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Sample records for spodoptera fugiperda fall

  1. Flavonoids of zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) cultivars varying in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) resistance.

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    Anderson, William F; Snook, Maurice E; Johnson, Albert W

    2007-03-07

    Flavonoid profiles of 12 zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) cultivars sampled six times in 1998 were correlated to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) larval weights and survival on replicated field-grown plant material and analyzed to determine genetic and seasonal variations of flavonoids among zoysiagrass cultivars. From multiple regression analyses and correlations, flavonoid peak 10 (luteolin-glucoside) had the greatest positive association with average fall armyworm weight; however, resistance appeared to be correlated with a number of other flavonoids. The flavonoid profiles of cultivars subjected to clustering procedures showed consistent genetic variability for five of six samplings and was used to genotype 23 cultivars. The dendrogram supported the results of the FASTCLUS procedure in clustering certain genotypes such as fall armyworm-resistant Cavalier and Zeon together, as well as J-36 and Meyer. Flavonoid evaluations measure genetic relatedness among cultivars and could be used for selective breeding of resistance to fall armyworm.

  2. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Clem Rollie J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the genome sequences of lepidopteran insects, although this group of insects has been studied extensively in the fields of endocrinology, development, immunity, and pathogen-host interactions. In addition, cell lines derived from Spodoptera frugiperda and other lepidopteran insects are routinely used for baculovirus foreign gene expression. This study reports the results of an expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing project in cells from the lepidopteran insect S. frugiperda, the fall armyworm. Results We have constructed an EST database using two cDNA libraries from the S. frugiperda-derived cell line, SF-21. The database consists of 2,367 ESTs which were assembled into 244 contigs and 951 singlets for a total of 1,195 unique sequences. Conclusion S. frugiperda is an agriculturally important pest insect and genomic information will be instrumental for establishing initial transcriptional profiling and gene function studies, and for obtaining information about genes manipulated during infections by insect pathogens such as baculoviruses.

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

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    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  4. Managing fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with Bt maize and insecticides in southern Brazil.

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    Burtet, Leonardo M; Bernardi, Oderlei; Melo, Adriano A; Pes, Maiquel P; Strahl, Thiago T; Guedes, Jerson Vc

    2017-12-01

    Maize plants expressing insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis are valuable options for managing fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, in Brazil. However, control failures were reported, and therefore insecticides have been used to control this species. Based on these, we evaluated the use of Bt maize and its integration with insecticides against FAW in southern Brazil. Early-planted Agrisure TL, Herculex, Optimum Intrasect and non-Bt maize plants were severely damaged by FAW and required up to three insecticidal sprays. In contrast, YieldGard VT Pro, YieldGard VT Pro 3, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 showed little damage and did not require insecticides. Late-planted Bt maize plants showed significant damage by FAW and required up to four sprays, with the exceptions of Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3. Exalt (first and second sprays); Lannate + Premio (first spray) and Avatar (second spray); and Karate + Match (first spray) and Ampligo (second spray) were the most effective insecticides against FAW larvae in Bt and non-Bt maize. Maize plants expressing Cry proteins exhibited FAW control failures in southern Brazil, necessitating insecticidal sprays. In contrast, Bt maize containing the Vip3Aa20 protein remained effective against FAW. However, regardless of the insecticide used against FAW surviving on Bt maize, grain yields were similar. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda.

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    Renato A Carvalho

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is an economically important pest of small grain crops that occurs in all maize growing regions of the Americas. The intensive use of chemical pesticides for its control has led to the selection of resistant populations, however, to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance have not been characterised. In this study the mechanisms involved in the resistance of two S. frugiperda strains collected in Brazil to chlorpyrifos (OP strain or lambda-cyhalothrin (PYR strain were investigated using molecular and genomic approaches. To examine the possible role of target-site insensitivity the genes encoding the organophosphate (acetylcholinesterase, AChE and pyrethroid (voltage-gated sodium channel, VGSC target-site proteins were PCR amplified. Sequencing of the S. frugiperda ace-1 gene identified several nucleotide changes in the OP strain when compared to a susceptible reference strain (SUS. These result in three amino acid substitutions, A201S, G227A and F290V, that have all been shown previously to confer organophosphate resistance in several other insect species. Sequencing of the gene encoding the VGSC in the PYR strain, identified mutations that result in three amino acid substitutions, T929I, L932F and L1014F, all of which have been shown previously to confer knockdown/super knockdown-type resistance in several arthropod species. To investigate the possible role of metabolic detoxification in the resistant phenotype of the OP and PYR stains all EST sequences available for S. frugiperda were used to design a gene-expression microarray. This was then used to compare gene expression in the resistant strains with the susceptible reference strain. Members of several gene families, previously implicated in metabolic resistance in other insects were found to be overexpressed in the resistant strains including glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome P450s and carboxylesterases. Taken together these results

  6. Control of the release of digestive enzymes in the larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

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    Lwalaba, Digali; Hoffmann, Klaus H; Woodring, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    There is a basal level of enzyme activity for trypsin, aminopeptidase, amylase, and lipase in the gut of unfed larval (L6) Spodoptera frugiperda. Trypsin activity does not decrease with non-feeding, possibly because of the low protein levels in plants along with high amino acid requirements for growth and storage (for later reproduction in adults). Therefore, trypsin must always be present so that only a minimal protein loss via egestion occurs. Larvae, however, adjust amylase activity to carbohydrate ingestion, and indeed amylase activity is five-fold higher in fed larvae compared to unfed larvae. Gut lipase activity is low, typical of insects with a high carbohydrate diet. A flat-sheet preparation of the ventriculus was used to measure the release of enzymes in response to specific nutrients and known brain/gut hormones in S. frugiperda. Sugars greatly increase (>300%) amylase release, but starch has no effect. Proteins and amino acids have little or no effect on trypsin or aminopeptidase release. The control of enzyme release in response to food is likely mediated through neurohormones. Indeed, an allatostatin (Spofr-AS A5) inhibits amylase and trypsin, and allatotropin (Manse- AT) stimulates amylase and trypsin release. Spofr-AS A5 also inhibits ileum myoactivity and Manse-AT stimulates myoactivity. The epithelial secretion rate of amylase and trypsin was about 20% of the amount of enzyme present in the ventricular lumen, which, considering the efficient counter-current recycling of enzymes, suggests that the secretion rate is adequate to replace egested enzymes. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Resistance in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) to the Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James A. Reinert; M. C. Engelke

    2010-01-01

    .... Twelve cultivars and genotypes of zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) were evaluated for resistance to both neonate and 4-d-old fall armyworm larvae. Three cultivars, ‘Cavalier’, ‘Emerald’, and ‘Belair...

  8. Estimation of resistance allele frequency to maize incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in field populations of the fall army Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from south region of the United State

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    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South Americas. In the falls of 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were es...

  9. AUTOCORRELAÇÃO ESPACIAL NA AVALIAÇÃO DE COMPOSTOS DE MILHO PARA RESISTÊNCIA À LAGARTA DO CARTUCHO (Spodoptera frugiperda SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION IN THE EVALUATION OF MAIZE COMPOSITES FOR RESISTANCE TO FALL ARMYWORM (Spodoptera frugiperda

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    José Branco de Miranda Filho

    2007-09-01

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    Foram gerados três compostos de milho (CRL-01, CRL-02 e CRL-03 entre materiais adaptados e materiais exóticos, com históricos de resistência à lagarta do cartucho (Spodoptera frugiperda. Famílias de irmãos germanos dos três compostos foram avaliadas para resistência à lagarta, usando uma escala de notas variando de 0 (sem danos a 5 (cartucho destruído. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com duas repetições. Dois modelos foram considerados: um modelo com erros independentes e outro assumindo erros espacialmente correlacionados (análise espacial. Na análise espacial a matriz de covariâncias de resíduos (R foi construída conforme a autocorrelação espacial detectada em cada experimento. O teste de Durbin-Watson foi usado para verificar presença da autocorrelação espacial entre parcelas, a qual foi altamente significativa. O alcance prático da autocorrelação espacial foi de cerca 1,5 m. A adoção da análise espacial permitiu uma melhoria no controle da variação local, resultando numa redução das estimativas das variâncias residuais e, conseqüentemente, num aumento dos coeficientes de herdabilidade estimados, com melhorias nos ganhos esperados com a seleção. O ordenamento das progênies foi alterado dependendo da escolha do modelo de análise. A analise espacial, nessas circunstâncias, foi mais apropriada que a análise com erros independentes.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Germoplasma exótico; autocorrelação espacial; modelos mistos; BLUP.

    Composites of maize (CRL-01, CRL-02 and CRL-03 were synthesized from crosses of adapted materials with exotic materials that have shown resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda. Full-sib progenies from the three composites were evaluated for

  10. Lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyphenozide on the development, survival and reproduction of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

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    Zarate, N.; Diaz, O. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Facultad de Agronomia; Martinez, A.M.; Figueroa, J.I.; Pineda, S., E-mail: spineda_us@yahoo.co [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Tarimbaro, Michoacan (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales; Schneider, M.I. [National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CEPAVE/CCT/CONICET), La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Estudios Parasitologicos y de Vectores. Centro Cientifico Tecnologico; Smagghe, G. [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium). Faculty of Bioscience Engineering. Lab of Agrozoology; Vinuela, E.; Budia, F. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Madrid (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos. Proteccion de Cultivos

    2011-01-15

    The lethal and sublethal effects of the ecdysone agonist methoxyphenozide on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were investigated by feeding a methoxyphenozide-treated diet to fifth instars until pupation in doses corresponding to the LC{sub 10} and LC{sub 25} for the compound. Larval mortality reached 8% and 26% in the low and high concentration groups, respectively, on the seventh day of the experiment. A progressive larval mortality of 12% for the LC{sub 10} and 60% for the LC{sub 25} was observed before pupation. Treated larvae exhibited lower pupal weights, higher pupal mortality, presence of deformed pupae, and more deformed adults than untreated larvae. The incorporation of methoxyfenozide into the diet had a significant effect on the timing of larval development. The development period for males and females was about seven days longer than the controls for both concentrations tested. In contrast, the compound affected neither pupae nor adult longevity. Finally, S. frugiperda adults that resulted from fifth instars treated with methoxyfenozide were not affected in their mean cumulative number of eggs laid per female (fecundity), nor percentages of eggs hatched (fertility), or the sex ratio. Our results suggest that the combination of lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide may have important implications for the population dynamics of the fall armyworm. (author)

  11. Revisión de los hospederos del gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Review of the host plants of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Augusto Casmuz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de actualizar los hospederos citados para Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. La búsqueda de hospederos fue agrupada por zona y país. Para el norte del Continente Americano, se incluyeron las citas encontradas para EE.UU., México, América Central e islas del Caribe. En Sudamérica, se agruparon todos los países del cono sur, a excepción de la Argentina, la cual fue considerada por separado. Se encontraron un total de 186 hospederos, repartidos en 42 familias. Entre los hospederos más citados, el 35,5% perteneció a la familia Poaceae, el 11,3% a la familia Fabaceae, a la familia Solanaceae y Asteraceae un 4,3 % cada una, siguiéndoles las Rosaceae y Chenopodiaceae con un 3,7% cada una y, finalmente, las Brassicaceae y Cyperaceae con un 3,2%. Del total de plantas encontradas (186 el 64% se hallaron presentes en Norteamérica y Centroamérica, un 53% en Sudamérica y un 32% en Argentina. Las especies más citadas fueron (en orden decreciente para Norteamérica: maíz, sorgo, maní, grama bermuda, caña de azúcar y arroz; para Sudamérica: maíz, arroz, sorgo, poroto, algodón y maní; y por último, en Argentina fueron: maíz, soja, algodón, alfalfa, tomate, lino, papa y sorgo. También se aporta información sobre su ciclo de vida, hábitos y comportamiento sobre los principales hospederos, migración y biotipos.In order to update records of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith host plants, a bibliographic review was made. Host plant search was organized into groups per zones and countries. Records from the U.S., Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean Islands were grouped together as belonging to Northern America. As South American records, all reports were included except for those from Argentina. 186 host plants were found and they belong to 42 different families. The most cited hosts are part of the following families: Poaceae (35.5%, Fabaceae (11.3%, Solanaceae and

  12. Accumulation of dsRNA in endosomes contributes to inefficient RNA interference in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

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    Yoon, June-Sun; Gurusamy, Dhandapani; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2017-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) efficiency varies among insects studied. The barriers for successful RNAi include the presence of double-stranded ribonucleases (dsRNase) in the lumen and hemolymph that could potentially digest double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and the variability in the transport of dsRNA into and within the cells. We recently showed that the dsRNAs are transported into lepidopteran cells, but they are not processed into small interference RNAs (siRNAs) because they are trapped in acidic bodies. In the current study, we focused on the identification of acidic bodies in which dsRNAs accumulate in Sf9 cells. Time-lapse imaging studies showed that dsRNAs enter Sf9 cells and accumulate in acidic bodies within 20 min after their addition to the medium. CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA also accumulated in the midgut and fat body dissected from Spodoptera frugiperda larvae with similar patterns observed in Sf9 cells. Pharmacological inhibitor assays showed that the dsRNAs use clathrin mediated endocytosis pathway for transport into the cells. We investigated the potential dsRNA accumulation sites employing LysoTracker and double labeling experiments using the constructs to express a fusion of green fluorescence protein with early or late endosomal marker proteins and CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA. Interestingly, CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA accumulated predominantly in early and late endosomes. These data suggest that entrapment of internalized dsRNA in endosomes is one of the major factors contributing to inefficient RNAi response in lepidopteran insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interação silício com inseticida regulador de crescimento no manejo da lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em milho Interaction of silicon with growth regulating insecticide in the management of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in corn plants

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    Danila Kelly Pereira Neri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do silício aplicado via solo e foliar, bem como sua interação com o inseticida regulador de crescimento (lufenuron no manejo de Spodoptera frugiperda em plantas de milho, foi realizado um ensaio em casa-de-vegetação e em laboratório, constando de nove tratamentos com cinco repetições. No laboratório do Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG, avaliou-se a preferência das lagartas por folhas destacadas de plantas de milho provenientes dos diferentes tratamentos, bem como o consumo e a mortalidade dessa praga. Em casa-de-vegetação, foram avaliadas a intensidade das injúrias provocadas pelas lagartas nas folhas, utilizando uma escala visual de danos proposta por Davis & Williams (1989, bem como o número e a biomassa das lagartas vivas. Pelos resultados pode-se concluir que os tratamentos não afetaram a preferência da lagarta-do-cartucho em teste de livre escolha. A interação silício e lufenuron no manejo de S. frugiperda é positiva em relação ao inseticida isolado, provavelmente devido a resistência mecânica conferida pelo silício as folhas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of sprayed silicon via soil and leaf as well as its interaction with growth regulating insecticide (lufenuron in the management of Spodoptera frugiperda on corn plants. The trials were carried out in greenhouse and laboratory conditions and consisting of nine treatments with five replicates. In the laboratory, the preference of fall armyworms on detached leaves of corn plants from different treatments was evaluated, as well as the consumption and mortality of this pest. In the greenhouse, the damage caused by the insect on the leaves were evaluated by using a visual scale of injuries proposed by Davis & Williams (1989. In the greenhouse on the control treatment, both the number and weight of the larval were also determined. According to the results, silicon, the insecticide

  14. Algoritmo para classificação de plantas de milho atacadas pela lagarta do cartucho (Spodoptera frugiperda, Smith em imagens digitais Algorithm for classification of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Smith damaged corn plants on digital images

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    Darly G. de Sena Júnior

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido e testado, no presente estudo, um algoritmo de processamento e análise de imagens digitais para identificação de plantas de milho atacadas pela lagarta do cartucho, o qual consistiu em duas etapas de classificação dos objetos presentes na cena de uma lavoura de milho. Na primeira etapa, denominada classificação grosseira, utilizou-se a técnica de limiarização em blocos da imagem com 60 x 60 pixels de dimensão e, na segunda etapa, denominada classificação refinada, utilizaram-se redes neurais artificiais em blocos com 3 x 3 pixels de dimensão. A exatidão de cada etapa do algoritmo foi acessada através da determinação da matriz de contingência, com base em 80 e 75 blocos, para a classificação grosseira e refinada, respectivamente. O algoritmo apresentou índice de exatidão global de 80,74%.An image processing and analysis algorithm was developed to identify the fall armyworm damage on corn plants. The developed program segmented the larvae damage on the image in two stages: a coarse and fine classification. The coarse stage applied a threshold technique on image blocks of 60 x 60 pixels. The fine stage was based on a neural network classifier which classifies image blocks of 3 x 3 pixels. The algorithm accuracy was accessed by evaluating the error matrix based on 80 and 75 image blocks of the coarse and fine stages, respectively. The algorithm presented an overall accuracy of 80.74%.

  15. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

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    de Oliveira, Raquel S.; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B.; Moura, Hudson F. N.; de Macedo, Leonardo L. P.; Arraes, Fabrício B. M.; Lucena, Wagner A.; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T.; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A.; da Silva, Maria C. M.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  16. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

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    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized with PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold. Also, a significant reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60% was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda and the Coleopteran (A. grandis insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  17. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  18. Eficiência de produtos vegetais no controle da lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Efficience of extracts of plantas in control of fall armyworm in corn Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Marcelo Souza Silva Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de produtos vegetais no controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 na cultura do milho. Os experimentos foram instalados, nos anos de 2002 e 2004, com a pulverização dos produtos vegetais em cinco tratamentos, e quatro repetições. No ano de 2002, os produtos testados foram: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (extrato aquoso 2%, e óleo a 1%; Melia azedarach L. (extrato aquoso 2%; Quassia amara L. (extrato aquoso 2%; óleo de nim, Azadirachta indica 1 e 2%. No ano de 2004, os produtos testados foram: A. indica (extrato aquoso 5%, e óleo a 2%, M. azedarach (extrato aquoso 5%, Trichilia pallida Sw. (extrato aquoso 5%. As avaliações, porcentagem de infestação da lagarta-do-cartucho por parcela, foram efetuadas aos três, sete e dez dias após a pulverização dos extratos. Conclui-se que extratos aquosos das plantas A. indica 2%, T.pallida 5%, Q. amara 2% e M. azedarach 2% e 5% e óleo de A. indica 1% e 2% com adição de tenso ativo não iônico, não possuem eficiência necessária como único método de controle da largarta-do-cartucho S. frugiperda em condições de campo. Os produtos começam a afetar o desenvolvimento da lagarta após alguns dias da ingestão das folhas pulverizadas, observado na avaliação efetuada aos sete dias após a aplicação dos extratos.The objective of this work was to study the efficiency of vegetable pesticides in the control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 in corn culture. The experiments were installed, in the years of 2002 and 2004, with the spraying of the vegetable products in five treatments, and four repetitions. In the year of 2002 the tested products were: Azadirachta indica A. Juss (aqueous extract 2%, and oil at 1%; Melia azedarach L. (aqueous extract 2%; Quassia amara L. (aqueous extract 2%; nim oil, Azadirachta indica 1 and 2%. In the year of 2004 the tested products were: A. indica (aqueous extract 5%, and oil at 2%, M

  19. Evaluación de aislamientos de baculovirus para el control de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 (LEP.: NOCTUIDAE, plaga clave del maíz en el noroeste argentino Evaluation of baculovirus strains to control the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 (LEP.: NOCTUIDAE, a key corn pest in North Western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta G. Yasem de Romero

    for Spodoptera frugiperda control, a key pest affecting corn crops in North Western Argentina. These insecticides, however, frequently show low effectiveness. The baculoviruses are a biological alternative to control the fall armyworm. The objective of this research was to assess Nucleopolyhedrovirus native and foreign strains as regards their effectiveness in controlling S. frugiperda. The results showed that S. frugiperda larvae death rate rose with increasing viral concentrations, while viral susceptibility of larvae decreased with insect age. LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% of the tested sample of 7.6 x 10(4 and 4.5 x 10(5 polyhedra/ml for three and five day-old larvae, respectively, were determined for the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV isolated in Leales (Tucumán, Argentina. Similar control levels were determined for the NPV isolated in Oliveros (Santa Fe, Argentina, with lethal viral concentrations (LC50 of 8.6 x 10(4 and 4.0 x 10(5 polyhedra/ml, respectively. The Brazilian isolate was characterized by LC50 levels of 5.9 x 10(5 and 1.5 x 10(6 polyhedral/ml for three-day-old and five-day-old larvae, respectively. The local isolate (VPNSf -Tucumán showed the most lethal effect on the native population of young S. frugiperda (three to five-day-old larvae, with an average lifespan of six days at LC50 levels, while the Oliveros and Brazil isolates showed an average lifespan of seven and nine days, respectively. The VPNSf - Leales isolate was therefore selected as the object of study for this research. Moreover, being a native isolate, it was considered the best alternative from the environmental impact standpoint.

  20. Caracterização química do óleo essencial de folhas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e seus efeitos no comportamento da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Essential oil chemical composition from leaves of guava (Psidium guajava L. and its effects on the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Karin Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa, objetivou-se a obtenção e caracterização do óleo essencial de folhas da goiabeira Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato, e seus possíveis efeitos no comportamento da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda. O óleo essencial foi obtido pela técnica "arraste a vapor d'água", utilizando-se de um aparelho de Clevenger modificado e submetido, posteriormente, à análise por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a um espectrômetro de massas CG-EM, a fim de investigar sua composição. Para a avaliação dos efeitos do óleo essencial no comportamento das lagartas de 1º ínstar foram testados quatro tratamentos, dois com o óleo essencial na concentração de 0,01% e 0,001%, diluídos em etanol/água 1:1, e duas testemunhas, uma com água e outra com etanol/água 1:1. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o óleo essencial de folhas de goiabeira apresenta na sua constituição o α-terpineol (0,9%, 1,8-cineol (7,0%, β-cariofileno (7,2% e o óxido de cariofileno (13,8%. Constatou-se, também, que o óleo essencial demonstrou efeito repelente para a lagarta-do-cartucho na concentração de 0,01%.The aim of this research was to obtain and characterize essential oil from leaves of Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato, and its possible effects on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda behavior. The essential oil was obtained through steam distillation, by using a modified Clevenger apparatus, and the chemical composition was later analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy GC-MS. In order to evaluate the essential oil effect on the armyworm of 1st instars behavior, four treatments were tested; two with oil at 0.01 and 0.001 % in ethanol/water 1:1 concentration; two controls with water and the other with ethanol/water 1:1. The results showed that the above analyzed essential oil constituted of á-terpineole (0.9%, 1,8-cineole (7.0%, â-caryophyllene (7.2% and the caryophyllene oxide (13.8%. It was also found that the essential

  1. Pest categorisation of Spodoptera frugiperda

    OpenAIRE

    Jeger, Michael; Bragard, Claude; Caffier, David; Candresse, Thierry; Chatzivassiliou, Elisavet; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Gilioli, Gianni; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Jaques Miret, Josep Anton; Navajas Navarro, María; Niere, Björn; Parnell, Stephen; Potting, Roel; Rafoss, Trond; Rossi, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    The European Commission requested EFSA to conduct a pest categorisation of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) a pest with hosts in 27 plant families. Favoured hosts include maize, rice and sorghum (Poaceae). Hosts also include crops within the Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae, Rutaceae and other families. S. frugiperda is a taxonomic entity with reliable methods for identification. It is regulated in the EU as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is...

  2. Spatial genetic variation among Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) sampled from the United States, Puerto Rico, Panama, and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a migratory and polyphagous pest of both cultivated and uncultivated plant species in the Western Hemisphere. Understanding the genetic diversity and gene flow of this economically important pest can help to de...

  3. Lyophilization of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae yields high-quality DNA for use in AFLP genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural research in the 21st century has become a collaborative effort. Research on crop pests like Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), commonly known as the fall armyworm (FAW), can involve international collaboration because it is a pest not only in the southern United States, but also in La...

  4. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi and parasitic nematodes on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in Central Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm larvae (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were collected from whorl-stage cornfields, between the V2 and V4 stages, in 22 localities of Central, Chiapas, México, called "La Frailesca" during late June 2009 to determine the occurrence of native entomopathogens and parasitic nema...

  5. Resistance of corn genotypes to fall armyworm Spodoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate resistance mechanisms in 12 corn genotypes (transgenic hybrids: 30A91 PW, 20A78 HX, Impacto VIP 3, 20A55 HX, NS90 PRO 2, Maximus VIP 3, BX 1293YG, RB 9004 PRO, Feroz VIP 3, LG 6036 PRO; conventional: AG 1051 and variety: AL Bandeitante). Attractiveness, aversion ...

  6. New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory

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    Cherre Sade Bezerra Da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.

  7. Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) against Spodoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most studied plant species with insecticidal properties is the castor bean Ricinus communis. However, its activity against Spodoptera frugiperda is unclear. Therefore, to determinate the insecticidal and insectistatic activities of methanol, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the seeds and leaves of R. communis, ...

  8. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  9. Atividade de extrato aquoso de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre Spodoptera frugiperda Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Hélio Teixeira Prates

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlorpyrifos como testemunha, revelaram, 15 dias após infestação com larvas, eficiência equivalente entre as concen- trações 3,60 a 10,00 mg mL-1. A análise de Probit mostrou CL50 = 2,67 mg mL-1; o extrato aquoso das folhas de nim apresenta, portanto, efeito inseticida sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith has been controlled with synthetic insecticides bringing risk to the environment. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is reported to be a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides against many insect species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves aqueous extract on fall armyworm, in laboratory. Bioassays carried out using artificial feed with various extract concentrations, and chlorpyrifos as control, indicated, 15 days after larvae infestation, similar efficiency in concentrations from 3.60 to 10.00 mg mL-1. Probit analysis showed LC50 = 2.67 mg mL-1. Hence, aqueous extract from neem leaves are active against fall armyworm.

  10. Histological and nucleic acids alterations in Spodoptera littoralis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plzfg

    Keywords: toxicity, Streptomyces lavendulae, histopathology, Spodoptera littoralis, RNA, DNA, protein. Introduction. Like many higher plants, entomopathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, fungi and viruses can release toxic materials (secondary metabolites) usable as pesticides. Lacey et al. (2001) reported that ...

  11. Expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Spodoptera frugiperda cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Xiong, Shaoling; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Litao; Yang, Yanyan

    2007-10-01

    A recombinant baculovirus, rv-egfp-NK, containing a reporter gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was used to express nattokinase (NK), a fibrinolytic enzyme, in Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) cells. The recombinant protein also included a histidine tag for purification using Ni(2+) resins. The recombinant NK, approximately 30 kDa, retained fibrinolytic activity (60 U/ml). The integration of the EGFP expression cassette in the Bac-to-Bac system is thus an effective method for the expression and purification of recombinant NK protein in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells.

  12. Sunn hemp as a ground cover to manage fall armyworm populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a serious pest of sweet corn in south Florida and a pest of other vegetable, row, and forage crops in the southeastern, mid-Atlantic, and central U.S. It is a migratory pest, moving north each season from overwintering areas in southern Texas and south...

  13. A new ascovirus from Spodoptera exigua and its relatedness to the isolate from Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X W; Carner, G R; Arif, B M

    2000-12-01

    A new ascovirus was isolated from Spodoptera exigua in Indonesia and was tentatively assigned as a new species, Spodoptera exigua ascovirus 5a (SeAV-5a) according to the present ICTV ascovirus naming scheme based on DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), hybridization, formation of occlusion body, tissue tropism and host spectrum. SeAV-5a replicated primarily in the fat body of susceptible hosts. SeAV-5a could be transmitted to S. frugiperda, Pseudoplusia includens and Trichoplusia ni, but not to Heliothis virescens. Infection with SeAV-5a arrested growth of the hosts, but prolonged their survival, which continued up to 33 days. Clusters of virions were seen inside the characteristic vesicles. Occasionally, virions were contained within vacuoles (one to five per vacuole) and some virions were embedded in occlusion bodies. The size of the SeAV-5a virion was 347x134 nm; however, aberrant long secondary viral products were also seen. The presence of occlusion body and Southern hybridization and Western immunoblot analyses suggest that SeAV-5a is more closely related to S. frugiperda ascovirus 1a (SfAV-1a) than to Trichoplusia ni ascovirus 2 (TnAV-2). Certain regions of the 182 kb genome of SeAV-5a showed hybridization to that of SfAV-1a. Two fragments in each of the SfAV-1a ECO:RI and HINdIII digests hybridized to the SeAV-5a genomic DNA probe. Five to eight HINdIII and ECORI fragments in SeAV-5a DNA hybridized to the SfAV-1a genomic probe.

  14. Nuclear polyhedrosis virus as biological control agent of Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    Several aspects of the control of the beet armyworm, Spodopteraexigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in greenhouse crops with nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (NPVs) (Baculoviridae, subgroup A) were studied.

    Beet armyworm behaviour was observed in various

  15. Pheromonal divergence between two strains of Spodoptera frugiperda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unbehend, M.; Hänniger, S.; Meagher, R.L.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda consists of two genetically and behaviorally different strains, the corn- and the rice-strain, which seem to be in the process of sympatric speciation. We investigated the role of strain-specific sexual communication as a prezygotic mating barrier between both strains by

  16. Molecular genetics of the Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldens, J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) is an attractive biological control agent for the beet army worm S. exigua . This baculovirus has a narrow host range and is relatively, compared to other baculoviruses, virulent for beet

  17. Histological and nucleic acids alterations in Spodoptera littoralis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Streptomycetaceae) culture filtrate on the 2nd instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were studied. Using thin-film techniques, larvae were exposed to a concentration of 226 CFU cm-2 for 48 h, which caused 84% larval mortality. The filtrate ...

  18. Fitness costs and stability of Cry1Fa resistance in Brazilian populations of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Tavares, Clébson S; Rodrigues, João Victor C; Campos, Silverio O; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Alves, Analiza P; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2017-01-01

    The presence of fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins in insect populations may delay or even reverse the local selection of insect resistance to Bt transgenic crops, and deserves rigorous investigation. Here we assessed the fitness costs associated with Cry1Fa resistance in two strains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), derived from field collections in different Brazilian regions and further selected in the laboratory for high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa using leaves of TC1507 corn. Fitness components were compared using paired resistant and susceptible strains with similar genetic backgrounds and F 1 generations from reciprocal crosses, all of them reared on non-transgenic corn leaves. No apparent life history costs in the larval stage were observed in the Bt-resistant strains. Moreover, the resistance remained stable for seven generations in the absence of selection, with no decrease in the proportion of resistant individuals. Larval respiration rates were also similar between resistant and susceptible homozygotes, and heterozygotes displayed respiration rates and demographic performance equal or superior to those of susceptible homozygotes. In combination, these results indicate the lack of strong fitness costs associated with resistance to Cry1Fa in the fall armyworm strains studied. These findings suggest that Cry1Fa resistance in S. frugiperda populations is unlikely to be counterselected in Cry1Fa-free environments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in ...

  20. Genotype assembly, biological activity and adaptation of spatially separated isolates of Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Ghulam; Abma-Henkens, Marleen H.C.; Werf, van der Wopke; Hemerik, Lia; Vlak, Just M.

    2018-01-01

    The cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura is a polyphagous insect. It has recently made a comeback as a primary insect pest of cotton in Pakistan due to reductions in pesticide use on the advent of genetically modified cotton, resistant to Helicoverpa armigera. Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus

  1. A Z-linked sterility locus causes sexual abstinence in hybrid females and facilitates speciation in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Silvia; Heckel, David G; Yoshido, Atsuo; Marec, František; Groot, Astrid T

    2016-06-01

    In the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), two sympatric strains have been recognized that have been termed corn strain (C) and rice strain (R), referring to their most common host plants. Both strains are reproductively isolated via a distinct prezygotic barrier as well as via an intriguing postzygotic phenomenon: when R females have mated with C males, the resulting RC hybrid females exhibit dramatically reduced fertility independent of their mating partner. Here, we demonstrate that the reduced fertility is caused by the fact that these females refrain from mating, that is, females are behaviorally sterile. We identified a Z-chromosomally linked sterility locus that is most likely incompatible with yet to be identified autosomal (or cytoplasmic) factors, leading to the observed sexual abstinence. Within-chromosome mapping revealed the sterility locus to be located in an area of strongly reduced interstrain recombination. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. SPODOBASE : an EST database for the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabourault Cécile

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda is a pest which causes widespread economic damage on a variety of crop plants. It is also well known through its famous Sf9 cell line which is used for numerous heterologous protein productions. Species of the Spodoptera genus are used as model for pesticide resistance and to study virus host interactions. A genomic approach is now a critical step for further new developments in biology and pathology of these insects, and the results of ESTs sequencing efforts need to be structured into databases providing an integrated set of tools and informations. Description The ESTs from five independent cDNA libraries, prepared from three different S. frugiperda tissues (hemocytes, midgut and fat body and from the Sf9 cell line, are deposited in the database. These tissues were chosen because of their importance in biological processes such as immune response, development and plant/insect interaction. So far, the SPODOBASE contains 29,325 ESTs, which are cleaned and clustered into non-redundant sets (2294 clusters and 6103 singletons. The SPODOBASE is constructed in such a way that other ESTs from S. frugiperda or other species may be added. User can retrieve information using text searches, pre-formatted queries, query assistant or blast searches. Annotation is provided against NCBI, UNIPROT or Bombyx mori ESTs databases, and with GO-Slim vocabulary. Conclusion The SPODOBASE database provides integrated access to expressed sequence tags (EST from the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera frugiperda. It is a publicly available structured database with insect pest sequences which will allow identification of a number of genes and comprehensive cloning of gene families of interest for scientific community. SPODOBASE is available from URL: http://bioweb.ensam.inra.fr/spodobase

  3. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  4. Cannibalism and virus production in Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae fed with two leaf substrates inoculated with Baculovirus spodoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicente, F H; Tuelher, E S; Pena, R C; Andreazza, R; Guimarães, M R F

    2013-04-01

    Cannibalism in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (FAW), is a limiting factor in a baculovirus production system. To detect the impact of cannibalism, a two-step bioassay was conducted with different larval ages of FAW fed on two food sources (corn and castor bean leaves) contaminated with the S. frugiperda multiple-embedded nucleopolyhedrovirus. In a first bioassay, the food source affected the cannibalism, being higher for all larval ages tested (5-, 6- and 7-day-old larvae) in larvae fed on corn than on those fed on castor bean leaves. Larval mortality, weight equivalent and larval equivalents (LEs) per hectare decreased as the larval age increased. Larval weight, occlusion bodies (OBs)/larva and total OBs increased when the larval age increased. In a second bioassay, in which only 6- and 7-day-old larvae were used because of the performance in the first bioassay, the cannibalism rates were affected by the interaction between food sources and time of feeding (48 and 72 h), reaching the highest values for 6- and 7-day-old larvae fed on corn leaves for 72 h. Mortality of the FAW was affected by the interaction between food sources, larval age and time of feeding. The lowest mortalities were on 7-day-old larvae when they were fed on castor bean leaves for 48 and 72 h. Larval weight, OBs/larva, total OBs and LEs were affected by the interaction between food sources and larval age. A significant correlation was observed between larval weight and OBs/larva that fed on both food sources, suggesting that larval weight can be used to achieve a concentration to be sprayed in 1 ha.

  5. Inert powders alone or in combination with neem oil for controlling Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Christiane Constanski Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies was carry out to evaluated the potential of inert powders: bentonite, kaolin and diatomaceous earth (DE applied as dust and aqueous suspension alone and associated with neem oil to the control Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda second instar larvae. In dust applications, 100% mortality of S. eridania, at the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 grams of bentonite, and 93.3% of S. frugiperda, at the concentration of 2.0 g were observed. DE at the height concentration (2.0 g caused 76.2% mortality of S. eridania and 46.6% of S. frugiperda. Kaolin, in all concentrations, was the only treatment that did not differed from the control for S. eridania but was different, in the high concentration, for S. frugiperda. When the plants were treated, larvae of S. eridania fed in the treatment DE, had an increase of two days in larval period. For the sex ratio, the percentage of males was greater in the treatments with kaolin, for both species. When powders was applied suspended in water separately or combined with neem oil, the best results were observed in combined of the bentonite (10% + neem, with 100% mortality for both species, and kaolin (10% + neem with 78.5% and 95.6% mortality for S. frugiperda and S. eridania, respectively. These treatments were classified as non-additive synergistic.

  6. First microsatellites from Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use for population genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of sequence-specific microsatellite markers (SSRs) of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an economically important pest of the American continent. We developed 178 microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing, and screened 15 individuals from 8 isofamili...

  7. AISLAMIENTO, IDENTIFICACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE NUCLEOPOLIEDROVIRUS NATIVOS DE SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA EN COLOMBIA ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATIVE NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS OF SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andrea Gómez Valderrama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El gusano cogollero del maíz Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith es considerado la plaga más importante del cultivo en el mundo. En varios países se han empleado exitosamente los nucleopoliedrovirus de la familia Baculoviridae para su control. Sin embargo, en Colombia, no se cuenta ningún bioplaguicida viral registrado para el control de la plaga. En el presente trabajo, se realizó la búsqueda de aislamientos nativos de nucleopoliedrovirus en los departamentos de Tolima, Meta y Córdoba, mediante la recolección de larvas en diferentes cultivos. Las muestras fueron analizadas por microscopía para la búsqueda de partículas virales y los aislamientos encontrados se caracterizaron física y biológicamente. Se recolectaron 2.140 larvas de S. frugiperda en los tres departamentos muestreados. Sin embargo, sólo en un lugar (Cereté, Córdoba, se encontraron larvas con síntomas de infección viral en campo. El 2% de las muestras colectadas mostraron síntomas típicos de infección y en total se identificaron 3 aislamientos codificados como NPV003 (Córdoba, NPV009 (Tolima y NPV011 (Meta. Los aislamientos presentaron un tamaño de partícula entre 1,93 µm y 2,14 µm. Las concentraciones letales medias (CL50 sobre larvas neonatas oscilaron entre 2,2 x 105 CI/mL y 7,0 x 105 CI/mL y no se registraron estadísticas entre los aislamientos, sugiriendo que todos tienen la misma patogenicidad sobre larvas neonatas del insecto. Estos virus nativos representan la base para el desarrollo de una nueva alternativa biológica para el control de la plaga, siendo necesario iniciar los estudios para su formulación.Worldwide, the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith is considered the most important pest of maize crop. Nucleopolyhedrovirus of Baculoviridae family have been successfully used in several countries for its control. However, in Colombia there are not any biopesticide registered for the control of this pest. In the present work, native

  8. Biodiversity and Activity of the Gut Microbiota across the Life History of the Insect Herbivore Spodoptera littoralis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Bosheng; Teh, Beng-Soon; Sun, Chao; Hu, Sirui; Lu, Xingmeng; Boland, Wilhelm; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing of DNA and RNA, we investigated biodiversity and activity of gut microbiotas across the holometabolous life cycle of Spodoptera littoralis, a notorious...

  9. Pengaruh Tinopal terhadap Patogenisitas Nucleopolyhedrovirus pada Spodoptera litura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'unah Ambarwati

    2010-12-01

    Kepekaan larva instar 3, 4, dan 5 ulat grayak, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, terhadap nucleopolyhedrovirus diuji dengan metode droplet feeding. Larva berasal dari lapangan yang dikembangbiakkan di laboratorium dengan pakan buatan. Larva S. litura yang diuji diperlakukan dengan berbagai konsentrasi SlNPV (2×103, 2×104, 2×105, 2×106, 2×107, 2×108, 2×109 PIB/ml yang ditambahkan Tinopal (0,5% dan 1%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan penambahan Tinopal 1% berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kematian larva S. litura instar 3, 4, dan 5. Penambahan Tinopal pada larva instar 3, 4, dan 5 dapat meningkatkan efektivitas NPV sebesar 235, 24177, dan 6,6 juta kali. Pengamatan pada usus tengah larva yang diperlakukan dengan Tinopal, menunjukkan bahwa Tinopal secara fisik merusak membran peritropik sehingga diduga membantu masuknya virus ke dalam tubuh inangnya.

  10. BIOLOGIA DE Spodoptera frugiperda (J. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE EM FOLHAS DE MANDIOCA (Manihot esculenta, CRANTZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislane da Silva Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda is a species polyphagous that attacks several cultures economically important in various countries. It is known in the larval phases as fall armyworm and it is to main curse of the culture of the corn in Brazil.It was found recently fed her in plantings of cassava in São Luís and Itapecuru Mirim (MA. As the knowledge of the biology of the insect is of fundamental importance for the development of handling strategies, inside of the integrated handling of curses, the work aimed at to study the biology and the behavior of S. frugiperda in cassava leaves, maids in laboratory conditions. 60 coming caterpillars of the creation were used in articial diet. After the appearance the larvas were individualized in disposable plastic glasses with capacity for 100 ml and fed with cassava leaves, that they were changed every other day, or according to need. The experiment was led in climate chamber, regulated for temperature of 25°C, relative humidity of 60 + 10% and fotofase of 14 hours. The appraised biological parameters demonstrated the medium duration of the total cycle of 39,93 days, distributed in 6 or 7 you urge, where the species presented larval viability, pupal and of superior adult to 75% and, percentile of of 4% and 22,97% in pupas and adults, respectively. The fecundity was of 70,84% and the adults' of 77,08% viability. Being ended that the culture of the cassava assists to the demands nutricionais of S. frugiperda.

  11. [Assessment of fall risk and fall prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Atsushi

    2012-06-01

    Typical risk factors for falls include a history of falling, decreased walking ability, and taking certain drugs. Serum vitamin D concentration is associated with falls, and vitamin D administration decreases falls. Fall prevention methods include exercise intervention, interventions other than exercise, and multifaceted interventions. However, the scientific evidence for whether fall prevention prevents fractures is poor. Fracture prevention with the use of hip protectors is effective in nursing facility dwellers, but not in elderly people living at home.

  12. Use of DNA barcodes to identify invasive armyworm Spodoptera species in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Brambila, Julieta; Meagher, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    A critical component for sustaining adequate food production is the protection of local agriculture from invasive pest insects. Essential to this goal is the ability to accurately distinguish foreign from closely related domestic species, a process that has traditionally required identification using diagnostic morphological "keys" that can be both subtle and labor-intensive. This is the case for the Lepidopteran group of insects represented by Spodoptera, a genus of Noctuidae "armyworm" moths that includes several important agricultural pests. Two of the most destructive species, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and S. litura (F.) are not yet established in North America. To facilitate the monitoring for these pests, the feasibility of using DNA barcoding methodology for distinguishing between domestic and foreign Spodoptera species was tested. A DNA barcoding database was derived for a subset of Spodoptera species native to Florida, with an emphasis on those attracted to pheromone blends developed for S. litura or S. littoralis. These were then compared to the barcode sequences of S. litura collected from Taiwan and S. littoralis from Portugal. Consistent discrimination of the different species was obtained with phenetic relationships produced that were generally in agreement with phylogenetic studies using morphological characteristics. The data presented here indicate that DNA barcoding has the potential to be an efficient and accurate supplement to morphological methods for the identification of invasive Spodoptera pests in North America.

  13. Effect Of Beauveria Bassiana Doses On Spodoptera Litura Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rini Indriyanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana is a parasitic mold for insect it is commonly used as a control agent. Spodoptera litura is insect pest attacked tobacco plants in Salatiga. This studied would give analysis the effectiveness of B. Bassiana on S. litura larvae mortality with various doses. B. bassiana was obtained from Estate Crop Protection Board BPTBUN in Salatiga Central Java as dust formulation. The S. litura. larvae were obtained from tobacco farm then adapted to laboratory environment for two days before used for Bioessay. There were five different doses treatment 1g 100 mL-1 2g 100 mL-1 4g 100 mL-1 8g 100 mL-1 and 0 g 100 mL-1 as control. Each treatment used 10 larvae and repeated five times. The result showed that B. bassiana with 8 g100 mL-1 concentration was more effective to kill S.litura larvae than others doses. The important finding of this research is that B. Bassiana can be used to control S. litura larvae safely and not pollute the environment.

  14. Hematopoiesis in larval Pseudoplusia includens and Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, E M; Strand, M R

    2000-04-01

    Maintenance of circulating hemocytes in larval Lepidoptera has been attributed to both mitosis of hemocytes already in circulation and the release of hemocytes from hematopoietic organs. In this study, we compared hematopoiesis in the noctuids Pseudoplusia includens and Spodoptera frugiperda. For both species, hemocyte densities per microl of blood increased with instar. Differential hemocyte counts indicated that plasmatocytes were the most abundant hemocyte type during early instars but granular cells were the most abundant hemocyte type in the last instar. Hematopoietic organs were located in the meso- and metathorax of S. Frugiperda and P. Includens. These organs contained large numbers of hemocytes in S. Frugiperda, but contained few hemocytes in P. Includens. The majority of the hemocytes recovered from hematopoietic organs were identified as plasmatocytes. Using hemocyte type-specific markers and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation experiments, we determined that all hemocyte types with the exception of oenocytoids synthesize DNA. BrdU labeling indices for both species also fluctuated with the molting cycle. Ligation experiments suggested that hematopoietic organs are an important source of circulating plasmatocytes in S. Frugiperda but not in P. Includens. Injection of heat killed bacteria into larvae induced higher levels of BrdU labeling than injection of sterile saline, suggesting that infection and wounding induce different levels of hemocyte proliferation. Arch. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  16. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  17. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Li

    Full Text Available Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L. that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring.

  18. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  19. Impact of the number of Spodoptera frugiperda egg layers on parasitism by Trichogramma atopovirilia Impacto do número de camadas de ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda no parasitismo por Trichogramma atopovirilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Barbosa Beserra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae can be found in several crops attacking Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae eggs. It is therefore necessary to demonstrate the capacity of these natural enemies in suppressing populations of the pest to allow them to be used in biological control programs against that species. This work had the objective of evaluating the impact of egg layer distribution in S. frugiperda egg masses on the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Masses containing one, two, and three layers were used as treatments, and 1.6 parasitoid per egg of the pest were released. Parasitism percentage differences were observed among the three types of masses under study, on average 66.24 ± 8.56%, 45.20 ± 6.20%, and 40.10± 3.46% for egg masses with one, two, and three layers, respectively, demonstrating the potential of use of the parasitoid for the control of fall armyworm.Parasitóides de ovos do gênero Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae ocorrem em diversas culturas atacando ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae sendo necessário que se demonstre a capacidade desses inimigos naturais em suprimir a população da praga para que eles possam ser utilizados em programas de controle biológico daquela espécie. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da distribuição dos ovos em camadas nas posturas de S. frugiperda sobre a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Foram utilizadas como tratamentos posturas com uma, duas e três camadas e liberado 1.6 parasitóide por ovo da praga. Observaram-se diferenças quanto à porcentagem de parasitismo entre os três tipos de posturas estudados, sendo em média de 66,24 ± 8,56%, 45,20 ± 6,20% e 40,10 ± 3,46% para posturas com uma, duas e três camadas respectivamente, mostrando o potencial de utilização do

  20. QSAR analysis on Spodoptera litura antifeedant activities for flavone derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchowicz, Pablo R., E-mail: pabloducho@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Goodarzi, Mohammad [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ocsachoque, Marco A. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas ' Dr. J. J. Ronco' (CINDECA), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP-CONICET. Calle 47 No 257, B1900AJK La Plata (Argentina); Romanelli, Gustavo P. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas ' Dr. J. J. Ronco' (CINDECA), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP-CONICET. Calle 47 No 257, B1900AJK La Plata (Argentina); Catedra de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, UNLP. Calles 60 y 119, B1904AAN La Plata (Argentina); Ortiz, Erlinda del V. [Facultad de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional de Catamarca, Av. Maximio Victoria 55, (4700), Catamarca (Argentina); Autino, Juan C.; Bennardi, Daniel O.; Ruiz, Diego M. [Catedra de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, UNLP. Calles 60 y 119, B1904AAN La Plata (Argentina); Castro, Eduardo A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2009-12-20

    We establish useful models that relate experimentally measured biological activities of compounds to their molecular structure. The pED{sub 50} feeding inhibition on Spodoptera litura species exhibited by aurones, chromones, 3-coumarones and flavones is analyzed in this work through the hypothesis encompassed in the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) Theory. This constitutes a first necessary computationally based step during the design of more bio-friendly repellents that could lead to insights for improving the insecticidal activities of the investigated compounds. After optimizing the molecular structure of each furane and pyrane benzoderivative with the semiempirical molecular orbitals method PM3, more than a thousand of constitutional, topological, geometrical and electronic descriptors are calculated and multiparametric linear regression models are established on the antifeedant potencies. The feature selection method employed in this study is the Replacement Method, which has proven to be successful in previous analyzes. We establish the QSAR both for the complete molecular set of compounds and also for each chemical class, so that acceptably describing the variation of the inhibitory activities from the knowledge of their structure and thus achieving useful predictive results. The main interest of developing trustful QSAR models is that these enable the prediction of compounds having no experimentally measured activities for any reason. Therefore, the structure-activity relationships are further employed for investigating the antifeedant activity on previously synthesized 2-,7-substituted benzopyranes, which do not pose any measured values on the biological expression. One of them, 2-({alpha}-naphtyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, results in a promising structure to be experimentally analyzed as it has predicted pED{sub 50} = 1.162.

  1. Identification and recombinant expression of a novel chymotrypsin from Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Combes, E.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Maagd, de R.A.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel chymotrypsin which is expressed in the midgut of the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera exigua is described. This enzyme, referred to as SeCT34, represents a novel class of chymotrypsins. Its amino-acid sequence shares common features of gut chymotrpysins, but can be clearly distinguished from

  2. Spodoptera exigua caterpillar feeding induces rapid defense responses in maize leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects such as beet armyworm caterpillars (Spodoptera exigua) cause extensive damage to maize (Zea mays) by consuming foliar tissue. Maize plants respond to insect attack by triggering defense mechanisms that involve massive changes in gene expression, biosynthesis of specialized metabolites and de...

  3. Uji Patogenisitas Bacillus Thuringiensis Dan Metarhizium Anisopliae Terhadap Mortalitas Spodoptera Litura Fabr (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Tampubolon, Desy Yanti; Pangestiningsih, Yuswani; Zahara, Fatimah; Manik, Fatiani

    2013-01-01

    Uji patogenisitas Bacillus thuringiensis dan Metarhizium anisopliae terhadap mortalitasSpodoptera litura Fabr (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) di laboratorium. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmendapatkan konsentrasi yang tepat yaitu B. thuringiensis dan M. anisopliae terhadap mortalitaslarva S. litura di laboratorium. Dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman BuahTropika Kebun Percobaan Tongkoh-Berastagi pada bulan Juli sampai Agustus 2012. Metode yangdigunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap...

  4. A novel Cry9Aa with increased toxicity for Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naimov, S.; Nedyalkova, R.; Staykov, N.; Weemen-Hendriks, M.; Minkov, I.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Cry9Aa, produced by Bacillus thuringiensis is reported to be not active against Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm). In this study we have cloned a new cry9Aa5 gene encoding a protoxin with increased activity against S. exigua as compared to Cry9Aa1. When aligned to Cry9Aa1, four amino acid

  5. Host association of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn and rice strains in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juárez, M.L.; Murua, M.G.; García, M.G.; Ontivero, M.; Vera, M.T.; Vilardi, J.C.; Groot, A.T.; Castagnaro, A.P.; Gastaminza, G.; Willink, E.

    2012-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is composed of two genetically distinct strains, the so-called corn strain and the rice strain. Whether the two strains differ in their host use is unclear, because laboratory experiments have not been able to show consistent host performance or preference

  6. Whole-Genome Sequence of the Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 Insect Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Nandakumar, Subhiksha; Ma, Hailun; Khan, Arifa S

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The draft whole-genome sequence of the Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cell line was obtained using long-read PacBio sequence technology and Canu assembly. The final assembled genome consisted of 451?Mbp in 4,577 contigs, with 12,716? mean coverage and a G+C content of 36.53%.

  7. In silico mining of micro-RNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rebijith K B

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... Agricultural production and productivity are limited by biotic factors such as insects and can cause severe damage through direct feeding thus defoliation. In this regard, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), is a polyphagous, ubiquitous pest on glasshouse that spreads infestation sporadically and causes damage ...

  8. REPAT, a new family of proteins induced by bacterial toxins and baculovirus infection in Spodoptera exigua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Ansems, M.; Oers, M.M. van; Vlak, J.M.; Bakker, P.L.; Maagd, R.A. de

    2007-01-01

    Insect larvae spend most of their time eating and the digestive tract is the most crucial barrier for the entrance of many pathogens. In our study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to compare Spodoptera exigua midgut gene expression between larvae exposed to the Bacillus

  9. REPAT, a new family of proteins induced by bacterial toxins and baculovirus infection in Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Ansems, M.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Bakker, P.L.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Insect larvae spend most of their time eating and the digestive tract is the most crucial barrier for the entrance of many pathogens. In our study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to compare Spodoptera exigua midgut gene expression between larvae exposed to the Bacillus

  10. Haplotype Profile Comparisons Between Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations From Mexico With Those From Puerto Rico, South America, and the United States and Their Implications to Migratory Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Meagher, Robert L; Fleischer, Shelby J; Westbrook, John K; Sappington, Thomas W; Hay-Roe, Mirian; Thomas, Jean M G; Murúa, Gabriela M

    2015-02-01

    Fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)] is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere of maize, cotton, sorghum, and a variety of agricultural grasses and vegetable crops. Previous studies demonstrated extensive annual migrations occurring as far north as Canada from overwintering locations in southern Florida and Texas. In contrast, migratory behavior in the rest of the hemisphere is largely uncharacterized. Understanding the migration patterns of fall armyworm will facilitate efforts to predict the spread of pesticide resistance traits that repeatedly arise in this species and assess the consequences of changing climatic trends on the infestation range. Four independent fall armyworm colonies derived from widely separated populations in Mexico and two field collections were examined for their mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene haplotypes and compared with other locations. The Mexico populations were most similar in their haplotype profile to those from Texas and South America, but also displayed some distinctive features. The data extend the haplotype distribution map in the Western Hemisphere and confirm that the previously observed regional differences in haplotype frequencies are stable over time. The Mexico collections were associated with haplotypes rarely found elsewhere, suggesting limited migratory interactions with foreign populations, including those in neighboring Texas. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Population structure of Spodoptera frugiperda maize and rice host forms in South America: are they host strains?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juárez, M.L.; Schöfl, G.; Vera, M.T.; Vilardi, J.C.; Murúa, M.G.; Willink, E.; Hänniger, S.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    Determining which factors contribute to the formation and maintenance of genetic divergence to evaluate their relative importance as a cause of biological differentiation is among the major challenges in evolutionary biology. In Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) two host strains

  12. Application technology for the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Luiz C.; Raetano, Carlos G. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Producao Vegetal - Defesa Fitossanitaria]. E-mails: lcgarcia@fca.unesp.br; raetano@fca.unesp.br; Leite, Luis G. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Controle Biologico]. E-mail: lgleite@biologico.sp.gov.br

    2008-05-15

    The effects of different application technologies were evaluated on the concentration, viability, and efficiency of infective juveniles of the nematodes Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David and Steinernema sp. (IBCB-n6) to control Spodoptera frugiperda Smith on corn plants. Two hundred and eighty infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. were required to kill 100% third-instar fall army worms in petri dishes, as compared to 400 infective juveniles of the H. indica nematode to obtain 75% fall army worm control. It is possible to spray entomopathogenic nematodes without significant loss in their concentration and viability, with equipment that produces electrical charges to the spraying mix, and with those using hydraulic and rotary nozzle tips. The concentrations of infective juveniles of H. indica and Steinernema sp. nematodes were reduced by 28% and 53%, respectively, when hydraulic spraying nozzles that require 100-mesh filtrating elements were used. Tensoactive agents of the organo silicone and ethoxylate groups did not affect the viability of infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. juveniles. Spraying corn plants (V6 growth stage) with up to 288 million infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. per hectare, diluted in the spraying mix up to 800 L ha{sup -1}, with 0.01% ethoxylate tensoactive agent, or at the same volume followed by artificial rain (6 mm water depth) was not sufficient to control S. frugiperda in a controlled environment. (author)

  13. Patogenisitas Beberapa Isolat Cendawan Entomopatogen Metarhizium spp. terhadap Telur Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trizelia Trizelia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium spp. is one of the entomopathogenic fungus that can be used to control Spodoptera litura. The purpose of this research was to study the pathogenicity of Metarhizium spp. to Spodoptera litura eggs. The isolates were collected from rhizosphere of different crops i.e., cabbage, onion, leek and chili. The results showed that there was effect of all isolates on egg mortality. Mortality of S. litura eggs depend on the fungal isolates, ranged between 19.79%-75.70%. First instar larvae was also died 3 days after eclosion. The maximum mortality of first instar larvae was 58.65%. At a concentration of 108 conidia/ml, isolate Mt-kb had the highest virulence which caused higher mortality of eggs and first instar larvae.

  14. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Renato J.; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B.; Okuma, Daniela M.; Miraldo, Leonardo L.; Amaral, Fernando S. De A. E.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-10-01

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants.

  15. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Four Crop Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Gordy

    Full Text Available Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA, benzothiadiazole (BTH, gibberellic acid (GA, harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (FAW (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordy, John W; Leonard, B Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A; Stout, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  18. 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate synthesis and involvement in sulphotransferase reactions in the insect, Spodoptera littoralis.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac, R E; Phua, K K; Rees, H H

    1982-01-01

    1. Synthesis of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate from ATP and 35SO4(-2) was demonstrated by homogenates of gut. Malpighian tubules and fat body of Spodoptera littoralis. 2. The enzyme system was most active in the gut tissue, and was primarily located in the cytosol fraction of the cell. Gut cytosol preparations were used as a source of the 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate generating system for more detailed studies. 3. Maximum synthesis required an incubation mixture containing T...

  19. Insecticidal activity of some essential oils against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman

    2005-12-01

    Thirty-four essential oils were tested for insecticidal activity (fumigation or topical application) against larvae Spodoptera littoralis. Twenty essential oils applied by fumigation were highly toxic to the third instar of S. littoralis larvae. Two essential oils Nepeta cataria and Thuja occidentalis were highly toxic, with LC50cataria, S. sclarea, O. vulgare, O. compactum, Melissa officinalis, T. mastichina, and Lavandula angustifolia were highly toxic with LD50 < or =0.05 microl/larvae.

  20. Interaction between Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum in the management of Spodoptera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mirmes Paiva Goulart

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interaction betweeen Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum in the management of Spodoptera spp. The use of egg parasitoids is a promising strategy for Integrated Pest Management (IPM, but different species of parasitoids have greater or lesser control efficiency, depending on the pest species. Recently, not only Anticarsia gemmatalis and Pseudoplusia includens but also Spodoptera cosmioides and S. eridania have been among the key Lepidoptera larvae attacking soybeans. This study evaluated the combination of Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum for parasitism of eggs of the Spodoptera complex, for better control efficiency and broader spectrum of action among the key pests of soybeans. The experiment was carried out under controlled environmental conditions (25 ± 2ºC; 70 ± 10% RH; and 14 h photophase in a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and 10 replicates with S. frugiperda, S. cosmioides and S. eridania eggs. Each replicate consisted of one egg mass of each Spodoptera species, with approximately 100 eggs offered to the parasitoids. The treatments were: 1 10 females of T. pretiosum; 2 nine females of T. pretiosum and one female of T. remus; 3 eight females of T. pretiosum and two females of T. remus; 4 seven females of T. pretiosum and three females of T. remus; 5 six females of T. pretiosum and four females of T. remus; 6 five females of T. pretiosum and five females of T. remus, and 7 10 females of T. remus. The parameter evaluated was the percentage of parasitized eggs. Results showed that treatments combining both parasitoid species with only 1 T. remus for each 9 T. pretiosum (10% and only 2 T. remus for each 8 T. pretiosum (20% were enough to significantly increase the parasitism observed on eggs of S. cosmioides and S. frugiperda, respectively. This association of T. pretiosum and T. remus in different proportions is very promising for biological control in IPM programs because it provides wide

  1. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults / How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? / Home Improvements Prevent Falls Winter 2014 Issue: Volume 8 Number 4 Page 16-17 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  2. FCJ-210 Falling Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Lian Loke

    2016-01-01

    Falling is not usually viewed as a desirable act for humanoid robots, as it can lead to damage and injury of people, things and the robot itself. This article explores how falling can be viewed as an aesthetic, creative act, through positioning it within dance. Strategies for falling safely in dance are compared with engineering approaches to controlling falling for bipedal robots, through the language of automatic reflex, righting reaction and equilibrium response patterns in relation to gra...

  3. Peralta Facts: Fall 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    Data were collected in fall 1983 to provide a profile of the student population of the Peralta Community College District (PCCD). The data revealed: (1) total student enrollment declined by 12% from fall 1982 (N=38,976) to fall 1983 (N=34,183); (2) 57% of the students whose sex was identified were women; (3) minorities constituted 58% of the…

  4. Falls in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Y.A.M.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the latest insights into the clinical significance, assessment, pathophysiology and treatment of falls in Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that falls are common in Parkinson's disease, even when compared with other fall-prone

  5. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical therapist. The physical therapist can create a custom exercise program aimed at improving your balance, flexibility, ... healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/fall-prevention/art-20047358 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  6. Pre-impact fall detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xinyao; Qu, Xingda

    2016-01-01

    Pre-impact fall detection has been proposed to be an effective fall prevention strategy. In particular, it can help activate on-demand fall injury prevention systems (e.g. inflatable hip protectors) prior to fall impacts, and thus directly prevent the fall-related physical injuries. This paper gave a systematical review on pre-impact fall detection, and focused on the following aspects of the existing pre-impact fall detection research: fall detection apparatus, fall detection indicators, fal...

  7. Impact of insecticides used to control Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith in corn on survival, sex ratio, and reproduction of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jander R Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is cultivated in large areas and considered one of the world's major cereal crops. There are several arthropod pests that can reduce its production such as the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae, which is considered to be the main pest for corn. Fall armyworm is primarily controlled by insecticides. The use of biological control agents to manage this pest is growing with an emphasis on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of the following insecticides (g ai L-1 beta-cypermethrin (0.03, chlorfenapyr (0.60, chlorpyrifos (0.96, spinosad (0.16, etofenprox (0.10, triflumuron (0.08, alfa-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron (0.0425/0.0425, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam (0.11/0.083 on survival, sex ratio, reproduction, and T. pretiosum offspring. Distilled water was used as a control. Commercial insecticide formulations were diluted in distilled water. Bioassays used Anagasta kuehniella eggs treated with insecticides which were afterwards exposed to parasitism. Bioassays were conducted under controlled conditions at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12:12 h photoperiod. Alfa-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenapyr, spinosad, etofenprox, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam reduced parasitism capacity of maternal generation females as well as the percentage of insect emergence from the F1 generation. Only triflumuron was selective for T. pretiosum and can be recommended along with this parasitoid in fall armyworm management programs in corn.

  8. Combining ability in maize for fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer resistance based on a laboratory bioassay for larval growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W P; Buckley, P M; Davis, F M

    1995-02-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, are major insect pests of maize, Zea mays L., in the southern USA. Both insects feed extensively on leaves of plants in the whorl stage of growth. A diallel cross of seven inbred lines with different levels of susceptibility to leaf feeding damage in the field was evaluated in a laboratory bioassay for fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer larval growth. Diets were prepared from lyophilized leaf tissue of field-grown plants of the inbred lines and their 21 F1 hybrids. One inbred line, Tx601, exhibited heavy leaf damage in field tests but showed moderate resistance in the laboratory bioassay. Both general and specific combining ability were highly significant sources of variation in the inheritance of fall armyworm and south-western corn borer larval growth in the laboratory bioassay. Tx601 showed excellent general combining ability for reduced larval growth of both species.

  9. Meteorite falls in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiri, Fouad; Ibhi, Abderrahmane; Saint-Gerant, Thierry; Medjkane, Mohand; Ouknine, Lahcen

    2017-10-01

    The study of meteorites provides insight into the earliest history of our solar system. From 1800, about the year meteorites were first recognized as objects falling from the sky, until December 2014, 158 observed meteorite falls were recorded in Africa. Their collected mass ranges from 1.4 g to 175 kg with the 1-10 kg cases predominant. The average rate of African falls is low with only one fall recovery per 1.35-year time interval (or 0.023 per year per million km2). This African collection is dominated by ordinary chondrites (78%) just like in the worldwide falls. The seventeen achondrites include three Martian meteorite falls (Nakhla of Egypt, Tissint of Morocco and Zagami of Nigeria). Observed Iron meteorite falls are relatively rare and represent only 5%. The falls' rate in Africa is variable in time and in space. The number of falls continues to grow since 1860, 80% of which were recovered during the period between 1910 and 2014. Most of these documented meteorite falls have been recovered from North-Western Africa, Eastern Africa and Southern Africa. They are concentrated in countries which have a large surface area and a large population with a uniform distribution. Other factors are also favorable for observing and collecting meteorite falls across the African territory, such as: a genuine meteorite education, a semi-arid to arid climate (clear sky throughout the year most of the time), croplands or sparse grasslands and possible access to the fall location with a low percentage of forest cover and dense road network.

  10. Efecto del flufenoxuron sobre la actividad copuladora del macho de spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Flufenoxuron effects on copulating capacity of spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Roberto Mendonça Lyra

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Ha sido evaluado el efecto de benzoilfenylureia sobre la capacidad copuladora de machos de Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. (Lepdoptera: Noctuidae. Dos grupos de larvas de 3º estadio fueron tratados con el flufenoxuron, uno por ingestión y el otro por contacto, con una concentración del producto igual a la DL60. Cuando hubo la emergencia de los adultos, 10 machos por tratamiento fueron individualizados en cilindros de papel de filtro y puestos a copular con hembras vírgenes, que eron sustituídas diariamente, hasta la muerte de las mismas. Las hembras que fueron ofrecidas a los machos, al morir, eron dissecadas para verificar se estaban o no copuladas, a través de la observación de la presencia de espermatóforos en la bursa copulatrix. Fue observado que los machos de S. littoralis provenientes de larvas tratadas con el flufenoxuron, no tuvieron su capacidad copuladora alterada. La metodología fue considerada adecuada para evaluar la atividad copuladora y el número de copulaciones realizadas por el macho de esta especie.The effect of benzoilphenylureas was studied on the copulating capacity of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae males. Two groups of third instar larvae were treated with flufenoxuron, one by ingestion and another by contact with an DL60 rate. After emergence of the adults, ten males of the each treatment were put individualy in a filter paper cylinder, from the first night until death, in the presence of a virgin female that shift daily. After the female death they were desiccated in order to see the presence or not of the spermatophore in the bursa copulatrix. It was observed that the S. littoralis males that proceeded from the flufenoxuron treated larvae did not change their copulating capacity. The metodology was considerate efficient to evaluate the copulate capacity of this specie males.

  11. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor Development of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em lagartas de S. frugiperda e em larvas de T. molitor, em laboratório. A presa S. frugiperda proporcionou ao predador menor longevidade, maior produção e viabilidade de ovos do que as larvas de T. molitor. Esses resultados demonstram que a lagarta S. frugiperda melhora as características reprodutivas de P. nigrispinus, de forma que a sua utilização como presa alternativa pode servir para incrementar a produção massal desse inimigo natural.Nymphys of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae have been reared on Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, in laboratory conditions. However, there are no reports on P. nigrispinus predation, in field or laboratory, on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, one of the most damaging pests in crops in Brazil. This research had the objective to evaluate nymphal development and reproductive characteristics of the predator P. nigrispinus when reared on caterpillars of S. frugiperda and on larvae of T. molitor, in laboratory conditions. S. frugiperda provided a smaller longevity, higher egg production and viability to predator than T. molitor. The nutricional quality of this caterpillar improves the reproductive characteristics of the predator, so that its utilization as factitious host can increase mass production of this natural enemy.

  12. [Association of bioassays and molecular characterization to select new Bacillus thuringiensis isolates effective against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoretto, Júlio C; Sena, Janete A D; Barreto, Marliton R; Lemos, Manoel V F; Boiça, Arlindo L

    2007-01-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is one of the main corn pests and Bacillus thuringiensis is important in its control because of its entomopathogenic property. The objective of this study was the molecular characterization of B. thuringiensis isolates for cry1 locus presence and the assessment of the efficiency of these isolates in controlling S. frugiperda caterpillars. Gral-cry1 was used in the PCR analyses to confirm the presence of the cry1 locus in 15 isolates. A 3 x 10(8) spore/ml suspension bathed the diet used to feed 30 caterpillars per isolate, with three replications. The cry1 locus type genes of the different isolates were identified for five gene subclasses; linear regression analyses were carried out to ascertain possible associations between the presence of an individual cry1 locus gene and high levels of toxicity. All the DNAs amplified with Gral-cry1 presented an amplification product with the expected size. Regarding the levels of insecticide efficiency against the cob worm, 41 isolates presented 100% mortality and 16 presented an index between 70% and 90%. The cry1Ab gene was present in 80 isolates, cryb in 69 isolates, cry1Ac in all the isolates and cryv and cry1E in 93 and 27 isolates, respectively. The values regarding the individual effect of each gene on caterpillar mortality were significant at 1% probability for the cry1Ac and cry1E genes.

  13. Induction of resistance of corn plants to Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by application of silicon and gibberellic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, R; Moraes, J C; Auad, A M; Coelho, M; Nascimento, A M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon application and administration of the phytohormone gibberellic acid on resistance of the corn plants to the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, and their vegetative characteristics. We evaluated larval and pupal duration, survival and biomass, and adult longevity, malformation and fecundity of S. frugiperda after feeding on plant matter treated with silicon and/or gibberellic acid. The feeding preference of FAW first-instar larvae, the total leaf area consumed by the insects, and the vegetative parameters of corn plants were also evaluated. No significant differences were observed in the measured parameters of larval and pupal stages of S. frugiperda in response to silicon or gibberellic acid. In adult stage insects, the number of eggs per female was significantly reduced in insects derived from larvae fed plants treated with silicon or gibberellic acid. In a non-preference test, 48 h after release, caterpillars preferred control untreated plants and consumed less matter from plants that had received hormonal treatment (gibberellic acid). Gibberellic acid also altered the vegetative characteristics of plants, by increasing their height, shoot fresh and dry mass, and silicon content. We conclude that gibberellic acid can alter the vegetative characteristics and silicon uptake of corn plants, leading to a reduction in their consumption by S. frugiperda larvae and a decrease in female insect oviposition.

  14. Selection of Annonaceae Species for the Control of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Metabolic Profiling of Duguetia lanceolata Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D S; Machado, A R T; Campos, V A C; Oliveira, D F; Carvalho, G A

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the activity of 19 dichloromethane-soluble fractions obtained from the methanolic extracts of 10 Annonaceae species against the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). The stem bark of Duguetia lanceolata A. St.-Hil. showed the highest insecticidal activity, with a median lethal time (LT50) of 61.4 h and a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 946.5 µg/ml of diet. The dichloromethane-soluble fractions from six D. lanceolata specimens were subjected to evaluation of their activities against S. frugiperda and metabolomic analysis using hydrogen (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Although all of the samples affected S. frugiperda mortality, their insecticidal activities varied according to the sample used in the experiments. Using partial least squares regression of the results, the D. lanceolata specimens were grouped according to their metabolite profile and insecticidal activity. A detailed analysis via uni- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy showed that the peaks in the 1H NMR spectra associated with increased insecticidal activity could be attributed to 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene, which suggests that this substance is involved in the insecticidal activity of the stem bark fraction of D. lanceolata.

  15. Spatial analysis of the distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and losses in maize crop productivity using geo statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Paulo R.S.; Miranda, Vicente S.; Ribeiro, Susane M. [Universidade Federal Rural da Amazonia (UFRA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: paulo.farias@ufra.edu.br; Barbosa, Jose C. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas; Busoli, Antonio C. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade; Overal, William L. [Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (MPEG), Belem, PA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Zoologia

    2008-05-15

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is one of the chief pests of maize in the Americas. The study of its spatial distribution is fundamental for designing correct control strategies, improving sampling methods, determining actual and potential crop losses, and adopting precise agricultural techniques. In Sao Paulo state, Brazil, a maize field was sampled at weekly intervals, from germination through harvest, for caterpillar densities, using quadrates. In each of 200 quadrates, 10 plants were sampled per week. Harvest weights were obtained in the field for each quadrate, and ear diameters and lengths were also sampled (15 ears per quadrate) and used to estimate potential productivity of the quadrate. Geostatistical analyses of caterpillar densities showed greatest ranges for small caterpillars when semivariograms were adjusted for a spherical model that showed greatest fit. As the caterpillars developed in the field, their spatial distribution became increasingly random, as shown by a model adjusted to a straight line, indicating a lack of spatial dependence among samples. Harvest weight and ear length followed the spherical model, indicating the existence of spatial variability of the production parameters in the maize field. Geostatistics shows promise for the application of precise methods in the integrated control of pests. (author)

  16. Recombinant expression and refolding of the c-type lysozyme from Spodoptera litura in E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Kim,Jong-Wan; Yoe,Jeehyun; Lee,Gil Ho; Yoe,Sung Moon

    2011-01-01

    The chicken-type lysozyme of the insect Spodoptera litura (SLLyz) is a polypeptide of 121 amino acids containing four disulfide bridges and 17 rare codons and participates in innate defense as an anti-bacterial enzyme. The recombinant S. litura lysozyme (rSLLyz) expressed as a C-terminal fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Rosetta(DE3) Singles. The protein was produced as an inclusion body which was solubilized in 8 M urea, renatured by on-column refolding, and purified by ...

  17. Development of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Harley Nonato de; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Pedruzzi, Eder Pin; Espindula, Marcelo Curitiba

    2004-01-01

    Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em la...

  18. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor.

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, H.N. de; PRATISSOLI, D.; PEDRUZZI, E.P.; ESPINDULA, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em la...

  19. Fall Leaf Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can create a stunning as well as economical mosaic utilizing fall's brilliantly colored leaves, preserved at their peak in color. Start by choosing a beautiful fall day to take students on a nature walk to collect a variety of leaves in different shapes, sizes, and colors. Focus on collecting a…

  20. Fall prevention conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Falls can have lasting psychological and physical consequences, particularly fractures and slow-healing processes, and patients may also lose confidence in walking. Injuries from falls lead to functional decline, institutionalization, higher health care costs, and decreased quality of life. The process related to the problem of patient falls in the hospital, using the nursing model developed by the theorist, Ida Jean Orlando, is explained in this article. The useful tool that provides guidance to marketers in this endeavor is Maslow's hierarchy of needs. During acute illness, individuals are greatly in need of satisfying their physiological needs. If these needs are not met, patients leave the hospital lacking a positive experience. Initial fall risk assessment is critical to plan intervention and individualize care plan. Interventions depend on the severity of fall risk factors.

  1. The feeding preferences of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on cotton plant varieties=Preferência alimentar de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em variedades de plantas algodoeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostenildo Ribeiro Campos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the attractiveness and the non-preference for feeding of newly hatched fall armyworm larvae on the cotton plant parts and different varieties used in the study. The trials were performed at 27 ± 1ºC, a 70% ± 10% relative humidity and a 14h photoperiod. Leaves, bracts, squares and carpel walls of the BRS Itamarati-90 variety and leaves of Fibermax-966, Fibermax-977, DeltaOpal, DeltaPenta, BRS Acala-90, Coodetec-408, Coodetec-409, Coodetec-410, BRS-Cedro, BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, IPR-96, IPR-120, BRS-Araçá, IAC-24 and BRS Itamarati-90 varieties were used in attractiveness, multiple-choice and confinement (no-choice non-preference feeding trials. Twenty larvae were released per petri dish test (arena system with 10 repetitions. Attractiveness trials were evaluated by counting feeding caterpillars over 60 min. and by measuring non-preference at 24h. Leaves were the most attractive item and were preferred for feeding. In the multiple-choice arena trials, Coodetec-410 was the most attractive variety, and BRS Acala-90, Fibermax-966 and DeltaPenta were the least attractive to fall armyworm larvae. In the non-preference trial, BRS-Araça was the variety favored for feeding. BRS-Cedro, BRS Itamarati-90, DeltaPenta, Coodetec-408 and BRS-Aroeira were the least-favored varieties. In the 60 min. attractiveness trials, 46 min. proved to be the most suitable time for evaluating the attractiveness of cotton plants to newly hatched fall armyworm larvae.Avaliou-se atratividade e não-preferência alimentar de lagartas recém-eclodidas de Spodoptera frugiperda por partes de plantas e plantas de variedades de algodoeiro. Testes foram realizados a 27 ± 1ºC, UR de 70% ± 10% e fotofase de 14h. Folhas, brácteas, botões florais e cascas de maçãs da variedade BRS Itamarati-90 e folhas de Fibermax-966, Fibermax-977, DeltaOpal, DeltaPenta, BRS Acala-90, Coodetec-408, Coodetec-409, Coodetec-410, BRS-Cedro, BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, IPR-96, IPR-120

  2. Relationship of Flight and Reproduction in Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a Migrant Lacking the Oogenesis-flight Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, undertakes long-distance migration. We used flight mills to investigate the interaction between flight and reproduction in this species given the apparent absence of the oogenesis-flight syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by a suite of traits common in man...

  3. Geographic variation in sexual attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda corn- and rice-strain males to pheromone lures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unbehend, M.; Hänniger, S.; Vásquez, G.M.; Juárez, M.L.; Reisig, D.; McNeil, J.N.; Meagher, R.L.; Jenkins, D.A.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this

  4. Synthesis of tritiated sex pheromones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Angel; Feixas, Joan [CID (CDIC), Biological Organic Chemistry Dept., Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    Synthesis of tritiated sex phenomones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis has been accomplished by a simple route involving tritiated sodium borohydride reduction of the corresponding aldehyde followed by acetylation of the resulting radiolabelled alcohol. The process occurs with high chemical and radiochemical yields and the compounds have been used in pheromone catabolism studies. (author).

  5. Susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strains from central Colombia to two insecticides, methomyl and lambda-cyhalothrin: a study of the genetic basis of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Díez, J D; Saldamando-Benjumea, C I

    2011-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of several crops in the western hemisphere. This insect has genetically differentiated into two host-associated populations: the corn (Zea mays L.) and the rice (Oryza sativa L.) strains. The corn strain also is found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and sorghum and the rice strain in Bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and millet. In the United States and Brazil, lines from corn, rice, Bermuda grass, and millet were used to evaluate the resistance of both strains to various insecticides, and found that the corn strain is more resistant than the rice strain. However, in these studies the larvae were not genotyped. In Colombia, genotyping of fall armyworm is necessary because the rice strain also can be found in corn fields. In this work, collected larvae from corn and rice fields from Tolima (central Colombia) were genotyped and evaluated for the resistance to methomyl and lambda-cyhalothrin. We found that the rice strain does not significantly differ in resistance to methomyl compared with the corn strain but it develops tolerance more rapidly to lambda-cyhalothrin. The eggs viability of treated females also was significantly affected by methomyl on each generation. The realized heritability of resistance was higher for lambda-cyhalothrin (0.23-0.42) than for methomyl (0.04-0.14). The number of generations needed for 10-fold increase in resistance is approximately 11.5 generations for methomyl and 6.5 for lambda-cyhalothrin. Finally, the genetic basis of resistance to both insecticides involves few recessive autosomal genes. The results obtained here suggest that methomyl is a better option than lambda-cyalothin to control fall armyworm.

  6. AKTIVITAS EKSTRAK BIJI TANAMAN MINDI MELIA AZEDARACH (L. TERHADAP SPODOPTERA LITURA (F. (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdani .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Activity of Melia azedarach (L. seed extract against armyworm Spodoptera litura (F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectivenes and biological activity of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae seed extract against armyworm, Spodoptera litura F. The first instar larvae were fed extract-treated cotton leaves for 2 days, then were maintained on untreated leaves until the third instar stage. Records were kept in regard to the larvae mortality and developmental time of surviving larvae from first instar to third instar. The result showed that Melia azedarach L. seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against S. litura larvae (43.33 - 68.33% mortality. Addition of detergen at 0.2% to extract did not increase insecticidal activity of the extract. However, boiling seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% during 10 until 20 minutes increased insecticidal activity of extract (66.67 - 68.33% mortality. Generally, M. azedarach seed extract treatment did not affect  developmental time of  S. litura larvae.

  7. Aktivitas biologi enam jenis ekstrak tumbuhan famili Asteraceae terhadap larva Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Sari Dewi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological Activity of Six Plan Extract from Asteraceae on Spodoptera litura Fabricius (lipedoptera : Noctuidae Larvae. Asteraceae is one of plant family that is known to have insecticidal activity to several insect pests, such as Parthenium argentatum, Crysanthemum cineariaefolium, and Agerantum houstoneanum. The aim of this study is to explore other asteraceae species in other to search for insecticidal activity to Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Six species, Blumea balsamifera (leaf, Elephantopus scaber (leaf, Gynura procumbens (leaf Artemisia vulgaris (leaf Soncbus arvensis (leaf and Helianthus annus (seed were use in this study. Plant extract were obtained by meseration method using menthanol. The extract were bioassayed to the second instar larvae of S. litura to evaluate the mortality, antifeedant and growth regulation activity. Extract of B. balsamifera and E. scaber have high antifeedant activity at 5 % by reducing larval feeding 87.7% and 81.8% in no choice test, and 94.1% and 86.1% in choice test method, respectively Extract of H. annus, A. vulgaris, and E. scaber prolonged the development of larvae by 4.9, 4.1, 3.9 days, respectively. While extract of H. annus caused mortality of larvae by 86% at 5%.

  8. Biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera dolichos (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora G. Montezano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius, 1794 were evaluated under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase. The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity, and fertility of 25 couples were evaluated. The longevity of females (12.9 days was not significantly different than that of males (12.4 days. The mean durations of the pre-, post- and oviposition periods were 3.0, 0.4 and 10.4 days, respectively. The mean fecundity was 4,086.0 eggs per female and mean fertility was 3,557.8 larvae per female. On average, a female copulated 1.4 times. The biotic potential of S. dolichos was estimated at 7.138 x 1018 individuals/female/year. The net reproductive rate (Ro was 1,711.98 times per generation and the mean generation time (T was 56.19 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.133, with a finite rate of increase (l of 1.142 per day. These results are compared with other species from Spodoptera and their relevance for management strategies of S. dolichos.

  9. Resistensi populasai hama bawang merah Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae terhadap klorfluazuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Negara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of Onion Pest Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Populations to Chlorfluazuron. The research was conducted from August 2001 until April 2002 in the Kalitiro Agriculture Training and Development Research Station, Gadjah Mada University. The objective of research was to determine the resistance level of Spodoptera exigua populations collected from the district of Sanden, Kretek, Wates, Temon, Panjatan, Wonosari, Panggang and Playen (all are in Yogyakarta Province to chlorfluazuron insecticide. Research was conducted by dipping artificial diet about 30 seconds in insecticide solution and there are used test two hours after they were air dried. Based on the preliminary test, different concentrations were tested to determine the toxicity of the insecticide to each population. Third instar larvae (five days old of the first generation were used in bioassays. Each larvae with its artificial diet was placed in a plastic cup (diameter 3,5 cm. Larval mortality was recorded at 72 hours after exposure. Data was analyzed using probit analysis to determine LC50 values. The result showed that the LC50 values of chlorfluazuron againsts eight population of S. exigua at 72 hours after exposure varied from 16,10 ppm (Panggang to 84,76 ppm (Panjatan. The results suggested that all populations from Panggang, Playen, Kretek, Sanden, Wates, Wonosari and Temon were still susceptible to chlorfluazuron. Population from Panjatan indicated to be resistant to chlorfluazuron.

  10. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  11. Prospecting of popcorn hybrids for resistance to fall armyworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crubelati-Mulati, N C S; Scapim, C A; Albuquerque, F A; Amaral Junior, A T; Vivas, M; Rodovalho, M A

    2014-08-26

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is the pest that causes the greatest economic losses for both common corn and popcorn crops, and the use of resistant plant genotypes is an important tool for integrated pest management. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the damage caused by S. frugiperda on single-cross popcorn hybrids under field conditions with natural infestation as well as to study the effect of 11 popcorn hybrids on the S. frugiperda life cycle under laboratory conditions. A completely randomized block design with 4 replicates was used for the field experiment, and a completely randomized design with 10 replicates was used for the laboratory experiment. In the field experiment, the damage caused by fall armyworm, grain yield, and popping expansion were quantified, and a diallel analysis was performed to select the best hybrids. For the laboratory experiment, caterpillars were obtained from laboratory cultures kept on an artificial diet and were fed with leaves from the 11 hybrids. Hybrids P7.0 x P9.4, P7.1 x P9.6, P7.2.0 x P9.3, P7.4.0 x P9.1 and P7.4.1 x P9.4 exhibited negative specific combining ability for injury by fall armyworm and positive specific combining ability for yield and popping expansion. In the laboratory experiment, the hybrids influenced the mean larval stage duration, mean larval mass, final larval mass, pupal stage duration, mean pupal mass, and adult longevity.

  12. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel chemistries in botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to, or development of synthetic insecticides suitable for controlling the Lepidopteran pests, like Spodoptera litura (F.). Many botanical chemistries are biodegradable, and have lower mammalian toxicity. Eight natural chemical comp...

  13. Uji Efektivitas Metarhizium Anisopliae Metch. Dan Beauveria Bassiana Bals. Terhadap Ulat Grayak (Spodoptera Litura F.) Pada Tanaman Kedelai (Glicyne Max L.) Di Rumah Kassa

    OpenAIRE

    Tobing, Sri Sartika L.

    2014-01-01

    Sri Sartika L. Tobing. 2014. “Effectiveness Test Metarrhizium anisopliae Metch. and Beauveria bassiana Bals. against Grayak larvae (Spodoptera litura F.) in Soybean (Glicyne max L.) at Kassa House“ supervised by Dr. Ir Marheni, MP and Dr. Ir Hasanuddin, MS. the objectives of the research were to study the effectiveness of Metarrhizium anisopliae Metch. and Beauveria bassiana Bals. Against Grayak Larvae (Spodoptera litura F.) in Soybean (Glicyne max L.) at Kassa House. This research was conduc...

  14. Association of bioassays and molecular characterization to select new Bacillus thuringiensis isolates effective against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); Associacao de bioensaios e caracterizacao molecular para selecao de novos isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivos contra Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatoretto, Julio C.; Sena, Janete A.D.; Lemos, Manoel V.F. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Biologia Aplicada a Agropecuaria; Barreto, Marliton R. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. Universitario do Norte Matogrossense (IUNMAT)]. E-mail: mrbarreto@pop.com.br; Junior Boica, Arlindo L. (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade)

    2007-09-15

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is one of the main corn pests and Bacillus thuringiensis is important in its control because of its entomopathogenic property. The objective of this study was the molecular characterization of B. thuringiensis isolates for cry1 locus presence and the assessment of the efficiency of these isolates in controlling S. frugiperda caterpillars. Gral-cry1 was used in the PCR analyses to confirm the presence of the cry1 locus in 15 isolates. A 3 x 108 spore/ml suspension bathed the diet used to feed 30 caterpillars per isolate, with three replications. The cry1 locus type genes of the different isolates were identified for five gene subclasses; linear regression analyses were carried out to ascertain possible associations between the presence of an individual cry1 locus gene and high levels of toxicity. All the DNAs amplified with Gral-cry1 presented an amplification product with the expected size. Regarding the levels of insecticide efficiency against the cob worm, 41 isolates presented 100% mortality and 16 presented an index between 70% and 90%. The cry1Ab gene was present in 80 isolates, cryb in 69 isolates, cry1Ac in all the isolates and cryv and cry1E in 93 and 27 isolates, respectively. The values regarding the individual effect of each gene on caterpillar mortality were significant at 1% probability for the cry1Ac and cry1E genes. (author)

  15. Falls in the Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khow, Kareeann S F; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2017-08-01

    The number of people living beyond 65 years of age is increasing rapidly, and they are at increased risk of falls. Falls-related injuries and hospitalizations are steadily increasing. Falls can lead to fear of falling, loss of independence, institutionalization, and death, inevitably posing a significant burden to the health care system. Therefore, screening of people at risk of falls and comprehensive assessment of older people at high risk of falls are critical steps toward prevention. This review evaluates the current knowledge relating to falls, with particular focus on rapid screening, assessment, and strategies to prevent falls in the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Repellent and insecticidal activities of Melia azedarach L. against cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed H M; Yousef, Heba; Abdel-Rahman, Adel A H

    2011-01-01

    A crude acetone extract and oil of ripe fruits from Melia azedarach L. were evaluated against the 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Both oil and extract exhibited highly significant growth inhibition at all concentrations tested, while the oil of M. azedarach recorded higher insecticidal activity against both instars than the crude extract. GC-MS analysis of the oil revealed the presence of linoleic acid methyl ester, oleic acid methyl ester, and free oleic acid as the main components in addition to hexadecanol, palmitic acid, methyl esters of stearic acid and myristic acid. Fatty acids and their esters were not only the main constituents of essential oil from the ripe fruits of M. azedarach, but also mainly responsible for the insecticidal and growth inhibition activity against S. littoralis.

  17. Host plants of leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: noctuidae in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura is a notorious leaf feeding insect pest of more than one hundred plants around the Asia-Pacific region. Host plant survey for two years from three different locations in cotton belt revealed 27 plant species as host plants of S. litura belonging to 25 genera of 14 families including cultivated crops, vegetables, weeds, fruits and ornamental plants. Major host plants on which it thrived for maximum period were Gossypium hirsutum L., Ricinus communis L., Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Colocasia esculenta L., Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Sesbania sesban L.. Eggs were also collected from tree plants but larvae did not complete their development. Reliance of S. litura on major plant species of cultivated crops necessitates their regular monitoring especially during March to April for their population abundance and early warning for their management on commercial crops like cotton.

  18. Baculovirus-Induced Climbing Behavior Favors Intraspecific Necrophagy and Efficient Disease Transmission in Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Rebolledo

    Full Text Available Shortly prior to death, many species of Lepidoptera infected with nucleopolyhedrovirus climb upwards on the host plant. This results in improved dissemination of viral occlusion bodies over plant foliage and an increased probability of transmission to healthy conspecific larvae. Following applications of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus for control of Spodoptera exigua on greenhouse-grown sweet pepper crops, necrophagy was observed by healthy S. exigua larvae that fed on virus-killed conspecifics. We examined whether this risky behavior was induced by olfactory or phagostimulant compounds associated with infected cadavers. Laboratory choice tests and olfactometer studies, involving infected and non-infected cadavers placed on spinach leaf discs, revealed no evidence for greater attraction of healthy larvae to virus-killed over non-infected cadavers. Physical contact or feeding on infected cadavers resulted in a very high incidence of transmission (82-93% lethal disease. Observations on the behavior of S. exigua larvae on pepper plants revealed that infected insects died on the uppermost 10% of foliage and closer to the plant stem than healthy conspecifics of the same stage, which we considered clear evidence of baculovirus-induced climbing behavior. Healthy larvae that subsequently foraged on the plant were more frequently observed closer to the infected than the non-infected cadaver. Healthy larvae also encountered and fed on infected cadavers significantly more frequently and more rapidly than larvae that fed on non-infected cadavers. Intraspecific necrophagy on infected cadavers invariably resulted in virus transmission and death of the necrophagous insect. We conclude that, in addition to improving the dissemination of virus particles over plant foliage, baculovirus-induced climbing behavior increases the incidence of intraspecific necrophagy in S. exigua, which is the most efficient mechanism of transmission of this lethal

  19. Falls and fall prevention in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tuvemo Johnson, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    Falls are the primary cause of injuries among older adults, and accidents that result from falls can lead to personal suffering and extensive societal burdens. The overall aims of this thesis were to explore and describe falls and fall prevention strategies in community-dwelling older adults and to evaluate a fall prevention home exercise program, the Otago Exercise Program (OEP), with or without motivational interviewing (MI). Methods: Qualitative and quantitative research methods were uses....

  20. Estádio de adaptação de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em hospedeiros alternativos Fitness stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on alternative hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Gisele Brasil Boregas

    2013-03-01

    -de-açúcar.The main target pest on maize is the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, which, by their seasonal and geographical distribution is one of the most damaging species in tropical regions of America. The objective was the evaluation of S. frugiperda fitness stage on 17 host plant species, cultivated or wild, most common in the Brazilian agro ecosystem. The plants were cultivated in five planting times, between 2006 and 2008, using corn as standard of comparison. Newly hatched larvae of S. frugiperda were individualized and confined in 50 mL plastic pots, where they were fed with new leaves of each host. Food was replaced every other day with fresh leaf sections of each plant host. Four biological variables were evaluated and used to estimate the Fitness Index (FI. The initial larval survival ranged from 100% on maize to 46% on rice. The larval period ranged from 12.6 days on maize to 27.1 days on bahiagrass. The pupa biomass ranged from 173.1 mg on burgrass to 294.2 mg on maize. The fitness index, calculated on the base of S. frugiperda fitness on each host ranged from 17.43 on maize cultivated at time I to 1.46 on sugarcane cultivated at time III. In order to correct the time effect on S. frugiperda fitness stage on hosts, the Relative Fitness Index (RFI was calculated in relation to maize crop. According to this index, the host rank to S. frugiperda fitness was in decreasing order: grain sorghum, johnson grass, millet, guinea grass, peanut, bread grass, surinam grass, green amaranth, wheat, soybean, cotton, bean, rice, burgrass, bahiagrass and sugarcane.

  1. Fall 1982 Retention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    In fall 1982, a study was conducted in the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) using withdrawal and grade distribution data to analyze student retention patterns. Successful retention rates were based on the percentage of students who received a passing grade, while total retention rates were based on the percentage of students who received…

  2. Fall 1984 Retention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    A study was conducted of the retention patterns of students enrolled in the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) in fall 1984 using college reports on withdrawals and grade distributions. The study focused on successful retention (i.e., all students who received a passing grade) and on total retention (i.e., all students who received any…

  3. Editors' Fall Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  4. Histopathology and the lethal effect of Cry proteins and strains of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner in Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith Caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Knaak

    Full Text Available Among the phytophagous insects which attack crops, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae is particularly harmful in the initial growth phase of rice plants. As a potential means of controlling this pest, and considering that the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner demonstrates toxicity due to synthesis of the Cry protein, the present study was undertaken to evaluate this toxic effect of B. thuringiensis thuringiensis 407 (pH 408 and B. thuringiensis kurstaki HD-73 on S. frugiperda. The following method was used. Both bacterial strains were evaluated in vitro in 1st instar S. frugiperda caterpillars, by means of histopathological assays. The Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins, codified by the respective strains of B. thuringiensis, were evaluated in vivo by bioassays of 1st instar S. frugiperda caterpillars in order to determine the Mean Lethal Concentration (LC50. The results of the histopathological analysis of the midget of S. frugiperda caterpillars demonstrate that treatment with the B. thuringiensis thuringiensis strain was more efficient, because the degradations of the microvilosities started 9 hours after treatment application (HAT, while in the B. thuringiensis kurstaki the same effect was noticed only after 12 HAT. Toxicity data of the Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins presented for the target-species LC50 levels of 9.29 and 1.79 μg.cm-2 respectively. The strains and proteins synthesised by B. thuringiensis thuringiensis and B. thuringiensis kurstaki are effective in controlling S. frugiperda, and may be used to produce new biopesticides or the genes may be utilised in the genetic transformation of Oryza sativa L.

  5. Enzymatic activity of α-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Characterization and Compartmentalization

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Darvishzadeh; Vahid Hosseininaveh; Siavash Salimian Rizi

    2014-01-01

    The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to...

  6. Biodiversity and Activity of the Gut Microbiota across the Life History of the Insect Herbivore Spodoptera littoralis

    OpenAIRE

    Bosheng Chen; Beng-Soon Teh; Chao Sun; Sirui Hu; Xingmeng Lu; Wilhelm Boland; Yongqi Shao

    2016-01-01

    Microbes that live inside insects play critical roles in host nutrition, physiology, and behavior. Although Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are one of the most diverse insect taxa, their microbial symbionts are little-studied, particularly during metamorphosis. Here, using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing of DNA and RNA, we investigated biodiversity and activity of gut microbiotas across the holometabolous life cycle of Spodoptera littoralis, a notorious agricultural pest worldwide. Proteobac...

  7. Effects of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on cellular immunity and intermediary metabolism of Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    SK Mirhaghparast; A Zibaee; Hajizadeh, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, fifth larval instars of Spodoptera littoralis were injected by spores of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to find their effects on cellular immunity and enzymes involved in intermediary metabolism. The highest numbers of plasmatocytes were observed 6 hours post-injection for both entomopathogenic fungi although there were the slight significant differences between time intervals of 3-12 hours. The highest numbers of granulocytes were observed 6 hours post-in...

  8. In vivo pyro-SIP assessing active gut micro­­biota of cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    OpenAIRE

    Yongqi Shao; Erika Arias-Cordero; Huijuan Guo; Stefan Bartram; Wilhelm Boland

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota is of crucial importance for the host with considerable metabolic activity. Although great efforts have been made toward characterizing microbial diversity, measuring components' metabolic activity surprisingly hasn't kept pace. Here we combined pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes with in vivo stable isotope probing (Pyro-SIP) to unmask metabolically active bacteria in the gut of cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis), a polyphagous insect herbivore that consumes la...

  9. Suscetibilidade de Spodoptera Frugiperda a isolados geográficos de um vírus de poliedrose nuclear Spodoptera Frugiperda susceptibility to nuclear polyhedrosis virus geographical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Arce Gomez

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou verificar a suscetibilidade de larvas de segundo ínstar de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 a sete isolados geográficos de um vírus de poliedrose nuclear (VPN, conduzindo-se sete bioensaios no Laboratório de Patologia de Insetos da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja, Londrina. Para cada isolado preparou-se dieta artificial contendo 0, 2x10³, 4x10³, 8x10³, 16x10³, 32x10³ e 64x10³ corpos poliédricos de inclusão (CPI/mL. Cada dose foi oferecida às larvas em copos de plástico de 50 mL, sob condições controladas (temperatura: 26±2ºC; umidade relativa: 60±10%; fotófase:14 horas. A análise (Probits realizada sobre o somatório de larvas mortas (contadas, diariamente, do quinto ao décimo quarto dia após a inoculação mostrou, com base na ausência de sobreposição das amplitudes dos intervalos de confiança das concentrações letais médias (CL50, que: o isolado de Sertaneja, PR (5.631 CPI/mL, foi o mais virulento; o da Guatemala (11.520 CPI/mL equivaleu aos de Ponta Grossa, PR (14.184 CPI/mL, Argentina (15.891 CPI/mL e Alabama, EUA (17.558 CPI/mL, mas foi superior aos isolados de Louisiana, EUA (19.325 CPI/mL e Sete Lagoas, MG (25.310 CPI/mL. A variação do tempo letal médio, de 8,3 a 10 dias, não foi significativa em relação aos isolados.In order to verify the Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith,1797 second instar larvae susceptibility to seven nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV geographical isolates, seven bioassays were carried out at Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja, Insect Pathology Laboratory, Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. Artificial diet containing 0 (control, 2x10³, 4x10³, 8x10³, 16x10³, 32x10³, and 64x10³ polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB/mL was prepared for each virus isolate; each dose was offered, in 50 mL plastic cups to the larvae under controlled conditions (temperature 26±2ºC; relative humidity: 60±10% and photophase: 14 hours. The statistical analysis

  10. Falls following discharge after an in-hospital fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Lori A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are among the most common adverse events reported in hospitalized patients. While there is a growing body of literature on fall prevention in the hospital, the data examining the fall rate and risk factors for falls in the immediate post-hospitalization period has not been well described. The objectives of the present study were to determine the fall rate of in-hospital fallers at home and to explore the risk factors for falls during the immediate post-hospitalization period. Methods We identified patients who sustained a fall on one of 16 medical/surgical nursing units during an inpatient admission to an urban community teaching hospital. After discharge, falls were ascertained using weekly telephone surveillance for 4 weeks post-discharge. Patients were followed until death, loss to follow up or end of study (four weeks. Time spent rehospitalized or institutionalized was censored in rate calculations. Results Of 95 hospitalized patients who fell during recruitment, 65 (68% met inclusion criteria and agreed to participate. These subjects contributed 1498 person-days to the study (mean duration of follow-up = 23 days. Seventy-five percent were African-American and 43% were women. Sixteen patients (25% had multiple falls during hospitalization and 23 patients (35% suffered a fall-related injury during hospitalization. Nineteen patients (29% experienced 38 falls at their homes, yielding a fall rate of 25.4/1,000 person-days (95% CI: 17.3-33.4. Twenty-three patients (35% were readmitted and 3(5% died. One patient experienced a hip fracture. In exploratory univariate analysis, persons who were likely to fall at home were those who sustained multiple falls in the hospital (p = 0.008. Conclusion Patients who fall during hospitalization, especially on more than one occasion, are at high risk for falling at home following hospital discharge. Interventions to reduce falls would be appropriate to test in this high-risk population.

  11. The Resource. Fall 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Adams, Director of Scientific Visualization, initiated a Bring Your Own Data ( BYOD ) workshop for MSRC users. The first workshop was held June 25-26 in...leverage these assets in their future work. The first BYOD workshop was definitely a benefit to the users. Chris Stone, in particular was able to...publications 28 ERDC MSRC The Resource, Fall 2001 ac ro ny m s AG Access Grid AMR Adaptive Mesh Refinement BYOD Bring Your Own Data CDC Control Data

  12. Urban fall traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia de Almeida Valsecchi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the repercussion of falls in the elderly peoplewho live in the city of São Paulo and address - though synthetically- some questions regarding the city and its relation to aging and thequality of life of the elderly. Methods: This is a qualitative study. As fordata collection, “in-depth individual interviews” were applied. Selectionof subjects was guided by a procedure named as “network”. Results:Ten interviews were performed, nine with elderly individuals who werevictims of falls and one with a public authority representative. Dataresulting from interviews confirmed that significant changes occurin live of the elderly, who are victims of what has been called “urbantraps”, and that, by extrapolating mobility and dependence contexts,invade feelings, emotions and desires. The inappropriate environmentprovided by the city of São Paulo is confirmed by absence of adequateurban planning and lack of commitment of public authorities. It alsorevealed that the particular way of being old and living an elderlylife, in addition to right to citizenship, is reflected by major or lesserdifficulties imposed to the elderly to fight for their rights and have theirpublic space respected. Conclusion: The city of São Paulo is not anideal locus for an older person to live in. To the traps that are found inpublic places one can add those that are found in private places andthat contribute to the hard experience of falls among the elderly, anexperience that is sometimes fatal. In Brazil, the attention is basicallyfocused on the consequences of falls and not on prevention, by meansof urban planning that should meet the needs of the most vulnerablegroups - the physically disabled and the elderly.

  13. Diallel crossing among maize populations for resistance to fall armyworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez María del Pilar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the insects infecting the maize (Zea mays L. crop in Brazil, the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda Smith, 1797, Lepdoptera: Noctuidae is considered one of the most important because it causes the highest damage to yield. Genetic resistance to the fall armyworm has be an effective control strategy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate new germplasm sources for resistance to the fall armyworm, the key pest for the maize crop in Brazil. A partial diallel design between 20 varieties of Brazilian germplasm and nine exotic and semi-exotic varieties of different origin was used. The 180 crosses and 29 parental varieties along with two commercial checks were evaluated in three locations in the State of São Paulo State (Brasil. Fall armyworm resistance (FAWR under artificial and natural infestations, grain yield (GY, and plant height (PH were analyzed. The populations CMS14C and MIRT, and hybrid São José x MIRT showed the highest resistance, with values of 1.8, 1.7 and 1.4, respectively. Populations PMI9401 and PR91B, and the hybrid CMS14C x (B97xITU had best yields, with 4893, 3858 and 5677 kg ha-1, respectively. Heterosis ranged from -28% to 47% for FAWR and from -21% to 125% for GY, with mean values of -0,43% and 31%, respectively. Genotype by environment interaction was not significant for FAWR. The effects of varieties and heterosis were significant for all traits, showing that both additive and dominance effects may be important as sources of variation. For FAWR, only specific heterosis presented significance, suggesting strong genetic divergence between specific pairs of parental populations. Brasilian populations PMI9302 and São José, and the exotic population PR91B presented high performance per se, and also in croses for FAWR and GY. Crosses PMI9401 x (Cuba110 x EsalqPB1 and São José x MIRT presented high specific heterosis effects for both characters. These populations can be useful to be introgressed in maize

  14. PENGARUH EKSTRAK LIMBAH DAUN TEMBAKAU MADURA TERHADAP AKTIVITAS MAKAN LARVA Spodoptera exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harwanto -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ekstrak tanaman untuk insektisida nabati tidak hanya berpengaruh terhadap mortalitas saja akan tetapi juga berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas makan serangga. Tujuan pengujian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstraklimbah daun tembakau madura terhadap aktivitas makan larva instar III Spodoptera exigua. Metode uji ada dua yakni pakan pilihan dan pakan tanpa pilihan. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL, dengan 6 perlakuan konsentrasi dan 1 kontrol yang diulang 5 kali. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa pemaparan ekstrak limbah daun tembakau dengan metode pakan pilihan: (1 berpengaruh nyata terhadap bobot daun yang dikonsumsi pada semua konsentrasi dibandingkan dengan kontrol, (2 bersifat antifeedant terhadap larva S. exigua dengan indeks hambatan makan berkisar 17,51 – 38,12%, sedang ekstrak limbah daun tembakau pada uji pakan tanpa pilihan (3 berpengaruh nyata pada konsentrasi > 0,21% terhadap bobot daun yang dikonsumsi dibandingkan dengan kontrol, dan (4 bersifat antifeedant dengan indeks hambatan makan lebih tinggi (22,87 – 69,39% daripada dengan pakan pilihan (17,51 – 32,12%. Plants extracts used for botanical insecticides do not only influence the mortality but also the feeding activity of insects. The aim of this test was to determine the activity of the extract of Madura tobacco leaf on the feeding activity of the third instar of beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua. There were two test methods, choice and no-choice feeding tests. The design of each test was a completely randomized design (CRD, with six treatment concentrations and one control, replicated five times. The results showed that the exposure of tobacco leaf extracts with the choice feeding: (1 had significant effect on the leaf weight consumed at all concentration compared to the controls, (2 act as antifeedant against the larvae of S. exigua with the index of food consumption barrier ranging from 17.51 to 38.12%; while the extract of

  15. Fall prevention walker during rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Kian Sek; E, Chun Zhi; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes on the design of a walker for the prevention of falling among elderlies or patients during rehabilitation whenever they use a walker to assist them. Fall happens due to impaired balance or gait problem. The assistive device is designed by applying stability concept and an accelerometric fall detection system is included. The accelerometric fall detection system acts as an alerting device that acquires body accelerometric data and detect fall. Recorded accelerometric data could be useful for further assessment. Structural strength of the walker was verified via iterations of simulation using finite element analysis, before being fabricated. Experiments were conducted to identify the fall patterns using accelerometric data. The design process and detection of fall pattern demonstrates the design of a walker that could support the user without fail and alerts the helper, thus salvaging the users from injuries due to fall and unattended situation.

  16. Fall prevention in older persons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including stroke and Parkinson's disease, which lead to poor balance and muscle weakness are important causes of falls. Dementia and delirium are also associated with increased risk of falls.[3]. Building on the risk factor evidence base, interventions for fall prevention began to be evaluated in randomised trials in the.

  17. The falls and the fear of falling among elderly institutionalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study it is intended to characterize the history of falls and to evaluate the fear to fall in aged institutionalized. The sample is composed for 113 institutionalized aged people, 32 men and 81 women with a average 82,96 ± 7,03 age of years. The data had been collected by means of a questionnaire and statistical analyzed (descriptive statistics, parametric tests - Test T and Anova - Test U-Mann Whitney, and Test of Kruskal-Wallis – and the Test of Tukey. The results point in the direction of that the women present a bigger number of falls (24.8% and greater fear to fall (Med=55. The falls had occurred in its majority in the context of the room of the institutions. It was verified that people who had at least a fall experience present greater fear to fall comparatively (Med=55 with that they had not the same had no incident of fall in period of time (Med=77. Our results come to strengthen the hypothesis of the changeable sex to be able to be considered a factor of fall risk. Aged that they present a history of falls seems to be more vulnerable to develop the fear to fall.

  18. Falls and the falls efficacy scale in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alissa A; Rogers, Jennifer M; Amick, Melissa M; Friedman, Joseph H

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between fear of falling and fall frequency among patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). One hundred-two participants with idiopathic PD were interviewed and examined. Participants reported the number of falls they had experienced in the preceding 3 months. They completed a mini-mental state exam (MMSE) and the falls efficacy scale (FES) questionnaire. Disease severity was determined by clinical examination using the Hoehn-Yahr staging system. Excluding two outliers who fell more than once each day, the subjects fell an average of 1.2 times in a 3 month period. There was a positive correlation between the number of falls, freezing of gait and Hoehn-Yahr score, and a negative correlation with the MMSE. In a post-hoc analysis the participants were divided into four groups based on fall frequency. The outliers had the lowest FES scores on average, similar to the scores seen in the rare fallers group. This study suggests that many factors are associated with fear of falling, including fall frequency, disease severity, and mental status. In the present study, the patients who fell the most often did not report the most fear. The lack of fear of falling but frequent falls in this small subgroup may suggest that special techniques to instill suitable caution to prevent falls are necessary, or may make training of these patients impossible.

  19. Falling Liquid Films

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, S; Scheid, B

    2012-01-01

    This research monograph gives a detailed review of the state-of-the-art theoretical methodologies for the analysis of dissipative wave dynamics and pattern formation on the surface of a film falling down a planar, inclined substrate. This prototype is an open-flow hydrodynamic instability representing an excellent paradigm for the study of complexity in active nonlinear media with energy supply, dissipation and dispersion. Whenever possible, the link between theory and experiments is illustrated and the development of order-of-magnitude estimates and scaling arguments is used to facilitate the

  20. Effectiveness Botanical Insecticides Crescentia cujete Fruit And Flowers Syzygium aromaticum Mortality Against Spodoptera litura In Vitro as a Learning Resource Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Safirah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ulat grayak (Spodoptera litura merupakan salah satu jenis hama terpenting yang menyerang tanaman palawija dan sayuran di Indonesia. Sejauh ini kerugian yang dialami sektor pertanian Indonesia akibat serangan hama menurunkan produktivitas pertanian. Penggunaan pestisida sintetis di lingkungan pertanian menjadi masalah yang sangat dilematis. Penggunaan insektisida nabati merupakan alternatif untuk mengendalikan serangga hama. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas buah Crescentia cujete dan bunga syzygium aromaticum sebagai insektisida nabati pengendali Spodoptera litura. Jenis penelitian ini adalah True Experiment Research. Penelitian dilakukan dengan dua perlakuan yaitu jenis insektisida nabati dan jenis konsentrasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuanyang palingefektif pada jenis insektisida adalah A3 (insektisida campuran didapatkan hasil rerata mortalitas Spodoptera litura sebesar 9,33, sedangkan pada jenis konsentrasi yakni perlakuan B5 (75% dengan hasil rerata sebesar 9,33. Namun tidak ada pengaruh interaksi anatara jenis insektisida dengan jenis konsentrasi maka dilakukan anasilis tunggal pada masing – masing perlakuan. Penelitian ini manfaatkan sebagai sumber belajar berupa liflet.

  1. Identification of newly established Spodoptera littoralis cell lines by two DNA barcoding markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, I; Huebner, H; Mamoori, Y I; Buchholz, R

    2017-04-01

    Cell line authentication is crucial in determining the identity of cell lines and detecting any cross-contamination. The identity of three newly established Spodoptera littoralis cell lines (Spli-C, Spli-B, and Spli-S) was confirmed by DNA fingerprinting. In this study, we used two universal primers sets to amplify two DNA fragments in different positions in the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase 1 gene (COI). The PCR reaction succeeded in amplifying two target DNA amplicons. The first amplicon had ~650 bp, while the second had ~410 bp. By comparing the obtained informative sequences with those in the GenBank sequence database, the results showed 100% similarity between the S. littoralis cell lines and their host. The same similarity ratio was observed between the Sf21, Tni, and Cp cell lines, which are used widely, and their hosts. The informative sequences were then used for phylogenetic analyses. In addition to the high efficiency of this technique, it showed high reproducibility in two different laboratories. DNA barcoding using the two sets of the universal primers used in this study can be a fast and a reliable method for insect cell line identification.

  2. Spodoptera frugiperda Nucleopolyhedrovirus Sf NPV003: Compatibility with agrochemicals and storage stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marcela Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A Colombian isolate of Spodoptera frugiperdanucleopolyhedrovirus Sf NPV003 was formulated as a powder by microencapsulating it with a methacrylic acid polymer, which increased the photostability of the virus. In order to generate recommendations for the use of this biopesticide, the objective of this study was to establish in vitro compatibility with chemicals (insecticides and fungicides and to determine the product stability during 15 months at 8 °C, 18 °C and 28 °C. The virus was compatible with eight chemicals tested, with an insecticidal activity greater than 80%. When the biopesticide was stored at 8 °C, 18 °C and 28 °C, the insecticidal activity and the content of contaminants were within acceptance limits established for each property. Results indicated that microencapsulated Sf MNPV can be stored at temperatures below 28 °C, thus ensuring product quality for at least 17 months, enough time for its distribution and use.

  3. The Complete Sequence of the First Spodoptera frugiperda Betabaculovirus Genome: A Natural Multiple Recombinant Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola E. Cuartas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest in maize crops in Colombia, and affects several regions in America. A granulovirus isolated from S. frugiperda (SfGV VG008 has potential as an enhancer of insecticidal activity of previously described nucleopolyhedrovirus from the same insect species (SfMNPV. The SfGV VG008 genome was sequenced and analyzed showing circular double stranded DNA of 140,913 bp encoding 146 putative ORFs that include 37 Baculoviridae core genes, 88 shared with betabaculoviruses, two shared only with betabaculoviruses from Noctuide insects, two shared with alphabaculoviruses, three copies of own genes (paralogs and the other 14 corresponding to unique genes without representation in the other baculovirus species. Particularly, the genome encodes for important virulence factors such as 4 chitinases and 2 enhancins. The sequence analysis revealed the existence of eight homologous regions (hrs and also suggests processes of gene acquisition by horizontal transfer including the SfGV VG008 ORFs 046/047 (paralogs, 059, 089 and 099. The bioinformatics evidence indicates that the genome donors of mentioned genes could be alpha- and/or betabaculovirus species. The previous reported ability of SfGV VG008 to naturally co-infect the same host with other virus show a possible mechanism to capture genes and thus improve its fitness.

  4. Biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different structures of transgenic corn against Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bernardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith is the main target pest of Bt corn technologies, such as YieldGard VT PRO(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2 and PowerCore(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2/Cry1F. In this study, it was evaluated the biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different plant structures of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn against S. frugiperda . Complete mortality of S. frugiperda neonates was observed on leaf-disc of both Bt corn technologies. However, the mortality in silks and grains was lower than 50 and 6%, respectively. In addition, more than 49% of the surviving larvae in silks and grains completed the biological cycle. However, all life table parameters were negatively affected in insects that developed in silks and grains of both Bt corn events. In summary, the low biological activity of Bt proteins expressed on silks and grains of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn can contribute to the resistance evolution in S. frugiperda populations.

  5. Insecticidal and growth inhibiting action of the supercritical extracts of Melia azedarach on Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Scapinello

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts obtained from the fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae on the development of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, from the larval period until the insect adulthood. For this purpose, a laboratory-scale extraction unit was operated at 60 °C and 200 bar. Larval mortality increased by raising the extract concentration tested: the value of LC50 calculated by Probit analysis was 376.74 mg kg-1, and at a concentration of 5000 mg kg-1, the mortality was 100%. The extract exhibited insect growth inhibitory activity in the higher concentrations (500 mg kg-1, 1000 mg kg-1 and 5000 mg kg-1, due to antifeedant action, resulting in larvae and pupae with mass and body length significantly smaller than the control. At the lowest concentration tested (100 mg kg-1, bioactive effects from the adult stage of the insect were observed, with low viability pupal and adults presenting morphological deformities, hence indicating chronic toxicity effect.

  6. Ocimum basilicum essential oil combined with deltamethrin to improve the management of Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Macedo Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For an important and expensive crop such as corn, the resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith to various pesticides has led to research throughout the world for a potential insecticide from a natural source. For the management of pest resistance, natural compounds associated with synthetic insecticides can be a promising tool because they can reduce the application of the synthetics molecules while maintaining their effectiveness and promoting the control of the pests. Linalool is a potential insecticide that is easily obtained because it is found in high concentrations in the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of this essential oil and its combination with deltamethrin to control S. frugiperda. Through dose response assays, the acute toxicities (LD50 of the essential oil and deltamethrin were estimated. Additionally, the combination of these materials was also assessed, attaining a reduction of 80% of the LD50 of deltamethrin while obtaining the same result as when the pyrethroid was administered alone. From these results, it is expected that the combination of natural compounds and synthetic insecticides will be a promising practice, helping to manage resistance while reducing the environmental impact of toxic compounds.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted gene mutagenesis in Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hong-Lun; Xu, Jun; Tan, An-Jiang; Huang, Yong-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Custom-designed nuclease technologies such as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) system provide attractive genome editing tools for insect functional genetics. The targeted gene mutagenesis mediated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been achieved in several insect orders including Diptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. However, little success has been reported in agricultural pests due to the lack of genomic information and embryonic microinjection techniques in these insect species. Here we report that the CRISPR/Cas9 system induced efficient gene mutagenesis in an important Lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura. We targeted the S. litura Abdominal-A (Slabd-A) gene which is an important embryonic development gene and plays a significant role in determining the identities of the abdominal segments of insects. Direct injection of Cas9 messenger RNA and Slabd-A-specific single guide RNA (sgRNA) into S. litura embryos successfully induced the typical abd-A deficient phenotype, which shows anomalous segmentation and ectopic pigmentation during the larval stage. A polymerase chain reaction-based analysis revealed that the Cas9/sgRNA complex effectively induced a targeted mutagenesis in S. litura. These results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for genome manipulation in Lepidopteran pests such as S. litura. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Bioinsecticidal activity of Murraya koenigii miraculin-like protein against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahloth, Deepankar; Shukla, Umesh; Birah, Ajanta; Gupta, Gorakh P; Kumar, P Ananda; Dhaliwal, Harcharan S; Sharma, Ashwani K

    2011-11-01

    Miraculin-like proteins, belonging to the Kunitz superfamily, are natural plant defense agents against pests and predators, and therefore are potential biopesticides for incorporation into pest-resistant crops. Here, a miraculin-like protein from Murraya koenigii was assessed for its in vitro and in vivo effects against two polyphagous lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. M. koenigii miraculin-like protein (MKMLP) inhibited the trypsin-like activity and total protease activity of H. armigera gut proteinases (HGP) by 78.5 and 40%, respectively, and S.litura gut proteinases (SGP) by 81 and 48%, respectively. The inhibitor was stable and actively inhibited the proteolysis of both HGP and SGP enzymes for up to 72 h. Incorporation of MKMLP into artificial diet adversely affected the growth and development of pests in a dose-dependent manner. After 10 days of feeding on diets containing 200 µM MKMLP, larval weight was reduced to 69 and 44.8% and larval mortality was increased to 40 and 43.3% for H. armigera and S litura, respectively. The LC(50) of MKMLP was 0.34 and 0.22% of the diet for H.armigera and S. litura, respectively. These results demonstrate the efficacy of MKMLP as a potential plant defense agent against H. armigera and S. litura. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Herbivore-Induced Changes in Cotton Modulates Reproductive Behavior in the Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zakir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce chemical defense compounds to resist herbivore attack either by repelling the herbivores or attracting natural enemies of the herbivores. We have previously shown that volatile compounds from cotton released in response to herbivory by conspecifics reduce oviposition in cotton leafworm moth Spodoptera littoralis. It remained, however, unclear whether herbivore-induced changes also affect moth pre-mating and mating behaviors. In this study we examined the effect of herbivore-induced changes in cotton on reproductive behaviors i.e., female calling, male attraction and investment, and mating behavior in S. littoralis. We found a reduction in the number of females calling i.e., females releasing pheromone, in the presence of cotton plants damaged by larvae of S. littoralis compared to undamaged plants. Females also spent significantly less time calling and showed a delay in calling in the presence of damaged plants. Furthermore, males exhibited significantly delayed activation and reduced attraction toward female sex pheromone in the presence of damaged plants. We also found that mating success and the number of matings were significantly reduced in the presence of damaged plants whereas male investment i.e., spermatophore weight, was not affected. Thus, our study provides evidence that herbivory by conspecifics on host plants affect pre-mating and mating behaviors in an insect herbivore.

  10. Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda.

  11. Secondary metabolites from Glycine soja and their growth inhibitory effect against Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Ying; Luo, Shi-Hong; Yi, Ting-Shuang; Li, Chun-Huan; Luo, Qian; Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2011-06-08

    The wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) has been reported to be relatively resistant to insect and pathogenic pests. However, the responsible secondary metabolites in the aerial part of this important plant are largely unknown. From the aerial part of G. soja, 13 compounds were isolated and identified, including seven isoflavonoids (1-7), a cyclitol (8), two sterol derivatives (9 and 10), and three triterpenoids (11-13). Compound 7 is a new isoflavonoid, and compounds 9 and 10 are reported as natural products for the first time. The growth inhibitory activity of 1, 3, 4, and 8 against the larvae of Spodoptera litura was investigated. The most abundant isoflavonoid in the aerial part of G. soja, daidzein (1), which could not be metabolized by S. litura, was found to inhibit the insect larvae growth significantly in 3 days after feeding diets containing the compound. Compounds 3, 4, and 8, which could be partially or completely metabolized, were inactive. Our results suggested that the isoflavonoid daidzein (1) might function as a constitutive defense component in G. soja against insect pests.

  12. Biotic potential, fertility and life table ofSpodoptera albula (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÉBORA G. MONTEZANO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the biotic potential, life table parameters and fertility of Spodoptera albula (Walker, 1857 under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photo phase. The longevity, pre, post and oviposition periods, fecundity and fertility of 13 couples were evaluated. The longevity of females (13.500 days was significantly higher than those of males (11.154 days. The mean durations of the pre, post and oviposition periods were 2.615, 1.769 and 9.385 days, respectively. The mean fecundity was 1.417.69 eggs and mean fertility was 1.340.401 larvae, per female. On average, females copulated 1, 231 times. A strong positive correlation was observed between the number of copulations and fecundity (r = 0.847, p <0.001, as well as a strong negative correlation between the number of copulations and the duration of the pre-oviposition period (r = -0.762, p = 0.002, and longevity (r = -0.788, p = 0.001. The biotic potential of S. albula was estimated at 8.768 x 1022 individuals / female / year. The net reproductive rate (Ro was 353,904 times per generation and the mean generation time (T was 37.187 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 1,105, with a finite rate of increase (λ of 3,019.

  13. Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus for the Microbial Control of Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji Hee; Jin, Byung Rae; Kim, Jeong Jun; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2014-12-01

    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is difficult to control using chemical insecticides because of the development of insecticide resistance. Several pest control agents are used to control the beet armyworm. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the candidates for eco-friendly pest control instead of chemical control agents. In this study, among various entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from soil two isolates were selected as high virulence pathogens against larva of beet armyworm. Control efficacy of fungal conidia was influenced by conidia concentration, temperature, and relative humidity (RH). The isolates Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 showed 100% cumulative mortality against second instar larvae of S. exigua 3 days after treatment at 1 × 10(7) conidia/mL and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus FG340 caused 100% mortality 6 days after treatment at 1 × 10(4) conidia/mL. Both M. anisopliae FT83 and P. fumosoroseus FG340 effectively controlled the moth at 20~30℃. M. anisopliae FT83 was significantly affected mortality by RH: mortality was 86.7% at 85% RH and 13.4% at 45% RH. P. fumosoroseus FG340 showed high mortality as 90% at 45% RH and 100% at 75% RH 6 days after conidia treatments. These results suggest that P. fumosoroseus FG340 and M. anisopliae FT83 have high potential to develop as a biocontrol agent against the beet armyworm.

  14. An SSH library responsive to azadirachtin A constructed in Spodoptera litura Fabricius cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Xu, Han-Hong

    2012-05-31

    The present study revealed differentially expressed genes responsive to azadirachtin A (Aza) in Spodoptera litura cell line through suppression subtractive hybridization. In the Aza-responsive SSH library, approximately 270 sequences represent 53 different identified genes encoding proteins with various predicted functions, and the percentages of the gene clusters were 26.09% (genetic information processing), 11.41% (cell growth and death), 7.07% (metabolism), 6.52% (signal transduction/transport) and 2.72% (immunity), respectively. Eleven clones homologous to identified genes were selected to be confirmed through quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Among the eleven clones validated, all but one transcript of lipase showed an increase in SL cell line collected from ETA, whereas the transcripts of other genes were lower in the SL cell line collected from ETA compared with that of UETA. These genes were considered to be related to the response of SL cell line to Aza. These will provide a new clue to uncover the molecular mechanisms of Aza acting on SL cell line. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative proteomics of Spodoptera frugiperda cells during growth and baculovirus infection.

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    Nuno Carinhas

    Full Text Available Baculovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells is a system of choice to produce a range of recombinant proteins, vaccines and, potentially, gene therapy vectors. While baculovirus genomes are well characterized, the genome of S. frugiperda is not sequenced and the virus-host molecular interplay is sparsely known. Herein, we describe the application of stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC to obtain the first comparative proteome quantitation of S. frugiperda cells during growth and early baculovirus infection. The proteome coverage was maximized by compiling a search database with protein annotations from insect species. Of interest were differentially proteins related to energy metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress, yet not investigated in the scope of baculovirus infection. Further, the reduced expression of key viral-encoded proteins early in the infection cycle is suggested to be related with decreased viral replication at high cell density culture. These findings have implications for virological research and improvement of baculovirus-based bioprocesses.

  16. Collective Fall Protection for Construction Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Sulowski, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Construction safety regulations require protection of workers against falls from elevations. The collective fall protection systems, in most cases, allow workers to move freely without wearing individual fall protection gear. The collective systems which prevent falls are preferred over the fall arrest systems. The latter are employed only if prevention of falls is not feasible. Arresting a fall always carries with it a residual risk of injury to the fall victim. The collective fall arrest sy...

  17. EVALUACIÓN DE ISOESPINTANOL AISLADO DE Oxandra cf. xylopioides (ANNONACEAE) SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) EVALUATION OF ISOESPINTANOL ISOLATED FROM Oxandra cf. xylopioides (ANNONACEAE) ON Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamín Alberto Rojano; Sergio Andrés Montoya Martínez; Francisco Yépez Rodríguez; Jairo Saez Vega

    2007-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto biocida del isoespintanol extraído de Oxandra cf. xylopioides sobre el gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda. El isoespintanol fue usado a concentraciones de 100 300 900 y 2700 ppm y aplicado por inmersión de hojas de maíz evaluando sobre larvas del segundo instar. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad a las 24, 48 y 72 horas y se calculó la DL50 y DL90; el análisis de mortalidad demostró que el isoespintanol tiene un efecto tóxico, siendo la dosis de 2700 pp...

  18. Efficacy of Cry1Ac:Cry1F proteins in cotton leaf tissue against fall armyworm, beet armyworm, and soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, K V; Siebert, M Willrich; Leonard, B R; All, J; Haile, F J

    2009-08-01

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., plants expressing Cry1Ac and Cry1F insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) were evaluated against selected lepidopteran pests including fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), and soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker). Studies were conducted in a range of environments, challenging various cotton tissue types from several varieties containing a combination of Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins. In fresh tissue bioassays of mature leaves and squares (flower buds) and in artificial field infestations of white flowers, plants containing Cry1Ac:Cry1F significantly reduced levels of damage (leaf defoliation, bract feeding, penetrated squares and bolls, and boll abscission) and induced significantly greater mortality (90-100%) of fall armyworm compared with that on non-Bt cotton plants. Plants containing Cry1Ac:Cry1F conferred high levels (100%) of soybean looper mortality and low levels (0.2%) of leaf defoliation compared with non-Bt cotton. Beet armyworm was relatively less sensitive to Cry1Ac:Cry1F cotton plants compared with fall armyworm and soybean looper. However, beet armyworm larval development was delayed 21 d after infestation (DAI), and ingestion of plant tissue was inhibited (14 and 21 DAI) on the Cry1Ac:Cry1F plants compared with that on non-Bt cotton plants. These results show Cry1Ac:Cry1F cotton varieties can be an effective component in a management program for these lepidopteran pest species. Differential susceptibility of fall armyworm, beet armyworm, and soybean looper larvae to Cry1Ac:Cry1F cotton reinforces the need to sample during plant development and respond with a foliar insecticide if local action thresholds are exceeded.

  19. Falls and comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Hansen, Annette Højmann; Sahlberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To compare nationwide time trends and mortality in hip and proximal humeral fractures; to explore associations between incidences of falls risk related comorbidities (FRICs) and incidence of fractures. METHODS: The study is a retrospective cohort study using nationwide Danish administrative...... registries from 2000 through 2009. Individuals aged 65 years or older who experienced a hip or a proximal humeral fracture were included. Incidence of hip and of proximal humeral fractures, incidence of FRICs (ischemic heart disease, COPD, dementia, depression, diabetes, heart failure, osteoporosis......, Parkinson's disease and stroke) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for fractures in patients with FRICs, and all-cause mortality up to 10 years after a hip or a proximal humeral fracture were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 89,150 patients experienced hip fractures and 48,581 proximal humeral fractures. From...

  20. Chemical constituents of methanolic extracts of Jatropha curcas L and effects on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Sandra Santos; Silva, Thanany Brasil da; Moraes, Valeria Regina de Souza; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Bernardo, Antonio Rogerio; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Fernandes, Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Pessoa, Angela Maria dos Santos; Silva-Mann, Renata, E-mail: djbf@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agronomica

    2012-07-01

    The biological activity of seven extracts from leaves of different Jatropha curcas L (Euphorbiaceae) accessions was evaluated on Spodoptera frugiperda. Methanol extracts were incorporated into an artificial diet and offered to the larval stage of S. frugiperda. The parameters evaluated were length of larval and pupal stages, mortality of larval and total cycle stage, and weight of pupae. The extracts of the EMB accessions showed the best result for larval mortality at 60.00 and 56.67%, compared with the control, respectively. Hexane partition of the methanol extract of the leaves of PM-14 accessions allowed the identification of phytosterols, phytol and n-alkanols. (author)

  1. Aislamiento, identificación y caracterización de nucleopoliedrovirus nativos de spodoptera frugiperda en colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Valderrama, Juliana Andrea; Guevara Agudelo, Elsa Judith; Barrera Cubillos, Gloria Patricia; Cotes Prado, Alba Marina; Villamizar Rivero, Laura Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    El gusano cogollero del maíz Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) es considerado la plaga más importante del cultivo en el mundo. En varios países se han empleado exitosamente los nucleopoliedrovirus de la familia Baculoviridae para su control. Sin embargo, en Colombia, no se cuenta ningún bioplaguicida viral registrado para el control de la plaga. En el presente trabajo, se realizó la búsqueda de aislamientos nativos de nucleopoliedrovirus en los departamentos de Tolima, Meta y Córdoba, median...

  2. Bioatividade de extratos de três espécies de Solanum sobre Cryptotermes brevis e Spodoptera frugiperda

    OpenAIRE

    Cainelli, Vânia Rech

    2010-01-01

    O gênero Solanum é um dos mais diversos na América do Sul e seus representantes apresentam compostos químicos com bioatividade contra insetos-praga. Entre as principais pragas que provocam danos econômicos tanto a bens culturais e imóveis como na agricultura encontram-se Cryptotermes brevis (cupim-de-madeira-seca) e Spodoptera frugiperda (lagartado- cartucho). No presente estudo avaliou-se os efeitos antialimentar e repelente dos extratos diclorometânico, extrato diclorometano/acetona (fração...

  3. Revisión de los hospederos del gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto CASMUZ; M. Laura JUÁREZ; M. Guillermina SOCÍAS; M. Gabriela MURÚA; Silvina PRIETO; Santiago MEDINA; Eduardo WILLINK; Gerardo GASTAMINZA

    2010-01-01

    Con la finalidad de actualizar los hospederos citados para Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. La búsqueda de hospederos fue agrupada por zona y país. Para el norte del Continente Americano, se incluyeron las citas encontradas para EE.UU., México, América Central e islas del Caribe. En Sudamérica, se agruparon todos los países del cono sur, a excepción de la Argentina, la cual fue considerada por separado. Se encontraron un total de 186 hospederos, repa...

  4. Caracterização da comunidade bacteriana associada ao trato intestinal de Spodoptera frugiperda provenientes de diferentes dietas

    OpenAIRE

    Poliene Martins Costa

    2016-01-01

    A importância da praga Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) deve-se não somente aos danos provocados às lavouras de milho, mas a capacidade de se alimentar de uma ampla variedade de famílias de plantas. Lagartas desta espécie são capazes de se adaptar a dietas contendo inibidores de peptidase de soja (IPS). Há uma hipótese de que a microbiota intestinal neste inseto poderia estar envolvida com estes mecanismos de adaptação. Neste contexto, um dos objetivos do trabalho foi verificar ...

  5. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the fall armyworm saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Flor E; Stanley, Bruce A; Stanley, Anne; Peiffer, Michelle; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2017-07-01

    Lepidopteran larvae secrete saliva on plant tissues during feeding. Components in the saliva may aid in food digestion, whereas other components are recognized by plants as cues to elicit defense responses. Despite the ecological and economical importance of these plant-feeding insects, knowledge of their saliva composition is limited to a few species. In this study, we identified the salivary proteins of larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda; determined qualitative and quantitative differences in the salivary proteome of the two host races-corn and rice strains-of this insect; and identified changes in total protein concentration and relative protein abundance in the saliva of FAW larvae associated with different host plants. Quantitative proteomic analyses were performed using labeling with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 98 proteins were identified (>99% confidence) in the FAW saliva. These proteins were further categorized into five functional groups: proteins potentially involved in (1) plant defense regulation, (2) herbivore offense, (3) insect immunity, (4) detoxification, (5) digestion, and (6) other functions. Moreover, there were differences in the salivary proteome between the FAW strains that were identified by label-free proteomic analyses. Thirteen differentially identified proteins were present in each strain. There were also differences in the relative abundance of eleven salivary proteins between the two FAW host strains as well as differences within each strain associated with different diets. The total salivary protein concentration was also different for the two strains reared on different host plants. Based on these results, we conclude that the FAW saliva contains a complex mixture of proteins involved in different functions that are specific for each strain and its composition can change plastically in response to diet type

  6. Capacidade Predatória de Euborellia annulipes (Lucas, 1847 sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 = Predatory Capacity of Euborellia annulipes (Lucas, 1847 on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldeni Barbosa da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a Capacidade Predatória de Euborellia annulipes sobre Spodoptera frugiperda em laboratório. O estudo foi conduzido no Laboratório de Entomologia do Setor de Fitossanidade da Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB à temperatura de 25 ± 1ºC, umidade relativa de 70 + 10% e fotofase de 12h. Notou-se consumo crescente de ovos,podendo ser observado consumo diário médio de 11,06, 49,02, 122,7, 148,09 e 374,9 ovos, do 1° ao 5° instar, respectivamente. A capacidade predatória sobre lagartas de 1° instar de S. frugiperda aumentou de acordo com o seu desenvolvimento, com aumento de,aproximadamente, 14,3 vezes do 1° ao 5° instar, nos dez dias de consumo, sendo que, o 4° e o 5° instares apresentaram consumo diário médio de 25,5 e 26,6, respectivamente, bem superior em comparação aos demais instares; o maior consumo de lagartas de 2º instar pelopredador, ocorreu no 4º e 5º instar, que apresentaram consumo diário médio de 12,8 e 15,1, respectivamente. Verifica-se que E. annulipes demonstra ser predador potencial de ovos e lagartas de S. frugiperda, chegando um adulto a consumir 1.481,2; 89,20 e 48,6 ovos e lagartasde 1º e 2º instares, respectivamente, nos dez dias de consumo.The predatory capacity of Euborellia annulipes on Spodopterafrugiperda was studied in a laboratory setting. The study was conducted in the Laboratory of Entomology of the Division of Plant Protection, Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB at a temperature of 25 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 70 + 10% and a 12-hour photophase. Thestudy detected growing egg intake, with an average daily consumption of 11.06, 49.02, 122.7, 148.09 and 374.9 eggs, from the first to the fifth instars, respectively. A predatory capacity of fist-instar larvae of S. frugiperda increased in line with its development, with an increase of approximately 14.3 times from the first to the fifth instar, in the 10 days of consumption, whereas the fourth and fifth instars presented an

  7. Fall prevention in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Hauge, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    that the number of hospitalization after a fall injury will become an even greater task for the Danish hospitals, The aim of the study was to show if there is a relationship between physically frail elderly nursing home resident’s subjective evaluation of fall-risk and an objective evaluation of their balance....... Further, to suggest tools for fall prevention in nursing home settings on the basis of the results of this study and the literature. A quantitative method inspired by the survey method was used to give an overview of fall patterns, subjective and objective evaluations of fallrisk. Participants were 16...... physically frail elderly nursing home residents from three different nursing homes. Measures: a small staff-questionnaire about incidences and places where the participants had falling-episodes during a 12 month period, The Falls Effi cacy Scale Swedish version (FES(S)) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) Results...

  8. Antioxidant enzymes in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval): are they enhanced to protect gut tissues during oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2006-01-01

    The Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis is a polyphagous insect attacking a number of plant species including those belonging to the Solanaceae and Cruciferaceae families. Its digestive physiology must therefore adapt to the food plant to ensure maximum extraction of nutrients with minimum trade-off in terms of growth retardation by pro-oxidant allelochemicals. To investigate this, the caterpillars of S. littoralis were fed on a semi-artificial diet (Manduca Premix-Heliothis Premix) and for 24 h on potato plants (Solanum tuberosum), respectively, at the mature 6th instar, and the levels of oxidative radicals and antioxidant enzymes in their guts were compared. The gut pH, standard redox potential (Eh) and electron availability (pe) revealed that oxidizing conditions prevail which promote oxidation of pro-oxidant allelochemicals in foliage. Oxidative stress in the foregut and midgut tissue and the gut contents was assessed from the generation of superoxide radical, total peroxide content and protein carbonyl content. Antioxidant defense was measured by the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) and glutathione S-transferase peroxidase (GSTpx). A significant (p enzymes SOD (in midgut tissues), CAT (in foregut, midgut tissue and contents), APOX (in foregut contents, midgut tissue and contents) and GSTpx (in foregut tissues) was recorded on the plant diet in comparison to the semi-artificial diet. The pro-oxidant allelochemicals in the plant diet are thus eliminated by the insect at the expense of up-regulation of antioxidative enzymes in response to increased oxidative stress from oxidizable allelochemicals. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased concentrations of antioxidants form an important component of the defense of herbivorous insects against both exogenous and endogenous oxidative radicals.

  9. In vivo Pyro-SIP assessing active gut microbiota of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi Shao

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is of crucial importance for the host with considerable metabolic activity. Although great efforts have been made toward characterizing microbial diversity, measuring components' metabolic activity surprisingly hasn't kept pace. Here we combined pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes with in vivo stable isotope probing (Pyro-SIP to unmask metabolically active bacteria in the gut of cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis, a polyphagous insect herbivore that consumes large amounts of plant material in a short time, liberating abundant glucose in the alimentary canal as a most important carbon and energy source for both host and active gut bacteria. With (13C glucose as the trophic link, Pyro-SIP revealed that a relatively simple but distinctive gut microbiota co-developed with the host, both metabolic activity and composition shifting throughout larval stages. Pantoea, Citrobacter and Clostridium were particularly active in early-instar, likely the core functional populations linked to nutritional upgrading. Enterococcus was the single predominant genus in the community, and it was essentially stable and metabolically active in the larval lifespan. Based on that Enterococci formed biofilm-like layers on the gut epithelium and that the isolated strains showed antimicrobial properties, Enterococcus may be able to establish a colonization resistance effect in the gut against potentially harmful microbes from outside. Not only does this establish the first in-depth inventory of the gut microbiota of a model organism from the mostly phytophagous Lepidoptera, but this pilot study shows that Pyro-SIP can rapidly gain insight into the gut microbiota's metabolic activity with high resolution and high precision.

  10. In vivo Pyro-SIP assessing active gut microbiota of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yongqi; Arias-Cordero, Erika; Guo, Huijuan; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota is of crucial importance for the host with considerable metabolic activity. Although great efforts have been made toward characterizing microbial diversity, measuring components' metabolic activity surprisingly hasn't kept pace. Here we combined pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes with in vivo stable isotope probing (Pyro-SIP) to unmask metabolically active bacteria in the gut of cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis), a polyphagous insect herbivore that consumes large amounts of plant material in a short time, liberating abundant glucose in the alimentary canal as a most important carbon and energy source for both host and active gut bacteria. With (13)C glucose as the trophic link, Pyro-SIP revealed that a relatively simple but distinctive gut microbiota co-developed with the host, both metabolic activity and composition shifting throughout larval stages. Pantoea, Citrobacter and Clostridium were particularly active in early-instar, likely the core functional populations linked to nutritional upgrading. Enterococcus was the single predominant genus in the community, and it was essentially stable and metabolically active in the larval lifespan. Based on that Enterococci formed biofilm-like layers on the gut epithelium and that the isolated strains showed antimicrobial properties, Enterococcus may be able to establish a colonization resistance effect in the gut against potentially harmful microbes from outside. Not only does this establish the first in-depth inventory of the gut microbiota of a model organism from the mostly phytophagous Lepidoptera, but this pilot study shows that Pyro-SIP can rapidly gain insight into the gut microbiota's metabolic activity with high resolution and high precision.

  11. Demography and Consumption of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Cabbage and Taro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) causes considerable economic damage to multiple agro-crops annually in many countries. In this study, the demography of S. litura reared on cabbage and taro was investigated using the age-stage, two-sex life table at 25±1°C, 60±10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12: 12 (L:D) h. Our results showed that the net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate, and finite rate of population increase on cabbage (1893.1 offspring, 0.2374 d(−1), and 1.2679 d(−1)) were all not significantly different from those on taro (1361.0 offspring, 0.2298 d(−1), and 1.2584 d(−1)). The net consumption rate on cabbage (439.1 cm2) was, however, three times higher than that on taro (141.7 cm2). According to the population parameters, both cabbage and taro are suitable host plants for S. litura. When both the population growth rate and the consumption rate were taken into consideration, the finite consumption rate on cabbage (ω=3.8054) was significantly higher than that on taro (ω=1.3184). In Taiwan, taro and cabbage are commonly planted in adjacent farm plots, with taro being grown from March to November and cabbage from October to April. Because of the overlapping growth periods of the two crops, S. litura can easily propagate throughout the year by switching between the adjacent crops during the overlap periods. Pest management strategies for controlling S. litura must be thoroughly reevaluated based on ecological characteristics, including its life table and consumption rate on its major host plants.

  12. Identification and expression profile of Halloween genes involved in ecdysteroid biosynthesis in Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iga, Masatoshi; Smagghe, Guy

    2010-03-01

    20-Hydroxyecdyone (20E), an active form of ecdysteroid, is the key hormone in insect growth and development. The biosynthesis of ecdysteroid is triggered and under the control of the neuropeptide, prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). To date, five cytochrome P450 enzymes, namely Spook (Spo), Phantom (Phm), Disembodied (Dib), Shadow (Sad) and Shade (Shd) related to ecdysteroid biosynthesis, are identified and the character of last four enzymes is well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori and Manduca sexta. These genes are called Halloween genes and mediate the biosynthesis of 20E from cholesterol. In this study, we extended these works to a major pest insect in agriculture, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We identified the sequence of five Halloween genes, and the converted amino acid sequences were compared with those of other insects. The phylogenetic analysis clearly showed separated clusters of each gene and the evolutional conservation in insects with a high similarity in Lepidoptera. Spo, phm, dib and sad were predominantly expressed in prothoracic glands, and shd was expressed in fat body and Malpighian tubules at the last instar larvae. Spo expression was kept high level between day 2 and day 4 after ecdysis. The expression of phm and dib peaked at day 2, and sad and shd expressions peaked at day 2 and day 4 after ecdysis. In addition, the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer showed a small peak at day 2 and a large peak at day 4 after ecdysis. These results suggest the importance of Halloween genes in ecdysone biosynthesis by prothoracic glands and conversion of ecdysone into 20E by fat body in larval-pupal metamorphosis. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Constitutive activation of the midgut response to Bacillus thuringiensis in Bt-resistant Spodoptera exigua.

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    Patricia Hernández-Martínez

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is the most effective microbial control agent for controlling numerous species from different insect orders. The main threat for the long term use of B. thuringiensis in pest control is the ability of insects to develop resistance. Thus, the identification of insect genes involved in conferring resistance is of paramount importance. A colony of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was selected for 15 years in the laboratory for resistance to Xentari™, a B. thuringiensis-based insecticide, reaching a final resistance level of greater than 1,000-fold. Around 600 midgut ESTs were analyzed by DNA-macroarray in order to find differences in midgut gene expression between susceptible and resistant insects. Among the differentially expressed genes, repat and arylphorin were identified and their increased expression was correlated with B. thuringiensis resistance. We also found overlap among genes that were constitutively over-expressed in resistant insects with genes that were up-regulated in susceptible insects after exposure to Xentari™, suggesting a permanent activation of the response to Xentari™ in resistant insects. Increased aminopeptidase activity in the lumen of resistant insects in the absence of exposure to Xentari™ corroborated the hypothesis of permanent activation of response genes. Increase in midgut proliferation has been proposed as a mechanism of response to pathogens in the adult from several insect species. Analysis of S. exigua larvae revealed that midgut proliferation was neither increased in resistant insects nor induced by exposure of susceptible larvae to Xentari™, suggesting that mechanisms other than midgut proliferation are involved in the response to B. thuringiensis by S. exigua larvae.

  14. Characterization of an antennal carboxylesterase from the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis degrading a host plant odorant.

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    Nicolas Durand

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs are highly diversified in insects. These enzymes have a broad range of proposed functions, in neuro/developmental processes, dietary detoxification, insecticide resistance or hormone/pheromone degradation. As few functional data are available on purified or recombinant CCEs, the physiological role of most of these enzymes is unknown. Concerning their role in olfaction, only two CCEs able to metabolize sex pheromones have been functionally characterized in insects. These enzymes are only expressed in the male antennae, and secreted into the lumen of the pheromone-sensitive sensilla. CCEs able to hydrolyze other odorants than sex pheromones, such as plant volatiles, have not been identified.In Spodoptera littoralis, a major crop pest, a diversity of antennal CCEs has been previously identified. We have employed here a combination of molecular biology, biochemistry and electrophysiology approaches to functionally characterize an intracellular CCE, SlCXE10, whose predominant expression in the olfactory sensilla suggested a role in olfaction. A recombinant protein was produced using the baculovirus system and we tested its catabolic properties towards a plant volatile and the sex pheromone components.We showed that SlCXE10 could efficiently hydrolyze a green leaf volatile and to a lesser extent the sex pheromone components. The transcript level in male antennae was also strongly induced by exposure to this plant odorant. In antennae, SlCXE10 expression was associated with sensilla responding to the sex pheromones and to plant odours. These results suggest that a CCE-based intracellular metabolism of odorants could occur in insect antennae, in addition to the extracellular metabolism occurring within the sensillar lumen. This is the first functional characterization of an Odorant-Degrading Enzyme active towards a host plant volatile.

  15. Response of the Cutworm Spodoptera litura to Sesame Leaves or Crude Extracts in Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosuhene Sintim, Henry; Tashiro, Toru; Motoyama, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    The effects of extracts of sesame, Sesamum indicum L. (Liamiales: Pedaliaceae), and whole leaves of some selected cultivars of sesame were tested using a natural host Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Indices taken using the immature stages include; diet utilization, growth and development and induction of detoxification enzymes. The results indicate that S. litura generally selects its food amongst cultivars within 6 hours after food presentation. Growth and development of the insect is controlled also by plant acceptability and quality. Although all the cultivars tested significantly limit insect growth and development the variety 56S-radiatum did not allow a complete life cycle as pupation from first instar stage was 0%. Generally the crucial period for immature S. litura was the larval period, especially the first two instars where the weight of an insect fed on an experimental diet was three times lower than that of a control diet. The larval developmental period was greater than 40 days as compared to 17 days for insects fed a control diet. S. litura also had lowered efficiency in utilizing ingested food, from a low of 13% in a sesame cultivar to 45% in the control diet. The key detoxification enzyme was a glutathione s-transferase that was confirmed by a 6-fold increase between S. litura fed a plant cultivar vs. a control diet towards the substrate 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene. First and second instars of S. litura have a relatively reduced detoxification of enzymes in response to plant cultivar diets leading to low survival. A 3% v/w crude extract of the cultivars increased enzyme induction towards all the tested substrates. PMID:20050772

  16. Enhancing the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes by gamma radiation in controlling Spodoptera littoralis larvae

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    R.M. Sayed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, finding a safe control program is the aim of all researchers. The goal of this work is to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the Entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema scapterisci and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (HP88 efficacy were tested against larvae of cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. under laboratory conditions. Results showed that 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci and H. bacteriophora were substantially effective in controlling S. littoralis larvae, while H. bacteriophora was more potent in controlling insect larvae. The results revealed that total protein concentration was significantly decreased (P < 0.05 after treatment with normal or irradiated H. bacteriophora or S. scapterisci. In addition, larvae infected with normal S. scapterisci or H. bacteriophora showed a significant elevation in phenoloxidase activity and represented significant reduce after treatment with 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci or H. bacteriophora as compared to control group. Also, lysozyme activity was significantly decreased after treatment with irradiated H. bacteriophora, but there was no significance with irradiated S. scapterisci, when compared with control. LDH activity was significantly high (p<0.05 in the haemolymph of larvae treated with normal or irradiated H. bacteriophora or S. scapterisci, as compared to control group. Furthermore among all treatments, 2 Gy irradiated H. bacteriophora was the most potent and efficient in the biomarkers changes. Therefore, it could be concluded that 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci and H. bacteriophora can serve within an integrated pest management (IPM program in an agroecosystem.

  17. Biology and nutrition of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae fed on different food sources

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    Débora Mello da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We studied Spodoptera frugiperda development using different food sources in the laboratory and field. Newly hatched larvae were fed soybean, cotton, maize, wheat, and oat leaves. An artificial diet was used as the control. Duration of pre-pupal, pupal, and larva-adult period, pupal weight, sex ratio, survival, larva feeding preferences, oviposition preferences, and nutritional quality of different hosts were evaluated. Insects fed on wheat showed the shortest larva-adult period. The insects fed on cotton and soybean had longer larval development cycles and pupae of lower weight. Feeding preference was evident for third instar larvae and did not differ between wheat, oat, maize, and soybean, which were the preferred hosts. Moths oviposited to a greater extent on the upper canopy of wheat than that of other plants in both the no-choice and free-choice tests. Treatments influenced insect growth, food consumption, and digestion when nutritional variables were analyzed. Thus, grasses were better hosts for S. frugiperda development. Cotton was the least preferred food, followed by soybean. The present study can improve our understanding of S. frugiperda in these different crops and help in developing management strategies. Even though S. frugiperda is considered to be polyphagous, this pest is closely associated with grasses (maize, wheat, oat and has lower potential as a soybean or cotton feeder. Howerver, S. frugiperda food intake regulation appears to be triggered by a complex of different mechanisms. Thus, S. frugiperda can also damage soybean and cotton and adapt to them in the absence of preferred hosts.

  18. Avaliação de cultivares de amendoim para resistência a Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Aniele Pianoscki de Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar cultivares de amendoim com resistência a Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, determinando os graus de resistência por meio da análise univariada e multivariada. Utilizaram-se cultivares de amendoim de hábitos de crescimento ereto (IAC 5, IAC 8112, IAC 22 e IAC Tatu ST e rasteiro (IAC 503, IAC 505, IAC 147, IAC 125, IAC Caiapó e IAC Runner 886, semeadas em campo. Lagartas de primeiro ínstar foram individualizadas em placas de Petri forradas com papel filtro umedecido e mantidas sob condições controladas de temperatura (25 ± 2 °C, umidade (60 ± 10% e fotofase (12 horas. Utilizaram-se cinco repetições de dez lagartas (recém-eclodidas, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Diariamente, foram fornecidos folíolos novos, lavados com solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Avaliaram-se a duração (dias, a massa (mg e a viabilidade (% dos períodos larval e pupal, a razão sexual, longevidade e fecundidade. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (teste F e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p<0,05, além da análise de agrupamento e de componentes principais. As cultivares de hábito de crescimento ereto, IAC 22, e rasteiro, IAC Runner 886, foram menos adequadas ao desenvolvimento do inseto, interferindo nas fases larval e pupal de S. frugiperda, demonstrando resistência moderada do tipo antibiose.

  19. Compartmentalization of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the larval gut of Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Natraj; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2006-09-01

    Allelochemicals play important roles in the plant defense against herbivorous insects. They act as feeding deterrents, interfere with digestion and nutrient absorption, and cause production of potentially dangerous oxidative radicals. This study demonstrates that the distributions of oxidative radicals and of the antioxidant enzymes that eliminate them are compartmentalized in the digestive tract of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. Feeding on diets supplemented with the tannic acid (TA), alpha-solanine, and demissidine, respectively, did not affect the rate of food passage through the digestive tract of larvae but 1.25, 2.5, and 5% TA evoked a strong oxidative response. The amount of the superoxide anion in the foregut tissue and content increased up to 70-fold and the titer of total peroxides in the foregut content about 3-fold. This oxidative stress was associated with enhanced carbonyl content in the foregut tissue proteins, indicative of certain tissue deterioration. Extensive foregut damage was probably prevented by elevated activity of the glutathione S-transferase peroxidase. A complex antioxidant response was elicited in the midgut. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly in the midgut tissue and content, and the activity of ascorbate peroxidase rose in the midgut tissue. The enzymes apparently eliminated oxidative radicals passing to midgut from the foregut with the food bolus and thereby prevented carbonylation of the midgut proteins. We postulate that the generation of oxidative radicals in the foregut and the induction of antioxidant defense in the midgut are controlled processes and that their compartmentalization is an important functional feature of the digestive tract. The glycoalkaloid alpha-solanine and the aglycone demissidine applied at 0.05 and 0.1% concentrations had no effect on any of the examined parameters.

  20. Characterization of an antennal carboxylesterase from the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis degrading a host plant odorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Nicolas; Carot-Sans, Gerard; Chertemps, Thomas; Bozzolan, Françoise; Party, Virginie; Renou, Michel; Debernard, Stéphane; Rosell, Gloria; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2010-11-29

    Carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs) are highly diversified in insects. These enzymes have a broad range of proposed functions, in neuro/developmental processes, dietary detoxification, insecticide resistance or hormone/pheromone degradation. As few functional data are available on purified or recombinant CCEs, the physiological role of most of these enzymes is unknown. Concerning their role in olfaction, only two CCEs able to metabolize sex pheromones have been functionally characterized in insects. These enzymes are only expressed in the male antennae, and secreted into the lumen of the pheromone-sensitive sensilla. CCEs able to hydrolyze other odorants than sex pheromones, such as plant volatiles, have not been identified. In Spodoptera littoralis, a major crop pest, a diversity of antennal CCEs has been previously identified. We have employed here a combination of molecular biology, biochemistry and electrophysiology approaches to functionally characterize an intracellular CCE, SlCXE10, whose predominant expression in the olfactory sensilla suggested a role in olfaction. A recombinant protein was produced using the baculovirus system and we tested its catabolic properties towards a plant volatile and the sex pheromone components. We showed that SlCXE10 could efficiently hydrolyze a green leaf volatile and to a lesser extent the sex pheromone components. The transcript level in male antennae was also strongly induced by exposure to this plant odorant. In antennae, SlCXE10 expression was associated with sensilla responding to the sex pheromones and to plant odours. These results suggest that a CCE-based intracellular metabolism of odorants could occur in insect antennae, in addition to the extracellular metabolism occurring within the sensillar lumen. This is the first functional characterization of an Odorant-Degrading Enzyme active towards a host plant volatile.

  1. Functional analysis of an immune gene of Spodoptera littoralis by RNAi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lelio, Ilaria; Varricchio, Paola; Di Prisco, Gennaro; Marinelli, Adriana; Lasco, Valentina; Caccia, Silvia; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Rao, Rosa; Gigliotti, Silvia; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Insect immune defences rely on cellular and humoral responses targeting both microbial pathogens and metazoan parasites. Accumulating evidence indicates functional cross-talk between these two branches of insect immunity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. We recently described, in the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, the presence of amyloid fibers associated with melanogenesis in immune capsules formed by hemocytes, and identified a protein (P102) involved in their assembly. Non-self objects coated by antibodies directed against this protein escaped hemocyte encapsulation, suggesting that P102 might coordinate humoral and cellular defence responses at the surface of foreign invaders. Here we report the identification of a cDNA coding for a protein highly similar to P102 in a related Lepidoptera species, Spodoptera littoralis. Its transcript was abundant in the hemocytes and the protein accumulated in large cytoplasmic compartments, closely resembling the localization pattern of P102 in H. virescens. RNAi-mediated gene silencing provided direct evidence for the role played by this protein in the immune response. Oral delivery of dsRNA molecules directed against the gene strongly suppressed the encapsulation and melanization response, while hemocoelic injections did not result in evident phenotypic alterations. Shortly after their administration, dsRNA molecules were found in midgut cells, en route to the hemocytes where the target gene was significantly down-regulated. Taken together, our data demonstrate that P102 is a functionally conserved protein with a key role in insect immunity. Moreover, the ability to target this gene by dsRNA oral delivery may be exploited to develop novel technologies of pest control, based on immunosuppression as a strategy for enhancing the impact of natural antagonists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation of Arabidopsis defense responses against Spodoptera littoralis by CPK-mediated calcium signaling

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    Ishihama Nobuaki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant Ca2+ signals are involved in a wide array of intracellular signaling pathways after pest invasion. Ca2+-binding sensory proteins such as Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CPKs have been predicted to mediate the signaling following Ca2+ influx after insect herbivory. However, until now this prediction was not testable. Results To investigate the roles CPKs play in a herbivore response-signaling pathway, we screened the characteristics of Arabidopsis CPK mutants damaged by a feeding generalist herbivore, Spodoptera littoralis. Following insect attack, the cpk3 and cpk13 mutants showed lower transcript levels of plant defensin gene PDF1.2 compared to wild-type plants. The CPK cascade was not directly linked to the herbivory-induced signaling pathways that were mediated by defense-related phytohormones such as jasmonic acid and ethylene. CPK3 was also suggested to be involved in a negative feedback regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ levels after herbivory and wounding damage. In vitro kinase assays of CPK3 protein with a suite of substrates demonstrated that the protein phosphorylates transcription factors (including ERF1, HsfB2a and CZF1/ZFAR1 in the presence of Ca2+. CPK13 strongly phosphorylated only HsfB2a, irrespective of the presence of Ca2+. Furthermore, in vivo agroinfiltration assays showed that CPK3-or CPK13-derived phosphorylation of a heat shock factor (HsfB2a promotes PDF1.2 transcriptional activation in the defense response. Conclusions These results reveal the involvement of two Arabidopsis CPKs (CPK3 and CPK13 in the herbivory-induced signaling network via HsfB2a-mediated regulation of the defense-related transcriptional machinery. This cascade is not involved in the phytohormone-related signaling pathways, but rather directly impacts transcription factors for defense responses.

  3. Characterization of putative virulence factors of Serratia marcescens strain SEN for pathogenesis in Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Chetana; Paul, Sangeeta; Tripathi, Vishwas; Paul, Bishwajeet; Khan, Md Aslam

    2017-02-01

    Two Serratia marcescens strains, SEN and ICC-4, isolated from diseased insect cadavers were observed to differ considerably in their virulence towards Spodoptera litura. The present study was aimed to characterize the possible virulence factors present in the virulent Serratia marcescens strain SEN. Both the S. marcescens strains were evaluated for the presence of various lytic enzymes such as chitinase, lipase, protease and phospholipase. The virulent S. marcescens strain SEN was observed to possess considerably higher activity of chitinase and protease enzymes; activity of phospholipase enzyme was also higher. Although, all the three toxin genes shlA, phlA and swr could be detected in both the S. marcescens strains, there was a higher expression of these genes in the virulent strain SEN. S. marcescens strain ICC-4 showed greater reduction in overall growth yield in the post-exponential phase in the presence of midgut juice and hemolymph of S. litura larvae, as compared to S. marcescens strain SEN. Proliferation of the S. marcescens strain SEN was also considerably higher in foregut, midgut and hemolymph of S. litura larvae, as compared to strain ICC-4. Peritrophic membrane treated with broth culture of the S. marcescens strain SEN showed higher damage as compared to strain ICC-4. The peritrophic membrane of larvae fed on diet treated with the virulent strain showed considerable damage while the peritrophic membrane of larvae fed on diet treated with the non-virulent strain showed no damage. This is the first report documenting the fate of ingested S. marcescens in S. litura gut and the relative expression of toxin genes from two S. marcescens strains differing in their virulence towards S. litura. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of green manure cover crops on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Tang, Li-Cheng; Chi, Hsin

    2014-06-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) is an important pest of numerous agro-economic crops, including green manure cover crops. In Taiwan, sesbania (Sesbanin roxburghii Merr.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and rapeseed (Brassicae campestris L. variety chinensis) are the most popular green manure crops; sesbania and sunn hemp are commonly planted in warm seasons, whereas rapeseed is grown in the winter. In this study, life-table data for S. litura reared on these three green manures were collected to evaluate their roles as refuges of this pest. The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase of S. litura were the highest when reared on sesbania (1428.1 offspring, 0.2327 d(-1), 1.2621 d(-1)), followed by sunn hemp (778.4 offspring, 0.2070 d(-1), 1.2300 d(-1)) and rapeseed (737.6 offspring, 0.2040 d(-1), 1.2263 d(-1)). The high growth rates on these green manure crops show that they can serve as potential breeding sites for S. litura. Population projection demonstrated the rapid growth of S. litura on sesbania, sunn hemp, and rapeseed as well. Because most growers have traditionally ignored pest management in green manure fields, the mass emergence of S. litura in these fields may cause unexpected infestations in nearby vegetable, corn, and peanut crops. This study shows that the use of green manures as sources of nutrients should be critically reassessed and an area-wide pest management program should be instituted by taking the population of S. litura in green manure fields into consideration.

  5. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Female Reproduction in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Tang, Bin; Zou, Qi; Zheng, Huizhen; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is a rapidly reproducing pest of numerous agricultural ecosystems worldwide. The use of pesticides remains the primary means for controlling S. litura, despite their negative ecological impact and potential threat to human health. The use of exogenous hormone analogs may represent an alternative to insecticides. Juvenile hormones (JHs) play an important role in the reproductive systems of female insects, but the effects of pyriproxyfen, a JH analog, on reproduction in S. litura were poorly understood. In this paper, we topically treated the newly emerged females with 20, 60, or 100 μg of pyriproxyfen to determine its effects on reproduction. Then, we examined the expression of vitellogenin (Vg) and three hormone receptors, USP, HR3, and EcR, using quantitative reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and found that pyriproxyfen up-regulated the expression of Vg, USP, and HR3, whereas the expression of EcR was unaffected. An analysis of fecundity showed that the peak oviposition day, lifespan, and oviposition period were progressively shortened as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We also found that pyriproxyfen decreased egg laying amount, whereas the number of mature eggs that remained in the ovarioles of dead females increased as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We examined oocytes using transmission electron microscopy and found that treatment with 100 μg of pyriproxyfen increased the metabolism by increasing the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in the primary oocytes. Our results suggest that the topical application of pyriproxyfen on newly emerged females can efficiently reduce reproduction in S. litura and may represent an alternative to the use of insecticides for controlling the agricultural pest.

  6. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Female Reproduction in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xu

    Full Text Available The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is a rapidly reproducing pest of numerous agricultural ecosystems worldwide. The use of pesticides remains the primary means for controlling S. litura, despite their negative ecological impact and potential threat to human health. The use of exogenous hormone analogs may represent an alternative to insecticides. Juvenile hormones (JHs play an important role in the reproductive systems of female insects, but the effects of pyriproxyfen, a JH analog, on reproduction in S. litura were poorly understood. In this paper, we topically treated the newly emerged females with 20, 60, or 100 μg of pyriproxyfen to determine its effects on reproduction. Then, we examined the expression of vitellogenin (Vg and three hormone receptors, USP, HR3, and EcR, using quantitative reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, and found that pyriproxyfen up-regulated the expression of Vg, USP, and HR3, whereas the expression of EcR was unaffected. An analysis of fecundity showed that the peak oviposition day, lifespan, and oviposition period were progressively shortened as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We also found that pyriproxyfen decreased egg laying amount, whereas the number of mature eggs that remained in the ovarioles of dead females increased as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We examined oocytes using transmission electron microscopy and found that treatment with 100 μg of pyriproxyfen increased the metabolism by increasing the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in the primary oocytes. Our results suggest that the topical application of pyriproxyfen on newly emerged females can efficiently reduce reproduction in S. litura and may represent an alternative to the use of insecticides for controlling the agricultural pest.

  7. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-09-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  8. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, F; Rivera, R, E-mail: fvera@ucv.cl [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de ValparaIso, Av. Universidad 330, Curauma, ValparaIso (Chile)

    2011-09-15

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  9. Fall Meeting Hydrology Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Roger

    The AGU 1992 Fall Meeting in San Francisco offered the full range of subjects represented by the Hydrology Section's technical committees. The total number of papers was double the number of just 4 years ago. Sessions were well attended. The following highlights were prepared from material written by session organizers.There were 3 full days of papers on snow, ice, and permafrost. One highlight was the special session on new developments in glacier mass-balance studies, which was organized to compare existing methods and examine new techniques for assessing changes in ice mass of the polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Current methods for assessing mass change of the ice sheets include satellite laser altimetry to detect surface-elevation changes, surface-based control volume methods to determine net ice flux in a region, and ice-shelf melting and iceberg calving to determine mass loss from the ice sheet. Using these techniques, it is difficult to tell whether the ice sheet is gaining or losing mass. Methods that use drainage basin inputs/outputs indicate a net mass increase, whereas methods that emphasize oceanographic estimates of ice-shelf melting suggest a net mass decrease and estimates based on satellite altimetry are equivocal.

  10. Evolution of Two Receptors detecting the Same Pheromone Compound in Crop Pest Moths of the Genus Spodoptera

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    Arthur ede Fouchier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In moths, mate finding strongly rely on the detection of sex pheromones by pheromone receptors. Any modification in the functional properties of these receptors can have a drastic impact on reproduction. In the course of characterizing candidate pheromone receptors in the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis, we expressed them in Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons and stimulated them with a large panel of moth pheromone compounds. We found that two pheromone receptors detect (Z,E-9,12-14:OAc, a minor component of the female pheromone blend. Whereas SlitOR6 is highly specific to this component, SlitOR13 is less sensitive and not strictly specific as it also detects (Z9-14:OAc, another minor component of the sex pheromone. Interestingly, SlitOR13 expression is restricted to the distal part of male antennae, where we could identify a novel functional class of pheromone-sensitive neurons whose response spectrum matches that of SlitOR13. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of Lepidoptera pheromone receptors, we built an evolutionary scenario in which four different paralogous lineages emerged through gene duplications. The ability to bind (Z,E-9,12-14:OAc appeared independently within three of these lineages, and an analysis of selective pressures revealed sites under positive selection that could have played a role in the emergence of functional properties of OR6 and OR13 in Spodoptera species.

  11. Constitutive expression of Arabidopsis NPR1 confers enhanced resistance to the early instars of Spodoptera litura in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meur, Gargi; Budatha, Madhusudhan; Srinivasan, Tantravahi; Rajesh Kumar, Koppolu Raja; Dutta Gupta, Aparna; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2008-08-01

    In Arabidopsis, NPR1 (AtNPR1) regulates salicylic acid (SA)-mediated activation of PR genes at the onset of systemic acquired resistance. AtNPR1 also modulates SA-induced suppression of jasmonic acid-responsive gene expression, and npr1 mutants manifest enhanced herbivore resistance. We have raised stable transgenic tobacco lines, expressing AtNPR1 constitutively, which showed elevated expression of PR1 and PR2 genes upon SA treatment. Herbivore bioassays with a generalist polyphagous pest, Spodoptera litura, revealed that the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance compared to the wild-type plants, particularly with respect to younger larval populations. Insect-mediated injury induced several protease inhibitors (PIs), more significantly a 40-kDa serine PI in all the tobacco lines, but the induction was higher in the transgenic plants. We show in this communication that heterologous expression of AtNPR1 provides enhanced resistance to early larval populations of the herbivore, Spodoptera in transgenic tobacco plants.

  12. The effect of sub-lethal doses of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae oil on the midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Efeito de doses subletais do óleo de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae no mesêntero de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Railda Roel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is one of the major field pests for maize production. It is mainly controlled by means of synthetic, and more recently by resistant cultivar of maize expressing Bt toxins. The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is a plant that can potentially control insects with the advantage of being food and environmental safe. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of neem oil on the development and survival of S. frugiperda caterpillars by assessing histological alterations caused on their midgut. Newly hatched caterpillars were submitted to three neem oil concentrations: 0.006; 0.05; 0.4%, which were added to their artificial diet. Ten 3rd instar caterpillars, taken from each treatment, were submitted to histological analysis. The alimentary canals from the specimens were fixed in Baker for 12 hours, desiccated and diaphanized in alcohol/xylol (1:1 and xylol. After placing the samples in paraffin, they were sliced in 8 µm sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin stain. The neem oil added to the diet of S. frugiperda caused total mortality at dose of 0.4% whilst still in the first instars, prolonged the larval and pupal stages, and reduced the pupal weight. Histo-physiological alterations such as degeneration of the epithelial lining of the midgut and in the peritrophic matrix were found at all concentrations of neem oil.A lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda, é a mais importante praga da cultura do milho. Esta é usualmente, controlada por inseticidas sintéticos e mais atualmente por meio de variedades resistentes de milho com a toxina Bt. O nim Azadirachta indica é planta com potencial no controle de insetos, que possui as vantagens de segurança alimentar e ambiental. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito do óleo do nim no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de lagartas de S. frugiperda em decorrência das alterações no mesêntero. As lagartas recém nascidas foram submetidas a tr

  13. Eficácia de diferentes inseticidas e de volumes de calda no controle de Spodoptera frugiperda nas culturas do milho e sorgo cultivados em várzea Efficacy of different insecticides and suspension volumes to control Spodoptera frugiperda in corn and sorghum in low land areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Antônio Gonçalves Costa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 tem causado prejuízos significativos à produtividade nas culturas do milho e sorgo, principalmente em áreas de várzeas. Com o objetivo de determinar-se a eficiência de controle de S. frugiperda em milho e sorgo no agroecossistema de várzea e avaliar a resposta das culturas sobre o rendimento de grãos, foi realizado um experimento na Embrapa Clima Temperado de Pelotas, Estação Experimental de Terras Baixas, Capão do Leão, RS no ano agrícola 2001/2002. Semeou-se milho da cultivar Pioneer 30F33 e sorgo da cultivar Aventis BRS 305 em blocos ao acaso com parcelas sub-subdivididas. Os inseticidas utilizados e respectivas dosagens (mL p.c. ha-1 foram o Match CE (lufenurom, 300; Rimom 100 CE (novalurom, 150; Tracer SC (espinosade, 50; Lorsbam 480 BR (clorpirifós, 500 e Karate 50 Zeon (lambdacialotrina, 150. As avaliações foram aos 5, 10, 15, 20, e 25 dias após a aplicação. Os volumes de calda (L ha-1 utilizados para cada tratamento foram 0, 150, 200, 250 e 300. A eficiência de controle de S. frugiperda com os inseticidas lufenurom, novalurom, espinosade, clorpirifós e lambdacialotrina aplicados em volumes de calda de 0, 150, 200, 250 e 300L ha-1 que variou em função do estádio da cultura do milho e sorgo e época de aplicação. O rendimento de grãos foi independente do volume de calda aplicado tanto para as culturas de milho e sorgo.The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 has caused significant damage, mainly, in corn and sorghum growing in low land areas. A trial was carried out at Embrapa Clima Temperado de Pelotas, Estação Experimental de Terras Baixas, Capão do Leão, RS. The objective was to study the efficacy of S. frugiperda control based upon yield response of the corn cv Pioneer 30F33 and sorghum cv Aventis BRS 305. The experimental design was a random block with split plot. The insecticides and rate were Match CE (lufenurom, 300mL p

  14. Distribución temporal y espacial de poblaciones larvarias de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae en diferentes hospederos en provincias del norte de la Argentina Spatial and temporal distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae larval populations on different host plants in northern Argentina provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabriela Murúa

    Full Text Available Para estudiar la distribución temporal y espacial de larvas del "cogollero del maíz" Spodoptera frugiperda en diferentes plantas hospederas, se realizaron muestreos sistemáticos desde el año 2004 al 2007 en diferentes asociaciones de cultivos en las provincias de Tucumán, Salta y Santiago del Estero. Se consideró "asociación de cultivos" a una zona donde coexistían simultáneamente (en tiempo y espacio más de dos cultivos colindantes. Los cultivos monitoreados fueron maíz, sorgo granífero, alfalfa, caña de azúcar, soja, trigo, cártamo, garbanzo y malezas. En cada uno se muestrearon cinco puntos al azar de 1 m² y se revisaron las plantas, recolectándose las posturas y/o larvas presentes. Se encontraron 3620 larvas. La mayor cantidad se recolectó durante los meses del verano en las tres campañas monitoreadas en todas las provincias. Su presencia estuvo relacionada con la aparición de los cultivos estivales como el maíz y el sorgo granífero, en todas las provincias. La mayor cantidad de larvas se obtuvieron en maíz (2894, independientemente de los otros cultivos que formaban parte de la asociación. Siguiendo en orden de importancia, los otros hospederos con larvas fueron: sorgo granífero (272, alfalfa (125 y malezas (282. En base al número de larvas encontradas, la soja, trigo y caña de azúcar, cultivos que estuvieron presentes en casi todas las asociaciones, no son hospederos preferenciales de esta especie.In order to study the spatial and temporal distribution of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda larval populations on different host plants, systematic samplings were made from 2004 to 2007 in different crop associations in the provinces of Tucumán, Salta and Santiago del Estero. A zone where more than two adjacent crops coexisted simultaneously (in time and space was considered a crop association. Sampled crops were corn, sorghum, alfalfa, sugarcane, soybean, wheat, safflower, chickpea and weeds. Five one

  15. Bioatividade de formulações de NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, 1797 e de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai em lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, 1797 and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai formulations in larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de inseticidas botânicos e bioinseticidas constitui uma alternativa promissora para o manejo de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797, na cultura do milho. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de formulações comerciais de nim e de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai - Bta sobre esta praga em laboratório. Lagartas de S. frugiperda com 10 dias de idade foram alimentadas com folhas de milho submersas na calda dos inseticidas Neemseto®, Natuneem® e Xentari® (B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai Bta nas concentrações 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10 mL ou g/L e testemunha (água. Os efeitos dos inseticidas dependeram da concentração utilizada, pois provocaram mortalidade crescente das lagartas, alongaram o período larval e reduziram o peso larval. Em alguns casos, também, reduziram o peso das pupas, a viabilidade pupal e a longevidade de adultos. Lagartas com 0-24 h de idade foram mais susceptíveis às concentrações de Neemseto® e Xentari® a 5 e 10 mL ou g/L, em relação às com 10 dias de idade. Com o aumento da concentração, os efeitos sobre o peso das pupas e viabilidade pupal foram, também, maiores em lagartas com 0-24 h de idade.The use of botanical and biological insecticides constitutes a promising alternative to control Spodoptera frugiperda on corn crop. Thus, the present work evaluated the effect of commercial formulations of neem (Natuneem® and Neemseto® and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai - Bta (Xentari® on this pest under laboratory conditions. Newly hatched and 10 days old fall armyworm larvae were fed with corn leaves treated with the insecticides at concentration of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mL or g/mL and control (water. An increased effect of the insecticides was found as function of increasing concentration, causing higher larval mortality, longer larval period and lower larval weight. In some cases, reduction of pupa weight, pupa viability and longevity of adults were also verified. Newly

  16. Automatic Fall Monitoring: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthapon Pannurat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Falls and fall-related injuries are major incidents, especially for elderly people, which often mark the onset of major deterioration of health. More than one-third of home-dwelling people aged 65 or above and two-thirds of those in residential care fall once or more each year. Reliable fall detection, as well as prevention, is an important research topic for monitoring elderly living alone in residential or hospital units. The aim of this study is to review the existing fall detection systems and some of the key research challenges faced by the research community in this field. We categorize the existing platforms into two groups: wearable and ambient devices; the classification methods are divided into rule-based and machine learning techniques. The relative merit and potential drawbacks are discussed, and we also outline some of the outstanding research challenges that emerging new platforms need to address.

  17. Fall prevention in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2013-05-01

    Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment, supported by a

  18. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  19. IDENTIFIKASI FENOTIPIK GALUR-GALUR KEDELAI TERHADAP KETAHANAN SERANGAN HAMA ULAT GRAYAK (SPODOPTERA LITURA F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatut Wahyu Anggoro Susanto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic identification of soybean lines against armyworm pest resistance (Spodoptera litura F. This research consisted of two parts which aimed to find out the intensity of damage to the leaves and the influence of soybean on the biological aspect of armyworms. The materials tested were Shr/W-C-60, Aochi/Wil-60, 9837/K-D-8-185, 9837/K-D-3-185-95, W/9837-D- 6-220, 9837/K-D-3-185-82, 9837/W-D-5-211, GI, G100H breeding lines and Wilis varieties. The research was conducted at a Balitkabi screenhouse in February 2011, using randomized block design and each treatment was replicated three times. The planting media were plastic pots (diameter 18 cm filled with earth, two seeds per pot were planted and intensively raised. When the plants were 27 days old after planting, at each replication consisting of 10 materials, they were covered with gauze cages (2 x 2 x 2 m. Then the plants in each pot was infested with 10 instar I armyworm larvae. The other part of research was carried out in Balitkabi Breeding Improvement Laboratory. For testing purposes, there was a need for a third nodal leaf of soybean aged 27 days after planting in each tested material. The research used a completely randomized design each treatment was replicated three times. One nodal leaf in each material was placed in a petri dish 15 cm in diameter, which was coated with moist filter paper, and this was later called treatment. Each treatment was infested with one instar I armyworm larva. The result of research indicated that an assessment of soybean resistance to armyworms could be made from the density of the trichome and/or the length of the trichome on the leaves. The G100H breeding line was found to be resilient with its characteristics of having dense trichome (25/4 mm2 and long trichome (1.1 mm.

  20. Preventing Falls and Related Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ages. Many of us know someone who has fallen and broken a bone. While healing, the fracture ... break after every fall, the person who has fallen and broken a bone nearly always becomes fearful ...

  1. EVALUACIÓN DE ISOESPINTANOL AISLADO DE Oxandra cf. xylopioides (ANNONACEAE SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE EVALUATION OF ISOESPINTANOL ISOLATED FROM Oxandra cf. xylopioides (ANNONACEAE ON Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Alberto Rojano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto biocida del isoespintanol extraído de Oxandra cf. xylopioides sobre el gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda. El isoespintanol fue usado a concentraciones de 100 300 900 y 2700 ppm y aplicado por inmersión de hojas de maíz evaluando sobre larvas del segundo instar. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad a las 24, 48 y 72 horas y se calculó la DL50 y DL90; el análisis de mortalidad demostró que el isoespintanol tiene un efecto tóxico, siendo la dosis de 2700 ppm la que presenta mayor mortalidad. Se determinó una DL50 de 147,07 ppm y una DL90 de 1394 ppm a las 48 horas postratamiento. Estos resultados permitirán avanzar en el estudio y aplicación de insecticidas biológicos para el manejo integrado de plagas.The biocide effect of isoespintanol extracted from Oxandra cf xylopioides was evaluated on the corn earworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Isoespintanol at concentrations of 100 300 900 and 2700 ppm was applied by foliar immersion of maize leaves and it was evaluated on larvae of the second instar. Percentage of mortality at 24, 48 and 72 hours was determined and calculated its DL50 and DL90; the mortality analysis demonstrated that compound has toxic effects, being the dose 2700 ppm the one that presented great mortality. A dose DL50 of 147.07 ppm and a DL90 of 1394 ppm to the 48 hours postreatment was determined. These results will allow to advance in the study and application of biological insecticides directed to the integrated handling of plagues.

  2. COMPARATIVE BIOLOGICAL DATA OF Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (LEPDOTERA: NOCTUIDAE IN COTTON AND MAIZE DADOS BIOLÓGICOS COMPARATIVOS DE Spodoptera frugiperda (L. E. Smith, 1797 (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE EM ALGODOEIRO E MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto P. Parra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This research deals with the compared biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smnith, 1797 on a natural diet consisting of leaves of the cotton plant (cultivar ";IAC-17"; and leaves of a hybrid corn plant (";HMD-7974";. The experiment was carried out under the following conditions: temperature, 25 +/- 2°C, moisture, 60 +/- 10% R.H. light, a 14-hour photoperiod. The following biological parameters were observed: egg stage: incubation period and viability; larval stage duration, number of instars, weight and viability; pupal stage: duration, weight and viability; adult stage: preoviposition period, fecundity and longevity. Generally speaking within these parameters, the results differed statistically, showing that the insects prefer the leaves of the corn plant.

    Estudou-se a biologia comparada de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 em dietas naturais (folhas de algodoeiro do cultivar "IAC-17" e folhas de milho provenientes do híbrido "HMD-7974". O ensaio foi conduzido à temperatura de 25 +/- 2°C, U.R. de 60 +/- 10% e fotoperíodo de 14 horas. Foram determinados em cada substrato: número e duração dos instares larvais, duração, peso e viabilidade larval, duração, peso e viabilidade pupal , período de pré-oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade dos adultos e período de incubação e viabilidade dos ovos. De modo geral, os resultados observados para esses parâmetros, diferiram estatisticamente, indicando a preferência das lagartas pelas folhas de milho.

  3. Effect of antibiotic on survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its gut microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, A; Dhammi, P; Saini, H S; Kaur, S

    2016-06-01

    Addition of antibiotics to artificial diets of insects is a key component in the rearing of insects in the laboratory. In the present study an antimicrobial agent, streptomycin sulphate was tested for its influence on survival and fitness of Spodoptera litura (Fabricus) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as well as its gut microbial diversity. The antibiotic did not adversely affect the survival of S. litura. Faster growth of larvae was recorded on diet amended with different concentrations of streptomycin sulphate (0.03, 0.07 and 0.15%) as compared to diet without streptomycin sulphate. The overall activity of various digestives enzymes increased on S+ diet while the activity of detoxifying enzymes significantly decreased. In addition, alteration in microbial diversity was found in the gut of S. litura larvae fed on diet supplemented with antibiotic (S+) and without antibiotic (S-).

  4. High Bacterial Agglutination Activity in a Single-CRD C-Type Lectin from Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Leila; Ferré, Juan; Herrero, Salvador

    2017-03-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-interacting proteins that play a pivotal role in multiple physiological and developmental aspects of all organisms. They can specifically interact with different bacterial and viral pathogens through carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD). In addition, lectins are also of biotechnological interest because of their potential use as biosensors for capturing and identifying bacterial species. In this work, three C-type lectins from the Lepidoptera Spodoptera exigua were produced as recombinant proteins and their bacterial agglutination properties were characterized. The lowest protein concentration producing bacterial agglutination against a panel of different Gram+ and Gram- as well as their carbohydrate binding specificities was determined for the three lectins. One of these lectins, BLL2, was able to agglutinate cells from a broad range of bacterial species at an extremely low concentration, becoming a very interesting protein to be used as a biosensor or for other biotechnological applications involving bacterial capture.

  5. Microencapsulation of a Colombian Spodoptera frugiperdaNucleopolyhedrovirus with Eudragit® S100 by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Elena Camacho Kurmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Colombian Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus NPV003 with high potential for the development of an efficient biopesticide was microencapsulated by spray drying with a pH dependent polymer (Eudragit® S100. Conditions for microparticles production were standardized and microencapsulation process was validated. Physical properties, insecticide activity and photo-stability of microencapsulated virus were determined. The microparticles were spherical and irregular shaped, with sizes between 17.64 and 19.47 µm. Moisture content was 10.38 ± 0.87%; encapsulation efficiency 84.61± 13.09% and process yield was 91.20 ± 6.40%. Microencapsulation process did not affect viral insecticidal activity and provided efficient protection against UVB radiation. Results demonstrated technological feasibility of spray drying process to be used in formulating a biopesticide based on NPV003.

  6. Determinación del nivel de daño de Spodoptera frugiperda en tres variedades de arroz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda está reportado como una plaga importante en la mayoría de países de Latinoamérica. Para determinar la efectividad de las estrategias de control se infestaron plántulas de tres variedades de arroz (Fedearroz 50, Tailandia3 y Tailandia 4 A los 15 y 25 días después de siembra inocularon con larvas de S. frugiperda de tercer instar (0, 100 y 400 larvas/m2, luego se cubrió las plántulas usando jaulas de nylon. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en rendimiento en ninguno de los tratamientos, lo cual correspondió con el área foliar recuperada por las plantas. Si esta plaga se controla en el cuarto instar, parece ser que se presenta poco daño económico al cultivo.

  7. Ectopically expressed leaf and bulb lectins from garlic (Allium sativum L.) protect transgenic tobacco plants against cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Amin; Smagghe, Guy; Broeders, Sylvia; Hernalsteens, Jean-Pierre; De Greve, Henri; Peumans, Willy J; Van Damme, Els J M

    2008-02-01

    The insecticidal activity of the leaf (ASAL) and bulb (ASAII) agglutinins from Allium sativum L. (garlic) against the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was studied using transgenic tobacco plants expressing the lectins under the control of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter. PCR analysis confirmed that the garlic lectin genes were integrated into the plant genome. Western blots and semi-quantitative agglutination assays revealed lectin expression at various levels in the transgenic lines. Biochemical analyses indicated that the recombinant ASAL and ASAII are indistinguishable from the native garlic lectins. Insect bioassays using detached leaves from transgenic tobacco plants demonstrated that the ectopically expressed ASAL and ASAII significantly (P transgenic approach.

  8. Insecticidal activity of venomous saliva from Rhynocoris fuscipes (Reduviidae against Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera by microinjection and oral administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sahayaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhynocoris fuscipes is a potential predator of many economically important pests in India. In the present study, its venomous saliva (VS was collected by milking and diluted with HPLC grade water to different concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm. Microinjection of Rhynocoris fuscipes VS was more toxic than its oral administration in Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm and Spodoptera litura (tobacco cutworm. Thus, R. fuscipes VS was found to be toxic to third instar S. litura and H. armigera with respective LD50s of 846.35 and 861.60 ppm/larva at 96 hours after microinjection. The current results showed that VS of Rhynocoris fuscipes caused mortality of H. armigera and S. litura. Active peptides from VS may be isolated, identified and assessed for their impact in order to ascertain how they alter the physiology of these pests, information that could be applicable in pest management programs.

  9. Calling Behavior, Copulation Time, and Reproductive Compatibility of Corn-Strain Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) From Populations in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Esteban, Samuel; Rojas, Julio C; Malo, Edi A

    2017-08-01

    The calling behavior, mating time, and the reproductive compatibility of virgin adults of fall armyworms, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were studied in this work. Larvae were collected on maize (Zea mays L.) from six states located on the Pacific coast (Chiapas, Michoacán, and Sinaloa), on the Gulf of Mexico (Veracruz and Yucatan), and in central Mexico (Morelos). Before the experiments, insects were reared under laboratory conditions for one generation. We recorded the age at which females called for the first time, the onset time of calling, the duration of calling, the onset time of copulation, and the duration of copulation. The calling rhythms of the six populations were dissimilar. Females from all populations began to call in the second or third scotophase. The time for onset of calling and the duration of calling were significantly different among the S. frugiperda populations studied. Spodoptera frugiperda pairs from Sinaloa, Veracruz, Yucatan, and Morelos started to copulate earlier than the pairs from Chiapas and Michoacán. Pairs from Veracruz and Yucatan copulated longer than those from Michoacán, Morelos, Chiapas, and Sinaloa. Our crossing experiment using females and males from the six populations showed that individuals from different populations could copulate and produce fertile offspring. Thus, although the S. frugiperda populations showed variability in the timing of reproduction, the populations were not reproductively incompatible, which indicated that geographic distance has not led to reproductive isolation in corn-strain populations of S. frugiperda in Mexico. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Phylogenetic molecular species delimitations unravel potential new species in the pest genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae.

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    Pascaline Dumas

    Full Text Available Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence. As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808, S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833 and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904 with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852. They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858 and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities.

  11. Comparative molecular analyses of invasive fall armyworm in Togo reveal strong similarities to populations from the eastern United States and the Greater Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Koffi, Djima; Agboka, Komi; Tounou, Kodjo Agbeko; Banerjee, Rahul; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Meagher, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, J.E. Smith) is a noctuid moth that is a major and ubiquitous agricultural pest in the Western Hemisphere. Infestations have recently been identified in several locations in Africa, indicating its establishment in the Eastern Hemisphere where it poses an immediate and significant economic threat. Genetic methods were used to characterize noctuid specimens infesting multiple cornfields in the African nation of Togo that were tentatively identified as fall armyworm by morphological criteria. Species identification was confirmed by DNA barcoding and the specimens were found to be primarily of the subgroup that preferentially infests corn and sorghum in the Western Hemisphere. The mitochondrial haplotype configuration was most similar to that found in the Caribbean region and the eastern coast of the United States, identifying these populations as the likely originating source of the Togo infestations. A genetic marker linked with resistance to the Cry1Fa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic corn and common in Puerto Rico fall armyworm populations was not found in the Togo collections. These observations demonstrate the usefulness of genetic surveys to characterize fall armyworm populations from Africa.

  12. Comparative molecular analyses of invasive fall armyworm in Togo reveal strong similarities to populations from the eastern United States and the Greater Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney N Nagoshi

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, J.E. Smith is a noctuid moth that is a major and ubiquitous agricultural pest in the Western Hemisphere. Infestations have recently been identified in several locations in Africa, indicating its establishment in the Eastern Hemisphere where it poses an immediate and significant economic threat. Genetic methods were used to characterize noctuid specimens infesting multiple cornfields in the African nation of Togo that were tentatively identified as fall armyworm by morphological criteria. Species identification was confirmed by DNA barcoding and the specimens were found to be primarily of the subgroup that preferentially infests corn and sorghum in the Western Hemisphere. The mitochondrial haplotype configuration was most similar to that found in the Caribbean region and the eastern coast of the United States, identifying these populations as the likely originating source of the Togo infestations. A genetic marker linked with resistance to the Cry1Fa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt expressed in transgenic corn and common in Puerto Rico fall armyworm populations was not found in the Togo collections. These observations demonstrate the usefulness of genetic surveys to characterize fall armyworm populations from Africa.

  13. Catching a Falling Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    . Comets are another important source of meteoroids and perhaps the most spectacular. After many visits near the Sun, a comet "dirty-snowball" nucleus of ice and dust decays and fragments, leaving a trail of meteoroids along its orbit. Some "meteoroid streams" cross the earth's orbit and when our planet passes through them, some of these particles will enter the atmosphere. The outcome is a meteor shower - the most famous being the "Perseids" in the month of August [2] and the "Leonids" in November. Thus, although meteors are referred to as "shooting" or "falling stars" in many languages, they are of a very different nature. More information The research presented in this paper is published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 39, Nr. 4, p. 1, 2004 ("Spectroscopic anatomy of a meteor trail cross section with the ESO Very Large Telescope", by P. Jenniskens et al.). Notes [1] The team is composed of Peter Jenniskens (SETI Institute, USA), Emmanuël Jehin (ESO), Remi Cabanac (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile), Christophe Laux (Ecole Centrale de Paris, France), and Iain Boyd (University of Michigan, USA). [2] The maximum of the Perseids is expected on August 12 after sunset and should be easily seen.

  14. Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae, New Host Plants to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Evaldo Pires

    2014-04-01

    Resumo. Coleus barbatus Benth e Ocimum basilicum L. são espécies de plantas comumente utilizadas com fins medicinais e gastronômicos, respectivamente. Lagartas do gênero Spodoptera são generalistas devido à ampla variedade de plantas que utilizam como recurso alimentar. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi registrar a ocorrência de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brasil, e ainda, relatar C. barbatus e O. basilicum como potenciais plantas hospedeiras para esta espécie de inseto. Recomenda-se ainda a inclusão de S. cosmioides em monitoramentos visando o Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP nestas plantas.

  15. A Piece of Paper Falling Faster than Free Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls…

  16. Genetic basis of allochronic differentiation in the fall armyworm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hänniger, S.; Dumas, P.; Schöfl, G.; Gebauer-Jung, S.; Vogel, H.; Unbehend, M.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Very little is known on how changes in circadian rhythms evolve. The noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) consists of two strains that exhibit allochronic differentiation in their mating time, which acts as a premating isolation barrier between the strains. We

  17. Purification and properties of the chymotrypsin inhibitor from wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides) of Israel and its toxic effect on beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jingjun; Yan, Jun; Chen, Hui; Jianping, Cheng; Sun, Wenjun; Zhao, Gang

    2017-10-01

    A novel chymotrypsin inhibitor, which detected in the seed of wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides), was purified by ion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and Ultracentrifugation. On the basis of its specificity, this inhibitor was named WeCI (wild emmer chymotrypsin inhibitor). SDS-PAGE analysis displayed that the purified WeCI is a single chain polypeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 13kDa. The inhibition constants (Ki) for amylase and bovine pancreatic chymotrypsin were 1.12×10-9M and 2.41×10-9M, respectively. Automated sequencing and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that WeCI is a neutral monomeric protein consisting of 119 residues. In vitro, WeCI strongly suppressed bovine pancreatic chymotrypsin as well as chymotrypsin-like activities separated from the midgut of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua. No inhibitory activities were found against bovine pancreatic trypsin, bacterial subtilisin, or porcine pancreatic elastase. The primary structure of WeCI was markedly similar (46-95%) to those of several proteins belonging to the wheat crop chymotrypsin/α-amylase inhibitor superfamily and displayed the typical sequence motif of the α-amylase inhibitor-seed storage protein group. WeCI significantly inhibited the growth and development of Spodoptera exigua, dependent on inhibitor concentration. WeCI significantly increased the mortality rate of Spodoptera exigua and caused a significant decrease in its fertility. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Falls prevention for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Katrin; Bremer, Martina; Schramm, Susanne; Lühmann, Dagmar; Raspe, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention. The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years), living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed. Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the inclusion criteria. However, to a variable degree the validity of their

  19. Falls prevention for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Lühmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention.Research questions: The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years, living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT, the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed.Results: Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the

  20. Fall risk in an active elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Hoeck, Hans C.; Simonsen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Falls amongst elderly people are often associated with fractures. Training of balance and physical performance can reduce fall risk; however, it remains a challenge to identify individuals at increased risk of falling to whom this training should be offered. It is believed that fall...... risk can be assessed by testing balance performance. In this study a test battery of physiological parameters related to balance and falls was designed to address fall risk in a community dwelling elderly population. RESULTS: Ninety-four elderly males and females between 70 and 80 years of age were...... of community dwelling elderly. Falling is a complex phenomenon of multifactorial origin. The crucial factor in relation to fall risk is the redundancy of balance capacity against the balance demands of the individuals levels of fall-risky lifestyle and behavior. This calls for an approach to fall risk...

  1. NOVA Fall 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lincoln's Secret Weapon"; (2) "Hitler's Lost Sub"; (3) "Runaway Universe"; (4) "Garden of Eden"; (5) "Dying to Be Thin"; and (6) "Japan's Secret…

  2. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  3. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Biological activity of extracts of Melia azedarach on larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. Rossetti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en las dosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.In the course of searching for plant chemicals with potential insecticide properties, the activity of Melia azedarach L. senescent leaf and ripe fruit extracts (2, 5 and 10% was evaluated on larvae of Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This polyphagous species is considered a sporadic pest on many important crops. Food consumption was assessed and an antifeedant index was calculated through choice tests. Also, food consumption, larval mortality, weight and depositions were recorded and nutritional indices were calculated in no-choice tests. Results from choice tests

  4. AVALIAÇÃO DE DANOS Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae NO ALGODOEIRO CULTIVAR IAC-17 EVALUATION OF Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE DAMAGES IN THE COTTON PLANT IAC-17 CULTIVAR

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    Valquíria da Rocha Santos Veloso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com a finalidade de avaliar os danos causados por Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 na produção do algodoeiro, foi conduzido o presente trabalho. Foram utilizados quatro níveis de infestação artificial aos 75 e 95 dias da germinação das plantas. As avaliações foram feitas através da produção de algodão em caroço, por parcela. As diferenças na produção em plantas infestadas aos 75 e 95 dias da germinação, comparadas com a testemunha, foram estatisticamente significativas para as infestações com 1, 2 e 4 lagartas por planta. Aos 75 dias, devido ao fato de existirem poucos órgãos frutíferos, a redução na produção deu-se devido ao ataque das lagartas aos ponteiros e aos caules, com corte parcial ou total. Na infestação aos 95 dias a produção diminuiu linearmente em relação aos diferentes níveis de infestação; nesta época as lagartas mostraram preferência pelas estruturas frutíferas do algodoeiro.

    This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluate the damages provoked by Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 in cotton-plant yield. To evaluate the decrease in the cotton yield four levels of artificial infestation were used at 75 and 95 days from plant germination. The damage was evaluated on cotton seeds per plot. The differences in the yield of infested plants at 75 and 95 days from germination, when compared to the check, were statistically significant for the infestations of 1, 2 and 4 larvae per plant. At 75 days when the plants presented a low number of fruit organs, the yield decrease was due to the attack of larvae cutting partially or totally the shoots and stems. As to the infestation at 95 days the yield decreased linearly in relation to the different levels of infestation; at this time the larvae showed a preference for the fruit

  5. Avaliação de acessos de milho para resistência a Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em laboratório Evaluation of a maize collection to Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae resistance in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Wilma Neide de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se uma coleção de milho para resistência à lagarta de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith (Lepidóptera: Noctuidae em testes de laboratório da UFRA. Utilizou-se 25 acessos de milho proveniente do banco de germoplasma da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, em um experimento inteiramente ao acaso com três repetições. Observou-se diariamente o desenvolvimento dos insetos durante as fases de larva e pupa, para registrar as alterações biológicas promovidas pelos acessos de milho. Os dados observados foram submetidos à ANOVA, as médias foram comparadas pelo teste SNK e através da análise de regressão linear, determinou-se o grau de dependência entre o consumo foliar de S. frugiperda na fase larval e a respectiva biomassa do inseto na fase pupal. Os resultados mostraram que houve influência dos acessos de milho sobre o desenvolvimento da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho. Os acessos que promoveram a menor percentagem de viabilidade de lagartas foram AM 013, RO 009 e MA 002, enquanto RR 168 e PA 110 foram os menos consumidos pelas lagartas de S. frugiperda.A collection of maize was evaluated to corn population resistance to the corn caterpillar Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in laboratory at UFRA. There were used 25 corn population from the germoplasm bank of Embrapa Maize and Sorghum Research Center with three repetitions. The development of this insect was daily observed, from the caterpillar phase to the pupal, to register the biological differences promoted by maize population. The observed data were submitted to ANOVA, the averages were compared by the SNK test and the linear regression analysis was determined between leaf consumption and the respective pupal biomass. The results showed that the maize population affected the larval development. The least larval viability was observed on populations AM 013, RO 009 and MA 002, and the leaf consumption by S.frugiperda larvae was on RR 168 and PA 110.

  6. Metabolic insights into the cold survival strategy and overwintering of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Huan; Meng, Qian; Wang, Menglong; Zhou, Guiling; Li, Xuan; Wang, Hongtuo; Miao, Lin; Qin, Qilian; Zhang, Jihong

    2017-07-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive pest in Asia. Although overwintering in the field has not been reported for this species, their larvae are capable of long-term survival in fluctuating temperatures, i.e., 5°C (12h) plus 13°C (12h), if food is available. With an increase in climate change due to global warming and the widespread use of greenhouses, further understanding of their cold survival strategy is needed to predict and control their population in the future. In this study, metabolomics was performed to analyze the metabolic features of S. litura larvae exposed to two typical low temperatures: 15°C and 4°C, at which the development, locomotion and feeding activities are maintained or halted, respectively. The results showed that the strategies that regulate lipid and amino acid metabolism were similar at 15°C and 4°C. Cold exposure induced a metabolic shift of energy from carbohydrate to lipid and decreased free amino acids level. Biosynthesis likely contributed to the decrease in amino acids levels even at 4°C, a non-feeding temperature, suggesting an insufficient suppression of anabolism. This explains why food and high temperature pulses are necessary for their long-term cold survival. Glycometabolism was different between 15°C and 4°C. Carbohydrates were used rapidly at 15°C, while trehalose accumulated at 4°C. Interestingly, abundant trehalose and serine are prominent features of Spodoptera exigua larvae, an overwintering species, when compared to S. litura larvae. Exposure to 4°C also induced up-regulation of carbohydrase and protease in the guts of S. litura. Therefore, it is likely that concurrence of food supplement and fluctuating temperatures could facilitate the cold survival of S. litura larvae. We also found that exposure to 4°C could activate the mevalonate pathway in S. litura larvae, which might be related to glycometabolism at 4°C. Overall, our study describes

  7. Naturally Occurring Deletion Mutants Are Parasitic Genotypes in a Wild-Type Nucleopolyhedrovirus Population of Spodoptera exigua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Delia; Castillejo, Juan I.; Caballero, Primitivo

    1998-01-01

    A wild-type nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolate from Spodoptera exigua from Florida (Se-US2) is a variant of the SeMNPV type strain since it has a unique DNA profile but is closely related to other known geographical isolates of SeMNPV. It consists of several genotypic variants, of which seven were identified in a Se-US2 virus stock by a modification of the in vivo cloning method developed by Smith and Crook (Virology 166:240–244, 1988). The US2A variant was the most prevalent genotype, and it was designated the prototype Se-US2 variant, while four of the variants (US2B, US2D, US2F, and US2H) were found at low frequency. US2C and US2E were also very abundant, and their diagnostic bands were easily observed in wild-type isolate restriction endonuclease patterns. The analysis of each variant, compared to the prototype US2A, showed that US2B and US2H presented minor differences, while US2D and US2F contained slightly larger insertions or deletions. Variants US2C and US2E contained major deletions of 21.1 and 14 kb, respectively, mapping at the same genomic region (between 14.5 and 30.2 map units [m.u.] and between 12.8 and 23 m.u., respectively). This is the first report of such deletion mutants in a natural baculovirus population. Variants US2A, US2B, US2D, US2F, and US2H were isolated as pure genotypes, but we failed to clone US2C and US2E in vivo. When these two variants appeared without apparent contamination with any other variant, they lost their pathogenicity for Spodoptera exigua larvae. A further biological characterization showed evidence that these two naturally occurring deletion mutants act as parasitic genotypes in the virus population. Bioassay data also demonstrated that pure US2A is significantly more pathogenic against second-instar S. exigua larvae than the wild-type isolate. The need for precise genotypic characterization of a baculovirus prior to its development as a bioinsecticide is discussed. PMID:9797293

  8. Falls Prevention Process in Assisted Living Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, DaRae; Nordman-Oliveira, Susan E; Schlaak, Mary; Ford, James H

    2017-12-01

    Falls are a significant issue for older adults, and many older adults who once received care in nursing homes now reside in assisted living communities (ALCs). ALC staff needs to address resident falls prevention; however, federal or state requirements or oversight are limited. This research explores falls prevention in Wisconsin ALCs in the context of the Kotter Change Model to identify strategies and inform efforts to establish a more consistent, proactive falls prevention process for ALCs. A mixed methods approach demonstrated inconsistency and variability in the use of falls risk assessments and prevention programs, which led to the development of standardized, proactive falls prevention process flowcharts. This process, as delineated, provides ALCs with an approach to organize a comprehensive falls reduction strategy. Findings highlight the importance of educating staff regarding assessments, resident motivation, falls prevention programs, and feedback, all key components of the falls prevention process.

  9. Temperature effects on the mating frequency of Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); Influencia da temperatura na frequencia de copula de Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner e Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milano, Patricia; Berti Filho, Evoneo [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola. Lab. de Entomologia Florestal; Parra, Jose R.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola. Lab. Biologia de Insetos; Consoli, Fernando L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola. Lab. de Ecologia Nutricional e Molecular de Interacoes entre Artropodes e Microrganismos]. E-mails: patmilano@gmail.com; eberti@esalq.usp.br; jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; fconsoli@esalq.usp.br

    2008-09-15

    This paper deals with the influence of temperature on the mating frequency of two lepidopterans, Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), which use different strategies of allocation, and with the utilization of nutrients for their reproductive activities. The insects were reared on artificial diets at 25 deg C, and the adults were exposed to five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 deg C) to observe the influence of each temperature on their mating frequency, fecundity, fertility and longevity. The temperature affected the mating frequency of both species, being more evident at 15 deg C and 35 deg C, mainly for A. gemmatalis, which presented a drastic reduction on mating activities. The highest number of matings were observed from 20 deg C to 30 deg C, with S. frugiperda presenting mating activity (0-8) much higher than that of A. gemmatalis (0-2), but no correlation was observed among the number of matings and all other biological parameters evaluated (fecundity, fertility and longevity). However, S. frugiperda showed a positive correlation between fecundity and mating activity of females (r = 0.589; P = 0.003) at 25 deg C. The highest fecundities were observed at temperatures from 20 deg C to 30 deg C for S. frugiperda and at 25 deg C for A. gemmatalis. For both species, the longevity of males and females decreased as temperature increased. (author)

  10. Osteoarthritis and falls in the older person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin Teck; Tan, Maw Pin

    2013-09-01

    Osteoarthritis and falls are common conditions affecting older individuals which are associated with disability and escalating health expenditure. It has been widely assumed that osteoarthritis is an established risk factor for falls in older people. The relationship between osteoarthritis and falls has, quite surprisingly, not been adequately elucidated, and published reports have been conflicting. Our review of the existing literature has found limited evidence supporting the current assumption that the presence of osteoarthritis is associated with increased risk of falls with suggestions that osteoarthritis may actually be protective against falls related fractures. In addition, joint arthroplasty appears to increase the risk of falls in individuals with osteoarthritis.

  11. A wearable airbag to prevent fall injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toshiyo; Yoshimura, Takumi; Sekine, Masaki; Uchida, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Osamu

    2009-11-01

    We have developed a wearable airbag that incorporates a fall-detection system that uses both acceleration and angular velocity signals to trigger inflation of the airbag. The fall-detection algorithm was devised using a thresholding technique with an accelerometer and gyro sensor. Sixteen subjects mimicked falls, and their acceleration waveforms were monitored. Then, we developed a fall-detection algorithm that could detect signals 300 ms before the fall. This signal was used as a trigger to inflate the airbag to a capacity of 2.4 L. Although the proposed system can help to prevent fall-related injuries, further development is needed to miniaturize the inflation system.

  12. Associated Factors for Falls, Recurrent Falls, and Injurious Falls in Aged Men Living in Taiwan Veterans Homes

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    Yan-Chiou Ku

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the advanced age, depression status, stroke, gouty arthritis, and cataract are independent variables for predicting falls; depression is the only clinical factor capable of predicting the recurrent falls. These variables were potential targets for effective prevention of falls.

  13. Effect of three larval diets on the development of the armyworm, Spodoptera latifascia Walker, 1856 (Noctuidae, Lepidoptera

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    M. E. M. Habib

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Some biological effects of feeding larvae of the armyworm Spodoptera latifascia with leaves of three plant species (cotton, soybean and lettuce have been studied. Some indicative measurements were utilized to determine the host suitability of these three plant species. Cotton leaves (Gossypium hirsutum were found to be better than soybean (Glycine max for the development and growth of this insect. Lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa were incapable of sustaining this insect. Moreover, the stress of the latter diet was associated with a latent microbial disease, a mixed infection caused by Vairimorpha sp. and a nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV. Cotton leaves can be recommended as a suitable diet for mass rearing of this insect species. Due to recent outbreks of S. latifascia observed in the States of São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Paraná and because of the frequent applications of wide spectrum chemical insecticides, it can be expected that this insect will soon become one of the important pests threatening cotton and other economic plantations in Brazil.

  14. Enzymatic activity of α-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Characterization and Compartmentalization

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    Ali Darvishzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to gain a better understanding of the digestive physiology. The physiology and biochemistry of the insect digestive enzyme had an important role in the study of novel insecticidal strategies. The Egyptian cotton leafworm alimentary canal consists of a short foregut, a long midgut and a short hindgut. Application of pH indicators showed that alimentary canal was alkaline. Our results showed that activities of gut α-amylase were different in three parts of the insect gut. Also shown the greatest activity of α-amylase observed in the midgut followed by hindgut and foregut, respectively. However, there were not significant differences in activity of the enzyme in the midgut and hindgut. The optimal pH α-amylase in foregut, midgut and hindgut were 10.0. Zymogram analysis of different part of gut showed four bands in midgut, hind gut and two bands in foregut. Therefore, in midgut of S. littoralis, four isoenzymes were present. These results explain why more amylase activity was seen in these regions in the spectrophotometric assay.

  15. Biodiversity and Activity of the Gut Microbiota across the Life History of the Insect Herbivore Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bosheng; Teh, Beng-Soon; Sun, Chao; Hu, Sirui; Lu, Xingmeng; Boland, Wilhelm; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-07-08

    Microbes that live inside insects play critical roles in host nutrition, physiology, and behavior. Although Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are one of the most diverse insect taxa, their microbial symbionts are little-studied, particularly during metamorphosis. Here, using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing of DNA and RNA, we investigated biodiversity and activity of gut microbiotas across the holometabolous life cycle of Spodoptera littoralis, a notorious agricultural pest worldwide. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominate but undergo a structural "metamorphosis" in tandem with its host. Enterococcus, Pantoea and Citrobacter were abundant and active in early-instar, while Clostridia increased in late-instar. Interestingly, only enterococci persisted through metamorphosis. Female adults harbored high proportions of Enterococcus, Klebsiella and Pantoea, whereas males largely shifted to Klebsiella. Comparative functional analysis with PICRUSt indicated that early-instar larval microbiome was more enriched for genes involved in cell motility and carbohydrate metabolism, whereas in late-instar amino acid, cofactor and vitamin metabolism increased. Genes involved in energy and nucleotide metabolism were abundant in pupae. Female adult microbiome was enriched for genes relevant to energy metabolism, while an increase in the replication and repair pathway was observed in male. Understanding the metabolic activity of these herbivore-associated microbial symbionts may assist the development of novel pest-management strategies.

  16. Nerium oleander indirect leaf photosynthesis and light harvesting reductions after clipping injury or Spodoptera eridania herbivory: high sensitivity to injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Kevin J

    2012-04-01

    Variable indirect photosynthetic rate (P(n)) responses occur on injured leaves after insect herbivory. It is important to understand factors that influence indirect P(n) reductions after injury. The current study examines the relationship between gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with injury intensity (% single leaf tissue removal) from clipping or Spodoptera eridania Stoll (Noctuidae) herbivory on Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae). Two experiments showed intercellular [CO(2)] increases but P(n) and stomatal conductance reductions with increasing injury intensity, suggesting non-stomatal P(n) limitation. Also, P(n) recovery was incomplete at 3d post-injury. This is the first report of a negative exponential P(n) impairment function with leaf injury intensity to suggest high N. oleander leaf sensitivity to indirect P(n) impairment. Negative linear functions occurred between most other gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with injury intensity. The degree of light harvesting impairment increased with injury intensity via lower (1) photochemical efficiency indicated lower energy transfer efficiency from reaction centers to PSII, (2) photochemical quenching indicated reaction center closure, and (3) electron transport rates indicated less energy traveling through PSII. Future studies can examine additional mechanisms (mesophyll conductance, carbon fixation, and cardenolide induction) to cause N. oleander indirect leaf P(n) reductions after injury. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. EFEITO DE BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (BT SOBRE LAGARTAS DE SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA E ANTICARSIA GEMMATALIS EM LABORATÓRIO

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    Fabrício Oliveira Fernandes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anticarsia gemmatalis (lagarta-da-soja e Spodoptera frugiperda (lagarta-do-cartucho são insetos polífagos e desfolhadores, responsáveis por prejuízos em diversas culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a mortalidade desses insetos através do consumo de dieta artificial com a adição de cepas de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. Para a realização dos experimentos foram utilizadas 30 lagartas de A. gemmatalis (3º instar e S. frugiperda (1º instar para cada tratamento, as quais foram acondicionadas em tubos de vidro esterilizados contendo 1 cm3 de dieta artificial. Posteriormente foram adicionadas alíquotas de 150µl de Bt var israelensis (Bti, Bt var kurstaki (Btk, Bt var oswaldo cruz (Bto e água destilada para o controle. O tratamento com Btk resultou em maior mortalidade ambas espécies, seguidas por Bto para A. gemmatalis e Bti para S. frugiperda.

  18. Biodiversity and Activity of the Gut Microbiota across the Life History of the Insect Herbivore Spodoptera littoralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bosheng; Teh, Beng-Soon; Sun, Chao; Hu, Sirui; Lu, Xingmeng; Boland, Wilhelm; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    Microbes that live inside insects play critical roles in host nutrition, physiology, and behavior. Although Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are one of the most diverse insect taxa, their microbial symbionts are little-studied, particularly during metamorphosis. Here, using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing of DNA and RNA, we investigated biodiversity and activity of gut microbiotas across the holometabolous life cycle of Spodoptera littoralis, a notorious agricultural pest worldwide. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominate but undergo a structural “metamorphosis” in tandem with its host. Enterococcus, Pantoea and Citrobacter were abundant and active in early-instar, while Clostridia increased in late-instar. Interestingly, only enterococci persisted through metamorphosis. Female adults harbored high proportions of Enterococcus, Klebsiella and Pantoea, whereas males largely shifted to Klebsiella. Comparative functional analysis with PICRUSt indicated that early-instar larval microbiome was more enriched for genes involved in cell motility and carbohydrate metabolism, whereas in late-instar amino acid, cofactor and vitamin metabolism increased. Genes involved in energy and nucleotide metabolism were abundant in pupae. Female adult microbiome was enriched for genes relevant to energy metabolism, while an increase in the replication and repair pathway was observed in male. Understanding the metabolic activity of these herbivore-associated microbial symbionts may assist the development of novel pest-management strategies. PMID:27389097

  19. [Morphology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on neem-treated leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Alicely A; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Teixeira, Alvaro A C; Oliveira, José V de; Torres, Jorge B

    2009-01-01

    Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (Neemseto) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 degrees C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Boüin s aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxilin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (Neemseto), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron.

  20. Molecular methods to detect Spodoptera frugiperda in Ghana, and implications for monitoring the spread of invasive species in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Matthew J W; Beseh, Patrick K; Buddie, Alan G; Cafá, Giovanni; Crozier, Jayne

    2017-06-22

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest indigenous throughout the Americas, which recently appeared in Africa, first reported from São Tomé, Nigeria, Bénin and Togo in 2016, and which we now report from Ghana. This species is recognised to comprise two morphologically identical but genetically distinct strains or species in the Americas, and we found both to be present in Ghana. We discuss possible routes of entry to Africa, of which the likeliest is adults and/or egg masses transported on direct commercial flights between the Americas and West Africa, followed by dispersal by adult flight within Africa. Identification of Lepidoptera is normally based on the markings and morphology of adults, and not on the larvae which actually cause the damage, and therefore larvae have to be reared through to adult for authoritative identification. We confirmed that the use of DNA barcoding allowed unequivocal identification of this new pest from Ghana based on the larvae alone. As authenticated barcodes for vouchered specimens of more pests become available, this approach has the potential to become a valuable in-country tool to support national capability in rapid and reliable pest diagnosis and identification.

  1. Chemical constituents and ovicidal effects of mahlab, Prunus mahaleb L. kernels oil on cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. eggs

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    Mead Hala M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The carried out investigations evaluated ovicidal activity of mahlab, Prunus mahaleb L. kernel oil against cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.. The chemical constituents of the fixed oil of mahlab were analyzed using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC. Timnodonic (33.07%, oleic (28.71% and linoleic (24.35% were the basic fatty acids, while the major hydrocarbon and sterol were found to be heneicosane (62.57% and β-sitosterol (10.57%. The LC50 values for the one-day-old egg masses were found to be more susceptible than 3-day-old ones. Moreover, the leaf dip technique occurred to be more efficient than spraying technique. The results also showed abnormalities in the external morphology of egg shell, chorion surface, shell imprints and aeropyles of S. littoralis eggs treated with mahlab and KZ oils as compared to a control by using scanning electron microscope. Generally, the tested oils significantly reduced the activities of transaminase enzymes (AST and ALT, acid and alkaline phosphatases and total soluble protein except mahlab oil on acid phosphatase as compared to a control. Additionally, the oils of both mahlab and KZ oil affected some biological aspects such as incubation period, larval duration, larval mortality and pupal weight comparing to a control.

  2. Chitosan and its quaternized derivative as effective long dsRNA carriers targeting shrimp virus in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerawanitchpan, Gatesara; Saengkrit, Nattika; Sajomsang, Warayuth; Gonil, Pattarapond; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Saesoo, Somsak; Flegel, Timothy W; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon

    2012-08-31

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising strategy to combat shrimp viral pathogens at lab-scale experiments. Development of effective orally delivered agents for double-stranded (ds)RNA is necessary for RNAi application at farm level. Since continuous shrimp cell lines have not been established, we are developing a dsRNA-delivery system in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells for studying in vitro RNAi-mediated gene silencing of shrimp virus. Sf9 cells challenged with yellow head virus (YHV) were used for validating nanoparticles as effective dsRNA carriers. Inexpensive and biodegradable polymers, chitosan and its quarternized derivative (QCH4), were formulated with long dsRNA (>100 bp) targeting YHV. Their morphology and physicochemical properties were examined. When treated with chitosan- and QCH4-dsRNA complexes, at least 50% reduction in YHV infection in Sf9 cells relative to the untreated control was evident at 24h post infection with low cytoxicity. Inhibitory effects of chitosan- and QCH4-dsRNA complexes were comparable to that of dsRNA formulated with Cellfectin(®), a commercial lipid-based transfection reagent. The natural and quaternized chitosan prepared in this study can be used for shrimp virus-specific dsRNA delivery in insect cultures, and have potential for future development of dsRNA carriers in shrimp feed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Elumalai Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  4. Biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em Algodoeiro de Fibra Colorida Tratado com Silício

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    Alex Silva

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. The caterpillar Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith is a key pest of the corn culture and each year its occurrence in the cotton culture has increased, causing severe damage from the seedling phase to maturation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the silicon on the biology of S. frugiperda in white and colored fiber cotton plants. The bioassays were conducted with two cultivars of cotton, BRS Cedro (white fibers and BRS Verde (green fibers, with and without silicon application. The silicon was applied as a solution of 1% silicon acid, at a dosage equivalent to 3 ton/ha of SiO2. The following biological parameters were evaluated: larval mortality, duration of the larval and pupal phase, pupal viability, pupal weight, gender ratio, adult longevity of males and females and the number of eggs/female. It was verified that the silicon application only increased the mortality of caterpillars fed with BRS Cedro leaves, not demonstrating any effect on the caterpillars when applied on BRS Verde. Furthermore, the BRS Cedro cultivar, when compared to the BRS Verde cultivar, presented a lower pupal weight and a lower eggs/female production.

  5. Rhizobacteria activates (+)-δ-cadinene synthase genes and induces systemic resistance in cotton against beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebelo, Simon; Song, Yuanyuan; Kloepper, Joseph W; Fadamiro, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Gossypol is an important allelochemical produced by the subepidermal glands of some cotton varieties and important for their ability to respond to changing biotic stress by exhibiting antibiosis against some cotton pests. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are root-colonizing bacteria that increase plant growth and often elicit defence against plant pathogens and insect pests. Little is known about the effect of PGPR on cotton plant-insect interactions and the potential biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which PGPR enhance cotton plant defence. Here, we report that PGPR (Bacillus spp.) treated cotton plants showed significantly higher levels of gossypol compared with untreated plants. Similarly, the transcript levels of the genes (i.e. (+)-δ-cadinene synthase gene family) involved in the biosynthesis of gossypol were higher in PGPR-treated plants than in untreated plants. Furthermore, the levels of jasmonic acid, an octadecanoid-derived defence-related phytohormone and the transcript level of jasmonic acid responsive genes were higher in PGPR-treated plants than in untreated plants. Most intriguingly, Spodoptera exigua showed reduced larval feeding and development on PGPR-treated plants. These findings demonstrate that treatment of plants with rhizobacteria may induce significant biochemical and molecular changes with potential ramifications for plant-insect interactions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Elongation Factor 1β' Gene from Spodoptera exigua: Characterization and Function Identification through RNA Interference

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    Li-Na Zhao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elongation factor (EF is a key regulation factor for translation in many organisms, including plants, bacteria, fungi, animals and insects. To investigate the nature and function of elongation factor 1β' from Spodoptera exigua (SeEF-1β', its cDNA was cloned. This contained an open reading frame of 672 nucleotides encoding a protein of 223 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 24.04 kDa and pI of 4.53. Northern blotting revealed that SeEF-1β' mRNA is expressed in brain, epidermis, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, ovary and tracheae. RT-PCR revealed that SeEF-1β' mRNA is expressed at different levels in fat body and whole body during different developmental stages. In RNAi experiments, the survival rate of insects injected with SeEF-1β' dsRNA was 58.7% at 36 h after injection, which was significantly lower than three control groups. Other elongation factors and transcription factors were also influenced when EF-1β' was suppressed. The results demonstrate that SeEF-1β' is a key gene in transcription in S. exigua.

  7. Dynamics and regulation of glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid metabolism in the midgut of Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Luo, W; Fan, L F; Liu, F L; Gu, J; Deng, H M; Zhang, C; Huang, L H; Feng, Q L

    2016-04-01

    Significant changes usually take place in the internal metabolism of insects during metamorphosis. The glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid (glycolysis-TCA) pathway is important for energy metabolism. To elucidate its dynamics, the mRNA levels of genes involved in this pathway were examined in the midgut of Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis, and the pyruvate content was quantified. The expression patterns of these genes in response to starvation were examined, and the interaction between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) was studied. The results revealed that the expression or activities of most glycolytic enzymes was down-regulated in prepupae and then recovered in some degree in pupae, and all TCA-related genes were remarkably suppressed in both the prepupae and pupae. Pyruvate was enriched in the pupal midgut. Taken together, these results suggest that insects decrease both glycolysis and TCA in prepupae to save energy and then up-regulate glycolysis but down-regulate TCA in pupae to increase the supply of intermediates for construction of new organs. The expression of all these genes were down-regulated by starvation, indicating that non-feeding during metamorphosis may be a regulator of glycolysis-TCA pathway in the midgut. Importantly, interaction between PP1 and PFK was identified and is suggested to be involved in the regulation of glycolysis. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Development of insect resistant maize plants expressing a chitinase gene from the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Gamal H.; Assem, Shireen K.; Alreedy, Rasha M.; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K.; Basry, Mahmoud A.; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the importance of chitinolytic enzymes for insect, nematode and fungal growth, they are receiving attention concerning their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and as microbial biocontrol agents. Targeting chitin associated with the extracellular matrices or cell wall by insect chitinases may be an effective approach for controlling pest insects and pathogenic fungi. The ability of chitinases to attack and digest chitin in the peritrophic matrix or exoskeleton raises the possibility to use them as insect control method. In this study, an insect chitinase cDNA from cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) has been synthesized. Transgenic maize plant system was used to improve its tolerance against insects. Insect chitinase transcripts and proteins were expressed in transgenic maize plants. The functional integrity and expression of chitinase in progenies of the transgenic plants were confirmed by insect bioassays. The bioassays using transgenic corn plants against corn borer (Sesamia cretica) revealed that ~50% of the insects reared on transgenic corn plants died, suggesting that transgenic maize plants have enhanced resistance against S. cretica. PMID:26658494

  9. The Mechanism by Which Dodecyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride Increased the Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos to Spodoptera exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner is one of the most destructive pests that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, S. exigua have developed resistance toward the majority of insecticides. Synergists may provide an important choice to deal with the resistance problems. Dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (DDBAC is a cationic surfactant, which displayed enhancement effect when combined with chlorpyrifos against S. exigua, giving enhancement factors of 1.50 and 1.57 at the concentrations of 90 and 810 mg L−1. In order to clarify the possible mechanisms, we investigate the effects of DDBAC on detoxification enzymes. However, DDBAC showed no inhibition on these enzymes activities. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscope images indicated DDBAC did not affect the cuticle super micro structure of S. exigua. The alterations in cuticular penetration rate have also been observed; indeed, it has been suggested that synergism is obtained by an acceleration of insecticide penetration through the cuticle. The chlorpyrifos penetration increased sharply when combined with 90 and 810 mg L−1 DDBAC, with only 12.6 and 8.5% of the initial chlorpyrifos recovered by external rinsing after 8 h. In contrast, when there was no DDBAC, more than 23.3% of the initial dose was recovered after 8 h.

  10. Feeding-induced phenol production in Capsicum annuum L. influences Spodoptera litura F. larval growth and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, Vijaya; Pathipati, Usha Rani

    2017-05-01

    We studied the role of induced plant phenols as a defense response to insect herbivory. Phenolic compounds were induced in Capsicum annuum L., the source of many culinary peppers, after feeding by different stages of the insect pest, Spodoptera litura F. The phenols were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and effects produced by these phenols on larval development were studied. Vanillic acid was identified in plants challenged by second, fourth, and fifth instar larvae, but not in plants challenged by third instar nor unchallenged plants. Syringic acid production was induced in chili plants infested with second (0.429 ± 0.003 μg/g fresh weight, fourth (0.396 ± 0.01 μg/g fresh weight), and fifth instar (5.5 ± 0.06 μg/g fresh weight) larvae, compared to untreated plants (0.303 ± 0.01 μg/g fresh weight) plants. Leaves surface treated with the rutin deterred oviposition. Dietary exposure to chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin led to enhanced activities of detoxifying enzymes, β-glucosidase, carboxyl esterase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase in the midgut tissues of all the larval instars, indicating the toxic nature of these compounds. Protein carbonyl content and acetylcholinesterase activity was analyzed to appreciate the role of induced plant phenols in insect protein oxidation and terminating nerve impulses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Transgenic rice plants expressing a modified cry1Ca1 gene are resistant to Spodoptera litura and Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mohsin Abbas; Ye, Gongyin; Yao, Hongwei; You, Taek H; Loit, Evelin; Dean, Donald H; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Altosaar, Illimar

    2009-11-01

    Nucleotide sequence encoding the truncated insecticidal Cry1Ca1 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis was extensively modified based on the codon usage of rice genes. The overall G + C contents of the synthetic cry1Ca1 coding sequence were raised to 65% with an additional bias of enriching for G and C ending codons as preferred by monocots. The synthetic gene was introduced into the Chinese japonica variety, Xiushui 11, by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic rice plants harboring this gene were highly resistant to Chilo suppressalis and Spodoptera litura larvae as revealed by insect bioassays. High levels of Cry1Ca1 protein were obtained in the leaves of transgenic rice, which were effective in achieving 100% mortality of S. litura and C. suppressalis larvae. The levels of Cry1Ca1 expression in the leaves of these transgenic plants were up to 0.34% of the total soluble proteins. The larvae of C. suppressalis and S. litura could consume a maximum of 1.89 and 4.89 mm2 of transgenic leaf area whereas the consumption of nontransgenic leaves by these larvae was significantly higher; 58.33 and 61.22 mm2, respectively. Analysis of R1 transgenic plants indicated that the cry1Ca1 was inherited by the progeny plants and provided complete protection against C. suppressalis and S. litura larvae.

  12. Development of insect resistant maize plants expressing a chitinase gene from the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Gamal H; Assem, Shireen K; Alreedy, Rasha M; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Basry, Mahmoud A; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2015-12-14

    Due to the importance of chitinolytic enzymes for insect, nematode and fungal growth, they are receiving attention concerning their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and as microbial biocontrol agents. Targeting chitin associated with the extracellular matrices or cell wall by insect chitinases may be an effective approach for controlling pest insects and pathogenic fungi. The ability of chitinases to attack and digest chitin in the peritrophic matrix or exoskeleton raises the possibility to use them as insect control method. In this study, an insect chitinase cDNA from cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) has been synthesized. Transgenic maize plant system was used to improve its tolerance against insects. Insect chitinase transcripts and proteins were expressed in transgenic maize plants. The functional integrity and expression of chitinase in progenies of the transgenic plants were confirmed by insect bioassays. The bioassays using transgenic corn plants against corn borer (Sesamia cretica) revealed that ~50% of the insects reared on transgenic corn plants died, suggesting that transgenic maize plants have enhanced resistance against S. cretica.

  13. Juvenile hormone analog technology: effects on larval cannibalism and the production of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, Sonia; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo

    2010-06-01

    The production of a multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has been markedly increased by using juvenile hormone analog (JHA) technology to generate a supernumerary sixth instar in the species. In the current study we compared the incidence of cannibalism in S. exigua fifth and sixth instars reared at low (two larvae per dish) and a high density (10 larvae per dish). The incidence of cannibalism was significantly higher in fifth instars compared with sixth instars and increased with rearing density on both instars. Infected larvae were more prone to become victims of cannibalism than healthy individuals in mixed groups comprising 50% healthy + 50% infected larvae in both instars reared at high density. Instar had a marked effect on occlusion body (OB) production because JHA-treated insects produced between 4.8- and 5.6-fold increase in OB production per dish compared with fifth instars at high and low densities, respectively. The insecticidal characteristics of OBs produced in JHA-treated insects, as indicated by LD50 values, were similar to those produced in untreated fourth or fifth instars. Because JHA technology did not increase the prevalence of cannibalism and had no adverse effect on the insecticidal properties of SeMNPV OBs, we conclude that the use of JHAs to generate a supernumerary instar is likely to be compatible with mass production systems that involve gregarious rearing of infected insects.

  14. A simple strategy for fall events detection

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-01-20

    The paper concerns the detection of fall events based on human silhouette shape variations. The detection of fall events is addressed from the statistical point of view as an anomaly detection problem. Specifically, the paper investigates the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart to detect fall events. Towards this end, a set of ratios for five partial occupancy areas of the human body for each frame are collected and used as the input data to MEWMA chart. The MEWMA fall detection scheme has been successfully applied to two publicly available fall detection databases, the UR fall detection dataset (URFD) and the fall detection dataset (FDD). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of fall situations.

  15. Preventing Falls: Great Help for Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults / How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? / Home Improvements Prevent Falls Winter 2014 Issue: Volume 8 Number 4 Page 14 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  16. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults / How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? / Home Improvements Prevent Falls Winter 2014 Issue: Volume 8 Number 4 Page 15 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  17. Factors inducing falling in schizophrenia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yoko; Akezaki, Yoshiteru; Mori, Kohei; Yuri, Yoshimi; Katsumura, Hitomi; Hara, Tomihiro; Usui, Yuki; Fujino, Yoritaka; Nomura, Takuo; Hirao, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors causing falling among patients with schizophrenia hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were divided into either those having experienced a fall within the past one year (Fall group, 12 patients) and those not having experienced a fall (Non-fall group, 7 patients), and we examined differences between the two groups. Assessment items measured included muscle strength, balance ability, flexibility, body composition assessment, Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), the antipsychotic drug intake, and Drug Induced Extra-Pyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS). [Results] As a result, significant differences were observed in regard to One leg standing time with eyes open, Time Up and Go Test (TUGT), and DIEPSS Sialorrhea between the Fall group and the Non-fall group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a decrease in balance ability was significantly correlated with falling in schizophrenia patients. PMID:28356628

  18. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney N Nagoshi

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in genetically modified corn varieties. These characteristics exacerbate the threat fall armyworm poses to agriculture, with the potential that a resistance trait arising in one geographical location could rapidly disseminate throughout the hemisphere. A region of particular concern is the Caribbean, where a line of islands that extends from Florida to Venezuela provides a potential migratory pathway between populations from North and South America that could allow for consistent and substantial genetic interactions. In this study, surveys of populations from Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Trinidad & Tobago expand on previous work in South America that indicates a generally homogeneous population with respect to haplotype markers. This population differs from that found in most of the Lesser Antilles where a combination of genetic and meteorological observations is described that indicate fall armyworm migration from Puerto Rico to as far south as Barbados, but does not support significant incursion into Trinidad & Tobago and South America. Air transport projections demonstrate that the wind patterns in the Caribbean region are not conducive to consistent flight along the north-south orientation of the Lesser Antilles, supporting the conclusion that such migration is minor and sporadic, providing few opportunities for genetic exchanges. The implications of these findings on the dissemination of deleterious traits between the two Western Hemisphere continents are discussed.

  19. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Fleischer, Shelby; Meagher, Robert L; Hay-Roe, Mirian; Khan, Ayub; Murúa, M Gabriela; Silvie, Pierre; Vergara, Clorinda; Westbrook, John

    2017-01-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in genetically modified corn varieties. These characteristics exacerbate the threat fall armyworm poses to agriculture, with the potential that a resistance trait arising in one geographical location could rapidly disseminate throughout the hemisphere. A region of particular concern is the Caribbean, where a line of islands that extends from Florida to Venezuela provides a potential migratory pathway between populations from North and South America that could allow for consistent and substantial genetic interactions. In this study, surveys of populations from Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Trinidad & Tobago expand on previous work in South America that indicates a generally homogeneous population with respect to haplotype markers. This population differs from that found in most of the Lesser Antilles where a combination of genetic and meteorological observations is described that indicate fall armyworm migration from Puerto Rico to as far south as Barbados, but does not support significant incursion into Trinidad & Tobago and South America. Air transport projections demonstrate that the wind patterns in the Caribbean region are not conducive to consistent flight along the north-south orientation of the Lesser Antilles, supporting the conclusion that such migration is minor and sporadic, providing few opportunities for genetic exchanges. The implications of these findings on the dissemination of deleterious traits between the two Western Hemisphere continents are discussed.

  20. Measuring fall risk and predicting who will fall: clinimetric properties of four fall risk assessment tools for residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anna L; Nitz, Jennifer C; Low Choy, Nancy L; Haines, Terry

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to describe the clinimetric evaluation of four fall risk assessment tools (FRATs) recommended in best practice guidelines for use in residential aged care (RAC). Eighty-seven residents, mean age 81.59 years (SD +/-10.69), participated. The Falls Assessment Risk and Management Tool (FARAM), Peninsula Health Fall Risk Assessment Tool (PHFRAT), Queensland Fall Risk Assessment Tool (QFRAT), and Melbourne Fall Risk Assessment Tool (MFRAT) were completed at baseline, and 2 and 4 months, and falls occurring in the 6 months after the baseline assessment were recorded. Interrater agreement (kappa), predictive accuracy (survival analysis and Youden Index), and fit to the Rasch model were examined. Twelve-month fall history formed the predictive accuracy reference. Interrater risk classification agreement was high for the PHFRAT (small ka, Cyrillic = .84) and FARAM (small ka, Cyrillic = .81), and low for the QFRAT (small ka, Cyrillic = .51) and MFRAT (small ka, Cyrillic = .21). Survival analysis identified that 43%-66% of risk factors on each tool had no (p > .10) association with falls. No tool had higher predictive accuracy (Youden index) than the question, "has the resident fallen in past 12 months?" (p > .05). All tools did not exhibit fit to the Rasch model, invalidating summing of risk factor scores to provide an overall risk score. The studied tools have poor clinimetric properties, casting doubt about their usefulness for identifying fall risk factors for those most at risk for falling and measuring fall risk in RAC.

  1. Biologia comparada de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cebola, mamona, soja e feijão Compared biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in onion, castor oil plant, soybean and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar Bavaresco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. sobre quatro hospedeiros naturais (folhas de cebola, mamona, soja cv. Embrapa 48 e feijão cv. Carioca. Foram avaliados a duração e viabilidade das fases imaturas e do ciclo total, número de ínstares, peso de pupas, razão sexual, porcentagem de deformação de adultos e de adultos não liberados dos invólucros pupais, longevidade de adultos, fecundidade e viabilidade de ovos. Observou-se menor duração e maior viabilidade do período ovo-adulto para mamona e cebola (39,7 dias e 21,7% e 40,5 dias e 21,8%, respectivamente, do que para soja (46,0 dias e 3,9%. O peso pupal foi de 444,6 mg em cebola, 420,0 em feijão, 396,6 em mamona e 298,7 em soja. Constatou-se um predomínio de seis ínstares larvais em folhas de cebola e mamona, ocorrendo também sete para alguns indivíduos, enquanto que em soja predominou a ocorrência de sete, também verificando oito ínstares, indicando uma menor adequação nutricional deste hospedeiro. As fêmeas apresentaram duração da fase pupal significativamente menor do que os machos em todos hospedeiros, fazendo com que a emergência do adulto ocorresse antes dos machos. Em cebola, a longevidade de adultos foi significativamente superior aos demais hospedeiros. A fecundidade foi maior em cebola e mamona (3224 e 3206 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente, enquanto que para soja observou-se 1353 ovos/fêmea. Em folhas de feijão, o desenvolvimento do inseto foi prejudicado por caracteres morfológicos - pilosidade, que promoveram elevada mortalidade na fase larval.The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. was studied on four natural hosts (onion leaves, castor oil plant, soy cv. Embrapa 48 and bean cv. Carioca. The duration and viability of immature phases and total cycle, instar number, pupals weight, sexual ratio, percentage of deformed adults and adults not released of pupal beg, adults' longevity, fecundity and eggs viability were evaluated. It was observed in

  2. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira Biology, fertility life table and effect of insecticides on Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in strawberry and grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.The biology of Spodoptera eridania was studied in the laboratory (22±1ºC, RH 70±10%, 14 hours of photoperiod in leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' and grape (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. The duration and viability of the entire cycle were respectively 52.2±1.32 days and 37.6% for strawberry and 42.2±0.45 days and 25.5% for grapes. The sex ratio in strawberry was 0.58 and 0.48 on grape. The average longevity of males and females in strawberry was 16.3±1.16 and 15.8±1.85 days, respectively, and 5.6±0.88 and 7.3±0.83 days in grape. The mean fecundity was 1,747.5±187.32 eggs per female in strawberry and 1,764.9±289.04 on grape. The life table of fertility showed that the net reproduction rate and finite rate of increase were 394.89 and 1.10, respectively, for strawberry and 213.98 and 1.12 for grapevine. Strawberry cv. 'Aromas' and grape cv

  3. Estabilidad de dos variantes genotípicas del nucleopoliedrovirus de Spodoptera frugiperda a través de ciclos sucesivos de infección en larva

    OpenAIRE

    Malagón Rodríguez, Astrid Lucero

    2014-01-01

    El nucleopoliedrovirus de Spodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV) se caracteriza por presentar una mezcla de diferentes genotipos con actividad insecticida variable. Estas diferencias pueden ser utilizadas como estrategia para la búsqueda de genotipos puros o mezclas de los mismos, cuya actividad insecticida sea óptima para el desarrollo de un bioplaguicida, para el control del gusano cogollero del maíz. En el presente trabajo se aislaron dos variantes genotípicas mediante clonación in vitro a partir ...

  4. Infestação de Spodoptera frugiperda e Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em híbridos comerciais de milho (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nais, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    O milho é uma das plantas domesticadas pelo homem mais antigas do mundo e sua produção se torna ameaçada diante do ataque de pragas. Dentre elas destacam-se a lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda e a lagarta-da-espiga Helicoverpa zea. A S. frugiperda ataca preferencialmente o cartucho das plantas consumindo grande parte da área foliar antes de as folhas se desenvolverem. A H. zea é referida prejudicando a cultura atacando os estilo-estigmas e alimentando-se dos grãos leitosos. Para promo...

  5. NÃO PREFERÊNCIA PARA ALIMENTAÇÃO E ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS DE Spodoptera eridania EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO-CAUPI

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO HENRIQUE SARDINHA DE SOUZA; ARLINDO LEAL BOIÇA JÚNIOR; ANDERSON GONÇALVES DA SILVA; NARA ELISA LOBATO RODRIGUES

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the no-preference for feeding and biological aspects of Spodoptera eridania fed on cowpea cultivars BR17 Gurgueia, BRS Urubuquara, BRS Nova Era, Sempre Verde, BRS Milênio and BR3 Tracuateua. In free-choice test, leaf discs were placed in Petri dishes where one third instar larvae per cultivar was released, whereas in no-choice test one leaf disc was placed per Petri dish where one caterpillar per cultivar was released, evaluating their attractiveness afte...

  6. Morphology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on neem-treated leaves; Morfologia do canal alimentar de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) alimentadas com folhas tratadas com nim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Alicely A.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Oliveira, Jose V. de; Torres, Jorge B. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Entomologia Agricola]. E-mail: aliceliac@yahoo.com.br; valeria@dmfa.ufrpe.br; Teixeira, Alvaro A.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal

    2009-01-15

    Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (Neemseto{sup R}) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 deg C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Bouein's aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (Neemseto{sup R}), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron. (author)

  7. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  8. Relationship between subjective fall risk assessment and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST) to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. Methods The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotomous questions to screen for fall risks during movements and behaviours such as walking, transferring, and wandering. The history of falls and fall-related fractures during the previous year was reported by participants or determined from an interview with the participant's family and care staff. Results All SRRST items showed significant differences between the participants with and without falls and fall-related fractures. In multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, diseases, and behavioural variables, the SRRST score was independently associated with history of falls and fractures. Odds ratios for those in the high-risk SRRST group (≥ 5 points) compared with the no risk SRRST group (0 point) were 6.15 (p elderly, however, these preliminary results require confirmation in further prospective research. PMID:21838891

  9. Response of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura to zinc stress: Zn accumulation, metallothionein and cell ultrastructure of the midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Yinghua [Key Laboratory of Agro-Environments in Tropics, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); State Key Laboratory of Biological Control and Institute of Entomology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Guren [State Key Laboratory of Biological Control and Institute of Entomology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Jianwu, E-mail: wangjw@scau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Agro-Environments in Tropics, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2012-11-01

    By exposing the common cutworm Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae to a range of Zinc (Zn) stress, we investigated the effects of dietary Zn on Zn accumulation, metallothionein (MT), and on the ultrastructure of the midgut. The techniques we used were inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), real-time PCR combined with cadmium-hemoglobin total saturation, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the Zn accumulations in the midgut of the larvae and the Zn concentrations in the diet. Furthermore, both MT content and MT gene expression in the midgut were significantly induced in the 50-500 mg Zn/kg treatments, and were significantly positively correlated with the Zn accumulations in the midgut. When S. litura larvae were fed with the diet treated with 500 mg Zn/kg, Zn accumulation and MT content in the midgut was 4450.85 mg Zn/kg and 372.77 mg/kg, respectively, thereafter there was a little increase; the level of MT gene expression was maximal, thereafter there was a sharp decrease. TEM showed that numerous electron-dense granules (EDGs) and vacuoles appeared in the cytoplasm of the midgut cells, their number and size being closely correlated with the Zn accumulations in the midgut. Moreover, the nuclei were strongly influenced by Zn stress, evidenced by chromatin condensation and irregular nuclear membranes. Therefore, after being exposed to Zn in the threshold (500 mg Zn/kg) range, S. litura larvae could accumulate Zn in the midgut, which led to the induction of MT and changes in cell ultrastructure (mainly the presence of EDGs). The induction of MT and precipitation of Zn in EDGs may be the effective detoxification mechanisms by which the herbivorous insect S. litura defends itself against heavy metals. -- Graphical abstract: When the herbivorous insect Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae were fed on the artificial diet with different concentrations of Zn, amounts of

  10. Model and scenario variations in predicted number of generations of Spodoptera litura Fab. on peanut during future climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mathukumalli Srinivasa; Swathi, Pettem; Rao, Chitiprolu Anantha Rama; Rao, K V; Raju, B M K; Srinivas, Karlapudi; Manimanjari, Dammu; Maheswari, Mandapaka

    2015-01-01

    The present study features the estimation of number of generations of tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura. Fab. on peanut crop at six locations in India using MarkSim, which provides General Circulation Model (GCM) of future data on daily maximum (T.max), minimum (T.min) air temperatures from six models viz., BCCR-BCM2.0, CNRM-CM3, CSIRO-Mk3.5, ECHams5, INCM-CM3.0 and MIROC3.2 along with an ensemble of the six from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1). This data was used to predict the future pest scenarios following the growing degree days approach in four different climate periods viz., Baseline-1975, Near future (NF) -2020, Distant future (DF)-2050 and Very Distant future (VDF)-2080. It is predicted that more generations would occur during the three future climate periods with significant variation among scenarios and models. Among the seven models, 1-2 additional generations were predicted during DF and VDF due to higher future temperatures in CNRM-CM3, ECHams5 & CSIRO-Mk3.5 models. The temperature projections of these models indicated that the generation time would decrease by 18-22% over baseline. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to partition the variation in the predicted number of generations and generation time of S. litura on peanut during crop season. Geographical location explained 34% of the total variation in number of generations, followed by time period (26%), model (1.74%) and scenario (0.74%). The remaining 14% of the variation was explained by interactions. Increased number of generations and reduction of generation time across the six peanut growing locations of India suggest that the incidence of S. litura may increase due to projected increase in temperatures in future climate change periods.

  11. Dissimilar Regulation of Antimicrobial Proteins in the Midgut of Spodoptera exigua Larvae Challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins or Baculovirus.

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    Cristina M Crava

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and lysozymes are the main effectors of the insect immune system, and they are involved in both local and systemic responses. Among local responses, midgut immune reaction plays an important role in fighting pathogens that reach the insect body through the oral route, as do many microorganisms used in pest control. Under this point of view, understanding how insects defend themselves locally during the first phases of infections caused by food-borne pathogens is important to further improve microbial control strategies. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional response of AMPs and lysozymes in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, a polyphagous pest that is commonly controlled by products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt or baculovirus. First, we comprehensively characterized the transcripts encoding AMPs and lysozymes expressed in S. exigua larval midgut, identifying 35 transcripts that represent the S. exigua arsenal against microbial infection. Secondly, we analyzed their expression in the midgut after ingestion of sub-lethal doses of two different pore-forming B. thuringiensis toxins, Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa, and the S. exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV. We observed that both Bt toxins triggered a similar, wide and in some cases high transcriptional activation of genes encoding AMPs and lysozymes, which was not reflected in the activation of the classical systemic immune-marker phenoloxidase in hemolymph. Baculovirus ingestion resulted in the opposed reaction: Almost all transcripts coding for AMPs and lysozymes were down-regulated or not induced 96 hours post infection. Our results shed light on midgut response to different virulence factors or pathogens used nowadays as microbial control agents and point out the importance of the midgut immune response contribution to the larval immunity.

  12. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira

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    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.

  13. Model and scenario variations in predicted number of generations of Spodoptera litura Fab. on peanut during future climate change scenario.

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    Mathukumalli Srinivasa Rao

    Full Text Available The present study features the estimation of number of generations of tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura. Fab. on peanut crop at six locations in India using MarkSim, which provides General Circulation Model (GCM of future data on daily maximum (T.max, minimum (T.min air temperatures from six models viz., BCCR-BCM2.0, CNRM-CM3, CSIRO-Mk3.5, ECHams5, INCM-CM3.0 and MIROC3.2 along with an ensemble of the six from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1. This data was used to predict the future pest scenarios following the growing degree days approach in four different climate periods viz., Baseline-1975, Near future (NF -2020, Distant future (DF-2050 and Very Distant future (VDF-2080. It is predicted that more generations would occur during the three future climate periods with significant variation among scenarios and models. Among the seven models, 1-2 additional generations were predicted during DF and VDF due to higher future temperatures in CNRM-CM3, ECHams5 & CSIRO-Mk3.5 models. The temperature projections of these models indicated that the generation time would decrease by 18-22% over baseline. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to partition the variation in the predicted number of generations and generation time of S. litura on peanut during crop season. Geographical location explained 34% of the total variation in number of generations, followed by time period (26%, model (1.74% and scenario (0.74%. The remaining 14% of the variation was explained by interactions. Increased number of generations and reduction of generation time across the six peanut growing locations of India suggest that the incidence of S. litura may increase due to projected increase in temperatures in future climate change periods.

  14. Identification and RNA Interference of the Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) in the Common Cutworm Moth Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

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    Lu, Qin; Huang, Ling-Yan; Chen, Peng; Yu, Jin-Feng; Xu, Jin; Deng, Jian-Yu; Ye, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Spodoptera litura F. is one of the most destructive insect pests of many agricultural crops and notorious for developing insecticide resistance. Developing environmental friendly control methods such as novel pheromone and RNAi-related control strategies is imperative to control this pest. In the present study, the full-length cDNA encoding the diapause hormone and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (DH-PBAN) was identified and characterized in S. litura. This 809-bp transcript contains a 573-nucleotide ORF encoding a 191-amino acid protein, from which five putative neuropeptides, including PBAN, DH, and α-, β-, and γ-subesophageal ganglion neuropeptides, were derived. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both the whole protein and each of the five neuropeptides have high similarities to those of DH-PBANs from other insect orders particularly Lepidoptera. Females treated with TKYFSPRLamide (the active core fragment of PBAN) produced significantly more four types of pheromone compounds (A; B; C; D) than controls. RNA interference by injection of PBAN dsRNA significantly reduced the relative expression levels of this gene in adult females (approximately reduced by 60%). As a consequence, females treated with PBAN dsRNA produced significantly less four types of pheromone compounds (A; B; C; D) than controls. These results suggest that PBAN function in activating sex pheromone biosynthesis and the RNAi of DH-PBAN gene can be induced by the injection of dsRNA into the body cavity in S. litura. This study suggests the possibility of novel pheromone-related pest control strategies based on RNAi techniques. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A cytochrome P450 gene plays a role in the recognition of sex pheromones in the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

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    Feng, B; Zheng, K; Li, C; Guo, Q; Du, Y

    2017-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) genes are involved in fundamental physiological functions, and might be also associated with the olfactory recognition of sex pheromones in beetles and moths. A P450 gene, Spodoptera litura CYP4L4 (SlituCYP4L4), was cloned for the first time from the antennae of S. litura. SlituCYP4L4 was almost exclusively expressed in the adult stage and predominantly expressed in the adult antennae. In situ hybridization showed that SlituCYP4L4 localized mainly at the base of the long sensilla trichoidea, which responds to sex pheromone components. Pretreatment with an S. litura sex pheromone significantly reduced the expression levels of SlituCYP4L4, consistent with other genes involved in sex pheromone recognition. The expression level of SlituCYP4L4 was different in moths collected with different ratios of sex pheromone lures and collected in different geographical locations. After gene knockdown of SlituCYP4L4 in the antennae, the electroantennogram (EAG) responses of male and female moths to (9Z,11E)-tetradecadienyl acetate or (9Z,12E)-tetradecadienyl acetate were significantly decreased. In contrast, EAG responses to plant volatiles and sex pheromones of other moth species were not significantly influenced in these moths. SlituCYP4L4 was also expressed in the gustatory tissues and sensilla, which suggests that SlituCYP4L4 may have other functions in the chemosensory system. Our results have shown for the first time the function of a CYP gene with appendage-specific expression in insect sex pheromone recognition, especially in adult moths. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Trans-regional migration of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, in North-East Asia.

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    Xiaowei Fu

    Full Text Available The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is a serious polyphagous insect pest worldwide. This species is known as a long-distance migrant, and previous studies on its migration have been mostly carried out in regions where it can overwinter. However, what pattern of seasonal migration this species exhibits in regions where it cannot overwinter (i.e., the 'summer breeding region' remains unknown. Here, we present data from 14-years of monitoring on a small remote island located in the center of the Bohai Strait, in northern China, by means of searchlight trapping and ovarian dissection. We found that the population size of this overseas migration varied significantly among years, with very large migrations in 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2014 that resulted in annual total catches of more than ten thousand individuals. In addition, nightly catches exhibited a significant inter-month variability, with the vast majority of S. exigua moths being trapped in August and September, (81.1 ± 3.6%, making S. exigua one of the most frequently encountered species in that period. The mean time from the earliest trap capture to the latest capture within a given year was 113 ± 22 d (range 57 d [2003] to 138 d [2008]. The sex ratio (females: males was significantly less than 1:1 in each month, but the proportion of females showed an upward trend from June to October. The majority of trapped females in summer were mated (94.4 ± 10.7% in June, 80.0 ± 6.4% in July and sexually mature (88.9 ± 11.1% in June, 61.8 ± 12.3% in July, suggesting the onset of mating and/or sexual maturation does not terminate the migration behavior in this species. These findings provide a good starting point for study of the trans-regional migration of S. exigua across different climate zones.

  17. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    María R. ROSSETTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en ldosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.

  18. Improving the insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai against Spodoptera exigua by chromosomal expression of a chitinase gene.

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    Thamthiankul, S; Moar, W J; Miller, M E; Panbangred, W

    2004-08-01

    A transcriptionally fused gene comprising the P19 gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis fused with a chitinase gene (chiBlA) from B. licheniformis was integrated into the B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai BTA1 genome by homologous recombination. The resulting B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strain (INT1) showed growth and sporulation comparable with that of the wild-type strain. INT1 produced four chitinases of different molecular masses (i.e., 66, 55, 39, 36 kDa). Three of these (66, 55, 36 kDa) were derived from the cloned chiBlA gene, whereas the 39-kDa chitinase originated from BTA1. Using surface contamination bioassays, the 50% lethal concentration of lyophilized whole culture broth of INT1 against Spodoptera exigua neonate larvae was 12.2 microg/cm2, compared with 30.8 microg/cm2 for BTA1. Bioassays using filtered culture supernatant of INT1 (110 microg/cm2) together with trypsin-activated purified Cry1C protein of B. thuringiensis (1,280 ng/cm2) showed 75.0% mortality, compared with 56.7% mortality for Cry1C combined with BTA1 at the same concentration. Using scanning electron microscopy, clear perforations were observed in S. exigua fifth instar peritrophic membranes incubated with either crude or purified chitinase, or isolated from fifth instar S. exigua fed purified chitinase since the first instar. These results show that chitinase can increase the activity of B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai against S. exigua. This is the first documentation of expressing a chimeric chitinase gene on the chromosome of B. thuringiensis; and chromosomal integration might be used as a potential technique for strain improvement.

  19. Dynamics of membrane potential variation and gene expression induced by Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis.

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    Irene Bricchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biotic stress induced by various herbivores and pathogens invokes plant responses involving different defense mechanisms. However, we do not know whether different biotic stresses share a common response or which signaling pathways are involved in responses to different biotic stresses. We investigated the common and specific responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to three biotic stress agents: Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used electrophysiology to determine the plasma membrane potential (V(m and we performed a gene microarray transcriptome analysis on Arabidopsis upon either herbivory or bacterial infection. V(m depolarization was induced by insect attack; however, the response was much more rapid to S. littoralis (30 min -2 h than to M. persicae (4-6 h. M. persicae differentially regulated almost 10-fold more genes than by S. littoralis with an opposite regulation. M. persicae modulated genes involved in flavonoid, fatty acid, hormone, drug transport and chitin metabolism. S. littoralis regulated responses to heat, transcription and ion transport. The latest Vm depolarization (16 h was found for P. syringae. The pathogen regulated responses to salicylate, jasmonate and to microorganisms. Despite this late response, the number of genes differentially regulated by P. syringae was closer to those regulated by S. littoralis than by M. persicae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Arabidopsis plasma membranes respond with a V(m depolarization at times depending on the nature of biotic attack which allow setting a time point for comparative genome-wide analysis. A clear relationship between V(m depolarization and gene expression was found. At V(m depolarization timing, M. persicae regulates a wider array of Arabidopsis genes with a clear and distinct regulation than S. littoralis. An almost completely opposite regulation was observed between the aphid and the pathogen

  20. Spodoptera frugiperda X-Tox Protein, an Immune Related Defensin Rosary, Has Lost the Function of Ancestral Defensins

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    Bulet, Philippe; Boublik, Yvan; Girard, Pierre-Alain; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Zumbihl, Robert; Escoubas, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Background X-tox proteins are a family of immune-related proteins only found in Lepidoptera and characterized by imperfectly conserved tandem repeats of several defensin-like motifs. Previous phylogenetic analysis of X-tox genes supported the hypothesis that X-tox have evolved from defensins in a lineage-specific gene evolution restricted to Lepidoptera. In this paper, we performed a protein study in which we asked whether X-tox proteins have conserved the antimicrobial functions of their ancestral defensins and have evolved as defensin reservoirs. Methodology/Principal Findings We followed the outcome of Spod-11-tox, an X-tox protein characterized in Spodoptera frugiperda, in bacteria-challenged larvae using both immunochemistry and antimicrobial assays. Three hours post infection, the Spod-11-tox protein was expressed in 80% of the two main classes of circulating hemocytes (granulocytes and plasmatocytes). Located in secretory granules of hemocytes, Spod-11-tox was never observed in contact with microorganisms entrapped within phagolyzosomes showing that Spod-11-tox is not involved in intracellular pathogen killing. In fact, the Spod-11-tox protein was found to be secreted into the hemolymph of experimentally challenged larvae. In order to determine antimicrobial properties of the Spod-11-tox protein, it was consequently fractionated according to a protocol frequently used for antimicrobial peptide purification. Over the course of purification, the anti-Spod-11-tox immunoreactivity was found to be dissociated from the antimicrobial activity. This indicates that Spod-11-tox is not processed into bioactive defensins in response to a microbial challenge. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, our results show that X-tox proteins have not evolved as defensin reservoirs and have lost the antimicrobial properties of the ancestral insect defensins. The lepidopteran X-tox protein family will provide a valuable and tractable model to improve our knowledge on the molecular

  1. Genetic and Biological Characterization of Four Nucleopolyhedrovirus Isolates Collected in Mexico for the Control of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

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    Zamora-Avilés, N; Murillo, R; Lasa, R; Pineda, S; Figueroa, J I; Bravo-Patiño, A; Díaz, O; Corrales, J L; Martínez, A M

    2017-08-01

    This study describes four multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates recovered from infected larvae of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on crops in two different geographical regions of Mexico. Molecular and biological characterization was compared with characterized S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) isolates from the United States (SeUS1 and SeUS2) and Spain (SeSP2). Restriction endonuclease analysis of viral DNA confirmed that all Mexican isolates were SeMNPV isolates, but molecular differences between the Mexican and the reference isolates were detected using PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Amplification of the variable region V01 combined with RFLP distinguished the two Mexican isolates, SeSLP6 and SeSIN6. BglII digestions showed that the majority of the isolates contained submolar bands, indicating the presence of genetic heterogeneity. Amplification of the variable regions V04 and V05 distinguished between American and the Spanish isolates. Biological characterization was performed against two laboratory colonies of S. exigua, one from Mexico, and another from Switzerland. Insects from the Mexican colony were less susceptible to infection than insects from Se-Swiss colony. In the Se-Mex colony, SeSP2 was the most pathogenic isolate followed by SeSIN6, although their virulence was similar to most of the isolates tested. In Se-Swiss colony, similar LD50 values were observed for the five isolates, although the virulence was higher for the SeSLP6 isolate, which also had the highest OB (occlusion body) yield. We conclude that the Mexican isolates SeSIN6 and SeSLP6 possess insecticidal traits of value for the development of biopesticides for the control of populations of S. exigua. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Revisión de los hospederos del gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Augusto CASMUZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de actualizar los hospederos citados para Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. La búsqueda de hospederos fue agrupada por zona y país. Para el norte del Continente Americano, se incluyeron las citas encontradas para EE.UU., México, América Central e islas del Caribe. En Sudamérica, se agruparon todos los países del cono sur, a excepción de la Argentina, la cual fue considerada por separado. Se encontraron un total de 186 hospederos, repartidos en 42 familias. Entre los hospederos más citados, el 35,5% perteneció a la familia Poaceae, el 11,3% a la familia Fabaceae, a la familia Solanaceae y Asteraceae un 4,3 % cada una, siguiéndoles las Rosaceae y Chenopodiaceae con un 3,7% cada una y, finalmente, las Brassicaceae y Cyperaceae con un 3,2%. Del total de plantas encontradas (186 el 64% se hallaron presentes en Norteamérica y Centroamérica, un 53% en Sudamérica y un 32% en Argentina. Las especies más citadas fueron (en orden decreciente para Norteamérica: maíz, sorgo, maní, grama bermuda, caña de azúcar y arroz; para Sudamérica: maíz, arroz, sorgo, poroto, algodón y maní; y por último, en Argentina fueron: maíz, soja, algodón, alfalfa, tomate, lino, papa y sorgo. También se aporta información sobre su ciclo de vida, hábitos y comportamiento sobre los principales hospederos, migración y biotipos.

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca-resistant Spodoptera exigua lacks expression of one of four Aminopeptidase N genes

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    Moar William J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis bind to receptors on midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insect larvae. Aminopeptidases N (APNs from several insect species have been shown to be putative receptors for these toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression analysis of four APN cDNAs from Spodoptera exigua. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH was used to construct cDNA libraries of genes that are up-and down-regulated in the midgut of last instar larvae of beet armyworm, S. exigua exposed to B. thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin. Among the clones from the SSH libraries, cDNA fragments coding for two different APNs were obtained (APN2 and APN4. A similar procedure was employed to compare mRNA differences between susceptible and Cry1Ca resistant S. exigua. Among the clones from this last comparison, cDNA fragments belonging to a third APN (APN1 were detected. Using sequences obtained from the three APN cDNA fragments and degenerate primers for a fourth APN (APN3, the full length sequences of four S. exigua APN cDNAs were obtained. Northern blot analysis of expression of the four APNs showed complete absence of APN1 expression in the resistant insects, while the other three APNs showed similar expression levels in the resistant and susceptible insects. Conclusion We have cloned and characterized four different midgut APN cDNAs from S. exigua. Expression analysis revealed the lack of expression of one of these APNs in the larvae of a Cry1Ca-resistant colony. Combined with previous evidence that shows the importance of APN in the mode of action of B. thuringiensis toxins, these results suggest that the lack of APN1 expression plays a role in the resistance to Cry1Ca in this S. exigua colony.

  4. Eicosanoids up-regulate production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH-dependent oxidase in Spodoptera exigua phagocytic hemocytes.

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    Park, Youngjin; Stanley, David W; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-08-01

    Eicosanoids mediate cellular immune responses in insects, including phagocytosis of invading microbes. Phagocytosis entails two major steps, the internalization of microbes and the subsequent killing of them via formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we posed the hypothesis that eicosanoids mediate ROS production by activating NADPH-dependent oxidase (NOX) and tested the idea in the model insect, Spodoptera exigua. A NOX gene (we named SeNOX4) was identified and cloned, yielding a full open reading frame encoding 547 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 63,410Da and an isoelectric point at 9.28. A transmembrane domain and a large intracellular domain containing NADPH and FAD-binding sites were predicted. Phylogenetic analysis indicated SeNOX4 clusters with other NOX4 genes. SeNOX4 was expressed in all life stages except eggs, and exclusively in hemocytes. Bacterial challenge and, separately, arachidonic acid (AA, a precursor of eicosanoid biosynthesis) injection increased its expression. The internalization step was assessed by counting hemocytes engulfing fluorescence-labeled bacteria. The phagocytic behavior was inhibited by dsRNA suppression of SeNOX4 expression and, separately by dexamethasone (DEX, a specific inhibitor of eicosanoid biosynthesis) treatments. However, injecting AA to dsSeNOX4-treated larvae did not rescue the phagocytic activity. Hemocytic ROS production increased following bacterial challenge, which was sharply reduced in dsSeNOX4-treated, and separately, in DEX-treated larvae. AA partially reversed the suppressed ROS production in dsSeNOX4-treated larvae. Treating larvae with either the ROS-suppressing dsSeNOX4 construct or DEX rendered experimental larvae unable to inhibit bacterial proliferation in their hemocoels. We infer that eicosanoids mediate ROS production during phagocytosis by inducing expression of SeNOX4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of cytochrome c on apoptosis induced by Anagrapha falcifera multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus in insect Spodoptera litura cells.

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    Kaiyu Liu

    Full Text Available There are conflicting reports on the role of cytochrome c during insect apoptosis. Our previous studies have showed that cytochrome c released from the mitochondria was an early event by western blot analysis and caspase-3 activation was closely related to cytochrome c release during apoptosis induced by baculovirus in Spodoptera litura cells (Sl-1 cell line. In the present study, alteration in mitochondrial morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy, and cytochrome c release from mitochondria in apoptotic Sl-1 cells induced with Anagrapha falcifera multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AfMNPV has further been confirmed by immunofluoresence staining protocol, suggesting that structural disruption of mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c are important events during Lepidoptera insect cell apoptosis. We also used Sl-1 cell-free extract system and the technique of RNA interference to further investigate the role of cytochrome c in apoptotic Sl-1 cells induced by AfMNPV. Caspase-3 activity in cell-free extracts supplemented with exogenous cytochrome c was determined and showed an increase with the extension of incubation time. DsRNA-mediated silencing of cytochrome c resulted in the inhibition of apoptosis and protected the cells from AfMNPV-induced cell death. Silencing of expression of cytochrome c had a remarkable effect on pro-caspase-3 and pro-caspase-9 activation and resulted in the reduction of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity in Sl-1 cells undergoing apoptosis. Caspase-9 inhibitor could inhibit activation of pro-caspase-3, and the inhibition of the function of Apaf-1 with FSBA blocked apoptosis, hinting that Apaf-1 could be involved in Sl-1 cell apoptosis induced by AfMNPV. Taken together, these results strongly demonstrate that cytochrome c plays an important role in apoptotic signaling pathways in Lepidopteran insect cells.

  6. Volatile emission in bracken fern is induced by jasmonates but not by Spodoptera littoralis or Strongylogaster multifasciata herbivory.

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    Venkatesan Radhika

    Full Text Available Jasmonate-mediated regulation of VOC emission has been extensively investigated in higher plants, however, only little is known about VOC production and its regulation in ferns. Here, we investigate whether the emission of VOCs from bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is triggered by herbivory and if so - whether it is regulated by the octadecanoid signaling pathway. Interestingly, feeding of both generalist (Spodoptera littoralis and specialist (Strongylogaster multifasciata herbivores as well as application of singular and continuous mechanical wounding of fronds induced only very low levels of VOC emission. In contrast, treatment with jasmonic acid (JA led to the emission of a blend of VOCs that was mainly comprised of terpenoids. Likewise, treatment with the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA and α-linolenic acid also induced VOC emission, albeit to a lower intesity than the JA treatment. Accumulation of endogenous JA was low in mechanically wounded fronds and these levels were unaffected by the application of oral secretions from both generalist or specialist herbivores. The emission of terpenoids upon JA treatment could be blocked with fosmidomycin and mevinolin, which are inhibitors of the MEP- and MVA pathways, respectively. These results indicate that similar to higher plants, terpenoid VOCs are produced via these pathways in bracken fern and that these pathways are JA-responsive. However, the very low amounts of terpenoids released after herbivory or mechanical damage are in stark contrast to what is known from higher plants. We speculate that S. multifasciata and S. littoralis feeding apparently did not induce the threshold levels of JA required for activating the MEP and MVA pathways and the subsequent volatile emission in bracken fern.

  7. Characterization of DNA topoisomerase-1 in Spodoptera exigua for toxicity evaluation of camptothecin and hydoxy-camptothecin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhang

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT, a plant alkaloid originally isolated from the native Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminate, exerts the toxic effect by targeting eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase 1 (DNA Topo1. Besides as potent anti-cancer agents, CPT and its derivatives are now being explored as potential pesticides for insect control. In this study, we assessed their toxicity to an insect homolog, the Topo1 protein from beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua Hübner, a worldwide pest of many important crops. The S. exigua Topo1 gene contains an ORF of 2790 base pairs that is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 930 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide exhibits polymorphism at residue sites V420, L530, A653 and T729 (numbered according to human Topo1 among insect species, which are predicted to confer sensitivity to CPT. The DNA relaxation activity of this protein was subsequently examined using a truncated form that contained the residues 337-930 and was expressed in bacteria BL21 cells. The purified protein retained the ability to relax double-stranded DNA and was susceptible to CPT and its derivative hydroxy-camptothecin (HCPT in a dose-dependent manner. The same inhibitory effect was also found on the native Topo1 extracted from IOZCAS-Spex-II cells, a cell line established from beet armyworms. Additionally, CPT and HCPT treatment reduced the steady accumulation of Topo1 protein despite the increased mRNA expression in response to the treatment. Our studies provide information of the S. exigua Topo1 gene and its amino acid polymorphism in insects and uncover some clues about potential mechanisms of CPT toxicity against insect pests. These results also are useful for development of more effective Topo1-targeted CPT insecticides in the future.

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca-resistant Spodoptera exigua lacks expression of one of four Aminopeptidase N genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Salvador; Gechev, Tsanko; Bakker, Petra L; Moar, William J; de Maagd, Ruud A

    2005-06-24

    Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis bind to receptors on midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insect larvae. Aminopeptidases N (APNs) from several insect species have been shown to be putative receptors for these toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression analysis of four APN cDNAs from Spodoptera exigua. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was used to construct cDNA libraries of genes that are up-and down-regulated in the midgut of last instar larvae of beet armyworm, S. exigua exposed to B. thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin. Among the clones from the SSH libraries, cDNA fragments coding for two different APNs were obtained (APN2 and APN4). A similar procedure was employed to compare mRNA differences between susceptible and Cry1Ca resistant S. exigua. Among the clones from this last comparison, cDNA fragments belonging to a third APN (APN1) were detected. Using sequences obtained from the three APN cDNA fragments and degenerate primers for a fourth APN (APN3), the full length sequences of four S. exigua APN cDNAs were obtained. Northern blot analysis of expression of the four APNs showed complete absence of APN1 expression in the resistant insects, while the other three APNs showed similar expression levels in the resistant and susceptible insects. We have cloned and characterized four different midgut APN cDNAs from S. exigua. Expression analysis revealed the lack of expression of one of these APNs in the larvae of a Cry1Ca-resistant colony. Combined with previous evidence that shows the importance of APN in the mode of action of B. thuringiensis toxins, these results suggest that the lack of APN1 expression plays a role in the resistance to Cry1Ca in this S. exigua colony.

  9. Degradation of pheromone and plant volatile components by a same odorant-degrading enzyme in the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durand

    Full Text Available Odorant-Degrading Enzymes (ODEs are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly removing odorant molecules from the vicinity of the olfactory receptors. Only three ODEs have been both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized: two were specialized in the degradation of pheromone compounds and the last one was shown to degrade a plant odorant.Previous work has shown that the antennae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, a worldwide pest of agricultural crops, express numerous candidate ODEs. We focused on an esterase overexpressed in males antennae, namely SlCXE7. We studied its expression patterns and tested its catalytic properties towards three odorants, i.e. the two female sex pheromone components and a green leaf volatile emitted by host plants.SlCXE7 expression was concomitant during development with male responsiveness to odorants and during adult scotophase with the period of male most active sexual behaviour. Furthermore, SlCXE7 transcription could be induced by male exposure to the main pheromone component, suggesting a role of Pheromone-Degrading Enzyme. Interestingly, recombinant SlCXE7 was able to efficiently hydrolyze the pheromone compounds but also the plant volatile, with a higher affinity for the pheromone than for the plant compound. In male antennae, SlCXE7 expression was associated with both long and short sensilla, tuned to sex pheromones or plant odours, respectively. Our results thus suggested that a same ODE could have a dual function depending of it sensillar localisation. Within the pheromone-sensitive sensilla, SlCXE7 may play a role in pheromone signal termination and in reduction of odorant background noise, whereas it could be involved in plant odorant inactivation within the short sensilla.

  10. Internship Progress Summary: Fall 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ralph S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Valencia, Matthew John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-13

    This fall I had the opportunity to work at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Technology Applications engineering group. I assisted two main projects during my appointment, both related to the Lab’s mission statement: “To solve national security challenges through scientific excellence.” My first project, a thermal source transfer unit, involved skills such as mechanical design, heat transfer simulation, and design analysis. The goal was to create a container that could protect a heat source and regulate its temperature during transit. I generated several designs, performed heat transfer simulations, and chose a design for prototyping. The second project was a soil drying unit for use in post blast sample analysis. To ensure fast and accurate sample processing, agents in the field wanted a system that could process wet dirt and turn it into dry powder. We designed a system of commercially available parts, and we tested the systems to determine the best methods and processes.

  11. [Fear of falling in older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkodo Mekongo, Y P; De Breucker, S; Delvaux, N; Pepersack, T

    2007-01-01

    Fear of falling and poor physical performance are prominent symptoms in many older people. The prevalence of fear of falling in community-living elderly ranges between 12 % and 65 %, and is higher in women than men. It commonly occurs after falls, but it also occurs without a previous fall history. One of the major consequences of fear of falling is the restriction and avoidance of activities. However, not all elderly with fear of falling avoid activities in daily life. Some elderly only become cautious, which may be functional in preventing falls. Only a small percentage of elderly show a pattern of excessive fear and restriction of activities. The consequences of this pattern may, however, be debilitating and devastating. Excessive fear and avoidance may compromise the quality of life, and may result in a decline of physical capabilities and, ultimately, in an increased risk of falls, which may further fuel fear and avoidance. Future research should investigate whether individualised intervention strategies are efficient in preventing falls and activity-related fear of falling within this population in order to improve her quality of life.

  12. Characteristics of Falls Among Institutionalized Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Akbari Kamrani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Falls by elderly people area frequent cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in institutionalized elders. to describe the features of falls among institutionalized elderly people. Methods & Materials: characteristics of falls in the preceding six months (March 2006 - September 2006 that occurred among elder lies (aged over 60years with normal physical function and cognitive status, who lived at Kahrizak Institute, along term nursing home in Tehran, were surveyed and analyzed. Results: The mean age of the patients with falls was 76.9 yrs. These numbers of falls had occurred among 29 elders that 48.3% were women and 51.7% were men. 57.6% off alls were simple and elders could standup immediately independently. 42.4% of falls needed to help for standup, 2 elder person (2.6% had sever consequence of fall and had fractures. (Skull fracture, head trauma & hip fracture 30.3% of falls occurred in yard, 28.9% at room, 18.4%inhallway, 14.5% at WC, .3.9%at bathroom, and 3.9% at lunch saloon. Analysis of the time of falls showed: 45.3% of falls occurred at 7bl2 am, 13.2% at the lunch time (12bI4, 17% at 14b19, 11.3%at night (19b4 am, and 13.2% at 4b7 am. Conclusion: falls among elder lies occur mainly outside of room. And occur at the time of maximum activities, for example at morning; also falls have been happened more in subjects older, and occasionally result in sever injury such as head trauma, skull fracture, femur and pelvis fracture and cause more mortality and morbidity. Control of environmental risk factors could be protective factors against falls.

  13. Dogs and cats as environmental fall hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Judy A; Teh, S L; Haileyesus, Tadesse

    2010-02-01

    Falls are the leading cause of non-fatal injuries in the United States. This study assessed the prevalence of fall injuries associated with cats and dogs in the United States and describes the types of injuries sustained, the location, activity, and circumstances under which they occurred. Data were from a nationally representative sample of emergency department visits from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2006, available through the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP). Based on 7,456 cases, an estimated 86,629 fall injuries each year were associated with cats and dogs, for an injury rate of 29.7. There were 7.5 times as many injuries involving dogs as cats and females were 2.1 times more likely to be injured than males. Injury rates were highest among people aged >/=75, but pets were a fall hazard for all ages. Fractures and contusions or abrasions were the most common injuries; the highest rates were for injuries to the extremities. About 66.4% of falls associated with cats and 31.3 % of falls associated with dogs were caused by falling or tripping over the pet. An additional 21.2% of falls related to dogs were caused by being pushed or pulled. Although pets were associated with fall injuries, this risk can be reduced by increasing public awareness about situations that can lead to falls, such as dog-walking and chasing pets, and by calling attention to the importance of obedience training for dogs to minimize hazardous behaviors such as pulling and pushing. Fall injuries represent a burden to individuals, our society and our health care system. Increasing public awareness and implementing basic prevention strategies can help people of all ages enjoy their pets, reduce their chances of experiencing pet-related falls, and lessen the impact of fall injuries on our health care system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Prediction of falls and/or near falls in people with mild Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Lindholm

    Full Text Available To determine factors associated with future falls and/or near falls in people with mild PD.The study included 141 participants with PD. Mean (SD age and PD-duration were 68 (9.7 and 4 years (3.9, respectively. Their median (q1-q3 UPDRS III score was 13 (8-18. Those >80 years of age, requiring support in standing or unable to understand instructions were excluded. Self-administered questionnaires targeted freezing of gait, turning hesitations, walking difficulties in daily life, fatigue, fear of falling, independence in activities of daily living, dyskinesia, demographics, falls/near falls history, balance problems while dual tasking and pain. Clinical assessments addressed functional balance performance, retropulsion, comfortable gait speed, motor symptoms and cognition. All falls and near falls were subsequently registered in a diary during a six-month period. Risk factors for prospective falls and/or near falls were determined using logistic regression.Sixty-three participants (45% experienced ≥ 1 fall and/or near fall. Three factors were independent predictors of falls and/or near falls: fear of falling (OR = 1.032, p<0.001 history of near falls (OR = 3.475, p = 0.009 and retropulsion (OR = 2.813, p = 0.035. The strongest contributing factor was fear of falling, followed by a history of near falls and retropulsion.Fear of falling seems to be an important issue to address already in mild PD as well as asking about prior near falls.

  15. Identification of a novel cytochrome P450 CYP321B1 gene from tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura) and RNA interference to evaluate its role in commonly used insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Insect cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs or P450s) play an important role in detoxifying insecticides leading to resistance in insect populations. A polyphagous pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) has been shown to be resistant to a wide range of insecticides. In this stu...

  16. Tamaño de parcela y número de repeticiones para estimar una población de spodoptera frugiperda (smith) y su daño en maíz

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Torres Ramón Antonio; Soto Buriticá Maria Melva; Gómez López Hernán

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar el tamaño óptimo de parcela y el número de repeticiones requeridas para estimar poblaciones de larvas del gusano cogollero del maíz (Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) y su daño, en ensayos experimentales o semicomerciales con este cultivo.

  17. Bioactivity of a water extract of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina against Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith and Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of water-extract of Peumus boldus Molina and its effect on the development cycle and feeding habits of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Helicoverpa zea Boddie were evaluated under laboratory conditions in concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% (w/w. Spodoptera frugiperda was the most susceptible with 75% mortality at 7 d at 8% P. boldus concentration, while H. zea had only 30% mortality. LC50 was 2.31 mL kg-1 for S. frugiperda and 16.05 mL kg¹ for H. zea. When the extract concentration increased in the diet, larval size and weight, percentage of pupation and number of adults decreased, and the time required to reach those states was greater. Neonate larvae fed primarily on the diet with the lower extract concentration and the control was preferred by more than 50% of larvae. Inhibition of feeding, growth, weight gain of 3rd instar larvae as well as new biomass production decreased with concentration of the extract.

  18. Selection and characterisation of an HD1-like Bacillus thuringiensis isolate with a high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Hichem; Kebaili-Ghribi, Jihene; ben Farhat-Touzri, Dalel; Daoud, Fatma; Fakhfakh, Ines; Tounsi, Slim; Jaoua, Samir

    2014-08-01

    Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae are known by their susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strains. In order to prevent the appearance of B. thuringiensis (Bt) resistance and to develop economical Bt-based biopesticides, the selection and the characterisation of a B. thuringiensis isolate toxic against S. littoralis larvae and overproducing δ-endotoxins were investigated. Among 124 Tunisian B. thuringiensis isolates assessed against S. littoralis larvae, four isolates showed toxicity similar to and higher than the toxicity of the aizawai strain HD133 and the kurstaki strain HD1 respectively. The plasmid pattern of the selected isolates was similar to that of HD1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using specific primers revealed that these isolates present different gene contents. The only detected gene encoding Spodoptera-specific toxin was cry9. The selected isolates were found to produce bipyramidal and cubic crystals. The assessment of δ-endotoxin production by these isolates showed that BUPM28 produced 43.71 and 80.81% more δ-endotoxin than HD1 and HD133 respectively. The application of osmotic or heat shock stress on the BUPM28 isolate made it possible to enhance δ-endotoxin production by 22 and 23% respectively. On the basis of its potent insecticidal activity and its high level of δ-endotoxin production, the BUPM28 isolate can be considered to be an effective alternative for the control of S. littoralis. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Phenological patterns of Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is more affected by ENSO than seasonal factors and host plant availability in a Brazilian Savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Mônica; Specht, Alexandre; Carneiro, Eduardo; Paula-Moraes, Silvana Vieira; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2017-09-01

    The identification of factors responsible for the population dynamics is fundamental for pest management, since losses can reach 18% of annual production. Besides regular seasonal environmental factors and crop managements, additional supra-annual meteorological phenomena can also affect population dynamics, although its relevance has been rarely investigated. Among crop pests, Spodoptera stands out due to its worldwide distribution, high degree of polyphagy, thus causing damages in several crops in the world. Aiming to distinguish the relevance of different factors shaping population dynamics of Spodoptera in an ecosystem constituted of dry and rainy seasons, the current study used circular statistics to identify phenological patterns and test if its population fluctuation is driven by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect, seasonal meteorological parameters, and/or host plant availability. Samplings were done in an intercropping system, in the Brazilian Savanna, during the new moon cycles between July/2013 and June/2016. Species were recorded all year round, but demonstrated differently non-uniform distribution, being concentrated in different seasons of the year. Population fluctuations were mostly affected by the ENSO intensity, despite the contrasting seasonal meteorological variation or host plant availability in a 400-m radius. Studies involving the observation of supra-annual phenomena, although rare, reach similar conclusions in relation to Neotropical insect fauna. Therefore, it is paramount to have long-term sampling studies to obtain a more precise response of the pest populations towards the agroecosystem conditions.

  20. Masculinity and preventing falls: insights from the fall experiences of men aged 70 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, J L M; Lovarini, Meryl; Clemson, Lindy M; Jang, Haeyoung; Lord, Stephen R; Sherrington, Catherine; Willis, Karen

    2018-01-11

    To explore men's fall experiences through the lens of masculine identities so as to assist health professionals better engage men in fall prevention programs. Twenty-five men, aged 70-93 years who had experienced a recent fall, participated in a qualitative semi-structured interview. Men's willingness to engage in fall prevention programs taking account of individual contexts and expressions of masculinity, were conceptualised using constant comparative methods. Men's willingness to engage in fall prevention programs was related to their perceptions of the preventability of falls; personal relevance of falls; and age, health, and capability as well as problem-solving styles to prevent falls. Fall prevention advice was rarely given when men accessed the health system at the time of a fall. Contrary to dominant expectations about masculine identity, many men acknowledged fall vulnerability indicating they would attend or consider attending, a fall prevention program. Health professionals can better engage men by providing consistent messages that falls can be prevented; tailoring advice, understanding men are at different stages in their awareness of fall risk and preferences for action; and by being aware of their own assumptions that can act as barriers to speaking with men about fall prevention. Implications for rehabilitation Men accessing the health system at the time of the fall, and during rehabilitation following a fall represent prime opportunities for health professionals to speak with men about preventing falls and make appropriate referrals to community programs. Tailored advice will take account of individual men's perceptions of preventability; personal relevance; perceptions of age, health and capability; and problem-solving styles.

  1. Gait, mobility, and falls in older people

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwind, Yves Josef

    2012-01-01

    My doctoral thesis contributes to the understanding of gait, mobility, and falls in older people. All presented projects investigated the most prominent and sensitive markers for fall-related gait changes, that is gait velocity and gait variability. Based on the measurement of these spatio-temporal gait parameters, particularly when using a change-sensitive dual task paradigm, it is possible to make conclusions regarding walking, balance, activities of daily living, and falls in o...

  2. [Falls and renal function: a dangerous association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgi, Alfredo; Fabbian, Fabio; Pala, Marco; Mallozzi Menegatti, Alessandra; Misurati, Elisa; Manfredini, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Falls are an important health problem and the risk of falling increases with age. The costs due to falls are related to the progressive decline of patients' clinical conditions, with functional inability inducing increasing social costs, morbidity and mortality. Renal dysfunction is mostly present in elderly people who often have several comorbidities. Risk factors for falls have been classified as intrinsic and extrinsic, and renal dysfunction is included among the former. Chronic kidney disease per se is an important risk factor for falls, and the risk correlates negatively with creatinine clearance. Vitamin D deficiency, dysfunction of muscles and bones, nerve degeneration, cognitive decline, electrolyte imbalance, anemia, and metabolic acidosis have been reported to be associated with falls. Falls seem to be very frequent in dialysis patients: 44% of subjects on hemodialysis fall at least once a year with a 1-year mortality due to fractures of 64%. Male sex, comorbidities, predialysis hypotension, and a history of previous falls are the main risk factors, together with events directly related to renal replacement therapy such as biocompatibility of the dialysis membrane, arrhythmias, fluid overload and length of dialysis treatment. Peripheral nerve degeneration and demyelination as well as altered nerve conduction resulting in muscular weakness and loss of peripheral sensitivity are frequent when the glomerular filtration rate is less than 12 mL/min. Moreover, depression and sleep disorders can also increase the risk of falls. Kidney function is an important parameter to consider when evaluating the risk of falls in the elderly, and the development of specific guidelines for preventing falls in the uremic population should be considered.

  3. Cathode fall measurements in fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtrieb, Robert [Lutron Electronics Co Inc., 7200 Suter Rd., Coopersburg, PA 18036 (United States); Khan, Farheen [Lutron Electronics Co Inc., 7200 Suter Rd., Coopersburg, PA 18036 (United States); Waymouth, John F [Consultant, 16 Bennett Rd. Marblehead, MA 01945 (United States)

    2005-09-07

    We describe an improved method and apparatus for making capacitive measurements of the cathode fall in fluorescent lamps employing known behaviour of anode oscillations to provide a zero-of-potential reference, placing the entire cathode and anode fall waveform on an absolute rather than relative scale. The improved method is applicable to any diameter of fluorescent lamp currently manufactured. We also describe a method and apparatus for making spectroscopic measurements of the cathode fall in fluorescent lamps. This uses the abrupt onset of emission of certain selected spectral lines of the rare gas filling as a signal that the cathode fall has exceeded the excitation potentials of the spectral lines in question.

  4. How Do Community-Dwelling Persons with Alzheimer Disease Fall Falls in the FINALEX Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko M. Perttila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: People with dementia are at high risk for falls. However, little is known of the features causing falls in Alzheimer disease (AD. Our aim was to investigate how participants with AD fall. Methods: In the FINALEX (Finnish Alzheimer Disease Exercise Trial study, participants’ (n = 194 falls were followed up for 1 year by diaries kept by their spouses. Results: The most common reason for falls (n = 355 was stumbling (n = 61. Of the falls, 123 led to injuries, 50 to emergency department visits, and 13 to fractures. The participants without falls (n = 103 were younger and had milder dementia than those with 1 (n = 34 or ≥2 falls (n = 57. Participants with a Mini Mental State Examination score of around 10 points were most prone to fall. In adjusted regression models, good nutritional status, good physical functioning, and use of antihypertensive medication (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54–0.85 protected against falls, whereas fall history (IRR 2.71, 95% CI 2.13–3.44, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, higher number of drugs, drugs with anticholinergic properties, psychotropics, and opioids (IRR 4.27, 95% CI 2.92–6.24 were risk factors for falls. Conclusions: Our study provides a detailed account on how and why people with AD fall, suggesting several risk and protective factors.

  5. Dementia as a risk factor for falls and fall injuries among nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Carol; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Hebel, J Richard; Port, Cynthia L; Baumgarten, Mona; Quinn, Charlene C; Taler, George; May, Conrad; Magaziner, Jay

    2003-09-01

    To compare rates of falling between nursing home residents with and without dementia and to examine dementia as an independent risk factor for falls and fall injuries. Prospective cohort study with 2 years of follow-up. Fifty-nine randomly selected nursing homes in Maryland, stratified by geographic region and facility size. Two thousand fifteen newly admitted residents aged 65 and older. During 2 years after nursing home admission, fall data were collected from nursing home charts and hospital discharge summaries. The unadjusted fall rate for residents in the nursing home with dementia was 4.05 per year, compared with 2.33 falls per year for residents without dementia (Pinjurious falls was higher than for residents without dementia. Dementia is an independent risk factor for falling. Although most falls do not result in injury, the fact that residents with dementia fall more often than their counterparts without dementia leaves them with a higher overall risk of sustaining injurious falls over time. Nursing home residents with dementia should be considered important candidates for fall-prevention and fall-injury-prevention strategies.

  6. Falling into Salvation in Cioran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Acquisto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While, at first glance, there seems to be very little room in the thought of E.M. Cioran for the notion of salvation, a closer look reveals that Cioran returns constantly to the vocabulary and the concept of redemption. This article teases out Cioran’s complex use of the topos of salvation throughout his works, with special emphasis on his middle period. I begin by tracing Cioran’s notion of humanity’s fall into time and language, from which he claims there can be no salvation in the traditional Christian sense. Nonetheless, he retains the concept, claiming at various points that there is a kind of salvation to be found in suicide, music, silence, and skepticism. Ultimately, however, each of these provides only false salvation, since the only permanent solution to the problem of existence for Cioran would be either to cease to exist or to lose our human nature in exchange for a plant-like life. Since this is impossible, we are left with our human means of seeking deliverance. While Cioran generally condemns human attempts at creation or procreation, he takes a different approach to the act of writing. In his reflections on writing we see that salvation for Cioran is always temporary, provisional, and threatened by our next bout of lucidity, but at the same time, eternally renewable with each new act of writing.

  7. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Approach to Fall in Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ilkin Naharci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Falls are one of the geriatric syndromes which occur commonly and significantly increase morbidity and mortality rates in elderly. The incidence of falls increases with age. Falls usually occur when impairments in cognitive, behavioral, and executive function begin. The incidence of fall is between 30 and 40 percent of community-dwelling people and approximately 50 percent of individuals in the long-term care setting over the age of 65 years. Fracture (hip, arm, wrist, pelvis, head trauma or major lacerations, as defined serious wounding, occur 10-25% of elderly cases. Fall is overlooked in clinical examination due to various reasons; the patient never mentions the event to a doctor; there is no injury at the time of the fall; the doctor fails to ask the patient about a history of falls; or either doctor or patient erroneously believes that falls are an inevitable part of the aging process. Elderly give not usually any self-information about fall, for this reason, all older patients should be asked at least once per year about falls and should be assessed in terms of balance and gait disorders. There are many distinct causes for falls in old people. Falls in older individuals occur when a threat to the normal homeostatic mechanisms that maintain postural stability is superimposed on underlying age-related declines in balance, ambulation, and cardiovascular function. This factor may be an acute illness (eg, fever, water loss, arrhythmia, a new medication, an environmental stress (eg, unfamiliar surrounding, or an unsafe walking surface. The elderly person can not cope with happened additional stress. To prevent and decrease the frequency of falls, effective approaches are medical interventions, environmental modifications, education-exercise programs, and assisted device. Detection and amelioration of risk factors can significantly reduce the rate of future falls. The assessment of fall, causing mobility restriction, use of nursing home, and

  9. Dance movement therapy and falls prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Maggi, Stefania; Schofield, Patricia; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-08-01

    Falls are a leading cause of morbidity, healthcare use and mortality. Dance is a popular form of physical activity among older people and previous research has suggested that it may improve various health outcomes in this population, including balance, gait and muscle performance. A systematic review of the potential benefits of dance on falls and fear of falling is lacking. Thus, we conducted a systematic review considering all randomized controls trials (RCTs) investigating if dance can reduce falls and improve fear of falling in older adults. Major databases were searched from inception until 1 March 2017 and a total of 10 RCTs were identified, which included a total of 680 people (n=356 dance, n=324 control). Overall, the mean age of the samples was 69.4 years, and 75.2% were female. Across four RCTs, dance therapy reduced falls versus usual care in only one study. Dance therapy improved fear of falling in two out of three included RCTs. There were no serious adverse events reported in the RCTs. In summary, we found a paucity of studies investigating the effect of dance on falls and fear of falling and the evidence base is preliminary and equivocal. Given the heterogeneity of the included samples and interventions, in addition to the short-term follow-up, no firm conclusions can be drawn. However, dance appears to be safe and, given its popularity and demonstrated benefits on other health/wellbeing outcomes in older adults, it is important that future research considers its potential benefits on falls/fear of falling in older age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Demonstration and Quantification of Restricted Mating Between Fall Armyworm Host Strains in Field Collections by SNP Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Fleischer, Shelby; Meagher, Robert L

    2017-11-08

    Gene introgression between related pest populations is an important component in the assessment of how rapidly economically important traits, such as pesticide resistance, can spread within a region. An example of this is provided by the noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), or fall armyworm, which is composed of two 'host strains' that differ in their host plant preferences. Resistance to a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin has been observed in some populations and there is concern about its spread throughout the Western Hemisphere. If this trait is easily transmitted between strains, it would expand the range of plants affected and make control efforts more difficult. A complicating factor is that the strains are morphologically indistinguishable and can only be identified by a small number of genetic markers. As a result, little is known about the frequency of interstrain hybridization in the wild. This study uses a novel strategy involving comparisons between two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to quantify the frequency of interstrain mating in field populations. The results demonstrate that hybridization between strains is 4- to 5-fold reduced compared to that within strains. In addition, it appears that directional interstrain mating biases observed in laboratory studies are probably not a major factor in determining the distribution of hybrid genotypes in field populations. The differential SNP technique is a significant improvement over current methods for identifying interstrain hybrids and should facilitate our understanding of fall armyworm strain and hybrid distributions in the field and the frequency of genetic exchanges between strains. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Geographic variation in sexual attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda corn- and rice-strain males to pheromone lures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Unbehend

    Full Text Available The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this could have been due to inter-strain and/or geographic differences. Therefore, we investigated whether corn- and rice-strain males differed in their response to different synthetic pheromone blends in different regions in North America, the Caribbean and South America. All trapped males were strain-typed by two strain-specific mitochondrial DNA markers. In the first experiment, we found a nearly similar response of corn- and rice-strain males to two different 4-component blends, resembling the corn- and rice-strain female blend we previously described from females in Florida. This response showed some geographic variation in fields in Canada, North Carolina, Florida, Puerto Rico, and South America (Peru, Argentina. In dose-response experiments with the critical secondary sex pheromone component (Z-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:OAc, we found some strain-specific differences in male attraction. While the response to Z7-12:OAc varied geographically in the corn-strain, rice-strain males showed almost no variation. We also found that the minor compound (Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:OAc did not increase attraction of both strains in Florida and of corn-strain males in Peru. In a fourth experiment, where we added the stereo-isomer of the critical sex pheromone component, (E-7-dodecenyl acetate, to the major pheromone component (Z-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc, we found that this compound was attractive to males in North Carolina, but not to males in Peru. Overall, our results suggest that both strains show rather geographic than strain-specific differences in their response to pheromone lures, and that regional sexual communication differences might cause

  12. Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae exhibits no preference between Bt and non-Bt maize fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

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    Carla C Dutra

    Full Text Available A recent shift in managing insect resistance to genetically engineered (GE maize consists of mixing non-GE seed with GE seed known as "refuge in a bag", which increases the likelihood of predators encountering both prey fed Bt and prey fed non-Bt maize. We therefore conducted laboratory choice-test feeding studies to determine if a predator, Harmonia axyridis, shows any preference between prey fed Bt and non-Bt maize leaves. The prey species was Spodoptera frugiperda, which were fed Bt maize (MON-810, expressing the single Cry1Ab protein, or non-Bt maize. The predators were third instar larvae and female adults of H. axyridis. Individual predators were offered Bt and non-Bt fed prey larvae that had fed for 24, 48 or 72 h. Ten and 15 larvae of each prey type were offered to third instar and adult predators, respectively. Observations of arenas were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 6, 15 and 24 h after the start of the experiment to determine the number and type of prey eaten by each individual predator. Prey larvae that fed on non-Bt leaves were significantly larger than larvae fed Bt leaves. Both predator stages had eaten nearly all the prey by the end of the experiment. However, in all combinations of predator stage and prey age, the number of each prey type consumed did not differ significantly. ELISA measurements confirmed the presence of Cry1Ab in leaf tissue (23-33 µg/g dry weight and S. frugiperda (2.1-2.2 µg/g, while mean concentrations in H. axyridis were very low (0.01-0.2 µg/g. These results confirm the predatory status of H. axyridis on S. frugiperda and that both H. axyridis adults and larvae show no preference between prey types. The lack of preference between Bt-fed and non-Bt-fed prey should act in favor of insect resistance management strategies using mixtures of GE and non-GE maize seed.

  13. Temperature- and CO2-dependent life table parameters of Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) on sunflower and prediction of pest scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimanjari, D; Srinivasa Rao, M; Swathi, P; Rama Rao, C A; Vanaja, M; Maheswari, M

    2014-01-01

    Predicted increase in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration will influence the growth of crop plants and phytophagous insects. The present study, conducted at the Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, aimed at (1) construction of life tables at six constant temperatures viz., 20, 25, 27, 30, 33, and 35 ± 0.5 °C for Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) reared on sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) grown under ambient and elevated CO2 (eCO2) (550 ppm) concentration in open top chambers and (2) prediction of the pest status in near future (NF) and distant future (DF) climate change scenarios at major sunflower growing locations of India. Significantly lower leaf nitrogen, higher carbon and higher relative proportion of carbon to nitrogen (C:N) were observed in sunflower foliage grown under eCO2 over ambient. Feeding trials conducted on sunflower foliage obtained from two CO2 conditions showed that the developmental time of S. litura (Egg to adult) declined with increase in temperature and was more evident at eCO2. Finite (λ) and intrinsic rates of increase (r(m)), net reproductive rate (Ro), mean generation time, (T) and doubling time (DT) of S. litura increased significantly with temperature up to 27-30 °C and declined with further increase in temperature. Reduction of 'T' was observed from maximum value of 58 d at 20 °C to minimum of 24.9 d at 35 °C. The DT of population was higher (5.88 d) at 20 °C and lower (3.05 d) at 30 °C temperature of eCO2. The data on these life table parameters were plotted against temperature and two nonlinear models were developed separately for each of the CO2 conditions for predicting the pest scenarios. The NF and DF scenarios temperature data of four sunflower growing locations in India is based on PRECIS A1B emission scenario. It was predicted that increased 'rm', 'λ', and 'Ro' and reduced 'T' would occur during NF and DF scenario over present period at all

  14. Distribution of Glycan Motifs at the Surface of Midgut Cells in the Cotton Leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis Demonstrated by Lectin Binding

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    Tomasz Walski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycans are involved in many biological phenomena, including signal transduction, cell adhesion, immune response or differentiation. Although a few papers have reported on the role of glycans in the development and proper functioning of the insect midgut, no data are available regarding the localization of the glycan structures on the surface of the cells in the gut of insects. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial distribution of glycans present on the surface of the midgut cells in larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, an important agricultural pest insect worldwide. For this purpose, we established primary midgut cell cultures, probed these individual cells that are freely suspended in liquid medium with a selection of seven fluorescently labeled lectins covering a range of different carbohydrate binding specificities [mannose oligomers (GNA and HHA, GalNAc/Gal (RSA and SSA, GlcNAc (WGA and Nictaba and Neu5Ac(α-2,6Gal/GalNAc (SNA-I], and visualized the interaction of these lectins with the different zones of the midgut cells using confocal microscopy. Our analysis focused on the typical differentiated columnar cells with a microvillar brush border at their apical side, which are dominantly present in the Lepidopteran midgut and function in food digestion and absorption, and as well as on the undifferentiated stem cells that are important for midgut development and repair. Confocal microscopy analyses showed that the GalNAc/Gal-binding lectins SSA and RSA and the terminal GlcNAc-recognizing WGA bound preferentially to the apical microvillar zone of the differentiated columnar cells as compared to the basolateral pole. The reverse result was observed for the mannose-binding lectins GNA and HHA, as well as Nictaba that binds preferentially to GlcNAc oligomers. Furthermore, differences in lectin binding to the basal and lateral zones of the cell membranes of the columnar cells were apparent. In the midgut stem cells, GNA and

  15. Temperature dependent development parameters and population life table of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    HonQing Dai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is an important insect pest fed on many crops. Temperature and host plant dependent development, survival, and population parameters of S. exigua were studied in present article. The results showed that the generation duration of S. exigua at temperatures 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35 ℃ were 37.61, 30.78, 22.40, 18.57, and 13.74 days, respectively. S. exigua could not survive at 38 ℃. The generation duration of S. exigua, feeding on Lactuca sativa, Lactuca Sativa L., Raphanus sativus L., and Allium fistulosum at 27 ℃, were 18.86, 20.10, 22.67, and 22.50 days respectively. And the generation survivorship was 30.91, 29.00, 22.00, and 27.50% respectively, far less than observed 81.91% feeding on artificial diet. S. exigua feeding on L. sativa showed the highest net reproduction rate (216.29, intrinsic rate for increase (0.34, population trend index (76.59, finite rate for increase (1.33, and fecundity (606.5 eggs, while these values were the lowest when it fed on A. fistulosum. Relationship between development rate and temperature was fitted with three models, the linear model, Logistic model and Wang model, and Wang model produced the best fitting goodness. Wang model showed that for the egg, the 1st-5th instar larvae, pupa and adult of S. exigua, the upper limit temperatures for development are 45, 44.5, 44.4, 40.3, 43.6, 38.9, 38, and 38 ℃, resepctively; the lower limit temperatures for development are 7.5, 7.2, 13.4, 7.3, 6.6, 5.3, 5.6, and 5.6 ℃, respectively, and the optimum temperatures for development are 21.9, 28.9, 25.5, 24.5, 26, 31.6, 30.6, and 29.1 ℃, respectively. The upper limit, lower limit and optimum temperatures for development of the entire generation are 38, 5.7 and 30 ℃, resepctively.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

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    Hang Li

    Full Text Available The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st to 5(th instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl into the 4(th instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3% after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (P<0.05. About 80% of the surviving insects in the siRNA-treated group of five genes (PGCP, chitinase1, tubulin1, tubulin2 and helicase showed retarded development. In chitinase1-siRNA and chitinase7-siRNA administered groups, 12.5% survivors exhibited "half-ecdysis". In arf1-siRNA and arf2-siRNA groups, the body color of 15% became black 48 h after injections. In summary, the transcriptome could be a valuable genetic resource for identification of genes in S. exigua and this study provided putative targets for RNAi pest

  17. Sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda e Chrysodeixis includens alimentadas com folhas de algodoeiro geneticamente modificado

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    Elmo Ponte de Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L. é hospedeira de um complexo de pragas que pode ocasionar danos às raízes, caule, folhas, botões florais, flores, maçãs, sementes e fibras. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar por meio da alimentação com folhas de algodoeiro geneticamente modificadas resistentes a lepidópteros, à sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda e Chrysodeixis includens. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no Laboratório de Entomologia Aplicada da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, no período de 05 de janeiro (preparo dos vasos a 23 de junho de 2012 (algodoeiros em fim de ciclo, com 154 dias após a emergência. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação, enquanto os biotestes de sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de lagartas foram conduzidos em laboratório. Os estudos foram constituídos de: A – oferta de folhas de algodoeiro Coker TwinLink® e Cooker não modificada a lagartas de S. frugiperda; B – oferta de folhas de algodoeiro Coker TwinLink® e Cooker não modificada a lagartas de C. includens; C – oferta de folhas de algodoeiro PHY 440 WS Widestrike®, FM 975 WS Widestrike® e FM 933 não modificado a lagartas de S. frugiperda; D – oferta de folhas de algodoeiro PHY 440 WS Widestrike®, FM 975 WS Widestrike® e FM 933 não modificado a lagartas de C. includens. Compilando as informações do presente estudo, observamos que o algodoeiro Coker TwinLink® permitiu menores valores percentuais de sobrevivência de lagartas neonatas de C. includens se comparada à S. frugiperda. As linhagens de algodoeiros resistentes a lepidópteros interferem de forma negativa na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de lagartas de S. frugiperda e C. includens, quando comparadas às linhagens não modificadas. Dependendo da linhagem, do evento geneticamente modificado e da praga, é necessário controle complementar. Palavras-chave: Programa de melhoramento

  18. Nurses' Job Satisfaction and Patient Falls

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    Cecilia D. Alvarez, DNP, RN

    2007-09-01

    Results and Conclusion: No significant relationship was found between overall nurses' job satisfaction and patient fall rate. MD–RN interactions (r = .65 and decision-making (r = .57 were the job satisfaction subscales that showed a significant positive correlation with patient fall rate (p < .05. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  19. How Fast Does a Building Fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the time required for a tower block to collapse is calculated. The tower collapses progressively, with one floor falling onto the floor below, causing it to fall. The rate of collapse is found to be not much slower than freefall. The calculation is an engaging and relevant application of Newton's laws, suitable for undergraduate…

  20. Osteosarcopenic obesity and fall prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Cruz-Díaz, David; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2015-02-01

    Sarcopenia, obesity, and osteoporosis are three interrelated entities which may share common pathophysiological factors. In the last decades, overall survival has drastically increased. Postmenopausal women, due to their estrogen depletion, are at higher risk of developing any of these three conditions or the three, which is termed osteosarcopenic obesity. One of the most common health problems among these patients is the elevated risk of falls and fractures. Falls and fall-related injuries are one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in older adults, and have a significant impact on social, economical and health-related costs. Several extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors have been described that play a role in the etiology of falls. A therapeutic approach to osteosarcopenic obesity aimed at the prevention of falls must include several factors, and act on those risk elements which can be effectively modified. An adequate weight-loss diet and a good nutritional intake, with an appropriate amount of vitamin D and the right protein/carbohydrates ratio, may contribute to the prevention of falls. The recommendation of physical exercise, both traditional (resistance or aerobic training) and more recent varieties (Tai Chi, Pilates, body vibration), can improve balance and positively contribute to fall prevention, whether by itself or in combination with other therapeutic strategies. Finally, a pharmacological approach, especially one focused on hormone therapy, has shown to have a positive effect on postmenopausal women's balance, leading to a decreased risk of falls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Falls and stumbles in myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, C M; Busse, M E; Sampson, C M; Rogers, M T; Fenton-May, J; van Deursen, R

    2006-03-01

    To investigate falls and risk factors in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) compared with healthy volunteers. 13 sequential patients with DM1 from different kindreds were compared with 12 healthy volunteers. All subjects were evaluated using the Rivermead Mobility Index, Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, and modified Activities Specific Balance Confidence scale. Measures of lower limb muscle strength, gait speed, and 7-day ambulatory activity monitoring were recorded. Subjects returned a weekly card detailing stumbles and falls. 11 of 13 patients (mean age 46.5 years, seven female) had 127 stumbles and 34 falls over the 13 weeks, compared with 10 of 12 healthy subjects (34.4 years, seven female) who had 26 stumbles and three falls. Patients were less active than healthy subjects but had more falls and stumbles per 5000 right steps taken (mean (SD) events, 0.21 (0.29) v 0.02 (0.02), p = 0.007). Patients who fell (n = 6) had on average a lower Rivermead Mobility score, slower self selected gait speed, and higher depression scores than those who did not. DM1 patients stumble or fall about 10 times more often than healthy volunteers. Routine inquiry about falls and stumbles is justified. A study of multidisciplinary intervention to reduce the risk of falls seems warranted.

  2. [Fear of falling in a fall clinic for geriatric patients: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dautzenberg, P.L.; Buurman, B.H.; Loonen, A.J.; Wouters, C.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this pilot study we want to determine how often fear of falling occurs in geriatric patients visiting a fall clinic and to study the characteristics of fear of falling and its consequences. DESIGN: Retrospective study of patient's records. METHOD: A random sample of 100 medical records

  3. History of falls, gait, balance, and fall risks in older cancer survivors living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min H; Shilling, Tracy; Miller, Kara A; Smith, Kristin; LaVictoire, Kayle

    2015-01-01

    Older cancer survivors may be predisposed to falls because cancer-related sequelae affect virtually all body systems. The use of a history of falls, gait speed, and balance tests to assess fall risks remains to be investigated in this population. This study examined the relationship of previous falls, gait, and balance with falls in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. At the baseline, demographics, health information, and the history of falls in the past year were obtained through interviewing. Participants performed tests including gait speed, Balance Evaluation Systems Test, and short-version of Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Falls were tracked by mailing of monthly reports for 6 months. A "faller" was a person with ≥1 fall during follow-up. Univariate analyses, including independent sample t-tests and Fisher's exact tests, compared baseline demographics, gait speed, and balance between fallers and non-fallers. For univariate analyses, Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. Baseline variables with Panalysis was Pinformation, history of falls, gaits speed, and balance tests did not differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers. Forward logistic regression revealed that a history of falls was a significant predictor of falls in the final model (odds ratio =6.81; 95% confidence interval =1.594-29.074) (Prisk of falling.

  4. Prospective study of falls and risk factors for falls in adults with advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stone, Carol A

    2012-06-10

    Retrospective studies of inpatients with cancer suggest that a cancer diagnosis confers a high risk of falls. In adults with advanced cancer, we aimed to prospectively document the incidence of falls, identify the risk factors, and determine if falls in this population occur predominantly in older patients.

  5. Falls and falls efficacy: the role of sustained attention in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Aisling M; Pénard, Nils; Galli, Alessandra; Fan, Chie Wei; Robertson, Ian H; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2011-12-19

    Previous evidence indicates that older people allocate more of their attentional resources toward their gait and that the attention-related changes that occur during aging increase the risk of falls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether performance and variability in sustained attention is associated with falls and falls efficacy in older adults. 458 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 years underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Mean and variability of reaction time (RT), commission errors and omission errors were recorded during a fixed version of the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). RT variability was decomposed using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) procedure, to help characterise variability associated with the arousal and vigilance aspects of sustained attention.The number of self-reported falls in the previous twelve months, and falls efficacy (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale) were also recorded. Significant increases in the mean and variability of reaction time on the SART were significantly associated with both falls (p older adults. An increase in omission errors was also associated with falls (p attention was a retrospective predictor of falling (p attention is strongly correlated with retrospective falls and to a lesser degree with reduced falls efficacy. This cognitive measure may provide a novel and valuable biomarker for falls in older adults, potentially allowing for early detection and the implementation of preventative intervention strategies.

  6. Risk Factors for Falls and Fall-related Fractures in the Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ziere (Gijsbertus)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFalls are among the most common and serious problems facing older persons and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. They often lead to reduced functioning and nursing home admissions. The incidence of falls as well as the severity of fall-related complications rises

  7. Selective attentional processing to fall-relevant stimuli among older adults who fear falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lesley A; White, Patti; Doan, Jonathan B; de Bruin, Natalie

    2011-05-01

    Fear of falling is known to affect more than half of community-dwelling older adults over 60 years of age. This fear is associated with physical and psychological effects that increase the risk of falling. The authors' theory is that attentional processing biases may exist in this population that serve to perpetuate fear of falling and subsequently increase fall risk. As a starting point in testing this proposition, the authors examined selective attentional processing bias to fall-relevant stimuli among older adults. Thirty older adult participants (M(age) = 70.8 ± 5.8), self-categorized to be Fearful of Falling (FF, n = 15) or Non-Fearful of Falling (NF, n = 15) completed a visual dot-probe paradigm to determine detection latencies to fall-threatening and general-threat stimuli. Attentional processing was defined using three index scores: attentional bias, congruency index, and incongruency index. Bias indicates capture of attention, whereas congruency and incongruency imply vigilance and disengagement difficulty, respectively. Both groups showed an attentional bias to fall-threat words but those who were fearful of falling also showed an incongruency effect for fall-threat words. These findings confirm that selective attentional processing profiles for fall-relevant stimuli differ between older adults who exhibit fear of falling and those who do not have this fear. Moreover, in accordance with current interpretations of selective attentional processing, the incongruency effect noted among fall-fearful older adults presents a possibility for a difficulty disengaging from fall-threatening stimuli.

  8. Falls and falls efficacy: the role of sustained attention in older adults

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Halloran, Aisling M

    2011-12-19

    Abstract Background Previous evidence indicates that older people allocate more of their attentional resources toward their gait and that the attention-related changes that occur during aging increase the risk of falls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether performance and variability in sustained attention is associated with falls and falls efficacy in older adults. Methods 458 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 years underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Mean and variability of reaction time (RT), commission errors and omission errors were recorded during a fixed version of the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). RT variability was decomposed using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) procedure, to help characterise variability associated with the arousal and vigilance aspects of sustained attention. The number of self-reported falls in the previous twelve months, and falls efficacy (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale) were also recorded. Results Significant increases in the mean and variability of reaction time on the SART were significantly associated with both falls (p < 0.01) and reduced falls efficacy (p < 0.05) in older adults. An increase in omission errors was also associated with falls (p < 0.01) and reduced falls efficacy (p < 0.05). Upon controlling for age and gender affects, logistic regression modelling revealed that increasing variability associated with the vigilance (top-down) aspect of sustained attention was a retrospective predictor of falling (p < 0.01, OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03 - 1.26) in the previous year and was weakly correlated with reduced falls efficacy in non-fallers (p = 0.07). Conclusions Greater variability in sustained attention is strongly correlated with retrospective falls and to a lesser degree with reduced falls efficacy. This cognitive measure may provide a novel and valuable biomarker for falls in older adults, potentially allowing for early detection and the implementation of preventative intervention

  9. Falls risk assessment outcomes and factors associated with falls for older Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Keith D; Flicker, Leon; LoGiudice, Dina; Smith, Kate; Atkinson, David; Hyde, Zoë; Fenner, Stephen; Skeaf, Linda; Malay, Roslyn; Boyle, Eileen

    2016-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of falls and associated risk factors in older Indigenous Australians, and compare the accuracy of validated falls risk screening and assessment tools in this population in classifying fall status. Cross-sectional study of 289 Indigenous Australians aged ≥45 years from the Kimberley region of Western Australia who had a detailed assessment including self-reported falls in the past year (n=289), the adapted Elderly Falls Screening Tool (EFST; n=255), and the Falls Risk for Older People-Community (FROP-Com) screening tool (3 items, n=74) and FROP-Com falls assessment tool (n=74). 32% of participants had ≥1 fall in the preceding year, and 37.3% were classified high falls risk using the EFST (cut-off ≥2). In contrast, for the 74 participants assessed with the FROP-Com, only 14.9% were rated high risk, 35.8% moderate risk, and 49.3% low risk. The FROP-Com screen and assessment tools had the highest classification accuracy for identifying fallers in the preceding year (area under curve >0.85), with sensitivity/specificity highest for the FROP-Com assessment (cut-off ≥12), sensitivity=0.84 and specificity=0.73. Falls are common in older Indigenous Australians. The FROP-Com falls risk assessment tool appears useful in this population, and this research suggests changes that may improve its utility further. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Exercise for falls prevention in Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrington, Catherine; Lord, Stephen R.; Close, Jacqueline C.T.; Heritier, Stephane; Heller, Gillian Z.; Howard, Kirsten; Allen, Natalie E.; Latt, Mark D.; Murray, Susan M.; O'Rourke, Sandra D.; Paul, Serene S.; Song, Jooeun; Fung, Victor S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether falls can be prevented with minimally supervised exercise targeting potentially remediable fall risk factors, i.e., poor balance, reduced leg muscle strength, and freezing of gait, in people with Parkinson disease. Methods: Two hundred thirty-one people with Parkinson disease were randomized into exercise or usual-care control groups. Exercises were practiced for 40 to 60 minutes, 3 times weekly for 6 months. Primary outcomes were fall rates and proportion of fallers during the intervention period. Secondary outcomes were physical (balance, mobility, freezing of gait, habitual physical activity), psychological (fear of falling, affect), and quality-of-life measures. Results: There was no significant difference between groups in the rate of falls (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45–1.17, p = 0.18) or proportion of fallers (p = 0.45). Preplanned subgroup analysis revealed a significant interaction for disease severity (p exercise group compared with controls (IRR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.15–0.62, p exercise group (IRR = 1.61, 95% CI 0.86–3.03, p = 0.13). Postintervention, the exercise group scored significantly (p exercise program targeting balance, leg strength, and freezing of gait did not reduce falls but improved physical and psychological health. Falls were reduced in people with milder disease but not in those with more severe Parkinson disease. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with Parkinson disease, a minimally supervised exercise program does not reduce fall risk. This study lacked the precision to exclude a moderate reduction or modest increase in fall risk from exercise. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000303347). PMID:25552576

  11. Collective Fall Protection for Construction Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulowski, A. C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Construction safety regulations require protection of workers against falls from elevations. The collective fall protection systems, in most cases, allow workers to move freely without wearing individual fall protection gear. The collective systems which prevent falls are preferred over the fall arrest systems. The latter are employed only if prevention of falls is not feasible. Arresting a fall always carries with it a residual risk of injury to the fall victim. The collective fall arrest systems are employed primarily during construction of electricity or telecomm towers. The aim of this paper has been a review of the collective FPS employed in the construction industry.Las normas de seguridad en la construcción requieren de protección para los trabajadores contra las caídas desde altura. Los Sistemas de Protección contra Caídas (FPS, por sus siglas en inglés colectivos, en la mayoría de los casos, permiten que los trabajadores se muevan libremente sin usar un equipo de protección contra caídas individual. Los sistemas colectivos de prevención de caídas son preferibles a los sistemas de detención de caídas, estos últimos se emplean sólo si la prevención de las caídas no es factible. La detención de una caída siempre lleva consigo un riesgo residual de lesiones en la víctima accidentada. Los sistemas colectivos de detención de caídas se emplean principalmente en la construcción de torres de electricidad o telecomunicaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido la revisión de los sistemas colectivos de protección contra caídas empleados en la industria de la construcción.

  12. The extra resource burden of in-hospital falls: a cost of falls study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Renata T; Barker, Anna L; Watts, Jennifer J; Haines, Terry; Zavarsek, Silva S; Hill, Keith D; Brand, Caroline; Sherrington, Catherine; Wolfe, Rory; Bohensky, Megan A; Stoelwinder, Johannes U

    2015-11-02

    To quantify the additional hospital length of stay (LOS) and costs associated with in-hospital falls and fall injuries in acute hospitals in Australia. A multisite prospective cohort study conducted during 2011-2013 in the control wards of a falls prevention trial (6-PACK). The trial included all admissions to 12 acute medical and surgical wards of six Australian hospitals. In-hospital falls data were collected from medical record reviews, daily verbal reports by ward nurse unit managers, and hospital incident reporting and administrative databases. Clinical costing data were linked for three of the six participating hospitals to calculate patient-level costs. Hospital LOS and costs associated with in-hospital falls and fall injuries for each patient admission. We found that 966 of a total of 27 026 hospital admissions (3.6%) involved at least one fall, and 313 (1.2%) at least one fall injury, a total of 1330 falls and 418 fall injuries. After adjustment for age, sex, cognitive impairment, admission type, comorbidity and clustering by hospital, patients who had an in-hospital fall had a mean increase in LOS of 8 days (95% CI, 5.8-10.4; P costs of $6669 (95% CI, $3888-$9450; P costs (mean, $4727; 95% CI, -$568 to $10 022; P = 0.080). Patients who experience an in-hospital fall have significantly longer hospital stays and higher costs. Programs need to target the prevention of all falls, not just the reduction of fall-related injuries.

  13. A Multicomponent Fall Prevention Strategy Reduces Falls at an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Dan; Slayton, Jenny; Moore, Sonya; Domenico, Henry; Matthews, Julia; Steaban, Robin L; Choma, Neesha

    2017-09-01

    While the reduction in fall rates has not kept pace with the reduction of other hospital-acquired conditions, patient safety research and quality improvement (QI) initiatives at the system and hospital levels have achieved positive results and provide insights into potentially effective risk reduction strategies. An academic medical center developed a QI-based multicomponent strategy for fall prevention and pilot tested it for six months in three high-risk units-the Neuroscience Acute Care Unit, the Myelosuppression/Stem Cell Transplant Unit, and the Acute Care for the Elderly Unit-before implementing and evaluating the strategy hospitalwide. The multicomponent fall strategy was evaluated using a pre-post study design. The main outcome measures were falls and falls with harm measured in events per 1,000 patient-days. Fall rates were monitored and compared for three classes of falls: (1) accidental, (2) anticipated physiologic, and (3) unanticipated physiologic. Statistical process control charts showed that the pilot units had achieved significant reductions in falls with harm during the last five months of data collection. Wald test and segmented regression analyses revealed significant improvements in pooled postintervention fall rates, stratified by fall type. The hospitalwide implementation of the program resulted in a 47% overall reduction in falls in the postintervention period. A fall prevention strategy that targeted the spectrum of risk factors produced measurable improvement in fall rates and rates of patient harm. Hospitals must continue developing, rigorously testing, and sharing their results and experiences in implementing and sustaining multicomponent fall prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased concern is protective for falls in Chinese older people: the chopstix fall risk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Marcella M S; Tsang, William W N; Lin, Sang-I; Greenaway, Mark; Close, Jacqueline C T; Lord, Stephen R

    2013-08-01

    Chinese older people have approximately half the risk of falling as their white counterparts, but no studies to date have explained why such a disparity exists. A total of 692 Chinese and 764 white community-dwelling older people participated in a multicohort study conducted in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Australia. Baseline measurements included sociodemographic, psychological, and physical measures; concern about falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International scores); and physical activity levels. Falls were monitored prospectively for 12-24 months. The standardized annual fall rates for the 3 Chinese cohorts were 0.26 ± 0.47 in Taiwan, 0.21 ± 0.57 in Hong Kong, and 0.36 ± 0.80 in Australia, which were significantly lower than that of the white cohort at 0.70 ± 1.15. The fall rates for the Taiwan and Hong Kong cohorts were also significantly lower than that of the Australian Chinese cohort. The difference in fall rates was not due to better physical ability in the Chinese cohorts. However, the Chinese cohorts did more planned activity and expressed more concern about falling. Negative binomial regression analysis revealed a significant Cohort × Falls Efficacy Scale-International score interaction. After adjusting for this interaction, Falls Efficacy Scale-International scores, other predictors, and confounders, the incidence rate ratios comparing the cohorts were no longer statistically significant. Low fall rates in Chinese cohorts appear to be due to increased concern about falling as manifest in high Falls Efficacy Scale-International scores. These findings suggest that the Chinese cohorts are more likely to adapt their behaviors to lessen fall risk and that such adaptations are partially lost in Chinese people who have migrated to a "Westernized" country.

  15. Falls and Fall-Related Injuries among Community-Dwelling Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K.; Willetts, Joanna L.; Corns, Helen L.; Marucci-Wellman, Helen R.; Lombardi, David A.; Courtney, Theodore K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries in the U.S.; however, national estimates for all community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study estimated the national incidence of falls and fall-related injuries among community-dwelling U.S. adults by age and gender and the trends in fall-related injuries across the adult life span. Methods Nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2008 Balance and Dizziness supplement was used to develop national estimates of falls, and pooled data from the NHIS was used to calculate estimates of fall-related injuries in the U.S. and related trends from 2004–2013. Costs of unintentional fall-related injuries were extracted from the CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Results Twelve percent of community-dwelling U.S. adults reported falling in the previous year for a total estimate of 80 million falls at a rate of 37.2 falls per 100 person-years. On average, 9.9 million fall-related injuries occurred each year with a rate of 4.38 fall-related injuries per 100 person-years. In the previous three months, 2.0% of older adults (65+), 1.1% of middle-aged adults (45–64) and 0.7% of young adults (18–44) reported a fall-related injury. Of all fall-related injuries among community-dwelling adults, 32.3% occurred among older adults, 35.3% among middle-aged adults and 32.3% among younger adults. The age-adjusted rate of fall-related injuries increased 4% per year among older women (95% CI 1%–7%) from 2004 to 2013. Among U.S. adults, the total lifetime cost of annual unintentional fall-related injuries that resulted in a fatality, hospitalization or treatment in an emergency department was 111 billion U.S. dollars in 2010. Conclusions Falls and fall-related injuries represent a significant health and safety problem for adults of all ages. The findings suggest that adult fall prevention efforts should consider the entire adult lifespan to ensure a

  16. Relevance of vitamin D in fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2017-03-01

    This review will summarize recent clinical studies and meta-analyses on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on fall prevention. As fall prevention is fundamental in fracture prevention at older age, we discuss if and to what extend the vitamin D effect on muscle modulates hip fracture risk. Further, to explain the effect of vitamin D on fall prevention, we will review the mechanistic evidence linking vitamin D to muscle health and the potentially selective effect of vitamin D on type II fast muscle fibers.

  17. Preferência alimentar e biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em arroz e capim-arroz

    OpenAIRE

    Botton, Marcos; Carbonari, Jairo J.; Garcia, Mauro S.; Martins, José F. S.

    1998-01-01

    Lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) foram criadas em laboratório, alimentadas com folhas de arroz (Oryza sativa) e capim-arroz (Echinocloa sp.) a 25±2 ºC; 70±10% RH e fotofase de 14 h. Maiores diferenças foram observadas quanto à duração da fase larval (22,0 dias em arroz e 18,6 dias em capim-arroz), viabilidade de lagartas (78% em arroz e 83,0% em capim-arroz) e pupas (71,4% em arroz e 87,8% em capim-arroz) bem como na fecundidade (773 e 1017 ovos/fêmea pr...

  18. Biotransformation of (-)-(1R,4S)-Menthone and (+)-(1S,4R)-Menthone by the Common Cutworm Spodoptera litura Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumoto, Shinsuke; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Hagiwara, Yuki; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2017-08-01

    Using biotransformation as a biocatalytic process has the advantage of being able to proceed under mild conditions and with high regio- and enantioselectivity. This study investigated the biotransformation of (-)-(1R,4S)-menthone (1) and (+)-(1S,4R)-menthone (2) by Spodoptera litura larvae. Compound 1 was converted to (-)-(1R,4S)-7-hydroxymenthone (1-1), (+)-(1R,3S,4S)-7-hydroxyneomenthol (1-2) and (-)-(1R,4S,8R)-p-menth-3-one-9-oic acid (1-3). The metabolism of substrate 2 generated three enantiomers of the above metabolites, designated as 2-1 to 2-3, respectively. The C-9 position of (-)-menthone and (+)-menthone was oxidized to carboxylic acid by S. litura, which is a metabolic pathway not observed in any other example of biocatalysis.

  19. Niches and interspecific competitive relationships of the parasitoids, Microplitis prodeniae and Campoletis chlorldeae, of the Oriental leafworm moth, Spodoptera litura, in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Chen, Ze-Peng; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2010-01-01

    Both Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Hymenoptera: Ichnumonidae) are major parasitoids of Spodoptera litura (Fabricious) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae) at Nanxiong, Guangdong Province, South China. The niches and interspecific competition relationships of the two species were studied. The results show that the competition between the two species for spatial and food resources was very intense, and C. chlorideae was always dominant when the two species compete for spatial and food resources in different periods. Thus C. chlorideae may drive M. prodeniae away when they occupy the same spatial or food resource. The adaptability of C. chlorideae to the environment in the tobacco fields may be greater than that of M. prodeniae, so C. chlorideae can maintain a higher population compared to that of M. prodeniae.

  20. Screening of extracts of leaves and stems of Psychotria spp. (Rubiaceae) against Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for maize protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Grazziotti, Geisel Hudson; de Souza Júnior, Amauri Alves; de Sousa Freitas, Silvia; Consolaro, Hélder Nagai; Ribeiro, Paulo Eduardo de Aquino; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2013-11-01

    Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are important economic pests of corn, Zea mays (Poaceae). Psychotria spp. (Rubiaceae) plants are rich in secondary metabolites that could be toxic against such pests. We have screened extracts from four species of Psychotria abundant in the Cerrado (Savannah-type) biome of Brazil for the toxicity to two insects. We found that extracts from leaves and stems had significant effects on the hatching rate, parameters of caterpillar body (weight and length and width of head capsule), repellency, and mortality of these two pests, although the effects varied according to the Psychotria species and plant source (stem or leaf). Extracts of the stems of Psychotria hoffmannseggiana and of Psychotria capitata were more toxic to S. zeamais and the stems of Psychotria goyazensis to S. frugiperda; therefore, such extracts could have the potential for use in integrated pest management schemes.

  1. Unexplained Falls Are Frequent in Patients with Fall-Related Injury Admitted to Orthopaedic Wards: The UFO Study (Unexplained Falls in Older Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussi Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the incidence of unexplained falls in elderly patients affected by fall-related fractures admitted to orthopaedic wards, we recruited 246 consecutive patients older than 65 (mean age 82±7 years, range 65–101. Falls were defined “accidental” (fall explained by a definite accidental cause, “medical” (fall caused directly by a specific medical disease, “dementia-related” (fall in patients affected by moderate-severe dementia, and “unexplained” (nonaccidental falls, not related to a clear medical or drug-induced cause or with no apparent cause. According to the anamnestic features of the event, older patients had a lower tendency to remember the fall. Patients with accidental fall remember more often the event. Unexplained falls were frequent in both groups of age. Accidental falls were more frequent in younger patients, while dementia-related falls were more common in the older ones. Patients with unexplained falls showed a higher number of depressive symptoms. In a multivariate analysis a higher GDS and syncopal spells were independent predictors of unexplained falls. In conclusion, more than one third of all falls in patients hospitalized in orthopaedic wards were unexplained, particularly in patients with depressive symptoms and syncopal spells. The identification of fall causes must be evaluated in older patients with a fall-related injury.

  2. Unexplained Falls Are Frequent in Patients with Fall-Related Injury Admitted to Orthopaedic Wards: The UFO Study (Unexplained Falls in Older Patients).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Mussi; Gianluigi, Galizia; Pasquale, Abete; Alessandro, Morrione; Alice, Maraviglia; Gabriele, Noro; Paolo, Cavagnaro; Loredana, Ghirelli; Giovanni, Tava; Franco, Rengo; Giulio, Masotti; Gianfranco, Salvioli; Niccolò, Marchionni; Andrea, Ungar

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of unexplained falls in elderly patients affected by fall-related fractures admitted to orthopaedic wards, we recruited 246 consecutive patients older than 65 (mean age 82 ± 7 years, range 65-101). Falls were defined "accidental" (fall explained by a definite accidental cause), "medical" (fall caused directly by a specific medical disease), "dementia-related" (fall in patients affected by moderate-severe dementia), and "unexplained" (nonaccidental falls, not related to a clear medical or drug-induced cause or with no apparent cause). According to the anamnestic features of the event, older patients had a lower tendency to remember the fall. Patients with accidental fall remember more often the event. Unexplained falls were frequent in both groups of age. Accidental falls were more frequent in younger patients, while dementia-related falls were more common in the older ones. Patients with unexplained falls showed a higher number of depressive symptoms. In a multivariate analysis a higher GDS and syncopal spells were independent predictors of unexplained falls. In conclusion, more than one third of all falls in patients hospitalized in orthopaedic wards were unexplained, particularly in patients with depressive symptoms and syncopal spells. The identification of fall causes must be evaluated in older patients with a fall-related injury.

  3. Aproximación a la filogenia de Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae con el uso de un fragmento del gen de la citocromo oxidasa I (COI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Saldamando

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se secuenció un fragmento de 451pb del gen mitocondrial de la citocromo oxidasa I (COI en 62 secuencias del género Spodoptera y una secuencia de Bombix mori (grupo externo. Los resultados mostraron gran diferenciación genética (distancia K2 entre los haplotipos de Spodoptera frugiperda de Colombia y Estados Unidos, según los estimadores de diversidad haplotípica, diversidad y polimorfismo nucleotídicos calculados. Un árbol de ML agrupó las especies con valores de bootstrap entre 73-99% en las ramas internas. No obstante algunas ramas presentaron bajos valores de bootstrap. Este árbol formó un grupo constituido por las especies del hemisferio oriental (S. littoralis y S. litura y también agrupó las especies localizadas en el hemisferio occidental (S. androgea, S. dolichos, S. eridania, S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. latifascia, S. ornithogalli y S. pulchella. Esto demuestra que el árbol agrupó las especies con base en su origen geográfico. Contrariamente, el árbol no agrupó a S. frugiperda con S. ornithogalli, demostrando que a pesar de que ambas coexisten en el cultivo de algodón, no comparten un ancestro común reciente. En Colombia, estas especies forman parte del “complejo Spodoptera” del algodón, y nuestros resultados demuestran que la secuenciación de este gen permite diferenciarlas sin necesidad del uso de claves taxonómicas de sus estadios larvales. Este trabajo es una aproximación a la filogenia de este género, por lo cual la inclusión de más genes (mitocondriales y nucleares son necesarios para futuros trabajos.

  4. Economic Injury Level and Demography-Based Control Timing Projection of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at Different Growth Stages of Arachis hypogaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Lee, Chung-Chieh; Tang, Li-Chen; Saska, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.), one of the most devastating pests in many Asian countries, is normally controlled by relying on chemical insecticides. To encourage an integrated pest management approach, we determined the economic injury level (EIL) for S. litura on peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., by larval infestation with late instars at different crop growth stages. The cumulative consumption rate of the fifth- and sixth-instars was used as the relative unit for the "Spodoptera injury equivalent" (SIE). The yield of marketable pods significantly decreased from 6.19 to 1.63 g.plant-1 as larval infestation intensity increased throughout the entire cropping season. When supplemented with timely applications of the insecticide, indoxacarb, an oxadiazine insecticide, the EIL values obtained in the larval infestation trial ranged from 3.26 to 13.47 SIE per 20 plants depending on the timing of initial infestation. The economic threshold (ET) for late instars, i.e., multiplying the EIL by 0.75, could not be utilized as a control timing index for the outbreak of injurious larvae population because of the time-lag. When the occurrence of natural mortality in the egg to pupal stage was considered, the ETs were adjusted to reflect the average survivorship. ETs of 27.3, 55.9, 51.3, and 112.6 eggs.m-2 were recommended at the early vegetative growth, blooming/pegging, pod-setting, and pod-filling stages, respectively, for initiating control measures. By simulating the pest population with the program, Timing-MSChart, we integrated the stage-specific EILs and ETs with the life-table data of S. litura on peanut and then proposed a demography-based control timing. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. History of falls, gait, balance, and fall risks in older cancer survivors living in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang MH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Min H Huang, Tracy Shilling, Kara A Miller, Kristin Smith, Kayle LaVictoire Physical Therapy Department, School of Health Professions and Studies, University of Michigan–Flint, Flint, MI, USA Abstract: Older cancer survivors may be predisposed to falls because cancer-related sequelae affect virtually all body systems. The use of a history of falls, gait speed, and balance tests to assess fall risks remains to be investigated in this population. This study examined the relationship of previous falls, gait, and balance with falls in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. At the baseline, demographics, health information, and the history of falls in the past year were obtained through interviewing. Participants performed tests including gait speed, Balance Evaluation Systems Test, and short-version of Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Falls were tracked by mailing of monthly reports for 6 months. A “faller” was a person with ≥1 fall during follow-up. Univariate analyses, including independent sample t-tests and Fisher’s exact tests, compared baseline demographics, gait speed, and balance between fallers and non-fallers. For univariate analyses, Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. Baseline variables with P<0.15 were included in a forward logistic regression model to identify factors predictive of falls with age as covariate. Sensitivity and specificity of each predictor of falls in the model were calculated. Significance level for the regression analysis was P<0.05. During follow-up, 59% of participants had one or more falls. Baseline demographics, health information, history of falls, gaits speed, and balance tests did not differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers. Forward logistic regression revealed that a history of falls was a significant predictor of falls in the final model (odds ratio =6.81; 95% confidence interval =1.594–29.074 (P<0.05. Sensitivity and specificity for correctly

  6. Falls and falls efficacy: the role of sustained attention in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Halloran Aisling M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous evidence indicates that older people allocate more of their attentional resources toward their gait and that the attention-related changes that occur during aging increase the risk of falls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether performance and variability in sustained attention is associated with falls and falls efficacy in older adults. Methods 458 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 years underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Mean and variability of reaction time (RT, commission errors and omission errors were recorded during a fixed version of the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART. RT variability was decomposed using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT procedure, to help characterise variability associated with the arousal and vigilance aspects of sustained attention. The number of self-reported falls in the previous twelve months, and falls efficacy (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale were also recorded. Results Significant increases in the mean and variability of reaction time on the SART were significantly associated with both falls (p Conclusions Greater variability in sustained attention is strongly correlated with retrospective falls and to a lesser degree with reduced falls efficacy. This cognitive measure may provide a novel and valuable biomarker for falls in older adults, potentially allowing for early detection and the implementation of preventative intervention strategies.

  7. Falls in institutions for older adults: characterization of fall occurrences and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rosa Soares Lavareda Baixinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Falls are the main accident for older adults, with consequences on functionality. Older adults impose restrictions or have restrictions imposed on their activities for fear of new falls. This prospective longitudinal study was conducted with 104 institutionalized older adults during six months with the following goals: to determine the prevalence of falls, to characterize the falls according to place, time, resulting injuries, supervision of the older adult, action performed at the time of the fall, and to relate the occurrence of the fall to the risk of falling, medical diagnoses, number of medications in use, type of medication, degree of dependency, age, and gender. The prevalence of falls was 37.5%, and they happened mostly in the bedroom, while walking after getting up from the bed. Those under risk in the Morse Fall Scale (p=0.034 and on sedatives (p=0.007 face a higher prevalence of falls. This study enables the possibility of making suggestions for practice, training and investigation.

  8. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of traumatic brain injuries (TBI). 9 Adjusted for inflation, the direct medical costs for fall injuries are $ ... OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) , TTY: 888- ...

  9. Performances: "Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzales, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The January 26, 2008, performance of Kurt Weill's "Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny" featuring Astrid Kropp under director Barrie Kosky and conductor Stefan Soltesz at the Musiktheater in Essen...

  10. Effect of free fall on higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

  11. Impact of Fall Prevention on Nurses and Care of Fall Risk Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Barbara; Pecanac, Kristen; Krupp, Anna; Liebzeit, Daniel; Mahoney, Jane

    2016-12-23

    Falls are common events for hospitalized older adults, resulting in negative outcomes both for patients and hospitals. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) has placed pressure on hospital administrators by identifying falls as a "never event", resulting in a zero falls goal for many hospitals. Staff nurses are responsible for providing direct care to patients and for meeting the hospital no falls goal. Little is known about the impact of "zero falls" on nurses, patients and the organization. A qualitative study, using Grounded Dimensional Analysis (GDA) was conducted to explore nurses' experiences with fall prevention in hospital settings and the impact of those experiences on how nurses provide care to fall risk patients. Twenty-seven registered nurses and certified nursing assistants participated in in-depth interviews. Open, axial and selective coding was used to analyze data. A conceptual model which illustrates the impact of intense messaging from nursing administration to prevent patient falls on nurses, actions nurses take to address the message and the consequences to nurses, older adult patients and to the organization was developed. Intense messaging from hospital administration to achieve zero falls resulted in nurses developing a fear of falls, protecting self and unit, and restricting fall risk patients as a way to stop messages and meet the hospital goal. Results of this study identify unintended consequences of fall prevention message on nurses and older adult patients. Further research is needed understand how nurse care for fall risk patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  13. Evaluation of accelerometer-based fall detection algorithms on real-world falls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bagalà

    Full Text Available Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elderly. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing some of the negative consequences of falls. Many different approaches have been explored to automatically detect a fall using inertial sensors. Although previously published algorithms report high sensitivity (SE and high specificity (SP, they have usually been tested on simulated falls performed by healthy volunteers. We recently collected acceleration data during a number of real-world falls among a patient population with a high-fall-risk as part of the SensAction-AAL European project. The aim of the present study is to benchmark the performance of thirteen published fall-detection algorithms when they are applied to the database of 29 real-world falls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic comparison of fall detection algorithms tested on real-world falls. We found that the SP average of the thirteen algorithms, was (mean ± std 83.0% ± 30.3% (maximum value = 98%. The SE was considerably lower (SE = 57.0% ± 27.3%, maximum value = 82.8%, much lower than the values obtained on simulated falls. The number of false alarms generated by the algorithms during 1-day monitoring of three representative fallers ranged from 3 to 85. The factors that affect the performance of the published algorithms, when they are applied to the real-world falls, are also discussed. These findings indicate the importance of testing fall-detection algorithms in real-life conditions in order to produce more effective automated alarm systems with higher acceptance. Further, the present results support the idea that a large, shared real-world fall database could, potentially, provide an enhanced understanding of the fall process and the information needed

  14. Evaluation of accelerometer-based fall detection algorithms on real-world falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagalà, Fabio; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo; Aminian, Kamiar; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Klenk, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elderly. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing some of the negative consequences of falls. Many different approaches have been explored to automatically detect a fall using inertial sensors. Although previously published algorithms report high sensitivity (SE) and high specificity (SP), they have usually been tested on simulated falls performed by healthy volunteers. We recently collected acceleration data during a number of real-world falls among a patient population with a high-fall-risk as part of the SensAction-AAL European project. The aim of the present study is to benchmark the performance of thirteen published fall-detection algorithms when they are applied to the database of 29 real-world falls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic comparison of fall detection algorithms tested on real-world falls. We found that the SP average of the thirteen algorithms, was (mean ± std) 83.0% ± 30.3% (maximum value = 98%). The SE was considerably lower (SE = 57.0% ± 27.3%, maximum value = 82.8%), much lower than the values obtained on simulated falls. The number of false alarms generated by the algorithms during 1-day monitoring of three representative fallers ranged from 3 to 85. The factors that affect the performance of the published algorithms, when they are applied to the real-world falls, are also discussed. These findings indicate the importance of testing fall-detection algorithms in real-life conditions in order to produce more effective automated alarm systems with higher acceptance. Further, the present results support the idea that a large, shared real-world fall database could, potentially, provide an enhanced understanding of the fall process and the information needed to design and

  15. Depression and Outcome of Fear of Falling in a Falls Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaboni, Andrea; Banez, Carol; Lam, Robert; Jones, Simon A; Maki, Brian E; Liu, Barbara A; Flint, Alastair J

    2015-10-01

    To examine whether depression predicts less improvement in fear of falling and falls efficacy in older adults attending a falls prevention program (FPP). Using a prospective observational design in an academic medical center, the authors studied 69 nondemented adults aged 55 years or older (mean age: 77.8±8.9 years) who had experienced at least one fall in the previous year and who attended the FPP. The primary outcome variable was change in severity of fear of falling during the FPP. Secondary outcome variables were change in falls efficacy and fear-related restriction of activities during the FPP. Independent variables were baseline depressive disorders and depressive symptom severity. Twenty-one of 69 study participants (30.4%) had a depressive disorder at baseline. Depressive disorder and depressive symptoms were not associated with change in severity of fear of falling or restriction of activity. On the other hand, depressive disorder was associated with improvement in falls efficacy, although this finding was not significant in multivariate analysis. Among participants with a depressive disorder, improvement in falls efficacy was significantly correlated with improvement in depressive symptoms. There was no association between baseline depression and change in fear of falling in this FPP. The correlation between improvement in depressive symptoms and improvement in falls efficacy raises the question as to whether a cognitive-behavioral intervention that simultaneously targets both depression and falls efficacy would be a useful component of a FPP. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Central and peripheral visual impairment and the risk of falls and falls with injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Cecilia M; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Azen, Stanley P; Allison, Jessica Chung; Choudhury, Farzana; Varma, Rohit

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate whether central (CVI) and peripheral visual impairment (PVI) are independent risk factors for falls and falls with injury 4 years later. Population-based, prospective cohort study. A population-based sample of 3203 adult Latinos. Baseline presenting binocular central distance acuity was measured and impairment was classified as mild (20/40-20/63) or moderate/severe (Peripheral visual impairment was classified as mild (-6 dB injury in the past 12 months were assessed by self-report at the 4-year follow-up visit. Out of 3203 individuals, 19% reported falls and 10% falls with injury 4 years after the baseline examination; participants with falls were more likely to be >or=60 years of age, be female, report lower income, have >2 comorbidities, report alcohol use, report wearing bifocal glasses, and report obesity. Among those who reported falls, 7% had CVI (visual acuity >20/40) compared with 4% who did not report falls; and 49% had PVI (mean deviation injury (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.10-7.02; P(value) = 0.03; and OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.94-2.05 P(trend) = 0.04, respectively). Both CVI and PVI were independently associated with increased risk for falls and falls with injury 4 years after the initial examination in a dose-response manner. Although vision-related interventions for preventing falls have mainly focused on correcting CVI, this study suggests that targeting both central and peripheral components may be necessary to effectively reduce rates of falls and falls with injury related to vision loss. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Eikosanoid biyosentezi inhibitörleri Serratia marcescens bakterisi ile birlikte Spodoptera littoralis larvalarına uygulandığında larvalar üzerindeki ölüm etksi

    OpenAIRE

    TUNAZ,HASAN; KÜSEK, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The first step of the cellular defense reactions to bacterial, fungal and some viral infections in insects is nodulation. We posed the hypothesis that Spodoptera littoralis, expresses melanoic nodulation reactions to bacterial challenge and that injecting S. littoralis larvae with eicosanoid biosnthesis inhibitors (EBIs) plus bacteria would increase larval mortality. Injecting larvae with EBIs, immediately before intrahemocoelic injections of the bacterium, Serratia marcescens, sharply reduce...

  18. Feasibility of Assessing Falls Risk and Promoting Falls Prevention in Beauty Salons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandia, Gabriela; Hargrove, Jennifer L; Shubert, Tiffany E; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Linnan, Laura A

    2017-12-01

    Falls are a major public health risk and a leading cause of emergency room visits for people of all ages. Finding ways to increase access to information and evidence-based falls prevention strategies is critically important across the lifespan. We tested the feasibility of conducting a falls risk assessment and awareness program among customers who attend beauty salons. We enrolled 78 customers from 2 beauty salons who completed a written questionnaire as well as several biometric and functional balance tests designed to assess falls risk. On average, enrolled participants were 56 years of age (range: 19-90), female (n = 70, 91%), and Black (n = 47, 62%). Eleven percent of enrolled customers were classified as at high risk of falls because they had reported two or more falls in the last 6 months. We found that younger age, higher education, employment, moderate physical activity, and decreased frequency of salon visits were associated with fewer falls. Results demonstrated initial interest in, and the feasibility of recruiting and enrolling customers into a beauty salon-based falls risk assessment and awareness program. Beauty salons, which are in all communities, represent an innovative setting for reaching people of all ages with life-saving falls prevention information and services.

  19. Fall arrest characteristics of a scissor lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, James R; Powers, John R; Pan, Christopher S; Boehler, Brad

    2010-06-01

    Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) data indicate 306 aerial lift fatalities between 1992-2003. Seventy-eight of these fatalities specifically involved scissor lifts. Members of standards committees have requested that NIOSH conduct research to determine the effects of safety-control practices related to using fall-protection systems for scissor lifts. This research examined the structural and dynamic stability of a scissor lift subjected to fall arrest forces. This was accomplished by conducting drop tests from a scissor lift. Anchorage locations evaluated included manufacturer-supplied anchorage points on the scissor lift platform as well as mid-rail and top-rail locations. Preliminary drop tests determined that a 2400 lb maximum arrest force (MAF) could be generated by dropping 169 lb through a fall height of 36" using Nystron rope as a lanyard. The scissor lift maintained structural and dynamic stability for all drop tests when fully extended and on an incline. Anchoring a fall arrest system to either the mid-rail or top-rail is not a recommended practice by the scissor lift manufacturer. Anchor points are provided on the platform floor of the scissor lift for this purpose. However, our results demonstrate that the mid-rail and top-rail absorb substantial energy from an arrested fall and may have potential as appropriate anchorage points. Employers and workers should consider implementing fall arrest systems when using scissor lifts as part of their overall risk mitigation plan for fall injury prevention. (c) 2010 National Safety Council. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictors of falling in elderly hospital patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Raja I; Lord, Stephen R; Ehrlich, Frederick; Janji, Nabil; Rahman, Abdur

    2004-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to determine whether a brief clinical assessment conducted soon after admission can accurately identify older people who fall while staying in an acute hospital. Eighty-eight non-bedfast patients aged 80-99 years took part in the study. Within 3 days of admission, these patients were assessed for the following measures: impaired orientation on the MMSE, psychoactive medication use, evidence of stroke, and impaired ability on the Get-Up-and-Go-test. The major presenting condition for each patient was also recorded. Patients were then followed up to determine whether they fell while in hospital. Impaired orientation on the MMSE, evidence of previous cerebrovascular accident, and major presenting conditions of falls and confusion were significantly associated with falls while in hospital. There was also a trend indicating that psychoactive medication use was elevated in the fallers. In contrast, there was no difference in the proportion of fallers and non-fallers who had impaired ability in the Get-Up-and-Go-test. Of the 15 patients who fell, 13 had two or more risk factors, and after controlling for possible confounding factors of age, sex and length of stay, the presence of two-plus risk factors remained strongly and significantly associated with falls (adjusted OR = 13.43; 95% CI = 1.91 - 94.40). The findings indicate that a simple screening protocol can accurately identify patients at risk of falling while in hospital.

  1. Accidents due to falls from roof slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Alves Rudelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Falls from the roof slabs of houses are accidents of high potential severity that occur in large Brazilian cities and often affect children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to characterize the factors that predispose towards this type of fall involving children and adolescents, quantify the severity of associated lesions and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive observational prospective longitudinal study in two hospitals in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS Data were collected from 29 cases of falls from roof slabs involving children and adolescents between October 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS Cases involving males were more prevalent, accounting for 84%. The predominant age group was schoolchildren (7 to 12 years old; 44%. Leisure activities were most frequently being practiced on the roof slab at the time of the fall (86%, and flying a kite was the most prevalent game (37.9%. In 72% of the cases, the children were unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them. Severe conditions such as multiple trauma and traumatic brain injuries resulted from 79% of the accidents. CONCLUSION Falls from roof slabs are accidents of high potential severity, and preventive measures aimed towards informing parents and guardians about the dangers and risk factors associated with this type of accident are needed, along with physical protective measures, such as low walls around the slab and gates with locks to restrict free access to these places.

  2. Fall-Prone Older People's Attitudes towards the Use of Virtual Reality Technology for Fall Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockx, Kim; Alcock, Lisa; Bekkers, Esther; Ginis, Pieter; Reelick, Miriam; Pelosin, Elisa; Lagravinese, Giovanna; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Mirelman, Anat; Rochester, Lynn; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology is a relatively new rehabilitation tool that can deliver a combination of cognitive and motor training for fall prevention. The attitudes of older people to such training are currently unclear. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the attitudes of fall-prone older people towards fall prevention exercise with and without VR; (2) attitudinal changes after intervention with and without VR; and (3) user satisfaction following fall prevention exercise with and without VR. A total of 281 fall-prone older people were randomly assigned to an experimental group receiving treadmill training augmented by VR (TT+VR, n = 144) or a control group receiving treadmill training alone (TT, n = 137). Two questionnaires were used to measure (1) attitudes towards fall prevention exercise with and without VR (AQ); and (2) user satisfaction (USQ). AQ was evaluated at baseline and after intervention. USQ was measured after intervention only. The AQ revealed that most participants had positive attitudes towards fall prevention exercise at baseline (82.2%) and after intervention (80.6%; p = 0.144). In contrast, only 53.6% were enthusiastic about fall prevention exercise with VR at baseline. These attitudes positively changed after intervention (83.1%; p experience. From the perspective of the user, VR is an attractive training mode, and thus improving service provision for older people is important. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Evaluation of Accelerometer-Based Fall Detection Algorithms on Real-World Falls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagala, Fabio; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo; Aminian, Kamiar; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Klenk, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elders. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing

  4. Martial arts fall techniques decrease the impact forces at the hip during sideways falling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.E.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    Falls to the side and those with impact on the hip are risky for hip fractures in the elderly. A previous study has indicated that martial arts (MA) fall techniques can reduce hip impact force, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Furthermore, the high impact forces at the hand used to break the

  5. Case study on possible falling patterns of a fatal fall from stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    Considering a fatal case of an aged individual, who died due to falling down stairs, the cause of the fatal fall was investigated through experiments. A witness, who was with the victim, when the fatal accident occurred, stated that the aged individual had miss-footed, lost balance at the top of the stairs, and fell accidently from an upper floor to a lower floor. It was very questionable whether or not this witness's statements were true. The true cause of the fatal fall was unclear, because of the witness's inconsistent statements, which showed discrepancies between the initial and later statements. The cause of a fatal fall can be presumed from external and internal damages to the body and other circumstantial evidences. But it was difficult to prove the true cause of a fatal fall only from the results of the autopsy and investigation of circumstantial evidences. The author was officially requested to conduct experiments to elucidate possible falling patterns. Judging from the experimental results, deep questions about the witness's statements arose. These experimental methods and analyses in this paper could be applied to elucidate possible falling patterns of fatal falls from stairs where the fatal causes are controversial.

  6. Older people's perception of and coping with falling, and their motivation for fall-prevention programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Dorte; Hendriksen, Carsten; Borup, Ina

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate older people's perceptions of and coping with falls, and what motivates them to join such programmes.......This study aims to investigate older people's perceptions of and coping with falls, and what motivates them to join such programmes....

  7. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls.

  8. Research on patient safety: falls and medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Sandra Dawn; Kogan, Polina

    2009-10-01

    Below you will find summaries of published research describing investigations into patient safety issues related to falls and medications. The first summary provides details on the incidence of falls associated with the use of walkers and canes. This is followed by a summary of a fall-prevention intervention study that evaluated the effectiveness of widespread dissemination of evidence-based strategies in a community in Connecticut. The third write up provides information on three classes of medications that are associated with a significant number of emergency room visits. The last summary describes a pharmacist-managed medication reconciliation intervention pilot program. For additional details about the study findings and interventions, we encourage readers to review the original articles.

  9. Electrostatic demonstration of free-fall weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balukovic, Jasmina; Slisko, Josip; Corona Cruz, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    The phenomena of free-fall weightlessness have been demonstrated to students for many years in a number of different ways. The essential basis of all these demonstrations is the fact that in free-falling, gravitationally accelerated systems, the weight force and weight-related forces (for example, friction and hydrostatic forces) disappear. In this article, an original electrostatic demonstration of weightlessness is presented. A charged balloon fixed at the opening of a plastic container cannot lift a light styrofoam sphere sitting on the bottom when the container is at rest. However, while the system is in free-fall, the sphere becomes weightless and the charged balloon is able to lift it electrostatically.

  10. Nocturia Is Associated with Slipping and Falling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available Several reports have demonstrated associations between falls and nocturia in the elderly. However, little information is available regarding other age groups. This study evaluated the relationship between the frequency of nocturia and falls in men using a large, population-based survey in Korea, and the results were adjusted for various confounding factors. Data from a 2011 Korean community health survey (KCHS were retrieved for 92,660 men aged 19 to 103 years. Information regarding the history of slips or falls in the past year was collected. The frequency of nocturia was classified as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and ≥ 5 instances a night. Walking during the day, education, income, body mass index (BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep time, stress level and medical histories of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, cerebral stroke, angina or myocardial infarction, arthritis, and osteoporosis were adjusted using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted for young (19-30 years, middle-aged (31-60 years, and elderly individuals (61+ years. Approximately 14.6% of the men had a history of falls. Their mean age was 42.9 years, which was significantly higher than that of the non-faller group (P < 0.001. An increased frequency of nocturia was associated with increased adjusted odds ratio (AOR for falls (AOR for 1 instance of nocturia/night = 1.41 [95% confidence interval, 1.33-1.50]; AOR for 2 instances = 1.41 [1.33-1.50]; AOR for 3 instances = 2.00 [1.75-2.28]; AOR for 4 instances = 2.12 [1.73-2.61]; AOR for ≥ 5 instances = 2.02 [1.74-2.36], P < 0.001. In the subgroup analysis, the AORs for falls significantly increased in all age groups as the frequency of nocturia increased.

  11. Maxillofacial Trauma Following Road Accidents and Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einy, Shmuel; Abdel Rahman, Nura; Siman-Tov, Maya; Aizenbud, Dror; Peleg, Kobi

    2016-06-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) and falls are major causes of maxillofacial injuries posing real challenges for the medical staff. To describe the demographic and injury characteristics, as well as the treatment procedures of casualties diagnosed with maxillofacial injuries. The investigators implemented a multicenter retrospective study composed of hospitalized maxillofacial trauma patients recorded in the Israel Trauma Registry for 2000 to 2011. The predictor variable was mechanism of injury and the outcome variable was type of injury, severity, and hospital resources utilization. Descriptive and bivariate statistics with P values was set at 0.05. The study included 11,592 reported hospitalized maxillofacial trauma patients (39.4% of them were MVA, 33.5% were falls), with a male predominance of a 3:1 ratio. The high-risk age groups were the first 3 decades of life in both etiologies, while age groups above 75 years were also frequent in falls. Severity of maxillofacial injuries, multiple injuries, admission to intensive care units, hospitalization for more than 15 days, inpatient mortality, and rehabilitation after discharge was significantly higher in MVA compared with falls. Conversely, maxillofacial surgeries were performed slightly more among patients injured in falls (34.1% and 31.1% respectively), as tongue and mouth are more prone targets in falls, compared with zygoma, maxilla, mandible, and teeth in MVA. The results of this study suggest that the etiologies present an entire separate pattern of trauma. A better understanding and proper identification of their high-risk groups should lead to appropriate prevention programs and treatment protocols.

  12. Planet Earth week featured at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fall Meeting has been dubbed “Planet Earth Week,” in part to salute the upcoming 7-week PBS television series and university course that will be previewed at the meeting. At least four of the seven 1-hour segments of “Planet Earth” will be shown daily at the the Fall Meeting. AGU provided some of the seed money for the new series, which will have its television premiere on Wednesday, January 22, 1986, on PBS at 9 P.M. EST.

  13. Retrospective analysis of free-fall fractures with regard to height and cause of fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Slaus, Mario; Coklo, Miran; Sosa, Ivan; Cengija, Morana; Bosnar, Alan

    2013-03-10

    Free-fall fractures represent a specific form of blunt force trauma that can be hard to interpret because of the numerous factors that affect it. The aim of this study is to focus on skeletal injury patterns resulting from free-falls and to analyse the relationship between specific skeletal fractures, and the height and cause (accidental vs. suicidal) of the fall. A total of 179 autopsy reports of fatal free-falls from known heights were analysed at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Criminalistics, in Rijeka, Croatia. The location, type and frequency of fractures, as well as the number and distribution of fractured regions were analysed with regard to height and cause of fall. Height was found to be the major factor influencing fracture patterns in free-falls. In our sample, the frequencies of thoracic fractures, fractures to the extremities and those to the pelvis increased with height. Head fractures show no such relationship. However, types of fractures recorded in different anatomical regions, including the cranium, differ between height groups suggesting different injury mechanisms in each. Victims of falls generally sustained fractures in more than one body region, and the number of injured regions correlates significantly with height. Although no statistical difference was found in the number of fractured regions or frequency of fractures between accidental fallers and suicidal jumpers, jumpers showed a significantly higher number of bilateral extremity fractures when compared to victims of accidental falls. Logistic regression analyses also demonstrate a significant relationship between lower extremity fractures, and the cause of the fall. Our results highlight the need for further investigations of the influence that behaviour and height have in free-fall fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. What Are Ways to Prevent Falls and Related Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Falls Osteoporosis and Falls(繁體中文) Caídas y fracturas (Falls and Fractures) Partner Resources Falls and Fractures (NIA) Caídas y fracturas (NIA) Home Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget’s ...

  15. Potencial Insecticida de Extractos de MeliaAzederach L (Meliaceae. Actividad Biologica y Efectos sobre Spodoptera Frugiperda J.E: Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Ruiz Rodrigo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de alternativas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, diferentes al uso de insecticidas se planifico esta investigación con el objetivo de precisas las propiedades insecticidas de extractos de Melia azederach L. para el control de larvas en estado L2. El trabajo se adelantó en Laboratorios de la Universidad del Tolima en Ibagué, ubicados en una zona de vida correspondiente al bosque húmedo Montano Bajo (bh-MB, las condiciones de temperatura fueron de 28 ±2°C y 70%de humedad relativa. Estos trabajos se realizaron durante 1994 y 1995. Los extractos se obtuvieron empleando tres solventes: alcohólico y etéreo trabajando con un diseño complemente al azar con arreglo factorial 3ˆ2, con 5 replicaciones. Antes de hacer las aplicaciones de los extractos se procedió a verificar su actividad biológica sobre Artemia salina. La dieta alimenticia natural y la cría masiva de Spodoptera frugiperda, se organizó de tal forma que se pudiera obtener material para toda la investigación. Después de efectuados los tratamientos se hicieron lecturas de mortalidad hasta los 6 días y porteriormente se continuaron realizando observaciones bioecológicas sobre los individuos sobrevivientes, hasta el estado adulto y etapa de oviposición El análisis de mortalidad demostró que los extractos tienen un efecto antialimentario sobre las larvas del insecto-plaga, siendo el extracto alcohólico en su dosis alta el mejor. Al efectuar el establecimiento de las dosis letales medidas se precisó que se pueden trabajar concentraciones entre 1.000-3.000 ppm para obtener óptimos resultados. El efecto antialimentario de los extractos produce en los individuos sobrevivientes una prolongación de la duración en días de las fases de su ciclo de vida.

  16. Protect the Ones You Love From Falls

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from falls, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  17. The 2015 AAAI Fall Symposium Series Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.; Bello, P.; Bringsjord, S.; Clark, M.; Hayes, B.; Kolobov, A.; Miller, C.; Oliehoek, F.; Stein, F.; Spaan, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence presented the 2015 Fall Symposium Series, on Thursday through Saturday, November 12-14, at the Westin Arlington Gateway in Arlington, Virginia. The titles of the six symposia were as follows: AI for Human-Robot Interaction, Cognitive

  18. NOVA[R] Fall 2001 Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    This teacher guide includes activity information for the program NOVA, Fall 2001. Background for each activity is provided along with its correlation to the national science standards. Activities include: (1) "Search for a Safe Cigarette"; (2) "18 Ways To Make a Baby"; (3) "Secrets of Mind"; (4) "Neanderthals on…

  19. Artists Paint ... Fall: Grades K-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Artists often paint the different seasonal activities people engage in and the way the world looks as changes take place. The weather for each of the four seasons is different. Farmers plant crops and gardens in the spring and harvest their crops in the fall, just like "The Harvesters" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. To begin, children will observe…

  20. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  1. A new view on falling aprons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Hoeven, M.; Thiel, B.

    2003-01-01

    In a flume of BallastHam Dredging a falling apron model has been constructed and loaded by current. The tests have been done with different rock sizes, different layer thickness of the top storage of the apron and two different gradings. In summary it was found that for both the narrow graded rock

  2. Preventing Older Adult Falls and TBI

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-05

    This podcast provides tips on how older adults can prevent falls and related injuries, such as traumatic brain injuries (TBI).  Created: 3/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 3/7/2008.

  3. How to catch a falling fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantan, Andrew; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2015-03-01

    A variety of fish engage in complex hunting behaviors involving catching airborne prey falling to the surface of the water. In principle this requires that the fish develop internal models describing both the falling prey and its own motion relative to that prey. However learning such models is complicated by the fact that the fish must also account for noise in optical measurements and the refraction occurring at the air/water interface. Inspired by experimental observations, we describe how one such species (Brycon guatemalensis) might feasibly overcome these obstacles and learn a model accurate enough to catch falling fruit. Instead of learning a model for how the fruit falls and a model for how it moves in the water and a model accounting for refraction, we argue that the fish could instead learn one approximate linear model relating a set of measured inputs to a set of measured outputs valid in a limited domain of initial conditions. The fish could then make its control decisions based on the outcome predicted by this combined linear model. We also discuss how the fish can leverage neural transformations of raw data to learn a model with a larger domain of validity and yet more sensitive to noise due to nontrivial Jacobians arising from the neural transformations.

  4. Engineering and Technician Enrollments--Fall 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineers Joint Council, New York, NY. Engineering Manpower Commission.

    Engineering and technician enrollments for Fall 1969 are reported for associate and bachelor's degree programs in engineering technology and industrial technology, and for engineering degrees at the bachelor's, master's, and doctor's levels. Statistical tables were produced by a computer analysis of data from 269 engineering schools and 558 other…

  5. Student Time Usage during Fall Reading Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ken; Pschibul, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the time usage and levels of perceived stress, academic workload, and recreation time for 177 students at the University of Windsor before, during, and after Fall Reading Week (FRW). Over a three-week span (at various times of the day), students received a message to their smartphone to complete a 20-second survey…

  6. Have a Safe and Healthy Fall

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-14

    Fall is a great time to try new and healthy activities with your parents! Have a food tasting or a leaf raking contest! Whatever your plans, make sure to have fun and be safe!  Created: 10/14/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 10/14/2010.

  7. Bodies Falling with Air Resistance: Computer Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Floyd

    1982-01-01

    Two models are presented. The first assumes that air resistance is proportional to the velocity of the falling body. The second assumes that air resistance is proportional to the square of the velocity. A program written in BASIC that simulates the second model is presented. (MP)

  8. PREDICTIVE VALUE OF THE MORSE FALL SCALE

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    Ivana Bóriková

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal of this study was to analyse relevant research studies focusing on the testing of the predictive value of the Morse Fall Scale measuring device on hospitalized patients. Design: Literature review. Method: Search for full text research studies in Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Summon Discovery Tool (licensed electronic information databases, based on pre-established criteria, and key words, from 1989 to 2016. Results: Sensitivity values ranged from 31% to 98%, and specificity values ranged from 8% to 97% in 14 analysed studies. The predictive value of the tool in validation studies varies depending on the tested cut-off value, the type of clinical ward, the frequency of assessment, the size and age of the sample, and the length of hospitalisation; therefore, the validity of the results from one study cannot by extrapolated to the entire hospitalized population of patients. Conclusion: The predictive values of the Morse Fall Scale are not stable; they vary in clinical conditions according to various factors. When implementing a tool for a specific clinical ward, an optimum cut-off score must be established to ensure that preventative strategies do not require unnecessary effort on the part of the staff, and do not increase hospital costs. Keywords: falls, hospital, Morse Fall Scale, sensitivity, specificity, review.

  9. AAAI 1991 Fall Symposium Series Reports

    OpenAIRE

    AAAI,

    1992-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence held its 1991 Fall Symposium Series on November 15-17 at the Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, California. This article contains summaries of the four symposia: Discourse Structure in Natural Language Understanding and Generation, Knowledge and Action at Social and Organizational Levels, Principles of Hybrid Reasoning, Sensory Aspects of Robotic Intelligence.

  10. Falls, old age and mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorete Reis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective Falls in older people living in the community are an important health problem particularly when in cases of hospitalization. Having a multifactorial etiology, its severity and costs requires preventive intervention. The impact on functionality and quality of life and high socioeconomic costs, are recognized. Aims: to identify the prevalence of falls in older people and characterize clinically, functionally and socially the elderly involved in an episode of urgency in a psychiatric hospital. Methods: this was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study. We studied the prevalence of falls and associated factors. The sample consisted of 99 elderly people involved in an episode of urgency in the biennium 2012/2013 including a psychiatric hospital in the north of Portugal. Results: suggest a prevalence of 38% of falls in an aging population. The mental disorder and addiction factors are highlighted. Conclusions: A complex interaction between multiple personal, social and environmental factors in the etiology of decline suggests the importance of prevention and monitoring programs of the risk associated with it.

  11. Insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of metabolites isolated from the aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. and inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae); Actividad insecticida sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) de los compuestos aislados de la parte aerea de Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. y las inflorescencias de Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, Monica Constanza Avila; Suarez, Luis Enrique Cuca, E-mail: mcavilam@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Productos Naturales Vegetales, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Salamanca, Jairo Alonso Ceron [Laboratorio de Biopesticidas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2014-05-15

    The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. ) C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1), galangin (2), chrysin (5), 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6), pinostrobin (7); one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4); one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3); one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8); and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopy and spectrometry data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Spodoptera frugiperda. The results showed galangin and protocatechuic acid to be the most active (LC{sub 50} 13.63 and 17.16 ppm, respectively). (author)

  12. Gait and cognitive impairments in multiple sclerosis: the specific contribution of falls and fear of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Allali, Gilles

    2017-11-01

    Our goal was to identify the specific contribution of fear of falling (FoF) and falls with quantitative gait impairments and cognition capabilities in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Patients were separated into four individual subgroups as to the presence of FoF and falls (i.e., fearless/non-fallers, fearless/fallers, FoF/non-fallers and FoF/fallers). The Falls Efficacy Scale International questionnaire was used to assess the level of concern of falling. Participants were defined as "fallers" and "non-fallers" based on their fall history. Spatio-temporal parameters of gait were analyzed using an electronic mat. Cognitive performance was assessed by a computerized cognitive battery of tests. The study included 540 MS patients, 47% were defined as fallers and 61.9% reported a FoF. Non-significant differences were found between the fearless/non-fallers and fearless/fallers in all clinical, gait and cognitive scores. FoF/non-fallers walked significantly slower compared to fearless MS individuals who had previously fallen. Furthermore, the same patient group exhibited a poorer performance in the motor skills cognitive subdomain. A significant reverse relationship was found between FoF and cognitive motor skills in the fallers and non-fallers groups. FoF characterizes a more disabling symptom than falling in the MS population.

  13. Maxillofacial Fractures due to Falls: does Fall Modality Determine the Pattern of Injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Roccia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In several epidemiological studies of maxillofacial trauma, falls were one of the most frequent causes of facial injury. The aim of this study is to analyse the patterns of fall-related maxillofacial injuries based on the height of the fall. Material and Methods: Using a systematic computer-assisted database of patients hospitalised with maxillofacial fractures, only those with fall-related injuries were considered. The falls were divided into four groups: falls from slipping, tripping or stumbling (STSF, loss of consciousness (LOCF, stairs (SAF, and height (HF. Data on the age, gender, fracture site, Facial Injury Severity Scale (FISS, facial lacerations, associated lesions, type of treatment, and length of hospital stay were also analysed. Results: This study included 557 patients (338 males, 219 females; average age 51.5 years [range 4 - 99 years]. In the over 60 age group, females were more prevalent in STSF than males. According to aetiology, STSF was the most frequent cause of maxillofacial fractures (315 patients; 56.5% followed by LOCF (157; 28.2%, HF (55; 9.9%, and SAF (30; 5.4%. The middle third of the face was affected most frequently. After LOCF, however, the inferior third was prevalently involved. The majority of associated fractures, as well as the most severe injuries and greatest rate of facial lacerations, occurred secondary to HF. Conclusions: This study showed that fracture severity and site are influenced not only by patient age, but also by the nature of the fall.

  14. Impact of falls and fear of falling on health-related quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Y.A.M.; Schrag, A.; Mazibrada, G.; Borm, G.F.; Bloem, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    Postural instability, recurrent falls and fear of falling are common in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). We examined the impact of fall frequency, fear of falling, balance confidence and objectively measured balance impairment (using Tinetti's Mobility Index) on health-related quality of life

  15. The history of falls and the association of the timed up and go test to falls and near-falls in older adults with hip osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Robert A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falling accounts for a significant number of hospital and long-term care admissions in older adults. Many adults with the combination of advancing age and functional decline associated with lower extremity osteoarthritis (OA, are at an even greater risk. The purpose of this study was to describe fall and near-fall history, location, circumstances and injuries from falls in a community-dwelling population of adults over aged 65 with hip OA and to determine the ability of the timed up and go test (TUG to classify fallers and near-fallers. Method A retrospective observational study of 106 older men and women with hip pain for six months or longer, meeting a clinical criteria for the presence of hip OA at one or both hips. An interview for fall and near-fall history and administration of the TUG were administered on one occasion. Results Forty-five percent of the sample had at least one fall in the past year, seventy-seven percent reported occasional or frequent near-falls. The majority of falls occurred during ambulation and ascending or descending steps. Forty percent experienced an injury from the fall. The TUG was not associated with history of falls, but was associated with near-falls. Higher TUG scores occurred for those who were older, less mobile, and with greater number of co-morbidities. Conclusion A high percentage of older adults with hip OA experience falls and near-falls which may be attributed to gait impairments related to hip OA. The TUG could be a useful screening instrument to predict those who have frequent near-falls, and thus might be useful in predicting risk of future falls in this population.

  16. Impact of fear of falling and fall history on disability incidence among older adults: Prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Keitaro; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-12

    Fear of falling (FOF) is a major health problem for older adults, present not just in fallers, but also nonfallers. This study examined the impact of FOF and fall history on disability incidence among community-dwelling older adults from a prospective cohort study. A total of 5104 older adults living in community settings participated in baseline assessment and were followed up for about 4 years (median 52 mo, range 49-55 mo). At baseline, participants were assessed the presence of FOF and their fall history, and divided into 4 groups: Fall (-) FOF (-), Fall (+) FOF (-), Fall (-) FOF (+), and Fall (+) FOF (+). Disability incidence was defined as national long-term care insurance certification for personal support or care. During the follow-up period, 429 participants (9.9%) were newly certified as having a disability and needing personal support for long-term care insurance. Fall (-) FOF (+) group and Fall (+) FOF (+) group showed a significantly higher risk of disability incidence than Fall (-) FOF (-) group even after adjusting for covariates (Fall (-) FOF (+): hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.62, Fall (+) FOF (+): hazard ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.98). Fear of falling could be a simple and useful predictor of disability incidence in community-dwelling older adults. Identifying and decreasing fall risk factors may prevent fall-related injuries, but excessive FOF may be associated with increased risk of disability incidence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A porin-like protein from oral secretions of Spodoptera littoralis larvae induces defense-related early events in plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huijuan; Wielsch, Natalie; Hafke, Jens B; Svatoš, Aleš; Mithöfer, Axel; Boland, Wilhelm

    2013-09-01

    Insect herbivory on plants is a complex incident consisting of at least two different aspects, namely mechanical damage and chemical challenge, as feeding insects introduce oral secretions (OS) into the wounded tissue of the attacked plant. Mechanical wounding alone is sufficient to induce a set of defense-related reactions in host plants, but some early events such as membrane potential (Vm) changes and cytosolic Ca²⁺-elevations can be triggered only by herbivores suggesting that OS-derived molecules are involved in those processes. Following an assay-guided purification based on planar lipid bilayer membrane technique in combination with proteomic analysis, a porin-like protein (PLP) of most likely bacterial origin was determined from collected OS of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. PLP exhibited channel-forming activity. Further, early defense-related events in plant-insect interaction were evaluated by using a purified fraction and α-hemolysin (α-HL) as a commercial pore-forming compound. Both up-regulated the calmodulin-like CML42 in Arabidopsis thaliana, which only responds to oral secretion and not to wounding. An elevation of in vivo [Ca²⁺](cyt) was not observed. Because membrane channel formation is a widespread phenomenon in plant-insect interactions, this PLP might represent an example for microbial compounds from the insect gut which are initially involved in plant-insect interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial differences in (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol production preferentially reduces Spodoptera litura larva attack on the young leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqian; Fu, Xiumin; Wang, Feiyan; Yang, Ziyin

    2016-11-01

    Plants synthesize specialized metabolites which possess extremely important ecological functions including direct defense, indirect defense, and signaling. The optimal defense theory (ODT) proposes that defensive metabolites are preferentially allocated to the tissues with high fitness value or in locations that are easily injured. In our present study, using the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana, we found that direct defense of N. benthamiana against Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) larvae showed spatial differences in the sites producing defensive chemicals. The upper leaves possessed significantly stronger direct defense ability than the middle and lower leaves. Interestingly, the strong defense ability of the upper leaves was not due to occurrences of well-known defensive metabolites such as nicotine and chlorogenic acid. After damage, the middle and lower leaves emitted higher amounts of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol than the upper leaves, which could both attract larvae and significantly increase the amount of middle and lower leaf eaten by the larvae. The spatial difference in (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol emission may be due to spatial differences in expression of lipoxygenase (NbLOX2), which is responsible for the formation and emission of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol. This study provided new insight into ODT, showing that plants effectively protect easily injured tissues through reduction in concentration of herbivore-feeding stimulant in the tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ganho de peso e comportamento de oviposição de Podisus nigrispinus utilizando lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda e larvas de Tenebrio molitor como presas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Harley Nonato de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho avaliou o efeito de diferentes presas e da combinação destas sobre percevejo Podisus nigrispinus. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e 60 repetições. No tratamento um (T1, os percevejos receberam como alimento, lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda, de 4o estádio, durante todo o seu ciclo de vida, no tratamento dois (T2, larvas de Tenebrio molitor, também durante o todo ciclo, enquanto que, no tratamento três (T3, foram oferecidas lagartas de S. frugiperda do 2masculine ao 4masculine estádios, e larvas de T. molitor do 4masculine estádio até o final do ciclo de vida. O ganho de peso em todas as fases ninfais e em adultos de até terceiro dia mostrou valores semelhantes de incremento, para todas as dietas utilizadas. No entanto, para os percevejos alimentados, com S. frugiperda (T1, observaram-se uma maior produção de ovos num menor período, com 80% dos ovos até 31masculine dia, enquanto que, no tratamento com larvas de T. molitor (T2, os mesmos 80% foram conseguidos somente no 45masculine dia, e no tratamento com a combinação de presas (T3, no 48masculine dia.

  20. Protease purification and characterization of a serine protease inhibitor from Egyptian varieties of soybean seeds and its efficacy against Spodoptera littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-latif Ashraf Oukasha Abd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serine inhibitors have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom. Trypsin inhibitors are the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of four Egyptian varieties of soybean (Glycine max. The soybean variety, Giza 22, was found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested soybean varieties. For this reason, Giza 22 was selected for further purification studies which used ammonium sulphate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Soybean purified proteins showed a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 17.9 kDa. The purified inhibitor was stable at temperatures below 60°C and was active at a wide range of pH, from 2 to 12 pH. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki values suggested that the inhibitor has higher affinity toward a trypsin enzyme than to a chymotrypsin enzyme. Purified inhibitor was found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis. It may be concluded, that soybean protease inhibitor gene(s could be potential targets for those future studies which are concerned with developing insect resistant transgenic plants

  1. Seleção e caracterização molecular de isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis para o controle de Spodoptera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Christiane Constanski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo:O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar e caracterizar molecularmente isolados de Bacillus thuringiensistóxicos a Spodoptera eridaniaeS. frugiperda. Trinta e quatro isolados foram submetidos ao bioensaio, dos quais três foram selecionados e usados para a estimativa da CL50. Os isolados selecionados não diferiram da linhagem padrão HD-1. Na caracterização molecular, identificou-se a presença dos genes cry1 e cry2, nos isolados BR37 e BR94, e dos genes cry4A, cry4B, cry10, cry11 e cyt1 no isolado BR58, o que confirmou o perfil proteico obtido de 130, 70 e 65 kDa. Foram identificados cristais bipiramidais e esféricos. O isolado BR58, apesar de não conter os genes relacionados à toxicidade a Lepidoptera, causa mortalidade em ambas as espécies

  2. AKTIVITAS ANTI MAKAN EKSTRAK DAUN SIRSAK (ANNONA MURICATA L. DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP INDEKS NUTRISI SERTA TERHADAP STRUKTUR MEMBRAN PERITROFIK LARVA INSTAR V SPODOPTERA LITURA F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisnowati B. Ambarningrum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antifeeding activity of soursop leaf extract    (Annona muricata L. and its effect on nutrition indices and the microscopic structure of peritrophic membrane of the fifth-instar larvae of Spodoptera litura F. were studied.  Antifeeding test was conducted by choice method. Discs of caisin leaf were dipped into the ether fraction of soursop leaf extract with concentrations of 0; 0.63; 2.50; and 10.00%. Nutrition indices and peritrophic membrane structure were observed by giving fifth-instar larvae  one of the five diets, every group of diet was added to various concentrations of  the ether fraction of soursop leaf extract, containing either 0; 0.63; 1.25; 2.50; and 5.00%. The result showed that  soursop leaf extract had antifeeding activity at tested concentration 2.50%. Relative consumption rate (RCR, relative growth rate (RGR, and  efficiency of conversion of  ingested food  (ECI were significantly lower in the case of treated larvae than that of the controls. However the efficiency of conversion of digested food  (ECD, approximate digestibility (AD, and peritrophic membrane structure treated with  soursop leaf extract were not significantly affected as compared to those in  controls.

  3. RNAi-mediated knockdown of catalase causes cell cycle arrest in SL-1 cells and results in low survival rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zhao

    Full Text Available Deregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS production can lead to the disruption of structural and functional integrity of cells as a consequence of reactive interaction between ROS and various biological components. Catalase (CAT is a common enzyme existing in nearly all organisms exposed to oxygen, which decomposes harmful hydrogen peroxide, into water and oxygen. In this study, the full length sequence that encodes CAT-like protein from Spodoptera litura named siltCAT (GenBank accession number: JQ_663444 was cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence alignment showed siltCAT shared relatively high conservation with other insect, especially the conserved residues which defined heme and NADPH orientation. Expression pattern analysis showed that siltCAT mRNA was mainly expressed in the fat body, midgut, cuticle and malpighian tube, and as well as over last instar larvae, pupa and adult stages. RNA interference was used to silence CAT gene in SL-1 cells and the fourth-instar stage of S. litura larvae respectively. Our results provided evidence that CAT knockdown induced ROS generation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SL-1 cells. It also confirmed the decrease in survival rate because of increased ROS production in experimental groups injected with double-stranded RNA of CAT (dsCAT. This study implied that ROS scavenging by CAT is important for S. litura survival.

  4. Sclerotium rolfsii lectin exerts insecticidal activity on Spodoptera litura larvae by binding to membrane proteins of midgut epithelial cells and triggering caspase-3-dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H, Vishwanathreddy; Bhat, Ganapati G; Inamdar, Shashikala R; Gudihal, Ravindra K; Swamy, Bale M

    2014-02-01

    The insect pest Spodoptera litura is considered a major threat to many economically important food and commercial crops. The present study establishes the toxic effects of Sclerotium rolfsii lectin (SRL) against S. litura larvae fed an artificial diet containing the purified lectin. The toxicity of SRL, as determined by feeding assays using different concentrations of the lectin, showed marginal effects on larval growth but a remarkable mortality rate of 68.52 ± 8.48% at the highest lectin concentration, 0.06% (600 μg/g), with an LC50 value of 430 μg/g of artificial diet. SRL is resistant to proteolysis by larval gut proteases even after 24-h incubation. Histochemical studies and western blot analyses of lectin binding revealed the interaction of the lectin with specific membrane glycoproteins on epithelial cells of the midgut. Identification of SRL-interacting midgut membrane proteins using lectin affinity chromatography and ESI-Q-TOF analysis revealed the involvement of these proteins in immunomodulatory responses in insects. Active caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation observed in the midgut epithelial cells of larvae fed a lectin-containing diet supported the mechanism of apoptosis-induced death. These findings suggested that SRL can be a valuable tool in plant biotechnology for developing insect-resistant transgenic crops. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Insecticidal, food utilisation and biochemical effect of essential oils extracted from seeds of Brassica juncea (Czern. against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shallina Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The glucosinolate rich hot and cold hexane extracts of Brassica juncea had a negative effect on the development of Spodoptera litura larvae when they were fed on different concentrations of the extracts. Both larval growth index and pupal growth index declined with treatment. However the hot extract with 3-butenyl isothiocyanate as the predominant compound had a more deleterious effect as at 3125ppm the larvae were unable to complete their development. The nutritional indices too were more adversely affected with hot extract as compared to cold extract. The RGR, RCR, ECI and ECD declined significantly with increase in concentration of the hot hexane extract. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase decreased while that of phosphatases, GSTs, phenol oxidases increased during the initial treatment duration but decreased on prolonged treatment of the larvae with LC50 concentration of hot extract. A similar trend was observed for glutathione and lipid peroxides but a decrease in ascorbate content was observed as compared to control. The findings reveal a toxic effect of 3-butenylisothiocyanate rich hot hexane extract of B. juncea on S. litura larvae.

  6. Reducing the level of leaves damage of (Brassica rapa) caused by armyworm (Spodoptera litura F.) through liquid bioinsecticide formulation of bintaro (Cerbera odollam) leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Nurhatika, Sri; Ermavitalini, Dini; Saputro, Triono Bagus; Budiarti, Dwi Setia

    2017-06-01

    Bioinsecticide formulation conducted by adjuvant addition to improve its effecetiveness in the application. Its addition was only help to work whereas active compound and ingredient as a main core originated from plant simplicia. This research was utilized bintaro (Cerbera odollam) as simplicia. It already began to use it as bioinsecticide against armyworm (Spodoptera litura F) even formulation approachment was not conducted in mustard (Brassica rapa) in previous research. Mustard commodity commonly measured based on leaves performences, when its performance broke by pest such as armyworm might decline the commercial value. So this research aimed to determine the effectiveness of liquid biopesticide formulation of the active ingredient from bintaro (Cerbera odollam) leaf extract in pressing the attack larvae of S. litura F. Larvae deployed in mustard leaves (16 HST). Liquid bioinsecticide concentration formulated in 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70%. Spraying method used to against S. litura F. consisted on preventive (15 HST) and curative (17 HST). Leaves damage observation conducted at day - 35th (HST). The result showed the formulation suppressed larvae from 40% concentration in preventive way 15 HST and 60% concentration as curative way at 17 HST.

  7. Overexpression of a weed (Solanum americanum) proteinase inhibitor in transgenic tobacco results in increased glandular trichome density and enhanced resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Zhaoyu; Li, Huapeng; Xia, Kuai-Fei; Cai, Yinpeng; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2009-04-23

    In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. Functional integrity of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. Bioassays for insect resistance showed that SaPIN2a-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were more resistant to cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and tobacco cutworm (Spodoptera litura) larvae, two devastating pests of important crop plants, than the control plants. Interestingly, overexpression of SaPIN2a in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in a significant increase in glandular trichome density and a promotion of trichome branching, which could also provide an additional resistance mechanism in transgenic plants against insect pests. Therefore, SaPIN2a could be used as an alternative proteinase inhibitor for the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants.

  8. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  9. Overexpression of a Weed (Solanum americanum Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Tobacco Results in Increased Glandular Trichome Density and Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Fu Xu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. Functional integrity of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. Bioassays for insect resistance showed that SaPIN2a-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were more resistant to cotton bollworm(Helicoverpa armigera and tobacco cutworm(Spodoptera litura larvae, two devastating pests of important crop plants, than the control plants. Interestingly, overexpression of SaPIN2a in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in a significant increase in glandular trichome density and a promotion of trichome branching, which could also provide an additional resistance mechanism in transgenic plants against insect pests. Therefore, SaPIN2a could be used as an alternative proteinase inhibitor for the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants.

  10. Pathogenicity of bacteria isolated from gut of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and fitness costs of insect associated with consumption of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Abhinay; Dhammi, Prince; Saini, Harvinder Singh; Kaur, Sanehdeep

    2015-05-01

    Gut microbes contribute to the health of insects and perturbations in the composition or location of gut microbiota can lead to pathological states and host mortality. We explored the culturable bacterial community in the gut of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) larvae, which is a polyphagous pest. Bacterial isolates were identified as Microbacterium arborescens (SL6), Enterococcus casseliflavus (SL10) and Enterobacter cloacae (SL11) by using culture dependent technique based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Screening of these three isolates for insecticidal potential against the same host i.e. S. litura indicated the highest larval mortality in E. cloacae (73.33%). Further, we assessed the effect of E. cloacae (SL11) infection on growth and development of S. litura. A significant effect of E. cloacae was observed on various biological parameters viz. larval and pupal period, total development period and reproductive potential of S. litura. E. cloacae significantly influenced the immune response of S. litura. A marked decrease in total hemocyte count was observed in larvae infected with E. cloacae whereas lysozyme and phenoloxidase activity increased initially followed by a decline. The gut microbial diversity in larvae infected with E. cloacae differed from control larvae. The population of E. cloacae in the gut of infected larvae exceeded over the other two microbes and resulted in pathogenicity and death of S. litura larvae. This indicates that E. cloacae can have the potential to be used as a promising biological control agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Candidate Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Analysis in Spodoptera exigu a after Long-time Exposure to Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachetka-Bożek, Anna; Augustyniak, Maria

    2017-08-21

    Studies on the transcriptional control of gene expression play an important role in many areas of biology. Reference genes, which are often referred to as housekeeping genes, such as GAPDH, G3PDH, EF2, RpL7A, RpL10, TUBα and Actin, have traditionally been assumed to be stably expressed in all conditions, and they are frequently used to normalize mRNA levels between different samples in qPCR analysis. However, it is known that the expression of these genes is influenced by numerous factors, such as experimental conditions. The difference in gene expression underlies a range of biological processes, including development, reproduction and behavior. The aim of this study was to show the problems associated with using reference genes in the qPCR technique, in a study on inbred strains of Spodoptera exigua selected toward cadmium resistance. We present and discuss our results and observations, and give some recommendations concerning the use and limitations of housekeeping genes as internal standards, especially in research on insects. Our results suggest that holometabolism and poikilothermia, as well as time since metamorphosis and the level of exposure to the selective factor (cadmium in this case), have a significant effect on the expression of reference genes.

  12. Monitoring Emperor Goose Populations by Aerial Counts and the Fall Age Ratio - Fall 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2003, we photographed flocks of emperor geese (Chen canagica) during fall migration at lagoons along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula for the 19th...

  13. Elderly fall risk prediction using static posturography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Howcroft

    Full Text Available Maintaining and controlling postural balance is important for activities of daily living, with poor postural balance being predictive of future falls. This study investigated eyes open and eyes closed standing posturography with elderly adults to identify differences and determine appropriate outcome measure cut-off scores for prospective faller, single-faller, multi-faller, and non-faller classifications. 100 older adults (75.5 ± 6.7 years stood quietly with eyes open and then eyes closed while Wii Balance Board data were collected. Range in anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML center of pressure (CoP motion; AP and ML CoP root mean square distance from mean (RMS; and AP, ML, and vector sum magnitude (VSM CoP velocity were calculated. Romberg Quotients (RQ were calculated for all parameters. Participants reported six-month fall history and six-month post-assessment fall occurrence. Groups were retrospective fallers (24, prospective all fallers (42, prospective fallers (22 single, 6 multiple, and prospective non-fallers (47. Non-faller RQ AP range and RQ AP RMS differed from prospective all fallers, fallers, and single fallers. Non-faller eyes closed AP velocity, eyes closed VSM velocity, RQ AP velocity, and RQ VSM velocity differed from multi-fallers. RQ calculations were particularly relevant for elderly fall risk assessments. Cut-off scores from Clinical Cut-off Score, ROC curves, and discriminant functions were clinically viable for multi-faller classification and provided better accuracy than single-faller classification. RQ AP range with cut-off score 1.64 could be used to screen for older people who may fall once. Prospective multi-faller classification with a discriminant function (-1.481 + 0.146 x Eyes Closed AP Velocity-0.114 x Eyes Closed Vector Sum Magnitude Velocity-2.027 x RQ AP Velocity + 2.877 x RQ Vector Sum Magnitude Velocity and cut-off score 0.541 achieved an accuracy of 84.9% and is viable as a screening tool for

  14. Enhancing the safety of hospitalization by reducing patient falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M

    2002-10-01

    The iatrogenic nature of hospitalization places patients at risk of falling, injury, and death. In this article, the major principles of providing protective and preventive interventions are outlined. The principles are the establishment of a multifaceted fall prevention program that targets fall interventions according to each etiologic factor; the recognition that fall protective and prevention interventions are distinct and serve a different function; the use of the fall monitoring system comprehensively; the creation of a clinical nurse specialist position, responsible for fall intervention; and a conscious and individualized approach to fall prevention. The process and problems of the varying nature of providing fall protection and fall prevention are discussed; for example, use of a side rail as a protective strategy may be successful with one patient but considered a hazard when used with a different patient.

  15. Circumstances and consequences of falls in polio survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickerstaffe, Alice; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans

    2010-11-01

    Many polio survivors have symptoms that are known risk factors for falls in elderly people. This study aims to determine the: (i) frequency; (ii) consequences; (iii) circumstances; and (iv) factors associated with falls in polio survivors. A survey was conducted among 376 polio survivors. Participants completed a falls history questionnaire and additional information was obtained from their medical files. Of the 305 respondents, 74% reported at least one fall in the past year and 60% two or more. Sixteen percent of fallers described a major injury after a fall in the last year and 69% reported fear of falling. One-third of fallers had reduced the amount they walked because of their fear of falling. Most reported falls in a familiar environment (86%), during ambulation (72%) and in the afternoon (50%). Quadriceps weakness of the weakest leg (Medical Research Council (MRC) ≤ 3), fear of falling and complaints of problems maintaining balance were independently associated with both falls and recurrent falls, while increasing age and medication use were not. The high rate of falls and consequences thereof, merit the implementation of fall intervention strategies. To maximize effect, they should be tailor-made and target the fall mechanisms specific to polio survivors.

  16. A Wavelet-Based Approach to Fall Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Palmerini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Falls among older people are a widely documented public health problem. Automatic fall detection has recently gained huge importance because it could allow for the immediate communication of falls to medical assistance. The aim of this work is to present a novel wavelet-based approach to fall detection, focusing on the impact phase and using a dataset of real-world falls. Since recorded falls result in a non-stationary signal, a wavelet transform was chosen to examine fall patterns. The idea is to consider the average fall pattern as the “prototype fall”.In order to detect falls, every acceleration signal can be compared to this prototype through wavelet analysis. The similarity of the recorded signal with the prototype fall is a feature that can be used in order to determine the difference between falls and daily activities. The discriminative ability of this feature is evaluated on real-world data. It outperforms other features that are commonly used in fall detection studies, with an Area Under the Curve of 0.918. This result suggests that the proposed wavelet-based feature is promising and future studies could use this feature (in combination with others considering different fall phases in order to improve the performance of fall detection algorithms.

  17. Survey on Fall Detection and Fall Prevention Using Wearable and External Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueng Santiago Delahoz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available According to nihseniorhealth.gov (a website for older adults, falling represents a great threat as people get older, and providing mechanisms to detect and prevent falls is critical to improve people’s lives. Over 1.6 million U.S. adults are treated for fall-related injuries in emergency rooms every year suffering fractures, loss of independence, and even death. It is clear then, that this problem must be addressed in a prompt manner, and the use of pervasive computing plays a key role to achieve this. Fall detection (FD and fall prevention (FP are research areas that have been active for over a decade, and they both strive for improving people’s lives through the use of pervasive computing. This paper surveys the state of the art in FD and FP systems, including qualitative comparisons among various studies. It aims to serve as a point of reference for future research on the mentioned systems. A general description of FD and FP systems is provided, including the different types of sensors used in both approaches. Challenges and current solutions are presented and described in great detail. A 3-level taxonomy associated with the risk factors of a fall is proposed. Finally, cutting edge FD and FP systems are thoroughly reviewed and qualitatively compared, in terms of design issues and other parameters.

  18. Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

  19. [Severe dyspnoea in children following a fall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurmond-Tromp, Karen A; Klinkenberg, Theo J; Dikkers, Freek G; Koppelman, Gerard H; de Weerd, Willemien

    2009-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy fell off his bicycle, hitting his neck on the handle-bars. He sustained a tracheal rupture, which required surgical treatment. Two other patients, a 4-year-old and a 2-year-old boy, also suffered laryngeal injuries following a fall. Both were treated conservatively, the 2-year-old boy needed endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Blunt neck trauma can cause life-threatening complications, which are difficult to diagnose.

  20. Youth Attitude Tracking Study II, Fall 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    considered along with civilian employment. The notion expressed in - econometric research is that when youth unemployment in the civilian sector is high...young people will find military Service relatively more attractive. Conversely, when youth unemployment is low, young people are more likely to . join...AD-Ri5@ 428 YOUTH ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDY II FALL 1983(U) RESEARCH 1/4 TRIANGLE INST RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK NC M E MARSDEN 1983 DA98-83-C-8172

  1. Predicting channel bed topography in hydraulic falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Alexander; Yu, Zheng; Kelso, Richard M.; Binder, Benjamin J.

    2015-11-01

    We consider inverse methods for predicting the channel bed topography in experiments of hydraulic falls. Nonlinear solutions and weakly nonlinear approximations from Euler-based models are compared to experimental observations. Accurate predictions are obtained for the maximum height of the topography and its constant horizontal level far downstream using the nonlinear method. The weakly nonlinear approximation is shown only to be a good predictor of the maximum height of the topography. The error in the inverse predictions is examined and discussed.

  2. Meteorite Falls and the Fragmentation of Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the fragmentation of objects entering the atmosphere and why some produce more fragments than others, I have searched the Meteoritical Society database for meteorites greater than 20 kilograms that fell in the USA, China, and India. I also studied the video and film records of 21 fireballs that produced meteorites. A spreadsheet was prepared that noted smell, fireball, explosion, whistling, rumbling, the number of fragments, light, and impact sounds. Falls with large numbers of fragments were examined to look for common traits. These were: the Norton County aubrite, explosion and a flare greater than 100 fragments; the Forest City H5 chondrite explosion, a flare, a dust trail, 505 specimens; the Richardton H5 chondrite explosion and light, 71 specimens; the Juancheng H5 chondrite explosion, a rumbling, a flare, a dust trail,1000 specimens; the Tagish Lake C2 chondrite explosion, flare, dust trail, 500 specimens. I conclude that fragmentation is governed by the following: (1) Bigger meteors undergo more stress which results in more specimens; (2) Harder meteorites also require more force to break them up which will cause greater fragmentation; (3) Force and pressure are directly proportional during falls. General observations made were; (1) Meteorites produce fireballs sooner due to high friction; (2) Meteors tend to explode as well because of high stress; (3) Softer meteorites tend to cause dust trails; (4) Some falls produce light as they fall at high velocity. I am grateful to NASA Ames for this opportunity and Derek Sears, Katie Bryson, and Dan Ostrowski for discussions.

  3. A dynamic evidential network for fall detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Paulo Armando Cavalcante; Boudy, Jerome; Istrate, Dan; Dorizzi, Bernadette; Mota, Joao Cesar Moura

    2014-07-01

    This study is part of the development of a remote home healthcare monitoring application designed to detect distress situations through several types of sensors. The multisensor fusion can provide more accurate and reliable information compared to information provided by each sensor separately. Furthermore, data from multiple heterogeneous sensors present in the remote home healthcare monitoring systems have different degrees of imperfection and trust. Among the multisensor fusion methods, Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) is currently considered the most appropriate for representing and processing the imperfect information. Based on a graphical representation of the DST called evidential networks, a structure of heterogeneous data fusion from multiple sensors for fall detection has been proposed. The evidential networks, implemented on our remote medical monitoring platform, are also proposed in this paper to maximize the performance of automatic fall detection and thus make the system more reliable. However, the presence of noise, the variability of recorded signals by the sensors, and the failing or unreliable sensors may thwart the evidential networks performance. In addition, the sensors signals nonstationary nature may degrade the experimental conditions. To compensate the nonstationary effect, the time evolution is considered by introducing the dynamic evidential network which was evaluated by the simulated fall scenarios corresponding to various use cases.

  4. Hospitalisations due to falls in older persons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, D

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes hospitalisations due to falls among people aged 65 years and over resident in the Eastern Region of Ireland. Of the 2,029 hospitalisations recorded for 2002, 78% were female and 68% were aged 75 years and over. Fractures accounted for 1,697 or 84% of cases with nearly half of them (841) sustained to the hip. Females were more likely to have a limb fracture whereas males were more likely to have a head injury. The total inpatient costs of the 2,029 hospitalisations were estimated at 10.6 million euros. Hip fractures were the costliest injuries as they accounted for 7.4 million euros (70%) of inpatient costs. There are also substantial additional costs implications for hip fractures as they constituted the majority (56%) of cases transferred to nursing\\/convalescent homes or long-stay health facilities. In keeping with an ageing population, the problem of injuries in older people is likely to increase over time and as falls are the dominant cause of those injuries, all acute and long-stay health facilities need to develop and implement fall prevention strategies for older people.

  5. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation : Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra-Berns, Mary

    2003-01-01

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group continued to actively engage in implementing wildlife mitigation actions in 2002. Regular Work Group meetings were held to discuss budget concerns affecting the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program, to present potential acquisition projects, and to discuss and evaluate other issues affecting the Work Group and Project. Work Group members protected 1,386.29 acres of wildlife habitat in 2002. To date, the Albeni Falls project has protected approximately 5,914.31 acres of wildlife habitat. About 21% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Administrative activities have increased as more properties are purchased and continue to center on restoration, operation and maintenance, and monitoring. In 2001, Work Group members focused on development of a monitoring and evaluation program as well as completion of site-specific management plans. This year the Work Group began implementation of the monitoring and evaluation program performing population and plant surveys, data evaluation and storage, and map development as well as developing management plans. Assuming that the current BPA budget restrictions will be lifted in the near future, the Work Group expects to increase mitigation properties this coming year with several potential projects.

  6. Fall Down Detection Under Smart Home System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Li-Hong; Wu, Ming-Ni

    2015-10-01

    Medical technology makes an inevitable trend for the elderly population, therefore the intelligent home care is an important direction for science and technology development, in particular, elderly in-home safety management issues become more and more important. In this research, a low of operation algorithm and using the triangular pattern rule are proposed, then can quickly detect fall-down movements of humanoid by the installation of a robot with camera vision at home that will be able to judge the fall-down movements of in-home elderly people in real time. In this paper, it will present a preliminary design and experimental results of fall-down movements from body posture that utilizes image pre-processing and three triangular-mass-central points to extract the characteristics. The result shows that the proposed method would adopt some characteristic value and the accuracy can reach up to 90 % for a single character posture. Furthermore the accuracy can be up to 100 % when a continuous-time sampling criterion and support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used.

  7. Relativistic theory of the falling retroreflector gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Neil

    2018-02-01

    We develop a relativistic treatment of interference between light reflected from a falling cube retroreflector in the vertical arm of an interferometer, and light in a reference beam in the horizontal arm. Coordinates that are nearly Minkowskian, attached to the falling cube, are used to describe the propagation of light within the cube. Relativistic effects such as the dependence of the coordinate speed of light on gravitational potential, propagation of light along null geodesics, relativity of simultaneity, and Lorentz contraction of the moving cube, are accounted for. The calculation is carried to first order in the gradient of the acceleration of gravity. Analysis of data from a falling cube gravimeter shows that the propagation time of light within the cube itself causes a significant reduction in the value of the acceleration of gravity obtained from measurements, compared to assuming reflection occurs at the face. An expression for the correction to g is derived and found to agree with experiment. Depending on the instrument, the correction can be several microgals, comparable to commonly applied corrections such as those due to polar motion and earth tides. The controversial ‘speed of light’ correction is discussed. Work of the US government, not subject to copyright.

  8. Free fall and the equivalence principle revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    2017-11-01

    Free fall is commonly discussed as an example of the equivalence principle, in the context of a homogeneous gravitational field, which is a reasonable approximation for small test masses falling moderate distances. Newton’s law of gravity provides a generalisation to larger distances, and also brings in an inhomogeneity in the gravitational field. In addition, Newton’s third law of action and reaction causes the Earth to accelerate towards the falling object, bringing in a mass dependence in the time required for an object to reach ground—in spite of the equivalence between inertial and gravitational mass. These aspects are rarely discussed in textbooks when the motion of everyday objects are discussed. Although these effects are extremely small, it may still be important for teachers to make assumptions and approximations explicit, to be aware of small corrections, and also to be prepared to estimate their size. Even if the corrections are not part of regular teaching, some students may reflect on them, and their questions deserve to be taken seriously.

  9. Self-reported preclinical mobility limitation and fall history as predictors of future falls in older women: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Heinonen, A; Viljanen, A

    2010-01-01

    with preclinical mobility limitation had almost 4-fold (incidence rate ratios 3.77; 95% CI 1.02-13.92) and those with manifest mobility limitation almost 15-fold (14.66; 2.72-79.00) adjusted risk for future falls compared to those with no mobility limitation and no previous falls. Among women without fall history......We studied if self-reported preclinical mobility limitation, described as modification of task performance without perception of difficulty, predicts future falls in older women with and without fall history. Our results suggest that combined measure of self-reported preclinical mobility limitation...... and fall history may offer one possibility for inexpensive fall-risk evaluation in clinical practice. INTRODUCTION: We studied if self-reported preclinical mobility limitation predicts future falls in older women with and without fall history. METHODS: The study population consisted of 428 community...

  10. Renal disease and accidental falls: a review of published evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    López-Soto, Pablo Jesús; De Giorgi, Alfredo; Senno, Elisa; Tiseo, Ruana; Ferraresi, Annamaria; Canella, Cinzia; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora; Manfredini, Roberto; Fabbian, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    .... The relationship between renal disease and falls is unclear, and the goal of this study was to collect the available evidence and investigate the relationship between accidental falls and renal dysfunction...

  11. Falls and other geriatric syndromes in Blantyre, Malawi: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Geriatric syndromes (falls, immobility, intellectual or memory impairment .... were asked to recall all falls using a rigorous definition.19 The number of ... data on this in our study but uncorrected visual impairment, uncorrected pain ...

  12. Depression Often a Precursor to Falls in Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165985.html Depression Often a Precursor to Falls in Elderly People ... 26, 2017 FRIDAY, May 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Depression appears to raise the risk of falls in ...

  13. Identificación de biotipos de Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) en los departamentos de Córdoba, Meta, Tolima y Valle del Cauca mediante el gen mitocondrial Citocromo Oxidasa I (COI) y la región nuclear FR

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Calle, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Resumen: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) es un insecto plaga del maíz, arroz, algodón, sorgo y pastizales. Presenta dos formas biológicas (biotipos o razas) (maíz y arroz) que son idénticas morfológicamente, pero que difieren en varios aspectos tales como su composición genética, su aislamiento reproductivo y su tolerancia a insecticidas y controladores biológicos. En este trabajo se realizó la identificación molecular de estos biotipos a partir de larvas recolectadas en cultivos de...

  14. Focused supervision of high-risk fall dementia patients: a simple method to reduce fall incidence and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Mark B; Kim, Kye Y; Taylor, Brenda Y

    2005-01-01

    Dementia units in nursing homes have a disproportionately high number of demographic risk factors for falls. Many residents have a previous history of falls, the inability to call for assistance, and the inability to remember safety instructions. For interdisciplinary falls review committees, this population may be the most difficult to manage. The Virginia Veterans Care Center (VVCC) Dementia Unit Interdisciplinary Fall Team instituted a novel practice for reducing the number and severity of falls among the highest risk group of dementia patients. Certified nursing assistants (CNAs) were assigned to high-risk residents for focused supervision. The patients received consistent supervision by selected CNAs during the day and evening shifts. Eight residents identified as high risk who continued to have falls despite multiple interventions were selected for the study. A comparison of four months of intervention with the four months prior to the intervention revealed a significant (p = 0. 024) fall reduction during the intervention months. Individually, seven of the eight participants had reduced falls during the intervention period. A 5-point scale for fall severity demonstrated an overall reduction in fall severity during that period. Individually, five of the eight patients had a decreased fall severity, and one had no change. Two patients experienced an increase in fall severity due to ongoing medical problems. While the small number of patients in the study limits the power of the results, this novel intervention of using designated CNAs to supervise high-risk fall residents with dementia may prove helpful for staff in other nursing facilities.

  15. Assessment of muscle mass, risk of falls and fear of falling in elderly people with diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Azevedo Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective : To assess muscle mass, risk of falls and fear of falling in elderly adults with diabetic neuropathy (DNP. Methods : 50 elderly patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and diabetic neuropathy (NPD participated in this study. Risk of falling was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Fear of falling was assessed by means of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I. Muscle mass was assessed by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis (BIA and Janssen's equation. Subjects were divided into two groups: one with a history of falls in the six months before study enrollment (G1 and the other without history of falls (G2. Results : There were statistically significant differences between G1 and G2 regarding lean body mass (p < 0.05, risk of falls as measured by the BBS (p < 0.01, and fear of falling as measured by the FES-I (p < 0.01. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the BBS and BIA (r = 0.45 and p < 0.01, showing that the greater the lean body mass, the lower the risk of falling. Conclusions : We found an association between lean mass, risk of falls and fear of falling in elderly adults with DNP and a history of falls from own height.

  16. Fear of Falling in Women with Fibromyalgia and Its Relation with Number of Falls and Balance Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Collado-Mateo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate fear of falling, number of falls, and balance performance in women with FM and to examine the relationship between these variables and others, such as balance performance, quality of life, age, pain, and impact of fibromyalgia. Methods. A total of 240 women participated in this cross-sectional study. Of these, 125 had fibromyalgia. Several variables were assessed: age, fear of falling from 0 to 100, number of falls, body composition, balance performance, lower limb strength, health-related quality of life, and impact of fibromyalgia. Results. Women with fibromyalgia reported more falls and more fear of falling. Fear of falling was associated with number of falls in the last year, stiffness, perceived balance problems, impact of FM, and HRQoL whereas the number of falls was related to fear of falling, balance performance with eyes closed, pain, tenderness to touch level, anxiety, self-reported balance problems, impact of FM, and HRQoL. Conclusion. FM has an impact on fear of falling, balance performance, and number of falls. Perceived balance problems seem to be more closely associated with fear of falling than objective balance performance.

  17. Can martial arts techniques reduce fall severity? An in vivo study of femoral loading configurations in sideways falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zijden, A M; Groen, B E; Tanck, E; Nienhuis, B; Verdonschot, N; Weerdesteyn, V

    2012-06-01

    Sideways falls onto the hip are a major cause of femoral fractures in the elderly. Martial arts (MA) fall techniques decrease hip impact forces in sideways falls. The femoral fracture risk, however, also depends on the femoral loading configuration (direction and point of application of the force). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fall techniques, landing surface and fall height on the impact force and the loading configuration in sideways falls. Twelve experienced judokas performed sideways MA and Block ('natural') falls on a force plate, both with and without a judo mat on top. Kinematic and force data were analysed to determine the hip impact force and the loading configuration. In falls from a kneeling position, the MA technique reduced the impact force by 27%, but did not change the loading configuration. The use of the mat did not change the loading configuration. Falling from a standing changed the force direction. In all conditions, the point of application was distal and posterior to the greater trochanter, but it was less distal and more posterior in falls from standing than from kneeling position. The present decrease in hip impact force with an unchanged loading configuration indicates the potential protective effect of the MA technique on the femoral fracture risk. The change in loading configuration with an increased fall height warrant further studies to examine the effect of MA techniques on fall severity under more natural fall circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effects of the A Matter of Balance Program on Falls and Physical Risk of Falls, Tampa, Florida, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tuo-Yu; Edwards, Jerri D; Janke, Megan C

    2015-09-24

    This study investigated the effects of the A Matter of Balance (MOB) program on falls and physical risk factors of falling among community-dwelling older adults living in Tampa, Florida, in 2013. A total of 110 adults (52 MOB, 58 comparison) were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Data on falls, physical risk of falling, and other known risk factors of falling were collected at baseline and at the end of the program. Multivariate analysis of covariance with repeated measures and logistic regressions were used to investigate the effects of this program. Participants in the MOB group were less likely to have had a fall and had significant improvements in their physical risk of falling compared with adults in the comparison group. No significant effects of the MOB program on recurrent falls or the number of falls reported were found. This study contributes to our understanding of the MOB program and its effectiveness in reducing falls and the physical risk of falling among older adults. The findings support extended use of this program to reduce falls and physical risk of falling among older adults.

  19. Falls in the community: state of the science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Amy L; Wei, Feifei

    2013-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries among older community-dwelling adults continue to be a major health concern in the US. Falls are the leading cause of disability and trauma-related death in persons over 65 years of age. This article discusses current approaches in community fall management and challenges with these approaches, and offers some insight for community providers regarding this issue. PMID:23776331

  20. INTRODUCTION A fall is a sudden, unintentional change in position ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    publications. Accessed 15/06/08. 21. Hindmarsh J.J., Estes E.H. Jr. Falls in older persons. Causes and interventions. Arch Intem Med. 1989;149:2217-2222. 22. Tinetti M.E., Speechley M. Prevention of Fear of Falling falls among the elderly.

  1. Geriatric fall-related injuries | Hefny | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geriatric fall-related injuries. Ashraf F. Hefny, Alaa K. Abbas, Fikri M. Abu-Zidan. Abstract. Background: Falls are the leading cause of geriatric injury. Objectives: We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity, and outcome of geriatric fall-related injuries in order to give recommendations regarding their prevention.

  2. 29 CFR 1926.759 - Falling object protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... aloft, shall be secured against accidental displacement. (b) Protection from falling objects other than... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falling object protection. 1926.759 Section 1926.759 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.759 Falling object...

  3. The Association of Cardiovascular Disorders and Falls : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Sofie; Bhangu, Jaspreet; de Rooij, Sophia; Daams, Joost; Kenny, Rose Anne; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cardiovascular disorders are recognized as risk factors for falls in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to identify cardiovascular disorders that are associated with falls, thus providing angles for optimization of fall-preventive care. Design: Systematic review. Data

  4. [Impact of fall risk and fear of falling on mobility of independently living senior citizens transitioning to frailty: screening results concerning fall prevention in the community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, J; Dapp, U; Laub, S; von Renteln-Kruse, W

    2007-08-01

    There is a strong relation between mobility, walking safety and living independently in old age. People with walking problems suffer from fear of falling and tend to restrict their mobility and performance level in the community environment--even before falls occur. This study was planned to test the validity and prognostic value of a fall risk screening instrument ("Sturz-Risiko-Check") that has already shown its feasibility, acceptance and reliability, targeting independently living senior citizens. The study sample was recruited from a sheltered housing complex in Hamburg (with written consent). Persons with need of professional care ("Pflegestufe" in Germany) were excluded. The residents were asked to fill in the multidimensional questionnaire ("Sturz-Risiko- Check"). In a second step, a trained nurse asked the participants in a phone call about their competence in the instrumental activities of daily living (I-ADL mod. from Lawton, Brody 1969) and about their usual mobility performance level (e.g. frequency and distance of daily walks, use of public transport). According to the number and weight of self-reported risk factors for falling, three groups: "low fall risk", "medium fall risk" and "high fall risk" were classified. Finally, this classification was re-tested after one year, asking for falls and fall related injuries. A total of 112 senior citizens without need of personal care, living in a sheltered housing facility were asked to participate. Acceptance was high (76.1%). Self-reported data from 79 participants concerning falls, fall-risk, mobility and instrumental activities of daily living were included in the statistical analyses. Mean age was 78 (64 to 93) years and associated by a high percentage of women (75.9%) in this sample. The older participants reported 0 to 13 different factors (mean 5) related to a high risk of future falls. Most participants (78.5%) quit cycling because of fear of falling. There was a high incidence in the study sample

  5. Fall speed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in free fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Garrett

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in free fall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC captures high-resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fall speed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and aspect ratio. From a selection of the photographed hydrometeors, an illustration is provided for how the instrument might be used for making improved microwave scattering calculations. Complex, aggregated snowflake shapes appear to be more strongly forward scattering, at the expense of reduced back-scatter, than heavily rimed graupel particles of similar size.

  6. Fall speed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in free fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.; Fallgatter, C.; Shkurko, K.; Howlett, D.

    2012-11-01

    We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in free fall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) captures high-resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fall speed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and aspect ratio. From a selection of the photographed hydrometeors, an illustration is provided for how the instrument might be used for making improved microwave scattering calculations. Complex, aggregated snowflake shapes appear to be more strongly forward scattering, at the expense of reduced back-scatter, than heavily rimed graupel particles of similar size.

  7. Traumatic Lung Herniation following Skateboard Fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafney L. Davare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung herniation (LH is a rare clinical entity involving the protrusion of lung outside the thoracic cage. It has a variety of etiologies and clinical presentations, making diagnosis difficult. We present a case of a 20-year-old male who reported pleuritic pain after falling from a skateboard. Evaluation through computed tomography (CT scanning of the chest revealed an anterior lung hernia associated with rib fractures. This case emphasizes the need for clinicians to include lung herniation in the differential diagnosis of patients with trauma and inexplicable or persistent pulmonary issues.

  8. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Wieczorek, G. F.; Stock, G. M.; Reichenbach, P.; Snyder, J. B.; Borchers, J. W.; Godt, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments ...

  9. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Wieczorek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments of flying rock that struck occupied cabins in Curry Village. Several years later on 9 June 2007, and again on 26 July 2007, smaller rock falls originated from the same source area. The 26 December 2003 event coincided with a severe winter storm and was likely triggered by precipitation and/or frost wedging, but the 9 June and 26 July 2007 events lack recognizable triggering mechanisms. We investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to the Staircase Falls rock falls, including bedrock lithology, weathering, joint spacing and orientations, and hydrologic processes affecting slope stability. We improved upon previous geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazards, based on a shadow angle approach, by using STONE, a three-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. STONE produced simulated rock-fall runout patterns similar to the mapped extent of the 2003 and 2007 events, allowing us to simulate potential future rock falls from the Staircase Falls detachment area. Observations of recent rock falls, mapping of rock debris, and simulations of rock fall runouts beneath the Staircase Falls detachment area suggest that rock-fall hazard zones extend farther downslope than the extent previously defined by mapped surface talus deposits.

  10. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Stock, Gregory M.; Reichenbach, P.; Snyder, J.B.; Borchers, J.W.; Godt, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m 3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments of flying rock that struck occupied cabins in Curry Village. Several years later on 9 June 2007, and again on 26 July 2007, smaller rock falls originated from the same source area. The 26 December 2003 event coincided with a severe winter storm and was likely triggered by precipitation and/or frost wedging, but the 9 June and 26 July 2007 events lack recognizable triggering mechanisms. We investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to the Staircase Falls rock falls, including bedrock lithology, weathering, joint spacing and orientations, and hydrologic processes affecting slope stability. We improved upon previous geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazards, based on a shadow angle approach, by using STONE, a three-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. STONE produced simulated rock-fall runout patterns similar to the mapped extent of the 2003 and 2007 events, allowing us to simulate potential future rock falls from the Staircase Falls detachment area. Observations of recent rock falls, mapping of rock debris, and simulations of rock fall runouts beneath the Staircase Falls detachment area suggest that rock-fall hazard zones extend farther downslope than the extent previously defined by mapped surface talus deposits.

  11. Detoxification of insecticides, allechemicals and heavy metals by glutathione S-transferase SlGSTE1 in the gut of Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Bin; Zou, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Ni; Feng, Qi-Li; Zheng, Si-Chun

    2015-08-01

    Insect glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play important roles in detoxifying toxic compounds and eliminating oxidative stress caused by these compounds. In this study, detoxification activity of the epsilon GST SlGSTE1 in Spodoptera litura was analyzed for several insecticides and heavy metals. SlGSTE1 was significantly up-regulated by chlorpyrifos and xanthotoxin in the midgut of S. litura. The recombinant SlGSTE1 had Vmax (reaction rate of the enzyme saturated with the substrate) and Km (michaelis constant and equals to the substrate concentration at half of the maximum reaction rate of the enzyme) values of 27.95 ± 0.88 μmol/min/mg and 0.87 ± 0.028 mmol/L for glutathione, respectively, and Vmax and Km values of 22.96 ± 0.78 μmol/min/mg and 0.83 ± 0.106 mmol/L for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, respectively. In vitro enzyme indirect activity assay showed that the recombinant SlGSTE1 possessed high binding activities to the insecticides chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, malathion, phoxim and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). SlGSTE1 showed higher binding activity to toxic heavy metals cadmium, chromium and lead than copper and zinc that are required for insect normal growth. Western blot analysis showed that SlGSTE1 was induced in the gut of larvae fed with chlorpyrifos or cadmium. SlGSTE1 also showed high peroxidase activity. All the results together indicate that SlGSTE1 may play an important role in the gut of S. litura to protect the insect from the toxic effects of these compounds and heavy metals. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Sf29 Gene of Spodoptera frugiperda Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Is a Viral Factor That Determines the Number of Virions in Occlusion Bodies▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; Asensio, Aaron C.; Ros, Sarhay; Gaya, Andrea; Caballero, Primitivo; Possee, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    The genome of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) was inserted into a bacmid (Sfbac) and used to produce a mutant lacking open reading frame 29 (Sf29null). Sf29null bacmid DNA was able to generate an infection in S. frugiperda. Approximately six times less DNA was present in occlusion bodies (OBs) produced by the Sf29null bacmid in comparison to viruses containing this gene. This reduction in DNA content was consistent with fewer virus particles being packaged within Sf29null bacmid OBs, as determined by fractionation of dissolved polyhedra and comparison of occlusion-derived virus (ODV) infectivity in cell culture. DNA from Sfbac, Sf29null, or Sf29null-repair, in which the gene deletion had been repaired, were equally infectious when used to transfect S. frugiperda. All three viruses produced similar numbers of OBs, although those from Sf29null were 10-fold less infectious than viruses with the gene. Insects infected with Sf29null bacmid died ∼24 h later than positive controls, consistent with the reduced virus particle content of Sf29null OBs. Transcripts from Sf29 were detected in infected insects 12 h prior to those from the polyhedrin gene. Homologs to Sf29 were present in other group II NPVs, and similar sequences were present in entomopoxviruses. Analysis of the Sf29 predicted protein sequence revealed signal peptide and transmembrane domains, but the presence of 12 potential N-glycosylation sites suggest that it is not an ODV envelope protein. Other motifs, including zinc-binding and threonine-rich regions, suggest degradation and adhesion functions. We conclude that Sf29 is a viral factor that determines the number of ODVs occluded in each OB. PMID:18550678

  13. Optimization of baculovirus-mediated expression and purification of hexahistidine-tagged murine DNA (cytosine-C5)-methyltransferase-1 in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brank, Adam S; Van Bemmel, Dana M; Christman, Judith K

    2002-06-01

    Enzymatic DNA methylation of carbon 5 of cytosines is an epigenetic modification that plays a role in regulating gene expression, differentiation, and tumorigenesis. DNA (cytosine-C5)-methyltransferase-1 is the enzyme responsible for maintaining established methylation patterns during replication in mammalian cells. It is composed of a large ( approximately 1100 amino acids (a.a.)) amino-terminal region containing many putative regulatory domains and a smaller ( approximately 500 a.a.) carboxy-terminal region containing conserved, catalytic domains. In this study, murine DNA (cytosine C5)-methyltransferase-1, fused to an amino-terminal hexahistidine tag, was expressed by infecting Spodoptera frugiperda cells for 46 h with a recombinant baculovirus carrying the DNA (cytosine-C5)-methyltransferase-1 cDNA. A total of 3 x 10(8) infected S. frugiperda cells yielded approximately 1 mg of full-length, hexahistidine-tagged DNA (cytosine-C5)-methyltransferase-1, which was purified approximately 450-fold from RNase-treated S. frugiperda cell extracts by nickel affinity chromatography. The characterization of hexahistidine-tagged DNA (cytosine-C5)-methyltransferase-1 through DNA methylation and inhibitor-binding assays indicated that the purified enzyme had at least a 30-fold higher catalytic efficiency with hemimethylated double-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotide substrates than unmethylated substrates and was most active with small oligodeoxyribonucleotide substrates with a capacity for forming stem-loop structures. The expression and purification procedures reported here differ significantly from the original reports of baculovirus-mediated hexahistidine-tagged DNA (cytosine-C5)-methyltransferase-1 expression and purification by nickel affinity chromatography and provide a consistent yield of active enzyme. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  14. Antifeedant activity of Jatropha gossypifolia and Melia azedarach senescent leaf extracts on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use as synergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullangpoti, Vasakorn; Wajnberg, Eric; Audant, Pascaline; Feyereisen, René

    2012-09-01

    To reduce rates of synthetic insecticide applications, natural product alternatives and synergists are needed. A study has been made of the toxicity of ethanolic senescent leaf extracts (SLEs) of Jatropha gossypifolia and Melia azedarach on larvae of the noctuid pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Their effects as syngergists and inhibitors of several enzyme activities are also reported. When added to the diet, M. azedarach SLE showed lower toxicity than J. gossypifolia SLE. However, after 2 weeks on the diet, the M. azedarach SLE proved to be lethal to 100% of the larval population. Artificial diets with both SLEs have an antifeedant effect on armyworm larvae. Acute toxicity after topical application in a dipping assay was relatively low for both J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs (LC(50) of 2.6 and 1.4 g L(-1), respectively, after 24 h). However, mixtures of the SLEs of M. azedarach and J. gossypifolia had a strong synergistic effect with cypermethrin. Synergism was higher with the J. gossypifolia SLE, perhaps because it contains several natural products with a methylenedioxyphenyl moiety. Both extracts inhibited P450, general esterase and acetylcholinesterase activities in vitro and in vivo. Both J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs are antifeedants to armyworm larvae when present in the food, and also have a synergistic effect with cypermethrin in topical assays. Although the synergistic effect is less than with piperonyl butoxide, both SLEs have some inhibitor activity against detoxification enzymes and acetylcholinesterase. Thus J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs may be considered as ecofriendly approaches for the control of S. frugiperda in order to reduce cypermethrin usage. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Competition between wild-type and a marked recombinant baculovirus (Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus) with enhanced speed of action in insect larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgievska, Liljana; Velders, Renate; Dai, Xiaojiang; Bianchi, Felix J J A; van der Werf, Wopke; Vlak, Just M

    2010-09-01

    Competition between virus genotypes in insect hosts is a key element of virus fitness, affecting their long-term persistence in agro-ecosystems. Little information is available on virus competition in insect hosts or during serial passages from one cohort of hosts to the next. Here we report on the competition between two genotypes of Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV), when serially passaged as mixtures in cohorts of 4th instar S. exigua larvae. One of the genotypes was a SeMNPV wild-type isolate, SeUS1, while the other was a SeMNPV recombinant (SeMNPV-XD1) having a greater speed of kill than SeUS1. SeXD1 lacks a suite of genes, including the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase (egt) gene. SeXD1 expresses the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, enabling the identification of SeXD1 in cell culture and in insects. The relative proportion of SeUS1 and SeXD1 in successive passages of mixed infections in various ratios was determined by plaque assays of budded virus from infected larvae and by polymerase chain reactions and restriction enzyme analyses. The SeUS1 genotype outcompeted recombinant SeXD1 over successive passages. Depending on the initial virus genotype ratio, the recombinant SeXD1 was no longer detected after 6-12 passages. A mathematical model was developed to characterize the competition dynamics. Overall, the ratio SeUS1/XD1 increased by a factor 1.9 per passage. The findingssuggest that under the experimental conditions recombinant SeXD1 is displaced by the wild-type strain SeUS1, but further studies are needed to ascertain that this is also the case when the same baculoviruses would be used in agro-ecosystems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inducible De Novo Biosynthesis of Isoflavonoids in Soybean Leaves by Spodoptera litura Derived Elicitors: Tracer Techniques Aided by High Resolution LCMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Ryu; Kimura, Yuki; Aoki, Kenta; Yoshinaga, Naoko; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Okumoto, Yutaka; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A; Mori, Naoki

    2016-12-01

    Isoflavonoids are a characteristic family of natural products in legumes known to mediate a range of plant-biotic interactions. For example, in soybean (Glycine max: Fabaceae) multiple isoflavones are induced and accumulate in leaves following attack by Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. To quantitatively examine patterns of activated de novo biosynthesis, soybean (Var. Enrei) leaves were treated with a combination of plant defense elicitors present in S. litura gut content extracts and L-α-[(13)C9, (15)N]phenylalanine as a traceable isoflavonoid precursor. Combined treatments promoted significant increases in (13)C-labeled isoflavone aglycones (daidzein, formononetin, and genistein), (13)C-labeled isoflavone 7-O-glucosides (daidzin, ononin, and genistin), and (13)C-labeled isoflavone 7-O-(6″-O-malonyl-β-glucosides) (malonyldaidzin, malonylononin, and malonylgenistin). In contrast levels of (13)C-labeled flavones and flavonol (4',7-dihydroxyflavone, kaempferol, and apigenin) were not significantly altered. Curiously, application of fatty acid-amino acid conjugate (FAC) elicitors present in S. litura gut contents, namely N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine and N-linoleoyl-L-glutamine, both promoted the induced accumulation of isoflavone 7-O-glucosides and isoflavone 7-O-(6″-O-malonyl-β-glucosides), but not isoflavone aglycones in the leaves. These results demonstrate that at least two separate reactions are involved in elicitor-induced soybean leaf responses to the S. litura gut contents: one is the de novo biosynthesis of isoflavone conjugates induced by FACs, and the other is the hydrolysis of the isoflavone conjugates to yield isoflavone aglycones. Gut content extracts alone displayed no hydrolytic activity. The quantitative analysis of isoflavone de novo biosynthesis, with respect to both aglycones and conjugates, affords a useful bioassay system for the discovery of additional plant defense elicitor(s) in S. litura gut contents that specifically

  17. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsankar, Athirstam; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Alessandro, Rocco T; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Paik, Chae-Hoon; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-11-01

    Botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to synthetic insecticides for controlling Spodoptera litura (F.) and they are target specific, biodegradable, and harmless to mammals. Eight natural chemical compounds with larvicidal activity were identified from fraction F6 of C. guianensis flower extract. Probit analysis of 95% confidence level exposed an LC50 of 223ppm against S. litura third instar larvae. The growth and development of S. litura was affected in sub-lethal concentrations of fraction F6 (50, 100, 150 and 200ppm) compared to controls. Similarly nutritional indices values decreased significantly compared to controls. Fraction F6 also damaged the gut epithelial layer and brush border membrane (BBM). This study also resolved the effects of toxicity to non-target earthworm treated with fraction F6 and chemical pesticides (monotrophos and cypermethrin) and the results showed that fraction F6 had no harmful effect on E. fetida. Further, fraction F6 was eluted and sub fractions F6c (50ppm) showed high mortality against S. litura third instar larvae. Octacosane from fraction F6c was established and confirmed using IR spectrum and HPLC. The time of retention of fraction F6c was confirmed with the octacosane standard. Fraction F6 of C. guianensis extract caused dose-dependent mortality towards S. litura. Octacosane in fraction F6c was establish to be the prominent chemical compound associated with causing mortality but other compounds present in the fraction F6 were shown to be associated with changes in development of S. litura at low dosages. S. litura at low dosage. Therefore, these findings suggest that octacosane may be one of the major insecticidal compounds affecting S. litura survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antagonistic effect of juvenile hormone on hemocyte-spreading behavior of Spodoptera exigua in response to an insect cytokine and its putative membrane action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonggyun; Jung, Sungchae; Madanagopal, Nalini

    2008-06-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) acts on membrane of follicle cells to induce ovarian patency for vitellogenesis, though it regulates various other physiological processes via putative intracellular receptors. This study suggests another JH membrane action by analyzing in vitro hemocyte behavior. In response to nonself, both granular cells and plasmatocytes of Spodoptera exigua can exhibit cell shape changes through spreading behaviors. Plasmatocytes were separated from total S. exigua hemocytes by Percoll gradient and exposed in vitro to an insect cytokine, plasmatocyte-spreading peptide (PSP), identified from Pseudoplusia includens. In response, the purified plasmatocytes spread in a dose-dependent manner from picomolar to micromolar concentrations. Interestingly, the PSP responses of plasmatocytes in S. exigua varied among different larval ages during fifth instar ( approximately 5 days at 25 degrees C) in a sensitivity order of late (5 days old)

  19. Survival and Development of Spodoptera frugiperda and Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt Cotton and Implications for Resistance Management Strategies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgatto, Rodrigo J; Bernardi, Oderlei; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) and Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) are important cotton pests and target of control of Bollgard II (Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab2) and WideStrike (Cry1Ac/Cry1F) cotton technologies. To subsidize an insect resistance management program, we conducted laboratory studies to evaluate the toxicity of these Bt cotton plants throughout larval development of S. frugiperda and C. includens. In bioassays with leaf disc, the efficacy of both Bt cotton plants against neonates was >80% for S. frugiperda and 100% for C. includens. However, S. frugiperda larvae that survived on Bt cotton had >76% of growth inhibition and stunting. In bioassays with S. frugiperda and C. includens larvae fed on non-Bt near-isoline during different time period (from 3 to 18 d) and then transferred to Bollgard II or WideStrike leaves showed that larval susceptibility decreased as larval age increased. For Bollgard II cotton, in all S. frugiperda instars, there were larvae that reached the pupal and adult stages. In contrast, on WideStrike cotton, a few larvae in fifth and sixth instar completed the biological cycle. For C. includens, some larvae in sixth instar originated adults in both Bt cotton plants. In conclusion, Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton technologies showed high efficacy against neonates of S. frugiperda and C. includens. However, the mortality of these species decreases as larval age increase, allowing insect survival in a possible seed mixture environment and favoring the resistance evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Efecto de variedades de algodón genéticamente modificadas sobre larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jimena Valencia Cataño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda es una plaga polífaga de importancia económica en países tropicales y subtropicales. En Colombia ataca el algodonero (Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivo que ha tomado importancia gracias a la adopción de variedades genéticamente modificadas (GM. En el estudio se determinaron los efectos subletales de algunas de estas variedades sobre larvas de este insecto. Para el efecto, en condiciones de laboratorio (27°C, 65 ± 10% HR y 12 h fotoperiodo se evaluaron las variedades NuOPAL RR (proteína Cry1Ac, DP141 B2RF (proteínas Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab y DeltaOPAL RR (no Bt. Los parámetros evaluados fueron: (a peso de larvas, (bpeso de heces, (c peso del alimento ofrecido y (d peso del alimento no consumido. Como índices de consumo y digestibilidad se calcularon la tasa relativa de consumo (TRCo, la tasa relativa de crecimiento (TRCr, la eficiencia de conversión del alimento ingerido (ECI y la digestibilidad aproximada (DA. Los índices mostraron actividad antialimentaria de la variedad DP141 B2RF (Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab que afecta de forma negativa la tasa de crecimiento y la conversión del alimento por parte de las larvas. El peso de las larvas alimentadas en DP141 B2RF (Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab fue 58.6% menor que en la variedad no Bt. Los resultados muestran un efecto adverso de la variedad DP141 B2RF (Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab en el desarrollo larval de S. frugiperda. Se confirman los efectos antibióticos de las variedades GM evaluadas que inciden en un menor desarrollo y en la supervivencia de las larvas.

  1. Salt-tolerant and -sensitive alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars have large variations in defense responses to the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera litura under normal and salt stress condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunting; Liu, Qing; Hettenhausen, Christian; Cao, Guoyan; Tan, Qing; Zhao, Weiye; Lin, Honghui; Wu, Jianqiang

    2017-01-01

    In nature, plants are often exposed to multiple stress factors at the same time. Yet, little is known about how plants modulate their physiology to counteract simultaneous abiotic and biotic stresses, such as soil salinity and insect herbivory. In this study, insect performance bioassays, phytohormone measurements, quantification of transcripts, and protein determination were employed to study the phenotypic variations of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars in response to insect Spodoptera litura feeding under normal and salt stress condition. When being cultivated in normal soil, the salt-tolerant alfalfa cultivar Zhongmu-1 exhibited lower insect resistance than did the salt-sensitive cultivar Xinjiang Daye. Under salinity stress, the defense responses of Xinjiang Daye were repressed, whereas Zhongmu-1 did not show changes in resistance levels. It is likely that salinity influenced the resistance of Xinjiang Daye through suppressing the accumulation of jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile), which is the bioactive hormone inducing herbivore defense responses, leading to attenuated trypsin proteinase inhibitor (TPI) activity. Furthermore, exogenous ABA supplementation suppressed the insect herbivory-induced JA/JA-Ile accumulation and levels of JAR1 (jasmonate resistant 1) and TPI, and further decreased the resistance of Xinjiang Daye, whereas Zhongmu-1 showed very little response to the increased ABA level. We propose a mechanism, in which high levels of abscisic acid induced by salt treatment may affect the expression levels of JAR1 and consequently decrease JA-Ile accumulation and thus partly suppress the defense of Xinjiang Daye against insects under salt stress. This study provides new insight into the mechanism by which alfalfa responds to concurrent abiotic and biotic stresses.

  2. Risk factors, incidence, consequences and prevention strategies for falls and fall-injury within older indigenous populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszyk, Caroline; Harvey, Lara; Sherrington, Cathie; Keay, Lisa; Tiedemann, Anne; Coombes, Julieann; Clemson, Lindy; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-12-01

    To examine the risk factors, incidence, consequences and existing prevention strategies for falls and fall-related injury in older indigenous people. Relevant literature was identified through searching 14 electronic databases, a range of institutional websites, online search engines and government databases, using search terms pertaining to indigenous status, injury and ageing. Thirteen studies from Australia, the United States, Central America and Canada were identified. Few studies reported on fall rates but two reported that around 30% of indigenous people aged 45 years and above experienced at least one fall during the past year. The most common hospitalised fall injuries among older indigenous people were hip fracture and head injury. Risk factors significantly associated with falls within indigenous populations included poor mobility, a history of stroke, epilepsy, head injury, poor hearing and urinary incontinence. No formally evaluated, indigenous-specific fall prevention interventions were identified. Falls are a significant and growing health issue for older indigenous people worldwide that can lead to severe health consequences and even death. No fully-evaluated, indigenous-specific fall prevention programs were identified. Implications for Public Health: Research into fall patterns and fall-related injury among indigenous people is necessary for the development of appropriate fall prevention interventions. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. Can martial arts techniques reduce fall severity? An in vivo study of femoral loading configurations in sideways falls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijden, A.M. van der; Groen, B.E.; Tanck, E.J.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sideways falls onto the hip are a major cause of femoral fractures in the elderly. Martial arts (MA) fall techniques decrease hip impact forces in sideways falls. The femoral fracture risk, however, also depends on the femoral loading configuration (direction and point of application of the force).

  4. The effects of Tai Chi on fall prevention, fear of falling and balance in older people: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logghe, I.H.; Verhagen, A.P.; Rademaker, A.C.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M.; Rossum, E. van; Faber, M.J.; Koes, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Tai Chi (TC) is an exercise training that is becoming increasingly popular as an intervention for single fall prevention. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of TC on fall rate, fear of falling and balance in older people. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials

  5. Falling into the Light-using music and poetry as complementary modes of understanding falls in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte; Clausen, Nina

    Falls in old age have major consequences both for the individual and for society; therefore falls prevention is a priority on the health political agenda. Unfortunately, merely half of the targeted population accepts participating in falls prevention services. Qualitative researchers suggest that...

  6. Home Camera-Based Fall Detection System for the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koldo de Miguel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Falls are the leading cause of injury and death in elderly individuals. Unfortunately, fall detectors are typically based on wearable devices, and the elderly often forget to wear them. In addition, fall detectors based on artificial vision are not yet available on the market. In this paper, we present a new low-cost fall detector for smart homes based on artificial vision algorithms. Our detector combines several algorithms (background subtraction, Kalman filtering and optical flow as input to a machine learning algorithm with high detection accuracy. Tests conducted on over 50 different fall videos have shown a detection ratio of greater than 96%.

  7. Home Camera-Based Fall Detection System for the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Koldo; Brunete, Alberto; Hernando, Miguel; Gambao, Ernesto

    2017-12-09

    Falls are the leading cause of injury and death in elderly individuals. Unfortunately, fall detectors are typically based on wearable devices, and the elderly often forget to wear them. In addition, fall detectors based on artificial vision are not yet available on the market. In this paper, we present a new low-cost fall detector for smart homes based on artificial vision algorithms. Our detector combines several algorithms (background subtraction, Kalman filtering and optical flow) as input to a machine learning algorithm with high detection accuracy. Tests conducted on over 50 different fall videos have shown a detection ratio of greater than 96%.

  8. Review on prevention of falls in hospital settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This review will first cover the root causes of falls, identify preventive measures associated with these falls, and provide an overview of best practice of fall prevention at leading institutions. There is significant benefit in instituting a comprehensive program to reduce falls. After analyzing the results from many successful programs, it is apparent that an integrative program that consists of patient evaluations, environmental modification, and staff training can lead to a significant reduction in the overall prevalence of falls. Such programs can be implemented at a low cost and therefore represent an improvement in care with a high return on investment.

  9. Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory and greenhouses conditions for the control of Spodoptera frugiperda Avaliação de nematoides entomopatogênicos em condições de laboratório e casa-de-vegetação visando ao controle de Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Andaló

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased corn planting grown in the late season crop and the use of a notillage planting system benefits the development of Spodoptera frugiperda, the main pest of corn crop. Thus, this study aimed to select entomopathogenic nematodes based on the mortality of S. frugiperda, and to adjust the nematode concentrations in the laboratory and evaluate the action of these organisms in greenhouse conditions. Seventeen nematode populations were tested at concentrations of 100, 250, and 500 infective juveniles (IJ/larvae. The obtained data were submitted to the polynomial regression test. In the greenhouse, corn sowing was performed in plastic buckets with soil, corn straw, and water. After 7 days, Steinernema arenarium or Heterorhabditis sp. RSC02, and the larvae were added (40 larvae, one larvae/repetition. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and the Scott-Knott test (PO aumento no plantio do milho "safrinha" e o uso do sistema de plantio direto favorecem o desenvolvimento de Spodoptera frugiperda, principal praga da cultura. Dessa forma, os objetivos deste trabalho foram selecionar nematoides entomopatogênicos, de acordo com a mortalidade causada sobre S. frugiperda, adequar as concentrações em laboratório e avaliar a ação desses organismos em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Foram testadas 17 populações de nematoides nas concentrações de 100, 250 e 500 juvenis infectantes (JI lagarta-1. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao teste de regressão polinomial. Em casa-de-vegetação, a semeadura do milho foi realizada em vasos de plástico contendo solo, palhada de milho e água. Após sete dias, foram adicionados Steinernema arenarium ou Heterorhabditis sp. RSC02 e as lagartas (40 lagartas, uma lagarta/repetição. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de médias Scott-Knott (P<0,05. Nos testes de laboratório, S. arenarium e Heterorhabditis sp. RSC02 causaram mortalidade de 85 e 90

  10. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA DL50 y TL50 DE EXTRACTOS ETANÓLICOS DE SUSPENSIONES CELULARES DE Azadirachta indica SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda DETERMINATION OF THE LD50 AND THE LT50 ETHANOL’S EXTRACTS OF CELLULAR SUSPENSIONS FROM Azadirachta indica OVER Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Trujillo Ruiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La obtención in vitro de metabolitos secundarios de neem surge como una alternativa para la posible producción industrial de biocidas. Para la búsqueda de propuestas dirigidas al control de Spodoptera frugiperda, se evaluó la eficiencia de extractos etanólicos de suspensiones celulares de Azadirachta indica para determinar la DL50 y el TL50 sobre la fase larval del segundo ínstar (L2. Se probaron cuatro concentraciones de los extractos (2.500, 5.000, 10.000 y 30.000 ppm y el testigo (alcohol 96% para determinar la mortalidad en el tiempo (0, 12, 18, 25, 40 h. Se determinó una DL50 a las 12 h de 2.256 ppm (R² = 88,54%, a las 18 h de 3.928 ppm (R² = 90,3 %, a las 25 h de 2.818 ppm (R² = 90,3 % y a las 40 h de 1.064 ppm (R² =90,3 %. Las dosis de 5.000 ppm, 10.000 ppm y 30.000 ppm, no presentaron diferencia estadística en su acción letal, pero fueron efectivas en el control del insecto.The production in vitro of secondary metabolites from neem arises like an alternative for the possible industrial processing of biocidas. In the search of alternatives for the control of Spodoptera frugiperda, were evaluated ethanolic extracts of cellular suspensions from Azadirachta indica in order to determine the DL 50 and the TL50 on the larval state of the second “instar” (L2. Four concentrations of the extracts (2.500, 5.000, 10.000, and 30.000 ppm and the control (alcohol 96% to determine mortality in the time (0, 12, 18, 25, 40 hours were compared. It was determined a DL50 at the 12 hours of 2.256 ppm, (R2 = 88, 54%, at the 18 hours of 3.928 ppm, (R2 = 90,30%, at the 25 hours of 2.818 ppm, (R2 = 90,30% and at the 40 hours of 1.064 ppm, (R2 =90,30%. The doses of 5.000 ppm, 10.000 ppm and 30.000 ppm, didn't present differences statistically significant in their lethal action, but were effective in the insect control.

  11. Effect of Melia azedarach aqueous extract on the development of immature and reproductive stages of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae / Efeito de extrato aquoso de Melia azedarach no desenvolvimento das fases imatura e reprodutiva de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marchetti Maroneze

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations of aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach on Spodoptera frugiperda biology was investigated under laboratory conditions. Corn leaves were immersed in solutions with extract concentrations of 0.1%; 1.0% and 5.0% and offered to newly-born larvae. At higher doses (1.0% and 5.0% the extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae. Observations of dead larvae showed abnormal moults and death at ecdysis. At the concentration of 0.1%, chinaberry extract increased the larval phase and reduced significantly the larval and pupal weight. Reproduction parameters, as the number of eggs per female, eggs per oviposition and eggs viability were affected using emerged adults from treated larvae with concentration of 0.1% Melia extract. The fecundity was drastically reduced. Survival and duration of egg stage were not affected by the extracts. No effect was observed in relation to attractiveness of caterpillars at first instar in tests with possibility of choice. The chinaberry aqueous extract showed good potential to be used as a control agent for S. frugiperda.Determinou-se, em condições de laboratório, o efeito de diferentes concentrações do extrato aquoso de Melia azedarach sobre a biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda. Folhas de milho foram imersas nos extratos (0,1%; 1,0% e 5,0% e oferecidas a lagartas recém-eclodidas. Em doses elevadas (1,0% e 5,0% os extratos causaram 100% de mortalidade larval. Observações das lagartas mortas indicaram mudas anormais e morte durante o processo de ecdise. Na concentração de 0,1% o extrato provocou o alongamento da fase larval e redução do peso das lagartas e pupas. Adultos provenientes de lagartas previamente intoxicadas com extrato a 0,1% apresentaram alterações em parâmetros reprodutivos tais como: número de ovos por fêmea, ovos por postura e viabilidade dos ovos. A fecundidade sofreu drástica redução. A sobrevivência dos ovos e a duração do período embrionário n

  12. Histopatologia de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (Lep., Noctuidae infectadas por Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai e com ovos de Campoletis flavicincta (Hym., Ichneumonidae Histopathology of larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lep., Noctuidae infected by Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai and with eggs of Campoletis flavicincta (Hym., Ichneumonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Thereza Bastos Dequech

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae está entre os insetos-praga que mais danificam culturas, sendo possível seu controle com produtos à base de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, 1911 (Bt. Um dos principais parasitóides de S. frugiperda é Campoletis flavicincta (Ashmead, 1890 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae. A interação de Bt aizawai e de C. flavicincta através da análise histopatológica do ovo do parasitóide em lagartas de S. frugiperda infectadas foi avaliada. Lotes de lagartas de segundo ínstar foram analisados: 1 parasitadas e infectadas por Bt aizawai (Xentari/Abbott Laboratórios do Brasil Ltda a 0,5mg ml-1 e 2 apenas parasitadas por C. flavicincta (controle. Todas as lagartas foram fixadas em "Bouin Hollande", em intervalos de 6, 12 e 24 horas posteriores à infecção. Após o preparo das lagartas em blocos de parafina, foram efetuados cortes histológicos de 6µm de espessura. A análise histológica de lagartas parasitadas e infectadas indicou não ter havido alteração no ovo do parasitóide, resultante da ação do bacilo. Esse resultado indica que ovos de C. flavicincta não são afetados por Bt aizawai no interior do corpo de lagartas de S. frugiperda.Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae is one of the most important insect pests that affect several crops, and it can be controled with Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, 1911 (Bt products. One of the main parasitoids of S. frugiperda is Campoletis flavicincta (Ashmead, 1890 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae. The interaction between Bt aizawai and C. flavicincta by histopathological analysis of the egg of parasitoid in S. frugiperda infected larvae was evaluated. Groups of second instar larvae were analyzed: 1 parasitized and infected by Bt aizawai (Xentari /Abbott Laboratórios do Brasil Ltda at 0.5mg ml-1 and 2 only parasitized by C. flavicincta (control. All the larvae were fixed in "Bouin Hollande", at intervals of 6, 12 and

  13. Falling Liquid Films in Absorption Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshihiko

    The absorption machines of the lithium bromide-water type have recently been established as heat source equipments for residential and industrial use, which include refrigerating machines, heat pumps, and heat transformers. Several advanced cycle machines have also been proposed and tested. All of the absorption machines consist fundamentally of four kinds of heat exchangers, i.e. evaporator, absorber, generator, and condenser. The horizontal or vertical falling film system is usually applied to these heat exchangers, since the pressure drop which causes an undesirable change in the fluid temperature is relatively small in either system. The horizontal system is popular for the present, while the vertical system is going to be developed promisingly. This may save an installation space and also fit a plan for the Lorentz cycle. The purpose of this paper is to survey the available information for increasing heat and mass transfer rates in the heat exchangers of absorption machines. Emphasis is placed on the hydrodynamic characteristics of falling liquid films in absorbers and generators. The following topics are covered in this paper: 1. Characteristics of thin liquid films over horizontal tubes 2. Characteristics of wavy thin liquid films flowing down the vertical or inclined wall surface 3. Effect of the artificial surface roughness on the heat and mass transfer rates 4. Enhancement in the heat and mass transfer rates by the Marangoni convection 5. Conditions of film breakdown and the minimum wetting rates.

  14. Falls Risk and Simulated Driving Performance in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Gaspar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Declines in executive function and dual-task performance have been related to falls in older adults, and recent research suggests that older adults at risk for falls also show impairments on real-world tasks, such as crossing a street. The present study examined whether falls risk was associated with driving performance in a high-fidelity simulator. Participants were classified as high or low falls risk using the Physiological Profile Assessment and completed a number of challenging simulated driving assessments in which they responded quickly to unexpected events. High falls risk drivers had slower response times (~2.1 seconds to unexpected events compared to low falls risk drivers (~1.7 seconds. Furthermore, when asked to perform a concurrent cognitive task while driving, high falls risk drivers showed greater costs to secondary task performance than did low falls risk drivers, and low falls risk older adults also outperformed high falls risk older adults on a computer-based measure of dual-task performance. Our results suggest that attentional differences between high and low falls risk older adults extend to simulated driving performance.

  15. Prevention of falls in the elderly: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Vonschewelov, Thord; Karlsson, Caroline; Cöster, Maria; Rosengen, Björn E

    2013-07-01

    Falls often result in soft tissue injuries, dislocations, fractures, longstanding pain and reduced quality of life. Therefore, fall preventive programmes have been developed. In this review, we evaluate programmes that in randomized controlled trials (RCT) have been shown with fall reducing effect. Physical exercise that includes several training modalities, especially balance and strength training, is the only intervention programme that reduces both the number of fallers and the number of falls in community dwellers. Home hazards modification reduces the fall risk in community-living elderly but has the best effects in high risk groups when the programme is led by occupational therapists. Vitamin D supplement in those with low levels of vitamin D, adjustment of psychotropic medication and modification of multi-pharmacy are drug-related programmes that reduce the fall risk. Anti-slip shoe devices in elderly who walk outdoors during icy conditions and multifaceted podiatry to patients with specific foot disability are interventions targeted at the lower extremities with a fall-reducing effect. First eye cataract surgery and pacemakers in patients with cardio-inhibitory carotid sinus hypersensitivity are surgical procedures with fall-reducing effect. Multifactorial standardized preventive programmes that include an exercise component and individually-designed subject-specific programmes also reduce the number of falls. Fall preventive interventions should be provided to elderly by a structured approach, especially to high risk groups, as to reduce the number of falls and fallers.

  16. Doppler radar sensor positioning in a fall detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Popescu, Mihail; Ho, K C; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Falling is a common health problem for more than a third of the United States population over 65. We are currently developing a Doppler radar based fall detection system that already has showed promising results. In this paper, we study the sensor positioning in the environment with respect to the subject. We investigate three sensor positions, floor, wall and ceiling of the room, in two experimental configurations. Within each system configuration, subjects performed falls towards or across the radar sensors. We collected 90 falls and 341 non falls for the first configuration and 126 falls and 817 non falls for the second one. Radar signature classification was performed using a SVM classifier. Fall detection performance was evaluated using the area under the ROC curves (AUCs) for each sensor deployment. We found that a fall is more likely to be detected if the subject is falling toward or away from the sensor and a ceiling Doppler radar is more reliable for fall detection than a wall mounted one.

  17. Footwear style and risk of falls in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, Thomas D; Wolf, Marsha E; Buchner, David M; Kukull, Walter A; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Tencer, Allan F; Frankenfeld, Cara L; Tautvydas, Milda; Larson, Eric B

    2004-09-01

    To determine how the risk of a fall in an older adult varies in relation to style of footwear worn. Nested case-control study. Group Health Cooperative, a large health maintenance organization in Washington state. A total of 1,371 adults aged 65 and older were monitored for falls over a 2-year period; 327 qualifying fall cases were compared with 327 controls matched on age and sex. Standardized in-person examinations before fall occurrence, interviews about fall risk factors after the fall occurred, and direct examination of footwear were conducted. Questions for controls referred to the last time they engaged in an activity broadly similar to what the case was doing at the time of the fall. Athletic and canvas shoes (sneakers) were the styles of footwear associated with lowest risk of a fall. Going barefoot or in stocking feet was associated with sharply increased risk, even after controlling for measures of health status (adjusted odds ratio=11.2, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.4-51.8). Relative to athletic/canvas shoes, other footwear was associated with a 1.3-fold increase in the risk of a fall (95% CI=0.9-1.9), varying somewhat by style. Contrary to findings from gait-laboratory studies, athletic shoes were associated with relatively low risk of a fall in older adults during everyday activities. Fall risk was markedly increased when participants were not wearing shoes. Copyright 2004 American Geriatrics Society

  18. Hypocapnia and its relation to fear of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, J E; Petrie, P J; Horan, M A

    2000-11-01

    To determine if hypocapnia occurs in patients with fear of falling and to explore potential causes of hypocapnia. Observational study in patients who fall with and without fear of falling. Rehabilitation wards of an elderly care unit. Consecutive fallers with (n = 20) and without (n = 10) fear of falling. End-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) and respiratory rate (RR) responses were measured during sustained isometric muscle contraction (SIMC) (40% of maximum voluntary contraction of quadriceps for 2 min) and during a 5-meter walk. Falls efficacy scale (FES) and Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD). Patients with fear of falling had significantly higher FES and HAD scores (p fear of falling (p fear of falling group than in controls (p fear of falling group than in controls (p fear of falling during SIMC and walking. Anxiety seems to be the main cause, but muscle weakness may contribute. Breathing or relaxation techniques and reconditioning may have a role in treating fear of falling in the rehabilitation setting.

  19. Continuous equilibrium scores: factoring in the time before a fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J; Reschke, Millard F; Owen Black, F

    2012-07-01

    The equilibrium (EQ) score commonly used in computerized dynamic posturography is normalized between 0 and 100, with falls assigned a score of 0. The resulting mixed discrete-continuous distribution limits certain statistical analyses and treats all trials with falls equally. We propose a simple modification of the formula in which peak-to-peak sway data from trials with falls is scaled according the percent of the trial completed to derive a continuous equilibrium (cEQ) score. The cEQ scores for trials without falls remain unchanged from the original methodology. The cEQ factors in the time before a fall and results in a continuous variable retaining the central tendencies of the original EQ distribution. A random set of 5315 Sensory Organization Test trials were pooled that included 81 falls. A comparison of the original and cEQ distributions and their rank ordering demonstrated that trials with falls continue to constitute the lower range of scores with the cEQ methodology. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.997) demonstrates that the cEQ retained near-perfect discrimination between trials with and without falls. We conclude that the cEQ score provides the ability to discriminate between ballistic falls from falls that occur later in the trial. This approach of incorporating time and sway magnitude can be easily extended to enhance other balance tests that include fall data or incomplete trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Palliative Approach to Falls in Advanced Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaboni, Andrea; Van Ooteghem, Karen; Marcil, Meghan N; Cockburn, Amy; Flint, Alastair J; Grossman, Daphna; Keren, Ron

    2017-12-11

    Falls are viewed as a preventable cause of injury, functional loss, and death in older adults with dementia, and have been used as a marker of quality of care in long-term care facilities. Despite intensive intervention around fall prevention in these settings, falls and injury remain frequent, particularly among residents in the advanced stages of dementia. In this clinical review, we consider the common challenges and pitfalls in both the management of falls and the provision of palliative care in advanced dementia. We then describe a palliative approach to falls in advanced dementia that involves identifying individuals who would benefit from this care approach, framing falls and loss of mobility as a quality of life issue, and devising an individualized symptom assessment and management plan. A palliative approach can lead to recognition and acceptance that recurrent falls are often symptomatic of advanced dementia, and that not all falls are preventable. We conclude that falls in the advanced stage of dementia can be sentinel events indicating the need for a palliative approach to care. Rather than replace falls prevention activities, a palliative approach to falls prompts us to select dementia stage-appropriate interventions with a focus on symptom management, comfort, and dignity. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Doppler radar fall activity detection using the wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bo Yu; Ho, K C; Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie

    2015-03-01

    We propose in this paper the use of Wavelet transform (WT) to detect human falls using a ceiling mounted Doppler range control radar. The radar senses any motions from falls as well as nonfalls due to the Doppler effect. The WT is very effective in distinguishing the falls from other activities, making it a promising technique for radar fall detection in nonobtrusive inhome elder care applications. The proposed radar fall detector consists of two stages. The prescreen stage uses the coefficients of wavelet decomposition at a given scale to identify the time locations in which fall activities may have occurred. The classification stage extracts the time-frequency content from the wavelet coefficients at many scales to form a feature vector for fall versus nonfall classification. The selection of different wavelet functions is examined to achieve better performance. Experimental results using the data from the laboratory and real inhome environments validate the promising and robust performance of the proposed detector.

  2. Synergistic potential of dillapiole-rich essential oil with synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against fall armyworm

    OpenAIRE

    Fazolin, Murilo; Estrela,Joelma Lima Vidal; Medeiros, André Fábio Monteiro; Silva, Iriana Maria da; GOMES, LUIARA PAIVA; Silva, Maria Samylla de Farias

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the synergy and response homogeneity of the Spodoptera frugiperda larvae population to the Piper aduncum essential oil in combination with pyrethroid insecticides (alpha-cypermethrin, beta-cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, and gamma-cyhalothrin) compared to piperonylbutoxide (PBO) as positive control. Synergism (SF) comparisons were obtained using lethal concentration (LC50) and lethal dose (LD50) ratios of insecticides individually and in thei...

  3. Implementation and evaluation of a nursing home fall management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, Kimberly; Parmelee, Patricia A; Taylor, Jo A; Green, Diane; Brown, Holly; Hawley, Jonathan; Schild, Laura; Strothers, Harry S; Ouslander, Joseph G

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a falls management program (FMP) for nursing homes (NHs). A quality improvement project with data collection throughout FMP implementation. NHs in Georgia owned and operated by a single nonprofit organization. All residents of participating NHs. A convenience sample of 19 NHs implemented the FMP. The FMP is a multifaceted quality improvement and culture change intervention. Key components included organizational leadership buy-in and support, a designated facility-based falls coordinator and interdisciplinary team, intensive education and training, and ongoing consultation and oversight by advanced practice nurses with expertise in falls management. Process-of-care documentation using a detailed 24-item audit tool and fall and physical restraint use rates derived from quality improvement software currently used in all Georgia NHs (MyInnerView). Care process documentation related to the assessment and management of fall risk improved significantly during implementation of the FMP. Restraint use decreased substantially during the project period, from 7.9% to 4.4% in the intervention NHs (a relative reduction of 44%), and decreased in the nonintervention NHs from 7.0% to 4.9% (a relative reduction of 30%). Fall rates remained stable in the intervention NHs (17.3 falls/100 residents per month at start and 16.4 falls/100 residents per month at end), whereas fall rates increased 26% in the NHs not implementing the FMP (from 15.0 falls/100 residents/per month to 18.9 falls/100 residents per month). Implementation was associated with significantly improved care process documentation and a stable fall rate during a period of substantial reduction in the use of physical restraints. In contrast, fall rates increased in NHs owned by the same organization that did not implement the FMP. The FMP may be a helpful tool for NHs to manage fall risk while attempting to reduce physical restraint use in response to the Centers for

  4. Falls in the nursing home: are they preventable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Man Quang; Weintraub, Nancy; Rubenstein, Laurence Z

    2004-01-01

    Falls are prevalent in elderly patients residing in nursing homes, with approximately 1.5 falls occurring per nursing home bed-years. Although most are benign and injury-free, 10% to 25% result in hospital admission and/or fractures. Primary care providers for nursing home residents must therefore aim to reduce both the fall rate as well as the rate of fall-related morbidity in the long-term care setting. Interventions have been demonstrated to be successful in reducing falls in community-dwelling elderly patients. However, less evidence supports the efficacy of fall prevention in nursing home residents. The authors conducted a Medline search using the key words Falls and Nursing Homes. Several studies examined the efficacy of multifaceted intervention programs on reducing falls in nursing homes with varied results. Components of these intervention programs include: environmental assessment, assistive device evaluation and modification, medication changes, gait assessment and training, staff education, exercise programs, hip protector use, and blood pressure evaluation. Current literature supports the use of environmental assessment and intervention in reducing falls in nursing homes, and demonstrates an association between certain medications and falls. However, there are no studies that examine the effect of medication adjustments on fall rates. Also, the literature does not strongly suggest that exercise programs are effective in fall reduction. Although not effective in reducing fall rates, the use of hip protectors appears to result in less fall-related morbidity. More studies must be done to clarify the effects of high-risk medication reduction, the optimal nature and intensity of exercise programs, and patient targeting criteria to maximize the effectiveness of nursing home fall prevention programs. Based on the current literature, an effective multifaceted fall prevention program for nursing home residents should include risk factor assessment and

  5. Neurology Falls. Patient Falls Risk Assessment, Neurology Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-06

    Goal. 2008. Retrieved Aug. 22, from http://www.jointcommission.org/NR/rdonlyres/9EE98FF3-0567- 444D-9C91-424282FF5FCD/0/2008_FAQs_NPSG_0 9. pdf ...Male) i r Any administered antiepileptics (anticonvulsants): 2 r Any administered benzodiazepines : r II. FALL RISK ASSESSMENT IN

  6. Going nuts: Measuring free-fall acceleration by analyzing the sound of falling metal pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik; Theilmann, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Galilei presented the kinematics of a one-dimensional accelerated motion with ease and in terms of elegant geometry. Moreover, he believed, "Philosophy [i.e. physics] is written in this grand book—I mean the universe—which stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language and interpret the characters in which it is written. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it." In classroom practice, however, it can be difficult to reveal this mathematical heart of nature; free fall and other accelerated motions often get obscured by friction or other sources of errors. In this paper, we introduce a method of analyzing free-fall motion indirectly by evaluating the noise of freely falling metal pieces. The method connects a deeper understanding of the mathematical structure of accelerated motion with the possibility to derive a numerical value for the free-fall acceleration g.

  7. Falling Into the Light: About Fall Prevention and Self-development


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    It is normal to tell a story about falls focusing on the negative side. It is not normal to talk about the decline in old age as a positive thing that opens up the possibility for a more substantial quality of life and for the courage and zest for life. Nevertheless, it is what I want to write...

  8. Fall-grown oat to extend the fall grazing season for replacement dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars, specifically for extending the grazing season and reducing reliance on harvested forages by replacement dairy heifers. A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/y...

  9. Falling into the Light-using music and poetry as complementary modes of understanding falls in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte; Clausen, Nina

    2015-01-01

    that a broader understanding of falls in old age in the health care system might help health professionals to understand the complexity of falls and by this inspire older persons to prevent falls in different ways. Using poetry and music in our performance we seek to open up for a broader understanding of falls...... prevention. Our hope is to inspire nurses and other health professionals to work with falls prevention in new ways. The performance draw on an interview study with 25 older persons where six different understandings of falls prevention were identified (1). The understandings include falls as a result of......: irresponsible behavior, disease, destiny, desire to remain independent in old age, appearing elegant/aesthetical and being physical active. One of the interviews was selected and transformed it into a poem (2-3). The poem was then translated into music by the second author. First we present the six...

  10. Dispersion and fall out of heavier particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Poul

    2016-01-01

    they may like gasses and aerosols be transported more or less far by the wind. The present paper focuses on the growth of plumes of such particles larger and heavier than aerosols and transported by the wind. Implementation in existing decision support puff dispersion programs requires a parameterization......Nuclear accidents have so far been expected to release gasses and aerosols, but other CBRN events and also nuclear accidents with release of core particles can be expected to also release larger particles to the atmosphere. If not so large and heavy, that they fall to the ground immediately...... of this growth, and two reasonable describing parameterizations have been found, one in the literature, one proposed here, and both are compared to experimental work found in the literature. The parameterization from the literature has been implemented in the dispersion program RIMPUFF, which has subsequently...

  11. High Falls Hydroelectric Plant feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diezemann, Gustav A.

    1979-07-01

    This study was made in order to determine if re-activating the retired High Falls Hydro Station in New York would result in a more economical generation of some of the power required in the Central Hudson System than is being obtained with the oil-burning thermal plants. The findings show that the construction of a new plant is more economical than rehabilitation of the existing station. All new construction schemes are marginally unattractive at today's costs but are found to become profitable within a short period as alternative energy sources escalate in price. A new powerhouse with an installed capacity of 2390 kW proved most economical, and its construction is recommended.

  12. Comparison and Characterization of Android-Based Fall Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luque

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a foremost source of injuries and hospitalization for seniors. The adoption of automatic fall detection mechanisms can noticeably reduce the response time of the medical staff or caregivers when a fall takes place. Smartphones are being increasingly proposed as wearable, cost-effective and not-intrusive systems for fall detection. The exploitation of smartphones’ potential (and in particular, the Android Operating System can benefit from the wide implantation, the growing computational capabilities and the diversity of communication interfaces and embedded sensors of these personal devices. After revising the state-of-the-art on this matter, this study develops an experimental testbed to assess the performance of different fall detection algorithms that ground their decisions on the analysis of the inertial data registered by the accelerometer of the smartphone. Results obtained in a real testbed with diverse individuals indicate that the accuracy of the accelerometry-based techniques to identify the falls depends strongly on the fall pattern. The performed tests also show the difficulty to set detection acceleration thresholds that allow achieving a good trade-off between false negatives (falls that remain unnoticed and false positives (conventional movements that are erroneously classified as falls. In any case, the study of the evolution of the battery drain reveals that the extra power consumption introduced by the Android monitoring applications cannot be neglected when evaluating the autonomy and even the viability of fall detection systems.

  13. Comparison and characterization of Android-based fall detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Rafael; Casilari, Eduardo; Morón, María-José; Redondo, Gema

    2014-10-08

    Falls are a foremost source of injuries and hospitalization for seniors. The adoption of automatic fall detection mechanisms can noticeably reduce the response time of the medical staff or caregivers when a fall takes place. Smartphones are being increasingly proposed as wearable, cost-effective and not-intrusive systems for fall detection. The exploitation of smartphones' potential (and in particular, the Android Operating System) can benefit from the wide implantation, the growing computational capabilities and the diversity of communication interfaces and embedded sensors of these personal devices. After revising the state-of-the-art on this matter, this study develops an experimental testbed to assess the performance of different fall detection algorithms that ground their decisions on the analysis of the inertial data registered by the accelerometer of the smartphone. Results obtained in a real testbed with diverse individuals indicate that the accuracy of the accelerometry-based techniques to identify the falls depends strongly on the fall pattern. The performed tests also show the difficulty to set detection acceleration thresholds that allow achieving a good trade-off between false negatives (falls that remain unnoticed) and false positives (conventional movements that are erroneously classified as falls). In any case, the study of the evolution of the battery drain reveals that the extra power consumption introduced by the Android monitoring applications cannot be neglected when evaluating the autonomy and even the viability of fall detection systems.

  14. [Hospital falls, improvement strategy for reducing their incidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Huete, M Eloisa; Sebastián-Viana, Tomás; Lema-Lorenzo, Isabel; Granados-Martín, Mónica; Buitrago-Lobo, Nuria; Heredia-Reina, M del Pilar; Merino-Ruiz, Margarita; Ventosa-Hernández, Esther; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Carmen; Mota-Boada, M Luisa

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the evolution of falls with the implemented measures to improve the attention of patients at risk and to reduce the number of falls. To know the characteristics of patients who have suffered fall-related injuries. All the falls registered between 2008 and 2013 have been analyzed to determine the evolution of these and to describe the implemented measures through the electronic clinical history at University Hospital of Fuenlabrada. The incidence of falls in hospitalized patients has been estimated and the evolution with the chi square test has been studied. The frequencies of the characteristics of patients who fall has been presented: age, length of stay, performed activity, patient companion, mobility level, state of consciousness. 445 registered falls happened. 2009 is the year with the highest number of falls, 86 patients fell of a total of 15,819 discharged patients (0.55%). The statistic drops until 2013, where 55 patients fell out of 15,052 discharged patients (0.37%). This difference was not statistically significant. The deployment of an assessment about fall risk at admission has helped to identify individualized risk factors. Furthermore, the awareness and alerts to the nursing staff have helped to consider fall prevention as a rutinary procedure, hence appropriate measures can be implemented on the most vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Inspection of four-sensor falls detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Wójtowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The studies presented in this article are the continuation of previous work to develop a mobile fall detector. The algorithm is based on a discrete wavelet transform of the signals from the sensors available at the detector and a linear support vector machine as a classifier. Fisher score method is used for feature selection in the proposed algorithm. As a result of reducing the number of features, the number of support vectors has been also reduced — it has a direct impact on the upper estimate of the classification error. On the basis of the obtained results, the classifier parameters have been calculated. This allows presenting the developed concept in the field of ROCROCROC curves (Receiver Operating Characteristics and their comparison with the results obtained for individual sensors. The developed concept gives much better results than each of the sensors acting independently. The findings of this study have given very good results in comparison with the previous findings, with a significant reduction in the number of required features. Due to the close relationship between the number of training data and the number of support vectors which directly affect the upper estimate of the classification error, the number of features has been reduced. Finally, satisfactory results have been obtained with the reduction of the number of features from 38 to just six, ensuring that the upper estimation of the classification error in the set of the new test data does not exceed 5.3%.[b]Keywords[/b]: falls detection, data fusion, discrete wavelet transform, support vector machine

  16. Hormonal changes when falling in love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Canale, Domenico

    2004-08-01

    To fall in love is the first step in pair formation in humans and is a complex process which only recently has become the object of neuroscientific investigation. The little information available in this field prompted us to measure the levels of some pituitary, adrenal and gonadal hormones in a group of 24 subjects of both sexes who had recently (within the previous six months) fallen in love, and to compare them with those of 24 subjects who were single or were part of a long-lasting relationship. The following hormones were evaluated by means of standard techniques: FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), cortisol, testosterone and androstenedione. The results showed that estradiol, progesterone, DHEAS and androstenedione levels did not differ between the groups and were within the normal ranges. Cortisol levels were significantly higher amongst those subjects who had recently fallen in love, as compared with those who had not. FSH and testosterone levels were lower in men in love, while women of the same group presented higher testosterone levels. All hormonal differences were eliminated when the subjects were re-tested from 12 to 24 months later. The increased cortisol and low FSH levels are suggestive of the "stressful" and arousing conditions associated with the initiation of a social contact. The changes of testosterone concentrations, which varied in opposite directions in the two sexes, may reflect changes in behavioural and/or temperamental traits which have yet to be clarified. In conclusion, the findings of the present study would indicate that to fall in love provokes transient hormonal changes some of which seem to be specific to each sex.

  17. Functional response of the tiger beetle Megacephala carolina carolina (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on twolined spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachappa, Punya; Braman, S K; Guillebeau, L P; All, J N

    2006-10-01

    The functional response of the tiger beetle Megacephala carolina carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was determined on adult twolined spittlebug, Prosapia bicincta (Say) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), and fourth instars of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in single-prey and two-prey systems. In the laboratory, M. carolina carolina demonstrated a type II functional response for P. bicincta and S. frugiperda in both single- and two-prey systems. Search efficiency of M. carolina declined for both prey as the initial