Register— (A) Stating that the agency has made such submission; and (B) Setting...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.252 - General requirements.

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    2010-07-01

    ... permit the escape of air or gases before preheating, cutting or welding. Purging with inert gas is... atmospheres (mixtures of flammable gases, vapors, liquids, or dusts with air), or explosive atmospheres that... welding operations in areas not specifically designed for such processes. (C) Insist that cutters or...

  18. 21 CFR 660.2 - General requirements.

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    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen... immediately following the proper name on both the final container and package label, e.g., human, guinea pig...

  19. 42 CFR 422.100 - General requirements.

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    2010-10-01

    ... services. (g) Benefits affecting screening mammography, influenza vaccine, and pneumoccal vaccine. (1... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Benefits and Beneficiary Protections § 422.100... benefits described in paragraph (c) of this section (and, to the extent applicable, the benefits described...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.22 - General requirements.

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    2010-07-01

    ... be kept clean and orderly and in a sanitary condition. (2) The floor of every workroom shall be... building, or his duly authorized agent, in a conspicuous place in each space to which they relate. Such... or his agent. (2) It shall be unlawful to place, or cause, or permit to be placed, on any floor or...

  1. 7 CFR 82.5 - General requirements.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 2003 calendar years. Abandoned orchards and dead trees will not qualify. The block of trees for removal must be easily definable by separations from other blocks of eligible trees and contain at least 1,000... has been informed in writing that the grower's application has been approved. (b) Any grower...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1000 - General requirements.

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    2010-07-01

    ... specific points at which operating responsibility transfers to a transporting operator. (i) Each producing... will apply to those segments. (6) Any producer operating a pipeline that crosses into State waters.... Compliance must extend from the point where hydrocarbons are first produced, through and including the last...

  3. 14 CFR 171.309 - General requirements.

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    2010-01-01

    ..., associated monitor, remote control and indicator equipment. (c) MLS ground equipment must be designed to... service conditions: (1) AC line parameters, DC voltage, elevation and duty: 120 VAC nominal value—102 V to... centimeters (1/2 inch) radial thickness of clear ice. Antenna Radome De-Icing: Down to −6°C (20 °F) and wind...

  4. 16 CFR 1633.3 - General requirements.

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    2010-01-01

    ... time-dependent heat release rate from the specimen, quantifying the energy generated by the fire. The rate of heat release must be measured by means of oxygen consumption calorimetry. (b) Test criteria. (1... kilowatts (“kW”) at any time within the 30 minute test; and (ii) The total heat release shall not exceed 15...

  5. 49 CFR 232.303 - General requirements.

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    2010-10-01

    ... is considered a shop or repair track only for each car receiving major repairs on such trackage and... coupler knuckle or knuckle pin replacement. (b) A car on a shop or repair track shall be tested to determine that the air brakes apply and remain applied until a release is initiated. (c) A car on a shop or...

  6. 15 CFR 923.3 - General requirements.

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    2010-01-01

    ... wetlands. These policies also must reduce risks of flood loss, minimize the impact of floods on human...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE... uses having a direct and significant impact on coastal waters and those geographic areas which are...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.152 - General requirements.

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    2010-07-01

    ... protective footwear (including steel-toe shoes or steel-toe boots) and non-specialty prescription safety... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Personal Protective Equipment...

  8. Addendum to the remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This addendum to the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. This addendum is a supplement to a document that was previously issued in January 1995 and that provided the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation performed at OU 2. The January 1995 D2 version of the RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 included information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in the document formed the basis for the development of the Feasibility Study Report. This addendum includes revisions to four chapters of information that were a part of the document issued in January 1995. Specifically, it includes revisions to Chaps. 2, 3, 4, and 9. Volume 1 of this document is not being reissued in its entirety as a D3 version because only the four chapters just mentioned have been affected by requested changes. Note also that Volume 2 of this RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 is not being reissued in conjunction with Volume 1 of this document because there have been no changes requested or made to the previously issued version of Volume 2 of this document.

  9. Chemical and isotopic tracing of underground water in relation with leaching of mine spoils, Nord-Pas-de-Calais Coal Basin (France); Tracage chimique et isotopique des eaux souterraines en relation avec les eaux de lixiviation de terrils, bassin minier du Nord-Pas-de-Calais (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denimal, S.; Tribovillard, N.; Meilliez, F. [Lille-1 Univ., Lab. de Sedimentologie et Geodynamique, UMR 8577, 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Barbecot, F.; Dever, L. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie Isotopique, UMR 8616, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2001-07-01

    Coal mining activity in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (Northern France) has generated many mine spoils. The oxidation of the pyrite content of such coal shales and their leaching can be a source of sulfate pollution for the underlying chalk aquifer, i.e. the main drinking water resource of the region. Two sites of study have been retained: one in the free water table zone and the other in the confined water table zone. Samples from both mine spoils have been analyzed with respect to their carbon and sulfur content and a superficial leaching of these elements has been evidenced. Water has been sampled in piezometers and boreholes close to the mine spoils and also along natural flux lines. The use of sulfur isotopes as markers of the different sulfate sources has confirmed the spoils source but has permitted to identify another source in the second site which is the Tertiary gypsum-bearing Ostricourt sands. This study has shown also that in the confined water table zone, part of the exported sulfates is reduced. This bacterial reduction of sulfates is due to a joint leaching of both carbon and sulfur in the mine spoils. A self-purification phenomenon occurs when the chalk aquifer is confined beneath the Cenozoic cover. (J.S.)

  10. Quantifying Effect of Lactic, Acetic, and Propionic Acids on Growth of Molds Isolated from Spoiled Bakery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gauvry, Emilie; Onno, Bernard; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-09-01

    The combined effect of undissociated lactic acid (0 to 180 mmol/liter), acetic acid (0 to 60 mmol/liter), and propionic acid (0 to 12 mmol/liter) on growth of the molds Aspergillus niger, Penicillium corylophilum, and Eurotium repens was quantified at pH 3.8 and 25°C on malt extract agar acid medium. The impact of these acids on lag time for growth (λ) was quantified through a gamma model based on the MIC. The impact of these acids on radial growth rate (μ) was analyzed statistically through polynomial regression. Concerning λ, propionic acid exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect (MIC of 8 to 20 mmol/liter depending on the mold species) than did acetic acid (MIC of 23 to 72 mmol/liter). The lactic acid effect was null on E. repens and inhibitory on A. niger and P. corylophilum. These results were validated using independent sets of data for the three acids at pH 3.8 but for only acetic and propionic acids at pH 4.5. Concerning μ, the effect of acetic and propionic acids was slightly inhibitory for A. niger and P. corylophilum but was not significant for E. repens. In contrast, lactic acid promoted radial growth of all three molds. The gamma terms developed here for these acids will be incorporated in a predictive model for temperature, water activity, and acid. More generally, results for μ and λ will be used to identify and evaluate solutions for controlling bakery product spoilage.

  11. Spoiled breast milk and bad water; local understandings of diarrhea causes and prevention in rural Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Shannon A; George, Asha S; Yumkella, Fatu; Diaz, Theresa

    2013-12-13

    Globally, diarrhea remains a leading killer of young children. In Sierra Leone, one in seven children die before their fifth birthday and diarrhea is a leading cause. Studies that emphasize the demand-side of health interventions -- how caregivers understand causation and prevention of diarrhea -- have been neglected in research and programming. We undertook applied qualitative research including 68 in-depth interviews and 36 focus group discussions with mothers, fathers and older female caretakers to examine the causes and prevention of childhood diarrhea in villages near and far from health facilities across four rural districts. Verbal consent was obtained. Respondents reported multiple, co-existing descriptions of causation including: contaminated water and difficulties accessing clean water; exposure to an unclean environment and poor food hygiene; contaminated breast milk due to sexual intercourse, overheated breast milk or bodily maternal conditions such as menstruation or pregnancy; and dietary imbalances and curses. Respondents rarely discussed the role of open defecation or the importance of handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhea. Categorizing behaviors as beneficial, harmful, non-existent or benign enables tailored programmatic recommendations. For example, respondents recognized the value of clean water and we correspondingly recommend interventions that reinforce consumption of and access to clean water. Second, respondents report denying "contaminated" breast milk to breastfeeding children. This is a harmful practice that merits attention. Third, the role of open defecation and poor hygiene in causing diarrhea is less understood and warrants introduction or clarification. Finally, the role of exposed feet or curses in causing diarrhea is relatively benign and does not necessitate programmatic attention. Further research supportive of communication and social mobilization strategies building on these findings is required to ensure that improved

  12. General Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2 General Editorial. General Editorial on Publication Ethics · R Ramaswamy · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 3-3 General Editorial. Academy Policy on Plagiarism · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 22 Issue 1 January 2017 pp 1-3 General Editorial.

  13. General anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally safe because of modern equipment, medicines, and safety standards. Most people recover completely and do not have any complications. Alternative Names Surgery - general anesthesia Patient Instructions Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - adult ...

  14. Qualidade do substrato minerado de uma área de empréstimo revegetada no distriro federal Quality of a revegeted mine spoil in the federal disrict of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de resíduos orgânicos tem-se mostrado eficaz para a revegetação de áreas mineradas. Entretanto, dados acerca da qualidade de substratos tratados com resíduos orgânicos são escassos. Dessa forma, este trabalho visou avaliar a qualidade edáfica de um substrato minerado no Distrito Federal que recebeu 250 Mg ha-1 de lodo de esgoto e uma cobertura herbácea estabelecida a partir de sementes. Os atributos edáficos utilizados na avaliação foram densidade de solo, porosidade total, água disponível, resistência mecânica à penetração, ΔpH, CTC, saturação por bases, P disponível, matéria orgânica, abundância e diversidade da macrofauna de solo. Os resultados mostraram que a incorporação do lodo de esgoto e o desenvolvimento de um estrato herbáceo resultaram em melhoria das qualidades química e biológica do substrato exposto pela mineração, mas não alteraram a qualidade física dele. A dose de lodo de esgoto utilizada elevou os valores dos atributos químicos para além dos medidos em solos sob Cerrado nativo. Caso o objetivo da recuperação seja a restauração do ecossistema local, técnicas que melhorem a qualidade física do substrato e não excedam os níveis naturais de fertilidade devem ser desenvolvidas.The use of organic residues has been shown to be effective for the revegetation of mined areas. However, data on the quality of mine spoils treated with organic residues are rather scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the spoil quality of a mined area in the Brazilian Federal District treated with 250 Mg ha-1 of domestic sewage sludge and covered with herbs grown from seeds. The soil attributes used for the evaluation were bulk density, total porosity, available water capacity, soil resistance to penetration, ΔpH, CEC, base saturation, available phosphorus, organic matter content, abundance and diversity of soil macro-fauna. Results show that plowing sewage sludge into the spoil and the establishment of a

  15. Seamless Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Naumchev, Alexandr; Meyer, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Popular notations for functional requirements specifications frequently ignore developers' needs, target specific development models, or require translation of requirements into tests for verification; the results can give out-of-sync or downright incompatible artifacts. Seamless Requirements, a new approach to specifying functional requirements, contributes to developers' understanding of requirements and to software quality regardless of the process, while the process itself becomes lighter...

  16. General requirements applicable to the production, inspection, processing, packaging and storage of high activity wastes packed in glass form and resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in pressurized light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This rule is intended to define the general provisions applicable to the production, inspection, processing, packaging and storage of wastes, resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in a PWR, packaged in the form of glass

  17. The Wisdom of Networks: A General Adaptation and Learning Mechanism of Complex Systems: The Network Core Triggers Fast Responses to Known Stimuli; Innovations Require the Slow Network Periphery and Are Encoded by Core-Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Peter

    2018-01-01

    I hypothesize that re-occurring prior experience of complex systems mobilizes a fast response, whose attractor is encoded by their strongly connected network core. In contrast, responses to novel stimuli are often slow and require the weakly connected network periphery. Upon repeated stimulus, peripheral network nodes remodel the network core that encodes the attractor of the new response. This "core-periphery learning" theory reviews and generalizes the heretofore fragmented knowledge on attractor formation by neural networks, periphery-driven innovation, and a number of recent reports on the adaptation of protein, neuronal, and social networks. The core-periphery learning theory may increase our understanding of signaling, memory formation, information encoding and decision-making processes. Moreover, the power of network periphery-related "wisdom of crowds" inventing creative, novel responses indicates that deliberative democracy is a slow yet efficient learning strategy developed as the success of a billion-year evolution. Also see the video abstract here: https://youtu.be/IIjP7zWGjVE. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  19. Quantifying the effect of water activity and storage temperature on single spore lag times of three moulds isolated from spoiled bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gougouli, Maria; Onno, Bernard; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-01-02

    The inhibitory effect of water activity (a w ) and storage temperature on single spore lag times of Aspergillus niger, Eurotium repens (Aspergillus pseudoglaucus) and Penicillium corylophilum strains isolated from spoiled bakery products, was quantified. A full factorial design was set up for each strain. Data were collected at levels of a w varying from 0.80 to 0.98 and temperature from 15 to 35°C. Experiments were performed on malt agar, at pH5.5. When growth was observed, ca 20 individual growth kinetics per condition were recorded up to 35days. Radius of the colony vs time was then fitted with the Buchanan primary model. For each experimental condition, a lag time variability was observed, it was characterized by its mean, standard deviation (sd) and 5 th percentile, after a Normal distribution fit. As the environmental conditions became stressful (e.g. storage temperature and a w lower), mean and sd of single spore lag time distribution increased, indicating longer lag times and higher variability. The relationship between mean and sd followed a monotonous but not linear pattern, identical whatever the species. Next, secondary models were deployed to estimate the cardinal values (minimal, optimal and maximal temperatures, minimal water activity where no growth is observed anymore) for the three species. That enabled to confirm the observation made based on raw data analysis: concerning the temperature effect, A. niger behaviour was significantly different from E. repens and P. corylophilum: T opt of 37.4°C (standard deviation 1.4°C) instead of 27.1°C (1.4°C) and 25.2°C (1.2°C), respectively. Concerning the a w effect, from the three mould species, E. repens was the species able to grow at the lowest a w (aw min estimated to 0.74 (0.02)). Finally, results obtained with single spores were compared to findings from a previous study carried out at the population level (Dagnas et al., 2014). For short lag times (≤5days), there was no difference between lag

  20. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  1. Edaphic restoration of the spoil banks of lignite mines in Galicia. Recuperacion edafica de los escombreras de minas de lignito en Galicia. 2(Influencia del encalado sobre les formas de acidez)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Sotres, F.; Leiros de la Pena, M.C.; Gonzalez Sangregorio, M.V.; Seoane Lavandeira, S.; Codesido Lopez, C.; Guitian Ojea, F. (Univ. Santiago, La Coruna (Spain). Fac. Farm., Lab. Edafol.)

    1989-01-01

    The influence of liming on clay spoil from the lignite mine at As Pontes (La Coruna, NW Spain), which has high soluble and exchange acidity and contains sulphur as pyrites, was studied in a 4 x 4 latin square experiment in which the plots were treated with 20 Tm CaCO{sub 3}/Ha, 40 Tm CaCO{sub 3}/Ha, 28 Tm Ca(OH){sub 2}/Ha or nothing. The various acidity fractions of the plots were monitored from July 1987 to May 1988. Though pH rose initially, to the extent that soluble and exchange acidity was virtually eliminated from the most heavily limed plots, all plots eventually regained the acidity spectrum of the controls. The cause of the poor efficiency of liming and of the difference between the performances of CaCO{sub 3} and Ca(OH){sub 2} is discussed. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 1 plot., 21 refs.

  2. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Van Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...

  3. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  4. Generale preventie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1949-01-01

    In part I of this study a survey has veen given of what Dutch authors have written since 1870, when capital punishment was abolished, on subjects concerning the general preventive effect of punishment. This historical survey ends where, during the years 1940-1945, under the stress of the occupation

  5. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  6. Generalized hypercementosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, A S; Garbarino, V E

    1987-03-01

    The case of an elderly female patient with a long-standing history of generalized hypercementosis is described. A thorough review of the literature indicates that this may be one of the most extensive cases of hypercementosis to be reported. Possible etiologic factors--including heredity, systemic disorders, chronic periapical infection, and abnormal occlusal trauma--are discussed.

  7. GENERAL Iarticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Supersymmetry. Akshay Kulkarni P Ramadevi. General Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 28-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/02/0028-0041. Keywords. Symmetry ...

  8. GENERAL Iarticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Supersymmetry. Akshay Kulkarni P Ramadevi. General Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 28-41 ... Author Affiliations. Akshay Kulkarni1 P Ramadevi1. Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  9. Necklaces: Generalizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    . A q-ary necklace of length n is an equivalence class of q-coloured strings of length n under rota- tion. In this article, we study various generaliza- tions and derive analytical expressions to count the number of these generalized necklaces.

  10. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, University of Cape Town Health Sciences Faculty, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town,. South Africa ... included all district, regional and tertiary hospitals in the nine provinces. Clinics and so-called ..... large contingency of senior general surgeons from countries such as Cuba, who have ...

  11. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General safety. 610.11 Section 610.11 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.11 General safety. A general safety test... for administration to humans. The general safety test is required in addition to other specific tests...

  12. Meeting Generalized Others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Willert, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Following George Herbert Mead, we contend that work-related organizational behavior requires continued negotiation of meaning – using linguistic, behavioral, and social tools. The meaning structures of the Generalized Other(s) of a particular employing organization provide the regulatory framewor...

  13. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen Grade B leaks required a combination of percutaneous drainage (n = 15), endoscopic ... through a bilateral subcostal incision with a vertical extension ... drainage. Management of bile leakage. Abdominal drains were removed when the drain fluid volume was less than 30 ml/24 hours and was serous with a.

  14. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    level, and no trend of higher serum amylase level requiring longer hospital stay could be identified. Graph 2 ... visceral perforation, or present in a delayed fashion due to retroperitoneal organ injury or mesenteric injury ... This is in keeping with available literature on pancreatic injury in particular that of Takishima et al. who ...

  15. General description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szatmary, Z.

    1983-01-01

    General experiences in nuclear power are summarized using statistical data revealing the significance of nuclear power in comparison with traditional power sources. Some causes of problems associated with nuclear power are listed, including world recession, high innovation costs, oversupply of nuclear power plants, low availabilities, insufficient arguments for reactor safety to facilitate public acceptance, unsolved waste disposal problems. To assure the world's long-term energy supply, development of commercial fast breeder reactors are suggested. (V.N.)

  16. Requirements Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Elizabeth; Dick, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Written for those who want to develop their knowledge of requirements engineering process, whether practitioners or students.Using the latest research and driven by practical experience from industry, Requirements Engineering gives useful hints to practitioners on how to write and structure requirements. It explains the importance of Systems Engineering and the creation of effective solutions to problems. It describes the underlying representations used in system modeling and introduces the UML2, and considers the relationship between requirements and modeling. Covering a generic multi-layer r

  17. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  18. Characterization of the Candida albicans Amino Acid Permease Family: Gap2 Is the Only General Amino Acid Permease and Gap4 Is an S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) Transporter Required for SAM-Induced Morphogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraidlová, Lucie; Schrevens, S.; Tournu, H.; Van Zeebroeck, G.; Sychrová, Hana; Van Dijck, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 6 (2016), č. článku e00284-16. ISSN 2379-5042 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03398S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Candida albicans * GAP1 * S-adenosyl methionine * general amino acid permease * morphogenesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  19. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes a course on general relativity. He first presents a geometrical framework by addressing, presenting and discussion the following notions: the relativistic space-time, the metric tensor, Universe lines, observers, principle of equivalence and geodesics. In the next part, he addresses gravitational fields with spherical symmetry: presentation of the Schwarzschild metrics, radial light geodesics, gravitational spectral shift (Einstein effect), orbitals of material objects, photon trajectories. The next parts address the Einstein equation, black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmological solutions. Appendices propose a discussion of the relationship between relativity and GPS, some problems and their solutions, and Sage codes

  20. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Jensen, Christian; Lando, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...... of Ross (2015). Our characterization is simple and intuitive, linking recovery to the relation between the number of time periods and the number of states. When recovery is feasible, our model is easy to implement, allowing a closed-form linearized solution. We implement our model empirically, testing...

  1. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...... of Ross (2015). Our characterization is simple and intuitive, linking recovery to the relation between the number of time periods on the number of states. When recovery is feasible, our model is easy to implement, allowing a closed-form linearized solution. We implement our model empirically, testing...

  2. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015......). Recovery is feasible when the number of maturities with observable prices is higher than the number of states of the economy (or the number of parameters characterizing the pricing kernel). When recovery is feasible, our model is easy to implement, allowing a closed-form linearized solution. We implement...... our model empirically, testing the predictive power of the recovered expected return and other recovered statistics....

  3. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  4. Environmental research - development of the material balance of oak tree ecosystems on quaternary spoil bank substrates of coal mines; Umweltforschung - Entwicklung des Stoffhaushaltes von Eichenoekosystemen auf quartaeren Kippsubstraten des Braunkohlenbergbaues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzur, J.; Knoche, D.

    2000-07-01

    Investigations have shown that even the very first forest generation on spoil banks already have high vitality. However, it is well known that pioneering terrestrial ecosystems have a high water and material turnover dynamics which will quickly influence the soil at that site but is not an indication of the development of a stable ecosystem. Long-term measurements were therefore made in oak forest ecosystems on quaternary spoil bank sands in order to achieve a quantification (Boxberg: Q. rubra L., 2 years; Kleinleipisch: Q. rubra L., 21 years; Annahuetter: Q. rubra L., 63 years). The results were compared with a virgin soil reference site (Neusorgefeld: Q. rubra L., 41 years). [German] Seit Jahrzehnten praegen Braunkohlentagebaue das Landschaftsbild und den Wasserhaushalt der Niederlausitz. Bislang wurden ca. 770 km{sup 2} ueberwiegend forstlich genutzter Flaechen devastiert und auf 2.100 km{sup 2} rund 9,5 Mrd. m{sup 3} statischer Grundwasservorraete entnommen. Im Zuge der seit 1990 drastisch verringerten Kohlefoerderung und forcierten Bergbausanierung erreicht die Rekultivierungsflaeche zwischenzeitlich rund 450 km{sup 2}, wobei die forstliche Folgenutzung mit 60% der Flaeche dominiert. Zahlreiche wachstumskundliche Untersuchungen belegen, dass sich bereits in der ersten Waldgeneration auf Kippe wuechsige und vitale Bestaende etablieren. Vegetations- und ertragskundliche Parameter wie z.B. Artenzusammensetzung, Naehrstoffversorgung, laufender Zuwachs oder Vorratshaltung sind jedoch per se noch keine hinreichenden Kriterien zur Einschaetzung der Entwicklungsdynamik und damit des angestrebten Rekultivierungserfolgs. Bekannterweise zeichnen sich im Aufbau befindliche terrestrische Oekosysteme generell durch eine ausgepraegte Wasser- und Stoffdynamik aus, welche im Zuge bodengenetischer Prozesse meist eine rasche Standortveraenderung bewirkt. Da das Standortpotential zum Rekultivierungszeitpunkt nicht prognostiziert werden kann, ist offen, ob sich bereits in der

  5. A dose titration study into the effects of diazepam or midazolam on the propofol dose requirements for induction of general anaesthesia in client owned dogs, premedicated with methadone and acepromazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rebecca; Borer-Weir, Kate

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effect of a benzodiazepine co-induction on propofol dose requirement for induction of anaesthesia in healthy dogs, to describe any differences between midazolam and diazepam and to determine an optimal benzodiazepine dose for co-induction. Prospective, randomised, blinded placebo controlled clinical trial. Ninety client owned dogs (ASA I-III, median body mass 21.5kg (IQR 10-33)) presented for anaesthesia for a variety of procedures. Dogs were randomised to receive saline 0.1 mL kg(-1) , midazolam or diazepam at 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 or 0.5 mg kg(-1) . All dogs received 0.01 mg kg(-1) acepromazine and 0.2 mg kg(-1) methadone intravenously (IV). Fifteen minutes later, sedation was assessed and scored prior to anaesthetic induction. Propofol, 1 mg kg(-1) , was administered IV, followed by the treatment drug. Further propofol was administered until endotracheal intubation was possible. Recorded data included patient signalment, sedation score, propofol dosage and any adverse reactions. Midazolam (all groups combined) significantly reduced propofol dose requirement compared to saline (p diazepam (p = 0.008). Midazolam (0.4 mg kg(-1) ) significantly reduced propofol dose requirement (p = 0.014) compared to saline, however other doses failed to reach statistical significance. Diazepam did not significantly reduce propofol dose requirement compared to saline (p = 0.089). Dogs weighing 40 kg (p = 0.008). Dogs which were profoundly sedated required less propofol than those which were mildly sedated (p diazepam did not have significant propofol dose sparing effects. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  6. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklisch, F.

    1984-01-01

    Growing complexity of technical matter has meant that technical expertise is called upon in more and more legal proceedings. The technical expert is, in general terms, the mediator between technology and the law, he is also entrusted with the task of pointing up the differences in approach and in the nature of authority in these two areas and thus paving the way for mutual understanding. The evaluation of the technical expert's opinion is one of the cardinal problems bound up with the role of the expert in legal procedure. After the presentation of the expert's opinion, the judge is supposed to possess so much specialised knowledge that he can assess the opinion itself in scientific and technical respects and put his finger on any errors the expert may have made. This problem can only be solved via an assessment opinion. First of all, the opinion can be assessed indirectly via evaluation of the credentials and the neutrality and independence of the expert. In direct terms, the opinion can be subjected to a certain - albeit restricted - scrutiny, whether it is generally convincing, as far as the layman is competent to judge. This interpretation alone makes it possible to classify and integrate legally the technical standards and regulations represent expert statements on the scientific and technical theorems based on the knowledge and experience gained in a given area. They are designed to reflect prevailing opinion among leading representatives of the profession and can thus themselves be regarded as expert opinions. As a rule, these opinions will have such weight that - other than in exceptional cases - they will not be invalidated in procedure by deviating opinions from individual experts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Memorandum of Understanding on Surface Coal Mining Operations Resulting in Placement of Excess Spoil Fills in the Waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOU on Surface Coal Mining Operations establishes a process for improving coordination in the review of permit applications required for surface coal mining and reclamation in waters of the United States

  8. Generalized fiber Fourier optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Gabriella

    2011-06-15

    A twofold generalization of the optical schemes that perform the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is given: new passive planar architectures are presented where the 2 × 2 3 dB couplers are replaced by M × M hybrids, reducing the number of required connections and phase shifters. Furthermore, the planar implementation of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) is also described, with a waveguide grating router (WGR) configuration and a properly modified slab coupler.

  9. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  10. Generalized gravity from modified DFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakatani, Yuho [Department of Physics, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine,Kyoto 606-0823 (Japan); Fields, Gravity and Strings, CTPU,Institute for Basic Sciences, Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Uehara, Shozo [Department of Physics, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine,Kyoto 606-0823 (Japan); Yoshida, Kentaroh [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-04-20

    Recently, generalized equations of type IIB supergravity have been derived from the requirement of classical kappa-symmetry of type IIB superstring theory in the Green-Schwarz formulation. These equations are covariant under generalized T-duality transformations and hence one may expect a formulation similar to double field theory (DFT). In this paper, we consider a modification of the DFT equations of motion by relaxing a condition for the generalized covariant derivative with an extra generalized vector. In this modified double field theory (mDFT), we show that the flatness condition of the modified generalized Ricci tensor leads to the NS-NS part of the generalized equations of type IIB supergravity. In particular, the extra vector fields appearing in the generalized equations correspond to the extra generalized vector in mDFT. We also discuss duality symmetries and a modification of the string charge in mDFT.

  11. General oilfield driver improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.

    1997-01-01

    The general oilfield driver improvement (GODI) course was discussed. The course is offered to truckers in the oil and gas industry to help reduce accidents and injuries. Oilfield trucking is one of the most accident and injury prone sectors in the Alberta economy. This paper presented Heck's Trucking company's experience in sending its employees on the course. Drivers were taught (1) the National safety code requirements, (2) Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance requirements, (3) occupational health and safety concerns, (4) vehicle dimension and GVW restrictions, (5) hours of service regulations, (6) log book and pre-trip inspection requirements, (7) workplace hazardous material information, and (8) transportation of dangerous goods. Overall, the course was judged to provide excellent training before sending drivers into the field. The employee, the customer, and the company, all stand to benefit from having rigorous and uniform standards for all drivers in the oil and gas industry

  12. The 'simple' general dental anaesthetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient who receives dental treatment under general anaesthesia is usually a child, one with special needs, or one who requires an extensive dental procedure. The term 'simple' general dental anaesthetic is therefore a misnomer. The concept of procedural sedation for dentistry is beyond the scope of this article. It.

  13. Technical requirements and general recommendations for the disposal of meat and bone meal and tallow; Technische Anforderungen und allgemeine Empfehlungen fuer die Entsorgung von Tiermehl und Tierfett in Verbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nottrodt, A.; Wandschneider, J.; Gutjahr, M.; Chibiorz, J. [Wandschneider und Gutjahr Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2001-02-19

    In December 2000 and January 2001 the current state of knowledge and experience of the combustion of meat and bone meal (MBM) and tallow was compiled and examined. Taken into account the existing regulations and recommendations, this report was written in order to provide guidance on techniques and standards for the thermal mal treatment of these materials. It is supposed to assist both operators of incineration plants and authorities to evaluate the suitability of a process and determine the necessary prerequisites. Lacks of knowledge are identified, and recommendations for gathering further information and experience are given in the report. The preparation of this report involved extensive discussions with representatives of incineration plants, governmental departments and MBM processing plants. The report includes physical and chemical data on MBM and tallow. It compiles the current experience with the combustion of MBM and offers requirements and recommendations. (orig.) [German] Im Dezember 2000 und Januar 2001 wurde der aktuelle Stand des Wissens und der Erfahrungen bei der Verbrennung von Tiermehl, Tierfett und sonstigen bei der Tierkoerperbeseitigung anfallenden Stoffe zusammengetragen und gesichtet. Auf dieser Grundlage, und gestuetzt auf die einschlaegige neuere Literatur sowie auf bereits bestehende Empfehlungen und Regelwerke, wurden Handlungshilfen abgeleitet, um schnellstens bundesweit den Betreibern von geeigneten industriellen thermischen Prozessen und Abfallverbrennungsanlagen sowie den beteiligten Genehmigungs- und Ueberwachungsbehoerden einen einheitlichen Handlungsrahmen fuer die thermische Behandlung dieser Stoffgruppe zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Es wurden auch Wissens- und Erfahrungsdefizite identifiziert; dazu werden im Bericht entsprechende Hinweise und Empfehlungen gegeben. Die Arbeitsplanung sah eine enge inhaltliche Diskussion mit den einschlaegigen Unternehmensverbaenden der Betreiber von thermischen Behandlungsanlagen einerseits und

  14. Mathematical modelling of transport of gaseous and liquid substances induced by pyrite oxidation in spoil banks of lignite mines; Mathematische Modellierung der durch Pyritoxidation induzierten Stofftransporte in Braunkohleabraumkippen in gasfoermiger und fluessiger Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, R.

    2001-07-01

    Pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) oxidation due to open-pit lignite mining activities may result in acid mine drainage and dissolved metals in the soil and ground water of the overburden spoil piles. The pyrite oxidation takes place firstly during the mining process and at the temporary surfaces of the mine, secondly in deep zones of the overburden spoil pile as a result of gas transport through the unsaturated zone. The second process continues after mine closure possibly over several decades and therefore contaminates the environment for a long time. Whereas some studies deal with a minimisation by geochemical means, this research focuses on a minimisation by impacting the physical boundary conditions. Special attention is given to the transport of oxygen from the soil surface to the pyrite oxidation zone. Soil column experiments with columns of 2.90 m height yield experimental data concerning the pyrite oxidation and the related transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Experimental data are compared to simulation results obtained with the model MUSIC; it calculates coupled reaction and transport processes in a one-dimensional soil profile using the finite volume method. Pyrite oxidation is described by means of a first order kinetics, the gas transport takes place by diffusion as well as convection. The transport of solutes in the soil water is described by the convection-dispersion equation (Cl{sup -}, Fe{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). The simulations are able to reproduce the measured time series of oxygen concentrations in the soil profile. (orig.) [German] Die durch Braunkohlegewinnung im Tagebau hervorgerufene Pyritoxidation (Pyrit: FeS{sub 2}) kann zu Versauerung, Schwermetallfreisetzung und Aufmineralisierung des Boden- und Grundwassers in den Abraumkippen fuehren. Die Pyritoxidation findet zum einen waehrend des Abbaubetriebs und an den temporaeren Oberflaechen des Tagebaus statt, zum anderen in tieferen Bereichen der Abraumkippe durch Gastransport durch die

  15. Generalized canonical correlation analysis with missing values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van de Velden (Michel); Y. Takane

    2012-01-01

    textabstractGeneralized canonical correlation analysis is a versatile technique that allows the joint analysis of several sets of data matrices. The generalized canonical correlation analysis solution can be obtained through an eigenequation and distributional assumptions are not required. When

  16. Investigations of water pollution effects of mining spoil heaps depending on the period of existence. Final report. Part project 2; Untersuchungen gewaesserrelevanter Einfluesse von Bergbauhalden in Abhaengigkeit von der Standzeit. Abschlussbericht. Teilprojekt 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puchelt, H.; Stueben, D.; Berner, Z.; Kappes, B.

    1996-12-01

    Apart form the main elements, the Wiesloch Ag-Pb-Zn mineralisation contains a series of higly toxic trace elements. The main ore minerals of galena, zinc blende and Menikow pyrites also contain Tl, Cd, As and Sb up to the precent range. The main and trace element contents of ores, flotation residues and slags were examined in detail. Their weathering properties were estimated, depending on the time of existence, from new secondary mineral formations. An element displacement from the spoil heaps reaching several decimetres in the ceiling was shown. Strong contamination can be proved by washing out and dispersion of As and Tl in agriculturally used areas and can be found in plants. Using elution experiments, the metal release of hevy metals and arsenic from ores, flotation wastes and slags was examined for the quantitative estimation of the material transfer. Also, the excellent suitability of synthetic Fe-Mn hydroxides for the decontamination of water containing arsenic and heavy metals was shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Wieslocher Ag-Pb-Zn-Vererzung enthaelt neben den Hauptelementen eine Reihe von hochtoxischen Spurenelementen. Die Haupterzminerale Bleiglanz, Zinkblende und Melnikowitpyrit enthalten zusaetzlich Tl, Cd, As sowie Sb bis in den Prozentbereich. Im Detail wurde der Haupt- und Spurenelementgehalt von Erzen, Flotationsrueckstaenden und Schlacken untersucht. Ihre Verwitterungseigenschaften wurden in Abhaengigkeit der Standzeit anhand von sekundaeren Mineralneubildungen abgeschaetzt. Eine mehrere dm-weit reichende Elementverlagerung aus Halden in das Liegende (Loessdecke) konnte nachgewiesen werden. Starke Kontaminationen sind durch Auswaschung und Dispersion von As und Tl in landwirtschaftlich genutzen Flaechen nachzuweisen und in Pflanzen wiederfindbar. Zur quantitativen Abschaetzung des Stofftransfers wurde anhand von Elutionsversuchen die Metallfreisetzung von Schwermetallen und Arsen aus Erz, Flotationsabgaengen und Schlacken untersucht. Ausserdem konnte

  17. Recruitment of general practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Allan; Jensen, Cathrine E; Maindal, Helle T

    2016-01-01

    -factors as determinants for successfully recruiting healthcare professionals: relationships, reputation, requirements, rewards, reciprocity, resolution, and respect. METHOD: This is a process evaluation of the seven R-factors. We applied these factors to guide the design of our recruitment strategy as well as to make...... adjustments when recruiting general practices in a guideline implementation study. In the guideline implementation study, we studied the effect of outreach visits, quality reports, and new patient stratification tools for low back pain patients. RESULTS: During a period of 15 months, we recruited 60 practices...

  18. General engineering knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Mcgeorge, H D

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the general engineering knowledge required by candidates for the Department of Transport's Certificates of Competency in Marine Engineering, Class One and Class Two. The text is updated throughout in this third edition, and new chapters have been added on production of fresh water and on noise and vibration. Reference is also provided to up-to-date papers and official publications on specialized topics. These updates ensure that this little volume will continue to be a useful pre-examination and revision text. - Marine Engineers Review, January 1992

  19. 40 CFR 85.1401 - General applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1401 General applicability. The requirements of this subpart shall be applicable to 1993 and earlier model year urban buses...

  20. General relativity basics and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Date, Ghanashyam

    2015-01-01

    A Broad Perspective on the Theory of General Relativity and Its Observable Implications General Relativity: Basics and Beyond familiarizes students and beginning researchers with the basic features of the theory of general relativity as well as some of its more advanced aspects. Employing the pedagogical style of a textbook, it includes essential ideas and just enough background material needed for readers to appreciate the issues and current research. Basics The first five chapters form the core of an introductory course on general relativity. The author traces Einstein’s arguments and presents examples of space-times corresponding to different types of gravitational fields. He discusses the adaptation of dynamics in a Riemannian geometry framework, the Einstein equation and its elementary properties, and different phenomena predicted or influenced by general relativity. Beyond Moving on to more sophisticated features of general relativity, the book presents the physical requirements of a well-defined de...

  1. General dental practitioner's views on dental general anaesthesia services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, A G; King, D; Milsom, K M; Blinkhom, A S; Tickle, M

    2007-06-01

    Policy has recently changed on provision of dental general anaesthetic services in England. The aim of this study was to investigate general dental practitioners' views about dental general anaesthetics, the reduction in its availability and the impact on care of children with toothache. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and clinical case scenarios. General dental practitioners providing NHS services in the North West of England. 93 general dental practitioners were interviewed and 91 answered a clinical case scenario about the care they would provide for a 7-year-old child with multiple decayed teeth presenting with toothache. Scenario responses showed variation; 8% would immediately refer for general anaesthesia, 25% would initially prescribe antibiotics, but the majority would attempt to either restore or extract the tooth causing pain. Interview responses also demonstrated variation in care, however most dentists agree general anaesthesia has a role for nervous children but only refer as a last resort. The responses indicated an increase in inequalities, and that access to services did not match population needs, leaving some children waiting in pain. Most general dental practitioners support moving dental general anaesthesia into hospitals but some believe that it has widened health inequalities and there is also a problem associated with variation in treatment provision. Additional general anaesthetic services in some areas with high levels of tooth decay are needed and evidence based guidelines about caring for children with toothache are required.

  2. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  3. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ), calcium sulfite (CaSO 3 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO 4 2H 2 O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments

  4. Personalized and not general suggestion produces false autobiographical memories and suggestion-consistent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Jarry, Josée L; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Suggesting false childhood events produces false autobiographical beliefs, memories and suggestion-consistent behavior. The mechanisms by which suggestion affects behavior are not understood, and whether false beliefs and memories are necessary for suggestions to impact behavior remains unexplored. We examined the relative effects of providing a personalized suggestion (suggesting that an event occurred to the person in the past), and/or a general suggestion (suggesting that an event happened to others in the past). Participants (N=122) received a personalized suggestion, a general suggestion, both or neither, about childhood illness due to spoiled peach yogurt. The personalized suggestion resulted in false beliefs, false memories, and suggestion-consistent behavioral intentions immediately after the suggestion. One week or one month later participants completed a taste test that involved eating varieties of crackers and yogurts. The personalized suggestion led to reduced consumption of only peach yogurt, and those who reported a false memory showed the most eating suppression. This effect on behavior was equally strong after one week and one month, showing a long lived influence of the personalized suggestion. The general suggestion showed no effects. Suggestions that convey personal information about a past event produce false autobiographical memories, which in turn impact behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 1301.71 - Security requirements generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... buildings; (6) The type of vault, safe, and secure enclosures or other storage system (e.g., automatic...) The adequacy of key control systems and/or combination lock control systems; (9) The adequacy of...

  6. 48 CFR 22.404-2 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... types of construction (building, heavy, highway, etc.) or include the entire wage determination and... construction of sheltered enclosures with walk-in access, for housing persons, machinery, equipment, or..., residential, or heavy construction. (4) Heavy construction includes those projects that are not properly...

  7. 49 CFR 1562.21 - Scope, general requirements, and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY OPERATIONS IN THE... by TSA and the Federal Aviation Administration; (3) All-cargo aircraft operations; and (4) Passenger... under this part for aircraft operations into and out of DCA. FBO means a fixed base operator that has...

  8. 49 CFR 194.107 - General response plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... organization's role and the Federal On Scene Coordinator's role in pollution response; (ii) Establish... management system including the functional areas of finance, logistics, operations, planning, and command...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4581). Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972, as amended (21 U.S.C. 1174.... 1271 et seq.). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act (7...

  10. 12 CFR 226.5 - General disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... parties. If any information necessary for accurate disclosure is unknown to the creditor, it shall make... been imposed. A periodic statement need not be sent for an account if the creditor deems it... between the parties. If any information necessary for accurate disclosure is unknown to the creditor, it...

  11. 49 CFR 178.35 - General requirements for specification cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of part 107 of this chapter; or (2) For DOT Specifications 3B, 3BN, 3E, 4B, 4BA, 4D (water capacity...) The word “spun” or “plug” must be placed near the DOT specification marking when an end closure in the... certifies that the processes of manufacture and heat treatment of cylinders were observed and found...

  12. 49 CFR 176.600 - General stowage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POISON label, being transported on a vessel, must be stowed clear of living quarters and any ventilation ducts serving living quarters and separated from foodstuffs, except when the hazardous materials and the.... (c) Each package bearing a POISON label displaying the text “PG III” or bearing a “PG III” mark...

  13. 49 CFR 176.800 - General stowage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be stowed clear of living quarters, and away from foodstuffs and cargo of an organic nature. (b) A...) which also bears a FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be stowed away from all sources of heat and ignition...

  14. 7 CFR 764.101 - General eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... national, or a qualified alien under applicable Federal immigration laws. (d) Credit history. The applicant must have acceptable credit history demonstrated by debt repayment. (1) As part of the credit history... the debt forgiveness in determining the applicant's credit worthiness. (3) A history of failures to...

  15. 17 CFR 4.34 - General disclosures required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contents. A table of contents showing, by subject matter, the location of the disclosures made in the... interests the commodity trading advisor intends to trade, with a description of any restrictions or... fee is based on an increase in the value of the client's commodity interest account, the trading...

  16. 49 CFR 544.5 - General requirements for reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; (7) Include a glossary defining all acronyms and terms of art used in the report, unless those acronyms and terms of art are defined immediately after they first appear in the report; (8) Be submitted in three copies to: Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh Street...

  17. 14 CFR 302.4 - General requirements as to documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... has an Expedited Processing Sheet that filers can use to assist in preparing this index for submission... subject index of the matter in such document, with page references. (b) Verification: The following...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1773-99 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specified factor. The test vehicles shall not be subject to a diurnal heat build prior to the cold start..., etc.); (ii) Catalyst system (e.g., electrically heated catalyst, close-coupled catalyst, underfloor catalyst, etc.); (iii) Control system type (e.g., mass-air flow, speed density, etc.); (iv) Vehicle...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.250 - General requirements for storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) When masonry blocks are stacked higher than 6 feet, the stack shall be tapered back one-half block per... lumber to be handled manually shall not be stacked more than 16 feet high. (9) Structural steel, poles...

  20. 18 CFR 292.203 - General requirements for qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certification, pursuant to § 292.207(b)(1), that has been granted. (c) Hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. (1) A hydroelectric small power production facility that..., pursuant to § 292.207(b)(1), that has been granted. (c) Hydroelectric small power production facilities...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.5 - General eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of situations involving the death of a producer, CCC will consider an estate and a person to whom... width of the bale, broken in half or split lengthwise, and otherwise drawn under Agricultural Marketing...

  2. 9 CFR 113.450 - General requirements for antibody products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and standards concerning antibody products shall mean: Antibody. An immunoglobulin molecule, having a... synthesis. IgG (Immunoglobulin G). One of the several recognized classes of structurally related..., or recreation. (d) Collection procedures. Blood, lacteal secretions, and egg material shall be...

  3. 47 CFR 15.209 - Radiated emission limits; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...), fundamental emissions from intentional radiators operating under this section shall not be located in the... fundamental emission. For intentional radiators which operate under the provisions of other sections within... incorporated digital device. (g) Perimeter protection systems may operate in the 54-72 MHz and 76-88 MHz bands...

  4. 10 CFR 73.20 - General performance objective and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any site or contiguous sites subject to control by the licensee; is authorized to transport or deliver... special nuclear material; takes delivery of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material free... constitute an unreasonable risk to the public health and safety. The physical protection system shall be...

  5. 50 CFR 21.12 - General exceptions to permit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., as amended (40 Stat. 755; 16 U.S.C. 703-(711), may, without a permit, take or otherwise acquire, hold in custody, transport, and dispose of migratory birds or their parts, nests, or eggs as necessary in performing their official duties. (b) Employees of certain public and private institutions: (b)(1) State game...

  6. 38 CFR 53.11 - General requirements for payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short-term scholarships for continuing nursing education, sign-on bonuses for nurses, student loan... or more of the following: Adult day health care, domiciliary care, hospital care, or nursing home care; (3) The SVH has a nursing shortage that is documented by credible evidence, including but not...

  7. 46 CFR 161.002-4 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... certified as meeting these standards by an independent laboratory that is accepted by the Commandant under... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... vibration and the adverse effects of sea humidity. (b) Standards. (1) All fire-protective systems must be...

  8. 47 CFR 15.611 - General technical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... limits—(1) Medium voltage power lines. (i) Access BPL systems that operate in the frequency range of 1... § 15.109(b). (2) Low voltage power lines. Access BPL systems that operate over low-voltage power lines... radiated emission limits upon power-up following a fault condition, or during a start-up operation after a...

  9. 49 CFR 232.105 - General requirements for locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locomotives. (a) The air brake equipment on a locomotive shall be in safe and suitable condition for service... set pressure at any service application with the brakes control valve in the freight position. If such... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER...

  10. 40 CFR 141.201 - General public notification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminant level (MCL), maximum residual disinfection level (MRDL), treatment technique (TT), monitoring... comply with a prescribed treatment technique (TT). (iii) Failure to perform water quality monitoring, as...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking...

  11. 40 CFR 60.19 - General notification and reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... written communication to the Administrator, the owner or operator shall postmark the submittal on or... the postmark provided by the U.S. Postal Service, or alternative means of delivery, including the use of electronic media, agreed to by the permitting authority, is acceptable. (c) Notwithstanding time...

  12. 42 CFR 413.75 - Direct GME payments: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Street, Chicago, Illinois 60610; or (ii) The Annual Report and Reference Handbook published by the... appropriate specialty board. Rural track FTE limitation means the maximum number of residents (as specified in.... Rural track or integrated rural track means an approved medical residency training program established...

  13. 49 CFR 178.338-1 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... purposes of this section— (1) Design pressure means the “MAWP” as used in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), and is the gauge pressure at the top of the tank. (2) Design... gauge to indicate the absolute pressure within the insulation space. (e) The insulation must be...

  14. 21 CFR 50.23 - Exception from general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., radiological, or nuclear agent that would suggest a terrorism event or other public health emergency. (ii... each subject or the subject's legally authorized representative. (6) No State or political subdivision... chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agent in suspected terrorism events and other potential...

  15. 40 CFR 86.230-11 - Test sequence: general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compartment cooling. (1) Fixed speed air cooling of the engine compartment with the compartment cover open... fuel economy testing, alternative engine compartment cooling fans or systems, including those which... test. Additionally, the Administrator may conduct certification, fuel economy and in-use testing using...

  16. 40 CFR 86.230-94 - Test sequence: general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compartment cooling. (1) Fixed speed air cooling of the engine compartment with the compartment cover open... fuel economy testing, alternative engine compartment cooling fans or systems, including those which... Administrator may conduct certification, fuel economy and in-use testing using the additional cooling set-up...

  17. 30 CFR 780.11 - Operation plan: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including, at a minimum, the following: (a) A narrative description of the type and method of coal mining procedures and proposed engineering techniques, anticipated annual and total production of coal, by tonnage, and the major equipment to be used for all aspects of those operations; and (b) A narrative explaining...

  18. 30 CFR 784.11 - Operation plan: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including, at a minimum, the following: (a) A narrative description of the type and method of coal mining procedures and proposed engineering techniques, anticipated annual and total production of coal, by tonnage, and the major equipment to be used for all aspects of those operations; and (b) A narrative explaining...

  19. 30 CFR 780.18 - Reclamation plan: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... based upon analysis of the thickness of soil horizons, total depth, texture, percent coarse fragments, p... chemical and physical analyses, field-site trials, or greenhouse tests if determined to be necessary or... appropriate, and pest and disease control measures, if any; and (vi) Measures proposed to be used to determine...

  20. 30 CFR 784.13 - Reclamation plan: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... based upon analysis of the thickness of soil horizons, total depth, texture, percent coarse fragments, p... chemical and physical analyses, field-site trials, or greenhouse tests if determined to be necessary or... appropriate, and pest and disease control measures, if any; (vi) Measures proposed to be used to determine the...

  1. 49 CFR 173.60 - General packaging requirements for explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... initiation that is sensitive to external electromagnetic radiation, must have its means of initiation... where the differences in internal and external pressures, due to thermal or other effects, could cause... its own means of ignition or initiation, it must be effectively protected from accidental actuation...

  2. 30 CFR 816.111 - Revegetation: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING... characteristics of growth as the original vegetation; (3) Be capable of self-regeneration and plant succession; (4...

  3. 30 CFR 817.111 - Revegetation: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING... characteristics of growth as the original vegetation; (3) Be capable of self-regeneration and plant succession; (4...

  4. 30 CFR 779.24 - Maps: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... upon which the applicant has the legal right to enter and begin surface mining activities; (c) The....24 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY...

  5. 7 CFR 205.501 - General requirements for accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... discrimination because of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs... any person, including contractors, with conflicts of interest from work, discussions, and decisions in...

  6. 40 CFR 725.25 - General administrative requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: The company named in this submission intends to manufacture, import, or process for a commercial... generated using e-PMN reporting software and be completed through the finalization step of the software, and e-PMN software must be used to print the biotechnology notice submission to be sent to EPA. Paper...

  7. 40 CFR 86.130-96 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles. (c) Ambient temperature levels encountered by the test vehicle shall be not less than 68 °F nor... from one soak area to another, provided the ambient temperature experienced by the vehicle is never... all sources of evaporative emissions. The supplemental two-diurnal test sequence is designed to verify...

  8. 46 CFR 111.87-3 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable UL 484 or UL 1042 construction standards (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) or... switch. (d) Each heater for bulkhead mounting must have its top slanted or otherwise designed to prevent... ambient temperature of 25 degrees C must be used. ...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1230-96 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gaseous-fueled vehicles. (c) Ambient temperature levels encountered by the test vehicle shall be not less... the vehicle from one soak area to another, provided the ambient temperature experienced by the vehicle... designed to verify that vehicles sufficiently purge their evaporative canisters during the dynamometer run...

  10. 49 CFR 543.5 - Petition: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTION FROM VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD... lines to be exempted, and identify that model year; (5) Identify the passenger motor vehicle line or...

  11. 7 CFR 764.108 - General insurance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... covered by hazard insurance if it is readily available (sold by insurance agents in the applicant's normal... for the insurance indemnity payment or as a beneficiary in the mortgagee loss payable clause. (b) Real estate security located in flood or mudslide prone areas must be covered by flood or mudslide insurance...

  12. 46 CFR 160.044-3 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... removable for cleaning without the use of tools. The suction line shall contain no hose or fittings subject... clamp type male hose connection, with inside diameter not less than that of the pump discharge opening. ...

  13. 49 CFR 107.502 - General registration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Cargo tank motor vehicle, Design Certifying Engineer, Registered Inspector, and Person are defined in... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROGRAM PROCEDURES Registration of Cargo Tank and Cargo Tank Motor Vehicle Manufacturers...

  14. 18 CFR 157.6 - Applications; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rate design and under the pipeline's proposed rates, a detailed rate impact analysis by rate schedule (including by zone, if applicable), and an analysis reflecting the impact of the fuel usage resulting from... the pamphlet and indicate its availability at the Commission's Internet address; (iii) A description...

  15. 45 CFR 690.116 - General requirements for informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... statement that participation is voluntary, refusal to participate will involve no penalty or loss of...) Nothing in this policy is intended to limit the authority of a physician to provide emergency medical care...

  16. 22 CFR 225.116 - General requirements for informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is voluntary, refusal to participate will involve no penalty or loss of benefits to which the subject... authority of a physician to provide emergency medical care, to the extent the physician is permitted to do...

  17. 38 CFR 16.116 - General requirements for informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... statement that participation is voluntary, refusal to participate will involve no penalty or loss of...) Nothing in this policy is intended to limit the authority of a physician to provide emergency medical care...

  18. 16 CFR 1028.116 - General requirements for informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statement that participation is voluntary, refusal to participate will involve no penalty or loss of...) Nothing in this policy is intended to limit the authority of a physician to provide emergency medical care...

  19. 49 CFR 11.116 - General requirements for informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is voluntary, refusal to participate will involve no penalty or loss of benefits to which the subject... authority of a physician to provide emergency medical care, to the extent the physician is permitted to do...

  20. 32 CFR 219.116 - General requirements for informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... statement that participation is voluntary, refusal to participate will involve no penalty or loss of...) Nothing in this policy is intended to limit the authority of a physician to provide emergency medical care...