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Sample records for spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus

  1. Interactions between Meteorus pulchricornis and Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Fang; Fang, Ji-Chao; Zhong, Wan-Fang; Liu, Bao-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Baculoviruses may interact with parasitoids in the same host. A previous study has shown that infection of larvae with Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV) was deleterious to the survival and development of Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). In this paper, the interactions between M. pulchricornis and Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a permissive host of the virus and parasitoid, were investigated. The results showed that the effect of M. pulchricornis on SeMNPV and the effect of the virus on the parasitoid both depended on the concentration of the virus and the interval between viral infection and parasitism. Whether S. exigua was treated with the parasitoid and virus simultaneously or 1 day apart, the biological activities of 10(5), 10(6), and 10(7) OBs/mL SeMNPV were all significantly improved by M. pulchricornis. In contrast, the biological activity of 10(3) OBs/mL SeMNPV was significantly decreased when the host was exposed to the virus and parasitoid simultaneously. Regarding the impact of SeMNPV on M. pulchricornis, exposing the host to the parasitoid and SeMNPV with concentrations lower than 10(6) occlusion bodies (OBs)/mL produced no negative effects on the parasitoid. The results also showed that ingestion of SeMNPV by adult stage M. pulchricornis significantly increased the number of parasitoid offspring that successfully emerged from the host. Furthermore, M. pulchricornis was found to transmit SeMNPV among populations of S. exigua. Taken together, these findings indicate that M. pulchricornis integrated with an appropriate concentration of SeMNPV has the potential to improve the efficacy of biological control against S. exigua.

  2. Keefektifan Bahan Pelindung Alami Dalam Mempertahankan Infektivitas Spodoptera Exigua Nucleopolyhedrovirus (Senpv)' [the Effectiveness of Natural Protectant to Maintain the Spodoptera Exigua Nucleopolyhedrovirus (Senpv) Infectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Samsudin, Samsudin; Santoso, Teguh; Rauf, Aunu; Kusumah, Yayi Munara

    2011-01-01

    Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeNPV) is a viral pathogen of onion caterpillar S. exigua with high pathogenicity. One of the major constraints to the use of SeNPV for biocontrol of onion caterpillar is its sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) degradation. The purposes of this research were to determine the effect of sunlight exposure on the virulence of SeNPV and to find out the effective natural UV protectant to maintain the SeNPV virulence. The results showed that the sunlight radiation...

  3. Host-range expansion of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus to Agrotis segetum larvae when the midgut is bypassed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Lynn, D.E.; Herrero, S.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the high similarity in genome content and organization between Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) and Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgseNPV), as well as the high percentages of similarity found between their 30 core genes, the specificity of these NPVs was

  4. Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus is not infectious for Agrotis segetum larvae per os, but only after intrahemocoelic injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Ince, I.A.; Herrero, S.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) and Agrotis segetum NPV are close relatives, but distinct baculovirus species. Their genomic organization is remarkably similar. The cross infectivity of these two viruses for S. exigua and A. segetum larvae has been analyzed. AgseNPV was able

  5. Genome sequence of an enhancin gene-rich nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) from Agrotis segetum: collinearity with Spodoptera exigua multiple NPV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Peters, S.A.; Ziemnicka, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The genome sequence of a Polish isolate of Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgseNPV-A) was determined and analysed. The circular genome is composed of 147 544 bp and has a G+C content of 45¿7 mol%. It contains 153 putative, non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) encoding predicted proteins

  6. Isolation of a Spodoptera exigua baculovirus recombinant with retained biological activity despite a 10.6 kb deletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, X.; Hajos, J.P.; Joosten, N.N.; Oers, van M.M.; IJkel, W.F.J.; Zuidema, D.; Yi, P.

    2000-01-01

    When Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) is grown in insect cell culture, defective viruses are generated. These viruses lack about 25 kbp of sequence information and are no longer infectious for insects. This makes the engineering of SeMNPV for improved insecticidal activity

  7. Vitellogenin and vitellogenin receptor gene expression profiles in Spodoptera exigua are related to host plant suitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Sun, Yang; Xiao, Liubin; Tan, Yongan; Jiang, Yiping; Bai, Lixin

    2018-04-01

    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a worldwide phytophagous pest, causes considerable economic agricultural losses. Understanding the relationship between its fecundity and the host plant is a basic and important component of early forecasting of beet armyworm outbreaks. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism by which distinct hosts affect S. exigua fecundity. In this study, key life-history parameters of S. exigua reared on distinct hosts were investigated; the host plants could be ranked as lettuce > shallot > tomato > celery in their order of suitability. Full-length S. exigua vitellogenin receptor (SeVgR) cDNA was cloned, and sex-, stage- and tissue-specific expression characteristics were assessed. Spodoptera exigua vitellogenin (SeVg) and SeVgR expression levels were markedly modulated by host nutrients (P lettuce, the most preferred and most nutritive host, than in those reared on tomato and celery. Interestingly, significant linear regression correlations were found between SeVg and SeVgR expression levels and key S. exigua life-history parameters, especially life span, pupa weight, and female fecundity (P < 0.01). Host plant type and suitability could affect the expression pattern of SeVg and SeVgR, which influenced S. exigua fecundity. Vg and VgR have the potential to be used as molecular markers of S. exigua fecundity and for forecasting outbreaks of S. exigua on different hosts. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR... tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  9. Identification and recombinant expression of a novel chymotrypsin from Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Combes, E.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Maagd, de R.A.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel chymotrypsin which is expressed in the midgut of the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera exigua is described. This enzyme, referred to as SeCT34, represents a novel class of chymotrypsins. Its amino-acid sequence shares common features of gut chymotrpysins, but can be clearly distinguished from

  10. Screening for resistance to the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) in Allium cepa and its wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, B.; Sofiari, E.; Wietsma, W.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2000-01-01

    The beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) is the most important pest in tropical Allium cultivations. All shallot ( Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum) cultivars are susceptible to this pest. Therefore accessions from three wild Allium species, namely A. galanthum Kar. et Kir., A. fistulosum L. and

  11. Modeling climate change impacts on overwintering of Spodoptera exigua Hübner in regions of China

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    Xia-Lin Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inferential models are usually used to evaluate the effect of winter warming on range expansion of insects. Generally, correlative approaches used to predict changes in the distributions of organisms are based on the assumption that climatic boundaries are fixed. Spodoptera exigua Htibner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae overwinters as larvae or pupae in China regions. To understand the climate change impacts on overwintering of this species in regions of China, CLIMEX and Arc-GIS models were used to predict possible changes of distribution based on temperature. The climate change projection clearly indicated that the northern boundary of overwintering for S. exigua will shift northward from current distribution. Thus, the ongoing winter warming is likely to increase the frequency of S. exigua outbreaks.

  12. Diversity and biological activity of nucleopolyhedroviruses of the leafworm Spodoptera litura

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    Ali, Ghulam

    2018-01-01

    Increased resistance of emerging cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura in Pakistan and elsewhere to chemical insecticides calls for an alternative method of control. Isolates of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPVs) of S. litura (SpltNPV) were collected from infected larvae in different

  13. Resistensi populasai hama bawang merah Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae terhadap klorfluazuron

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    Abdi Negara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of Onion Pest Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Populations to Chlorfluazuron. The research was conducted from August 2001 until April 2002 in the Kalitiro Agriculture Training and Development Research Station, Gadjah Mada University. The objective of research was to determine the resistance level of Spodoptera exigua populations collected from the district of Sanden, Kretek, Wates, Temon, Panjatan, Wonosari, Panggang and Playen (all are in Yogyakarta Province to chlorfluazuron insecticide. Research was conducted by dipping artificial diet about 30 seconds in insecticide solution and there are used test two hours after they were air dried. Based on the preliminary test, different concentrations were tested to determine the toxicity of the insecticide to each population. Third instar larvae (five days old of the first generation were used in bioassays. Each larvae with its artificial diet was placed in a plastic cup (diameter 3,5 cm. Larval mortality was recorded at 72 hours after exposure. Data was analyzed using probit analysis to determine LC50 values. The result showed that the LC50 values of chlorfluazuron againsts eight population of S. exigua at 72 hours after exposure varied from 16,10 ppm (Panggang to 84,76 ppm (Panjatan. The results suggested that all populations from Panggang, Playen, Kretek, Sanden, Wates, Wonosari and Temon were still susceptible to chlorfluazuron. Population from Panjatan indicated to be resistant to chlorfluazuron.

  14. Susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda and S. exigua to Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa insecticidal protein.

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    Chakroun, Maissa; Bel, Yolanda; Caccia, Silvia; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2012-07-01

    The Vip3Aa protein is an insecticidal protein secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative stage of growth. The activity of this protein has been tested after different steps/protocols of purification using Spodoptera frugiperda as a control insect. The results showed that the Vip3Aa protoxin was stable and retained full toxicity after being subjected to common biochemical steps used in protein purification. Bioassays with the protoxin in S. frugiperda and S. exigua showed pronounced differences in LC(50) values when mortality was measured at 7 vs. 10d. At 7d most live larvae were arrested in their development. LC(50) values of "functional mortality" (dead larvae plus larvae remaining in the first instar), measured at 7d, were similar or even lower than the LC(50) values of mortality at 10d. This strong growth inhibition was not observed when testing the trypsin-activated protein (62 kDa) in either species. S. exigua was less susceptible than S. frugiperda to the protoxin form, with LC(50) values around 10-fold higher. However, both species were equally susceptible to the trypsin-activated form. Processing of Vip3Aa protoxin to the activated form was faster with S. frugiperda midgut juice than with S. exigua midgut juice. The results strongly suggest that the differences in the rate of activation of the Vip3Aa protoxin between both species are the basis for the differences in susceptibility towards the protoxin form. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cross-resistance and Inheritance of Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Wunan; Huang, Jianlei; Guan, Fang; Wu, Yidong; Yang, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a worldwide pest of many crops. Chemical insecticides are heavily used for its control in China, and serious resistance has been evolved in the field to a variety of insecticides including emamectin benzoate. Through repeated backcrossing to a susceptible strain (WH-S) and selection with emamectin benzoate, the trait conferring resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field-collected population of S. exigua (moderately resistant to emamectin benzoate and strongly resistant to pyrethroids and indoxacarb) was introgressed into WH-S to generate a near-isogenic resistant strain (WH-EB). Compared with WH-S, the WH-EB strain developed a 1,110-fold resistance to emamectin benzoate and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin (202-fold), with low levels of cross-resistance to cypermethrin (10-fold) and chlorfluazuron (7-fold), but no cross-resistance to representatives of another six different classes of insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, spinosad, tebufenozide, and chlorpyrifos). Resistance to emamectin benzoate in WH-EB was autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic. Limited cross-resistance in WH-EB indicates that emamectin benzoate can be rotated with other classes of insecticides to which it does not show cross-resistance to delay the evolution of resistance in S. exigua. The incompletely dominant nature of resistance in S. exigua may explain the rapid evolution of resistance to emamectin benzoate in the field, and careful deployment of this chemical within a resistance management program should be considered. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Toxicity of nine insecticides on four natural enemies of Spodoptera exigua

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    Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiangying; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Spodoptera exigua, which feeds on various crops worldwide, has natural enemies that are susceptible to the insecticides used against S. exigua. We investigate the toxicity and residue risk of 9 insecticides on the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus. S. manilae and T. remus adults were sensitive to all 9 insecticides (LC50 less than 2.75 mg a.i. liter−1), while H. axyridis and C. sinica adults were less sensitive (LC50 between 6 × 10−5 mg a.i. liter−1 and 78.95 mg a.i. liter−1). Emamectin benzoate, spinosad, indoxacarb, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr and chlorantraniliprole showed no toxicity on H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus pupae with the recommended field concentrations. The risk analysis indicated that chlorantraniliprole is harmless to larvae of four natural enemies and adult of H. axyridis, C. sinica and S. manilae. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad had higher safety to the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus with the risk duration less than 4d. Indoxacarb, tebufenozide, chlorfenapyr, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos showed dangerously toxic and long risk duration on S. manilae and T. remus adults. PMID:27958333

  17. Toxicity of nine insecticides on four natural enemies of Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiangying; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-12-13

    Spodoptera exigua, which feeds on various crops worldwide, has natural enemies that are susceptible to the insecticides used against S. exigua. We investigate the toxicity and residue risk of 9 insecticides on the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus. S. manilae and T. remus adults were sensitive to all 9 insecticides (LC 50 less than 2.75 mg a.i. liter -1 ), while H. axyridis and C. sinica adults were less sensitive (LC 50 between 6 × 10 -5  mg a.i. liter -1 and 78.95 mg a.i. liter -1 ). Emamectin benzoate, spinosad, indoxacarb, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr and chlorantraniliprole showed no toxicity on H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus pupae with the recommended field concentrations. The risk analysis indicated that chlorantraniliprole is harmless to larvae of four natural enemies and adult of H. axyridis, C. sinica and S. manilae. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad had higher safety to the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus with the risk duration less than 4d. Indoxacarb, tebufenozide, chlorfenapyr, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos showed dangerously toxic and long risk duration on S. manilae and T. remus adults.

  18. Characterization and expression patterns of a membrane-bound trehalase from Spodoptera exigua

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    Xu Weihua

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chitin biosynthesis pathway starts with trehalose in insects and the main functions of trehalases are hydrolysis of trehalose to glucose. Although insects possess two types, soluble trehalase (Tre-1 and membrane-bound trehalase (Tre-2, very little is known about Tre-2 and the difference in function between Tre-1 and Tre-2. Results To gain an insight into trehalase functions in insects, we investigated a putative membrane-bound trehalase from Spodoptera exigua (SeTre-2 cloned from the fat body. The deduced amino acid sequence of SeTre-2 contains 645 residues and has a predicted molecular weight of ~74 kDa and pI of 6.01. Alignment of SeTre-2 with other insect trehalases showed that it contains two trehalase signature motifs and a putative transmembrane domain, which is an important characteristic of Tre-2. Comparison of the genomic DNA and cDNA sequences demonstrated that SeTre-2 comprises 13 exons and 12 introns. Southern blot analysis revealed that S. exigua has two trehalase genes and that SeTre-2 is a single-copy gene. Northern blot analyses showed that the SeTre-2 transcript is expressed not only in the midgut, as previously reported for Bombyx mori, but also in the fat body and Malpighian tubules, although expression patterns differed between the midgut and fat body. SeTre-2 transcripts were detected in the midgut of feeding stage larvae, but not in pupae, whereas SeTre-2 mRNA was detected in the fat body of fifth instar larvae and pupae. Conclusion These findings provide new data on the tissue distribution, expression patterns and potential function of membrane-bound trehalase. The results suggest that the SeTre-2 gene may have different functions in the midgut and fat body.

  19. Increased RNAi Efficacy in Spodoptera exigua via the Formulation of dsRNA With Guanylated Polymers

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    Olivier Christiaens

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera comprise some of the most devastating herbivorous pest insects worldwide. One of the most promising novel pest control strategies is exploiting the RNA interference (RNAi mechanism to target essential genes for knockdown and incite toxic effects in the target species without harming other organisms in the ecosystem. However, many insects are refractory to oral RNAi, often due to rapid degradation of ingested dsRNA in their digestive system. This is the case for many lepidopteran insects, including the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, which is characterized by a very alkaline gut environment (pH > 9.0 and a strong intestinal nucleolytic activity. In this research, guanidine-containing polymers were developed to protect dsRNA against nucleolytic degradation, specifically in high pH environments. First, their ability to protect dsRNA against nucleolytic degradation in gut juice of the beet armyworm S. exigua was investigated ex vivo. Polymers with high guanidine content provided a strong protection against nucleolytic degradation at pH 11, protecting the dsRNA for up to 30 h. Next, cellular uptake of the dsRNA and the polyplexes in lepidopteran CF203 midgut cells was investigated by confocal microscopy, showing that the polymer also enhanced cellular uptake of the dsRNA. Finally, in vivo feeding RNAi bioassays demonstrated that using these guanidine-containing polymer nanoparticles led to an increased RNAi efficiency in S. exigua. Targeting the essential gene chitin synthase B, we observed that the mortality increased to 53% in the polymer-protected dsRNA treatment compared to only 16% with the naked dsRNA and found that polymer-protected dsRNA completely halted the development of the caterpillars. These results show that using guanylated polymers as a formulation strategy can prevent degradation of dsRNA in the alkaline and strongly nucleolytic gut of lepidopteran insects. Furthermore, the polymer also enhances cellular uptake in

  20. Genomic sequence of Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3g isolated from Spodoptera exigua.

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    Huang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Yun-Sheng; Wang, Xing; Garretson, Tyler A; Dai, Liang-Ying; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Cheng, Xiao-Wen

    2012-11-01

    Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3a (HvAV-3a), a member of the family Ascoviridae, has the highest diversity among ascovirus species that have been reported in Australia, Indonesia, China, and the United States. To understand the diversity and origin of this important ascovirus, the complete genome of the HvAV Indonesia strain (HvAV-3g), isolated from Spodoptera exigua, was determined to be 199,721 bp, with a G+C content of 45.9%. Therefore, HvAV-3g has the largest genome among the reported ascovirus genomes to date. There are 194 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins of 50 or more amino acid residues. In comparison to HvAV-3e reported from Australia, HvAV-3g has all the ORFs in HvAV-3e with 6 additional ORFs unique to HvAV-3g, including 1 peptidase C26 gene with the highest identity to Drosophila spp. and 2 gas vesicle protein U (GvpU) genes with identities to Bacillus megaterium. The five unique homologous regions (hrs) and 25 baculovirus repeat ORFs (bro) of HvAV-3g are highly variable.

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca-resistant Spodoptera exigua lacks expression of one of four Aminopeptidase N genes

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    Moar William J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis bind to receptors on midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insect larvae. Aminopeptidases N (APNs from several insect species have been shown to be putative receptors for these toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression analysis of four APN cDNAs from Spodoptera exigua. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH was used to construct cDNA libraries of genes that are up-and down-regulated in the midgut of last instar larvae of beet armyworm, S. exigua exposed to B. thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin. Among the clones from the SSH libraries, cDNA fragments coding for two different APNs were obtained (APN2 and APN4. A similar procedure was employed to compare mRNA differences between susceptible and Cry1Ca resistant S. exigua. Among the clones from this last comparison, cDNA fragments belonging to a third APN (APN1 were detected. Using sequences obtained from the three APN cDNA fragments and degenerate primers for a fourth APN (APN3, the full length sequences of four S. exigua APN cDNAs were obtained. Northern blot analysis of expression of the four APNs showed complete absence of APN1 expression in the resistant insects, while the other three APNs showed similar expression levels in the resistant and susceptible insects. Conclusion We have cloned and characterized four different midgut APN cDNAs from S. exigua. Expression analysis revealed the lack of expression of one of these APNs in the larvae of a Cry1Ca-resistant colony. Combined with previous evidence that shows the importance of APN in the mode of action of B. thuringiensis toxins, these results suggest that the lack of APN1 expression plays a role in the resistance to Cry1Ca in this S. exigua colony.

  2. The Mechanism by Which Dodecyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride Increased the Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos to Spodoptera exigua

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    Li Cui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner is one of the most destructive pests that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, S. exigua have developed resistance toward the majority of insecticides. Synergists may provide an important choice to deal with the resistance problems. Dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (DDBAC is a cationic surfactant, which displayed enhancement effect when combined with chlorpyrifos against S. exigua, giving enhancement factors of 1.50 and 1.57 at the concentrations of 90 and 810 mg L−1. In order to clarify the possible mechanisms, we investigate the effects of DDBAC on detoxification enzymes. However, DDBAC showed no inhibition on these enzymes activities. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscope images indicated DDBAC did not affect the cuticle super micro structure of S. exigua. The alterations in cuticular penetration rate have also been observed; indeed, it has been suggested that synergism is obtained by an acceleration of insecticide penetration through the cuticle. The chlorpyrifos penetration increased sharply when combined with 90 and 810 mg L−1 DDBAC, with only 12.6 and 8.5% of the initial chlorpyrifos recovered by external rinsing after 8 h. In contrast, when there was no DDBAC, more than 23.3% of the initial dose was recovered after 8 h.

  3. Knockout of a P-glycoprotein gene increases susceptibility to abamectin and emamectin benzoate in Spodoptera exigua.

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    Zuo, Y-Y; Huang, J-L; Wang, J; Feng, Y; Han, T-T; Wu, Y-D; Yang, Y-H

    2018-02-01

    P-glycoprotein [P-gp or the ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1)] is an important participant in multidrug resistance of cancer cells, yet the precise function of this arthropod transporter is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of P-gp for susceptibility to insecticides in the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) gene-editing technology. We cloned an open reading frame (ORF) encoding the S. exigua P-gp protein (SeP-gp) predicted to display structural characteristics common to P-gp and other insect ABCB1 transporters. A knockout line with a frame shift deletion of four nucleotides in the SeP-gp ORF was established using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system to test its potential role in determining susceptibility to chemical insecticides or insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Results from comparative bioassays demonstrate that knockout of SeP-gp significantly increases susceptibility of S. exigua by around threefold to abamectin and emamectin benzoate (EB), but not to spinosad, chlorfenapyr, beta-cypermethrin, carbosulfan indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, phoxim, diafenthiuron, chlorfluazuron, chlorantraniliprole or two Bt toxins (Cry1Ca and Cry1Fa). Our data support an important role for SeP-gp in susceptibility of S. exigua to abamectin and EB and imply that overexpression of SeP-gp may contribute to abamectin and EB resistance in S. exigua. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Optimization of recombinant bacteria expressing dsRNA to enhance insecticidal activity against a lepidopteran insect, Spodoptera exigua.

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    Mohammad Vatanparast

    Full Text Available Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA has been applied to control insect pests due to its induction of RNA interference (RNAi of a specific target gene expression. However, developing dsRNA-based insecticidal agent has been a great challenge especially against lepidopteran insect pests due to variations in RNAi efficiency. The objective of this study was to screen genes of chymotrypsins (SeCHYs essential for the survival of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, to construct insecticidal dsRNA. In addition, an optimal oral delivery method was developed using recombinant bacteria. At least 7 SeCHY genes were predicted from S. exigua transcriptomes. Subsequent analyses indicated that SeCHY2 was widely expressed in different developmental stages and larval tissues by RT-PCR and its expression knockdown by RNAi caused high mortality along with immunosuppression. However, a large amount of dsRNA was required to efficiently kill late instars of S. exigua because of high RNase activity in their midgut lumen. To minimize dsRNA degradation, bacterial expression and formulation of dsRNA were performed in HT115 Escherichia coli using L4440 expression vector. dsRNA (300 bp specific to SeCHY2 overexpressed in E. coli was toxic to S. exigua larvae after oral administration. To enhance dsRNA release from E. coli, bacterial cells were sonicated before oral administration. RNAi efficiency of sonicated bacteria was significantly increased, causing higher larval mortality at oral administration. Moreover, targeting young larvae possessing weak RNase activity in the midgut lumen significantly enhanced RNAi efficiency and subsequent insecticidal activity against S. exigua.

  5. Evidence of recent interspecies horizontal gene transfer regarding nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda.

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    Barrera, Gloria Patricia; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Villamizar, Laura Fernanda; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel

    2015-11-25

    Baculoviruses are insect-associated viruses carrying large, circular double-stranded-DNA genomes with significant biotechnological applications such as biological pest control, recombinant protein production, gene delivery in mammals and as a model of DNA genome evolution. These pathogens infect insects from the orders Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera, and have high species diversity which is expressed in their diverse biological properties including morphology, virulence or pathogenicity. Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the fall armyworm, represents a significant pest for agriculture in America; it is a host for baculoviruses such as the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) (Colombia strain, genotype A) having been classified as a Group II alphabaculovirus making it a very attractive target for bioinsecticidal use. Genome analysis by pyrosequencing revealed that SfMNPV ColA has 145 ORFs, 2 of which were not present in the other sequenced genotypes of the virus (SfMNPV-NicB, SfMNPV-NicG, SfMNPV-19 and SfMNPV-3AP2). An in-depth bioinformatics study showed that ORF023 and ORF024 were acquired by a recent homologous recombination process between Spodoptera frugiperda and Spodoptera litura (the Oriental leafworm moth) nucleopolyhedroviruses. Auxiliary genes are numerous in the affected locus which has a homologous region (hr3), a repetitive sequence associated with genome replication which became lost in SfColA along with 1 ORF. Besides, the mRNAs associated with two acquired genes appeared in the virus' life-cycle during the larval stage. Predictive studies concerning the theoretical proteins identified that ORF023 protein would be a phosphatase involved in DNA repair and that the ORF024 protein would be a membrane polypeptide associated with cell transport. The SfColA genome was thus revealed to be a natural recombinant virus showing evidence of recent horizontal gene transfer between different baculovirus species occurring

  6. Transmission of Different Nucleopolyhedroviruses by Two Ectoparasitoids – Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Euplectrus plathypenae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Emanouela E. Stoianova; Nikolay A. Balevski

    2010-01-01

    The transmission of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) of Autographa gamma (AgNPV), Mamestra brassicae (MbNPV), Lacanobia oleraceae (LoNPV), Helicoverpa armigera (HaNPV) and Xantia c-nigrum (XnNPV) to their relevant larvae by the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor and the transmission of the multiple-enveloped NPVs of Spodoptera exigua (SeMNPV) and Spodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV) by the ectoparasitoid Euplectrus plathypenae was examined. Two methods of contamination of the both parasitoids (exposure to ...

  7. Temperature dependent development parameters and population life table of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HonQing Dai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is an important insect pest fed on many crops. Temperature and host plant dependent development, survival, and population parameters of S. exigua were studied in present article. The results showed that the generation duration of S. exigua at temperatures 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35 ℃ were 37.61, 30.78, 22.40, 18.57, and 13.74 days, respectively. S. exigua could not survive at 38 ℃. The generation duration of S. exigua, feeding on Lactuca sativa, Lactuca Sativa L., Raphanus sativus L., and Allium fistulosum at 27 ℃, were 18.86, 20.10, 22.67, and 22.50 days respectively. And the generation survivorship was 30.91, 29.00, 22.00, and 27.50% respectively, far less than observed 81.91% feeding on artificial diet. S. exigua feeding on L. sativa showed the highest net reproduction rate (216.29, intrinsic rate for increase (0.34, population trend index (76.59, finite rate for increase (1.33, and fecundity (606.5 eggs, while these values were the lowest when it fed on A. fistulosum. Relationship between development rate and temperature was fitted with three models, the linear model, Logistic model and Wang model, and Wang model produced the best fitting goodness. Wang model showed that for the egg, the 1st-5th instar larvae, pupa and adult of S. exigua, the upper limit temperatures for development are 45, 44.5, 44.4, 40.3, 43.6, 38.9, 38, and 38 ℃, resepctively; the lower limit temperatures for development are 7.5, 7.2, 13.4, 7.3, 6.6, 5.3, 5.6, and 5.6 ℃, respectively, and the optimum temperatures for development are 21.9, 28.9, 25.5, 24.5, 26, 31.6, 30.6, and 29.1 ℃, respectively. The upper limit, lower limit and optimum temperatures for development of the entire generation are 38, 5.7 and 30 ℃, resepctively.

  8. Comparative proteomics analysis of Spodoptera frugiperda cells during Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Xiong, Youhua; Gao, Hang; Liu, Jianliang; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Qin; Wen, Dongling

    2015-08-04

    Increasing evidence sugggest that in addition of balculovirus controling insect host, host cells also responds to balculovirus infection. However, compared to existing knowledge on virus gene, host cell responses are relatively poorly understood. In this study, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells were infected with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). The protein composition and protein changes of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells of different infection stages were analysed by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. A total of 4004 Sf9 proteins were identified by iTRAQ and 413 proteins were found as more than 1.5-fold changes in abundance. The 413 proteins were categorised according to GO classification for insects and were categorised into: biological process, molecular function and cellular component. The determination of the protein changes in infected Sf9 cells would help to better understanding of host cell responses and facilitate better design of this virus-host cell interaction in pest insect control and other related fields.

  9. Influence ofAmaranthus hybridus L. allelochemics on oviposition behavior ofSpodoptera exigua andS. eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E R; Heath, R R

    1985-05-01

    Common pigweed,Amaranthus hybridus L., is a favorite host of the beet army worm (BAW),Spodoptera exigua L. Chemicals extracted from homogenized pigweed with distilled water, ethanol, or dichloromethane and sprayed back on pigweed deterred oviposition by the BAW. Similarly, water extracts of frass from conspecific larvae or southern armyworm (SAW) larvae,S. eridania (Cramer), fed pigweed leaves and sprayed back on pigweed plants also deterred BAW oviposition, thus confirming that deterrence was due to plant allelochemics rather than specific compounds associated with the metabolic or excretory products of the larvae. Confirmation of the presence of oviposition-deterring chemicals in pigweed was used to explain a previously observed seasonal displacement of BAW by SAW on pigweed in the field.

  10. Kinetic analysis of in vitro production of wild-type Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Farias de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the kinetic behavior of Sf9 and Sf21 cells used in the production of a baculovirus biopesticide to control the pest of corn Spodoptera frugiperda was analyzed. Kinetic variables such as maximum specific growth rate, cell productivity, mean rate of infection, as well as the mean rate of occlusion body production were determined during the infection of these cell-lines with the extracellular virus of the S. frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV. The Sf9 cell-line resulted in better viral production results (5.0 x 10(8 OB/mL than the Sf21 cell-line (2.5 x 10(8 OB/mL.Neste trabalho, analisou-se o comportamento cinético das células Sf9 e Sf21 utilizadas na produção de biopesticida para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda. Variáveis cinéticas, como velocidade específica máxima de crescimento, produtividade em células, velocidade média de infecção e a velocidade média de produção de OB foram determinadas durante a infecção destas linhagens com o vírus extracelular do nucleopoliedrovirus de S. frugiperda. A linhagem Sf9 resultou em melhores resultados de produção do baculovírus (5 x 10(8 OB/mL, quando comparada à linhagem Sf21 (2,5 x 10(8 OB/mL e outras linhagens da literatura.

  11. Characterization of DNA topoisomerase-1 in Spodoptera exigua for toxicity evaluation of camptothecin and hydoxy-camptothecin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhang

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT, a plant alkaloid originally isolated from the native Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminate, exerts the toxic effect by targeting eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase 1 (DNA Topo1. Besides as potent anti-cancer agents, CPT and its derivatives are now being explored as potential pesticides for insect control. In this study, we assessed their toxicity to an insect homolog, the Topo1 protein from beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua Hübner, a worldwide pest of many important crops. The S. exigua Topo1 gene contains an ORF of 2790 base pairs that is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 930 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide exhibits polymorphism at residue sites V420, L530, A653 and T729 (numbered according to human Topo1 among insect species, which are predicted to confer sensitivity to CPT. The DNA relaxation activity of this protein was subsequently examined using a truncated form that contained the residues 337-930 and was expressed in bacteria BL21 cells. The purified protein retained the ability to relax double-stranded DNA and was susceptible to CPT and its derivative hydroxy-camptothecin (HCPT in a dose-dependent manner. The same inhibitory effect was also found on the native Topo1 extracted from IOZCAS-Spex-II cells, a cell line established from beet armyworms. Additionally, CPT and HCPT treatment reduced the steady accumulation of Topo1 protein despite the increased mRNA expression in response to the treatment. Our studies provide information of the S. exigua Topo1 gene and its amino acid polymorphism in insects and uncover some clues about potential mechanisms of CPT toxicity against insect pests. These results also are useful for development of more effective Topo1-targeted CPT insecticides in the future.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; Jiang, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Xing, Yanru; Li, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st) to 5(th) instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl) into the 4(th) instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3%) after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (Ppest control.

  13. A Comparison of Infectivity between Polyhedra of the Spodoptera litura Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Before and After Passage Through the Gut of the Stink Bug, Eocanthecona furcellata

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, R. K.; Gani, Mudasir; Jasrotia, P.; Srivastava, K.; Kaul, V.

    2014-01-01

    Infectivity of polyhedra of Spodoptera litura multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus before and after passage through the gut of the predatory stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was compared through field bioassay studies. Three sets of E. furcellata were used for bioassays and these were allowed to feed on a single meal of five third instar Oriental leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), that were infected with polyhedra before passage, afte...

  14. Toxicity of ethyl acetate extract from Jatropha gossypifolia senescent leaves against Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumrungsee, N; Pluempanupat, W; Kainoh, Y; Saguanpong, U; Bullangpotin, V

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the insecticidal effects of Thai botanical, senescent leaf Jatropha gossypifolia extracts on second instar Spodoptera exigua larvae by the dipping method and topical sprayer method. The leaf crude extract was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with ethyl acetate as solvent. The leaf crude extracts showed insecticidal activity with a LC50 of 6182 ppm at 24 hours after treatment. In addition, this research was observed its toxicity to worm parasitoid, Meteorus pulchricornis by contact method. The result shows 60 percent mortality of this parasitoid species at dose up to 40,000 ppm. Thus, Jatropha gossypifolia leaf crude extracts can be as alternative IPM control tool for Spodoptera exigua which friendly to benefit insect such as Meteorus pulchricornis.

  15. Effect of Individual and Combined Treatment with Azadirachtin and Spodoptera littoralis Multicapsid Nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV, Baculoviridae on the Egyptian Cotton Leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed H. Shaurub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The tetranortriterpenoid, azadirachtin, and the entomopathogenic virus, nucleopolyhedrovirus, are used as safe and new control measures for combating agricultural insect pests instead of the use of synthetic insecticides. They can be mixed together as an integrated pest management strategy. Thus, the current investigation was designed to determine the mortality, duration and weight gain of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae, and the yield of Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV (Baculoviridae when the fourth larval instars were treated individually with the LC50 of azadirachtin and of SpliMNPV, and in combination with each other using the LC25, compared to non-treated larvae (control. The results obtained showed that combined treatment significantly enhanced the larval mortality by about 58.40 %, i.e. potentiation. Both individual and combined treatment significantly decreased the larval weight gain, whereas the larval duration was significantly increased, with the highest change in case of combined treatment. Azadirachtin–NPV mixture significantly decreased the viral yield (number of polyhedral inclusion bodies/g fresh larval body weight by about 36.05 % compared to the individual treatment with the NPV. It can be concluded that although azadirachtin enhanced the pathogenicity (% larval kill of SpliMNPV to S. littoralis, azadirachtin–SpliMNPV mixture is unlikely to be useful for the mass production of this viral isolate. Thus, these laboratory observations require validation in field studies under commercial growing conditions.

  16. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  17. Down-regulation of a chitin synthase a gene by RNA interference enhances pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana ANU1 against Spodoptera exigua (HÜBNER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Bok; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Youngjin

    2017-02-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzymatic component, which is required for chitin formation in the cuticles and cuticular linings of other tissues in insects. CHSs have been divided into two classes, classes A and B, based on their amino acid sequence similarities and functions. Class A CHS (CHS-A) is specifically expressed in the epidermis and related ectodermal cells such as tracheal cells, while class B CHS (CHS-B) is expressed in gut epithelial cells that produce peritrophic matrices. In this study, we cloned the CHS-A gene from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (SeCHS-A). The SeCHS-A contains an open reading frame of 4,698 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 1,565 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of approximately 177.8 kDa. The SeCHS-A mRNA was expressed in all developmental stages and specifically in the epidermis and tracheae tissue by quantitative real-time-PCR analysis. Expression of SeCHS-A gene was suppressed by feeding double-stranded RNA (dsCHS-A, 400 ng/larva) in the third instar larvae of S. exigua. Suppression of the SeCHS-A gene expression significantly increased 35% of mortality on pupation of S. exigua. Also, the third instar larvae fed with dsCHS-A significantly increased susceptibility to entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana ANU1 at 3 days after treatment. These results suggest that the SeCHS-A gene plays an important role in development of S. exigua and RNA interference may apply to effective pest control with B. bassiana. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Quantitative and ultrastructural changes in the haemocytes of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) treated individually or in combination with Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) and azadirachtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaurub, El-Sayed H; Abd El-Meguid, Afaf; Abd El-Aziz, Nahla M

    2014-10-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC) and the possible ultrastructural alterations induced in the haemocytes of the fourth larval instars of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), 96 h post-feeding on a semi-synthetic diet, treated with the LC50 of Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) and the LC50 of azadirachtin alone, and the LC25 of SpliMNPV combined with the LC25 of azadirachtin were studied and compared to the control. Single treatment with the virus and azadirachtin or combined treatment significantly decreased the THC compared to the control. There are five types of haemocytes in S. littoralis: prohaemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids. The most common symptoms in granulocytes and plasmatocytes, the main affected cell types, due to viral infection were the presence of virogenic stroma, peripheral dispersion of the chromatin and disappearance of the nucleoli. However, the most common symptoms in these two types of haemocytes due to treatment with azadirachtin were the presence of rough endoplasmic reticulum filled with fibrous materials, due to probably apoptosis, in their cisternae and disorganization of mitochondria (looped, vacuolated and swollen). In addition, the cytoplasm of granulocytes was vacuolated with the appearance of autophagic lysosomes, while plasmatocytes showed ruptured cell membrane and folded nuclear envelope. Combined treatment with the NPV and azadirachtin induced the same pathological changes which were recorded from individual treatment with the virus or azadirachtin to the same haemocytes. It can be concluded that the change in the THC and ultrastructure of granulocytes and plasmatocytes may affect the cellular-mediated immune response in S. littoralis. Moreover, it seems likely that mitochondria were the target site of azadirachtin, as they were affected in both granulocytes and plasmatocytes treated with azadirachtin alone or in

  19. Progress on the artificial rearing of the army worm, Spodoptera (Laphygma) exigua Hb. and radiation sterilization in the male of this species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Chiravathanapong, S.

    1971-01-01

    The army worm, Spodoptera exigua Hb. was reared for 6 more generations in an artificial medium containing Mung bean as a major component. By improving the rearing temperature and humidity conditions, better rearing results were obtained. The average percentage of development from eggs to pupae, from eggs to adults, and from pupae to adults was 41.7+-4.93, 38.44+-6.32 and 88.1+-1.48 respectively. The pupal weight was also calculated. In sterilization studies, the 3-day-old male pupae were subjected to gamma rays at 0, 5 and 10 krads. Upon emerging into adults, they were mated with non-irradiated female moths. Male moths emerged from pupae subjected to 10 krads of gamma rays could significantly induce infertility in eggs deposited

  20. Possible Insecticidal Mechanisms Mediated by Immune-Response-Related Cry-Binding Proteins in the Midgut Juice of Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Keyu; Gu, Yuqing; Liu, Xiaoping; Lin, Yi; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-03-15

    Cry toxins are insecticidal toxin proteins produced by a spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Interactions between the Cry toxins and the receptors from midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), such as cadherin, alkaline phosphatase, and aminopeptidase, are key steps for the specificity and insecticidal activity of Cry proteins. However, little is known about the midgut juice proteins that may interfere with Cry binding to the receptors. To validate the hypothesis that there exist Cry-binding proteins that can interfere with the insecticidal process of Cry toxins, we applied Cry1Ab1-coupled Sepharose beads to isolate Cry-binding proteins form midgut juice of Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua. Trypsin-like serine proteases and Dorsal were found to be Cry1Ab1-binding proteins in the midgut juice of P. xylostella. Peroxidase-C (POX-C) was found to be the Cry1Ab1-binding protein in the midgut juice of S. exigua. We proposed possible insecticidal mechanisms of Cry1Ab1 mediated by the two immune-related proteins: Dorsal and POX-C. Our results suggested that there exist, in the midgut juice, Cry-binding proteins, which are different from BBMV-specific receptors.

  1. Deletion Genotypes Reduce Occlusion Body Potency but Increase Occlusion Body Production in a Colombian Spodoptera frugiperda Nucleopolyhedrovirus Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Gloria; Williams, Trevor; Villamizar, Laura; Caballero, Primitivo; Simón, Oihane

    2013-01-01

    A Colombian field isolate (SfCOL-wt) of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) is a mixture of different genotypes. To evaluate the insecticidal properties of the different genotypic variants, 83 plaque purified virus were characterized. Ten distinct genotypes were identified (named A through J). SfCOL-A was the most prevalent (71±2%; mean ± SE) showing a PstI restriction profile indistinguishable to that of SfCOL-wt. The remaining nine genotypes presented genomic deletions of 3.8 - 21.8 Kb located mainly between nucleotides 11,436 and 33,883 in the reference genome SfMNPV-B, affecting the region between open reading frames (ORFs) sf20 and sf33. The insecticidal activity of each genotype from SfCOL-wt and several mixtures of genotypes was compared to that of SfCOL-wt. The potency of SfCOL-A occlusion bodies (OBs) was 4.4-fold higher than SfCOL-wt OBs, whereas the speed of kill of SfCOL-A was similar to that of SfCOL-wt. Deletion genotype OBs were similarly or less potent than SfCOL-wt but six deletion genotypes were faster killing than SfCOL-wt. The potency of genotype mixtures co-occluded within OBs were consistently reduced in two-genotype mixtures involving equal proportions of SfCOL-A and one of three deletion genotypes (SfCOL-C, -D or -F). Speed of kill and OB production were improved only when the certain genotype mixtures were co-occluded, although OB production was higher in the SfCOL-wt isolate than in any of the component genotypes, or mixtures thereof. Deleted genotypes reduced OB potency but increased OB production of the SfCOL-wt population, which is structured to maximize the production of OBs in each infected host. PMID:24116220

  2. Comparative proteomics analysis of apoptotic Spodoptera frugiperda cells during p35 knockout Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Xiong, Youhua; Liu, Jianliang; Wang, Qin; Qiu, Yuanxin; Wen, Dongling

    2016-06-01

    Infection with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) mutants lacking a functional p35 gene can induce host cell apoptosis, which provides the possibility to use the potential of these viruses in the biological control of pest insects. Nonetheless, the proteomics or the protein changes of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells infected with p35 knockout AcMNPV have not yet been studied. To further improve the use of AcMNPV, we set out to analyze the protein composition and protein changes of Sf9 cells of different infection stages by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. A total of 4004 sf9 proteins were identified by iTRAQ. After comparation of the significantly expressed 483 proteins from p35koAcMNPV-infected Sf9 cells and the significantly expressed 413 proteins from wtAcMNPV-infected Sf9 cells, we found that 226 proteins were specific to p35koAcMNPV-infected Sf9 cells. The 226 proteins were categorized according to GO classification for insects and were categorized into: biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components. Of interest, the most up-regulated proteins related to Epstein-Barr virus infection, RNA transport, Calcium signaling pathway, cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, oxidative phosphorylation and N-Glycan biosynthesis. Determination of the protein changes in p35 knockout AcMNPV-infected Sf9 cells would facilitate the better use of this virus-host cell interaction in pest insect control and other related fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Proteomics of the 26S proteasome in Spodoptera frugiperda cells infected with the nucleopolyhedrovirus, AcMNPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyupina, Yulia V; Zatsepina, Olga G; Serebryakova, Marina V; Erokhov, Pavel A; Abaturova, Svetlana B; Kravchuk, Oksana I; Orlova, Olga V; Beljelarskaya, Svetlana N; Lavrov, Andrey I; Sokolova, Olga S; Mikhailov, Victor S

    2016-06-01

    Baculoviruses are large DNA viruses that infect insect species such as Lepidoptera and are used in biotechnology for protein production and in agriculture as insecticides against crop pests. Baculoviruses require activity of host proteasomes for efficient reproduction, but how they control the cellular proteome and interact with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) of infected cells remains unknown. In this report, we analyzed possible changes in the subunit composition of 26S proteasomes of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9), cells in the course of infection with the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). 26S proteasomes were purified from Sf9 cells by an immune affinity method and subjected to 2D gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and Mascot search in bioinformatics databases. A total of 34 homologues of 26S proteasome subunits of eukaryotic species were identified including 14 subunits of the 20S core particle (7 α and 7 β subunits) and 20 subunits of the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP contained homologues of 11 of RPN-type and 6 of RPT-type subunits, 2 deubiquitinating enzymes (UCH-14/UBP6 and UCH-L5/UCH37), and thioredoxin. Similar 2D-gel maps of 26S proteasomes purified from uninfected and AcMNPV-infected cells at 48hpi confirmed the structural integrity of the 26S proteasome in insect cells during baculovirus infection. However, subtle changes in minor forms of some proteasome subunits were detected. A portion of the α5(zeta) cellular pool that presumably was not associated with the proteasome underwent partial proteolysis at a late stage in infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Deletion genotypes reduce occlusion body potency but increase occlusion body production in a Colombian Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Barrera

    Full Text Available A Colombian field isolate (SfCOL-wt of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV is a mixture of different genotypes. To evaluate the insecticidal properties of the different genotypic variants, 83 plaque purified virus were characterized. Ten distinct genotypes were identified (named A through J. SfCOL-A was the most prevalent (71±2%; mean ± SE showing a PstI restriction profile indistinguishable to that of SfCOL-wt. The remaining nine genotypes presented genomic deletions of 3.8 - 21.8 Kb located mainly between nucleotides 11,436 and 33,883 in the reference genome SfMNPV-B, affecting the region between open reading frames (ORFs sf20 and sf33. The insecticidal activity of each genotype from SfCOL-wt and several mixtures of genotypes was compared to that of SfCOL-wt. The potency of SfCOL-A occlusion bodies (OBs was 4.4-fold higher than SfCOL-wt OBs, whereas the speed of kill of SfCOL-A was similar to that of SfCOL-wt. Deletion genotype OBs were similarly or less potent than SfCOL-wt but six deletion genotypes were faster killing than SfCOL-wt. The potency of genotype mixtures co-occluded within OBs were consistently reduced in two-genotype mixtures involving equal proportions of SfCOL-A and one of three deletion genotypes (SfCOL-C, -D or -F. Speed of kill and OB production were improved only when the certain genotype mixtures were co-occluded, although OB production was higher in the SfCOL-wt isolate than in any of the component genotypes, or mixtures thereof. Deleted genotypes reduced OB potency but increased OB production of the SfCOL-wt population, which is structured to maximize the production of OBs in each infected host.

  5. Spodoptera frugiperda Nucleopolyhedrovirus Sf NPV003: Compatibility with agrochemicals and storage stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marcela Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A Colombian isolate of Spodoptera frugiperdanucleopolyhedrovirus Sf NPV003 was formulated as a powder by microencapsulating it with a methacrylic acid polymer, which increased the photostability of the virus. In order to generate recommendations for the use of this biopesticide, the objective of this study was to establish in vitro compatibility with chemicals (insecticides and fungicides and to determine the product stability during 15 months at 8 °C, 18 °C and 28 °C. The virus was compatible with eight chemicals tested, with an insecticidal activity greater than 80%. When the biopesticide was stored at 8 °C, 18 °C and 28 °C, the insecticidal activity and the content of contaminants were within acceptance limits established for each property. Results indicated that microencapsulated Sf MNPV can be stored at temperatures below 28 °C, thus ensuring product quality for at least 17 months, enough time for its distribution and use.

  6. Impact of UV radiation on activity of linear furanocoumarins and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against Spodoptera exigua: Implications for tritrophic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, J.T.; Moar, W.J.; Brewer, M.J.; Carson, W.G. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Acidic fogs with a pH of 2.0 and duration of 2 hr did not reduce the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Therefore, the impact of UV radiation was investigated on the interactions between (1) levels of the antibacterial linear furanocoumarins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin in Apium graveolens (L.) occurring following a 2.0 pH acidic fog episode, (2) the noctuid Spodoptera exigua, and (3) a sublethal dosage of the microbial pathogen B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Mean time to pupation in the absence of UV radiation was significantly extended by the addition of either psoralens or B. thuringiensis. Larvae developing on diets containing B. thuringiensis plus psoralens required nearly 40% longer to pupate than controls, but their effects were additive as the interaction was not significant. Mean time to mortality, a weighted average time of death, was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. In a 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial analysis, all main effects reduced survival significantly, as did the three-way interaction. Thus, antagonistic interactions with psoralens that would reduce the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis in the field were not observed. When pairs of main effects were nested within the two levels of the third factor, several two-way interactions were found. Interestingly, the activity of B. thuringiensis and the psoralens, individually or in combination, was enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. Implications of this research are discussed for both natural and agricultural ecosystems.

  7. Population genetic diversity and genetic structure of Spodoptera exigua around the Bohai Gulf area of China based on mitochondrial DNA signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L-H; Wang, X-Y; Lei, J-J

    2016-09-30

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest that causes major losses in some main crop-producing areas of China. To control this pest effectively, it is necessary to investigate its population genetic diversity and genetic structure around the Bohai Gulf area of China. In this study, we used two mitochondrial genes, COI (578 bp) and Cytb (724 bp), to investigate its genetic diversity. We obtained 622 COI sequences and 462 Cytb sequences from 23 populations, and 28 and 73 haplotypes, respectively, were identified. Low to moderate levels of genetic diversity (COI: Hd = 0.267 ± 0.023, Pi = 0.00082 ± 0.00010; Cytb: Hd = 0.689 ± 0.018, Pi = 0.00255 ± 0.00029) for the total populations were observed. Phylogenetic and median-joining network analyses indicated no distinct geographical distribution pattern among the haplotypes. Overall, this study revealed that there was significant differentiation among the populations (COI: F ST = 0.158, P neutrality test results, showed a recent population expansion of the beet armyworm around the Bohai Gulf area of China.

  8. Impact of UV radiation on activity of linear furanocoumarins and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against Spodoptera exigua: Implications for tritrophic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumble, J.T.; Moar, W.J.; Brewer, M.J.; Carson, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    Acidic fogs with a pH of 2.0 and duration of 2 hr did not reduce the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Therefore, the impact of UV radiation was investigated on the interactions between (1) levels of the antibacterial linear furanocoumarins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin in Apium graveolens (L.) occurring following a 2.0 pH acidic fog episode, (2) the noctuid Spodoptera exigua, and (3) a sublethal dosage of the microbial pathogen B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Mean time to pupation in the absence of UV radiation was significantly extended by the addition of either psoralens or B. thuringiensis. Larvae developing on diets containing B. thuringiensis plus psoralens required nearly 40% longer to pupate than controls, but their effects were additive as the interaction was not significant. Mean time to mortality, a weighted average time of death, was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis, all main effects reduced survival significantly, as did the three-way interaction. Thus, antagonistic interactions with psoralens that would reduce the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis in the field were not observed. When pairs of main effects were nested within the two levels of the third factor, several two-way interactions were found. Interestingly, the activity of B. thuringiensis and the psoralens, individually or in combination, was enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. Implications of this research are discussed for both natural and agricultural ecosystems

  9. A comparison of infectivity between polyhedra of the Spodoptera litura multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus before and after passage through the gut of the stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R K; Gani, Mudasir; Jasrotia, P; Srivastava, K; Kaul, V

    2014-01-01

    Infectivity of polyhedra of Spodoptera litura multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus before and after passage through the gut of the predatory stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was compared through field bioassay studies. Three sets of E. furcellata were used for bioassays and these were allowed to feed on a single meal of five third instar Oriental leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), that were infected with polyhedra before passage, after passage, and healthy (control) larvae 1 day prior to the trial. The predators were subsequently released on cabbage plants that were infested with 100 healthy S. litura larvae. The median lethal dose (LD50) and survival time (ST50) values before and after passage through the gut were not significantly different. Additional mortality due to virus infection increased 13- 17% before and after treatments but within these treatments the mortality did not vary significantly. It was concluded that E. furcellata disseminated the virus through their feces into the ecosystem and infectivity of the SpltMNPV was not altered after passage through the gut of the predator. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua larvae challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bel

    Full Text Available Host-pathogen interactions result in complex relationship, many aspects of which are not completely understood. Vip proteins, which are Bacillus thuringensis (Bt insecticidal toxins produced during the vegetative stage, are selectively effective against specific insect pests. This new group of Bt proteins represents an interesting alternative to the classical Bt Cry toxins because current data suggests that they do not share the same mode of action. We have designed and developed a genome-wide microarray for the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a serious lepidopteran pest of many agricultural crops, and used it to better understand how lepidopteran larvae respond to the treatment with the insecticidal protein Vip3Aa. With this approach, the goal of our study was to evaluate the changes in gene expression levels caused by treatment with sublethal doses of Vip3Aa (causing 99% growth inhibition at 8 and 24 h after feeding. Results indicated that the toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response, with 19% of the microarray unigenes responding significantly to treatment. The number of up- and down-regulated unigenes was very similar. The number of genes whose expression was regulated at 8 h was similar to the number of genes whose expression was regulated after 24 h of treatment. The up-regulated sequences were enriched for genes involved in innate immune response and in pathogen response such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and repat genes. The down-regulated sequences were mainly unigenes with homology to genes involved in metabolism. Genes related to the mode of action of Bt Cry proteins were found, in general, to be slightly overexpressed. The present study is the first genome-wide analysis of the response of lepidopteran insects to Vip3Aa intoxication. An insight into the molecular mechanisms and components related to Vip intoxication will allow designing of more effective management strategies for pest control.

  11. The "11K" gene family members sf68, sf95 and sf138 modulate transmissibility and insecticidal properties of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beperet, Inés; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; López-Ferber, Miguel; Caballero, Primitivo

    2015-05-01

    The "11K" gene family is notable for having homologs in both baculoviruses and entomopoxviruses and is classified as either type 145 or type 150, according to their similarity with the ac145 or ac150 genes of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). One homolog of ac145 (sf138) and two homologs of ac150 (sf68 and sf95) are present in Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV). Recombinant bacmids lacking sf68, sf95 or sf138 (Sf68null, Sf95null and Sf138null, respectively) and the respective repair bacmids were generated from a bacmid comprising the complete virus genome. Occlusion bodies (OBs) of the Sf138null virus were ∼15-fold less orally infective to insects, which was attributed to a 100-fold reduction in ODV infectious titer. Inoculation of insects with Sf138null OBs in mixtures with an optical brightener failed to restore the pathogenicity of Sf138null OBs to that of the parental virus, indicating that the effects of sf138 deletion on OB pathogenicity were unlikely to involve an interaction with the gut peritrophic matrix. In contrast, deletion of sf68 and sf95 resulted in a slower speed-of-kill by 9h, and a concurrent increase in the yield of OBs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that sf68 and sf95 were not generated after a duplication event of an ancestral gene homologous to the ac150 gene. We conclude that type 145 genes modulate the primary infection process of the virus, whereas type 150 genes appear to have a role in spreading systemic infection within the insect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sf29 Gene of Spodoptera frugiperda Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Is a Viral Factor That Determines the Number of Virions in Occlusion Bodies▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; Asensio, Aaron C.; Ros, Sarhay; Gaya, Andrea; Caballero, Primitivo; Possee, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    The genome of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) was inserted into a bacmid (Sfbac) and used to produce a mutant lacking open reading frame 29 (Sf29null). Sf29null bacmid DNA was able to generate an infection in S. frugiperda. Approximately six times less DNA was present in occlusion bodies (OBs) produced by the Sf29null bacmid in comparison to viruses containing this gene. This reduction in DNA content was consistent with fewer virus particles being packaged within Sf29null bacmid OBs, as determined by fractionation of dissolved polyhedra and comparison of occlusion-derived virus (ODV) infectivity in cell culture. DNA from Sfbac, Sf29null, or Sf29null-repair, in which the gene deletion had been repaired, were equally infectious when used to transfect S. frugiperda. All three viruses produced similar numbers of OBs, although those from Sf29null were 10-fold less infectious than viruses with the gene. Insects infected with Sf29null bacmid died ∼24 h later than positive controls, consistent with the reduced virus particle content of Sf29null OBs. Transcripts from Sf29 were detected in infected insects 12 h prior to those from the polyhedrin gene. Homologs to Sf29 were present in other group II NPVs, and similar sequences were present in entomopoxviruses. Analysis of the Sf29 predicted protein sequence revealed signal peptide and transmembrane domains, but the presence of 12 potential N-glycosylation sites suggest that it is not an ODV envelope protein. Other motifs, including zinc-binding and threonine-rich regions, suggest degradation and adhesion functions. We conclude that Sf29 is a viral factor that determines the number of ODVs occluded in each OB. PMID:18550678

  13. The sf32 unique gene of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV is a non-essential gene that could be involved in nucleocapsid organization in occlusion-derived virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Beperet

    Full Text Available A recombinant virus lacking the sf32 gene (Sf32null, unique to the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV, was generated by homologous recombination from a bacmid comprising the complete viral genome (Sfbac. Transcriptional analysis revealed that sf32 is an early gene. Occlusion bodies (OBs of Sf32null contained 62% more genomic DNA than viruses containing the sf32 gene, Sfbac and Sf32null-repair, although Sf32null DNA was three-fold less infective when injected in vivo. Sf32null OBs were 18% larger in diameter and contained 17% more nucleocapsids within ODVs than those of Sfbac. No significant differences were detected in OB pathogenicity (50% lethal concentration, speed-of-kill or budded virus production in vivo. In contrast, the production of OBs/larva was reduced by 39% in insects infected by Sf32null compared to those infected by Sfbac. The SF32 predicted protein sequence showed homology (25% identity, 44% similarity to two adhesion proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes and a single N-mirystoylation site was predicted. We conclude that SF32 is a non-essential protein that could be involved in nucleocapsid organization during ODV assembly and occlusion, resulting in increased numbers of nucleocapsids within ODVs.

  14. Baculovirus PTP2 functions as a pro-apoptotic protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Yue; Houte, van Stineke; Oers, van Monique M.; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2018-01-01

    The family Baculoviridae encompasses a large number of invertebrate viruses, mainly infecting caterpillars of the order Lepidoptera. The baculovirus Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) induces physiological and behavioral changes in its host Spodoptera exigua, as well as

  15. Biological and molecular characterization of a multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus from Thysanoplusia orichalcea (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Wen; Carner, Gerald R; Lange, Martin; Jehle, Johannes A; Arif, Basil M

    2005-02-01

    A multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (ThorMNPV) that was co-isolated with a single nucleocapid ThorSNPV from mixed infected larvae of Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptea: Noctuidae) is characterized. Scanning electron microscopy of ThorMNPV showed a dodecahedral-shaped occlusion body (OB). The occluded virions contained one to as many as eight nucleocapsids/virion. Virion band profiles in gradient centrifugation were consistent in at least 10 rounds of centrifugation from different virion sample preparations. The ThorMNPV had high virulence to third instar Trichoplusia ni and Pseudoplusia includens with LD50 values of 17 and 242OBs per larva, respectively. However, ThorMNPV did not cause mortality in Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera eridania, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and Helicoverpa zea. ThorMNPV replicates in cells of various tissues such as the fat body and tracheal epithelium cells. T. ni High 5 cells were permissive to ThorMNPV in terms of infection and viral DNA transfection, but SF-21 was less permissive and the infection process was slower. Production of OBs by ThorMNPV in the nuclei of SF-21 was not well pronounced. The genome size of ThorMNPV was estimated to be 136 kb. The polyhedrin gene open reading frame (ORF) was cloned and completely sequenced. The promoter sequence is identical to that of Autographa californica MNPV. Phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of the polh, lef-8, and lef-9 revealed that ThorMNPV is a member of the Group I NPVs and is related but distinct from the AcMNPV/Rachiplusia ou NPV/Bombyx mori NPV cluster.

  16. Transmission of Different Nucleopolyhedroviruses by Two Ectoparasitoids – Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Euplectrus plathypenae (Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanouela E. Stoianova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs of Autographa gamma (AgNPV,Mamestra brassicae (MbNPV, Lacanobia oleraceae (LoNPV, Helicoverpa armigera (HaNPVand Xantia c-nigrum (XnNPV to their relevant larvae by the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetorand the transmission of the multiple-enveloped NPVs of Spodoptera exigua (SeMNPV andSpodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV by the ectoparasitoid Euplectrus plathypenae was examined.Two methods of contamination of the both parasitoids (exposure to infected hostsand total body surface and two subsequent transmissions of the viruses by Bracon hebetorto healthy hosts were tested. The results showed that both parasitoids were capable tobe mechanical vectors of the tested NPVs. Every Bracon hebetor female was able to transmitsubsequently twice the virus in 27% to 52.2% of the five Noctuidae species by preliminaryexposing to infected larvae. The second method of contamination (applying virus suspensionto the total body surface of the parasitoid was also efficient causing virus infection inbetween 29.4% and 54.15% of the larvae.The parasitoid E. plathypenae transmited the virus from infected to noninfected larvaein 20% and 25.57% of the S. frugiperda and S. exigua larvae, and 6.43% and 11.10%, respectivelyof them died from the virus infection. The same observation was established by thesecond method of contamination – respectively 33.33% and 40% infection and between13.23% and 16.67% mortality. The mortality of all tested larvae exposed to virus contaminated parasitoids was higherwhen the parasitoid entire body surface had been artificially contaminated with the virusthan when the parasitoid itself was previously allowed to oviposit the larvae.

  17. The role of the PI3K-Akt signal transduction pathway in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wei; Yang Yi; Weng Qingbei; Lin Tiehao; Yuan Meijin; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2009-01-01

    Many viruses activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, thereby modulating diverse downstream signaling pathways associated with antiapoptosis, proliferation, cell cycling, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism, in order to augment their replication. To date, the role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in Baculovirus replication has not been defined. In the present study, we demonstrate that infection of Sf9 cells with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) elevated cellular Akt phosphorylation at 1 h post-infection. The maximum Akt phosphorylation occurred at 6 h post-infection and remained unchanged until 18 h post-infection. The PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that AcMNPV-induced Akt phosphorylation is PI3K-dependent. The inhibition of PI3K-Akt activation by LY294002 significantly reduced the viral yield, including a reduction in budded viruses and occlusion bodies. The virus production was reduced only when the inhibitor was added within 24 h of infection, implying that activation of PI3K occurred early in infection. Correspondingly, both viral DNA replication and late (VP39) and very late (POLH) viral protein expression were impaired by LY294002 treatment; LY294002 had no effect on immediate-early (IE1) and early-late (GP64) protein expression. These results demonstrate that the PI3K-Akt pathway is required for efficient Baculovirus replication.

  18. Characterization of a single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X W; Carner, G R

    2000-05-01

    A single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolated from Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) (ThorNPV) in Indonesia has tetrahedral occlusion bodies (OBs) with a width of 1. 22 microm (range = 0.803-1.931 microm). The length of the virion with an envelope averaged 0.29 and 0.23 microm without an envelope. ThorNPV was propagated in Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) and its authenticity was confirmed by sequence analysis of the polyhedrin gene of the ThorNPV produced in T. orichalcea and P. includens. Polyhedrin amino acid sequence analysis revealed that ThorNPV belongs to Group II of baculoviruses and is closely related to Trichoplusia ni single nucleocapsid NPV, sharing 97.6% sequence identity. Infectivity of ThorNPV against third instar P. includens was low, with a LD(50) value of 65,636 OBs/larva. Electron microscopy of infected tissues showed many polyhedra without virions embedded, which might explain the low virulence against P. includens. Differences in virion occlusion rates between individual cells in the same tissue suggested that the inoculum consisted of at least two variants that differed in the gene(s) controlling virion occlusion. In a host range test using the LD(50) value to P. includens against Spodoptera exigua, S. frugiperda, S. eridania, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Helicoverpa zea, Trichoplusia ni, and P. includens, P. includens was the only species infected. The virus infected primarily the fat body, tracheal epithelium, and hypodermis. The genomic size of the ThorNPV is 135 kb. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. P143 proteins from heterologous nucleopolyhedroviruses induce apoptosis in BM-N cells derived from the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Rina; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Ikeda, Motoko

    2017-04-02

    We previously demonstrated that ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of Bombyx mori BM-N cells is rapidly degraded upon infection with heterologous nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), including Autographa californica multiple NPV (AcMNPV), Hyphantria cunea MNPV, Spodoptera exigua MNPV and S. litura MNPV, and that this response is triggered by viral P143 proteins. The transient expression of P143 proteins from heterologous NPVs was also shown to induce apoptosis and caspase-3-like protease activation in BM-N cells. In the present study, we conducted a transient expression assay using BM-N cells expressing mutant AcMNPV P143 (Ac-P143) proteins and demonstrated that five amino acid residues cooperatively participate in Ac-P143 protein-triggered apoptosis of BM-N cells. Notably, these five residues were previously shown to be required for triggering rRNA degradation in BM-N cells. As rRNA degradation in BM-N cells does not result from apoptosis, the present results suggest that Ac-P143-triggered rRNA degradation is the upstream signal for apoptosis induction in BM-N cells. We further showed that P143 protein-triggered apoptosis does not occur in S. frugiperda Sf9 or Lymantria dispar Ld652Y cells, indicating that apoptosis induction by heterologous P143 proteins is a BM-N cell-specific response. In addition, the observed induction of apoptosis in BM-N cells was found to be mediated by activation of the initiator caspase Bm-Dronc. Taken together, these results suggest that BM-N cells evolved a unique antiviral system that recognizes heterologous NPV P143 proteins to induce rRNA degradation and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Macrofauna Associated with the Sponge Neopetrosia exigua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamil Nadu, India. Keywords: Neopetrosia exigua, sponge, associated-fauna, species richness,. Mauritius, Indian Ocean. Abstract — The macrofaunal community associated with the sponge Neopetrosia exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1900) was studied across a ...

  1. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Phoma exigua Desm. var. exigua for selected species of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available P. exigua var. exigua was isolated from underground and aboveground organs of different herb plant species in the years 1998-2006. Pathogenicity tests of three randomly chosen isolates of the fungus T 299, T 261 and T 277 for thyme and of three isolates M 1657, M 1193 and M 1635 for lemon balm were carried out. The effect of water suspension of fungus spores on the germination ability of schizocarps and of infected soil on sprouting and seedling health was studied. The study of microscopic structures of the fungus developing on plants, isolation of the fungus on artificial media and macro- and microscopic analysis on standard media are essential for the correct identification of P. exigua var. exigua. The polyphagous nature of the fungus is confirmed by the obtained results. The tested isolates were found to be occasional pathogens of thyme and lemon balm in the studied conditions. The harmfulness of the tested isolates pointed to inhibition of schizocarp germination, sprouting of plants and the ability to cause necrosis of germs, roots and epicotyl.

  2. Characterization of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus Bm17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongxing; Wang, Rudu; Han, Qinggong; Zhang, Wen; Nin, Bin; Zhou, Yang; Shao, Shihe; Yao, Qin; Chen, Keping; Liu, Xiaoyong

    2013-10-01

    Open reading frame17 (Bm17) of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus is a highly conserved gene in lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses, suggesting that it performs an important role in the virus life cycle whose function is unknown. In this report, we describe the characterization of Bm17. Reversed transcriptive-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis demonstrated that Bm17 was expressed as a late gen. Immunofluorescence analysis by confocal microscopy showed that BM17 protein was localized on cytoplasm and nucleus of infected cells. These results show that BM17 was a late protein localized in cytoplasm and nucleus. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Constitutive Activation of the Midgut Response to Bacillus thuringiensis in Bt-Resistant Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Martinez, P.; Navarro-Cerrillo, G.; Caccia, S.; Maagd, de R.A.; Moar, W.J.; Ferre, J.; Escriche, B.; Herrero, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most effective microbial control agent for controlling numerous species from different insect orders. The main threat for the long term use of B. thuringiensis in pest control is the ability of insects to develop resistance. Thus, the identification of insect genes

  4. Development and validation of real-time PCR tests for the identification of four Spodoptera species: Spodoptera eridania, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera littoralis, and Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Van der Straten, M J

    2014-08-01

    The genus Spodoptera comprises 31 species, 4 of which are listed as quarantine pests for the European Union: Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval), and Spodoptera litura (F.). In international trade, the earlier life stages (eggs and larvae) are being intercepted at point of inspection most frequently, challenging the possibilities of morphological identification. To realize a rapid and reliable identification for all stages, we developed and validated four simplex real-time polymerase chain reaction identification tests based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene using dual-labeled hydrolysis probes. Method validation on dilutions of extracted DNA of the target organisms showed that low levels of template (up to 0.2-100 pg) can reliably be identified. No cross-reactivity was observed with 14 nontarget Spodoptera and 5 non-Spodoptera species in the specific Spodoptera tests. The tests showed to be repeatable, reproducible (both 100%), and robust. The new Spodoptera tests have proven to be suitable tools for routine identification of all life stages of S. eridania, S. frugiperda, S. littoralis, and S. litura.

  5. Proteotoxic stress induced by Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyupina, Yulia V.; Abaturova, Svetlana B.; Erokhov, Pavel A. [N.K. Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 Vavilova Str., Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Orlova, Olga V.; Beljelarskaya, Svetlana N. [V.A. Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 32 Vavilova Str., Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, Victor S., E-mail: mikhailov48@mail.ru [N.K. Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 Vavilova Str., Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-05

    Baculovirus AcMNPV causes proteotoxicity in Sf9 cells as revealed by accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and aggresomes in the course of infection. Inhibition of proteasomes by lactacystin increased markedly the stock of ubiquitinated proteins indicating a primary role of proteasomes in detoxication. The proteasomes were present in Sf9 cells as 26S and 20S complexes whose protease activity did not change during infection. Proteasome inhibition caused a delay in the initiation of viral DNA replication suggesting an important role of proteasomes at early stages in infection. However, lactacystin did not affect ongoing replication indicating that active proteasomes are not required for genome amplification. At late stages in infection (24-48 hpi), aggresomes containing the ubiquitinated proteins and HSP/HSC70s showed gradual fusion with the vacuole-like structures identified as lysosomes by antibody to cathepsin D. This result suggests that lysosomes may assist in protection against proteotoxicity caused by baculoviruses absorbing the ubiquitinated proteins.

  6. Proteotoxic stress induced by Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyupina, Yulia V.; Abaturova, Svetlana B.; Erokhov, Pavel A.; Orlova, Olga V.; Beljelarskaya, Svetlana N.; Mikhailov, Victor S.

    2013-01-01

    Baculovirus AcMNPV causes proteotoxicity in Sf9 cells as revealed by accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and aggresomes in the course of infection. Inhibition of proteasomes by lactacystin increased markedly the stock of ubiquitinated proteins indicating a primary role of proteasomes in detoxication. The proteasomes were present in Sf9 cells as 26S and 20S complexes whose protease activity did not change during infection. Proteasome inhibition caused a delay in the initiation of viral DNA replication suggesting an important role of proteasomes at early stages in infection. However, lactacystin did not affect ongoing replication indicating that active proteasomes are not required for genome amplification. At late stages in infection (24–48 hpi), aggresomes containing the ubiquitinated proteins and HSP/HSC70s showed gradual fusion with the vacuole-like structures identified as lysosomes by antibody to cathepsin D. This result suggests that lysosomes may assist in protection against proteotoxicity caused by baculoviruses absorbing the ubiquitinated proteins.

  7. RNAi Screening in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhanita; Singh, Gatikrushna; Sachdev, Bindiya; Kumar, Ajit; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil K; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference is a potent and precise reverse genetic approach to carryout large-scale functional genomic studies in a given organism. During the past decade, RNAi has also emerged as an important investigative tool to understand the process of viral pathogenesis. Our laboratory has successfully generated transgenic reporter and RNAi sensor line of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) cells and developed a reversal of silencing assay via siRNA or shRNA guided screening to investigate RNAi factors or viral pathogenic factors with extraordinary fidelity. Here we describe empirical approaches and conceptual understanding to execute successful RNAi screening in Spodoptera frugiperda 21-cell line.

  8. Biosafety of Recombinant and Wild Type Nucleopolyhedroviruses as Bioinsecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D. Hammock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic Autographa californica (Speyer nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV has been genetically modified to increase its speed of kill. The potential adverse effects of a recombinant AcMNPV (AcAaIT as well as wild type AcMNPV and wild type Spodoptera littoralis NPV (SlNPV were studied. Cotton plants were treated with these viruses at concentrations that were adjusted to resemble the recommended field application rate (4 x 1012 PIBs/feddan, feddan = 4,200 m2 and 3rd instar larvae of S. littoralis were allowed to feed on the contaminated plants. SDS-PAGE, ELISA, and DNA analyses were used to confirm that larvae that fed on these plants were virus-infected. Polyhedra that were purified from the infected larvae were subjected to structural protein analysis. A 32 KDa protein was found in polyhedra that were isolated from all of the viruses. Subtle differences were found in the size and abundance of ODV proteins. Antisera against polyhedral proteins isolated from AcAaIT polyhedra were raised in rabbits. The terminal bleeds from rabbits were screened against four coating antigens (i.e., polyhedral proteins from AcAaIT, AcAaIT from field-infected larvae (AcAaIT-field, AcMNPV, and SlNPV using a two-dimensional titration method with the coated antigen format. Competitive inhibition experiments were conducted in parallel to optimize antibody and coating antigen concentrations for ELISA. The IC50 values for each combination ranged from 1.42 to 163 μg/ml. AcAaIT-derived polyhedrin gave the lowest IC50 value, followed by those of SlNPV, AcAaIT-field, and AcMNPV. The optimized ELISA system showed low cross reactivity for AcMNPV (0.87%, AcAaIT-field (1.2%, and SlNPV (4.0%. Genomic DNAs isolated from AcAaIT that were passaged in larvae of S. littoralis that were reared in the laboratory or field did not show any detectable differences. Albino rats (male and female that were treated with AcAaIT, AcMNPV or SlNPV (either orally or by intraperitoneal

  9. Antiamoebic activity of marine sponge Haliclona exigua (Krikpatrick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Lakshmi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanol and methanol-chloroform (1:1 extracts of the freshly collected Haliclona exigua showed minumim inhibitory concentration (MIC of 125 ug/ml and 250 ug/ml respectively in in vitro studies, but when both of these were tested in vivo in rats, only methanol-chloroform showed 80% inhibition of trophozoites at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight against Entamoeba histolytica. Therefore only methanol-chloroform extract was further fractionated into four fractions (hexane, chloroform, n-butanol soluble and n-butanol insoluble fractions. Out of these, only hexane and n-butanol soluble fractions showed 80% inhibition of trophozoites at 900 mg/kg dose. Further the chromatography of the n-butanol fraction yielded araguspongin-C which showed promising results at different doses.

  10. Relationship between abundance and morphology of benthic foraminifera Epistominella exigua: Palaeoclimatic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Deopujari, A.; Nigam, R.; Henriques, P.J.

    The relationship between abundance (relative as well as absolute abundance) and morphology (size of the shell, numbers and proloculus size) of benthic foraminifera Epistominella exigua has been studied in a core to understand the influence...

  11. Genomic diversity of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Peng; Cheng, Ruo-Lin; Xi, Yu; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2013-07-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a baculovirus that selectively infects the domestic silkworm. In this study, six BmNPV strains were compared at the whole genome level. We found that the number of bro genes and the composition of the homologous regions (hrs) are the two primary areas of divergence within these genomes. When we compared the ORFs of these BmNPV variants, we noticed a high degree of sequence divergence in the ORFs that are not baculovirus core genes. This result is consistent with the results derived from phylogenetic trees and evolutionary pressure analyses of these ORFs, indicating that ORFs that are not core genes likely play important roles in the evolution of BmNPV strains. The evolutionary relationships of these BmNPV strains might be explained by their geographic origins or those of their hosts. In addition, the total number of hr palindromes seems to affect viral DNA replication in Bm5 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bracovirus derived genes in the genome of Spodoptera exigua Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their role in host susceptibility to pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Gasmi, Laila

    2015-01-01

    La asociación entre los himenópteros parasitoides, polydnavirus (PDV) y lepidópteros representa un modelo interesante para estudiar la transferencia horizontal de genes. Está bien documentado que miles de himenópteros parasitoides pertenecientes a las familias Braconidae e Ichneumonidae han domesticado virus simbióticos denominados respectivamente Bracovirus o Ichnovirus. El virus se inyecta junto con los huevos del parásito en el hemocele del lepidóptero huésped, donde se expresan proteínas ...

  13. Rac1 mediates cytokine-stimulated hemocyte spreading via prostaglandin biosynthesis in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cell spreading is an integral component of insect hemocytic immune reactions to infections and invasions. Cell spreading is accomplished by cytoskeleton rearrangement, which is activated by three major immune mediators, biogenic monoamines, plasmatocyte-spreading peptide (PSP), and eicosanoids, part...

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca-resistant Spodoptera exigua lacks expression of one of four Aminopeptidase N genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Gechev, T.; Bakker, P.L.; Moar, W.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis bind to receptors on midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insect larvae. Aminopeptidases N (APNs) from several insect species have been shown to be putative receptors for these toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression analysis of

  15. Effect of plant and fungous metabolites on Meloidogyne exigua Efeito de metabólitos vegetais e fúngicos sobre Meloidogyne exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rufino Amaral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As nematodes cause great damage to Brazilian coffee production, effective methods to control these parasites are necessary. In a previous work Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. and Coffea arabica L. produced active substances against Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, a nematode widely disseminated through Brazilian coffee fields. Thus, aqueous extracts of such plants, collected in a different season from that of the previous work, as well as crude metabolites produced in liquid medium by Fusarium moniliforme Shelden and Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc. Woll., were submitted to in vitro assays with M. exigua second-stage juveniles (J2. All plants and fungi produced active substances against J2. Therefore, their metabolites were applied to six-month-old coffee plants inoculated with M. exigua. After 90 days in a greenhouse, those samples obtained from A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens and F. moniliforme inhibited the production of galls and eggs by M. exigua, demonstrating potential to control such parasite.Os nematóides acarretam grandes perdas aos produtores brasileiros de café, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para o seu controle. Em trabalho anterior, Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. e Coffea arabica L. produziram substâncias ativas contra o nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, que é amplamente disseminado pelos cafezais brasileiros. Dando continuidade a esse trabalho, extratos aquosos das plantas mencionadas, coletadas em época diferente daquela

  16. Molecular characterization of Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus from Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Oers, van M.M.; Ziemnicka, J.; Lipa, J.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), is an important pest insect in Europe, Asia, and Africa. We have genetically characterized and classified a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from A. segetum larvae in Poland (AgseNPV-P). The restriction pattern of AgseNPV-P was distinct from an

  17. The sequence of the Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; IJkel, W.F.J.; Tarchini, R.; Sun, X.; Sandbrink, H.; Wang, H.; Peters, S.; Zuidema, D.; Klein Lankhorst, R.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV) DNA genome was determined and analysed. The circular genome encompasses 131 403 bp, has a G C content of 39.1 molnd contains five homologous regions with a unique pattern of repeats.

  18. Cloning and Characterization of Sf9 Cell Lamin and the Lamin Conformational Changes during Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Wei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, the details of lamina alterations after baculovirus infection remain elusive. In this study, a lamin gene in the Sf9 cell line of Spodoptera frugiperda was cloned. The open reading frame (orf of the Sf9 lamin was 1860 bp and encoded a protein with a molecular weight of 70 kDa. A transfection assay with a red fluorescence protein (rfp-lamin fusion protein indicated that Sf9 lamin was localized in the nuclear rim. Transmission electron microscopy observations indicated that Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV nucleocapsids may pass through the nuclear envelope. Immunofluorescence assay indicated that the lamina showed a ruffled staining pattern with the formation of invaginations in the Sf9 cells infected with AcMNPV, while it was evenly distributed at the nuclear periphery of mock-infected cells. Western blotting results indicated that the total amount of lamin in the baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells was significantly decreased compared with the mock-infected cells. These results imply that AcMNPV infection induces structural and biochemical rearrangements of lamina of Sf9 cells.

  19. Temperature-dependent development and reproduction of rice leaffolder, Marasmia exigua (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Ju Liao

    Full Text Available Marasmia exigua (Butler (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the major rice leaffolders negatively affecting the rice production in the world. The growth and development of M. exigua was studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. The results showed that M. exigua eggs failed to hatch at 10°C and the larvae could not complete development at 15 and 35°C. The developmental times of each stage, survival rates of pre-adult, adult longevity, fecundities and oviposition days of M. exigua at 20, 25, 27 and 30°C were investigated using age-stage, two-sex life table. The total pre-adult development time decreased with the increase in temperature decreasing from 61.58 days at 20°C to 28.94 days at 30°C. The highest survival rate was observed at 25°C (73%. Male adult longevities were generally longer than that of females, except at 30°C. The highest mean fecundity, age-stage specific fecundity and age-specific fecundity peak values were all observed at 27°C. The maximum intrinsic rate of increase r and finite rate of increase λ were observed at 27°C, while the maximum net reproduction rate R0 was observed at 25°C. The longest mean generation time occurred at 20°C and the shortest at 27°C. These results provide better understanding on the development, reproduction and dynamic of M. exigua populations, their distribution, and might be utilized to forecast and manage M. exigua outbreaks in China.

  20. The complete sequence of the first Spodoptera frugiperda Betabaculovirus genome: a natural multiple recombinant virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartas, Paola E; Barrera, Gloria P; Belaich, Mariano N; Barreto, Emiliano; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D; Villamizar, Laura F

    2015-01-20

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest in maize crops in Colombia, and affects several regions in America. A granulovirus isolated from S. frugiperda (SfGV VG008) has potential as an enhancer of insecticidal activity of previously described nucleopolyhedrovirus from the same insect species (SfMNPV). The SfGV VG008 genome was sequenced and analyzed showing circular double stranded DNA of 140,913 bp encoding 146 putative ORFs that include 37 Baculoviridae core genes, 88 shared with betabaculoviruses, two shared only with betabaculoviruses from Noctuide insects, two shared with alphabaculoviruses, three copies of own genes (paralogs) and the other 14 corresponding to unique genes without representation in the other baculovirus species. Particularly, the genome encodes for important virulence factors such as 4 chitinases and 2 enhancins. The sequence analysis revealed the existence of eight homologous regions (hrs) and also suggests processes of gene acquisition by horizontal transfer including the SfGV VG008 ORFs 046/047 (paralogs), 059, 089 and 099. The bioinformatics evidence indicates that the genome donors of mentioned genes could be alpha- and/or betabaculovirus species. The previous reported ability of SfGV VG008 to naturally co-infect the same host with other virus show a possible mechanism to capture genes and thus improve its fitness.

  1. The Complete Sequence of the First Spodoptera frugiperda Betabaculovirus Genome: A Natural Multiple Recombinant Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola E. Cuartas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest in maize crops in Colombia, and affects several regions in America. A granulovirus isolated from S. frugiperda (SfGV VG008 has potential as an enhancer of insecticidal activity of previously described nucleopolyhedrovirus from the same insect species (SfMNPV. The SfGV VG008 genome was sequenced and analyzed showing circular double stranded DNA of 140,913 bp encoding 146 putative ORFs that include 37 Baculoviridae core genes, 88 shared with betabaculoviruses, two shared only with betabaculoviruses from Noctuide insects, two shared with alphabaculoviruses, three copies of own genes (paralogs and the other 14 corresponding to unique genes without representation in the other baculovirus species. Particularly, the genome encodes for important virulence factors such as 4 chitinases and 2 enhancins. The sequence analysis revealed the existence of eight homologous regions (hrs and also suggests processes of gene acquisition by horizontal transfer including the SfGV VG008 ORFs 046/047 (paralogs, 059, 089 and 099. The bioinformatics evidence indicates that the genome donors of mentioned genes could be alpha- and/or betabaculovirus species. The previous reported ability of SfGV VG008 to naturally co-infect the same host with other virus show a possible mechanism to capture genes and thus improve its fitness.

  2. Identification of volatile sex pheromone components released by the southern armyworm,Spodoptera eridania (Cramer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, P E; Mitchell, E R; Tumlinson, J H; Heath, R R; Sugie, H

    1985-06-01

    Analysis of sex pheromone gland extracts and volatile pheromone components collected from the calling female southern armyworm,Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy indicated that a number of 14-carbon mono- and diunsaturated acetates and a monounsaturated 16-carbon acetate were produced. Gland extracts also indicated the presence of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol. However, this compound was not found in collections of volatiles. Field trapping studies indicated that the volatile blend composed of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (60%), (Z)-9-(E)-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (17%), (Z)-9-(Z)-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (15%), (Z)-9-(E)-11-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (5%), and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate (3 %) was an effective trap bait for males of this species. The addition of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol to the acetate blends tested resulted in the capture of beet armyworm,S. exigua (Hubner), males which provides further evidence that the alcohol is a pheromone component of this species.

  3. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si. Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si or calcium carbonate (–Si. The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  4. The pnk/pnl gene (ORF 86) of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus is a non-essential, immediate early gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durantel, D; Croizier, L; Ayres, M D; Croizier, G; Possee, R D; López-Ferber, M

    1998-03-01

    Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ORF 86, located within the HindIII C fragment, potentially encodes a protein which shares sequence similarity with two T4 bacteriophage gene products, RNA ligase and polynucleotide kinase. This AcMNPV gene has been designated pnk/pnl but has yet to be assigned a function in virus replication. It has been classified as an immediate early virus gene, since the promoter was active in uninfected insect cells and mRNA transcripts were detectable from 4 to 48 h post-infection and in the presence of cycloheximide or aphidicolin in virus-infected cells. The extremities of the transcript have been mapped by primer extension and 3' RACE-PCR to positions -18 from the translational start codon and +15 downstream of the stop codon. The function of pnk/pnl was investigated by producing a recombinant virus (Acdel86lacZ) with the coding region replaced with that of lacZ. This virus replicated normally in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf 21) cells, indicating that pnk/pnl is not essential for propagation in these cells. Virus protein production in Acdel86lacZ-infected Sf 21 cells also appeared to be unaffected, with normal synthesis of the IE-1, GP64, VP39 and polyhedrin proteins. Shut-down of host protein synthesis was not abolished in recombinant infection. When other baculovirus genomes were examined for the presence of pnk/pnl by restriction enzyme digestion and PCR, a deletion was found in AcMNPV 1.2, Galleria mellonella NPV (GmMNPV) and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV), suggesting that in many isolates this gene has either never been acquired or has been lost during genome evolution. This is one of the first baculovirus immediate early genes that appears to be nonessential for virus survival.

  5. Entry into Midgut Epithelial Cells is a Key Step in the Selection of Genotypes in a Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriel Clavijo; Trevor Williams; Delia Mu(n)oz; Miguel L(o)pez-Ferber; Primitivo Caballero

    2009-01-01

    An isolate of the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus comprises a stable proportion of deletion genotypes (e.g., SfNIC-C), that lack pif1 and pif2 rendering them noninfectious per os, and that survive by complementation with a complete genotype (SfNIC-B) in coinfected cells. To determine whether selection for particular ratios of complete and deletion genotypes occurs mainly during the establishment of the primary infection in insect midgut cells or during subsequent systemic infection, we examined genotype frequencies in insects that fed on OBs comprising different co-occluded mixtures of genotypes. Dramatic changes in genotype frequencies were observed between the OB inoculum and budded virus (BV) samples taken from larvae inoculated with OBs comprising 10% SfNIC-B + 90% SfNIC-C indicating that a marked reduction of SfNIC-C genotype had occurred in the insect midgut due to the immediate elimination of all OBs that originated from cells that had been infected only by SfNIC-C. In contrast, immediate changes were not observed in OBs comprising mixtures of 50% SfNIC-B + 50% SfNIC-C or those comprising 10% SfNIC-B + 90% SfNIC-C as most of the OBs in these mixtures originated from cells that had been infected by both genotypes. Subsequent changes in genotypic frequencies during five days of systemic infection were fairly small in magnitude for all genotypic mixtures. We conclude that the prevalence of defective genotypes in the SfNIC population is likely determined by a balance between host selection against OBs produced in cells infected by SfNIC-C alone and within-host selection for fast-replicating deletion genotypes. The strength of intra-host selection is likely modulated by changes in MOI during the infection period.

  6. A case of bacteremia caused by Dialister pneumosintes and Slackia exigua in a patient with periapical abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Young Jin; Gu, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hee Joo

    2016-04-01

    Dialister pneumosintes and Slackia exigua are both obligatory anaerobe and known to be associated with periodontal diseases and other oral infection. We report a case of blood stream infection caused by D. pneumosintes and S. exigua. This occurred in a 78-year-old female patient that presented with general weakness and fever. We revealed that she had a periapical abscess. The blood culture was positive for D. pneumosintes and S. exigua; however, identifying them was challenging. Ultimately, 16S rRNA sequencing was used to identify the organisms. The patient recovered after being treated with ceftriaxone and clindamycin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bacteremia caused by mixed infection of D. pneumosintes and S. exigua. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus with a knockout of Bm17

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Hongxing; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Wen; Nin, Bin; Wang, Hua; Wang, Xiaochun; Shao, Shihe; Chen, Huiqing; Guo, Zhongjian; Liu, Xiaoyong; Yao, Qin; Chen, Keping

    2012-01-01

    Open reading frame 17 (Bm17) gene of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus is a highly conserved gene in lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses, but its function remains unknown. In this report, transient-expression and superinfection assays indicated that BM17 localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected BmN cells. To determine the role of Bm17 in baculovirus life cycle, we constructed a Bm17 knockout virus and characterized its properties in cells. Analysis of the production and infection of ...

  8. Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) against Spodoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most studied plant species with insecticidal properties is the castor bean Ricinus communis. However, its activity against Spodoptera frugiperda is unclear. Therefore, to determinate the insecticidal and insectistatic activities of methanol, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the seeds and leaves of R. communis, ...

  9. Phylogenetic Molecular Species Delimitations Unravel Potential New Species in the Pest Genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Pascaline; Barbut, Jérôme; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Clamens, Anne-Laure; d’Alençon, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence). As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster) species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens) ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833)) and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904) with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852). They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities. PMID:25853412

  10. Phylogenetic molecular species delimitations unravel potential new species in the pest genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline Dumas

    Full Text Available Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence. As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808, S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833 and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904 with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852. They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858 and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities.

  11. Identification and Characterization of the Spodoptera Su(var) 3-9 Histone H3K9 trimethyltransferase and Its Effect in AcMNPV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin; Li, Sisi; Yin, Juan; Zhong, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Histone H3-lysine9 (H3K9) trimethyltransferase gene Su(var) 3-9 was cloned and identified in three Spodoptera insects, Spodoptera frugiperda ( S . frugiperda ), S . exigua and S . litura . Sequence analysis showed that Spodoptera Su(var) 3-9 is highly conserved evolutionarily. Su(var) 3-9 protein was found to be localized in the nucleus in Sf9 cells, and interact with histone H3, and the heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a) and HP1b. A dose-dependent enzymatic activity was found at both 27 °C and 37 °C in vitro, with higher activity at 27 °C. Addition of specific inhibitor chaetocin resulted in decreased histone methylation level and host chromatin relaxation. In contrast, overexpression of Su(var) 3-9 caused increased histone methylation level and cellular genome compaction. In AcMNV-infected Sf9 cells, the transcription of Su(var) 3-9 increased at late time of infection, although the mRNA levels of most cellular genes decreased. Pre-treatment of Sf9 cells with chaetocin speeded up viral DNA replication, and increased the transcription level of a variety of virus genes, whereas in Sf9 cells pre-transformed with Su(var) 3-9 expression vector, viral DNA replication slow down slightly. These findings suggest that Su(var) 3-9 might participate in the viral genes expression an genome replication repression during AcMNPV infection. It provided a new insight for the understanding virus–host interaction mechanism. PMID:23894480

  12. Characterization of the Bm61 of the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongxing; Chen, Keping; Yao, Qin; Zhou, Yang

    2009-07-01

    orf61 (bm61) of Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a highly conserved baculovirus gene, suggesting that it performs an important role in the virus life cycle whose function is unknown. In this study, we describe the characterization of bm61. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis demonstrated that bm61 was expressed as a late gene. Immunofluorescence analysis by confocal microscopy showed that BM61 protein was localized on nuclear membrane and in intranuclear ring zone of infected cells. Structure localization of the BM61 in BV and ODV by western analysis demonstrated that BM61 was the protein of both BV and ODV. In addition, our data indicated that BM61 was a late structure protein localized in nucleus.

  13. [Approach to Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) phylogeny based on the sequence of the cytocrhome oxydase I (COI) mitochondrial gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldamando, Clara Inés; Marquez, Edna Judith

    2012-09-01

    The genus Spodoptera includes 30 species of moths considered important pests worldwide, with a great representation in the Western Hemisphere. In general, Noctuidae species have morphological similarities that have caused some difficulties for assertive species identification by conventional methods. The purpose of this work was to generate an approach to the genus phylogeny from several species of the genus Spodoptera and the species Bombyx mori as an out group, with the use of molecular tools. For this, a total of 102 S. frugiperda larvae were obtained at random in corn, cotton, rice, grass and sorghum, during late 2006 and early 2009, from Colombia. We took ADN samples from the larval posterior part and we analyzed a fragment of 451 base pairs of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxydase I (COI), to produce a maximum likelihood (ML) tree by using 62 sequences (29 Colombian haplotypes were used). Our results showed a great genetic differentiation (K2 distances) amongst S. frugiperda haplotypes from Colombia and the United States, condition supported by the estimators obtained for haplotype diversity and polymorphism. The obtained ML tree clustered most of the species with bootstrapping values from 73-99% in the interior branches; with low values also observed in some of the branches. In addition, this tree clustered two species of the Eastern hemisphere (S littoralis and S. litura) and eight species of the Western hemisphere (S. androgea, S. dolichos, S. eridania, S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. latifascia, S. ornithogalli and S. pulchella). In Colombia, S. frugiperda, S. ornithogalli and S. albula represent a group of species referred as "the Spodoptera complex" of cotton crops, and our work demonstrated that sequencing a fragment of the COI gene, allows researchers to differentiate the first two species, and thus it can be used as an alternative method to taxonomic keys based on morphology. Finally, the ML tree did not cluster S. frugiperda with S. ornithogalli

  14. Effectiveness of thiophanate-methyl, trifloxystrobin and vinclozolin on canker caused by Phoma exigua Desm. on ash tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuvelier M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years several cases of cankers caused by Phoma exigua on ash tree seedlings have been reported in Belgian nurseries, leading to a total loss of the affected crops. Similar symptoms have been observed on ash tree seedlings elsewhere in Europe, notably in France and in Great Britain, but the pathogenicity was never established. Inoculation and re-isolation tests were therefore undertaken and demonstrated the phytopathogenic character of P. exigua on ash. Moreover the effectiveness of three fungicides (thiophanate-methyl, trifloxystrobin, vinclozolin against stem canker of ash tree seedlings was studied. In vitro tests were conducted to evaluate the ability of these fungicides to inhibit mycelium growth and spore germination. The extent to which they reduced the symptoms was estimated in a field trial. The results of this study allowed to get by the Belgian proper authorities the use extension of thiophanate-methyl for the control of canker caused by P. exigua in forest nurseries.

  15. Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    stream_size 29406 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_63_67.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_63_67.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... 1    Author version: Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad.: 63(1); 2009; 67-72 Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick) VP LIMNA MOL a , TV RAVEENDRAN a, * & PS PARAMESWARAN b a...

  16. Levantamento de Meloidogyne exigua na cultura da seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Eduardo Roberto de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de efetuar um levantamento da ocorrência de Meloidogyne exigua em seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT. Foram amostradas 191 propriedades agrícolas, totalizando cerca de 18.000ha. Os nematóides foram identificados no Laboratório de Nematologia do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, em Jaboticabal, SP. Foram encontrados níveis populacionais de M. exigua entre 0 e 61.824 juvenis/5g de raízes.

  17. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A.

  18. PROPIEDADES ENTOMOTÓXICAS DE LOS EXTRACTOS VEGETALES DE Azaradichta indica, Piper auritum y Petiveria alliacea PARA EL CONTROL DE Spodoptera exigua Hübner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Delgado Barreto

    2012-01-01

    porcentajes de mortalidad para A. indica, P. auritum y P. alliacea fueron 38.88, 28.8 y 21.22 %, respectivamente; la misma tendencia que en condiciones de laboratorio, se encontró en campo. La CL50 mostró que el extracto metanólico de A. indica fue el más tóxico (4.03 ppm, y le siguió en efectividad el de P. auritum (42.08 ppm. En campo, la CL50 de los extractos metanólico de A. indica, P. auritum y P. alliaceae fueron 9.61, 21.21 y 104.1 ppm, respectivamente.

  19. Bollworm responses to release of genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedroviruses in cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Chen, X.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, H.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Peng, H.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV) has been developed as a commercial biopesticide to control the cotton bollworm, H. armigera, in China. The major limitation to a broader application of this virus has been the relative long time to incapacitate the target insect.

  20. Field inactivation of wild-type and genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus in cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Sun, X.C.; Werf, van der W.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.H.

    2004-01-01

    Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) is a serious pest on cotton in China. A specific baculovirus, H. armigera nucleopolyhedroviruses (HaSNPV) is used as a commercial biopesticide to control this pest. To improve the pesticidal properties, HaSNPV has been genetically engineered by both deleting

  1. The Operophtera brumata nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpbuNPV) represents an early, divergent lineage within genus Alphabaculovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operophtera brumata nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpbuNPV) infects larvae of the winter moth, Operophtera brumata. As part of an effort to explore the pesticidal potential of OpbuNPV, an isolate of this virus from Massachusetts (USA), OpbuNPV-MA, was characterized by electron microscopy of OpbuNPV occlusio...

  2. Functional analysis of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus IAP1 and IAP2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, X.D.; Nan, F.; Liang, Ch.Y.; Song, J.H.; Wang, Q.; Vlak, J.M.; Chen, X.W.

    2009-01-01

    The Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) contains three apoptosis suppressor genes: p35, iap1 and iap2. AcMNPV P35 functions as a pancaspase inhibitor, but the function of IAP1 and IAP2 has not been entirely resolved. In this paper, we analyze the function of IAP1 and IAP2 in detail.

  3. Feeding non-preference by Spodoptera frugiperda and Spodoptera eridania on tomato genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Henrique Sardinha de Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of the genus Spodoptera spp. are highly polyphagous and can cause economical losses in several agricultural crops. Given their growing importance in the tomato crop, especially for industry, this work aimed to evaluate the feeding non-preference by larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 and Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782 on tomato genotypes and classify them by the levels of resistance. The commercial cultivar Santa Clara was set as the susceptible standard and line PI 134417 as the resistant standard to evaluate the lines PI 134418, PI 126931, LA 462 and LA 716. Feeding non-preference tests were performed under non-choice and free-choice conditions to evaluate the genotype attractiveness to larvae at predetermined times after their release, as well as the leaf area consumed. Overall, the genotypes LA 716 and PI 126931 were the least attractive to S. frugiperda, whereas Santa Clara was the most attractive and consumed. For S. eridania, the genotypes PI 126931, LA 462, LA 716 and PI 134418 were the least preferred for feeding, and Santa Clara and PI 134417 were the most attractive and consumed. The genotypes LA 716 and PI 126931 are moderately resistant to S. frugiperda and S. eridania; PI 134418 and LA 462 are moderately resistant to S. eridania; PI 134417 is susceptible to S. frugiperda and S. eridania; and Santa Clara is highly susceptible to both S. frugiperda and S. eridania.

  4. Aproximación a la filogenia de Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae con el uso de un fragmento del gen de la citocromo oxidasa I (COI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Saldamando

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se secuenció un fragmento de 451pb del gen mitocondrial de la citocromo oxidasa I (COI en 62 secuencias del género Spodoptera y una secuencia de Bombix mori (grupo externo. Los resultados mostraron gran diferenciación genética (distancia K2 entre los haplotipos de Spodoptera frugiperda de Colombia y Estados Unidos, según los estimadores de diversidad haplotípica, diversidad y polimorfismo nucleotídicos calculados. Un árbol de ML agrupó las especies con valores de bootstrap entre 73-99% en las ramas internas. No obstante algunas ramas presentaron bajos valores de bootstrap. Este árbol formó un grupo constituido por las especies del hemisferio oriental (S. littoralis y S. litura y también agrupó las especies localizadas en el hemisferio occidental (S. androgea, S. dolichos, S. eridania, S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. latifascia, S. ornithogalli y S. pulchella. Esto demuestra que el árbol agrupó las especies con base en su origen geográfico. Contrariamente, el árbol no agrupó a S. frugiperda con S. ornithogalli, demostrando que a pesar de que ambas coexisten en el cultivo de algodón, no comparten un ancestro común reciente. En Colombia, estas especies forman parte del “complejo Spodoptera” del algodón, y nuestros resultados demuestran que la secuenciación de este gen permite diferenciarlas sin necesidad del uso de claves taxonómicas de sus estadios larvales. Este trabajo es una aproximación a la filogenia de este género, por lo cual la inclusión de más genes (mitocondriales y nucleares son necesarios para futuros trabajos.

  5. Identification and characterization of the Spodoptera Su(var) 3-9 histone H3K9 trimethyltransferase and its effect in AcMNPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin; Li, Sisi; Yin, Juan; Zhong, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Histone H3-lysine(9) (H3K9) trimethyltransferase gene Su(var) 3-9 was cloned and identified in three Spodoptera insects, Spodopterafrugiperda (S. frugiperda), S. exigua and S. litura. Sequence analysis showed that Spodoptera Su(var) 3-9 is highly conserved evolutionarily. Su(var) 3-9 protein was found to be localized in the nucleus in Sf9 cells, and interact with histone H3, and the heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a) and HP1b. A dose-dependent enzymatic activity was found at both 27 °C and 37 °C in vitro, with higher activity at 27 °C. Addition of specific inhibitor chaetocin resulted in decreased histone methylation level and host chromatin relaxation. In contrast, overexpression of Su(var) 3-9 caused increased histone methylation level and cellular genome compaction. In AcMNV-infected Sf9 cells, the transcription of Su(var) 3-9 increased at late time of infection, although the mRNA levels of most cellular genes decreased. Pre-treatment of Sf9 cells with chaetocin speeded up viral DNA replication, and increased the transcription level of a variety of virus genes, whereas in Sf9 cells pre-transformed with Su(var) 3-9 expression vector, viral DNA replication slow down slightly. These findings suggest that Su(var) 3-9 might participate in the viral genes expression an genome replication repression during AcMNPV infection. It provided a new insight for the understanding virus-host interaction mechanism.

  6. 77 FR 2539 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), and beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). A copy of the application and any information submitted...

  7. Characterization of the damage of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) and Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to structures of cotton plants

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Karen B dos; Meneguim, Ana M; Santos, Walter J dos; Neves, Pedro M O J; Santos, Rachel B dos

    2010-01-01

    The cotton plant, Gossypium hirsutum, hosts various pests that damage different structures. Among these pests, Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) and Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are considered important. The objectives of this study were to characterize and to quantify the potential damage of S. eridania and S. cosmioides feeding on different structures of cotton plants. For this purpose, newly-hatched larvae were reared on the following plant parts: leaf and flower bud;...

  8. Evaluation of Candidate Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Analysis in Spodoptera exigu a after Long-time Exposure to Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachetka-Bożek, Anna; Augustyniak, Maria

    2017-08-21

    Studies on the transcriptional control of gene expression play an important role in many areas of biology. Reference genes, which are often referred to as housekeeping genes, such as GAPDH, G3PDH, EF2, RpL7A, RpL10, TUBα and Actin, have traditionally been assumed to be stably expressed in all conditions, and they are frequently used to normalize mRNA levels between different samples in qPCR analysis. However, it is known that the expression of these genes is influenced by numerous factors, such as experimental conditions. The difference in gene expression underlies a range of biological processes, including development, reproduction and behavior. The aim of this study was to show the problems associated with using reference genes in the qPCR technique, in a study on inbred strains of Spodoptera exigua selected toward cadmium resistance. We present and discuss our results and observations, and give some recommendations concerning the use and limitations of housekeeping genes as internal standards, especially in research on insects. Our results suggest that holometabolism and poikilothermia, as well as time since metamorphosis and the level of exposure to the selective factor (cadmium in this case), have a significant effect on the expression of reference genes.

  9. Characterization of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus with a knockout of Bm17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongxing; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Wen; Nin, Bin; Wang, Hua; Wang, Xiaochun; Shao, Shihe; Chen, Huiqing; Guo, Zhongjian; Liu, Xiaoyong; Yao, Qin; Chen, Keping

    2012-12-01

    Open reading frame 17 (Bm17) gene of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus is a highly conserved gene in lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses, but its function remains unknown. In this report, transient-expression and superinfection assays indicated that BM17 localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected BmN cells. To determine the role of Bm17 in baculovirus life cycle, we constructed a Bm17 knockout virus and characterized its properties in cells. Analysis of the production and infection of budded virions, the level of viral DNA replication revealed showed that there was no significant difference among the mutant, the control, and the Bm17 repaired virus strains. These results suggest that BM17 is not essential for virus replication in cultured cells.

  10. Não preferência para alimentação em genótipos de tomateiro por Spodoptera frugiperda e Spodoptera eridania

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Bruno Henrique Sardinha de; Bottega, Daline Benites; Silva, Anderson Gonçalves da; Boiça Júnior, Arlindo Leal

    2013-01-01

    Larvae of the genus Spodoptera spp. are highly polyphagous and can cause economical losses in several agricultural crops. Given their growing importance in the tomato crop, especially for industry, this work aimed to evaluate the feeding non-preference by larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) and Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782) on tomato genotypes and classify them by the levels of resistance. The commercial cultivar Santa Clara was set as the susceptible standard and line PI...

  11. Expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Spodoptera frugiperda cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Xiong, Shaoling; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Litao; Yang, Yanyan

    2007-10-01

    A recombinant baculovirus, rv-egfp-NK, containing a reporter gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was used to express nattokinase (NK), a fibrinolytic enzyme, in Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) cells. The recombinant protein also included a histidine tag for purification using Ni(2+) resins. The recombinant NK, approximately 30 kDa, retained fibrinolytic activity (60 U/ml). The integration of the EGFP expression cassette in the Bac-to-Bac system is thus an effective method for the expression and purification of recombinant NK protein in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells.

  12. Two new bradykinin-related peptides from the venom of the social wasp Protopolybia exigua (Saussure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Maria Anita; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2006-11-01

    Two bradykinin-related peptides (Protopolybiakinin-I and Protopolybiakinin-II) were isolated from the venom of the social wasp Protopolybia exigua by RP-HPLC, and sequenced by Edman degradation method. Peptide sequences of Protopolybiakinin-I and Protopolybiakinin-II were DKNKKPIRVGGRRPPGFTR-OH and DKNKKPIWMAGFPGFTPIR-OH, respectively. Synthetic peptides with identical sequences to the bradykinin-related peptides and their biological functions were characterized. Protopolybiakinin-I caused less potent constriction of the isolated rat ileum muscles than bradykinin (BK). In addition, it caused degranulation of mast cells which was seven times more potent than BK. This peptide causes algesic effects due to the direct activation of B(2)-receptors. Protopolybiakinin-II is not an agonist of rat ileum muscle and had no algesic effects. However, Protopolybiakinin-II was found to be 10 times more potent as a mast cell degranulator than BK. The amino acid sequence of Protopolybiakinin-I is the longest among the known wasp kinins.

  13. Inert powders alone or in combination with neem oil for controlling Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Christiane Constanski Silva; Janaina Zorzetti; Patricia Helena Santoro; Adriano Thibes Hoshino; Pedro Manuel Oliveira Janeiro Neves

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies was carry out to evaluated the potential of inert powders: bentonite, kaolin and diatomaceous earth (DE) applied as dust and aqueous suspension alone and associated with neem oil to the control Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda second instar larvae. In dust applications, 100% mortality of S. eridania, at the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 grams of bentonite, and 93.3% of S. frugiperda, at the concentration of 2.0 g were observed. DE at the height concentration (2...

  14. Pheromonal divergence between two strains of Spodoptera frugiperda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unbehend, M.; Hänniger, S.; Meagher, R.L.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda consists of two genetically and behaviorally different strains, the corn- and the rice-strain, which seem to be in the process of sympatric speciation. We investigated the role of strain-specific sexual communication as a prezygotic mating barrier between both strains by

  15. [Characterization of the damage of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) and Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to structures of cotton plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karen B Dos; Meneguim, Ana M; Santos, Walter J Dos; Neves, Pedro M O J; Santos, Rachel B Dos

    2010-01-01

    The cotton plant, Gossypium hirsutum, hosts various pests that damage different structures. Among these pests, Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) and Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are considered important. The objectives of this study were to characterize and to quantify the potential damage of S. eridania and S. cosmioides feeding on different structures of cotton plants. For this purpose, newly-hatched larvae were reared on the following plant parts: leaf and flower bud; leaf and boll; flower bud or boll; and leaf, flower bud and boll. The survival of S. cosmioides and S. eridania was greater than 80% and 70% for larvae fed on cotton plant parts offered separately or together, respectively. One larva of S. eridania damaged 1.7 flower buds, but did not damage bolls, while one larva of S. cosmioides damaged 5.2 flower buds and 3.0 cotton bolls. Spodoptera eridania and S. cosmioides can be considered species with potential to cause economic damage to cotton plants because they can occur throughout cotton developmental stages causing defoliation and losses of reproductive structures. Therefore, the results validate field observations that these two species of Spodoptera are potential pests for cotton.

  16. Betabaculovirus F proteins showed different efficiencies when rescuing the infectivity of gp64-null Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, F.; Wang, M.; Ying, T.; Deng, F.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.; Wang, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Agrotis segetum granulovirus (AgseGV) F protein was previously identified as the first betabaculovirus F protein with functional homology to Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) GP64. In the current study, F proteins from Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XecnGV), Cydia pomonella

  17. A comparison of the adaptations of strains of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus to hosts from spatially isolated populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.V. Martemyanov; J.D. Podgwaite; I.A. Belousova; S.V. Pavlushin; J.M. Slavicek; O.A. Baturina; M.R. Kabilov; A.V. Ilyinykh

    2017-01-01

    The adaptation of pathogens to either their hosts or to environmental conditions is the focus of many current ecological studies. In this work we compared the ability of six spatially-distant Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) strains (three from eastern North America and three from central Asia) to induce acute...

  18. PRIMEIRO REGISTRO DE OCORRÊNCIA De Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae ATACANDO CROTALÁRIA NO ESTADO DE ALAGOAS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia da Silva Dias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Spodoptera eridania (Cremer, 1782, Spodoptera dolichus (Fabricius, 1794 and Spodoptera cosmioidess (Walker is registered for the first time attacking Crotalaria spp. in Rio Largo country (12°40' S, 39°06' W, 127 m de altitude, Alagoas State, Brazil.

  19. Palaeoceanographic implications of abundance and mean proloculus diameter of benthic foraminiferal species Epistominella exigua in sub-surface sediments from distal Bay of Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Nigam, R.; Barreto, L.

    –west monsoon. For the first time, a strong correlation is observed in abundance and mean proloculus diameter of E. exigua. Based on coherent variation in mean proloculus diameter and abundance, it is postulated that mean proloculus diameter can also be used...

  20. Palaeoceanographic implications of abundance and mean proloculus diameter of benthic foraminiferal species Epistominella exigua in sub-surface sediments from distal Bay of Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Nigam, R.; Barreto, L.

    -west monsoon. For the first time, a strong correlation is observed in abundance and mean proloculus diameter of E. exigua. Based on coherent variation in mean proloculus diameter and abundance, it is postulated that mean proloculus diameter can also be used...

  1. ac18 is not essential for the propagation of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanjie; Wu Wenbi; Li Zhaofei; Yuan Meijin; Feng Guozhong; Yu Qian; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2007-01-01

    orf18 (ac18) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is a highly conserved gene in lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses, but its function remains unknown. In this study, an ac18 knockout AcMNPV bacmid was generated to determine the role of ac18 in baculovirus life cycle. After transfection of Sf-9 cells, the ac18-null mutant showed similar infection pattern to the parent virus and the ac18 repair virus with respect to the production of infectious budded virus, occlusion bodies, or the formation of nucleocapsids as visualized by electron microscopy. The deletion mutant did not reduce AcMNPV infectivity for Trichoplusia ni in LD 50 bioassay; however, it did take 24 h longer for deleted mutant to kill T. ni larvae than wild-type virus in LT 50 bioassay. Our results demonstrate that ac18 is not essential for viral propagation both in vitro and in vivo, but it may play a role in efficient virus infection in T. ni larvae

  2. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF79 is a per os infectivity factor associated with the PIF complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Xue-Mei; He, Qian; Cao, Ming-Ya; Wang, La; Li, Hai-Qing; Xiao, Wen-Fu; Pan, Cai-Xia; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2014-05-12

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) ORF79 (Bm79) encodes an occlusion-derived virus (ODV)-specific envelope protein, which is a homologue of the per os infectivity factor 4 (PIF4) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). To investigate the role of ORF79 in the BmNPV life cycle, a Bm79 knockout virus (vBm(Bm79KO)) was constructed through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Viral DNA replication, budded virus (BV) production and polyhedra formation were unaffected by the absence of BM79. However, results of the larval bioassay demonstrated that the Bm79 deletion resulted in a complete loss of per os infection. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that BM79 localized at the innernuclear membrane of infected cells through its N-terminal sorting motif (SM). Further bimolecular fluorescence protein complementation and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the interaction of BM79 with PIF1, PIF2, PIF3 and ODV-E66. Thus, BM79 plays an important role in per os infection and is associated with the viral PIF complex of BmNPV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus Bm111 affects virulence but not virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Xia, Hengchuan; Tang, Qi; Lü, Peng; Ma, Shangshang; Yang, Yanhua; Shao, Dandan; Ma, Quanbing; Chen, Keping

    2014-07-01

    The Bm111 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) encodes a small polypeptide (70 amino acids) of which the function remains unknown. To characterize its function, multiple sequence alignments were performed, and the predicted protein was found to share amazingly high (98 %) sequence identity with the Bombyx mandarina nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF110 (Boma110) but negligible with proteins of other insect viruses, indicating the close relationship between these two NPVs with silkworm larvae. The transcription of Bm111 was detected as early as 3 hpi in BmNPV-infected BmN cells, suggesting it is an early gene. To investigate the role of Bm111 in baculovirus life cycle, a Bm111-knockout virus was constructed by bacmid recombination in Escherichia coli. The results showed that knockout of the Bm111 did not affect the replication of virus DNA, but significantly extended the death time of infected silkworm larvae compared to the wild-type or rescued viruses. We also successfully expressed the recombinant protein Bm111 in E. coli to provide sufficient material for subsequent studies. Taken together, our data indicate that Bm111 only affects the virulence of BmNPV, but not its replication.

  4. Insecticidal activity of Trichilia claussenii (Meliaceae) fruits against Spodoptera frugiperda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebo, Liliane; Matos, Andrea Pereira; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the fruits extracts of Trichilia claussenii was carried out and the methanol extract revealed to have strong insecticidal activity. The fractionation of methanol extract of T. claussenii seeds bioassay-guided against Spodoptera frugiperda has led to the identification of the ω-phenylalkyl and alkenyl fatty acids as active compounds in this extract. The structures of the compounds were proposed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  5. Euplectrus furnius parasitizing Spodoptera frugiperda in maize in Brazil

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    Vinícius Soares Sturza

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is among the world's biggest maize producers and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is the main insect pest on this crop in the country. Despite the importance of its natural enemies, there still is a lack of information about parasitoids species that attack this insect-pest, such as larval parasitoids. This research reports Euplectrus furnius Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae parasitizing S. fugiperda larvae on maize crop in Brazil.

  6. Aproximación a la filogenia de Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae con el uso de un fragmento del gen de la citocromo oxidasa I (COI Approach to Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae phylogeny based on the sequence of the cytocrhome oxydase I (COI mitochondrial gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Saldamando

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se secuenció un fragmento de 451pb del gen mitocondrial de la citocromo oxidasa I (COI en 62 secuencias del género Spodoptera y una secuencia de Bombix mori (grupo externo. Los resultados mostraron gran diferenciación genética (distancia K2 entre los haplotipos de Spodoptera frugiperda de Colombia y Estados Unidos, según los estimadores de diversidad haplotípica, diversidad y polimorfismo nucleotídicos calculados. Un árbol de ML agrupó las especies con valores de bootstrap entre 73-99% en las ramas internas. No obstante algunas ramas presentaron bajos valores de bootstrap. Este árbol formó un grupo constituido por las especies del hemisferio oriental (S. littoralis y S. litura y también agrupó las especies localizadas en el hemisferio occidental (S. androgea, S. dolichos, S. eridania, S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. latifascia, S. ornithogalli y S. pulchella. Esto demuestra que el árbol agrupó las especies con base en su origen geográfico. Contrariamente, el árbol no agrupó a S. frugiperda con S. ornithogalli, demostrando que a pesar de que ambas coexisten en el cultivo de algodón, no comparten un ancestro común reciente. En Colombia, estas especies forman parte del “complejo Spodoptera” del algodón, y nuestros resultados demuestran que la secuenciación de este gen permite diferenciarlas sin necesidad del uso de claves taxonómicas de sus estadios larvales. Este trabajo es una aproximación a la filogenia de este género, por lo cual la inclusión de más genes (mitocondriales y nucleares son necesarios para futuros trabajos.The genus Spodoptera includes 30 species of moths considered important pests worldwide, with a great representation in the Western Hemisphere. In general, Noctuidae species have morphological similarities that have caused some difficulties for assertive species identification by conventional methods. The purpose of this work was to generate an approach to the genus phylogeny from

  7. Reduced expression of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34, an essential gene, enhances heterologous gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Tamer Z.; Zhang, Fengrui; Thiem, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34 is part of a transcriptional unit that includes ORF32, encoding a viral fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and ORF33. We identified ORF34 as a candidate for deletion to improve protein expression in the baculovirus expression system based on enhanced reporter gene expression in an RNAi screen of virus genes. However, ORF34 was shown to be an essential gene. To explore ORF34 function, deletion (KO34) and rescue bacmids were constructed and characterized. Infection did not spread from primary KO34 transfected cells and supernatants from KO34 transfected cells could not infect fresh Sf21 cells whereas the supernatant from the rescue bacmids transfection could recover the infection. In addition, budded viruses were not observed in KO34 transfected cells by electron microscopy, nor were viral proteins detected from the transfection supernatants by western blots. These demonstrate that ORF34 is an essential gene with a possible role in infectious virus production.

  8. Reduced expression of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34, an essential gene, enhances heterologous gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, Tamer Z. [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbial Molecular Biology, AGERI, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Division of Biomedical Sciences, Zewail University, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza 12588 (Egypt); Zhang, Fengrui [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Thiem, Suzanne M., E-mail: smthiem@msu.edu [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34 is part of a transcriptional unit that includes ORF32, encoding a viral fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and ORF33. We identified ORF34 as a candidate for deletion to improve protein expression in the baculovirus expression system based on enhanced reporter gene expression in an RNAi screen of virus genes. However, ORF34 was shown to be an essential gene. To explore ORF34 function, deletion (KO34) and rescue bacmids were constructed and characterized. Infection did not spread from primary KO34 transfected cells and supernatants from KO34 transfected cells could not infect fresh Sf21 cells whereas the supernatant from the rescue bacmids transfection could recover the infection. In addition, budded viruses were not observed in KO34 transfected cells by electron microscopy, nor were viral proteins detected from the transfection supernatants by western blots. These demonstrate that ORF34 is an essential gene with a possible role in infectious virus production.

  9. Antiviral activity and specific modes of action of bacterial prodigiosin against Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zeng, Cheng; Liu, RenHua; Chen, Jie; Li, Ru; Wang, XinYan; Bai, WenWen; Liu, XiaoYuan; Xiang, TingTing; Zhang, Lin; Wan, YongJi

    2016-05-01

    Prodigiosin, the tripyrrole red pigment, is a bacterial secondary metabolite with multiple bioactivities; however, the antiviral activity has not been reported yet. In the present study, we found the antiviral activity of bacterial prodigiosin on Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV)-infected cells in vitro, with specific modes of action. Prodigiosin at nontoxic concentrations selectively killed virus-infected cells, inhibited viral gene transcription, especially viral early gene ie-1, and prevented virus-mediated membrane fusion. Under prodigiosin treatment, both progeny virus production and viral DNA replication were significantly inhibited. Fluorescent assays showed that prodigiosin predominantly located in cytoplasm which suggested it might interact with cytoplasm factors to inhibit virus replication. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicates that prodigiosin possesses significant antiviral activity against BmNPV.

  10. BM61 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus: its involvement in the egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongxing; Chen, Keping

    2012-04-05

    All lepidopteran baculovirus genomes sequenced encode a homolog of the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus orf61 gene (Bm61). To determine the role of Bm61 in the baculoviral life cycle, we constructed a Bm61 knockout virus and characterized it in cells. We observed that the Bm61 deletion bacmid led to a defect in production of infectious budded virus (BV). Quantitative PCR analysis of BV in the media culturing the transfected cell indicated that BV was not produced due to Bm61 deletion. Electron microscope analysis showed that in the knockout of Bm61, nucleocapsids were not transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. From these results we concluded that BM61 is required in the BV pathway for the egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Standard method for detecting Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus disease-resistant silkworm varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qiong

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV disease is one of the most serious silkworm diseases, and it has caused great economic losses to the sericulture industry. So far, the disease has not been controlled effectively by therapeutic agents. Breeding resistant silkworm varieties breeding may be an effective way to improve resistance to BmNPV and reduce economic losses. A precise resistance-detection method will help to accelerate the breeding process. For this purpose, here we described the individual inoculation method (IIM. Details of the IIM include pathogen BmNPV preparation, mulberry leaf size, pathogen volume, rearing conditions, course of infection, and breeding conditions. Finally, a resistance comparison experiment was performed using the IIM and the traditional group inoculation method (GIM. The incidence of BmNPV infection and the within-group variance results showed that the IIM was more precise and reliable than the GIM.

  12. Feeding non-preference by Spodoptera frugiperda and Spodoptera eridania on tomato genotypes Não preferência para alimentação em genótipos de tomateiro por Spodoptera frugiperda e Spodoptera eridania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Henrique Sardinha de Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of the genus Spodoptera spp. are highly polyphagous and can cause economical losses in several agricultural crops. Given their growing importance in the tomato crop, especially for industry, this work aimed to evaluate the feeding non-preference by larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 and Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782 on tomato genotypes and classify them by the levels of resistance. The commercial cultivar Santa Clara was set as the susceptible standard and line PI 134417 as the resistant standard to evaluate the lines PI 134418, PI 126931, LA 462 and LA 716. Feeding non-preference tests were performed under non-choice and free-choice conditions to evaluate the genotype attractiveness to larvae at predetermined times after their release, as well as the leaf area consumed. Overall, the genotypes LA 716 and PI 126931 were the least attractive to S. frugiperda, whereas Santa Clara was the most attractive and consumed. For S. eridania, the genotypes PI 126931, LA 462, LA 716 and PI 134418 were the least preferred for feeding, and Santa Clara and PI 134417 were the most attractive and consumed. The genotypes LA 716 and PI 126931 are moderately resistant to S. frugiperda and S. eridania; PI 134418 and LA 462 are moderately resistant to S. eridania; PI 134417 is susceptible to S. frugiperda and S. eridania; and Santa Clara is highly susceptible to both S. frugiperda and S. eridania.Lagartas do gênero Spodoptera spp. são altamente polífagas, podendo causar danos econômicos em diversas culturas agrícolas. Em vista de sua emergente importância na cultura do tomate, principalmente o destinado à indústria, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a não preferência, para alimentação, de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 e Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782 por genótipos de tomateiro, e classificá-los quanto aos graus de resistência. Como padrão susceptível, utilizou-se o cultivar comercial Santa

  13. Efeito de indutores de resistência sobre Meloidogyne exigua do cafeeiro Effect of resistance inducers on Meloidogyne exígua of coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria de Lima Salgado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de manejo de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa no cafeeiro representa uma alternativa potencialmente útil no manejo desse patógeno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. exigua na presença de produtos indutores de resistência e avaliar o efeito do acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion® na indução de resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. 'Catuaí- 144' contra M. exigua. A eclosão e mortalidade do J2 foram avaliadas no ASM e ácido salicílico (AS nas dosagens de 0,2; 0,35 e 0,5 g. i. a./L; e no fosfito de potássio (Hortifós® PK e silicato de potássio (Supa-potássio® nas dosagens 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 mL/L, empregando água e aldicarbe como testemunhas. No segundo ensaio o ASM (0,2 g i.a./L foi aplicado na quantidade de 125 mL por planta de 'Catuaí-144' com um ano de idade, via pulverização foliar e diretamente ao solo aos 7 dias antes da inoculação e aos 2 e 7 dias após a inoculação de aproximadamente 7000 ovos de M. exigua/planta. Foram utilizadas 8 plantas/tratamento/bloco, totalizando 6 tratamentos (3 épocas de aplicação do ASM, testemunhas absoluta e inoculada, em 4 blocos. Aos 90 dias da inoculação, foi feita a avaliação da população final (número de ovos e juvenis de M. exigua, número de galhas, fator de reprodução (população final/população inicial e peso da matéria fresca da raiz. A dosagem dos produtos não influenciou a eclosão e mortalidade dos J2 de M. exigua. Menor eclosão dos J2 de M. exigua ocorreu igualmente no Supa-potássio® e ácido salicílico, enquanto que a eclosão no ASM e na água foi igual (P The parasitism of coffee roots by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, widespread nematode in the main producing regions, can provoke a series of modifications in the normal development of the plant. The induction of resistance for the activation of existing latent mechanisms of

  14. A cardioactive peptide from the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K; Hackett, M; Cirelli, M A; Schegg, K M; Wang, H; Shabanowitz, J; Hunt, D F; Schooley, D A

    1999-01-01

    A cardioactive peptide was isolated from extracts of whole heads of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania. This peptide has the sequence ENFAVGCTPGYQRTADGRCKPTF (Mr = 2516.8), determined from both Edman sequencing and tandem mass spectrometry in combination with off-line micropreparative capillary liquid chromatography. This peptide, termed Spoer-CAP23, has excitatory effects on a semi-isolated heart from larval Manduca sexta, causing an inotropic effect at low concentrations of peptide and chronotropic and inotropic effects at high doses. The threshold concentration for stimulatory effects of the synthetic peptide on the semi-isolated heart was about 1 nM, suggesting a physiological role as a neuropeptide.

  15. Estágios imaturos de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Immature stages of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício M. Zenker

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 é composto por trinta espécies de distribuição cosmopolita, encontradas com maior freqüência em locais de clima mais quente. Quinze espécies são pragas agrícolas, apresentando alto grau de polifitofagia, alimentando-se de importantes culturas como soja, milho, arroz e batata inglesa. A morfologia dos estágios imaturos dos representantes deste gênero é pouco conhecida, sendo que um terço das espécies não possui descrição de seus estágios imaturos. Entre as espécies ocorrentes no Brasil, sem tais informações, destaca-se Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858. Este trabalho caracterizou detalhadamente seus principais aspectos morfológicos, passíveis de serem utilizados na identificação taxonômica dos estágios imaturos; contém dados referentes à morfologia, destacando-se a área micropilar dos ovos, quetotaxia, fiandeira e coloração da fase de lagarta e disposição dos apêndices e aberturas naturais nas pupas.There are 30 species in the genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 worldwide distributed, occurring mainly in the warm regions. Fifteen species are considered plagues feeding on several important agricultural crops as soybean, corn, rice and potato. The immature stages morphology of this genus is not well known. In about one third of the most economically relevant species, the caterpillar is not described and, also, few information related to the chrysalis and the eggs are available. Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858 is one of the most important pest among the noctuids occurring in Brazil with no information about its immature stages. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations of the immature stages of S. cosmioides, as micropilar area of the egg, chaetotaxy, spinneret, caterpillar ground color, arrangement of the appendages and natural openings of the pupa, are presented for the first time. Taxonomic remarks are also provided.

  16. A noda-like virus isolated from the sweetpotato pest spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lep.; noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeddam; Rodriguez; Ravallec; Lagnaoui

    1999-11-01

    A small isometric virus has been isolated from larvae of the sweetpotato pest Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) collected near Pariacoto, Ancash province, Peru. It is designated the Pariacoto virus (PaV). In addition to its high pathogenicity on its natural host Spodoptera eridania, PaV was found to replicate in Spodoptera ochrea (Hampson) larvae but not in Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) larvae. The size of the viral particle was estimated to be about 30 nm in diameter. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a protein of approximately 40.5 kDa. After agarose gel electrophoresis, the viral genome appeared to be bipartite RNA. Gel immunodiffusion tests showed no serological relationship between PaV and Nodamura virus, the type species for insect nodaviruses. Electron microscopy confirmed that viral replication occurs in the cytoplasm. These properties are similar to those of other members of family Nodaviridae, to which the virus is currently assigned. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Integration between Steinernema feltiae and some of environmental friendly compounds to control Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adel, M. M.; Gelbič, Ivan; Půža, Vladimír; Salem, N. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 16 (2013), s. 2002-2015 ISSN 0323-5408 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : entomopathogenic nematodes * Steinernema feltiae * Spodoptera littoralis Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  18. Inert powders alone or in combination with neem oil for controlling Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Christiane Constanski Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies was carry out to evaluated the potential of inert powders: bentonite, kaolin and diatomaceous earth (DE applied as dust and aqueous suspension alone and associated with neem oil to the control Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda second instar larvae. In dust applications, 100% mortality of S. eridania, at the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 grams of bentonite, and 93.3% of S. frugiperda, at the concentration of 2.0 g were observed. DE at the height concentration (2.0 g caused 76.2% mortality of S. eridania and 46.6% of S. frugiperda. Kaolin, in all concentrations, was the only treatment that did not differed from the control for S. eridania but was different, in the high concentration, for S. frugiperda. When the plants were treated, larvae of S. eridania fed in the treatment DE, had an increase of two days in larval period. For the sex ratio, the percentage of males was greater in the treatments with kaolin, for both species. When powders was applied suspended in water separately or combined with neem oil, the best results were observed in combined of the bentonite (10% + neem, with 100% mortality for both species, and kaolin (10% + neem with 78.5% and 95.6% mortality for S. frugiperda and S. eridania, respectively. These treatments were classified as non-additive synergistic.

  19. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda fed on fresh ear of field corn expressing the Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2)

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolotto,Orcial Ceolin; Bueno,Adeney de Freitas; Queiroz,Ana Paula de; Silva,Gabriela Vieira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate extent of larval period, larval survival (%), food consumption, and pupal biomass of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae ) fed on fresh ears of field corn expressing Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F+Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2). Larvae of Spodoptera spp. survived less than two days when they consumed Bt corncobs and showed 100% mortality. Spodoptera eridania reared on non-Bt corn cobs showed higher larval development (...

  20. Growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Sharma, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Spodoptera litura was reared on natural food (castor leaves, Ricinus communis) and on a several semi-synthetic diets using quasi mass rearing techniques. The effect of the different diets and rearing regimes on S. litura growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour was measured. Spodoptera litura reared from a modified chickpea-based diet provided the greatest growth index and index of adequacy. These studies were conducted as a prerequisite for the evaluation of F 1 sterility technique. (author)

  1. Structural and biological characterization of three novel mastoparan peptides from the venom of the neotropical social wasp Protopolybia exigua (Saussure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Maria Anita; de Souza, Bibiana Monson; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2005-01-01

    The venom of the Neotropical social wasp Protopolybia exigua(Saussure) was fractionated by RP-HPLC resulting in the elution of 20 fractions. The homogeneity of the preparations were checked out by using ESI-MS analysis and the fractions 15, 17 and 19 (eluted at the most hydrophobic conditions) were enough pure to be sequenced by Edman degradation chemistry, resulting in the following sequences: Protopolybia MPI I-N-W-L-K-L-G-K-K-V-S-A-I-L-NH2 Protopolybia-MP II I-N-W-K-A-I-I-E-A-A-K-Q-A-L-NH2 Protopolybia-MP III I-N-W-L-K-L-G-K-A-V-I-D-A-L-NH2 All the peptides were manually synthesized on-solid phase and functionally characterized. Protopolybia-MP I is a hemolytic mastoparan, probably acting on mast cells by assembling in plasma membrane, resulting in pore formation; meanwhile, the peptides Protopolybia-MP II and -MP III were characterized as a non-hemolytic mast cell degranulator toxins, which apparently act by virtue of their binding to G-protein receptor, activating the mast cell degranulation.

  2. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Immatures in Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Corrêa Varella

    Full Text Available We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L. fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda.

  3. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  4. Ruta graveolens Extracts and Metabolites against Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayil-Gutiérrez, Benjamin A; Villegas-Mendoza, Jesús M; Santes-Hernndez, Zuridai; Paz-González, Alma D; Mireles-Martínez, Maribel; Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Rivera, Gildardo

    2015-11-01

    The biological activity of Ruta graveolens leaf tissue extracts obtained with different solvents (ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water) and metabolites (psoralen, 2- undecanone and rutin) against Spodoptera frugiperda was evaluated. Metabolites levels in extracts were quantified by HPLC and GC. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed 94% and 78% mortality, respectively. Additionally, psoralen metabolite showed a high mortality as cypermethrin. Metabolite quantification in extracts shows the presence of 2-undecanone (87.9 µmoles mg(-1) DW), psoralen (3.6 µmoles mg(-1) DW) and rutin (0.001 pmoles mg(-1) DW). We suggest that these concentrations of 2-undecanone and psoralen in R. graveolens leaf tissue extracts could be responsible for S. frugiperda mortality.

  5. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K D; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda.

  6. Excision of Nucleopolyhedrovirus Form Transgenic Silkworm Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System

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    Zhanqi Dong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering has been shown to efficiently suppress infection by disrupting genes of the pathogen. We recently constructed transgenic lines expressing CRISPR/Cas9 and the double sgRNA target Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV immediate early-1 (ie-1 gene in the silkworm, respectively, and obtained four transgenic hybrid lines by G1 generation hybridization: Cas9(-/sgRNA(-, Cas9(+/sgRNA(-, Cas9(-/sgRNA(+, and Cas9(+/sgRNA(+. We demonstrated that the Cas9(+/sgRNA(+ transgenic lines effectively edited the target site of the BmNPV genome, and large fragment deletion was observed after BmNPV infection. Further antiviral analysis of the Cas9(+/sgRNA(+ transgenic lines shows that the median lethal dose (LD50 is 1,000-fold higher than the normal lines after inoculation with occlusion bodies. The analysis of economic characters and off-target efficiency of Cas9(+/sgRNA(+ transgenic hybrid line showed no significant difference compared with the normal lines. Our findings indicate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering more effectively targets the BmNPV genomes and could be utilized as an insect antiviral treatment.

  7. Excision of Nucleopolyhedrovirus Form Transgenic Silkworm Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhanqi; Dong, Feifan; Yu, Xinbo; Huang, Liang; Jiang, Yaming; Hu, Zhigang; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Minhui

    2018-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering has been shown to efficiently suppress infection by disrupting genes of the pathogen. We recently constructed transgenic lines expressing CRISPR/Cas9 and the double sgRNA target Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) immediate early-1 ( ie-1 ) gene in the silkworm, respectively, and obtained four transgenic hybrid lines by G1 generation hybridization: Cas9(-)/sgRNA(-), Cas9(+)/sgRNA(-), Cas9(-)/sgRNA(+), and Cas9(+)/sgRNA(+). We demonstrated that the Cas9(+)/sgRNA(+) transgenic lines effectively edited the target site of the BmNPV genome, and large fragment deletion was observed after BmNPV infection. Further antiviral analysis of the Cas9(+)/sgRNA(+) transgenic lines shows that the median lethal dose (LD50) is 1,000-fold higher than the normal lines after inoculation with occlusion bodies. The analysis of economic characters and off-target efficiency of Cas9(+)/sgRNA(+) transgenic hybrid line showed no significant difference compared with the normal lines. Our findings indicate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering more effectively targets the BmNPV genomes and could be utilized as an insect antiviral treatment.

  8. Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae that survive sublethal doses of nucleopolyhedrovirus exhibit high metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Gustav; Nardini, Luisa; Duncan, Frances D

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of sublethal doses of Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearSNPV) on the metabolic rate of H. armigera, the respiration rates of third instar H. armigera larvae inoculated with sublethal doses of HearSNPV were evaluated. Respiration rates, measured as the rate of CO(2) production (VCO(2)), were recorded daily using closed-system respirometry. By 4 days post-inoculation (dpi), the metabolic rates of LD(25) or LD(75) survivors were significantly higher than that of uninoculated controls. When dose data were pooled, the VCO(2) values of larvae that survived inoculation (0.0288mlh(-1)), the uninoculated controls (0.0250mlh(-1)), and the larvae that did not survive inoculation (0.0199mlh(-1)) differed significantly from one another. At 4dpi, the VCO(2) of the uninoculated controls were significantly lower than the VCO(2) of inoculation survivors, but significantly higher than the VCO(2) of inoculation non-survivors. Inoculation survivors may have had high metabolic rates due to a combination of viral replication, organ damage, and an energy-intensive induced cellular immune response. The high 4dpi metabolic rate of inoculation survivors may reflect an effective immune response and may be seen as the metabolic signature of larvae that are in the process of surviving inoculation with HearSNPV.

  9. Genome sequence and organization of a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the smaller tea tortrix, Adoxophyes honmai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Madoka; Goto, Chie; Kang, Won Kyung; Shikata, Masamitsu; Luque, Teresa; Kunimi, Yasuhisa

    2003-01-01

    Adoxophyes honmai nucleopolyhedrovirus (AdhoNPV) has a distinctive pathology in A. honmai larvae, killing the host more slowly than other NPVs. To further understand the pathology of AdhoNPV, its genome was completely sequenced and compared with those of other baculoviruses. The AdhoNPV genome is 113,220 bp, with a G + C content of 35.6%. It contains 125 putative open reading frames (ORFs), of which 8 are unique to AdhoNPV, and 4 homologous regions. The other 117 ORFs display similarity to previously characterized baculovirus genes involved in early and late gene expression, DNA replication, and structural and auxiliary functions. The phylogenetic position of AdhoNPV, in relation to 15 other baculoviruses whose genomes have been completely sequenced, was assessed by three different analyses: gene sequence, gene order, and gene content. Although gene content analysis failed to support the group II NPVs, phylogenetic trees based on gene sequence and gene order showed AdhoNPV to be closely related to the group II NPVs

  10. Bm65 is essential for the propagation of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Guohui; Yao, Qin; Chen, Liang; Feng, Fan; Yuan, Yi; Chen, Keping

    2013-01-01

    Orf65 (Bm65) of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a highly conserved gene that encodes an unknown 104-amino acid protein. In the present study, we have shown the role of Bm65 in the baculovirus life cycle. 5'-RACE analysis showed that the transcription start site of Bm65 was 14 nucleotides upstream of the start codon ATG. The transcription profile of Bm65 was detected from 6 to 72 h postinfection (p. i.) by RT-PCR. A Bm65-knockout bacmid was constructed by homologous recombination to characterize the role of Bm65 in viral life cycle. Fluorescence microscopy showed that Bm65-knockout virus was unable to generate infectious budded virus in BmN cells. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that Bm65 deletion did not affect the viral DNA replication. To conclude, Bm65 is essential for the propagation of BmNPV, but is unnecessary for the replication of viral DNA.

  11. Sublethal dose of phoxim and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus interact to elevate silkworm mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, ZhiYa; Li, FanChi; Hu, JingSheng; Ding, Chao; Wang, Chaoqian; Tian, JiangHai; Xue, Bin; Xu, KaiZun; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically important insect. It is relatively less resistant to certain chemicals and environment exposures such as pesticides and pathogens. After pesticide exposures, the silkworms are more susceptible to microbial infections. The mechanism underlying the susceptibility might be related to immune response and oxidative stress. A sublethal dose of phoxim combined with Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) elevated the silkworm mortality at 96 h. We found a higher content of H 2 O 2 and increased levels of genes related to oxidative stress and immune response after treatment with a sublethal dose of phoxim for 24 h or 48 h. However, such response decreased with longer pesticide treatment. Mortality increased by 44% when B. mori was exposed to combined treatment with BmNPV and phoxim rather than BmNPV alone. The level of examined immune-related and oxidative-stress-related genes significantly decreased in the combined treatment group compared with the BmNPV group. Our results indicated that, with long-term exposure to pesticides such as OPs, even at sublethal dose, the oxidative stress response and immune responses in silkworm were inhibited, which may lead to further immune impairment and accumulation of oxidative stress, resulting in susceptibility to the virus and harm to the silkworm. Our study provided insights for understanding the susceptibility to pathogen after pesticide exposures, which may promote the development of better pesticide controls to avoid significant economic losses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus BM5 protein regulates progeny virus production and viral gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokusho, Ryuhei; Koh, Yoshikazu; Fujimoto, Masaru; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf5 (Bm5) is a core gene of lepidopteran baculoviruses and encodes the protein with the conserved amino acid residues (DUF3627) in its C-terminus. Here, we found that Bm5 disruption resulted in lower titers of budded viruses and fewer numbers of occlusion bodies (OBs) in B. mori cultured cells and larvae, although viral genome replication was not affected. Bm5 disruption also caused aberrant expression of various viral genes at the very late stage of infection. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that BM5 localized to the nuclear membrane. We also found that DUF3627 is important for OB production, transcriptional regulation of viral genes, and subcellular localization of BM5. Compared with wild-type BmNPV infection, larval death was delayed when B. mori larvae were infected with Bm5 mutants. These results suggest that BM5 is involved in progeny virus production and regulation of viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. -- Highlights: •The role of BmNPV BM5 protein was examined in B. mori cultured cells and larvae. •BM5 contributes to efficient production of budded viruses and occlusion bodies. •BM5 regulates viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. •BM5 dominantly localizes to the nuclear membrane. •Bm5 mutant showed v-cath down-regulation and resulting delay of larval death.

  13. Antiviral activity of a serine protease from the digestive juice of Bombyx mori larvae against nucleopolyhedrovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Hiroshi; Tsuneishi, Eiko; Ponnuvel, Kangayam M.; Furukawa, Seiichi; Asaoka, Ai; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Ishibashi, Jun; Yamakawa, Minoru

    2004-01-01

    A protein showing strong antiviral activity against Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) was purified from the digestive juice of B. mori larvae. The molecular mass of this protein was 24 271 Da. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein was determined and cDNA was cloned based on the amino acid sequence. A homology search of the deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA showed 94% identity with B. mori serine protease so the protein was designated B. mori serine protease-2 (BmSP-2). Analysis of BmSP-2 gene expression showed that this gene is expressed in the midgut but not in other tissues. In addition, BmSP-2 gene was shown to not be expressed in the molting and wandering stages, indicating that the gene is hormonally regulated. Our results suggest that BmSP-2, an insect digestive enzyme, can be a potential antiviral factor against BmNPV at the initial site of viral infection

  14. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus BM5 protein regulates progeny virus production and viral gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokusho, Ryuhei, E-mail: kokusho@ss.ab.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Koh, Yoshikazu; Fujimoto, Masaru; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu, E-mail: katsuma@ss.ab.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2016-11-15

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf5 (Bm5) is a core gene of lepidopteran baculoviruses and encodes the protein with the conserved amino acid residues (DUF3627) in its C-terminus. Here, we found that Bm5 disruption resulted in lower titers of budded viruses and fewer numbers of occlusion bodies (OBs) in B. mori cultured cells and larvae, although viral genome replication was not affected. Bm5 disruption also caused aberrant expression of various viral genes at the very late stage of infection. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that BM5 localized to the nuclear membrane. We also found that DUF3627 is important for OB production, transcriptional regulation of viral genes, and subcellular localization of BM5. Compared with wild-type BmNPV infection, larval death was delayed when B. mori larvae were infected with Bm5 mutants. These results suggest that BM5 is involved in progeny virus production and regulation of viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. -- Highlights: •The role of BmNPV BM5 protein was examined in B. mori cultured cells and larvae. •BM5 contributes to efficient production of budded viruses and occlusion bodies. •BM5 regulates viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. •BM5 dominantly localizes to the nuclear membrane. •Bm5 mutant showed v-cath down-regulation and resulting delay of larval death.

  15. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac53 plays a role in nucleocapsid assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Li Zhaofei; Wu Wenbi; Li Lingling; Yuan Meijin; Pan Lijing; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2008-01-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf53 (ac53) is a highly conserved gene existing in all sequenced Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera baculoviruses, but its function remains unknown. To investigate its role in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac53 deletion virus (vAc ac53KO-PH-GFP ) was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy and titration analysis revealed that vAc ac53KO-PH-GFP could not produce infectious budded virus in infected Sf9 cells. Real-time PCR demonstrated that the ac53 deletion did not affect the levels of viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that many lucent tubular shells devoid of the nucleoprotein core are present in the virogenic stroma and ring zone, indicating that the ac53 knockout affected nucleocapsid assembly. With a recombinant virus expressing an Ac53-GFP fusion protein, we observed that Ac53 was distributed within the cytoplasm and nucleus at 24 h post-infection, but afterwards accumulated predominantly near the nucleus-cytoplasm boundary. These data demonstrate that ac53 is involved in nucleocapsid assembly and is an essential gene for virus production

  16. Identification of nucleopolyhedrovirus that infect Nymphalid butterflies Agraulis vanillae and Dione juno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Vanina Andrea; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás; Gómez, Diego Luis Mengual; Sciocco-Cap, Alicia; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Dione juno and Agraulis vanillae are very common butterflies in natural gardens in South America, and also bred worldwide. In addition, larvae of these butterflies are considered as pests in crops of Passiflora spp. For these reasons, it is important to identify and describe pathogens of these species, both for preservation purposes and for use in pest control. Baculoviridae is a family of insect viruses that predominantly infect species of Lepidoptera and are used as bioinsecticides. Larvae of D. juno and A. vanillae exhibiting symptoms of baculovirus infection were examined for the presence of baculoviruses by PCR and transmission electron microscopy. Degenerate primers were designed and used to amplify partial sequences from the baculovirus p74, cathepsin, and chitinase genes, along with previously designed primers for amplification of lef-8, lef-9, and polh. Sequence data from these six loci, along with ultrastructural observations on occlusion bodies isolated from the larvae, confirmed that the larvae were infected with nucleopolyhedroviruses from genus Alphabaculovirus. The NPVs from the two different larval hosts appear to be variants of the same, previously undescribed baculovirus species. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data placed these NPVs in Alphabaculovirus group I/clade 1b. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The development of a reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and the production of transgenic garlic resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng Sijun, S.J.; Henken, B.; Ahn, Y.K.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its application in producing insect resistant GM garlic lines. The transformation system is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, using young callus derived from different callus

  18. Phenotypic and genetic analysis of Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus few polyhedra mutants: Mutations in the 25K FP gene may be caused by DNA replication errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. Bischoff; James M. Slavicek

    1997-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that polyhedron formation (PF) mutants arise at a high frequency during serial passage of the Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) in the L. dispar 652Y cell line (J.M. Slavicek, N. Hayes-Plazolles, and M.E. Kelly, Biol. Control 5:251-261, 1995). Most of these PF mutants...

  19. Autographa californica Multicapsid Nucleopolyhedrovirus efficiently infects Sf9 cells and transduces mammalian cells via direct fusion with the plasma membrane at low pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, S.; Wang, M.; Qiu, Z.; Deng, F.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.H.; Wang, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    The budded virus (BV) of the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) infects insect cells and transduces mammalian cells mainly through the endocytosis pathway. However, this study revealed that the treatment of the virus bound to Sf9 cells at low pH could efficiently rescue

  20. A cell clone strain from Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) highly susceptible to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and M. separata NPV (MsNPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Qian; Zheng, Gui-Ling; Zhao, Chuan-De; Wan, Fang-Hao; Li, Chang-You

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we describe a cell line, Ms-10C, cloned from the line QAU-Ms-E-10 (simplified Ms-10), an embryonic line from Mythimna separata. The cloned cell line was significantly more sensitive to nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV). Ms-10C cells were mainly spherical with a diameter of 14.42 ± 2.23 μm. DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) confirmed the profile of PCR-amplified bands of the cloned cell line was consistent with those of the parental cell line, Ms-10. The sequencing result of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCO I) fragment confirmed that the amplified 636-bps mtCOI fragment was 100% identical to that of M. separata. Its chromosomes exhibited the typical characters of lepidopteran cell lines. Its population doubling time was 42.2 h at 27°C. Ms-10C was more sensitive than Ms-10 to both Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and M. separata nucleopolyhedrovirus (MsNPV). At 4 d post infection, the infection rates of two viruses reached 94.2 and 92.3%, respectively. The availability of this cell clone strain will provide a useful tool for the basic research on nucleopolyhedrovirus and for potential application in expression of recombinant proteins with baculovirus expression vector system.

  1. Pseudotyping Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV): F Proteins from Group II NPVs are functionally analogous to AcMNPV GP64

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lung, O.; Westenberg, M.; Vlak, J.M.; Zuidema, D.; Blissard, G.W.

    2002-01-01

    GP64, the major envelope glycoprotein of budded virions of the baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), is involved in viral attachment, mediates membrane fusion during virus entry, and is required for efficient virion budding. Thus, GP64 is essential for viral

  2. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF54, a viral desmoplakin gene, is associated with the infectivity of budded virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-Juan; Tian, Cai-Hong; Fan, Xiao-Ying; Lou, Yi-Han; Cheng, Ruo-Lin; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2012-07-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) ORF54 (Bm54), a member of the viral desmoplakin N-terminus superfamily, is homologous to Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ORF66, which is required for the efficient egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus and occlusion body formation. In this paper, we generated a bacmid with the Bm54 gene deleted via homologous recombination in Escherichia coli and characterized the mutant virus using a transfection-infection assay and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Our results demonstrated that the cells transfected with viral DNA lacking Bm54 produced non-infectious budded viruses (BVs). Electron microscopy showed that although the deletion of Bm54 did not affect assembly and release of nucleocapsids, it severely affected polyhedron formation. In conclusion, deletion of Bm54 resulted in non-infectious BV and defective polyhedra. Although the sequences of Bm54 and Ac66 are very similar, the two genes function quite differently in the regulation of viral life cycle.

  3. Identification of a novel rhabdovirus in Spodoptera frugiperda cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hailun; Galvin, Teresa A; Glasner, Dustin R; Shaheduzzaman, Syed; Khan, Arifa S

    2014-06-01

    The Sf9 cell line, derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, is used as a cell substrate for biological products, and no viruses have been reported in this cell line after extensive testing. We used degenerate PCR assays and massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to identify a novel RNA virus belonging to the order Mononegavirales in Sf9 cells. Sequence analysis of the assembled virus genome showed the presence of five open reading frames (ORFs) corresponding to the genes for the N, P, M, G, and L proteins in other rhabdoviruses and an unknown ORF of 111 amino acids located between the G- and L-protein genes. BLAST searches indicated that the S. frugiperda rhabdovirus (Sf-rhabdovirus) was related in a limited region of the L-protein gene to Taastrup virus, a newly discovered member of the Mononegavirales from a leafhopper (Hemiptera), and also to plant rhabdoviruses, particularly in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences in the L-protein gene indicated that Sf-rhabdovirus is a novel virus that branched with Taastrup virus. Rhabdovirus morphology was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of filtered supernatant samples from Sf9 cells. Infectivity studies indicated potential transient infection by Sf-rhabdovirus in other insect cell lines, but there was no evidence of entry or virus replication in human cell lines. Sf-rhabdovirus sequences were also found in the Sf21 parental cell line of Sf9 cells but not in other insect cell lines, such as BT1-TN-5B1-4 (Tn5; High Five) cells and Schneider's Drosophila line 2 [D.Mel.(2); SL2] cells, indicating a species-specific infection. The results indicate that conventional methods may be complemented by state-of-the-art technologies with extensive bioinformatics analysis for identification of novel viruses. The Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cell line is used as a cell substrate for the development and manufacture of biological products. Extensive testing has not previously identified any viruses in this cell

  4. Genomic sequence, organization and characteristics of a new nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from Clanis bilineata larva

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    Wang Yong

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Baculoviruses are well known for their potential as biological agents for controlling agricultural and forest pests. They are also widely used as expression vectors in molecular cloning studies. The genome sequences of 48 baculoviruses are currently available in NCBI databases. As the number of sequenced viral genomes increases, it is important for the authors to present sufficiently detailed analyses and annotations to advance understanding of them. In this study, the complete genome of Clanis bilineata nucleopolyhedrovirus (ClbiNPV has been sequenced and analyzed in order to understand this virus better. Results The genome of ClbiNPV contains 135,454 base pairs (bp with a G+C content of 37%, and 139 putative open reading frames (ORFs of at least 150 nucleotides. One hundred and twenty-six of these ORFs have homologues with other baculovirus genes while the other 13 are unique to ClbiNPV. The 30 baculovirus core genes are all present in ClbiNPV. Phylogenetic analysis based on the combined pif-2 and lef-8 sequences places ClbiNPV in the Group II Alphabaculoviruses. This result is consistent with the absence of gp64 from the ClbiNPV genome and the presence instead of a fusion protein gene, characteristic of Group II. Blast searches revealed that ClbiNPV encodes a photolyase-like gene sequence, which has a 1-bp deletion when compared with photolyases of other baculoviruses. This deletion disrupts the sequence into two small photolyase ORFs, designated Clbiphr-1 and Clbiphr-2, which correspond to the CPD-DNA photolyase and FAD-binding domains of photolyases, respectively. Conclusion ClbiNPV belongs to the Group II Alphabaculoviruses and is most closely related to OrleNPV, LdMNPV, TnSNPV, EcobNPV and ChchNPV. It contains a variant DNA photolyase gene, which only exists in ChchNPV, TnSNPV and SpltGV among the baculoviruses.

  5. Effects of cetyltriethylammonium bromide on the replication of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yajing; Zhang, Zhifang; He, Jialu; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2002-05-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to quantify the effects of cetyltriethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the replication of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) and the transcriptionalactivity of BmNPV ie-1 promoter. The results demonstrated that the budded virus (BV) titer rose about 3.7-fold by adding CTAB to the culture media up to 0.1 mu g ml(-1) in infected Bm-N cells with a wild-type BmNPV. The transient expression level of luciferase driven by BmNPV ie-1 promoter was enhanced by more than 3-fold in the presence of 0.1 mu g ml(-1) of CTAB in uninfected insect cells via a transient expression system. Contrary to the rise in BV titer, the polyhedra inside the nucleus of infected cells dropped linearly from 4.0 x 10(6) ml(-1) down to 2.1 x 10(6) ml(-1) with in a range of CTAB concentrations from 0 to 0.25 mu g ml(-1). The same trend in expression level of beta -galactosidase or phytase was given when the Bm-N cells or fifth-instar silkworm larvae infected with a recombinant BmNPV containing the beta -galactosidase or phytase reporter gene driven by the polyhedrin promoter. We deduced that CTAB appeared to affect the virus bi-phasic life cycle stages and production pathways, resulting in an enhancement in BV production and a suppression of occluded virus (OV) production and expression of foreign genes controlled by the polyhedrin promoter.

  6. Functional characterization of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus mutant lacking late expression factor 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Shi, Y; Yu, H; Li, J; Quan, Y; Shu, T; Nie, Z; Zhang, Y; Yu, W

    Baculoviridae is a family of invertebrate viruses with large double-stranded DNA genomes. Proteins encoded by some late expression factor (lef ) genes are involved in the regulation of viral gene expression. Lef-9 is one of four transcription-specific Lefs, which are components of the virus-encoded RNA polymerase, and can initiate and transcribe late and very late genes. As a multifunctional protein encoded by the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), Lef-9 may be involved in the regulation of viral propagation. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To determine the role of lef-9 in baculovirus infection, lef-9-knockout virus (lef-9-KO-Bacmid virus) was constructed using the Red recombination system, and the Bac-to-Bac system was used to prepare lef-9-repaired virus (lef-9-Re-Bacmid virus). The lef-9-KO virus did not produce infectious viruses or show infection activity, while the lef-9-repaired virus recovered both. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of the transcription levels in wild-type-Bacmid, lef-9-KO-Bacmid, and lef-9-Re-Bacmid viruses showed that the lef-9-KO bacmid had little effect on viral genome replication. However, the transcription levels of the early and late viral genes, lef-3, ie-1, vp39, and p10, were significantly lower in BmN cells transfected with lef-9-KO-Bacmids than in the controls. Electron microscopy showed no visible enveloped virions in cells transfected with lef-9-KO-Bacmids, while many mature virions in cells transfected with lef-9-Re-Bacmid and wt-Bacmid were present. Thus, lef-9 was not essential for viral genome replication, but significantly affected viral gene transcription and expression in all periods of cell life cycle.

  7. A hypothetical model of crossing Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus through its host midgut physical barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cheng

    Full Text Available Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV is a primary pathogen of silkworm (B. mori that causes severe economic losses each year. However, the molecular mechanisms of silkworm-BmNPV interactions, especially the silkworm proteins that can interact with the virus, are still largely unknown. In this study, the total and membrane proteins of silkworm midguts were displayed using one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis. A virus overlay assay was used to detect B. mori proteins that specifically bind to BmNPV particles. Twelve proteins were located and identified using mass spectrometry, and the different expression of the corresponding genes in BmNPV susceptible and resistant silkworm strains also indicated their involvement in BmNPV infection. The 12 proteins are grouped based on their potential roles in viral infection, for example, endocytosis, intracellular transportation, and host responses. Based on these results, we hypothesize the following: I vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit A and subunit B may be implicated in the process of the membrane fusion of virus and the release of the nucleocapsid into cytoplasm; II actin, enolase and phosphoglycerate kinase are cytoskeleton associated proteins and may play an important role in BmNPV intracellular transportation; III mitochondrial prohibitin complex protein 2, ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein, calreticulin, regucalcin-like isoform X1 and 60 kDa heat shock protein are involved in cell apoptosis regulation during BmNPV infection in larvae midguts; IV ribosomal P0 may be associated with BmNPV infection by regulating gene expression of BmNPV; V arginine kinase has a role in the antiviral activities against BmNPV. Our work should prove informative by providing multiple protein targets and a novel direction to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the interactions between silkworms and BmNPV.

  8. Proteomic analysis of BmN cell lipid rafts reveals roles in Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Min; Liang, Zi; Kumar, Dhiraj; Chen, Fei; Zhu, Liyuan; Kuang, Sulan; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang

    2017-04-01

    The mechanism of how Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) enters cells is unknown. The primary components of membrane lipid rafts are proteins and cholesterol, and membrane lipid rafts are thought to be an active region for host-viral interactions. However, whether they contribute to the entry of BmNPV into silkworm cells remains unclear. In this study, we explored the membrane protein components of lipid rafts from BmN cells with mass spectrometry (MS). Proteins and cholesterol were investigated after establishing infection with BmNPV in BmN cells. In total, 222 proteins were identified in the lipid rafts, and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation analysis showed that more than 10% of these proteins had binding and catalytic functions. We then identified proteins that potentially interact between lipid rafts and BmNPV virions using the Virus Overlay Protein Blot Assay (VOPBA). A total of 65 proteins were analyzed with MS, and 7 were predicted to be binding proteins involved in BmNPV cellular invasion, including actin, kinesin light chain-like isoform X2, annexin B13, heat-shock protein 90, barrier-to-autointegration factor B-like and serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 A-like. When the cholesterol of the lipid rafts from the membrane was depleted by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), BmNPV entry into BmN cells was blocked. However, supplying cholesterol into the medium rescued the BmNPV infection ability. These results show that membrane lipid rafts may be the active regions for the entry of BmNPV into cells, and the components of membrane lipid rafts may be candidate targets for improving the resistance of the silkworm to BmNPV.

  9. A Hypothetical Model of Crossing Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus through Its Host Midgut Physical Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yang; Wang, Xue-Yang; Hu, Hao; Killiny, Nabil; Xu, Jia-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a primary pathogen of silkworm (B. mori) that causes severe economic losses each year. However, the molecular mechanisms of silkworm-BmNPV interactions, especially the silkworm proteins that can interact with the virus, are still largely unknown. In this study, the total and membrane proteins of silkworm midguts were displayed using one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis. A virus overlay assay was used to detect B. mori proteins that specifically bind to BmNPV particles. Twelve proteins were located and identified using mass spectrometry, and the different expression of the corresponding genes in BmNPV susceptible and resistant silkworm strains also indicated their involvement in BmNPV infection. The 12 proteins are grouped based on their potential roles in viral infection, for example, endocytosis, intracellular transportation, and host responses. Based on these results, we hypothesize the following: I) vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit A and subunit B may be implicated in the process of the membrane fusion of virus and the release of the nucleocapsid into cytoplasm; II) actin, enolase and phosphoglycerate kinase are cytoskeleton associated proteins and may play an important role in BmNPV intracellular transportation; III) mitochondrial prohibitin complex protein 2, ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein, calreticulin, regucalcin-like isoform X1 and 60 kDa heat shock protein are involved in cell apoptosis regulation during BmNPV infection in larvae midguts; IV) ribosomal P0 may be associated with BmNPV infection by regulating gene expression of BmNPV; V) arginine kinase has a role in the antiviral activities against BmNPV. Our work should prove informative by providing multiple protein targets and a novel direction to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the interactions between silkworms and BmNPV. PMID:25502928

  10. V-ATPase Is Involved in Silkworm Defense Response against Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lü

    Full Text Available Silkworms are usually susceptible to the infection of Bombyx mori (B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV, which can cause significant economic loss. However, some silkworm strains are identified to be highly resistant to BmNPV. To explore the silkworm genes involved in this resistance in the present study, we performed comparative real-time PCR, ATPase assay, over-expression and sub-cellular localization experiments. We found that when inoculated with BmNPV both the expression and activity of V-ATPase were significantly up-regulated in the midgut column cells (not the goblet cells of BmNPV-resistant strains (NB and BC8, the main sites for the first step of BmNPV invasion, but not in those of a BmNPV-susceptible strain 306. Furthermore, this up-regulation mainly took place during the first 24 hours post inoculation (hpi, the essential period required for establishment of virus infection, and then was down-regulated to normal levels. Amazingly, transient over-expression of V-ATPase c subunit in BmNPV-infected silkworm cells could significantly inhibit BmNPV proliferation. To our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating clearly that V-ATPase is indeed involved in the defense response against BmNPV. Our data further suggests that prompt and potent regulation of V-ATPase may be essential for execution of this response, which may enable fast acidification of endosomes and/or lysosomes to render them competent for degradation of invading viruses.

  11. Nucleopolyhedrovirus detection and distribution in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats of Appledore Island, Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Ian; Brown, Julia M; Gitlin, Shari A; Doud, Devin F

    2011-07-01

    Viruses in aquatic ecosystems comprise those produced by both autochthonous and allochthonous host taxa. However, there is little information on the diversity and abundance of viruses of allochthonous origin, particularly from non-anthropogenic sources, in freshwater and marine ecosystems. We investigated the presence of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV) (Baculovirus), which commonly infect terrestrial lepidopteran taxa, across the landscape of Appledore Island, Gulf of Maine. PCR and qPCR primers were developed around a 294-bp fragment of the polyhedrin (polH) gene, which is the major constituent protein of NPV multivirion polyhedral occlusion bodies. polH was successfully amplified from several aquatic habitats, and recovered polH sequences were most similar to known lepidopteran NPV. Using quantitative PCR designed around a cluster of detected sequences, we detected polH in Appledore Island soils, supratidal freshwater ponds, nearshore sediments, near- and offshore plankton, and in floatsam. This diverse set of locations suggests that NPVs are widely dispersed along the terrestrial--marine continuum and that free polyhedra may be washed into ponds and eventually to sea. The putative hosts of detected NPVs were webworms (Hyphantria sp.) which form dense nests in late summer on the dominant Appledore Island vegetation (Prunus virginiana). Our data indicate that viruses of terrestrial origin (i.e., allochthonous viruses) may be dispersed widely in coastal marine habitats. The dispersal of NPV polH and detection within offshore net plankton (>64 μm) demonstrates that terrestrial viruses may interact with larger particles and plankton of coastal marine ecosystem, which further suggests that viral genomic information may be transported between biomes.

  12. Characterization of A Baculovirus of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae Isolated from Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Wijonarko

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A Baculovirus has been isolated from cadaver of larvae of Spodoptera litura, a Noctuidae of agricultural pest, importance due to its wide-range hosts and the damage to their respective host. Phase contrast light microscopy observation from infected larvae showed that the fat body, hemocyte cells, and cells surrounding the trachea or tracheolus were the most tissue invaded by polyhedra. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the occlusion body purified from diseased larva showed that the baculovirus envelope containing multiple nucleocapsid. Digestion of viral DNA with three restriction enzymes showed that the genome pattern of baculovirus isolated from Bantul were close to SpliNPV isolated from Japan and those of Spodoptera littoralis and quite distinct from those isolated from Southeast Asia region. Bioassay test performed on first to fifth instar larvae showed that the virus effectively control the young larvae, but showed some level of resistance against older larvae of Spodoptera litura.

  13. A draft genome assembly of the army worm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumani, Pavan Kumar; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil K; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2014-08-01

    Spodoptera is an agriculturally important pest insect and studies in understanding its biology have been limited by the unavailability of its genome. In the present study, the genomic DNA was sequenced and assembled into 37,243 scaffolds of size, 358 Mb with N50 of 53.7 kb. Based on degree of identity, we could anchor 305 Mb of the genome onto all the 28 chromosomes of Bombyx mori. Repeat elements were identified, which accounts for 20.28% of the total genome. Further, we predicted 11,595 genes, with an average intron length of 726 bp. The genes were annotated and domain analysis revealed that Sf genes share a significant homology and expression pattern with B. mori, despite differences in KOG gene categories and representation of certain protein families. The present study on Sf genome would help in the characterization of cellular pathways to understand its biology and comparative evolutionary studies among lepidopteran family members to help annotate their genomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced resistance to Spodoptera litura in endophyte infected cauliflower plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of disease, are important mediators of plant-herbivore interactions. These endophytes enhance resistance of host plant against insect herbivores mainly by productions of various alkaloid based defensive compounds in the plant tissue or through alterations of plant nutritional quality. Two endophytic fungi, i.e., Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium sp., were isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, a traditional indian medicinal plant. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plants were inoculated with these two endophytic fungi. The effect of endophyte infected and uninfected cauliflower plants were measured on the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Endophyte infected cauliflower plants showed resistance to S. litura in the form of significant increase in larval and pupal mortality in both the fungi. Inhibitory effects of endophytic fungi also were observed on adult emergence, longevity, reproductive potential, as well as hatchability of eggs. Thus, it is concluded that antibiosis to S. litura could be imparted by artificial inoculation of endophytes and this could be used to develop alternative ecologically safe control strategies.

  15. DENSIDAD CRÍTICA DE Meloidogyne exigua EN PLANTAS DE ALMÁCIGO DE CAFÉ VARIEDAD CATURRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainor Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de densidad creciente de Meloidogyne exigua sobre el desarrollo de plantas de almácigo. Se trasplantaron plántulas de café variedad caturra a bolsas de polietileno con 1335 cm3 de sustrato desinfectado, para establecer un ensayo con diseño de bloques completos al azar, con 8 repeticiones. Los tratamientos aplicados consistieron de poblaciones iniciales (Pi de 0; 0,125; 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32 y 64 huevos+J2/ cm3 de sustrato, aplicadas un mes después del trasplante. El modelo y=m+(1-m ZP-T aplicado 234 días después del trasplante para la altura, diámetro, número de nudos y peso fresco aéreo, indicó que el límite de tolerancia (T fue de 0,66; 0,06; 0,13 y 0,88 huevos+J2/cm3, respectivamente; la producción mínima relativa (m fue de 0,79; 0,79; 0,33 y 0,54 respectivamente, a Pi iguales o mayores a 64 huevos+J2/cm3. El índice de agallas alcanzó el máximo a partir de una Pi de 2; el pico máximo de nematodos en el suelo y las raíces se alcanzó con Pi entre 2 y 4; mientras la tasa máxima de reproducción fue de 114 con Pi de 0,125. Se concluyó que la densidad crítica fue cercana a cero huevos/cm3 de sustrato como población inicial, y que el almácigo se debe desarrollar libre de nematodos, ya que aún con Pi bajas se puede alcanzar la máxima población en corto tiempo.

  16. Development of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers based on actin sequences and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF): a case study in the Phoma exigua species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aveskamp, M.M.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Gruyter, de J.; Turco, E.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Phoma exigua is considered to be an assemblage of at least nine varieties that are mainly distinguished on the basis of host specificity and pathogenicity. However, these varieties are also reported to be weak pathogens and secondary invaders on non-host tissue. In practice, it is difficult to

  17. Development of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers based on actin sequences and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) : a case study in the Phoma exigua species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aveskamp, M.M.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; de Gruyter, J.; Turco, E.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Phoma exigua is considered to be an assemblage of at least nine varieties that are mainly distinguished on the basis of host specificity and pathogenicity. However, these varieties are also reported to be weak pathogens and secondary invaders on non-host tissue. In practice, it is difficult to

  18. Insecticidal activity of Trichilia claussenii (Meliaceae) fruits against Spodoptera frugiperda; Atividade inseticida dos frutos de Trichilia claussenii (Meliaceae) sobre Spodoptera frugiperda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebo, Liliane; Matos, Andrea Pereira; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da, E-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2010-07-01

    An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the fruits extracts of Trichilia claussenii was carried out and the methanol extract revealed to have strong insecticidal activity. The fractionation of methanol extract of T. claussenii seeds bioassay-guided against Spodoptera frugiperda has led to the identification of the {omega}-phenylalkyl and alkenyl fatty acids as active compounds in this extract. The structures of the compounds were proposed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  19. Genomic sequencing and analyses of HearMNPV—a new Multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Ping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HearMNPV, a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV, which infects the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, comprises multiple rod-shaped nucleocapsids in virion(as detected by electron microscopy. HearMNPV shows a different host range compared with H. armigera single-nucleocapsid NPV (HearSNPV. To better understand HearMNPV, the HearMNPV genome was sequenced and analyzed. Methods The morphology of HearMNPV was observed by electron microscope. The qPCR was used to determine the replication kinetics of HearMNPV infectious for H. armigera in vivo. A random genomic library of HearMNPV was constructed according to the “partial filling-in” method, the sequence and organization of the HearMNPV genome was analyzed and compared with sequence data from other baculoviruses. Results Real time qPCR showed that HearMNPV DNA replication included a decreasing phase, latent phase, exponential phase, and a stationary phase during infection of H. armigera. The HearMNPV genome consists of 154,196 base pairs, with a G + C content of 40.07%. 162 putative ORFs were detected in the HearMNPV genome, which represented 90.16% of the genome. The remaining 9.84% constitute four homologous regions and other non-coding regions. The gene content and gene arrangement in HearMNPV were most similar to those of Mamestra configurata NPV-B (MacoNPV-B, but was different to HearSNPV. Comparison of the genome of HearMNPV and MacoNPV-B suggested that HearMNPV has a deletion of a 5.4-kb fragment containing five ORFs. In addition, HearMNPV orf66, bro genes, and hrs are different to the corresponding parts of the MacoNPV-B genome. Conclusions HearMNPV can replicate in vivo in H. armigera and in vitro, and is a new NPV isolate distinguished from HearSNPV. HearMNPV is most closely related to MacoNPV-B, but has a distinct genomic structure, content, and organization.

  20. Host association of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn and rice strains in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juárez, M.L.; Murua, M.G.; García, M.G.; Ontivero, M.; Vera, M.T.; Vilardi, J.C.; Groot, A.T.; Castagnaro, A.P.; Gastaminza, G.; Willink, E.

    2012-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is composed of two genetically distinct strains, the so-called corn strain and the rice strain. Whether the two strains differ in their host use is unclear, because laboratory experiments have not been able to show consistent host performance or preference

  1. Insecticidal activity of compounds from Ailanthus altissima against Spodoptera littoralis larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Žabka, M.; Tylová, Tereza; Křesinová, Zdena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2014), s. 101-112 ISSN 0552-9034 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11133 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : insectidical activity * Ailanthus altissima * spodoptera * larvae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.049, year: 2014

  2. Insecticidal effect of furanocoumarins from fruits of Angelica archangelica L. against larvae Spodoptera littoralis Boisd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, MAY 2013 (2013), s. 33-39 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Keywords : Angelica archangelica * furanocoumarins * essential oils * plant extracts * spodoptera littoralis * botanical insecticides * insecticidal activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.208, year: 2013

  3. Curcumin induces autophagic cell death in Spodoptera frugiperda cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeran, Sethuraman; Shu, Benshui; Cui, Gaofeng; Fu, Shengjiao; Zhong, Guohua

    2017-06-01

    The increasing interest in the role of autophagy (type II cell death) in the regulation of insect toxicology has propelled study of investigating autophagic cell death pathways. Turmeric, the rhizome of the herb Curcuma longa (Mañjaḷ in Tamil, India and Jiānghuáng in Chinese) have been traditionally used for the pest control either alone or combination with other botanical pesticides. However, the mechanisms by which Curcuma longa or curcumin exerts cytotoxicity in pests are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the potency of Curcuma longa (curcumin) as a natural pesticide employing Sf9 insect line. Autophagy induction effect of curcumin on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells was investigated using various techniques including cell proliferation assay, morphology analysis with inverted phase contrast microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis. Autophagy was evaluated using the fluorescent dye monodansylcadaverine (MDC). Cell death measurement was examined using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) within the concentrations of 5-15μg/mL. Curcumin inhibited the growth of the Sf9 cells and induced autophagic cell death in a time and dose dependent manner. Staining the cells with MDC showed the presence of autophagic vacuoles while increased in a dose and time dependent manner. At the ultrastructural level transmission electron microscopy, cells revealed massive autophagy vacuole accumulation and absence of chromatin condensation. Protein expression levels of ATG8-I and ATG8-II, well-established markers of autophagy related protein were elevated in a time dependent manner after curcumin treatment. The present study proves that curcumin induces autophagic cell death in Sf9 insect cell line and this is the first report of cytotoxic effect of curcumin in insect cells and that will be utilized as natural pesticides in future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Establishment and analysis of a reference transcriptome for Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeai, Fabrice; Gimenez, Sylvie; Duvic, Bernard; Escoubas, Jean-Michel; Gosselin Grenet, Anne-Sophie; Blanc, Florence; Cousserans, François; Séninet, Imène; Bretaudeau, Anthony; Mutuel, Doriane; Girard, Pierre-Alain; Monsempes, Christelle; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Hilliou, Frédérique; Feyereisen, René; Ogliastro, Mylène; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle; Nègre, Nicolas; Fournier, Philippe

    2014-08-23

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae) is a major agricultural pest throughout the American continent. The highly polyphagous larvae are frequently devastating crops of importance such as corn, sorghum, cotton and grass. In addition, the Sf9 cell line, widely used in biochemistry for in vitro protein production, is derived from S. frugiperda tissues. Many research groups are using S. frugiperda as a model organism to investigate questions such as plant adaptation, pest behavior or resistance to pesticides. In this study, we constructed a reference transcriptome assembly (Sf_TR2012b) of RNA sequences obtained from more than 35 S. frugiperda developmental time-points and tissue samples. We assessed the quality of this reference transcriptome by annotating a ubiquitous gene family--ribosomal proteins--as well as gene families that have a more constrained spatio-temporal expression and are involved in development, immunity and olfaction. We also provide a time-course of expression that we used to characterize the transcriptional regulation of the gene families studied. We conclude that the Sf_TR2012b transcriptome is a valid reference transcriptome. While its reliability decreases for the detection and annotation of genes under strong transcriptional constraint we still recover a fair percentage of tissue-specific transcripts. That allowed us to explore the spatial and temporal expression of genes and to observe that some olfactory receptors are expressed in antennae and palps but also in other non related tissues such as fat bodies. Similarly, we observed an interesting interplay of gene families involved in immunity between fat bodies and antennae.

  5. QSAR analysis on Spodoptera litura antifeedant activities for flavone derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchowicz, Pablo R.; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Ocsachoque, Marco A.; Romanelli, Gustavo P.; Ortiz, Erlinda del V.; Autino, Juan C.; Bennardi, Daniel O.; Ruiz, Diego M.; Castro, Eduardo A.

    2009-01-01

    We establish useful models that relate experimentally measured biological activities of compounds to their molecular structure. The pED 50 feeding inhibition on Spodoptera litura species exhibited by aurones, chromones, 3-coumarones and flavones is analyzed in this work through the hypothesis encompassed in the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) Theory. This constitutes a first necessary computationally based step during the design of more bio-friendly repellents that could lead to insights for improving the insecticidal activities of the investigated compounds. After optimizing the molecular structure of each furane and pyrane benzoderivative with the semiempirical molecular orbitals method PM3, more than a thousand of constitutional, topological, geometrical and electronic descriptors are calculated and multiparametric linear regression models are established on the antifeedant potencies. The feature selection method employed in this study is the Replacement Method, which has proven to be successful in previous analyzes. We establish the QSAR both for the complete molecular set of compounds and also for each chemical class, so that acceptably describing the variation of the inhibitory activities from the knowledge of their structure and thus achieving useful predictive results. The main interest of developing trustful QSAR models is that these enable the prediction of compounds having no experimentally measured activities for any reason. Therefore, the structure-activity relationships are further employed for investigating the antifeedant activity on previously synthesized 2-,7-substituted benzopyranes, which do not pose any measured values on the biological expression. One of them, 2-(α-naphtyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, results in a promising structure to be experimentally analyzed as it has predicted pED 50 = 1.162.

  6. The BRO proteins of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus are nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins that utilize the CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Won Kyung; Kurihara, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Shogo

    2006-01-01

    The BRO proteins of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) display a biphasic pattern of intracellular localization during infection. At early times, they reside in the nucleus but then show both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization as the infection proceeds. Therefore, we examined the possibility of nuclear export. Using inhibitors, we reveal that BmNPV BRO proteins shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Mutations on the leucine-rich region of BRO proteins resulted in nuclear accumulation of transiently expressed proteins, suggesting that this region functions as a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES). On the contrary, mutant BRO-D with an altered NES did not show nuclear accumulation in infected cells, although protein production seemed to be reduced. RT-PCR analysis showed that the lower level of protein production was due to a reduction in RNA synthesis. Taken together, our results suggest that BRO proteins are nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins that utilize the CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway

  7. Telenomus remus Nixon egg parasitization of three species of Spodoptera under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomari, A F; Bueno, A F; Bueno, R C O F; Menezes, A O

    2013-08-01

    Telenomus remus Nixon is a promising biocontrol agent as an egg parasitoid of Spodoptera spp., but the lack of information on the host-parasitoid interactions in this system precludes its applied use in agriculture. Therefore, we studied the parasitism capacity of T. remus on eggs of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker), Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), and Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) in a range of temperatures (19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34 ± 1°C) under controlled conditions (70 ± 10% RH and 12 h photophase). Egg masses of Spodoptera spp. were offered to a single-mated T. remus female on a daily basis. More than 80% lifetime parasitism on eggs of S. cosmioides, S. frugiperda, and S. eridania was reached from 1 to 5, 1 to 7, and 1 to 9 days, respectively, at temperatures from 19 to 34°C. More than 80% parasitization was obtained at extreme temperatures for all hosts studied. Lifetime parasitization of S. frugiperda, S. cosmioides, and S. eridania was affected by temperature, with the lowest values for S. frugiperda (34°C) and S. cosmioides (19 and 34°C). Parasitization of S. eridania eggs was reduced around 18% at 28 and 31°C, but dropped more severely at 34°C. Parasitoid longevity was reduced as temperature increased. Thus, our data indicated that T. remus might be suitable as a biocontrol agent against S. eridania, S. cosmioides, and S. frugiperda in geographical areas that fit the temperature range studied here, even though T. remus parasitism was reduced at 34°C.

  8. Parasitism by Campoletis flavicincta on Spodoptera frugiperda in corn Parasitismo de Campoletis flavicincta sobre Spodoptera frugiperda em plantas de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto da Costa Matos Neto

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism by Campoletis flavicincta (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and consequent reduction of production losses were evaluated on caged corn plants in the field. Treatments consisted of plots infested with 0 (control, 15 and 30 pairs of C. flavicincta with egg masses per cage and plot infested without cage and liberation of the parasitoid. Parasitoid release was done when S. frugiperda larvae were three-day-old. Fifty corn plants (40% per plot were collected seven days after infestation and S. frugiperda larvae present were reared in glass cups on an artificial diet. Number of S. frugiperda larvae was reduced by C. flavicincta but mortality of the pest and parasitoid sex ratio in laboratory were similar among treatments. Total progeny and female production from collected larvae were similar among densities of released parasitoid. Parasitism rate was higher on 30 than on 15 pairs of C. flavicincta. Damage on corn plants at seven and 14 days after S. frugiperda infestation had similar grades at 0, 15 or 30 C. flavicincta pairs and higher values than the plots without cage. Damage by S. frugiperda was lower at 30 C. flavicincta pairs after 21 days of infestation. Final stand, stand reduction by plant death and corn productivity were similar among treatments.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial do parasitóide Campoletis flavicincta (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae no controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em plantas de milho protegidas por gaiolas no campo. Os tratamentos consistiram de parcelas infectadas com 0 (controle, 15 e 30 casais de C. flavicincta liberados por gaiola e parcela infestada, além de parcelas sem gaiola e sem liberação do parasitóide. C. flavicincta foi liberado quando as larvas de S. frugiperda estavam com três dias de idade. Em cada parcela, 40% das plantas foram colhidas sete dias após a infestação, e as larvas

  9. Population structure of Spodoptera frugiperda maize and rice host forms in South America: are they host strains?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juárez, M.L.; Schöfl, G.; Vera, M.T.; Vilardi, J.C.; Murúa, M.G.; Willink, E.; Hänniger, S.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    Determining which factors contribute to the formation and maintenance of genetic divergence to evaluate their relative importance as a cause of biological differentiation is among the major challenges in evolutionary biology. In Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) two host strains

  10. First record of Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Argentina and its association with larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde, Liliana; Berta, D. Carolina; Gomez, Marcelo Geronimo

    2012-01-01

    Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina). Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is reported for the first time for Argentina. It is also reported parasitizing larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Le...

  11. Biology and thermal requirements of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavaresco, Alvimar; Garcia, Mauro S.; Gruetzmacher, Anderson D.; Foresti, Josemar; Ringenberg, Rudiney

    2002-01-01

    The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) was studied under different temperatures and its thermal requirements were determined, aiming to aid the rearing of this insect in the laboratory. Embryonic and post-embryonic periods were evaluated at seven different temperatures (14, 18, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C) under environmental chamber conditions, with 14h photophase. The caterpillars were reared on an artificial diet containing white bean, soybean meal, yeast extract, wheat germ and powder milk as source of protein. The extent of the embryonic period decreased with the increase of temperature within the 14 deg C to 25 deg C temperature range, remaining constant between 28 deg C and 32 deg C. For the other phases (caterpillar, pre-pupa and pupa) an inverse relationship between temperature and duration was observed within the 14 deg C to 30 deg C temperature range, extending to 32 deg C for pupae. Duration of pupal phase for males was larger than for females resulting in asynchronous adult emergence. The temperature thresholds for the embryonic, larval, pre-pupal, pupal periods and total cycle were 9.34 deg C, 11.65 deg C, 9.65 deg C, 11.08 deg C and 11.23 deg C, with thermal constants of 62,73 degree-days (DD), 254.61DD, 33.42DD, 177.55DD and 525.11DD, respectively. Evaluating the pupal phase alone, the threshold temperatures were 11.25 deg C for males and 10.81deg C for females, with thermal constants of 188.26DD for males and 165.47DD for females. For total cycle, the threshold temperature and the thermal constant for males were 11.28 deg C and 535.85DD, whereas for females the same variables had values of 11.15 deg C and 513.17DD. So, the most adequate temperature for the development of S. cosmioides is within the range of 25 deg C and 28 deg C, where 9.6 to 11.7 generations of the insect can be annually obtained, in laboratory conditions. (author)

  12. Patogenisitas Beberapa Isolat Cendawan Entomopatogen Metarhizium spp. terhadap Telur Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trizelia Trizelia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium spp. is one of the entomopathogenic fungus that can be used to control Spodoptera litura. The purpose of this research was to study the pathogenicity of Metarhizium spp. to Spodoptera litura eggs. The isolates were collected from rhizosphere of different crops i.e., cabbage, onion, leek and chili. The results showed that there was effect of all isolates on egg mortality. Mortality of S. litura eggs depend on the fungal isolates, ranged between 19.79%-75.70%. First instar larvae was also died 3 days after eclosion. The maximum mortality of first instar larvae was 58.65%. At a concentration of 108 conidia/ml, isolate Mt-kb had the highest virulence which caused higher mortality of eggs and first instar larvae.

  13. New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherre Sade Bezerra Da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.

  14. Interaction between Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum in the management of Spodoptera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mirmes Paiva Goulart

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interaction betweeen Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum in the management of Spodoptera spp. The use of egg parasitoids is a promising strategy for Integrated Pest Management (IPM, but different species of parasitoids have greater or lesser control efficiency, depending on the pest species. Recently, not only Anticarsia gemmatalis and Pseudoplusia includens but also Spodoptera cosmioides and S. eridania have been among the key Lepidoptera larvae attacking soybeans. This study evaluated the combination of Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum for parasitism of eggs of the Spodoptera complex, for better control efficiency and broader spectrum of action among the key pests of soybeans. The experiment was carried out under controlled environmental conditions (25 ± 2ºC; 70 ± 10% RH; and 14 h photophase in a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and 10 replicates with S. frugiperda, S. cosmioides and S. eridania eggs. Each replicate consisted of one egg mass of each Spodoptera species, with approximately 100 eggs offered to the parasitoids. The treatments were: 1 10 females of T. pretiosum; 2 nine females of T. pretiosum and one female of T. remus; 3 eight females of T. pretiosum and two females of T. remus; 4 seven females of T. pretiosum and three females of T. remus; 5 six females of T. pretiosum and four females of T. remus; 6 five females of T. pretiosum and five females of T. remus, and 7 10 females of T. remus. The parameter evaluated was the percentage of parasitized eggs. Results showed that treatments combining both parasitoid species with only 1 T. remus for each 9 T. pretiosum (10% and only 2 T. remus for each 8 T. pretiosum (20% were enough to significantly increase the parasitism observed on eggs of S. cosmioides and S. frugiperda, respectively. This association of T. pretiosum and T. remus in different proportions is very promising for biological control in IPM programs because it provides wide

  15. Relation ofSpodoptera eridania choice to tannins and protein oflotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, M A

    1990-05-01

    Plant secondary compounds such as tannins may influence herbivore choice. To determine if herbivory was influenced by tannin concentration,Spodoptera eridania larvae were given a choice ofLotus corniculatus plants whose chemical profiles were altered by fertilization. Herbivores chose plants that had been grown with symbiotic nitrogen fixation as their only nitrogen source more often than fertilized plants. Choice was related to protein concentration, but not to tannin concentration.

  16. Biology and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in different soybean cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Favetti,Bruna Magda; Butnariu,Alessandra Regina; Foerster,Luís Amilton

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the development, survival and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania in four soybean cultivars. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in a climatic chamber at 25 degrees C +/- C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and 12 h photophase. The cultivars used were: FMT Tabarana, BRS/MT Pintado, FMT Tucunare and Monsoy 8757, all conventional cultivars with medium cycles. All cultivars tested allowed the development of S. eridania. However, Monsoy 8757 was the c...

  17. Atividade inseticida dos frutos de Trichilia claussenii (Meliaceae sobre Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Nebo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the fruits extracts of Trichilia claussenii was carried out and the methanol extract revealed to have strong insecticidal activity. The fractionation of methanol extract of T. claussenii seeds bioassay-guided against Spodoptera frugiperda has led to the identification of the ω-phenylalkyl and alkenyl fatty acids as active compounds in this extract. The structures of the compounds were proposed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data.

  18. Development of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers based on actin sequences and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF): a case study in the Phoma exigua species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveskamp, Maikel M; Woudenberg, Joyce H C; de Gruyter, Johannes; Turco, Elena; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    2009-05-01

    Phoma exigua is considered to be an assemblage of at least nine varieties that are mainly distinguished on the basis of host specificity and pathogenicity. However, these varieties are also reported to be weak pathogens and secondary invaders on non-host tissue. In practice, it is difficult to distinguish P. exigua from its close relatives and to correctly identify isolates up to the variety level, because of their low genetic variation and high morphological similarity. Because of quarantine issues and phytosanitary measures, a robust DNA-based tool is required for accurate and rapid identification of the separate taxa in this species complex. The present study therefore aims to develop such a tool based on unique nucleotide sequence identifiers. More than 60 strains of P. exigua and related species were compared in terms of partial actin gene sequences, or analysed using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) with short, arbitrary, mini-hairpin primers. Fragments in the fingerprint unique to a single taxon were identified, purified and sequenced. Alignment of the sequence data and subsequent primer trials led to the identification of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs), and to a set of specific oligonucleotide combinations that can be used to identify these organisms in plant quarantine inspections.

  19. Identification and characteristics of microRNAs from army worm, Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumani, Pavan Kumar; Chinnappan, Mahendran; Singh, Ashok K; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil K; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs play important regulatory role in all intrinsic cellular functions. Amongst lepidopteran insects, miRNAs from only Bombyx mori have been studied extensively with a little focus on Spodoptera sp. In the present study, we identified a total of 226 miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21. Of the total, 116 miRNAs were well conserved within other insects, like B. mori, Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castenum while the remaining 110 miRNAs were identified as novel based on comparative analysis with the insect miRNA data set. Landscape distribution analysis based on Sf21 genome assembly revealed clustering of few novel miRNAs. A total of 5 miRNA clusters were identified and the largest one encodes 5 miRNA genes. In addition, 12 miRNAs were validated using northern blot analysis and putative functional role assignment for 6 Sf miRNAs was investigated by examining their relative abundance at different developmental stages of Spodoptera litura and body parts of 6th instar larvae. Further, we identified a total of 809 potential target genes with GO terms for selected miRNAs, involved in different metabolic and signalling pathways of the insect. The newly identified miRNAs greatly enrich the repertoire of insect miRNAs and analysis of expression profiles reveal their involvement at various steps of biochemical pathways of the army worm.

  20. Interspecific interaction between Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Tatiana R; Fernandes, Odair A

    2012-12-01

    This work aims to evaluate the interspecific interaction between Trichogramma pretiosum and Telenomus remus, two biological control agents of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) eggs. Eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda previously parasitized by Telenomus remus were offered to Trichogramma pretiosum, and those parasitized by Trichogramma pretiosum were offered to Telenomus remus. The previously parasitized eggs were tested at different embryonic development stages for each parasitoid. In addition, to evaluate the competition between species, Spodoptera frugiperda eggs were offered to the parasitoids simultaneously. The behavior of the insects was recorded under a stereomicroscope. When Spodoptera frugiperda eggs were previously exposed to either parasitoid, there was no emergence of the other parasitoid. When the Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum females were placed together with Spodoptera frugiperda eggs, Telenomus remus had a greater parasitism rate. Except searching time, all Trichogramma pretiosum behaviors took a longer time than Telenomus remus behaviors. Thus, despite belonging to different families, each of these parasitoids is able to recognize host eggs previously parasitized by the other. So, this suggests that the recognition mechanism involved is not exclusively specific.

  1. Abortive replication of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus in Sf9 and High Five cells: Defective nuclear transport of the virions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katou, Yasuhiro; Ikeda, Motoko; Kobayashi, Michihiro

    2006-01-01

    Despite close genetic relationship, Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) and Autographa californica multicapsid NPV (AcMNPV) display a distinct host range property. Here, BmNPV replication was examined in Sf9 and High Five cells that were nonproductive for BmNPV infection but supported high titers of AcMNPV replication. Recombinant BmNPV, vBm/gfp/lac, containing bm-ie1 promoter-driven egfp showed that few Sf9 and High Five cells infected with vBm/gfp/lac expressed EGFP, while large proportion of EGFP-expressing cells was observed when transfected with vBm/gfp/lac DNA. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that BmNPV was not imported into the nucleus of these two cell lines, while recombinant BmNPV, vBmΔ64/ac-gp64 possessing AcMNPV gp64 was imported into the nucleus, yielding progeny virions in High Five cells, but not Sf9 cells. These results indicate that the defective nuclear import of infected virions due to insufficient BmNPV GP64 function is involved in the restricted BmNPV replication in Sf9 and High Five cells

  2. Bm59 is an early gene, but is unessential for the propagation and assembly of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolong; Shen, Yunwang; Zheng, Qin; Wang, Guobao; Wu, Xiaofeng; Gong, Chengliang

    2016-02-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a major pathogen that specifically infects the domestic silkworm and causes serious economic loss to sericulture around the world. The function of BmNPV Bm59 gene in the viral life cycle is inconclusive. To investigate the role of Bm59 during viral infection, the transcription initiation site and temporal expression of Bm59 were analyzed, and Bm59-knockout virus was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. The results showed that Bm59 is an early transcription gene with an atypia early transcriptional start motif. Budded virion (BV) production and DNA replication in the BmN cells transfected with the Bm59-knockout virus bacmid were similar to those in the cells transfected with the wild-type virus. Electron microscopy revealed that the occlusion-derived virus can be produced in cells infected with the Bm59-knockout virus. These results indicated that Bm59 is an early gene and is not essential for viral replication or assembly of BmNPV. These findings suggested that non-essential gene (Bm59) remained in the viral genome, which may interact with other viral/host genes in a certain situation.

  3. Bm91 is an envelope component of ODV but is dispensable for the propagation of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Guohui; Yao, Qin; Chen, Liang; Lv, Peng; Lian, Chaoqun; Chen, Keping

    2013-05-01

    Orf91 (Bm91) of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a highly conserved gene that encodes a predicted 105-amino-acid protein, but its function remains unknown. In the current study, 5'-RACE revealed that the transcription initiation site of Bm91 was - 12 nucleotides upstream of the start codon ATG, transcription of Bm91 was detected from 12 to 96 h postinfection (p.i.) and Bm91 protein was detected from 24 to 96 h p.i. in BmNPV-infected BmN cells. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that Bm91 was in occlusion-derived virus (ODV) but not in budded virus (BV). To investigate the role of Bm91 in baculovirus life cycle, a Bm91-knockout virus was constructed by bacmid recombination in E. coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that the production of BV and occlusion bodies (OBs) in Bm91-deficient-virus-infected BmN cells were similar to those in wild-type-virus-infected ones. Bioassay results showed that genetic deletion of Bm91 did not significantly affect BmNPV infectivity, but extended the median lethal time (LT50). Taken together, these results indicate that Bm91 is not essential for viral propagation in vitro, but absence of the gene may affect the virulence of ODVs in silkworm larvae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) ODV-E56 envelope protein is also a per os infectivity factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xingwei; Chen, Lin; Guo, Aiqin; Yu, Shaofang; Yang, Rui; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    The Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) odv-e56 gene is a late gene and encodes an occlusion-derived virus (ODV)-specific envelope protein, ODV-E56. To determine its role in the BmNPV life cycle, an odv-e56 null virus, BmE56D, was constructed through homologous recombination. A repaired virus was also constructed, named BmE56DR. The production of budded virion (BV) and polyhedra, the replication of viral DNA, and the morphological of infected BmN cells were analyzed, revealing no significant difference among the BmE56D, the wild-type (WT), and the BmE56DR virus. Larval bioassays demonstrated that injection of BmE56D BV into the hemocoel could kill B. mori larvae as efficiently as repaired and WT viruses, however BmE56D was unable to infect the B. mori larvae when inoculated per os. Thus, these results indicated that ODV-E56 envelope protein of BmNPV is also a per os infectivity factor (PIF), but is not essential for virus replication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus orf68 gene that encodes a novel structural protein of budded virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Masashi; Kurihara, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Kang, WonKyung

    2002-05-25

    All lepidopteran baculovirus genomes sequenced to date encode a homolog of the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf68 gene, suggesting that it performs an important role in the virus life cycle. In this article we describe the characterization of BmNPV orf68 gene. Northern and Western analyses demonstrated that orf68 gene was expressed as a late gene and encoded a structural protein of budded virus (BV). Immunohistochemical analysis by confocal microscopy showed that ORF68 protein was localized mainly in the nucleus of infected cells. To examine the function of orf68 gene, we constructed orf68 deletion mutant (BmD68) and characterized it in BmN cells and larvae of B. mori. BV production was delayed in BmD68-infected cells. The larval bioassays also demonstrated that deletion of orf68 did not reduce the infectivity, but mutant virus took 70 h longer to kill the host than wild-type BmNPV. In addition, dot-blot analysis showed viral DNA accumulated more slowly in mutant infected cells. Further examination suggested that BmD68 was less efficient in entry and budding from cells, although it seemed to possess normal attachment ability. These results suggest that ORF68 is a BV-associated protein involved in secondary infection from cell-to-cell. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  6. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 protein: Analysis of domain I and V amino acid interactions and membrane fusion activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Qianlong [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Blissard, Gary W. [Boyce Thompson Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United State (United States); Liu, Tong-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Li, Zhaofei, E-mail: zhaofeili73@outlook.com [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. Although the post-fusion structure of GP64 has been solved, its pre-fusion structure and the detailed mechanism of conformational change are unknown. In GP64, domain V is predicted to interact with two domain I segments that flank fusion loop 2. To evaluate the significance of the amino acids involved in these interactions, we examined 24 amino acid positions that represent interacting and conserved residues within domains I and V. In several cases, substitution of a single amino acid involved in a predicted interaction disrupted membrane fusion activity, but no single amino acid pair appears to be absolutely required. We identified 4 critical residues in domain V (G438, W439, T452, and T456) that are important for membrane fusion, and two residues (G438 and W439) that appear to be important for formation or stability of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64. - Highlights: • The baculovirus envelope glycoprotein GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. • The detailed mechanism of conformational change of GP64 is unknown. • We analyzed 24 positions that might stabilize the post-fusion structure of GP64. • We identified 4 residues in domain V that were critical for membrane fusion. • Two residues are critical for formation of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64.

  7. Dose responses of in vivo- and in vitro-produced strains of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) applied with and without the virus enhancer Blankophor BBH

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Kevin W. Thorpe; Ralph E. Webb; Roger W. Fuester; Vincent D' Amico; Randel A. Peiffer; Michael A. Valenti

    2013-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) product Gypchek is a microbial pesticide produced by the USDA Forest Service. Gypchek is a mixture of LdMNPV genotypes produced in vivo. Commercial interests prefer to develop a stable, high-potency genotype that can be produced at low cost, preferably in vitro. We sprayed 2 LdMNPV...

  8. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor Development of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em lagartas de S. frugiperda e em larvas de T. molitor, em laboratório. A presa S. frugiperda proporcionou ao predador menor longevidade, maior produção e viabilidade de ovos do que as larvas de T. molitor. Esses resultados demonstram que a lagarta S. frugiperda melhora as características reprodutivas de P. nigrispinus, de forma que a sua utilização como presa alternativa pode servir para incrementar a produção massal desse inimigo natural.Nymphys of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae have been reared on Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, in laboratory conditions. However, there are no reports on P. nigrispinus predation, in field or laboratory, on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, one of the most damaging pests in crops in Brazil. This research had the objective to evaluate nymphal development and reproductive characteristics of the predator P. nigrispinus when reared on caterpillars of S. frugiperda and on larvae of T. molitor, in laboratory conditions. S. frugiperda provided a smaller longevity, higher egg production and viability to predator than T. molitor. The nutricional quality of this caterpillar improves the reproductive characteristics of the predator, so that its utilization as factitious host can increase mass production of this natural enemy.

  9. Atividade de extrato aquoso de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre Spodoptera frugiperda Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Teixeira Prates

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlorpyrifos como testemunha, revelaram, 15 dias após infestação com larvas, eficiência equivalente entre as concen- trações 3,60 a 10,00 mg mL-1. A análise de Probit mostrou CL50 = 2,67 mg mL-1; o extrato aquoso das folhas de nim apresenta, portanto, efeito inseticida sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith has been controlled with synthetic insecticides bringing risk to the environment. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is reported to be a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides against many insect species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves aqueous extract on fall armyworm, in laboratory. Bioassays carried out using artificial feed with various extract concentrations, and chlorpyrifos as control, indicated, 15 days after larvae infestation, similar efficiency in concentrations from 3.60 to 10.00 mg mL-1. Probit analysis showed LC50 = 2.67 mg mL-1. Hence, aqueous extract from neem leaves are active against fall armyworm.

  10. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor.

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, H.N. de; PRATISSOLI, D.; PEDRUZZI, E.P.; ESPINDULA, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em la...

  11. Development of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Harley Nonato de; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Pedruzzi, Eder Pin; Espindula, Marcelo Curitiba

    2004-01-01

    Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em la...

  12. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PARTS OF SYNEDRELLA NODIFLORA GAERTN (COMPOSITAE ON SPODOPTERA LITURA (FAB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTIN RATHI J.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura (Fabricius is the most serious pest of many cultivated and non-cultivated crops and it developed resistance against many synthetic pesticides. The impact of a Compositae annual weed, Synedrella nodifl ora Gaertn. solvent extracts on the fourth instar larvae of S. litura has been evaluated by leaf dip method. The LD50 results revealed that methanol extract is the most toxic to the pest followed by benzene and chloroform, petroleum ether (400 – 600 C and water. Qualitative phytochemical analysis has also been performed.

  13. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PARTS OF SYNEDRELLA NODIFLORA GAERTN (COMPOSITAE ON SPODOPTERA LITURA (FAB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J MARTIN RATHI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura (Fabricius is the most serious pest of many cultivated and non-cultivated crops and it developed resistance against many synthetic pesticides. The impact of a Compositae annual weed, Synedrella nodifl ora Gaertn. solvent extracts on the fourth instar larvae of S. litura has been evaluated by leaf dip method. The LD50 results revealed that methanol extract is the most toxic to the pest followed by benzene and chloroform, petroleum ether (400 – 600 C and water. Qualitative phytochemical analysis has also been performed.

  14. Aphrodisiac Pheromone and its role in mating behaviour of Gamma irradiated SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISD.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALM EL-DIN, M.M.S.; HAZAA, M.A.M.; EL-SHALL, S.S.A.

    2007-01-01

    The aphrodisiac pheromone in male moth of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis, is secreted from a scent gland that lies in the fore wings and hair pencils. The damage of the gland by gamma irradiation or elimination of the fore wings reduced mating percentage and the other related mating aspects. Multiple mating seldom was occurred in the eliminated wing males and this mean that the wing gland was effective in mating behaviour. The knowledge on pheromone glands and their role in mating behaviour have been appeared to be essential in the integrated control programmes

  15. Combined effect of gamma radiation and azadirachtin on the growth and development of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.K.; Seth, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Spodoptera litura is an economically serious and polyphagous pest in the Indian subcontinent. This pest is reported to attack a wide range of food plants belonging to diverse origin 112 cultivated food plants belonging to 44 families all over the world. In order to explore an eco-friendly strategy that could be coupled up with this radio generic method, i.e. F-1 sterility technique, the present attempt was made to study the effect of a safe chemical (azadirachtin) for the effective management of lepidoteran pest, S. litura. The studies show that insecticidal toxicity can be altered if the insects are exposed to radiation prior to insecticidal treatment. (author)

  16. Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica) leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

    OpenAIRE

    Prates, Hélio Teixeira; Viana, Paulo Afonso; Waquil, José Magid

    2003-01-01

    A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)) tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlor...

  17. A single amino acid substitution modulates low-pH-triggered membrane fusion of GP64 protein in Autographa californica and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedroviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katou, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Hayato; Ikeda, Motoko; Kobayashi, Michihiro

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that budded viruses of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) enter the cell cytoplasm but do not migrate into the nuclei of non-permissive Sf9 cells that support a high titer of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) multiplication. Here we show, using the syncytium formation assay, that low-pH-triggered membrane fusion of BmNPV GP64 protein (Bm-GP64) is significantly lower than that of AcMNPV GP64 protein (Ac-GP64). Mutational analyses of GP64 proteins revealed that a single amino acid substitution between Ac-GP64 H155 and Bm-GP64 Y153 can have significant positive or negative effects on membrane fusion activity. Studies using bacmid-based GP64 recombinant AcMNPV harboring point-mutated ac-gp64 and bm-gp64 genes showed that Ac-GP64 H155Y and Bm-GP64 Y153H substitutions decreased and increased, respectively, the multiplication and cell-to-cell spread of progeny viruses. These results indicate that Ac-GP64 H155 facilitates the low-pH-triggered membrane fusion reaction between virus envelopes and endosomal membranes.

  18. Production of recombinant Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus in silkworm by intrahaemocoelic injection with invasive diaminopimelate auxotrophic Escherichia coli containing BmNPV-Bacmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingchen; Yao, Lunguang; Yao, Ning; Xu, Hua; Jin, Pengfei; Kan, Yunchao

    2010-12-01

    The present study elaborates a cost-effective and transfectant-free method for generating recombinant Bombyx mori (silkworm) nucleopolyhedrovirus in silkworm larvae and pupae by injecting invasive Escherichia coli carrying BmBacmid [BmNPV (B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus)-Bacmid] into larval haemocoel. Up to 109 PFU (plaque-forming units)/ml of infective recombinant baculovirus was generated in the silkworm by intrahaemocoelic injection with 106 DAP (diaminopimelic acid) auxotrophic and BmBacmid containing E. coli cells expressing both invasin and listeriolysin. Thus 1 ml of overnight culture of E. coli is sufficient to inject more than 2000 larvae, while DAP costing up to $1 is enough to inject about 4000 larvae. Recombinant proteins can be controlled to be expressed mainly in pupae by adjusting the injection dose, too. In this new method, many original manipulations have been eliminated, including BmBacmid preparation and the subsequent complex transfection procedures. Hence it is a time- and cost-saving means for large-scale injection of B. mori for recombinant baculovirus production in comparison with the traditional transfection methods, which may play an important role in the industrial development of the BmNPV-silkworm bioreactor.

  19. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert L; Rowley, Daniel L; Keena, Melody A

    2016-06-01

    Isolates of the baculovirus species Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus have been formulated and applied to suppress outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To evaluate the genetic diversity in this species at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates from Massachusetts, USA (LdMNPV-Ab-a624), Spain (LdMNPV-3054), and Japan (LdMNPV-3041) were sequenced and compared with four previously determined LdMNPV genome sequences. The LdMNPV genome sequences were collinear and contained the same homologous repeats (hrs) and clusters of baculovirus repeat orf (bro) gene family members in the same relative positions in their genomes, although sequence identities in these regions were low. Of 146 non-bro ORFs annotated in the genome of the representative isolate LdMNPV 5-6, 135 ORFs were found in every other LdMNPV genome, including the 37 core genes of Baculoviridae and other genes conserved in genus Alphabaculovirus. Phylogenetic inference with an alignment of the core gene nucleotide sequences grouped isolates 3041 (Japan) and 2161 (Korea) separately from a cluster containing isolates from Europe, North America, and Russia. To examine phenotypic diversity, bioassays were carried out with a selection of isolates against neonate larvae from three European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) and three Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica and Lymantria dispar japonica) colonies. LdMNPV isolates 2161 (Korea), 3029 (Russia), and 3041 (Japan) exhibited a greater degree of pathogenicity against all L. dispar strains than LdMNPV from a sample of Gypchek. This study provides additional information on the genetic diversity of LdMNPV isolates and their activity against the Asian gypsy moth, a potential invasive pest of North American trees and forests. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Plutella xylostella granulovirus late gene promoter activity in the context of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, He-Lin; Hu, Yuan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Lu-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Within Baculoviridae, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of replication in betabaculoviruses, despite extensive studies in alphabaculoviruses. In this study, the promoters of nine late genes of the betabaculovirus Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PlxyGV) were cloned into a transient expression vector and the alphabaculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) genome, and compared with homologous late gene promoters of AcMNPV in Sf9 cells. In transient expression assays, all PlxyGV late promoters were activated in cells transfected with the individual reporter plasmids together with an AcMNPV bacmid. In infected cells, reporter gene expression levels with the promoters of PlxyGV e18 and AcMNPV vp39 and gp41 were significantly higher than those of the corresponding AcMNPV or PlxyGV promoters, which had fewer late promoter motifs. Observed expression levels were lower for the PlxyGV p6.9, pk1, gran, p10a, and p10b promoters than for the corresponding AcMNPV promoters, despite equal numbers of late promoter motifs, indicating that species-specific elements contained in some late promoters were favored by the native viral RNA polymerases for optimal transcription. The 8-nt sequence TAAATAAG encompassing the ATAAG motif was conserved in the AcMNPV polh, p10, and pk1 promoters. The 5-nt sequence CAATT located 4 or 5 nt upstream of the T/ATAAG motif was conserved in the promoters of PlxyGV gran, p10c, and pk1. The results of this study demonstrated that PlxyGV late gene promoters could be effectively activated by the RNA polymerase from AcMNPV, implying that late gene expression systems are regulated by similar mechanisms in alphabaculoviruses and betabaculoviruses.

  1. Development of a Recombination System for the Generation of Occlusion Positive Genetically Modified Anticarsia Gemmatalis Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Haase

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anticarsia gemmatalis is an important pest in legume crops in South America and it has been successfully controlled using Anticarsia gemmatalis Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV in subtropical climate zones. Nevertheless, in temperate climates its speed of kill is too slow. Taking this into account, genetic modification of AgMNPV could lead to improvements of its biopesticidal properties. Here we report the generation of a two-component system that allows the production of recombinant AgMNPV. This system is based on a parental AgMNPV in which the polyhedrin gene (polh was replaced by a bacterial β-galactosidase (lacZ gene flanked by two target sites for the homing endonuclease I-PpoI. Co-transfection of insect cells with linearized (I-PpoI-digested parental genome and a transfer vector allowed the restitution of polh and the expression of a heterologous gene upon homologous recombination, with a low background of non-recombinant AgMNPV. The system was validated by constructing a recombinant occlusion-positive (polh+ AgMNPV expressing the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp. This recombinant virus infected larvae normally per os and led to the expression of GFP in cell culture as well as in A. gemmatalis larvae. These results demonstrate that the system is an efficient method for the generation of recombinant AgMNPV expressing heterologous genes, which can be used for manifold purposes, including biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications and the production of orally infectious recombinants with improved biopesticidal properties.

  2. The baculovirus core gene ac83 is required for nucleocapsid assembly and per os infectivity of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shimao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Yuan, Meijin; Yang, Kai

    2013-10-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac83 is a baculovirus core gene whose function in the AcMNPV life cycle is unknown. In the present study, an ac83-knockout AcMNPV (vAc83KO) was constructed to investigate the function of ac83 through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. No budded virions were produced in vAc83KO-transfected Sf9 cells, although viral DNA replication was unaffected. Electron microscopy revealed that nucleocapsid assembly was aborted due to the ac83 deletion. Domain-mapping studies revealed that the expression of Ac83 amino acid residues 451 to 600 partially rescued the ability of AcMNPV to produce infectious budded virions. Bioassays indicated that deletion of the chitin-binding domain of Ac83 resulted in the failure of oral infection of Trichoplusia ni larvae by AcMNPV, but AcMNPV remained infectious following intrahemocoelic injection, suggesting that the domain is involved in the binding of occlusion-derived virions to the peritrophic membrane and/or to other chitin-containing insect tissues. It has been demonstrated that Ac83 is the only component with a chitin-binding domain in the per os infectivity factor complex on the occlusion-derived virion envelope. Interestingly, a functional inner nuclear membrane sorting motif, which may facilitate the localization of Ac83 to the envelopes of occlusion-derived virions, was identified by immunofluorescence analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Ac83 plays an important role in nucleocapsid assembly and the establishment of oral infection.

  3. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda fed on fresh ear of field corn expressing the Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcial Ceolin Bortolotto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate extent of larval period, larval survival (%, food consumption, and pupal biomass of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae fed on fresh ears of field corn expressing Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F+Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2. Larvae of Spodoptera spp. survived less than two days when they consumed Bt corncobs and showed 100% mortality. Spodoptera eridania reared on non-Bt corn cobs showed higher larval development (21.6 days than S. frugiperda (18.4 days and lower viability (56.4% and 80.2% for S. eridania and S. frugiperda , respectively. A higher amount of corn grains was consumed by S. eridania (5.4g than by S. frugiperda (3.9g. In summary, this study demonstrated that the toxins Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 expressed in fresh corn cobs contributed to protect ears of corn against S. frugiperda and the non-target pest S. eridania . However, itis important to monitor non-Bt cornfields because of the potential of both species to cause damage to ear sof corn.

  4. Geographic variation in sexual attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda corn- and rice-strain males to pheromone lures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unbehend, M.; Hänniger, S.; Vásquez, G.M.; Juárez, M.L.; Reisig, D.; McNeil, J.N.; Meagher, R.L.; Jenkins, D.A.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this

  5. A Z-linked sterility locus causes sexual abstinence in hybrid females and facilitates speciation in Spodoptera frugiperda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kost, S.; Heckel, D.G.; Yoshido, A.; Marec, F.; Groot, A.T.

    In the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), two sympatric strains have been recognized that have been termed corn strain (C) and rice strain (R), referring to their most common host plants. Both strains are reproductively isolated via a distinct prezygotic barrier as well

  6. Chasing sympatric speciation: The relative importance and genetic basis of prezygotic isolation barriers in diverging populations of Spodoptera frugiperda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hänniger, S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mechanisms underlying three prezygotic isolation barriers between the corn- and the rice-strain of the noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda to determine possible interactions between these isolation barriers and their relative importance for sympatric speciation. First, we

  7. Synthesis of tritiated sex pheromones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Angel; Feixas, Joan

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis of tritiated sex phenomones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis has been accomplished by a simple route involving tritiated sodium borohydride reduction of the corresponding aldehyde followed by acetylation of the resulting radiolabelled alcohol. The process occurs with high chemical and radiochemical yields and the compounds have been used in pheromone catabolism studies. (author)

  8. Bt-potatoes resistant to the Colorado potato beetle affect performance of the Egyptian armyworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, Hany; Sehnal, František; Habuštová, Oxana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2005), s. 38-41 ISSN 1335-258X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bt-toxin * Cry3 Aa * Spodoptera littoralis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  9. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi and parasitic nematodes on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in Central Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm larvae (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were collected from whorl-stage cornfields, between the V2 and V4 stages, in 22 localities of Central, Chiapas, México, called "La Frailesca" during late June 2009 to determine the occurrence of native entomopathogens and parasitic nema...

  10. Geographic variation in sexual attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda corn- and rice-strain males to pheromone lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this cou...

  11. Beetle-specific Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin reduces larval growth and curbs reproduction in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, Hany; Habuštová, Oxana; Sehnal, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2005), s. 1186-1192 ISSN 1526-498X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/02/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * Spodoptera littoralis * Bt applications Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.175, year: 2005

  12. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa protein interactions and their toxicity in Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, V B; Mendes, D R P; Fernandes, O A; Desidério, J A; Lemos, M V F

    2013-02-01

    The polyphagous pests belonging to the genus Spodoptera are considered to be among the most important causes of damage and are widely distributed throughout the Americas'. Due to the extensive use of genetically modified plants containing Bacillus thuringiensis genes that code for insecticidal proteins, resistant insects may arise. To prevent the development of resistance, pyramided plants, which express multiple insecticidal proteins that act through distinct mode of actions, can be used. This study analyzed the mechanisms of action for the proteins Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa on neonatal Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera albula, Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera cosmioides larvae. The interactions of these toxins with receptors on the intestinal epithelial membrane were also analyzed by binding biotinylated toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from the intestines of these insects. A putative receptor of approximately 65 kDa was found by ligand blotting in all of these species. In vitro competition assays using biotinylated proteins have indicated that Vip3Aa and Cry1Ia10 do not compete for the same receptor for S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides and that Vip3Aa was more efficient than Cry1Ia10 when tested individually, by bioassays. A synergistic effect of the toxins in S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides was observed when they were combined. However, in S. eridania, Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa might compete for the same receptor and through bioassays Cry1Ia10 was more efficient than Vip3Aa and showed an antagonistic effect when the proteins were combined. These results suggest that using these genes to develop pyramided plants may not prove effective in preventing the development of resistance in S. eridiana. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel chemistries in botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to, or development of synthetic insecticides suitable for controlling the Lepidopteran pests, like Spodoptera litura (F.). Many botanical chemistries are biodegradable, and have lower mammalian toxicity. Eight natural chemical comp...

  14. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) Bm64 is required for BV production and per os infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Shen, Yunwang; Yang, Rui; Wu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Wenjun; Shen, Guoxin

    2015-10-24

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf64 (Bm64, a homologue of ac78) is a core baculovirus gene. Recently, Li et al. reported that Ac78 was not essential for budded viruses (BVs) production and occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) formation (Virus Res 191:70-82, 2014). Conversely, Tao et al. demonstrated that Ac78 was localized to the BV and ODV envelopes and was required for BV production and ODV formation (J Virol 87:8441-50, 2013). In this study, the function of Bm64 was characterized to determine the role of Bm64 in the BmNPV infection cycle. The temporal expression of Bm64 was examined using total RNA extracted from BmNPV-infected BmN cells at different time points by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and 5' RACE analysis. To determine the functions of Bm64 in viral replication and the viral phenotype throughout the viral life cycle, a deletion virus (vBm(64KO)) was generated via homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Viral replication and BV production were determined by real-time PCR. Electron microscopy was used to detect virion morphogenesis. The subcellular localization of Bm64 was determined by microscopy, and per os infectivity was used to determine its role in the baculovirus oral infection cycle. Viral plaque and titer assay results showed that a few infectious BVs were produced by vBm(64KO), suggesting that deletion of Bm64 affected BV production. Viral DNA replication was detected and polyhedra were observed in vBm(64KO)-transfected cells. Microscopy analysis revealed that Bm64 was predominantly localized to the ring zone of the nuclei during the infection cycle. Electron microscopy showed that Bm64 was not essential for the formation of ODVs or the subsequent occlusion of ODV into polyhedra. The per os infectivity results showed that the polyhedra of vBm(64KO) were unable to infect silkworm larvae. In conclusion, our results suggest that Bm64 plays an important role in BV production and per os infection, but is not required for viral DNA

  15. Host plants of leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: noctuidae in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura is a notorious leaf feeding insect pest of more than one hundred plants around the Asia-Pacific region. Host plant survey for two years from three different locations in cotton belt revealed 27 plant species as host plants of S. litura belonging to 25 genera of 14 families including cultivated crops, vegetables, weeds, fruits and ornamental plants. Major host plants on which it thrived for maximum period were Gossypium hirsutum L., Ricinus communis L., Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Colocasia esculenta L., Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Sesbania sesban L.. Eggs were also collected from tree plants but larvae did not complete their development. Reliance of S. litura on major plant species of cultivated crops necessitates their regular monitoring especially during March to April for their population abundance and early warning for their management on commercial crops like cotton.

  16. Mitomycin C induced alterations in antioxidant enzyme levels in a model insect species, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcabe, J P; MacGill, R S; Zaman, K; Ahmad, S; Pardini, R S

    1994-05-01

    1. An insect species, the southern armyworm Spodoptera eridania, was used as an in vivo model to examine mitomycin C's (MMC) pro-oxidant effect reflected in alterations of antioxidant enzymes. 2. Following a 2-day exposure to 0.01 and 0.05% w/w dietary concentrations, MMC only induced superoxide dismutase activity. All other enzyme activities were not affected, indicating oxidative stress was mild. 3. Following a 5-day exposure to 0.05% w/w dietary MMC, the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase and its peroxidase activity and DT-diaphorase were induced. GR activity was not altered. The high constitutive catalase activity was also not affected. These responses of S. eridania's antioxidant enzymes are analogous to those of mammalian systems in alleviating MMC-induced oxidative stress. 4. S. eridania emerges as an appropriate non-mammalian model for initial and cost-effective screening of drug-induced oxidative stress.

  17. Biology and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in different soybean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Magda Favetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the development, survival and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania in four soybean cultivars. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in a climatic chamber at 25 °C ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 12 h photophase. The cultivars used were: FMT Tabarana, BRS/MT Pintado, FMT Tucunaré and Monsoy 8757, all conventional cultivars with medium cycles. All cultivars tested allowed the development of S. eridania. However, Monsoy 8757 was the cultivar that most affected the prolonged in the duration larval, pupal and total cycle, showed lower pupal weight as well as reduction in the intrinsic rate increase. These results contribute to the management of this species in regions of outbreaks in soybean areas.

  18. Isolation and identification of a cardioactive peptide from Tenebrio molitor and Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K; Liao, S; Reynolds, S E; Ota, R B; Hackett, M; Schooley, D A

    1993-12-01

    We isolated several cardioactive peptides from extracts of whole heads of the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, and the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, using a semi-isolated heart of Manduca sexta for bioassay. We have now isolated from each species the peptide with the strongest effect on rate of contraction of the heart. The peptides were identified using micro Edman sequencing and mass spectrometric methods. This cardioactive peptide has the same primary structure from both species: Pro-Phe-Cys-Asn-Ala-Phe-Thr-Gly-Cys-NH2, a cyclic nonapeptide which is identical to crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) originally isolated from the shore crab, Carcinus maenas, and subsequently isolated from Locusta migratoria and Manduca sexta. This is additional evidence that CCAP has widespread occurrence in arthropoda.

  19. effect of gamma radiation and heat stress on some biological aspects of Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazaa, M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    the present study dealt with the effects of exposure of full - grown pupa of the cotton leaf worm, spodoptera littoralis (Boise) to different high temperatures and/or substerilizing doss of gamma radiation on certain biological and histological aspects of the parental (P 1 ) and first filial (F 1 ) generations. it included the effect on adult longevity and malformation, mating, insemination, fecundity and egg hatchability; beside larval survival till adult emergence and sex ratio of produced adults at different mating crosses between treated and untreated or treated other sex.special attention was given to inherited sterility as well as to the mating competitiveness ability of treated males. the histological changes in testes and ovaries of produced adults were included

  20. Bioactivity of Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus Linnaeus Essential Oils against Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Melani

    2016-05-01

    The study aims to determine the chemical compounds, toxicity, and antifeedant activity of sweet flag (Acorus calamus essential oils against third instar larvae of Spodoptera litura. The study was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD using various concentration of the essential oils (103, 2 × 103, 3 × 103, 4 × 103, 5 × 103 ppm. Mortality and antifeedant activity was observed 24 hours after treatment.  Toxicity and antifeedant activity values were 92.5% and 79.3%, respectively, with an LC50 value 586.96 ppm. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that essential oil of A. calamus consists of five chemical compounds: methyl isoeugenol, 3.9-decadien-ol-1,3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl, 4-pentyl-1-(4propylcyclohexyl1cyclohexene, γ-asarone and β asarone.

  1. Inherited sterility in progeny of irradiated male cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis (boisd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Full grown male pupae of spodoptera littoralis were exposed to sub sterilizing doses of 7.5, 10, 12.5 or 15 krad of gamma radiation and mated with unirradiated females. In another trial, male pupae irradiated with 10 krad were crossed with unirradiated females, and their progeny were out crossed or inbred. In all cases, the effects of these treatments on some biological aspects in the resulting progeny for 3 generations were studied. Larval and pupal mortality were 21 to 53% and 5 to 30% higher than the normal among F 1 and F 2 , respectively. THE average developmental time from egg hatch to adult emergence was not affected and so, also sex ratio which seemed about normal.2 tab

  2. Inherited sterility in progeny of irradiated male cotton leafworm, spodoptera littoralis (boisd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallam, H A

    1991-01-01

    Full grown male pupae of spodoptera littoralis were exposed to sub sterilizing doses of 7.5, 10, 12.5 or 15 krad of gamma radiation and mated with unirradiated females. In another trial, male pupae irradiated with 10 krad were crossed with unirradiated females, and their progeny were out crossed or inbred. In all cases, the effects of these treatments on some biological aspects in the resulting progeny for 3 generations were studied. Larval and pupal mortality were 21 to 53% and 5 to 30% higher than the normal among F[sub 1] and F[sub 2], respectively. THE average developmental time from egg hatch to adult emergence was not affected and so, also sex ratio which seemed about normal.2 tab.

  3. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Dose Accumulation on the Histology of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Male Testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; El-Naggar, S.E.M.; Shibel, M.M.; El-Dossouki, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full-grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 25, 50, 75 or 100 Gy. The effects of accumulating doses applied to these pupae through three consequent filial generations and the retarded influence on their F 1 , F 2 and F 3 generations progeny were examined. The histological observations showed that the damage in the testes was correlated with increasing the dose applied to the male parents and was the highest among the adults of F 1 . Also, the damage at any acute dose was less than the damage occurred in the same accumulated dose. The deteriorations on the testes were more evident in case of F 1 males resulting from parental males irradiated through two or three successive generations or three accumulated doses of 25 or 50 Gy

  4. Influence of food diet in the radiosensitivity of spodoptera frugiperda smith abbot larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.; Labrada, A.; Fundora, Z.; Herrera, A.

    1988-01-01

    To apply the traditional method in pest control it is needed to know the reaction capability of the insect in reference to radiations as well as the influence which can be exerted over it by different factors. The radiosensitivity of Spodoptera Frugiperda Smith Abbot larvae raised with two different diets (natural and artificial) was studied using doses between 20 and 100 Gy, in Co-60 gamma source with a dose power of 13.4 Gy/min survival, formation and dimensions of pupas, adult emergency and other interesting aspects were determined. The multiple analysis of results showed the influence of the food diet on radiosensitivity of larvae. results of both diets are statistically compared

  5. Biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Goulart Montezano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotic potential and reprodutcive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in the laboratory: This study aimed to evaluate the biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782 under controlled conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase. The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity and fertility of 15 couples was evaluated. The longevity of females (10.80 days was not significantly higher than those of males (9.27 days. The mean durations of the pre, post and oviposition periods were 2.067, 0.600 and 8.133 days, respectively. The mean fecundity per female was 1,398 eggs and the mean fertility was 1,367.50 larvae. On average, females copulated 1.133 times. A strong positive correlation was observed between the number of mating and fecundity (r = 0.881, P <0.001. However a strong negative correlation was observed between the number of copulations and the duration of the pre-oviposition period (r = -0.826, P = 0.002 and longevity (r = -0.823, P = 0.001. The biotic potential of S. eridania was estimated at 1.894 x 10(25 individuals/female/year. The net reproductive rate (Ro was 560.531 times per generation and the mean generation time (T was 35.807 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.177, with a finite rate of increase (l of 1.193, per week

  6. Data set for diet specific differential gene expression analysis in three Spodoptera moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Examination of closely related species pairs is suggested for evolutionary comparisons of different degrees of polyphagy, which we did here with three taxa of lepidopteran herbivores, Spodoptera spp (S. littoralis, S. frugiperda maize (C and rice (R strains for a RNAseq analysis of the midguts from the 3rd instar insect larvae for differential metabolic responses after feeding on pinto bean based artificial diet vs maize leaves. Paired-end (2×100 bp Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing resulted in a total of 24, 23, 24, and 21 million reads for the SF-C-Maize, SF-C-Pinto, SF-R-Maize, SF-R Pinto, and a total of 35 and 36 million reads for the SL-Maize and SL-Pinto samples, respectively. After quality control measures, a total of 62.2 million reads from SL and 71.7 million reads from SF were used for transcriptome assembly (TA. The resulting final de novo reference TA (backbone for the SF taxa contained 37,985 contigs with a N50 contig size of 1030 bp and a maximum contig length of 17,093 bp, while for SL, 28,329 contigs were generated with a N50 contig size of 1980 bp and a maximum contig length of 18,267 bp. The data presented herein contains supporting information related to our research article Roy et al. (2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2016.02.006 [1]. Keywords: Differential expression analysis (DGE, Transcriptomics, Spodoptera, Adaptation, Generalist, Specialist, RPKM (reads per kilo base of transcript per million mapped reads, RNA seq

  7. Activity of Liquid Smoke of Tobacco Stem Waste as An Insecticide on Spodoptera litura Fabricius Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Prabowo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical insecticide in crop protection around the world has resulted in disturbances of the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop for environmentally friendly insect pest management techniques such as the activity of liquid smoke made from tobacco stem waste as an insecticide to Spodoptera litura. Activity of liquid smoke of tobacco stem waste was carried out at the laboratory condition. The results showed that the application of liquid smoke by using the spraying method (direct method showed better results compared to the results of feeding method (indirect method. Lethal concentration (LC at 5 days after treatment, LC50 and LC75 values the direct method of 2.9% and 8.87%, while the indirect method of 6,99% and 21.03%. The sub lethal concentration did not cause mortality of S. litura larvae, but inhibited the growth such as indicated by lower weight of larval and pupal in treated larvae than in control. Liquid smoke of tobacco stem waste has activity as an insecticide to S. litura.   INTISARI Penggunaan pestisida kimia dalam pengendalian hama di dunia telah menimbulkan gangguan terhadap lingkungan. Maka teknik pengendalian hama yang ramah lingkungan perlu dikembangkan, misalnya aktivitas asap cair limbah batang tembakau sebagai insektisida pada Spodoptera litura. Aktivitas asap cair limbah batang tembakau dilakukan pada kondisi laboratorium. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi asap cair secara langsung (metode semprot lebih efektif daripada tidak langsung (metode celup pakan. Lethal concentration (LC pada 5 hari setelah perlakuan, LC50 dan LC75 pada aplikasi langsung sebesar 2,9% dan 8,87%, sedangkan pada aplikasi tidak langsung 6,99% dan 21,03%. Konsentrasi subletal tidak menyebabkan kematian S. litura tetapi mampu menghambat pertumbuhan yang diindikasikan dengan rendahnya bobot larva dan pupa S. litura. Asap cair limbah batang tembakau bersifat insektisida terhadap larva S. litura.

  8. Outbreaks of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in tomato plantations in Espírito Santo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Santos Andrade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae has been reported in various crops in recent years in Brazil. The outbreaks of S. eridania were observed in regions of tomato production in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The chemical control used as the main method of control pests, without the agronomic observations of integrated pest management, is a probable cause of such outbreaks in tomato in these regions.

  9. Induction of Autophagy and Apoptosis via PI3K/AKT/TOR Pathways by Azadirachtin A in Spodoptera litura Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xuehua Shao; Duo Lai; Ling Zhang; Hanhong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Azadirachtin is one of the most effective botanical insecticides and has been widely used in pest control. Toxicological reports show that azadirachtin can induce apoptosis in various insect cell lines. However, studies of azadirachtin-induced autophagy in cultured insect cells are lacking. This study reports that azadirachtin A significantly inhibits cell proliferation by inducing autophagic and apoptotic cell death in Spodoptera litura cultured cell line (SL-1 cell). Characteristic autophag...

  10. Differential protection of Cry1Fa toxin against Spodoptera frugiperda larval gut proteases by cadherin orthologs correlates with increased synergism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Khalidur; Abdullah, Mohd Amir F; Ambati, Suresh; Taylor, Milton D; Adang, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are the most widely used biopesticides effective against a range of crop pests and disease vectors. Like chemical pesticides, development of resistance is the primary threat to the long-term efficacy of Bt toxins. Recently discovered cadherin-based Bt Cry synergists showed the potential to augment resistance management by improving efficacy of Cry toxins. However, the mode of action of Bt Cry synergists is thus far unclear. Here we elucidate the mechanism of cadherin-based Cry toxin synergism utilizing two cadherin peptides, Spodoptera frugiperda Cad (SfCad) and Manduca sexta Cad (MsCad), which differentially enhance Cry1Fa toxicity to Spodoptera frugiperda neonates. We show that differential SfCad- and MsCad-mediated protection of Cry1Fa toxin in the Spodoptera frugiperda midgut correlates with differential Cry1Fa toxicity enhancement. Both peptides exhibited high affinity for Cry1Fa toxin and an increased rate of Cry1Fa-induced pore formation in S. frugiperda. However, only SfCad bound the S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicle and more effectively prolonged the stability of Cry1Fa toxin in the gut, explaining higher Cry1Fa enhancement by this peptide. This study shows that cadherin fragments may enhance B. thuringiensis toxicity by at least two different mechanisms or a combination thereof: (i) protection of Cry toxin from protease degradation in the insect midgut and (ii) enhancement of pore-forming ability of Cry toxin.

  11. Suscetibilidade de Spodoptera Frugiperda a isolados geográficos de um vírus de poliedrose nuclear Spodoptera Frugiperda susceptibility to nuclear polyhedrosis virus geographical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Arce Gomez

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou verificar a suscetibilidade de larvas de segundo ínstar de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 a sete isolados geográficos de um vírus de poliedrose nuclear (VPN, conduzindo-se sete bioensaios no Laboratório de Patologia de Insetos da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja, Londrina. Para cada isolado preparou-se dieta artificial contendo 0, 2x10³, 4x10³, 8x10³, 16x10³, 32x10³ e 64x10³ corpos poliédricos de inclusão (CPI/mL. Cada dose foi oferecida às larvas em copos de plástico de 50 mL, sob condições controladas (temperatura: 26±2ºC; umidade relativa: 60±10%; fotófase:14 horas. A análise (Probits realizada sobre o somatório de larvas mortas (contadas, diariamente, do quinto ao décimo quarto dia após a inoculação mostrou, com base na ausência de sobreposição das amplitudes dos intervalos de confiança das concentrações letais médias (CL50, que: o isolado de Sertaneja, PR (5.631 CPI/mL, foi o mais virulento; o da Guatemala (11.520 CPI/mL equivaleu aos de Ponta Grossa, PR (14.184 CPI/mL, Argentina (15.891 CPI/mL e Alabama, EUA (17.558 CPI/mL, mas foi superior aos isolados de Louisiana, EUA (19.325 CPI/mL e Sete Lagoas, MG (25.310 CPI/mL. A variação do tempo letal médio, de 8,3 a 10 dias, não foi significativa em relação aos isolados.In order to verify the Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith,1797 second instar larvae susceptibility to seven nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV geographical isolates, seven bioassays were carried out at Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja, Insect Pathology Laboratory, Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. Artificial diet containing 0 (control, 2x10³, 4x10³, 8x10³, 16x10³, 32x10³, and 64x10³ polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB/mL was prepared for each virus isolate; each dose was offered, in 50 mL plastic cups to the larvae under controlled conditions (temperature 26±2ºC; relative humidity: 60±10% and photophase: 14 hours. The statistical analysis

  12. Spodoptera frugiperda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-03-22

    000 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Accepted 17 February, 2012. The objective of this study was to .... gut that was homogenized in a Potter homogenizer at a ratio of two intestines per 8 ml of distilled water at 4°C. The homogenate ...

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis of lufenuron-resistant and susceptible strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Antonio Rogério Bezerra; Fresia, Pablo; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis; Omoto, Celso

    2015-11-21

    The evolution of insecticide resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has resulted in large economic losses and disturbances to the environment and agroecosystems. Resistance to lufenuron, a chitin biosynthesis inhibitor insecticide, was recently documented in Brazilian populations of S. frugiperda. Thus, we utilized large-scale cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis) to compare the pattern of gene expression between lufenuron-resistant (LUF-R) and susceptible (LUF-S) S. larvae in an attempt to identify the molecular basis behind the resistance mechanism(s) of S. frugiperda to this insecticide. A transcriptome was assembled using approximately 19.6 million 100 bp-long single-end reads, which generated 18,506 transcripts with a N50 of 996 bp. A search against the NCBI non-redundant database generated 51.1% (9,457) functionally annotated transcripts. A large portion of the alignments were homologous to insects, with the majority (45%) being similar to sequences of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Moreover, 10% of the alignments were similar to sequences of various species of Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with 3% of them being similar to sequences of S. frugiperda. A comparative analysis of the gene expression between LUF-R and LUF-S S. frugiperda larvae identified 940 differentially expressed transcripts (p ≤ 0.05, t-test; fold change ≥ 4). Six of them were associated with cuticle metabolism. Of those, four were overexpressed in LUF-R larvae. The machinery involved with the detoxification process was represented by 35 differentially expressed transcripts; 24 of them belonging to P450 monooxygenases, four to glutathione-S-transferases, six to carboxylases and one to sulfotransferases. RNA-Seq analysis was validated for a number of selected candidate transcripts by using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). The gene expression profile of LUF-R larvae of S. frugiperda differs from LUF-S larvae. In general, gene expression is much

  14. Producing armyworm (spodoptera sp.) Bioinsecticide based on cysteine protease of red ginger (zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, N. T.; Nur, D. F.; Utami, T. S.; Sahlan, M.; Wijanarko, A.; Hermansyah, H.

    2018-03-01

    Armyworm (Spodoptera sp.) is highly polyphagous defoliator on various horticulture and grain plants. Various chemical insecticides have been created to control it. There is a need to create an eco-friendly and specific insecticide which only affect armyworm’s nervous system. This research investigates cysteine-protease’s enzyme activity of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) which is called zingibain. Its catalytic site matches with residue site in armyworm’s body so it can be used as bioinsecticide raw material which meets the criterias above. Fresh red ginger rhizomes were washed and extracted. The juice was then deposited in low temperature and centrifuged to get rid of its starch content. It was filtrated to remove large contaminants and poured into Potassium Phospate buffer. The liquid was then centrifuged again for 30 minutes before collecting the supernatant. Fresh leaves were then dipped into crude ginger protease extract and fed to fourth instar-armyworms. Leaves dipped into non-diluted extract were barely eaten by armyworm while the 50% and 25% dilution was half eaten and most eaten. The crude red ginger extract was not strong enough to kill them although the research showed its enzymatic activity reaches up to 169 PU. It still needs improvement to be produced as commercial bioinsecticide.

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  16. Flight attraction of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae to cotton headspace and synthetic volatile blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eBorrero-Echeverry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect olfactory system discriminates odor signals of different biological relevance, which drive innate behavior. Identification of stimuli that trigger upwind flight attraction towards host plants is a current challenge, and is essential in developing new, sustainable plant protection methods, and for furthering our understanding of plant-insect interactions. Using behavioral, analytical and electrophysiological studies, we here show that both females and males of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, use blends of volatile compounds to locate their host plant, cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvales, Malvaceae. Female S. littoralis were engaged in upwind orientation flight in a wind tunnel when headspace collected from cotton plants was delivered through a piezoelectric sprayer. Although males took off towards cotton headspace significantly fewer males than females flew upwind towards the sprayed headspace. Subsequent assays with antennally active synthetic compounds revealed that a blend of nonanal, (Z-3 hexenyl acetate, (E-β-ocimene, and (R-(+-limonene was as attractive as cotton headspace to females and more attractive to males. DMNT and (R-(--linalool, both known plant defense compounds may have reduced the flight attraction of both females and males; more moths were attracted to blends without these two compounds. Our findings provide a platform for further investigations on host plant signals mediating innate behavior, and for the development of novel insect plant protection strategies against S. littoralis.

  17. Amino Acid Content of the Gamma Irradiated Cotton Leaf-Worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobeiha, A.K.; Sallam, H.A.; El-Shall, S.S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on amino acid content of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis was studied.The identified amino acids in the total body tissue of male moths were Theronine, Serine, Glutamic, Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Cystine, Methionine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Tyrosine, Phenylalanine, Lysine, Histidine and Arginine. The irradiation of full grown male pupae with doses 100,200 and 300 Gy decreased the total quantity of amino acids and the amount of most individual amino acids in male moths of P 1 or F 1 generations with some exceptions for Threonine, Alanine, Glycine, Serine, Valine, Cystine and Methionine which were increased.The effect of irradiation on amino acid content of the reproductive system tissues for each male or female were also studied.The results indicated that irradiation decreased the total quantity of amino acid content of both sexes by increasing the dose and males were more radiosensitive than females. Also, irradiation decreased the amount of individual amino acids in both sexes with certain exceptions, e.g. Alanine, Methionine and Tyrosine which increased in the reproductive system of male, and Methionine which increased by more than four times as control.The amino acid content was determined as well in F 1 egg progeny, which was produced from irradiated males Irradiation doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy) decreased the total quantity of amino acids, and all individual ones except Cystine.The greatest reduction (54.9% was observed with Lysine at 300 Gy as compared to control

  18. Fitness costs and stability of Cry1Fa resistance in Brazilian populations of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Tavares, Clébson S; Rodrigues, João Victor C; Campos, Silverio O; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Alves, Analiza P; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2017-01-01

    The presence of fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins in insect populations may delay or even reverse the local selection of insect resistance to Bt transgenic crops, and deserves rigorous investigation. Here we assessed the fitness costs associated with Cry1Fa resistance in two strains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), derived from field collections in different Brazilian regions and further selected in the laboratory for high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa using leaves of TC1507 corn. Fitness components were compared using paired resistant and susceptible strains with similar genetic backgrounds and F 1 generations from reciprocal crosses, all of them reared on non-transgenic corn leaves. No apparent life history costs in the larval stage were observed in the Bt-resistant strains. Moreover, the resistance remained stable for seven generations in the absence of selection, with no decrease in the proportion of resistant individuals. Larval respiration rates were also similar between resistant and susceptible homozygotes, and heterozygotes displayed respiration rates and demographic performance equal or superior to those of susceptible homozygotes. In combination, these results indicate the lack of strong fitness costs associated with resistance to Cry1Fa in the fall armyworm strains studied. These findings suggest that Cry1Fa resistance in S. frugiperda populations is unlikely to be counterselected in Cry1Fa-free environments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Frequency of Cry1F resistance alleles in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Juliano R; Andow, David A; Horikoshi, Renato J; Bernardi, Daniel; Ribeiro, Rebeca da S; Nascimento, Antonio Rb do; Santos, Antonio C Dos; Omoto, Celso

    2016-12-01

    The frequency of resistance alleles is a major factor influencing the rate of resistance evolution. Here, we adapted the F 2 screen procedure for Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) with a discriminating concentration assay, and extended associated statistical methods to estimate the frequency of resistance to Cry1F protein in S. frugiperda in Brazil when resistance was not rare. We show that F 2 screen is efficient even when the resistance frequency is 0.250. It was possible to screen 517 isoparental lines from 12 populations sampled in five states of Brazil during the first half of 2012. Western Bahia had the highest allele frequency of Cry1F resistance, 0.192, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) between 0.163 and 0.220. All other states had a similar and lower frequency varying from 0.042 in Paraná to 0.080 in Mato Grosso do Sul. The high frequency in western Bahia may be related to year-round availability of maize, the high population density of S. frugiperda, the lack of refuges and the high adoption rate of Cry1F maize. Cry1F resistance alleles were not rare and occurred at frequencies that have already compromised the useful life of TC1507 maize in western Bahia. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Identification and Characterization of Pathogen-Response Genes (repat) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vilmar; Serrano, Jose; Galián, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) is one of the most important crop pests in the Americas, causing significant damage to maize, rice and sorghum. The mechanisms that determine its defences against pathogens are particularly relevant for the development of management and control strategies. We used an in silico approach to identify and characterize pathogen response genes (repat) present in different tissue libraries of S. fugiperda. The analyses revealed complete cDNA for nine repat genes; of these, repat15 and repat39 were found in libraries from a specific tissue--the midgut of larvae fed with xenobiotic substances. High expression levels of some genes were found in different libraries: 39 hits in repat30 in challenged hemocytes, 16 hits in repat31 in fat body, 10 hits in repat32 in fat body and 10 in challenged hemocytes, and 10 hits in repat38 in midgut of non-treated larvae and midgut of larvae fed with natural and xenobiotic substances. The genes corresponded to two ontology categories, stress response and immune response, and their phylogenetic relationships, nucleotide similarity, number of amino acid residues and molecular weights agree with what has been described for repat genes. It is noteworthy that proteins encoded by the repat genes of S. frugiperda have important defence functions in other tissues beyond midgut and that their functional categories are likely diverse, as they are related to cell envelope structure, energy metabolism, transport and binding.

  1. Managing fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with Bt maize and insecticides in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtet, Leonardo M; Bernardi, Oderlei; Melo, Adriano A; Pes, Maiquel P; Strahl, Thiago T; Guedes, Jerson Vc

    2017-12-01

    Maize plants expressing insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis are valuable options for managing fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, in Brazil. However, control failures were reported, and therefore insecticides have been used to control this species. Based on these, we evaluated the use of Bt maize and its integration with insecticides against FAW in southern Brazil. Early-planted Agrisure TL, Herculex, Optimum Intrasect and non-Bt maize plants were severely damaged by FAW and required up to three insecticidal sprays. In contrast, YieldGard VT Pro, YieldGard VT Pro 3, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 showed little damage and did not require insecticides. Late-planted Bt maize plants showed significant damage by FAW and required up to four sprays, with the exceptions of Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3. Exalt (first and second sprays); Lannate + Premio (first spray) and Avatar (second spray); and Karate + Match (first spray) and Ampligo (second spray) were the most effective insecticides against FAW larvae in Bt and non-Bt maize. Maize plants expressing Cry proteins exhibited FAW control failures in southern Brazil, necessitating insecticidal sprays. In contrast, Bt maize containing the Vip3Aa20 protein remained effective against FAW. However, regardless of the insecticide used against FAW surviving on Bt maize, grain yields were similar. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Inhibition of the Responses to Sex Pheromone of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Edi A.; Rojas, Julio C.; Gago, Rafael; Guerrero, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Trifluoromethyl ketones reversibly inhibit pheromone-degrading esterases in insect olfactory tissues, affecting pheromone detection and behavior of moth males. In this work, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl trifluoromethyl ketone (Z9-14:TFMK), a closely-related analogue of the pheromone of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was prepared and tested in electroantennogram and field tests as possible inhibitors of the pheromone action. The electroantennogram parameters, amplitude, and the repolarization time of the antennal responses of S. frugiperda males were affected by Z9-14:TFMK vapors. Exposure of male antennae to a stream of air passing through 100 ìg of the ketone produced a significant reduction of the amplitude and an increase of 2/3 repolarization time signals to the pheromone. The effect was reversible and dose-dependent. In the field, the analogue significantly decreased the number of males caught when mixed with the pheromone in 10:1 ratio. The results suggest that Z9-14:TFMK is a mating disruptant of S. frugiperda and may be a good candidate to consider in future strategies to control this pest. PMID:24766416

  3. Vip3Aa induces apoptosis in cultured Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kun; Mei, Si-Qi; Wang, Ting-Ting; Pan, Jin-Hua; Chen, Yue-Hua; Cai, Jun

    2016-09-15

    The vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) secreted by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage are regarded as second generation insecticidal proteins, as they share no sequence or structural homology with known crystal insecticidal proteins (Cry) and have a broad insecticidal spectrum. Compared with insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs), the insecticidal mechanisms of Vips have been little studied. Here we investigated the mechanism responsible for Vip3Aa toxicity in cultured insect cells. Using, flow cytometry analyzes, TUNEL staining and DNA fragmentation assays, we show that Vip3Aa can induce apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells and cause cells to arrest at the G2/M phase. We also show that Vip3Aa can disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), leading to the activation of Sf-caspase-1, suggesting that a mitochondrial mediated and caspase dependent pathway may be involved in Vip3Aa-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intraguild interactions and behavior of Spodoptera frugiperda and Helicoverpa spp. on maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivenha, José Pf; Montezano, Débora G; Hunt, Thomas E; Baldin, Edson Ll; Peterson, Julie A; Victor, Vinícius S; Pannuti, Luiz Er; Vélez, Ana M; Paula-Moraes, Silvana V

    2017-11-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the major pests of maize and is in the same feeding guild as the noctuid pests Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), recently reported in South and North America. The intraguild interactions of these species were assessed in laboratory and field conditions by determining the survival of larvae in interaction scenarios with non-Bt maize silks and ears. Moreover, a video tracking system was utilized to evaluate behavioral parameters during larval interactions in scenarios with or without food. In intraguild interactions, S. frugiperda had greater survival (55-100%) when competing with Helicoverpa spp. in scenarios where larvae were the same instar or when they were larger (fourth versus second) than their competitor. Frequency and time in food of S. frugiperda larvae were negatively influenced by interactions. Larvae of S. frugiperda moved shorter distances (less than 183.03 cm) compared with H. zea. Overall, S. frugiperda had a competitive advantage over Helicoverpa spp. This study provides significant information regarding noctuid behavior and larval survival during intraguild interactions, which may impact pest prevalence and population dynamics, thereby affecting integrated pest management and insect resistance management of these species in maize. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Genetic basis of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance to the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Antonio Rogério Bezerra; Farias, Juliano Ricardo; Bernardi, Daniel; Horikoshi, Renato Jun; Omoto, Celso

    2016-04-01

    An understanding of the genetic basis of insect resistance to insecticides is important for the establishment of insect resistance management (IRM) strategies. In this study we evaluated the inheritance pattern of resistance to the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron in Spodoptera frugiperda. The LC50 values (95% CI) were 0.23 µg lufenuron mL(-1) water (ppm) (0.18-0.28) for the susceptible strain (SUS) and 210.6 µg mL(-1) (175.90-258.10) for the lufenuron-resistant strain (LUF-R), based on diet-overlay bioassay. The resistance ratio was ≈ 915-fold. The LC50 values for reciprocal crosses were 4.89 µg mL(-1) (3.79-5.97) for female LUF-R and male SUS and 5.74 µg mL(-1) (4.70-6.91) for female SUS and male LUF-R, indicating that the inheritance of S. frugiperda resistance to lufenuron is an autosomal, incompletely recessive trait. Backcrosses of the progeny of reciprocal crosses with the parental LUF-R showed a polygenic effect. The estimated minimum number of independent segregations was in the 11.02 range, indicating that resistance to lufenuron is associated with multiple genes in S. frugiperda. Based on genetic crosses, the inheritance pattern of lufenuron resistance in S. frugiperda was autosomal, incompletely recessive and polygenic. Implications of this finding to IRM are discussed in this paper. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Novel Peptidase Kunitz Inhibitor from Platypodium elegans Seeds Is Active against Spodoptera frugiperda Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Suellen Rodrigues; Bezerra, Cézar da Silva; Lourenço de Oliveira, Daniella Gorete; Souza Lima, Letícia; Maria Neto, Simone; Ramalho de Oliveira, Caio Fernando; Valério Verbisck, Newton; Rodrigues Macedo, Maria Lígia

    2018-02-14

    A novel Kunitz-type inhibitor from Platypodium elegans seeds (PeTI) was purified and characterized. The mass spectrometry analyses of PeTI indicated an intact mass of 19 701 Da and a partial sequence homologous to Kunitz inhibitors. PeTI was purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatographies. A complex with a 1:1 ratio was obtained only for bovine trypsin, showing a K i = 0.16 nM. Stability studies showed that PeTI was stable over a wide range of temperature (37-80 °C) and pH (2-10). The inhibitory activity of PeTI was affected by dithiothreitol (DTT). Bioassays of PeTI on Spodoptera frugiperda showed negative effects on larval development and weight gain, besides extending the insect life cycle. The activities of digestive enzymes, trypsin and chymotrypsin, were reduced by feeding larvae with 0.2% PeTI in an artificial diet. In summary, we describe a novel Kunitz inhibitor with promising biotechnological potential for pest control.

  7. Insecticidal activity of two proteases against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae infected with recombinant baculoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Baculovirus comprise the largest group of insect viruses most studied worldwide, mainly because they efficiently kill agricutural insect pests. In this study, two recombinant baculoviruses containing the ScathL gene from Sarcophaga peregrina (vSynScathL), and the Keratinase gene from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (vSynKerat), were constructed. and their insecticidal properties analysed against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Results Bioassays of third-instar and neonate S. frugiperda larvae with vSynScathL and vSynKerat showed a decrease in the time needed to kill the infected insects when compared to the wild type virus. We have also shown that both recombinants were able to increase phenoloxidase activity in the hemolymph of S. frugiperda larvae. The expression of proteases in infected larvae resulted in destruction of internal tissues late in infection, which could be the reason for the increased viral speed of kill. Conclusions Baculoviruses and their recombinant forms constitute viable alternatives to chemical insecticides. Recombinant baculoviruses containing protease genes can be added to the list of engineered baculoviruses with great potential to be used in integrated pest management programs. PMID:20587066

  8. Cytochrome P450s from the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda): responses to plant allelochemicals and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, M; Hilliou, F; Fricaux, T; Audant, P; Feyereisen, R; Le Goff, G

    2015-02-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is a polyphagous lepidopteran pest that encounters a wide range of toxic plant metabolites in its diet. The ability of this insect to adapt to its chemical environment might be explained by the action of major detoxification enzymes such as cytochrome P450s (or CYP). Forty-two sequences coding for P450s were identified and most of the transcripts were found to be expressed in the midgut, Malpighian tubules and fat body of S. frugiperda larvae. Relatively few P450s were expressed in the established cell line Sf9. In order to gain information on how these genes respond to different chemical compounds, larvae and Sf9 cells were exposed to plant secondary metabolites (indole, indole-3-carbinol, quercetin, 2-tridecanone and xanthotoxin), insecticides (deltamethrin, fipronil, methoprene, methoxyfenozide) or model inducers (clofibrate and phenobarbital). Several genes were induced by plant chemicals such as P450s from the 6B, 321A and 9A subfamilies. Only a few genes responded to insecticides, belonging principally to the CYP9A family. There was little overlap between the response in vivo measured in the midgut and the response in vitro in Sf9 cells. In addition, regulatory elements were detected in the promoter region of these genes. In conclusion, several P450s were identified that could potentially be involved in the adaptation of S. frugiperda to its chemical environment. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Effects of Piper hispidinervum on spermatogenesis and histochemistry of ovarioles of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, T J S; Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Teixeira, A A C; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Câmara, C A G; Cunha, F M

    2014-05-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), not only damages crops, but controlling its population also requires synthetic insecticides, which leads to selection of resistant populations and environmental contamination. Essential oils are an alternative for controlling this insect. There are few studies of the effects of these oils on the insect's reproductive system. We evaluated the effects of the long pepper, Piper hispidinervum, essential oil on the gonads of the armyworm and tested its possible influence on the fertility of this insect. Dosages of 30 and 50 mg/ml were tested in 3(rd) instar caterpillars using the leaf immersion method. Testes and ovarioles were collected, fixed with 10% formalin and embedded in Historesin. The sections were stained with toluidine blue and Mallory trichrome to detect connective tissue, periodic acid-Schiff to detect neutral carbohydrates, and bromophenol blue to detect proteins. We found that the long pepper essential oil affected negatively the spermatogenesis and altered the histochemistry of the ovarioles of S. frugiperda. The effects of long pepper oil suggest that it is a promising tool for controlling the armyworm pest.

  10. Identification of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AbMod binding-proteins from Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Castro, Diana L; García-Gómez, Blanca I; Gómez, Isabel; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2017-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are currently used for pest control in transgenic crops but evolution of resistance by the insect pests threatens the use of this technology. The Cry1AbMod toxin was engineered to lack the alpha helix-1 of the parental Cry1Ab toxin and was shown to counter resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins in different insect species including the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. In addition, Cry1AbMod showed enhanced toxicity to Cry1Ab-susceptible S. frugiperda populations. To gain insights into the mechanisms of this Cry1AbMod-enhanced toxicity, we isolated the Cry1AbMod toxin binding proteins from S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), which were identified by pull-down assay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The LC-MS/MS results indicated that Cry1AbMod toxin could bind to four classes of aminopeptidase (N1, N3, N4 y N5) and actin, with the highest amino acid sequence coverage acquired for APN 1 and APN4. In addition to these proteins, we found other proteins not previously described as Cry toxin binding proteins. This is the first report that suggests the interaction between Cry1AbMod and APN in S. frugiperda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Youping; Dong, Yinghua; Thodima, Venkata; Clem, Rollie J; Passarelli, A Lorena

    2006-01-01

    Background Little is known about the genome sequences of lepidopteran insects, although this group of insects has been studied extensively in the fields of endocrinology, development, immunity, and pathogen-host interactions. In addition, cell lines derived from Spodoptera frugiperda and other lepidopteran insects are routinely used for baculovirus foreign gene expression. This study reports the results of an expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project in cells from the lepidopteran insect S. frugiperda, the fall armyworm. Results We have constructed an EST database using two cDNA libraries from the S. frugiperda-derived cell line, SF-21. The database consists of 2,367 ESTs which were assembled into 244 contigs and 951 singlets for a total of 1,195 unique sequences. Conclusion S. frugiperda is an agriculturally important pest insect and genomic information will be instrumental for establishing initial transcriptional profiling and gene function studies, and for obtaining information about genes manipulated during infections by insect pathogens such as baculoviruses. PMID:17052344

  12. Development and reprotuction of Spodoptera eridania on natural hosts and artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and reproductive potential of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae was compared on natural and artificial diets. Its biology was determined under laboratory conditions, providing an artificial diet, leaves of white clover and the peach cultivar 'Chimarrita' and fruits and leaves of the apple cultivar 'Gala'. Larvae of S. eridania could not complete their biological cycle when fed on apple fruits or peach leaves. The artificial diet provided the shortest development time, with a cycle of 28.5±0.14 days from egg to adult and 37.3% total viability. Apple leaves led to a longer development time from egg to adult (62.8±1.22 days and lower total viability (23% and white clover provided the highest total viability (54.3%. The results showed that S. eridania can use white clover and apple leaves to develop normally in apple orchards. The reduction of food sources such as white clover used by the larvae results in infestation and damage to fruits from “test bites”.

  13. Immature stages of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): developmental parameters and host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montezano, Débora Goulart; Specht, Alexandre; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel Ricardo; Roque-Specht, Vânia Ferreira; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to detail the temporal and morphological parameters of the immature stages of southern armyworm Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782) with larvae feed on artificial diet, under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 14-h photophase) and gather information about their larval host plants. The viability of the egg, larval, pupal, and prepupal stages was 97.82, 93.62, 96.42, and 97.03%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larval, pupal, and pre-pupal stages was 4.00, 16.18, 1.58, and 9.17 d, respectively. During the larval stage, 43.44% of females passed through seven instars, observing that the female's development was significant slower than males. The female larvae that developed through six and seven instars exhibited a mean growth rate of 1.52 and 1.44, respectively. Female pupae were significantly larger, exhibiting faster development than males. The rearing method proved to be adequate, providing more detailed observations of the biological cycle, especially at the larval stage, and resulting in an overall survival of almost 85%. Two hundred two plant species belonging to 58 families are listed as natural hosts for S. eridania, mainly including Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Malvaceae. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. Antioxidant enzyme level response to prooxidant allelochemicals in larvae of the southern armyworm moth, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsos, C A; Ahmad, S; Elliott, A J; Pardini, R S

    1990-01-01

    Larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, are highly polyphagous feeders which frequently encounter and feed upon plants containing high levels of prooxidant allelochemicals. While ingestion of moderate quantities of prooxidants can be tolerated by these larvae, ingestion of larger quantities can result in toxicity. Studies were conducted to assess the role of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the protection of S. eridania against redox active prooxidant plant allelochemicals. Dietary exposure of mid-fifth-instar larvae to either quercetin (a flavonoid) or xanthotoxin (a photoactive furanocoumarin), which generate superoxide radical, and singlet oxygen, respectively, resulted in an increase in SOD levels. CAT levels increased in all groups of S. eridania including control insects. This may have been due to the sudden exposure to food following an extended fast of 18 h (to insure that larvae would not reject the diet because of the prooxidants' bitter taste) with an eventual lowering of CAT values with time. GR activities did not significantly change except for a slight inhibition at the highest prooxidant concentrations used at 12-h post-ingestion. The data from these studies suggest that SOD responds to prooxidant challenges in these insects and together with CAT and GR contributes to the insect's defense against potentially toxic prooxidant compounds.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of Artemisia annua L. extract and artemisinin activity against Epilachna paenulata and Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, María E; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Carpinella, María C; Ferrayoli, Carlos G; Valladares, Graciela R; Palacios, Sara M

    2005-07-01

    Ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. and artemisinin were evaluated as anti-insect products. In a feeding deterrence assay on Epilachna paenulata Germ (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae, complete feeding rejection was observed at an extract concentration of 1.5 mg/cm2 on pumpkin leaf tissue. The same concentration produced a feeding inhibition of 87% in Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In a no-choice assay, both species ate less and gained less weight when fed on leaves treated with the extract. Complete mortality in E. paenulata and 50% mortality in S. eridania were observed with extract at 1.5 mg/cm2. Artemisinin exhibited a moderate antifeedant effect on E. paenulata and S. eridania at 0.03-0.375 mg/cm2. However, a strong effect on survival and body weight was observed when E. paenulata larvae were forced to feed on leaves treated at 0.03 and 0.075 mg/cm2. Artemisia annua ethanolic extract of aerial parts at 1.5 mg/cm2 showed no phytotoxic effect on pumpkin seedlings.

  16. Development and reprotuction of Spodoptera eridania on natural hosts and artificial diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A; Baronio, C A; Galzer, E C W; Garcia, M S; Botton, M

    2018-04-09

    The development and reproductive potential of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) was compared on natural and artificial diets. Its biology was determined under laboratory conditions, providing an artificial diet, leaves of white clover and the peach cultivar 'Chimarrita' and fruits and leaves of the apple cultivar 'Gala'. Larvae of S. eridania could not complete their biological cycle when fed on apple fruits or peach leaves. The artificial diet provided the shortest development time, with a cycle of 28.5±0.14 days from egg to adult and 37.3% total viability. Apple leaves led to a longer development time from egg to adult (62.8±1.22 days) and lower total viability (23%) and white clover provided the highest total viability (54.3%). The results showed that S. eridania can use white clover and apple leaves to develop normally in apple orchards. The reduction of food sources such as white clover used by the larvae results in infestation and damage to fruits from "test bites".

  17. Effect of some biorational insecticides on Spodoptera eridania in organic cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michereff-Filho, Miguel; Torres, Jorge B; Andrade, Luzia Nt; Nunes, Maria Urbana C

    2008-07-01

    To reduce pest attack, several biorational products are allowed for use on organic vegetables in Brazil. This study investigated eight biorational products applied singly or in combination against Spodoptera eridania Cramer in field plots of cabbage intercropped with coriander. The treatments were applied once a week over a 5 week period, beginning 34 days after transplanting. The evaluations consisted of counting the larvae of S. eridania on the day before and 7 and 21 days after spraying. The damage to leaves and cabbage head, the commercial weight of head and the percentage of head losses were evaluated. Leaf injury in plots treated with Beauveria bassiana and neem oil (Dalneem) yielded scores of 1.3 and 2.5 (scale ranging from 0 to 4) respectively, in comparison with a score of 3.6 from untreated plots. Head weight losses were 6.1, 5.3 and 4.9% with an aqueous extract of neem leaves, neem oil and B. bassiana respectively, compared with 24.6% lost from untreated plots. Dalneem, B. bassiana and the extract of neem leaves at 20% exhibited the best performance for control of S. eridania.

  18. Dichlone-induced oxidative stress in a model insect species, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S; Zaman, K; MacGill, R S; Batcabe, J P; Pardini, R S

    1995-11-01

    Southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, larvae were provided ad libitum 0.002-0.25% w/w dichlone, 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (CNQ). Larval mortality occurred in a time-and-dose dependent manner, with an LC17 of 0.01% and an LC50 of 0.26% CNQ at day-5. Extracts of larvae fed control, 0.01, and 0.25% CNQ diets for 5 days were assayed for antioxidant enzymes. While 0.01% CNQ had a mild effect, 0.25% CNQ profoundly increased levels of all antioxidant enzymes that were examined. The increases as compared to control were: 5.3-, 1.9-, 3.2-, 2.6-, 2.8-, and 3.5-fold higher for superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione transferase and its peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase and DT-diaphorase, respectively. At 0.01% CNQ, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were similar to the control group. However, despite the induction from 0.25% CNQ of all enzymes examined, the lipid peroxidation was not attenuated; the TBARS were 29.7% over the control value. High mortalities and CNQ-induced pathologies reflected in retarded growth, wasting syndrome, and diuresis clearly indicated that the insect sustained severe oxidant-induced injuries before appropriate defenses were fully mobilized. Thus, this quinone causes an oxidative stress in a model insect species analogous to that observed in mammalian species.

  19. AVALIAÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE INSETICIDA DE EXTRATOS VEGETAIS SOBRE Spodoptera eridania (CRAMER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Fazolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera eridania é uma espécie desfolhadora cuja fase larval se alimenta de várias espécies de importância econômica. Dada a grande participação do agronegócio na economia do país e compreendendo a necessidade de buscar métodos que viabilizem o controle de pragas de maneira sustentável e segura para o meio ambiente, o uso de extratos vegetais com potencial inseticida pode oferecer uma alternativa de baixo custo e de fácil produção. Sendo assim, objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a atividade inseticida de plantas sobre a mortalidade de larvas de S. eridania. Para isto, utilizou-se extratos aquosos de fumo (N. tabacum L., cinamomo (M. azedarach, alho (A. sativum L., pimenta roxa (C. chinense e erva-de-santa-maria (C. ambrosioides L., os quais foram pulverizados sobre lagartas de segundo instar de S. eridania e sobre o alimento fornecido. O extrato de Fumo apresentou-se promissor para o controle de S. eridania, sendo necessárias novas pesquisas que possibilitem verificar concentrações que ocasionem mortalidade acima de 50%, bem como testes de fitotoxidade do extrato na planta hospedeira.

  20. Antibiosis in Soybean Genotypes and the Resistance Levels to Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, B H S; Silva, A G; Janini, J C; Boica Júnior, A L

    2014-12-01

    The southern armyworm (SAW) Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) is one of the most common armyworm species defoliating soybeans. Preliminary screening trials have indicated that some soybean genotypes exhibit resistance to SAW. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the development of SAW larvae fed on ten soybean genotypes in order to identify genotypes with antibiosis-type resistance. Neonate SAW larvae were daily fed with young leaves collected from plants at the vegetative growth stages V4-V5. Larval development and survival were recorded. Genotypes PI 227687 and PI 227682 delayed larval, pupal, and larva-adult development and yielded larvae with the lowest weight and survival and pupae with the lowest weight. Genotypes IAC 100 and DM 339 also negatively affected larval and pupal development and larval survival but at a lower level. Based on our results, the soybean lines PI 227687 and PI 227682 could be used as sources of genes for soybean breeding programs aiming to develop high yield, SAW-resistant cultivars. Moreover, further trials must be carried out under field conditions to validate if the commercial cultivars IAC 100 and DM 339, which expressed moderate levels of antibiosis-type resistance in the laboratory, are effective in suppressing SAW larvae populations.

  1. Toxic Effects of Couroupita guianensis Against Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, K; Ignacimuthu, S; Jayakumar, M

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to find out the efficacy of different crude extracts and fractions of Couroupita guianensis (Lecythidaceae) against Spodoptera litura (Fabricius). Results revealed that hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of C. guianensis showed larvicidal and pupicidal activities against S. litura. Maximum larvicidal activity (68.66%) was observed in hexane extract at 5.0% concentration followed by chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts, and least LC50 value of 2.64% was observed in hexane extract. A 100% pupicidal activity was observed in hexane extract. Based on the efficacy of crude extracts, the effective crude extract (hexane extract) was further fractionated and subjected to screening for biological activities against S. litura. Among the eight fractions isolated from the hexane extract, fraction 8 showed maximum antifeedant activity (81. 8%) and larvicidal activity (76.9%) at 1000-ppm concentration; this fraction showed least LC50 value of 375.92 ppm for larvicidal activity. Cent per cent pupicidal activity was recorded. Reduced midgut and hemolymph protein contents were observed at 1000 ppm of fraction 8. Histopathological studies revealed that fraction 8 severely damaged the midgut cells of S. litura. This fraction could be used to develop botanical formulation to control agricultural pests.

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  3. An appraisal of certain larval behavioural activities as affected by gamma irradiation of Spodoptera larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Sehgal, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of Spodoptera litura larvae induced an abatement in their locomotor activity. The food perception range and feeding behaviour of the larvae were also impaired. Of various dosages tested, 4 Krad (the sterilizing dose for larvae) caused a decline in locomotor speed. The first instar larvae, for instance showed decline in a speed of 3.74 cm/min to 2.96 cm/min. Similarly at this dose, the third instar larvae exhibited a reduction in speed to the extent of 38 to 45 per cent, the normal speed being 8.02 cm/min. The reactive distances of the first and third instar normal larvae were 5.30 cm and 7.36, respectively. This reactive distance was reduced by about 25 per cent after irradiation at 4 Krad, thus decreasing the food perception capacity significantly. The feeding behaviour too was significantly affected whereas the dose range less than 4 Krad did not induce such a marked impact. (author). 9 refs., 2 tables

  4. Azadirachtin Affects the Growth of Spodoptera litura Fabricius by Inducing Apoptosis in Larval Midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Benshui; Zhang, Jingjing; Cui, Gaofeng; Sun, Ranran; Yi, Xin; Zhong, Guohua

    2018-01-01

    Azadirachtin, the environmentally friendly botanical pesticide, has been used as an antifeedant and pest growth regulator in integrated pest management for decades. It has shown strong biological activity against Spodoptera litura , but the mechanism of toxicity remains unclear. The present study showed that azadirachtin inhibited the growth of S. litura larvae, which was resulted by structure destroy and size inhibition of the midgut. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis of midgut suggested that azadirachtin regulated the transcriptional level of multiple unigenes involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and calcium apoptotic signaling pathways. Simultaneously, the expression patterns of some differentially expressed unigenes were verified by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR). In addition, the enhanced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, the increased expression of caspase family members and apoptosis-binding motif 1 (IBM1) on both gene and protein level and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm were induced in midgut after azadirachtin treatment. These results demonstrated that azadirachtin induced structural alteration in S. litura larval midgut by apoptosis activation. These alterations may affect the digestion and absorption of nutrients and eventually lead to the growth inhibition of larvae.

  5. Azadirachtin Affects the Growth of Spodoptera litura Fabricius by Inducing Apoptosis in Larval Midgut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benshui Shu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachtin, the environmentally friendly botanical pesticide, has been used as an antifeedant and pest growth regulator in integrated pest management for decades. It has shown strong biological activity against Spodoptera litura, but the mechanism of toxicity remains unclear. The present study showed that azadirachtin inhibited the growth of S. litura larvae, which was resulted by structure destroy and size inhibition of the midgut. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis of midgut suggested that azadirachtin regulated the transcriptional level of multiple unigenes involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and calcium apoptotic signaling pathways. Simultaneously, the expression patterns of some differentially expressed unigenes were verified by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR. In addition, the enhanced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL staining, the increased expression of caspase family members and apoptosis-binding motif 1 (IBM1 on both gene and protein level and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm were induced in midgut after azadirachtin treatment. These results demonstrated that azadirachtin induced structural alteration in S. litura larval midgut by apoptosis activation. These alterations may affect the digestion and absorption of nutrients and eventually lead to the growth inhibition of larvae.

  6. An SSH library responsive to azadirachtin A constructed in Spodoptera litura Fabricius cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Xu, Han-Hong

    2012-05-31

    The present study revealed differentially expressed genes responsive to azadirachtin A (Aza) in Spodoptera litura cell line through suppression subtractive hybridization. In the Aza-responsive SSH library, approximately 270 sequences represent 53 different identified genes encoding proteins with various predicted functions, and the percentages of the gene clusters were 26.09% (genetic information processing), 11.41% (cell growth and death), 7.07% (metabolism), 6.52% (signal transduction/transport) and 2.72% (immunity), respectively. Eleven clones homologous to identified genes were selected to be confirmed through quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Among the eleven clones validated, all but one transcript of lipase showed an increase in SL cell line collected from ETA, whereas the transcripts of other genes were lower in the SL cell line collected from ETA compared with that of UETA. These genes were considered to be related to the response of SL cell line to Aza. These will provide a new clue to uncover the molecular mechanisms of Aza acting on SL cell line. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of azadirachtin and methoxyfenozide on life parameters of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Samuel; Martínez, Ana-Mabel; Figueroa, José-Isaac; Schneider, Marcela-Inés; Del Estal, Pedro; Viñuela, Elisa; Gómez, Benjamin; Smagghe, Guy; Budia, Flor

    2009-08-01

    Effects on adult longevity, fecundity and fertility, as well as long-term effects on progeny were determined through oral exposure of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) adults to azadirachtin and methoxyfenozide. Both compounds reduced adult longevity by 2.3 d at the higher concentrations tested, but no significant differences were observed between sexes. Fecundity and fertility were significantly affected for both insecticides, although this effect was only dose-dependent for azadirachtin. The progeny from adults treated with azadirachtin or methoxyfenozide were only affected in percentage of pupation of eggs that successfully hatched, but no effects were observed in adult emergence of individuals that successfully pupated for either insecticide. In the second part of this study, each sex was exposed separately to methoxyfenozide by topical application or ingestion. Adult fecundity was more affected when moths were treated by ingestion than when treated topically, with a mean number eggs laid per female of 343 +/- 89 and 932 +/- 79, respectively. Finally, azadirachtin applied to pepper plants showed a significant oviposition deterrence activity on S. littoralis adults. However, when fecundity was scored for one additional day in females that had been previously exposed to pepper, Capsicum annum L., plants treated with this insecticide, the number of eggs laid per female did not differ significantly from that of controls. The effects of azadirachtin and methoxyfenozide on S. littoralis suggest changes in population dynamics of this pest in crops treated with these insecticides.

  8. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON APOPTOSIS INDUCTION BY AZADIRACHTIN IN Spodoptera frugiperda CULTURED CELL LINE Sf9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Benshui; Wang, Wenxiang; Hu, Qingbo; Huang, Jingfei; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-07-01

    The induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, a well-known botanical tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and other members of the Meliaceae, was investigated in Spodoptera frugiperda cultured cell line (Sf9). Morphological changes in Sf9 cells treated by various concentrations of azadirachtin were observed at different times under light microscopy. Morphological and biochemical analysis indicated that Sf9 cells treated by 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin showed typical morphological changes, which were indicative of apoptosis and a clear DNA ladder. The flow cytometry analysis showed the apoptosis rate reached a maximum value of 32.66% at 24 h with 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin in Sf9 cells. The inhibition of Sf9 cell proliferation suggested that the effect of azadirachtin was dose dependent and the EC50 at 48 and 72 h was 2.727 × 10(-6) and 6.348 × 10(-9) μg/mL, respectively. The treatment of azadirachtin in Sf9 cells could significantly increase the activity of Sf caspase-1, but showed no effect on the activity of Topo I, suggesting that the apoptosis induced by azadirachtinin Sf9 cells is through caspase-dependent pathway. These results provided not only a series of morphological, biochemical, and toxicological comprehensive evidences for induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, but also a reference model for screening insect cell apoptosis inducers from natural compounds. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Angiotensin-converting enzyme in Spodoptera littoralis: molecular characterization, expression and activity profile during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeire, Els; Vanholme, Bartel; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy

    2008-02-01

    The characterization of the full-length angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) cDNA sequence of the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis is reported in this study. The predicted open reading frame encodes a 647 amino acids long protein (SlACE) and shows 63.6% identity with the Bombyx mori ACE sequence. A 3D-model, consisting of 26 alpha-helices and three beta-sheets, was predicted for the sequence. SlACE expression was studied in the embryonic, larval and pupal stages of S. littoralis and in different tissues of the last larval stage by reverse-transcribed PCR. This revealed that the gene is expressed throughout the life cycle and especially in brain, gut and fat body tissue of the last stage. These results are in agreement with a role of ACE in the metabolism of neuropeptides and gut hormones. In addition, ACE activity has been studied in more detail during development, making use of a fluorescent assay. High ACE peptidase activity coincides with every transition state, from embryo to larva, from larva to larva and from larva to pupa. A peak value in activity occurs during the early pupal stage. These results indicate the importance of SlACE during metamorphosis and reveal the high correlation of ACE activity with the insect's development, which is regulated by growth and developmental hormones.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on scent gland development and pheromone production in Spodoptera Littoralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazaa, M.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd) is one of the important pests of cotton and many other crops in egypt. Several methods have been tried for its control. Among these, the sterile insect technique and the application of sex attractant pheromones appeared to be promissing in an integrated programme for the control of this and other serious insect pests. The high doses of gamma radiation required in such technique may affect some physiological and biological aspects of the insect as well; specially its reproductive potential. This effect may disturb the intraspecific communication between males and females by adversely affecting pheromone glands and hence pheromone production (Stimman et al., 1972; abdu et al., 1985 and El - Degwi, 1990). Insect sex pheromones are chemical substances secreted by either sex to attract the other sex and get them together for copulation. Trials to seek some of the factors that can prevent such communication in the cotton leaf worm may be of importance in its integrated control programme. This stimulated the present study to investigate the effect of gamma radiation doses on sex pheromone gland and pheromone production in this economically important insect pest.8 tabs., 14 figs., 92 refs

  11. Combined effect of gamma radiation and some plant extracts on spodoptera littoralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the effects of exposure of male full-grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis to sub sterilizing doses of gamma radiation (100,150 or 300 Gy), treating larval diet with different concentrations of Terminalia arjuna , Erythrine caffra, Taxodium distichum or Melaleuca cajuputi plant extracts on certain biological aspects of the parental (P 1 ),F 1 generation and combined effect of Taxodium distichum(1.25 ethanol , 2.5% water extracts) and 100 Gy of gamma radiation on also, the certain biological aspects of the parental (P 1 ) and first filial (F 1 ) generations. The biological aspects included the effect on fecundity, egg hatchability, mating ability, and malformation, beside larval survival until adult emergence and sex ratio of the produced adult at different mating crosses between treated and untreated or treated other sex. Special attention was given to inherited sterility of treated male. In addition, the studies also explained the effect of gamma radiation and different concentration of plant extracts of Taxodium disticum and combined effect of both on three tested enzymes (TOC,TAC and Cytochrom p 450 ) . In addition the effect of them on the free testosterone .Using radiation in combination with Taxodium disticum gave synergistic effect by decreasing the activity of these enzymes among F 1 adult male.This means that these treatments also interfered in the functions of these enzymes and hormone.

  12. Spodoptera frugiperda Böcek Hücrelerinin Transfeksiyonu ve Rekombinant Protein Üretimi

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    Özlem Üstün Aytekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rekombinant protein üretimi son yıllarda sıklıkla çalışılan bir konudur. Rekombinant protein üretimi için çalışılan konakçılar arasında kısa ikilenme süresi, protein katlanmasındaki avantajları, süspanse kültürde çalışılabilmesi nedeni ile Spodoptera frugiperda böcek hücre hatları; yüksek verimliliği, büyük gen bölgelerini eksprese etme kapasitesi ve hızlı cevap vermesi nedeni ile de transfeksiyon vektörü olarak baculovirus (BV tercih edilmektedir. Bu derlemede rekombinant protein üretimini etkileyen bu hücre hatları, üretim ortamları, uygun üretim koşulları, baculovirusler, transfeksiyon metotları, rekombinant protein üretiminde kullanılan biyoreaktör sistemleri, çalışma modları ve biyoreaktör ekipmanları açıklanmaktadır.

  13. Biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different structures of transgenic corn against Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bernardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith is the main target pest of Bt corn technologies, such as YieldGard VT PRO(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2 and PowerCore(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2/Cry1F. In this study, it was evaluated the biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different plant structures of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn against S. frugiperda . Complete mortality of S. frugiperda neonates was observed on leaf-disc of both Bt corn technologies. However, the mortality in silks and grains was lower than 50 and 6%, respectively. In addition, more than 49% of the surviving larvae in silks and grains completed the biological cycle. However, all life table parameters were negatively affected in insects that developed in silks and grains of both Bt corn events. In summary, the low biological activity of Bt proteins expressed on silks and grains of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn can contribute to the resistance evolution in S. frugiperda populations.

  14. Survival and larval development of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on alternatives host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, Verissimo G.M. de; Boregas, Katia G.B.

    2009-01-01

    Two bioassays were conducted to evaluate the suitability of host plants of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith), in the Brazilian agro-ecosystem. Larval development and survival were analyzed by infesting leaves of maize, grain sorghum, Johnson grass, soybean, Brachiaria and tobacco with FAW newly hatched larvae in a no choice test. No significant differences of survival were observed among insects reared on different hosts, except for tobacco, where no survivors were recorded. Larvae fed on soybean and artificial diet grew larger than those fed on the other hosts. The heaviest pupa was observed from larva fed on artificial diet and the lighter from larva fed on Brachiaria grass. No significant differences were reported on larval development time on natural hosts, but it was longer for larvae reared on artificial diet. Three classes of larval development time were observed on maize, four on sorghum, Brachiaria and soybean, and five on artificial diet. Nearly 85% of FAW larvae completed development within 12 d on maize; 77% on grain sorghum, 80% on Johnson grass, 68% on Brachiaria and 83% on soybean within 14 d and 69% on artificial diet within 17 d. The host suitability to FAW decreases from maize to sorghum, soybean and Brachiaria. (author)

  15. Effect of sub-sterilizing doses of gamma radiation on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Aguilar, J.A.; Arthur, Valter

    1998-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to verify the effects of sub-sterilizing doses of gamma radiations on pupae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) and transfer of genetic heredity on the first and second generations. Statistical analysis showed difference in the ageing effect of gamma radiations on the larval phase and larval viability ranged between 72 and 94 percent, when irradiated (50 Gy) males or females were crossed with non-irradiated adults. With doses of 100, 125, 150 and 175 Gy the crossing of irradiated males x non irradiated females the larval viability was between 64 and 94 per cent in F-1 and F-2 generations. The duration and other life parameters of the pupae and adults did not differ from the controls. The egg laying ability was not affected by doses up to 150 Gy on both the sexes. If irradiated females with doses of 175 and 200 Gy were crossed with non-irradiated males, the egg laying was inhibited when males were irradiated with one of these doses, the offspring females did not lay eggs or laid non-fertile eggs. (author)

  16. Quantitative proteomics of Spodoptera frugiperda cells during growth and baculovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carinhas

    Full Text Available Baculovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells is a system of choice to produce a range of recombinant proteins, vaccines and, potentially, gene therapy vectors. While baculovirus genomes are well characterized, the genome of S. frugiperda is not sequenced and the virus-host molecular interplay is sparsely known. Herein, we describe the application of stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC to obtain the first comparative proteome quantitation of S. frugiperda cells during growth and early baculovirus infection. The proteome coverage was maximized by compiling a search database with protein annotations from insect species. Of interest were differentially proteins related to energy metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress, yet not investigated in the scope of baculovirus infection. Further, the reduced expression of key viral-encoded proteins early in the infection cycle is suggested to be related with decreased viral replication at high cell density culture. These findings have implications for virological research and improvement of baculovirus-based bioprocesses.

  17. Analisis Efisiensi Pemanfaatan Makanan Oleh Larva Spodoptera Litura F dan Crocidolamia Pavonama (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sayuthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Nutrisi diperlukan oleh serangga untuk pertumbuhan dan perkembangannya, sebagai sumber energi, perbaikan jaringan dan reproduksi. Kebutuhan nutrisi serangga pada umumnya berupa :asam amino, protein, air dan  : mineral, vitamin-vitamin, asam nukleat dan nukleotida, sterol, asam lemak dan factor lipogenik. Tujuan praktikum ini adalah untuk mengetahui efisiensi pemanfaatan pakan daun brokoli, daunt alas, daun bawang, daun kangkung dan daun kacang panjang oleh larva S. litura dan C. pavonama. Bahan-bahannya adalah daun brokoli, daun bawang, daun kangkung, daun kacang panjang, dan daun bawang, Larva Spodoptera litura dan Larva C. pavonama. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL terdiri dari 6 perlakuan (jenis pakan dan 10 ulangan. Hasil percobaan di Analisis Ragam, dan dilanjutkan dengan Uji BNT 5%. Hasil penelitian, nilai LK, dan LKR dan DC tertinggi terdapat pada daun singkong, dan terendah pada daun brokoli. Nilai LP, LPR, ECI dan ECD tertinggi pada daun brokoli, sedangkan nilai LP dan LPR terendah pada daun bawang, dan nilai ECI dan ECD terendah pada daun singkong.

  18. Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda.

  19. Interspecific competition between Snellenius manilae and Meteorus pulchricornis, larval parasitoids of Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W-T; Hwang, S-Y

    2015-10-01

    Snellenius manilae (Ashmead) and Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are larval endoparasitoids of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Both species preferentially parasitize early-instar S. litura and occupy similar ecological niches. Therefore, competition between the two species may occur. In this study, intrinsic competition and cage experiments were conducted to discuss the interactions between S. manilae and M. pulchricornis. The results indicated that in intrinsic competition, M. pulchricornis was always the dominant species. In cage experiments, when the total number of parasitoids was four, the parasitism rates following the release of one species were significantly higher than the release of two species simultaneously. In addition, parasitism rate of eight M. pulchricornis was also significantly higher than the parasitism rate of the treatment released four S. manilae and four M. pulchricornis simultaneously. Therefore, competition occurs between S. manilae and M. pulchricornis, and M. pulchricornis is typically the superior of the two species. The use of M. pulchricornis as a biological agent for S. litura should be considered.

  20. Ocimum basilicum essential oil combined with deltamethrin to improve the management of Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Sérgio Macedo Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For an important and expensive crop such as corn, the resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith to various pesticides has led to research throughout the world for a potential insecticide from a natural source. For the management of pest resistance, natural compounds associated with synthetic insecticides can be a promising tool because they can reduce the application of the synthetics molecules while maintaining their effectiveness and promoting the control of the pests. Linalool is a potential insecticide that is easily obtained because it is found in high concentrations in the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of this essential oil and its combination with deltamethrin to control S. frugiperda. Through dose response assays, the acute toxicities (LD50 of the essential oil and deltamethrin were estimated. Additionally, the combination of these materials was also assessed, attaining a reduction of 80% of the LD50 of deltamethrin while obtaining the same result as when the pyrethroid was administered alone. From these results, it is expected that the combination of natural compounds and synthetic insecticides will be a promising practice, helping to manage resistance while reducing the environmental impact of toxic compounds.

  1. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  2. Insecticidal activity of compounds from ailanthus altissima against spodoptera littoralis larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavela, R.; Zabka, M.; Tylova, T.; Kresinova, Z

    2014-01-01

    We determined the efficacy of Ailanthus altissima extracts, obtained using solvents of various polarity, in terms of acute and chronic toxicity, antifeedant efficacy and larval growth inhibition of Spodoptera littoralis. Different efficacy was found for individual fractions, in terms of both acute and chronic toxicity, as well as antifeedant efficacy and growth inhibition of S. littoralis larvae. Fractions 1 and 2, obtained at the beginning of the separation period, were the only ones to cause significant chronic toxicity accompanied by larval growth inhibition. A major proportion of tocopherol isomers were detected in these fractions. On the contrary, fractions 5 and 6 caused acute toxicity, associated with significant antifeedant efficacy and related strong growth inhibition of S. littoralis larvae. Five major quassinoids (Ailanthone, Chaparrinone, Glaucarubinone, 13(18)-Dehydroglaucarubinone and hinjulactone H) were detected in fraction 5, which showed the greatest efficacy in terms of acute toxicity and feed intake inhibition of S. littoralis. Methanol extracts or active substances obtained from A. altissima leaves can be recommended for the development of new botanical insecticides targeted against some phytophagous larval species of butterfly pests. (author)

  3. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac66 is required for the efficient egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus, general synthesis of preoccluded virions and occlusion body formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jianhao; Wang Jinwen; Deng Riqiang; Wang Xunzhang

    2008-01-01

    Although orf66 (ac66) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is conserved in all sequenced lepidopteran baculovirus genomes, its function is not known. This paper describes generation of an ac66 knockout AcMNPV bacmid mutant and analyses of the influence of ac66 deletion on the virus replication in Sf-9 cells so as to determine the role of ac66 in the viral life cycle. Results indicated that budded virus (BV) yields were reduced over 99% in ac66-null mutant infected cells in comparison to that in wild-type virus infected cells. Optical microscopy revealed that occlusion body synthesis was significantly reduced in the ac66 knockout bacmid-transfected cells. In addition, ac66 deletion interrupted preoccluded virion synthesis. The mutant phenotype was rescued by an ac66 repair bacmid. On the other hand, real-time PCR analysis indicated that ac66 deletion did not affect the levels of viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy revealed that ac66 is not essential for nucleocapsid assembly, but for the efficient transport of nucleocapsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. These results suggested that ac66 plays an important role for the efficient exit of nucleocapsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for BV synthesis as well as for preoccluded virion and occlusion synthesis

  4. Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of human β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II using a silkworm-based Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2018-02-03

    β-1,2-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase II (GnTII, EC 2.4.1.143) is a Golgi-localized type II transmembrane enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine to the 6-arm of the trimanosyl core of N-glycans, an essential step in the conversion of oligomannose-type to complex-type N-glycans. Despite its physiological importance, there have been only a few reports on the heterologous expression and structure-function relationship of this enzyme. Here, we constructed a silkworm-based Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid expression system and expressed human GnTII (hGnTII) lacking the N-terminal cytosolic tail and transmembrane region. The recombinant hGnTII was purified from silkworm larval hemolymph in two steps by using tandem affinity purification tags, with a yield of approximately 120 μg from 10 mL hemolymph, and exhibited glycosyltransferase activity and strict substrate specificity. The enzyme was found to be N-glycosylated by the enzymatic cleavage of glycans, while hGnTII expressed in insect cells had not been reported to be glycosylated. Although insects typically produce pauci-mannosidic-type glycans, the structure of N-glycans in the recombinant hGnTII was suggested to be of the complex type, and the removal of the glycans did not affect the enzymatic activity. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Disruption of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF71 (Bm71) results in inefficient budded virus production and decreased virulence in host larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-Juan; Cheng, Ruo-Lin; Lou, Yi-Han; Ye, Wan-Lu; Zhang, Tao; Fan, Xiao-Ying; Fan, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2012-08-01

    The Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a baculovirus that selectively infects domestic silkworm. BmNPV ORF71 (Bm71) is not a core set gene in baculovirus and shares 92 % amino acid sequence identity with Autographa californica multinucleocapsid NPV ORF88 (Ac88/cg30). Previously, it has been reported that virus lacking Ac88 had no striking phenotypes in cell lines or host larvae. However, the exact role of Bm71 during BmNPV life cycle remains unknown. In the present study, we constructed a Bm71-disrupted (Bm71-D) virus and assessed the effect of the Bm71 disruption on viral replication and viral phenotype throughout the viral life cycle. Results showed that the Bm71-D bacmid could successfully transfect Bm5 cell lines and produce infectious budded virus (BV). But the BV titer was 10- to 100-fold lower than that of the wild-type (WT) virus during infection, and the decreased BV titer was rescued by Bm71 gene repair virus (Bm71-R). A larval bioassay showed that Bm71-D virus took 7.5 h longer than the WT to kill Bombyx mori larvae. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the Bm71-D virus-infected cells had typical virogenic stroma, bundles of nucleocapsids and polyhedra. Taken together, these results suggest that Bm71 has important implications for determining BV yield and virulence in viral life cycle even though it is not an essential gene for replication of BmNPV.

  6. The differential expression of BmGlcNAcase2 in strains of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) with different susceptibility to Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhu; Quanbing, Ma; Xiaoyong, Liu

    2015-01-01

    GlcNAcase is a glycosyl hydrolase located in the lysosomes of numerous organisms. Levels of the protein, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase 2 (GlcNAcase2), which is a member of the GlcNAcase family, are different in two strains of the silkworm Bombyx mori that have different resistance to Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedroviruses (BmNPVs). We identified six single-nucleotide differences in the GlcNAcase2 coding sequence between the 306 and NB strains. Five are silent changes, but one is a nonsynonymous mutation. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that GlcNAcase2 mRNA levels in the NB strain were nearly 2.57 times higher compared with those in the 306 strain. In addition, GlcNAcase2 enzyme activity was much higher in the NB strain compared with that in the 306 strain. Together, these results indicate that GlcNAcase2 may be involved in variable BmNPV resistance in B. mori. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. Transgenic Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/Cas9-Mediated Viral Gene Targeting for Antiviral Therapy of Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuqing; Hou, Chengxiang; Bi, Honglun; Wang, Yueqiang; Xu, Jun; Li, Muwang; James, Anthony A; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2017-04-15

    We developed a novel antiviral strategy by combining transposon-based transgenesis and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system for the direct cleavage of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) genome DNA to promote virus clearance in silkworms. We demonstrate that transgenic silkworms constitutively expressing Cas9 and guide RNAs targeting the BmNPV immediate early-1 ( ie-1 ) and me53 genes effectively induce target-specific cleavage and subsequent mutagenesis, especially large (∼7-kbp) segment deletions in BmNPV genomes, and thus exhibit robust suppression of BmNPV proliferation. Transgenic animals exhibited higher and inheritable resistance to BmNPV infection than wild-type animals. Our approach will not only contribute to modern sericulture but also shed light on future antiviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Pathogen genome targeting has shown its potential in antiviral research. However, transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 system-mediated viral genome targeting has not been reported as an antiviral strategy in a natural animal host of a virus. Our data provide an effective approach against BmNPV infection in a real-world biological system and demonstrate the potential of transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 systems in antiviral research in other species. Copyright © 2017 Chen et al.

  8. Chemical constituents of methanolic extracts of Jatropha curcas L and effects on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Sandra Santos; Silva, Thanany Brasil da; Moraes, Valeria Regina de Souza; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Bernardo, Antonio Rogerio; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Fernandes, Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Pessoa, Angela Maria dos Santos; Silva-Mann, Renata, E-mail: djbf@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agronomica

    2012-07-01

    The biological activity of seven extracts from leaves of different Jatropha curcas L (Euphorbiaceae) accessions was evaluated on Spodoptera frugiperda. Methanol extracts were incorporated into an artificial diet and offered to the larval stage of S. frugiperda. The parameters evaluated were length of larval and pupal stages, mortality of larval and total cycle stage, and weight of pupae. The extracts of the EMB accessions showed the best result for larval mortality at 60.00 and 56.67%, compared with the control, respectively. Hexane partition of the methanol extract of the leaves of PM-14 accessions allowed the identification of phytosterols, phytol and n-alkanols. (author)

  9. Chemical constituents of methanolic extracts of Jatropha curcas L and effects on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Sandra Santos; Silva, Thanany Brasil da; Moraes, Valeria Regina de Souza; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Bernardo, Antonio Rogerio; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Fernandes, Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Pessoa, Angela Maria dos Santos; Silva-Mann, Renata

    2012-01-01

    The biological activity of seven extracts from leaves of different Jatropha curcas L (Euphorbiaceae) accessions was evaluated on Spodoptera frugiperda. Methanol extracts were incorporated into an artificial diet and offered to the larval stage of S. frugiperda. The parameters evaluated were length of larval and pupal stages, mortality of larval and total cycle stage, and weight of pupae. The extracts of the EMB accessions showed the best result for larval mortality at 60.00 and 56.67%, compared with the control, respectively. Hexane partition of the methanol extract of the leaves of PM-14 accessions allowed the identification of phytosterols, phytol and n-alkanols. (author)

  10. Efecto de extractos vegetales de polygonum hydropiperoides, solanum nigrum y calliandra pittieri sobre el gusano cogollero (spodoptera frugiperda)

    OpenAIRE

    Lizarazo H., Karol; Mendoza F., Cristina; Carrero S., Rocío

    2009-01-01

    El gusano cogollero Spodoptera frugiperda es una de las plagas que más afectan los cultivos en la región de Sumapaz (Cundinamarca, Colombia). En la actualidad se controla principalmente aplicando productos de síntesis química, sin embargo la aplicación de extractos vegetales surge como una alternativa de menor impacto sobre el ambiente. Este control se emplea debido a que las plantas contienen metabolitos secundarios que pueden inhibir el desarrollo de los insectos. Por tal motivo, la present...

  11. Combined Effect of Thermal and Irradiation Treatment of Parental Male Pupae of Spodoptera Littoralis on Certain Biological Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; Ibrahim, S.M.; Hazaa, M.A.M.; Abdel-Rahman, H.A.; El-sayed, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the effects of exposure of full-grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) to different high temperatures and/or sub sterilizing doses of gamma radiation on certain biological aspects of the parental (P1) and the first filial (F1) generations. It includes the effect on adult longevity malformation, mating, insemination, fecundity and egg hatch; beside larval survival till adult emergence and sex ratio of produced adults at different mating crosses between treated and untreated or treated other sex. Special attention is given to inherited sterility as well as to the mating competitiveness ability of treated males

  12. Capacidade Predatória de Euborellia annulipes (Lucas, 1847 sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 = Predatory Capacity of Euborellia annulipes (Lucas, 1847 on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldeni Barbosa da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a Capacidade Predatória de Euborellia annulipes sobre Spodoptera frugiperda em laboratório. O estudo foi conduzido no Laboratório de Entomologia do Setor de Fitossanidade da Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB à temperatura de 25 ± 1ºC, umidade relativa de 70 + 10% e fotofase de 12h. Notou-se consumo crescente de ovos,podendo ser observado consumo diário médio de 11,06, 49,02, 122,7, 148,09 e 374,9 ovos, do 1° ao 5° instar, respectivamente. A capacidade predatória sobre lagartas de 1° instar de S. frugiperda aumentou de acordo com o seu desenvolvimento, com aumento de,aproximadamente, 14,3 vezes do 1° ao 5° instar, nos dez dias de consumo, sendo que, o 4° e o 5° instares apresentaram consumo diário médio de 25,5 e 26,6, respectivamente, bem superior em comparação aos demais instares; o maior consumo de lagartas de 2º instar pelopredador, ocorreu no 4º e 5º instar, que apresentaram consumo diário médio de 12,8 e 15,1, respectivamente. Verifica-se que E. annulipes demonstra ser predador potencial de ovos e lagartas de S. frugiperda, chegando um adulto a consumir 1.481,2; 89,20 e 48,6 ovos e lagartasde 1º e 2º instares, respectivamente, nos dez dias de consumo.The predatory capacity of Euborellia annulipes on Spodopterafrugiperda was studied in a laboratory setting. The study was conducted in the Laboratory of Entomology of the Division of Plant Protection, Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB at a temperature of 25 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 70 + 10% and a 12-hour photophase. Thestudy detected growing egg intake, with an average daily consumption of 11.06, 49.02, 122.7, 148.09 and 374.9 eggs, from the first to the fifth instars, respectively. A predatory capacity of fist-instar larvae of S. frugiperda increased in line with its development, with an increase of approximately 14.3 times from the first to the fifth instar, in the 10 days of consumption, whereas the fourth and fifth instars presented an

  13. Primera cita de Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para Argentina y de su asociación con larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana VALVERDE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina. Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.

  14. Primera cita de Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) para Argentina y de su asociación con larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana VALVERDE; D. Carolina BERTA; Marcelo GERONIMO GOMEZ

    2012-01-01

    Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina). Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.

  15. A synthetic cryIC gene, encoding a Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin, confers Spodoptera resistance in alfalfa and tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strizhov, N.; Keller, M.; Mathur, J.; Koncz-Kaiman, Z.; Bosch, D.; Prudovksy, E.; Schell, J.; Sneh, B.; Koncz, C.; Zilberstein, A.

    1996-01-01

    Spodoptera species, representing widespread polyphagous insect pests, are resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxins used thus far as insecticides in transgenic plants. Here we describe the chemical synthesis of a cryIC gene by a novel template directed ligation–PCR method. This simple and

  16. Effect of baculovirus infection on the mRNA and protein levels of the Spodoptera frugiperda eukaryotic initiation factor 4E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Veken, van der L.T.J.N.; Vlak, J.M.; Thomas, A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The cDNA sequence of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E was derived from a Spodoptera frugiperda cDNA library. Eight tryptophan residues, typical for eIF4E, are strictly conserved in the encoded 210 amino acid protein. A polyclonal antiserum detected a 26 kDa protein in lepidopteran cell

  17. Enhancing the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes by gamma radiation in controlling Spodoptera littoralis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Sayed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, finding a safe control program is the aim of all researchers. The goal of this work is to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the Entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema scapterisci and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (HP88 efficacy were tested against larvae of cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. under laboratory conditions. Results showed that 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci and H. bacteriophora were substantially effective in controlling S. littoralis larvae, while H. bacteriophora was more potent in controlling insect larvae. The results revealed that total protein concentration was significantly decreased (P < 0.05 after treatment with normal or irradiated H. bacteriophora or S. scapterisci. In addition, larvae infected with normal S. scapterisci or H. bacteriophora showed a significant elevation in phenoloxidase activity and represented significant reduce after treatment with 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci or H. bacteriophora as compared to control group. Also, lysozyme activity was significantly decreased after treatment with irradiated H. bacteriophora, but there was no significance with irradiated S. scapterisci, when compared with control. LDH activity was significantly high (p<0.05 in the haemolymph of larvae treated with normal or irradiated H. bacteriophora or S. scapterisci, as compared to control group. Furthermore among all treatments, 2 Gy irradiated H. bacteriophora was the most potent and efficient in the biomarkers changes. Therefore, it could be concluded that 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci and H. bacteriophora can serve within an integrated pest management (IPM program in an agroecosystem.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of the α-glucosidase II from Bombyx mori and Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoko; Kakudo, Akemi; Ohta, Masato; Mita, Kazuei; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Inumaru, Shigeki

    2013-04-01

    The α-glucosidase II (GII) is a heterodimer of α- and β-subunits and important for N-glycosylation processing and quality control of nascent glycoproteins. Although high concentration of α-glucosidase inhibitors from mulberry leaves accumulate in silkworms (Bombyx mori) by feeding, silkworm does not show any toxic symptom against these inhibitors and N-glycosylation of recombinant proteins is not affected. We, therefore, hypothesized that silkworm GII is not sensitive to the α-glucosidase inhibitors from mulberry leaves. However, the genes for B. mori GII subunits have not yet been identified, and the protein has not been characterized. Therefore, we isolated the B. mori GII α- and β-subunit genes and the GII α-subunit gene of Spodoptera frugiperda, which does not feed on mulberry leaves. We used a baculovirus expression system to produce the recombinant GII subunits and identified their enzyme characteristics. The recombinant GII α-subunits of B. mori and S. frugiperda hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl α-d-glucopyranoside (pNP-αGlc) but were inactive toward N-glycan. Although the B. mori GII β-subunit was not required for the hydrolysis of pNP-αGlc, a B. mori GII complex of the α- and β-subunits was required for N-glycan cleavage. As hypothesized, the B. mori GII α-subunit protein was less sensitive to α-glucosidase inhibitors than was the S. frugiperda GII α-subunit protein. Our observations suggest that the low sensitivity of GII contributes to the ability of B. mori to evade the toxic effect of α-glucosidase inhibitors from mulberry leaves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cry1F resistance in fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: single gene versus pyramided Bt maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangneng; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Meagher, Robert L; Reisig, Dominic D; Head, Graham P; Andow, David A; Ni, Xinzi; Kerns, David; Buntin, G David; Niu, Ying; Yang, Fei; Dangal, Vikash

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report compelling evidence of field resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), to Cry1F maize (TC 3507) in the southeastern region of the U.S. An F2 screen showed a surprisingly high (0.293) Cry1F resistance allele frequency in a population collected in 2011 from non-Bt maize in south Florida. Field populations from non-Bt maize in 2012-2013 exhibited 18.8-fold to >85.4-fold resistance to purified Cry1F protein and those collected from unexpectedly damaged Bt maize plants at several locations in Florida and North Carolina had >85.4-fold resistance. In addition, reduced efficacy and control failure of Cry1F maize against natural populations of S. frugiperda were documented in field trials using Cry1F-based and pyramided Bt maize products in south Florida. The Cry1F-resistant S. frugiperda also showed a low level of cross-resistance to Cry1A.105 and related maize products, but not to Cry2Ab2 or Vip3A. The occurrence of Cry1F resistance in the U.S. mainland populations of S. frugiperda likely represents migration of insects from Puerto Rico, indicating the great challenges faced in achieving effective resistance management for long-distance migratory pests like S. frugiperda.

  20. Factors Influencing Expression of Antixenosis in Soybean to Anticarsia gemmatalis and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiça Júnior, Arlindo Leal; De Souza, Bruno Henrique Sardinha; Costa, Eduardo Neves; Ribeiro, Zulene Antonio; Stout, Michael Joseph

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate some factors that influence the expression of antixenosis in soybean genotypes against Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Free-choice and no-choice feeding assays were performed with the resistant soybean genotype IAC 100 and the susceptible genotype BRSGO 8360 using A. gemmatalis and S. frugiperda larvae. The following factors that may affect expression of resistance were evaluated: one larva versus two larvae per leaf disc; use of larvae without prior feeding suspension versus larvae starved for 3 h prior to the assay; leaf discs versus entire leaflets; upper part versus lower part of the plant; and, vegetative versus reproductive growth stages. The level of resistance exhibited by the genotype IAC 100 was high enough to not be obscured by the effects of all factors assayed in the present study upon the feeding preference of A. gemmatalis and S. frugiperda larvae. However, our results demonstrate the importance of knowing the optimal conditions for conducting an assay for evaluating resistance of genotypes for specialist and generalist insect species. Utilization of two larvae of A. gemmatalis per leaf disc, not starved before the assays, with leaf discs from the upper part of plants at the reproductive growth stage provided better discrimination of differences in antixenosis expression in soybean genotypes. For S. frugiperda, use of one larva per leaf disc, not starved before the assays, with leaf discs from the lower part of plants at the reproductive growth stage gave more satisfactory results for feeding preference tests. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Fitness costs associated with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, S R K; Knight, V R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L

    2014-02-01

    Increasing adoption of transgenic crops expressing cry toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops) represents an augmented risk for development of insect resistance. While fitness costs can greatly influence the rate of resistance evolution, most available data related to Bt resistance have been obtained from laboratory-selected insect strains. In this article, we test the existence of fitness costs associated with high levels of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize event TC1507 in a strain of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) originated from maize fields in Puerto Rico. Fitness costs in resistant S. frugiperda were evaluated by comparing biological performance to susceptible insects when reared on meridic diet, maize or soybean leaf tissue, or cotton reproductive tissues. Parameters monitored included larval survival, larval and pupal weights, developmental time (larval and pupal), adult longevity, reproductive traits (fecundity and fertility), and sex ratio. We found that all monitored parameters were influenced to a similar extent by the host, independently of susceptibility to Bt maize. The only parameter that significantly differed between strains for all hosts was a longer larval developmental period in resistant S. frugiperda, which resulted in emergence asynchrony between susceptible and resistant adults. To test the relevance of fitness costs in resistant S. frugiperda, we performed a selection experiment to monitor the stability of resistance in a heterogeneous strain through 12 generations of rearing on meridic diet. Our data demonstrate lack of fitness costs relevant to stability of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize and help explain reported stability of field-evolved resistance in Puerto Rican populations of S. frugiperda.

  2. Genomic Analysis and Isolation of RNA Polymerase II Dependent Promoters from Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleckmann, Maren; Fritz, Markus H-Y; Bhuju, Sabin; Jarek, Michael; Schürig, Margitta; Geffers, Robert; Benes, Vladimir; Besir, Hüseyin; van den Heuvel, Joop

    2015-01-01

    The Baculoviral Expression Vector System (BEVS) is the most commonly used method for high expression of recombinant protein in insect cells. Nevertheless, expression of some target proteins--especially those entering the secretory pathway--provides a severe challenge for the baculovirus infected insect cells, due to the reorganisation of intracellular compounds upon viral infection. Therefore, alternative strategies for recombinant protein production in insect cells like transient plasmid-based expression or stable expression cell lines are becoming more popular. However, the major bottleneck of these systems is the lack of strong endogenous polymerase II dependent promoters, as the strong baculoviral p10 and polH promoters used in BEVS are only functional in presence of the viral transcription machinery during the late phase of infection. In this work we present a draft genome and a transcriptome analysis of Sf21 cells for the identification of the first known endogenous Spodoptera frugiperda promoters. Therefore, putative promoter sequences were identified and selected because of high mRNA level or in analogy to other strong promoters in other eukaryotic organism. The chosen endogenous Sf21 promoters were compared to early viral promoters for their efficiency to trigger eGFP expression using transient plasmid based transfection in a BioLector Microfermentation system. Furthermore, promoter activity was not only shown in Sf21 cells but also in Hi5 cells. The novel endogenous Sf21 promoters were ranked according to their activity and expand the small pool of available promoters for stable insect cell line development and transient plasmid expression in insect cells. The best promoter was used to improve plasmid based transient transfection in insect cells substantially.

  3. Toxicity of Secondary Metabolites from Meliaceae Against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo, A M M; Vendramim, J D; Freitas, S D L; Silva, M F G F

    2016-12-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the bioactivity of secondary metabolites from Trichilia pallida, Trichilia pallens, and Toona ciliata against fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) larvae. The studied compounds included (+/-)-catechins, a triglyceride, and cedrelone isolated from T. ciliata branches, fruits, and stems, respectively; dammaradienol isolated from T. pallida leaves; and scopoletin isolated from T. pallens branches. The compounds' activity was evaluated through ingestion and topic treatment. Treated artificial diet was offered to first instar larvae to evaluate ingestion effect, while an application on the dorsal thoracic region of third instar larvae was used to evaluate the topic effect. Mortality was assessed daily, and larval weight was recorded after 7 days for ingestion and 5 days for topic application. Scopoletin and triglyceride caused low mortality rates and reduction in larval weight by ingestion, (+/-)-catechins caused larval weight reduction by ingestion, and scopoletin reduced survival by topic treatment. The most effective compound was cedrelone that affected larval survival and development mainly by ingestion. The estimated LC 50 , LC 90 , and EC 50 for cedrelone were 0.0365, 0.0659, and 0.0095%, respectively. Further, cedrelone-treated corn leaf discs were offered to fourth instar larvae during 16 h in choice and no-choice tests. The deterrence indexes obtained in the choice tests were 23.5 and 36.3% at concentrations of 0.0365 and 0.0659, respectively. Consumption of cedrelone-treated leaf discs at the concentration of 0.0659% was lower compared to the control in the no-choice test. Thus, cedrelone caused lethal and sublethal effects and phagodeterrence on S. frugiperda and should be further studied.

  4. MicroRNAome of Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) and its alteration following baculovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Hussain, Mazhar; Asgari, Sassan

    2013-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) as small non-coding RNAs play important roles in many biological processes such as development, cell signalling and immune response. Studies also suggest that miRNAs are important in host-virus interactions where the host limits virus infection by differentially expressing miRNAs that target essential viral genes. Here, we identified conserved and new miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) using a combination of deep sequencing and bioinformatics as well as experimental approaches. S. frugiperda miRNAs share common features of miRNAs in other organisms, such as uracil (U) at the 5' end of miRNA. The 5' ends of the miRNAs were more conserved than the 3' ends, revealing evolutionary protection of the seed region in miRNAs. The predominant miRNAs were found to be conserved among arthropods. The majority of homologous miRNAs were found in Bombyx mori, with 76 of the 90 identified miRNAs. We found that seed shifting and arm switching have happened in this insect's miRNAs. Expression levels of the majority of miRNAs changed following baculovirus infection. Results revealed that baculovirus infection mainly led to an overall suppression of cellular miRNAs. We found four different genes being regulated by sfr-miR-184 at the post-transcriptional level. The data presented here further support conservation of miRNAs in insects and other organisms. In addition, the results reveal a differential expression of host miRNAs upon baculovirus infection, suggesting their potential roles in host-virus interactions. Seed shifting and arm switching happened during evolution of miRNAs in different insects and caused miRNA diversification, which led to changes in the target repository of miRNAs.

  5. Natural Distribution of Parasitoids of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela Murúa, M.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  6. Field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab maize by Spodoptera frugiperda in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoto, Celso; Bernardi, Oderlei; Salmeron, Eloisa; Sorgatto, Rodrigo J; Dourado, Patrick M; Crivellari, Augusto; Carvalho, Renato A; Willse, Alan; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham P

    2016-09-01

    The first Bt maize in Brazil was launched in 2008 and contained the MON 810 event, which expresses Cry1Ab protein. Although the Cry1Ab dose in MON 810 is not high against fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), MON 810 provided commercial levels of control. To support insect resistance management in Brazil, the baseline and ongoing susceptibility of FAW was examined using protein bioassays, and the level of control and life history parameters of FAW were evaluated on MON 810 maize. Baseline diet overlay assays with Cry1Ab (16 µg cm(-2) ) caused 76.3% mortality to field FAW populations sampled in 2009. Moderate mortality (48.8%) and significant growth inhibition (88.4%) were verified in leaf-disc bioassays. In greenhouse trials, MON 810 had significantly less damage than non-Bt maize. The surviving FAW larvae on MON 810 (22.4%) had a 5.5 day increase in life cycle time and a 24% reduction in population growth rate. Resistance monitoring (2010-2015) showed a significant reduction in Cry1Ab susceptibility of FAW over time. Additionally, a significant reduction in the field efficacy of MON 810 maize against FAW was observed in different regions from crop season 2009 to 2013. The decrease in susceptibility to Cry1Ab was expected, but the specific contributions to this resistance by MON 810 maize cannot be distinguished from cross-resistance to Cry1Ab caused by exposure to Cry1F maize. Technologies combining multiple novel insecticidal traits with no cross-resistance to the current Cry1 proteins and high activity against the same target pests should be pursued in Brazil and similar environments. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host-plant variants: two host strains or two distinct species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Pascaline; Legeai, Fabrice; Lemaitre, Claire; Scaon, Erwan; Orsucci, Marion; Labadie, Karine; Gimenez, Sylvie; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Henri, Hélène; Vavre, Fabrice; Aury, Jean-Marc; Fournier, Philippe; Kergoat, Gael J; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle

    2015-06-01

    The moth Spodoptera frugiperda is a well-known pest of crops throughout the Americas, which consists of two strains adapted to different host-plants: the first feeds preferentially on corn, cotton and sorghum whereas the second is more associated with rice and several pasture grasses. Though morphologically indistinguishable, they exhibit differences in their mating behavior, pheromone compositions, and show development variability according to the host-plant. Though the latter suggest that both strains are different species, this issue is still highly controversial because hybrids naturally occur in the wild, not to mention the discrepancies among published results concerning mating success between the two strains. In order to clarify the status of the two host-plant strains of S. frugiperda, we analyze features that possibly reflect the level of post-zygotic isolation: (1) first generation (F1) hybrid lethality and sterility; (2) patterns of meiotic segregation of hybrids in reciprocal second generation (F2), as compared to the meiosis of the two parental strains. We found a significant reduction of mating success in F1 in one direction of the cross and a high level of microsatellite markers showing transmission ratio distortion in the F2 progeny. Our results support the existence of post-zygotic reproductive isolation between the two laboratory strains and are in accordance with the marked level of genetic differentiation that was recovered between individuals of the two strains collected from the field. Altogether these results provide additional evidence in favor of a sibling species status for the two strains.

  8. SfDronc, an initiator caspase involved in apoptosis in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Civciristov, Srgjan; Hawkins, Christine J; Clem, Rollie J

    2013-05-01

    Initiator caspases are the first caspases that are activated following an apoptotic stimulus, and are responsible for cleaving and activating downstream effector caspases, which directly cause apoptosis. We have cloned a cDNA encoding an ortholog of the initiator caspase Dronc in the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera frugiperda. The SfDronc cDNA encodes a predicted protein of 447 amino acids with a molecular weight of 51 kDa. Overexpression of SfDronc induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells, while partial silencing of SfDronc expression in Sf9 cells reduced apoptosis induced by baculovirus infection or by treatment with UV or actinomycin D. Recombinant SfDronc exhibited several expected biochemical characteristics of an apoptotic initiator caspase: 1) SfDronc efficiently cleaved synthetic initiator caspase substrates, but had very little activity against effector caspase substrates; 2) mutation of a predicted cleavage site at position D340 blocked autoprocessing of recombinant SfDronc and reduced enzyme activity by approximately 10-fold; 3) SfDronc cleaved the effector caspase Sf-caspase-1 at the expected cleavage site, resulting in Sf-caspase-1 activation; and 4) SfDronc was strongly inhibited by the baculovirus caspase inhibitor SpliP49, but not by the related protein AcP35. These results indicate that SfDronc is an initiator caspase involved in caspase-dependent apoptosis in S. frugiperda, and as such is likely to be responsible for the initiator caspase activity in S. frugiperda cells known as Sf-caspase-X. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biology and nutrition of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae fed on different food sources

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    Débora Mello da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We studied Spodoptera frugiperda development using different food sources in the laboratory and field. Newly hatched larvae were fed soybean, cotton, maize, wheat, and oat leaves. An artificial diet was used as the control. Duration of pre-pupal, pupal, and larva-adult period, pupal weight, sex ratio, survival, larva feeding preferences, oviposition preferences, and nutritional quality of different hosts were evaluated. Insects fed on wheat showed the shortest larva-adult period. The insects fed on cotton and soybean had longer larval development cycles and pupae of lower weight. Feeding preference was evident for third instar larvae and did not differ between wheat, oat, maize, and soybean, which were the preferred hosts. Moths oviposited to a greater extent on the upper canopy of wheat than that of other plants in both the no-choice and free-choice tests. Treatments influenced insect growth, food consumption, and digestion when nutritional variables were analyzed. Thus, grasses were better hosts for S. frugiperda development. Cotton was the least preferred food, followed by soybean. The present study can improve our understanding of S. frugiperda in these different crops and help in developing management strategies. Even though S. frugiperda is considered to be polyphagous, this pest is closely associated with grasses (maize, wheat, oat and has lower potential as a soybean or cotton feeder. Howerver, S. frugiperda food intake regulation appears to be triggered by a complex of different mechanisms. Thus, S. frugiperda can also damage soybean and cotton and adapt to them in the absence of preferred hosts.

  10. Cloning and characterization of the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptor gene in Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Lytle, Christian; Njauw, Ching-Ni; Altstein, Miriam; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2007-05-15

    In noctuid moths cuticular pigmentation is regulated by the pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PK/PBAN) family, which also mediates a variety of other functions in moths and other insects. Numerous studies have shown that these neuropeptides exert their functions through activation of the PBAN receptor (PBAN-R), with subsequent Ca(2+) influx, followed by either activation of cAMP or direct activation of downstream kinases. Recently, several PBAN-Rs have been identified, all of which are from the pheromone gland of adult female moths, but evidence shows that functional PK/PBAN-Rs can also be expressed in insect larvae, where they mediate melanization and possibly other functions (e.g., diapause). Here, we identified a gene encoding a G-protein-coupled receptor from the 5th instar larval tissue of the moth Spodoptera littoralis. The cDNA of this gene contains an open reading frame with a length of 1050 nucleotides, which translates to a 350-amino acid, 42-kDa protein that shares 92% amino acid identity with Helicoverpa zea and Helicoverpa armigera PBAN-R, 81% with Bombyx mori PBAN-R and 72% with Plutella xylostella PBAN-R. The S. littoralis PBAN-R gene was stably expressed in NIH3T3 cells and transiently in HEK293 cells. We show that it mediates the dose-dependent PBAN-induced intracellular Ca(2+) response and activation of the MAP kinase via a PKC-dependent but Galphai-independent signaling mechanism. Other PK/PBAN family peptides (pheromonotropin and a C-terminally PBAN-derived peptide PBAN(28-33)NH(2)) also triggered MAP kinase activation. This receptor, together with the previously cloned PBAN-R, may facilitate our understanding of the cell-specific responses and functional diversities of this diverse neuropeptide family.

  11. Characterization of putative virulence factors of Serratia marcescens strain SEN for pathogenesis in Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Chetana; Paul, Sangeeta; Tripathi, Vishwas; Paul, Bishwajeet; Khan, Md Aslam

    2017-02-01

    Two Serratia marcescens strains, SEN and ICC-4, isolated from diseased insect cadavers were observed to differ considerably in their virulence towards Spodoptera litura. The present study was aimed to characterize the possible virulence factors present in the virulent Serratia marcescens strain SEN. Both the S. marcescens strains were evaluated for the presence of various lytic enzymes such as chitinase, lipase, protease and phospholipase. The virulent S. marcescens strain SEN was observed to possess considerably higher activity of chitinase and protease enzymes; activity of phospholipase enzyme was also higher. Although, all the three toxin genes shlA, phlA and swr could be detected in both the S. marcescens strains, there was a higher expression of these genes in the virulent strain SEN. S. marcescens strain ICC-4 showed greater reduction in overall growth yield in the post-exponential phase in the presence of midgut juice and hemolymph of S. litura larvae, as compared to S. marcescens strain SEN. Proliferation of the S. marcescens strain SEN was also considerably higher in foregut, midgut and hemolymph of S. litura larvae, as compared to strain ICC-4. Peritrophic membrane treated with broth culture of the S. marcescens strain SEN showed higher damage as compared to strain ICC-4. The peritrophic membrane of larvae fed on diet treated with the virulent strain showed considerable damage while the peritrophic membrane of larvae fed on diet treated with the non-virulent strain showed no damage. This is the first report documenting the fate of ingested S. marcescens in S. litura gut and the relative expression of toxin genes from two S. marcescens strains differing in their virulence towards S. litura. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. studies on the sterilization of egyptian cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.) in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm El-din, M.M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full-grown male and female pupae of cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd) were gamma irradiated with the doses of 100, 125 , 150 Gy; the fecundity decreased with the increase in dose. The reduction in egg hatch ability was significant at all tested doses. The percentage of mated females was not clearly affected. However, the reduction observed in either percentage of inseminated female or the average number of spermatophores per mated female was increased by increasing the dose to parental males and females.full grown male and female pupae were irradiated with the doses of 125, 150 Gy for male line and with 125 Gy for female line. the inherited effects of radiation on some biological aspects among irradiated P 1 and their F 1 , F 2 and F 3 generations were studied. the data indicated that the fecundity of both normal females mated with irradiated males, and irradiated females mated with normal males decreased . almost proportionally with the increase in the dose, also, the percent egg hatch was significantly reduced by increasing the dose among P 1 ,F 1 and F 2 generations. Gamma irradiation did not clearly affect the percentage of mated female in p 1 and their three successive filial generations. however, the reduction was observed in the percentage of inseminated female . the average number of spermatophores per mated female was slightly affected among p 1 ,F 1 ,F 2 and F 3 at the majority of the tested mating combinations. the percentage of larval/pupal survival was obviously affected among F1 and F2 generations

  13. Avaliação de cultivares de amendoim para resistência a Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniele Pianoscki de Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar cultivares de amendoim com resistência a Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, determinando os graus de resistência por meio da análise univariada e multivariada. Utilizaram-se cultivares de amendoim de hábitos de crescimento ereto (IAC 5, IAC 8112, IAC 22 e IAC Tatu ST e rasteiro (IAC 503, IAC 505, IAC 147, IAC 125, IAC Caiapó e IAC Runner 886, semeadas em campo. Lagartas de primeiro ínstar foram individualizadas em placas de Petri forradas com papel filtro umedecido e mantidas sob condições controladas de temperatura (25 ± 2 °C, umidade (60 ± 10% e fotofase (12 horas. Utilizaram-se cinco repetições de dez lagartas (recém-eclodidas, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Diariamente, foram fornecidos folíolos novos, lavados com solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Avaliaram-se a duração (dias, a massa (mg e a viabilidade (% dos períodos larval e pupal, a razão sexual, longevidade e fecundidade. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (teste F e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p<0,05, além da análise de agrupamento e de componentes principais. As cultivares de hábito de crescimento ereto, IAC 22, e rasteiro, IAC Runner 886, foram menos adequadas ao desenvolvimento do inseto, interferindo nas fases larval e pupal de S. frugiperda, demonstrando resistência moderada do tipo antibiose.

  14. Cecropins as a marker of Spodoptera frugiperda immunosuppression during entomopathogenic bacterial challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvic, B; Jouan, V; Essa, N; Girard, P-A; Pagès, S; Abi Khattar, Z; Volkoff, N-A; Givaudan, A; Destoumieux-Garzon, D; Escoubas, J-M

    2012-06-01

    An antimicrobial peptide (AMP) of the cecropin family was isolated by HPLC from plasma of the insect pest, Spodoptera frugiperda. Its molecular mass is 3910.9 Da as determined by mass spectrometry. Thanks to the EST database Spodobase, we were able to describe 13 cDNAs encoding six different cecropins which belong to the sub-families CecA, CecB, CecC and CecD. The purified peptide identified as CecB1 was chemically synthesized (syCecB1). It was shown to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. Two closely related entomopathogenic bacteria, Xenorhabdus nematophila F1 and Xenorhabdus mauleonii VC01(T) showed different susceptibility to syCecB1. Indeed, X. nematophila was sensitive to syCecB1 whereas X. mauleonii had a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) eight times higher. Interestingly, injection of live X. nematophila into insects did not induce the expression of AMPs in hemolymph. This effect was not observed when this bacterium was heat-killed before injection. On the opposite, both live and heat-killed X. mauleonii induced the expression of AMPs in the hemolymph of S. frugiperda. The same phenomenon was observed for another immune-related protein lacking antimicrobial activity. Altogether, our data suggest that Xenorhabdus strains have developed different strategies to supplant the humoral defense mechanisms of S. frugiperda, either by increasing their resistance to AMPs or by preventing their expression during such host-pathogen interaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of the resistance types to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in soybean genotypes

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    Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the resistance types in soybean genotypes to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker in laboratory. Soybean genotypes assessed were as follows: ‘IAC 100’ (resistance standard, ‘BR16’ (susceptible standard, ‘Dowling’, PI 227687, PI 274454, ‘IGRA RA 626 RR’, PI 227682, ‘BRSGO 8360’, ‘IGRA RA 516 RR’ and ‘P 98Y11 RR’. Free-choice and no-choice feeding non-preference tests were done using two newly-hatched larvae per genotype or one third-instar larva per genotype in both tests. Larvae attractiveness was evaluated in different times, and at the end of the experiments the leaf area consumed was quantified. In the antibiosis test, newly-hatched larvae were individualized into Petri dishes, where leaflets of the genotypes were offered over the larval stage, and the following biological parameters were assessed: period and viability of larvae, pupae and overall (larvae + pupae, weight of larvae and pupae, sex ratio and adults longevity. Overall, in the feeding preference tests, significant differences were not found in leaf consumption among the genotypes. In the antibiosis assay, genotypes PI 227687, PI 227682 and ‘IAC 100’ caused 100% larval mortality and the lowest weight of larvae, ranging between 37.65 and 85.56 mg. All soybean genotypes evaluated do not exhibit feeding non-preference type resistance to S. cosmioides, and PI 227687, PI 227682 and ‘IAC 100’ highlighted for possessing antibiosis.

  16. Genome-based identification and analysis of ionotropic receptors in Spodoptera litura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Xu, Zhi-Wen; Zhang, Xin-Min; Liu, Nai-Yong

    2018-06-01

    The ability to sense and recognize various classes of compounds is of particular importance for survival and reproduction of insects. Ionotropic receptor (IR), a sub-family of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, has been identified as one of crucial chemoreceptor super-families, which mediates the sensing of odors and/or tastants, and serves as non-chemosensory functions. Yet, little is known about IR characteristics, evolution, and functions in Lepidoptera. Here, we identify the IR gene repertoire from a destructive polyphagous pest, Spodoptera litura. The exhaustive analyses with genome and transcriptome data lead to the identification of 45 IR genes, comprising 17 antennal IRs (A-IRs), 8 Lepidoptera-specific IRs (LS-IRs), and 20 divergent IRs (D-IRs). Phylogenetic analysis reveals that S. litura A-IRs generally retain a strict single copy within each orthologous group, and two lineage expansions are observed in the D-IR sub-family including IR100d-h and 100i-o, likely attributed to gene duplications. Results of gene structure analysis classify the SlitIRs into four types: I (intronless), II (1-3 introns), III (5-9 introns), and IV (10-18 introns). Extensive expression profiles demonstrate that the majority of SlitIRs (28/43) are enriched in adult antennae, and some are detected in gustatory-associated tissues like proboscises and legs as well as non-chemosensory organs like abdomens and reproductive tissues of both sexes. These results indicate that SlitIRs have diverse functional roles in olfaction, taste, and reproduction. Together, our study has complemented the information on chemoreceptor genes in S. litura, and meanwhile allows for target experiments to identify potential IR candidates for the control of this pest.

  17. Host influence on irradiation bioefficacy : growth and development of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    Survival and development of Spodoptera litura(F), a polyphagous pest was ascertained on a range of host plants, common and economic in the Indian context. Castor, cotton, green gram and okra constituted the preferred host group showing significantly better growth rate (GR) and growth index (GI) than the group of less preferred host plants that included groundnut, red gram, rose leaf and rose petal. Ontogenic growth profile vis-a-vis irradiation was studied with recording of GI at L3, pupa and adult levels in response to gamma dosages administered in L1 stage. Irradiation effect on the growth index was mainly due to reduction in survival, which was further pronounced owing to delay in development. On all the preferred host plants, adult-G1 was reduced by more than 50 per cent at 40 Gy gamma dose; whereas the same dose on less preferred host plants could prevent adult emergence on ground nut and red gram, and inhibited pupa formation on rose diet. The percentage mortality of larvae exhibiting delayed development was markedly more in the less preferred host group. Dose dependent reduction was observed in the larval growth rate of L3, L5 and L6 instars on all the host plants. 20 Gy exhibited almost same intensity of adverse impact in less preferred host group as was shown by 40 Gy in preferred hosts. 20 Gy dose reduced the pupal weight and conversion ratio of treated insects significantly. Age influence was evident on irradiation efficacy on all the diets. Insects treated in the later instar had less radiosusceptibility as compared to the young irradiated larvae. Irradiation had a negative correlation with survival and weight gain during the course of development that in turn bore a positive relation with the increase in radiation dosage. Food is an important governing factor in influencing the insects survival value and developmental behaviour and may modify its intrinsic sensitivity towards irradiation stress. (author). 21 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  18. Histological study of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura larvae

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    NANIN DIAH KURNIAWATI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sanjaya, Machmudin D, Kurniawati ND. 2010. Histological study of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura larvae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 135-140. The effect of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura Fab. larvae has been carried out. The method was used Probit analysis, and based on LD 50 the virus was infected to know body weight and post infection damage.The damage of histological structure caused by SlNPV (0, 315, 390, 465, 540 dan 615 PIB/mL was investigated after 0, 12, 24, 72 and 96 hours post infection. The histological material was prepared by using parafin method after fixation with Bouin Solution, then slice into 7 um and colored with Hematoxilin-Eosin. The result showed that the exposure SlNPV cause decreasing food consumption especially on 540 PIB/mL give average rate as amount of 0.1675 mg. The descriptive obsevation on structural intact of peritrophic membrane histology caused by SlNPV infection shows a tendency to decrease, while in control, there was no damage at all. The longer the exposition of virion in the midgut lumen the more damage on peritrophic membrane occurred. The severest damage occurred 96 hour after infection. The result prove that haNPV virion can destroy hystological structure of midgut.

  19. [Oviposition, development, and reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on different hosts of economic importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Eduardo M; Torres, Jorge B; Bueno, Adeney F

    2010-01-01

    The host selection for oviposition by Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) among corn, millet, cotton and soybean, and its relationship with the biological characteristics were investigated. Free and non-choice tests for oviposition using plots containing five plants each, from each host in plastic greenhouse, resulted in similar oviposition preference among the host plants. In addition, selected biological characteristics of S. frugiperda were determined in the laboratory with larvae feeding on host leaves, and the combination of leaf and cotton boll. Neonate larvae exhibited low success of colonization on cotton boll compared to the leaves of all other hosts. Spodoptera frugiperda fed only on cotton bolls exhibited longer larval and pupal development, and longer adult life span; however with similar egg production. Larvae fed cotton leaves during six days and then transferred to cotton bolls, however, exhibited development and reproduction similar to those reared on corn or only on cotton leaves. Therefore, the variations on immature stages of S. frugiperda were not related with host selection for oviposition which was similar among the studied hosts. Based on our data, the millet as a winter, rotational, and cover crop is a potential host for S. frugiperda, while leaves and cotton bolls were diets of intermediate suitability as compared to corn and soybean leaves.

  20. Impact of Gamma Irradiation and Phenol on the Biological Activity of the Cotton Leaf Worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, R.S.; Sileem, Th.M.; Sayed, W.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Gamma irradiation and Simple Phenole could potentially be used as a new approach to control the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Inherited sterility (IST) technique using sub-sterilizing doses of gamma irradiation and /or different concentrations of phenol were tested on the biological activity of S. littoralis. The biological as pects included egg hatch ability; larval mortality pupation, survival, adult emergence, sex ratio and longevity were tested. It was noticed that the phenol concentrations (2.5 and 5%) and sub-sterilizing dose of gamma irradiation 100 Gy were the most promising for combination treatment. The results indicated that the combined treatments drastically decreased the percentages of pupation and survival more than separate treatments, to reach 3.0 and 2.0%, respectively in the case of 100 Gy + 5%. Also, the deleterious effect of combined treatment son growth inhibition, relative growth index, growth index was sharply decreased in F1 generation than each treatment. The reduction of F1 progeny in combined treatments was higher than could be expected from the sum of. the two treatments. It was concluded that insect suppression was more pronounced in the case of 100 Gy + 5% phenol than in the case of 100 Gy + 2.5% phenol. These findings indicate that the IS technique might be considered as an environmentally compatible alternative or supplement to the phenol for Spodoptera littoralis pests management

  1. Primera cita de Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para Argentina y de su asociación con larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae First record of Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae for Argentina and its association with larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Valverde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina. Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, is reported for the first time for Argentina. It is also reported parasitizing larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in soybeans crops in Tucumán province (Argentina. Biological information on habits, hosts and distribution is provided.

  2. Functional characterization of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus late gene transcription and genome replication factors in the non-permissive insect cell line SF-21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berretta, Marcelo F.; Deshpande, Mandar; Crouch, Erin A.; Passarelli, A. Lorena

    2006-01-01

    We compared the abilities of late gene transcription and DNA replication machineries of the baculoviruses Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV) in SF-21 cells, an insect-derived cell line permissive for AcMNPV infection. It has been well established that 19 AcMNPV late expression factors (lefs) stimulate substantial levels of late gene promoter activity in SF-21 cells. Thus, we constructed a set of clones containing the BmNPV homologs of the AcMNPV lefs under control of the constitutive Drosophila heat shock 70 protein promoter and tested their ability to activate an AcMNPV late promoter-reporter gene cassette in SF-21 cells. We tested the potential of individual or predicted functional groups of BmNPV lefs to successfully replace the corresponding AcMNPV gene(s) in transient late gene expression assays. We found that most, but not all, BmNPV lefs were able to either fully or partially substitute for the corresponding AcMNPV homolog in the context of the remaining AcMNPV lefs with the exception of BmNPV p143, ie-2, and p35. BmNPV p143 was unable to support late gene expression or be imported into the nucleus of cells in the presence of the AcMNPV or the BmNPV LEF-3, a P143 nuclear shuttling factor. Our results suggest that host-specific factors may affect the function of homologous proteins

  3. Two Year Field Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Mamestra brassicae Nucleopolyhedrovirus Combined with Proteins Derived from Xestia c-nigrum Granulovirus

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    Chie Goto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Japan has only three registered baculovirus biopesticides despite its long history of studies on insect viruses. High production cost is one of the main hindrances for practical use of baculoviruses. Enhancement of insecticidal effect is one possible way to overcome this problem, so there have been many attempts to develop additives for baculoviruses. We found that alkaline soluble proteins of capsules (GVPs of Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus can increase infectivity of some viruses including Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus (MabrNPV, and previously reported that MabrNPV mixed with GVPs was highly infectious to three important noctuid pests of vegetables in the following order, Helicoverpa armigera, M. brassicae, and Autographa nigrisigna. In this study, small-plot experiments were performed to assess concentrations of MabrNPV and GVPs at three cabbage fields and a broccoli field for the control of M. brassicae. In the first experiment, addition of GVPs (10 µg/mL to MabrNPV at 106 OBs/mL resulted in a significant increase in NPV infection (from 53% to 66%. In the second experiment, the enhancing effect of GVP on NPV infection was confirmed at 10-times lower concentrations of MabrNPV. In the third and fourth experiments, a 50% reduction in GVPs (from 10 µg/mL to 5 µg/mL did not result in a lowering of infectivity of the formulations containing MabrNPV at 105 OBs/mL. These results indicate that GVPs are promising additives for virus insecticides.

  4. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac75 is required for egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus and formation of de novo intranuclear membrane microvesicles.

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    Ya-Jun Guo

    Full Text Available In this study, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac75 was functionally characterized. Ac75 has homologs in all sequenced genomes of alphabaculoviruses, betabaculoviruses, and gammabaculoviruses. It was determined to encode a protein that is associated with the nucleocapsid of budded virus and with both envelope and nucleocapsids of occlusion-derived virus. Sf9 cells transfected by an ac75-knockout bacmid resulted in the infection being restricted to single cells. No budded virus were detected although viral DNA replication and late gene expression were unaffected. Electron microscopy revealed that the virogenic stroma, nucleocapsids and occlusion bodies appeared normal in the cells transfected by an ac75-knockout bacmid. However, the nucleocapsids were unenveloped, the occlusion bodies did not contain any virions or nucleocapsids, and no nucleocapsids were found outside the nucleus or spanning the nuclear membrane. In addition, de novo intranuclear membrane microvesicles that are the precursor of occlusion-derived virus envelopes were absent in the nuclei of transfected cells. Confocal microscopy showed that AC75 protein appeared in the cytoplasm as early as 6 hours post infection. It localized to the ring zone at the periphery of the nucleus from 15 to 24 hours post infection and demonstrated light blocky cloud-like distribution in the center of the nucleus. AC75 was found to co-immunoprecipitate with BV and ODV associated envelope protein ODV-E25. The data from this study suggest that ac75 is essential for induction of the intranuclear membrane microvesicles, it appears to be required for the intranuclear envelopment of nucleocapsids, and is also essential for egress of nucleocapsids from the nuclei, in infected cells.

  5. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda.

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    Renato A Carvalho

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is an economically important pest of small grain crops that occurs in all maize growing regions of the Americas. The intensive use of chemical pesticides for its control has led to the selection of resistant populations, however, to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance have not been characterised. In this study the mechanisms involved in the resistance of two S. frugiperda strains collected in Brazil to chlorpyrifos (OP strain or lambda-cyhalothrin (PYR strain were investigated using molecular and genomic approaches. To examine the possible role of target-site insensitivity the genes encoding the organophosphate (acetylcholinesterase, AChE and pyrethroid (voltage-gated sodium channel, VGSC target-site proteins were PCR amplified. Sequencing of the S. frugiperda ace-1 gene identified several nucleotide changes in the OP strain when compared to a susceptible reference strain (SUS. These result in three amino acid substitutions, A201S, G227A and F290V, that have all been shown previously to confer organophosphate resistance in several other insect species. Sequencing of the gene encoding the VGSC in the PYR strain, identified mutations that result in three amino acid substitutions, T929I, L932F and L1014F, all of which have been shown previously to confer knockdown/super knockdown-type resistance in several arthropod species. To investigate the possible role of metabolic detoxification in the resistant phenotype of the OP and PYR stains all EST sequences available for S. frugiperda were used to design a gene-expression microarray. This was then used to compare gene expression in the resistant strains with the susceptible reference strain. Members of several gene families, previously implicated in metabolic resistance in other insects were found to be overexpressed in the resistant strains including glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome P450s and carboxylesterases. Taken together these results

  6. Life-History Traits of Spodoptera frugiperda Populations Exposed to Low-Dose Bt Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fernanda F; Mendes, Simone M; Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Araújo, Octávio G; Oliveira, Eugenio E; Pereira, Eliseu J G

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in low- and moderate-dose transgenic crops may induce sublethal effects and increase the rate of Bt resistance evolution, potentially compromising control efficacy against target pests. We tested this hypothesis using the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a major polyphagous lepidopteran pest relatively tolerant to Bt notorious for evolving field-relevant resistance to single-gene Bt maize. Late-instar larvae were collected from Bt Cry1Ab and non-Bt maize fields in five locations in Brazil, and their offspring was compared for survival, development, and population growth in rearing environment without and with Cry1Ab throughout larval development. Larval survival on Cry1Ab maize leaves varied from 20 to 80% among the populations. Larvae reared on Cry1Ab maize had seven-day delay in development time in relation to control larvae, and such delay was shorter in offspring of armyworms from Cry1Ab maize. Population growth rates were 50-70% lower for insects continuously exposed to Cry1Ab maize relative to controls, showing the population-level effect of Cry1Ab, which varied among the populations and prior exposure to Cry1Ab maize in the field. In three out of five populations, armyworms derived from Bt maize reared on Cry1Ab maize showed higher larval weight, faster larval development and better reproductive performance than the armyworms derived from non-Bt maize, and one of these populations showed better performance on both Cry1Ab and control diets, indicating no fitness cost of the resistance trait. Altogether, these results indicate that offspring of armyworms that developed on field-grown, single-gene Bt Cry1Ab maize had reduced performance on Cry1Ab maize foliage in two populations studied, but in other three populations, these offspring had better overall performance on the Bt maize foliage than that of the armyworms from non-Bt maize fields, possibly because of Cry1Ab resistance alleles in these populations

  7. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Renato A; Omoto, Celso; Field, Linda M; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is an economically important pest of small grain crops that occurs in all maize growing regions of the Americas. The intensive use of chemical pesticides for its control has led to the selection of resistant populations, however, to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance have not been characterised. In this study the mechanisms involved in the resistance of two S. frugiperda strains collected in Brazil to chlorpyrifos (OP strain) or lambda-cyhalothrin (PYR strain) were investigated using molecular and genomic approaches. To examine the possible role of target-site insensitivity the genes encoding the organophosphate (acetylcholinesterase, AChE) and pyrethroid (voltage-gated sodium channel, VGSC) target-site proteins were PCR amplified. Sequencing of the S. frugiperda ace-1 gene identified several nucleotide changes in the OP strain when compared to a susceptible reference strain (SUS). These result in three amino acid substitutions, A201S, G227A and F290V, that have all been shown previously to confer organophosphate resistance in several other insect species. Sequencing of the gene encoding the VGSC in the PYR strain, identified mutations that result in three amino acid substitutions, T929I, L932F and L1014F, all of which have been shown previously to confer knockdown/super knockdown-type resistance in several arthropod species. To investigate the possible role of metabolic detoxification in the resistant phenotype of the OP and PYR stains all EST sequences available for S. frugiperda were used to design a gene-expression microarray. This was then used to compare gene expression in the resistant strains with the susceptible reference strain. Members of several gene families, previously implicated in metabolic resistance in other insects were found to be overexpressed in the resistant strains including glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome P450s and carboxylesterases. Taken together these results provide

  8. SfDredd, a Novel Initiator Caspase Possessing Activity on Effector Caspase Substrates in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhouning; Zhou, Ke; Liu, Hao; Wu, Andong; Mei, Long; Liu, Qingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Sf9, a cell line derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, is an ideal model organism for studying insect apoptosis. The first notable study that attempted to identify the apoptotic pathway in Sf9 was performed in 1997 and included the discovery of Sf-caspase-1, an effector caspase of Sf9. However, it was not until 2013 that the first initiator caspase in Sf9, SfDronc, was discovered, and the apoptotic pathway in Sf9 became clearer. In this study, we report another caspase of Sf9, SfDredd. SfDredd is highly similar to insect initiator caspase Dredd homologs. Experimentally, recombinant SfDredd underwent autocleavage and exhibited different efficiencies in cleavage of synthetic caspase substrates. This was attributed to its caspase activity for the predicted active site mutation blocked the above autocleavage and synthetic caspase substrates cleavage activity. SfDredd was capable of not only cleaving Sf-caspase-1 in vitro but also cleaving Sf-caspase-1 and inducing apoptosis when it was co-expressed with Sf-caspase-1 in Sf9 cells. The protein level of SfDredd was increased when Sf9 cells were treated by Actinomycin D, whereas silencing of SfDredd reduced apoptosis and Sf-caspase-1 cleavage induced by Actinomycin D treatment. These results clearly indicate that SfDredd functioned as an apoptotic initiator caspase. Apoptosis induced in Sf9 cells by overexpression of SfDredd alone was not as obvious as that induced by SfDronc alone, and the cleavage sites of Sf-caspase-1 for SfDredd and SfDronc are different. In addition, despite sharing a sequence homology with initiator caspases and possessing weak activity on initiator caspase substrates, SfDredd showed strong activity on effector caspase substrates, making it the only insect caspase reported so far functioning similar to human caspase-2 in this aspect. We believe that the discovery of SfDredd, and its different properties from SfDronc, will improve the understanding of apoptosis pathway in Sf9 cells.

  9. COMPARATIVE BIOLOGICAL DATA OF Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (LEPDOTERA: NOCTUIDAE IN COTTON AND MAIZE DADOS BIOLÓGICOS COMPARATIVOS DE Spodoptera frugiperda (L. E. Smith, 1797 (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE EM ALGODOEIRO E MILHO

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    José Roberto P. Parra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This research deals with the compared biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smnith, 1797 on a natural diet consisting of leaves of the cotton plant (cultivar ";IAC-17"; and leaves of a hybrid corn plant (";HMD-7974";. The experiment was carried out under the following conditions: temperature, 25 +/- 2°C, moisture, 60 +/- 10% R.H. light, a 14-hour photoperiod. The following biological parameters were observed: egg stage: incubation period and viability; larval stage duration, number of instars, weight and viability; pupal stage: duration, weight and viability; adult stage: preoviposition period, fecundity and longevity. Generally speaking within these parameters, the results differed statistically, showing that the insects prefer the leaves of the corn plant.

    Estudou-se a biologia comparada de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 em dietas naturais (folhas de algodoeiro do cultivar "IAC-17" e folhas de milho provenientes do híbrido "HMD-7974". O ensaio foi conduzido à temperatura de 25 +/- 2°C, U.R. de 60 +/- 10% e fotoperíodo de 14 horas. Foram determinados em cada substrato: número e duração dos instares larvais, duração, peso e viabilidade larval, duração, peso e viabilidade pupal , período de pré-oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade dos adultos e período de incubação e viabilidade dos ovos. De modo geral, os resultados observados para esses parâmetros, diferiram estatisticamente, indicando a preferência das lagartas pelas folhas de milho.

  10. EVALUACIÓN DE ISOESPINTANOL AISLADO DE Oxandra cf. xylopioides (ANNONACEAE SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE EVALUATION OF ISOESPINTANOL ISOLATED FROM Oxandra cf. xylopioides (ANNONACEAE ON Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

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    Benjamín Alberto Rojano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto biocida del isoespintanol extraído de Oxandra cf. xylopioides sobre el gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda. El isoespintanol fue usado a concentraciones de 100 300 900 y 2700 ppm y aplicado por inmersión de hojas de maíz evaluando sobre larvas del segundo instar. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad a las 24, 48 y 72 horas y se calculó la DL50 y DL90; el análisis de mortalidad demostró que el isoespintanol tiene un efecto tóxico, siendo la dosis de 2700 ppm la que presenta mayor mortalidad. Se determinó una DL50 de 147,07 ppm y una DL90 de 1394 ppm a las 48 horas postratamiento. Estos resultados permitirán avanzar en el estudio y aplicación de insecticidas biológicos para el manejo integrado de plagas.The biocide effect of isoespintanol extracted from Oxandra cf xylopioides was evaluated on the corn earworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Isoespintanol at concentrations of 100 300 900 and 2700 ppm was applied by foliar immersion of maize leaves and it was evaluated on larvae of the second instar. Percentage of mortality at 24, 48 and 72 hours was determined and calculated its DL50 and DL90; the mortality analysis demonstrated that compound has toxic effects, being the dose 2700 ppm the one that presented great mortality. A dose DL50 of 147.07 ppm and a DL90 of 1394 ppm to the 48 hours postreatment was determined. These results will allow to advance in the study and application of biological insecticides directed to the integrated handling of plagues.

  11. EFECTO ANTIALIMENTARIO DE LOS EXTRACTOS DE SUSPENSIONES CELULARES DE Azadirachta indica SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO ANTIFEEDANT EFFECT OF CELL SUSPENSION EXTRACTS OF Azadirachta indica ON Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Capataz Tafur

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica y sus ingredientes activos como la azadiractina, presentan acción antialimentaria e inhibición del desarrollo de muchos insectos. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar el efecto antialimentario de los extractos de suspensiones celulares de neem elicitadas a diferentes condiciones de luz y temperatura. Los extractos fueron aplicados en discos de hojas de maíz y sometidas a bioensayos en larvas de segundo instar de Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidptera: Noctuidae. Los extractos intracelulares y del medio de cultivo de las suspensiones celulares de A. indica mostraron efecto biológico sobre larvas de S. frugiperda L2, con valores del 100 % de índice antialimentario para los extractos intracelulares de suspensiones de A. indica elicitadas a 15 °C y oscuridad, y del 39,3% para extractos extracelulares (medio de cultivo de suspensiones elicitadas a 35 °C y oscuridad.Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica and their active ingredients as azadirachtin, present an action and inhibition of the development of many insects. In this study, the antifeedant effect of cell suspension extracts elicited to different conditions of light and temperature was examined. The extracts were applied in corn leaves disks and submitted to bioassays in larvae of second instar of Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The intracellular extracts and the culture media (supernatant of the cell suspensions of A. indica showed a biological effect on larvae of S. frugiperda L2, with values of the 100 % of antifeeding index for the intracellular extracts of cells elicited to 15 °C and darkness, and 39,3% of antifeeding index for extracellular extracts (medium of cultivation of elicited suspensions to 35°C , and darkness.

  12. A Z-linked sterility locus causes sexual abstinence in hybrid females and facilitates speciation in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Silvia; Heckel, David G; Yoshido, Atsuo; Marec, František; Groot, Astrid T

    2016-06-01

    In the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), two sympatric strains have been recognized that have been termed corn strain (C) and rice strain (R), referring to their most common host plants. Both strains are reproductively isolated via a distinct prezygotic barrier as well as via an intriguing postzygotic phenomenon: when R females have mated with C males, the resulting RC hybrid females exhibit dramatically reduced fertility independent of their mating partner. Here, we demonstrate that the reduced fertility is caused by the fact that these females refrain from mating, that is, females are behaviorally sterile. We identified a Z-chromosomally linked sterility locus that is most likely incompatible with yet to be identified autosomal (or cytoplasmic) factors, leading to the observed sexual abstinence. Within-chromosome mapping revealed the sterility locus to be located in an area of strongly reduced interstrain recombination. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize are susceptible to Bt pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, S R K; Knight, V R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L

    2014-10-01

    Field-evolved resistance to maize event TC1507 expressing the Cry1Fa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was detected in populations of Spodoptera frugiperda from Puerto Rico. We tested for cross-resistance to purified Cry1A toxins and commercial Bt pesticides in susceptible (Benzon) and TC1507-resistant (456) strains of S. frugiperda. Larvae from the 456 strain exhibited cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins, while no differences in susceptibility to XenTari WG and DiPel ES pesticides were detected. These data support cross-resistance to toxins that share binding sites with Cry1Fa and no cross-resistance to Bt pesticides in S. frugiperda with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inga laurina trypsin inhibitor (ILTI) obstructs Spodoptera frugiperda trypsins expressed during adaptive mechanisms against plant protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Suzy Wider; de Oliveira, Caio Fernando Ramalho; Zério, Neide Graciano; Parra, José Roberto Postali; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Plant protease inhibitors (PIs) are elements of a common plant defense mechanism induced in response to herbivores. The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, a highly polyphagous lepidopteran pest, responds to various PIs in its diet by expressing genes encoding trypsins. This raises the question of whether the PI-induced trypsins are also inhibited by other PIs, which we posed as the hypothesis that Inga laurina trypsin inhibitor (ILTI) inhibits PI-induced trypsins in S. frugiperda. In the process of testing our hypothesis, we compared its properties with those of selected PIs, soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI), Inga vera trypsin inhibitor (IVTI), Adenanthera pavonina trypsin inhibitor (ApTI), and Entada acaciifolia trypsin inhibitor (EATI). We report that ILTI is more effective in inhibiting the induced S. frugiperda trypsins than SKTI and the other PIs, which supports our hypothesis. ILTI may be more appropriate than SKTI for studies regarding adaptive mechanisms to dietary PIs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Purification and characterization of NADPH--cytochrome c reductase from the midgut of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, D L; Hetnarski, K; Wilkinson, C F

    1979-09-01

    1. NADPH-cytochrome c reductase was solubilized with bromelain and purified about 400-fold from sucrose/pyrophosphate-washed microsomal fractions from southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania) larval midguts. 2. The enzyme has a mol.wt. of 70 035 +/- 1300 and contained 2 mol of flavin/mol of enzyme consisting of almost equimolar amounts of FMN and FAD. 3. Aerobic titration of the enzyme with NADPH caused the formation of a stable half-reduced state at 0.5 mol of NADPH/mol of flavin. 4. Kinetic analysis showed that the reduction of cytochrome c proceeded by a Bi Bi Ping Pong mechanism. 5. Apparent Km values for NADPH and cytochrome c and Ki values for NADP+ and 2'-AMP were considerably higher for the insect reductase than for the mammalian liver enzyme. 6. These are discussed in relation to possible differences in the active sites of the enzymes.

  16. Effect of Some Environmental Factors on the Toxicity of Azadirachtin to the Egyptian Cotton Leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    El-Sayed H. Shaurub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the bio-degradation of azadirachtin was well studied under storage or environmental conditions, its toxicity was not characterized so far under the impact of environmental conditions. Therefore, the present study aims to elucidate the toxicity of azadirachtin, at the level of LC50, to the fourth larval instars of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval under the stress of temperature, ultraviolet radiation (365 nm (UV-A and of artificial sunlight. The increase in post-treatment temperatures insignificantly affected azadirachtin toxicity. Likewise, insignificant change was also attained for the increase in the exposure periods of both UV and sunlight, except for exposure to sunlight without UV filter starting from 10 h, where the toxicity of azadirachtin was significantly declined. It can be concluded that azadirachtin toxicity will last efficiently against S. littoralis larvae under the stress of the environmental factors prevailing during the season of cotton cultivation in Egypt.

  17. Effects of Gamma Radiation on Reproduction and Mating Competitiveness in the Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H. A.; Alm El-Din, M. M. S.; El-Dessouki, S. A.; El-Awady, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    Full-grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 100, 125, 150 Gy. The fecundity of normal females crossed with treated males decreased with the increase of the dose given to males. The reduction in egg hatch was significant at all tested doses. The percentage of mated females was not clearly affected. However, the reduction observed in either percentage of inseminated female or the average number of spermatophores per mated female was increased by increasing the dose to males. Males irradiated by low doses of 125 and 150 Gy were fully competitive against untreated males for mating with normal females. Increasing the ratio of irradiated males to normal males from 1:1 to 5:1 decreased the rate of egg viability among P 1 and their successive filial generations. (Authors)

  18. Insecticidal activity of venomous saliva from Rhynocoris fuscipes (Reduviidae against Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera by microinjection and oral administration

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    K Sahayaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhynocoris fuscipes is a potential predator of many economically important pests in India. In the present study, its venomous saliva (VS was collected by milking and diluted with HPLC grade water to different concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm. Microinjection of Rhynocoris fuscipes VS was more toxic than its oral administration in Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm and Spodoptera litura (tobacco cutworm. Thus, R. fuscipes VS was found to be toxic to third instar S. litura and H. armigera with respective LD50s of 846.35 and 861.60 ppm/larva at 96 hours after microinjection. The current results showed that VS of Rhynocoris fuscipes caused mortality of H. armigera and S. litura. Active peptides from VS may be isolated, identified and assessed for their impact in order to ascertain how they alter the physiology of these pests, information that could be applicable in pest management programs.

  19. Baculovirus p35 gene is oppositely regulated by P53 and AP-1 like factors in Spodoptera frugiperda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohareer, Krishnaveni; Sahdev, Sudhir; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Baculovirus p35 is regulated by both viral and host factors. ► Baculovirus p35 is negatively regulated by SfP53-like factor. ► Baculovirus p35 is positively regulated by SfAP-1-like factor. -- Abstract: Baculovirus p35 belongs to the early class of genes of AcMNPV and requires viral factors like Immediate Early protein-1 for its transcription. To investigate the role of host factors in regulating p35 gene expression, the putative transcription factor binding sites were examined in silico and the role of these factors in influencing the transcription of p35 gene was assessed. We focused our studies on AP-1 and P53-like factors, which are activated under oxidative stress conditions. The AP-1 motif is located at −1401 while P53 motif is at −1912 relative to p35 translation start site. The predicted AP-1 and P53 elements formed specific complexes with Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear extracts. Both AP-1 and P53 motif binding proteins were down regulated as a function of AcMNPV infection in Spodoptera cells. To address the question whether during an oxidative outburst, the p35 transcription is enhanced; we investigated the role of these oxidative stress induced host transcription factors in influencing p35 gene transcription. Reporter assays revealed that AP-1 element enhances the transcription of p35 by a factor of two. Interestingly, P53 element appears to repress the transcription of p35 gene.

  20. Baculovirus p35 gene is oppositely regulated by P53 and AP-1 like factors in Spodoptera frugiperda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohareer, Krishnaveni [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, Center for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad 500001 (India); Institute of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad Campus, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Sahdev, Sudhir [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, Center for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad 500001 (India); Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals, Gurgaon, New Delhi (India); Hasnain, Seyed E., E-mail: seh@bioschool.iitd.ac.in [Institute of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad Campus, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, IIT Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); ILBS, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi (India); King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is regulated by both viral and host factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is negatively regulated by SfP53-like factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is positively regulated by SfAP-1-like factor. -- Abstract: Baculovirus p35 belongs to the early class of genes of AcMNPV and requires viral factors like Immediate Early protein-1 for its transcription. To investigate the role of host factors in regulating p35 gene expression, the putative transcription factor binding sites were examined in silico and the role of these factors in influencing the transcription of p35 gene was assessed. We focused our studies on AP-1 and P53-like factors, which are activated under oxidative stress conditions. The AP-1 motif is located at -1401 while P53 motif is at -1912 relative to p35 translation start site. The predicted AP-1 and P53 elements formed specific complexes with Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear extracts. Both AP-1 and P53 motif binding proteins were down regulated as a function of AcMNPV infection in Spodoptera cells. To address the question whether during an oxidative outburst, the p35 transcription is enhanced; we investigated the role of these oxidative stress induced host transcription factors in influencing p35 gene transcription. Reporter assays revealed that AP-1 element enhances the transcription of p35 by a factor of two. Interestingly, P53 element appears to repress the transcription of p35 gene.

  1. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda.

  2. High-titer preparation of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV displaying recombinant protein in silkworm larvae by size exclusion chromatography and its characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Shigeyasu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Budded baculoviruses are utilized for vaccine, the production of antibody and functional analysis of transmembrane proteins. In this study, we tried to produce and purify the recombinant Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (rBmNPV-hPRR that displayed human (prorenin receptor (hPRR connected with FLAG peptide sequence on its own surface. These particles were used for further binding analysis of hPRR to human prorenin. The rBmNPV-hPRR was produced in silkworm larvae and purified from its hemolymph using size exclusion chromatography (SEC. Results A rapid method of BmNPV titer determination in hemolymph was performed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR. A correlation coefficient of BmNPV determination between end-point dilution and Q-PCR methods was found to be 0.99. rBmNPV-hPRR bacmid-injected silkworm larvae produced recombinant baculovirus of 1.31 × 108 plaque forming unit (pfu in hemolymph, which was 2.8 × 104 times higher than transfection solution in Bm5 cells. Its purification yield by Sephacryl S-1000 SF column chromatography was 264 fold from larval hemolymph at 4 days post-injection (p.i., but 35 or 39 fold at 4.5 or 5 days p.i., respectively. Protein patterns of rBmNPV-hPRR purified at 4 and 5 days were the same and ratio of envelope proteins (76, 45 and 35 kDa to VP39, one of nucleocapsid proteins, increased at 5 days p.i. hPRR was detected in only purified rBmNPV-hPRR at 5 days p.i.. Conclusion The successful purification of rBmNPV-hPRR indicates that baculovirus production using silkworm larvae and its purification from hemolymph by Sephacryl S-1000 SF column chromatography can provide an economical approach in obtaining the purified BmNPV stocks with high titer for large-scale production of hPRR. Also, it can be utilized for further binding analysis and screening of inhibitors of hPRR.

  3. MORTALITY OF Spodoptera eridania (Cramer CATERPILLARS BY Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner MORTALIDADE DE LAGARTAS DE Spodoptera eridania (Cramer PELA UTILIZAÇÃO DE Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Brustolin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This research evaluated the effects of two products based on Bacillus thuringiensis in the mortality rate of first and third instar caterpillars of Spodoptera eridania, in laboratory conditions, at 25±2°C, relative humidity 70±5%, and photoperiod of 12 hours. The treatments were B. thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel SC, at 500 mL.ha-1

  4. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Biological activity of extracts of Melia azedarach on larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    María R. Rossetti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en las dosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.In the course of searching for plant chemicals with potential insecticide properties, the activity of Melia azedarach L. senescent leaf and ripe fruit extracts (2, 5 and 10% was evaluated on larvae of Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This polyphagous species is considered a sporadic pest on many important crops. Food consumption was assessed and an antifeedant index was calculated through choice tests. Also, food consumption, larval mortality, weight and depositions were recorded and nutritional indices were calculated in no-choice tests. Results from choice tests

  5. AVALIAÇÃO DE DANOS Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae NO ALGODOEIRO CULTIVAR IAC-17 EVALUATION OF Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE DAMAGES IN THE COTTON PLANT IAC-17 CULTIVAR

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    Valquíria da Rocha Santos Veloso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com a finalidade de avaliar os danos causados por Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 na produção do algodoeiro, foi conduzido o presente trabalho. Foram utilizados quatro níveis de infestação artificial aos 75 e 95 dias da germinação das plantas. As avaliações foram feitas através da produção de algodão em caroço, por parcela. As diferenças na produção em plantas infestadas aos 75 e 95 dias da germinação, comparadas com a testemunha, foram estatisticamente significativas para as infestações com 1, 2 e 4 lagartas por planta. Aos 75 dias, devido ao fato de existirem poucos órgãos frutíferos, a redução na produção deu-se devido ao ataque das lagartas aos ponteiros e aos caules, com corte parcial ou total. Na infestação aos 95 dias a produção diminuiu linearmente em relação aos diferentes níveis de infestação; nesta época as lagartas mostraram preferência pelas estruturas frutíferas do algodoeiro.

    This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluate the damages provoked by Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 in cotton-plant yield. To evaluate the decrease in the cotton yield four levels of artificial infestation were used at 75 and 95 days from plant germination. The damage was evaluated on cotton seeds per plot. The differences in the yield of infested plants at 75 and 95 days from germination, when compared to the check, were statistically significant for the infestations of 1, 2 and 4 larvae per plant. At 75 days when the plants presented a low number of fruit organs, the yield decrease was due to the attack of larvae cutting partially or totally the shoots and stems. As to the infestation at 95 days the yield decreased linearly in relation to the different levels of infestation; at this time the larvae showed a preference for the fruit

  6. Impact of the number of Spodoptera frugiperda egg layers on parasitism by Trichogramma atopovirilia Impacto do número de camadas de ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda no parasitismo por Trichogramma atopovirilia

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    Eduardo Barbosa Beserra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae can be found in several crops attacking Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae eggs. It is therefore necessary to demonstrate the capacity of these natural enemies in suppressing populations of the pest to allow them to be used in biological control programs against that species. This work had the objective of evaluating the impact of egg layer distribution in S. frugiperda egg masses on the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Masses containing one, two, and three layers were used as treatments, and 1.6 parasitoid per egg of the pest were released. Parasitism percentage differences were observed among the three types of masses under study, on average 66.24 ± 8.56%, 45.20 ± 6.20%, and 40.10± 3.46% for egg masses with one, two, and three layers, respectively, demonstrating the potential of use of the parasitoid for the control of fall armyworm.Parasitóides de ovos do gênero Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae ocorrem em diversas culturas atacando ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae sendo necessário que se demonstre a capacidade desses inimigos naturais em suprimir a população da praga para que eles possam ser utilizados em programas de controle biológico daquela espécie. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da distribuição dos ovos em camadas nas posturas de S. frugiperda sobre a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Foram utilizadas como tratamentos posturas com uma, duas e três camadas e liberado 1.6 parasitóide por ovo da praga. Observaram-se diferenças quanto à porcentagem de parasitismo entre os três tipos de posturas estudados, sendo em média de 66,24 ± 8,56%, 45,20 ± 6,20% e 40,10 ± 3,46% para posturas com uma, duas e três camadas respectivamente, mostrando o potencial de utilização do

  7. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  8. Response of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura to zinc stress: Zn accumulation, metallothionein and cell ultrastructure of the midgut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Yinghua; Zhang, Guren; Wang, Jianwu

    2012-01-01

    By exposing the common cutworm Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae to a range of Zinc (Zn) stress, we investigated the effects of dietary Zn on Zn accumulation, metallothionein (MT), and on the ultrastructure of the midgut. The techniques we used were inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), real-time PCR combined with cadmium-hemoglobin total saturation, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. There was a significant dose–response relationship between the Zn accumulations in the midgut of the larvae and the Zn concentrations in the diet. Furthermore, both MT content and MT gene expression in the midgut were significantly induced in the 50–500 mg Zn/kg treatments, and were significantly positively correlated with the Zn accumulations in the midgut. When S. litura larvae were fed with the diet treated with 500 mg Zn/kg, Zn accumulation and MT content in the midgut was 4450.85 mg Zn/kg and 372.77 mg/kg, respectively, thereafter there was a little increase; the level of MT gene expression was maximal, thereafter there was a sharp decrease. TEM showed that numerous electron-dense granules (EDGs) and vacuoles appeared in the cytoplasm of the midgut cells, their number and size being closely correlated with the Zn accumulations in the midgut. Moreover, the nuclei were strongly influenced by Zn stress, evidenced by chromatin condensation and irregular nuclear membranes. Therefore, after being exposed to Zn in the threshold (500 mg Zn/kg) range, S. litura larvae could accumulate Zn in the midgut, which led to the induction of MT and changes in cell ultrastructure (mainly the presence of EDGs). The induction of MT and precipitation of Zn in EDGs may be the effective detoxification mechanisms by which the herbivorous insect S. litura defends itself against heavy metals. -- Graphical abstract: When the herbivorous insect Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae were fed on the artificial diet with different concentrations of Zn

  9. Sequential diets, metabolic costs, and growth of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding upon dill, lima bean, and cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriber, J Mark

    1981-01-01

    This study illustrates the diversity of feeding responses of individually polyphagous southern armyworms, Spodoptera eridania, to plants with differing allelochemics. In spite of the near optimal leaf water and nitrogen contents of the young foliage, it is apparent that vastly different larval growth performance results from dill, lima bean, and cabbage. Cabbage is the poorest food (as measured by larval growth rates and metabolic costs of processing the plant biomass). Unlike the case with certain other plant species or cultivars that are costly to process, with cabbage, S. eridania does not compensate for low efficiencies (E.C.D.'s) with increased consumption rates (R.C.R.'s). Biochemical or physiological reasons for this inability are unknown.A sequence of foods (changed each 18-24 h) apparently did not add sufficient stress upon the MFO system to be detected in the respiratory expenditures of S. eridania larvae, in spite of the fact that dill is known to contain insecticidal and synergistic chemicals (Lichtenstein et al. 1974). The larval growth performances and metabolic expenditures in these sequences were intermediate between the best food (dill) and the worse (cabbage). Significant differences were observed however between the sequential switching sequences, perhaps indicating that particular periods during the instar are especially more sensitive to certain allelochemics. Actual respiratory costs of the lima bean-cabbage-dill (i.e. B-C-D) sequence were 40-50% higher than observed for the other two sequences and more than 50% higher than the theoretical metabolic costs based on the proportions actually eaten and known costs associated with each food.This study and a related one (Scriber 1981a) illustrate how consumption rates, feeding efficiences, and larval growth of Spodoptera eridania are not species, population, or even individual characteristics, (cf. Fox and Morrow 1981), but instead depend largely upon variations in plant allelochemics and plant

  10. Survival and larval development of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on alternatives host; Sobrevivencia e desenvolvimento larval de Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em hospedeiros alternativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Verissimo G.M. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Montes Claros, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia; Fonseca, Bernardo V.C. [Universidade FUMEC, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Boregas, Katia G.B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia; Waquil, Jose M. [EMBRAPA Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: aaquil@cnpms.embrapa.br

    2009-01-15

    Two bioassays were conducted to evaluate the suitability of host plants of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith), in the Brazilian agro-ecosystem. Larval development and survival were analyzed by infesting leaves of maize, grain sorghum, Johnson grass, soybean, Brachiaria and tobacco with FAW newly hatched larvae in a no choice test. No significant differences of survival were observed among insects reared on different hosts, except for tobacco, where no survivors were recorded. Larvae fed on soybean and artificial diet grew larger than those fed on the other hosts. The heaviest pupa was observed from larva fed on artificial diet and the lighter from larva fed on Brachiaria grass. No significant differences were reported on larval development time on natural hosts, but it was longer for larvae reared on artificial diet. Three classes of larval development time were observed on maize, four on sorghum, Brachiaria and soybean, and five on artificial diet. Nearly 85% of FAW larvae completed development within 12 d on maize; 77% on grain sorghum, 80% on Johnson grass, 68% on Brachiaria and 83% on soybean within 14 d and 69% on artificial diet within 17 d. The host suitability to FAW decreases from maize to sorghum, soybean and Brachiaria. (author)

  11. Temperature effects on the mating frequency of Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); Influencia da temperatura na frequencia de copula de Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner e Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milano, Patricia; Berti Filho, Evoneo [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola. Lab. de Entomologia Florestal; Parra, Jose R.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola. Lab. Biologia de Insetos; Consoli, Fernando L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola. Lab. de Ecologia Nutricional e Molecular de Interacoes entre Artropodes e Microrganismos]. E-mails: patmilano@gmail.com; eberti@esalq.usp.br; jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; fconsoli@esalq.usp.br

    2008-09-15

    This paper deals with the influence of temperature on the mating frequency of two lepidopterans, Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), which use different strategies of allocation, and with the utilization of nutrients for their reproductive activities. The insects were reared on artificial diets at 25 deg C, and the adults were exposed to five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 deg C) to observe the influence of each temperature on their mating frequency, fecundity, fertility and longevity. The temperature affected the mating frequency of both species, being more evident at 15 deg C and 35 deg C, mainly for A. gemmatalis, which presented a drastic reduction on mating activities. The highest number of matings were observed from 20 deg C to 30 deg C, with S. frugiperda presenting mating activity (0-8) much higher than that of A. gemmatalis (0-2), but no correlation was observed among the number of matings and all other biological parameters evaluated (fecundity, fertility and longevity). However, S. frugiperda showed a positive correlation between fecundity and mating activity of females (r = 0.589; P = 0.003) at 25 deg C. The highest fecundities were observed at temperatures from 20 deg C to 30 deg C for S. frugiperda and at 25 deg C for A. gemmatalis. For both species, the longevity of males and females decreased as temperature increased. (author)

  12. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Elumalai Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  13. Recombinant Cry1Ia protein is highly toxic to cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, E S; Aguiar, R W D S; Martins, N F; Melatti, V M; Falcão, R; Gomes, A C M M; Ribeiro, B M; Monnerat, R G

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the activity of cry1Ia gene against cotton pests, Spodoptera frugiperda and Anthonomus grandis. Had isolated and characterized a toxin gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis S1451 strain which have been previously shown to be toxic to S. frugiperda and A. grandis. The toxin gene (cry1Ia) was amplified by PCR, sequenced, and cloned into the genome of a baculovirus. The Cry1Ia protein was expressed in baculovirus infected insect cells, producing protein inclusions in infected cells. The Cry1Ia protein has used in bioassays against to S. frugiperda and A. grandis. Bioassays using the purified recombinant protein showed high toxicity to S. frugiperda and A. grandis larvae. Molecular modelling of the Cry1Ia protein translated from the DNA sequence obtained in this work, showed that this protein possibly posses a similar structure to the Cry3A protein. Ultrastructural analysis of midgut cells from A. grandis incubated with the Cry1Ia toxin, showed loss of microvilli integrity. The results indicate that the cry1Ia is a good candidate for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to these important cotton pests.

  14. Azadirachtin-induced apoptosis involves lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin L release in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Xingan; Meng, Qianqian; Wang, Peidan; Shu, Benshui; Hu, Qiongbo; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-07-01

    Azadirachtin as a kind of botanical insecticide has been widely used in pest control. We previously reported that azadirachtin could induce apoptosis of Spodoptera litura cultured cell line Sl-1, which involves in the up-regulation of P53 protein. However, the detailed mechanism of azadirachtin-induced apoptosis is not clearly understood in insect cultured cells. The aim of the present study was to address the involvement of lysosome and lysosomal protease in azadirachtin-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. The result confirmed that azadirachtin indeed inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. The lysosomes were divided into different types as time-dependent manner, which suggested that changes of lysosomes were necessarily physiological processes in azadirachtin-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Interestingly, we noticed that azadirachtin could trigger lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin L releasing to cytosol. Z-FF-FMK (a cathepsin L inhibitor), but not CA-074me (a cathepsin B inhibitor), could effectively hinder the apoptosis induced by azadirachtin in Sf9 cells. Meanwhile, the activity of caspase-3 could also be inactivated by the inhibition of cathepsin L enzymatic activity induced by Z-FF-FMK. Taken together, our findings suggest that azadirachtin could induce apoptosis in Sf9 cells in a lysosomal pathway, and cathepsin L plays a pro-apoptosis role in this process through releasing to cytosol and activating caspase-3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoping; Reisig, Dominic; Miao, Jin; Gould, Fred; Huang, Fangneng; Feng, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring.

  16. Dominance of Cry1F resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on TC1507 Bt maize in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Juliano R; Andow, David A; Horikoshi, Renato J; Sorgatto, Rodrigo J; dos Santos, Antonio C; Omoto, Celso

    2016-05-01

    Dominance of resistance has been one of the major parameters affecting the rate of evolution of resistance to Bt crops. High dose is the capacity of Bt crops to kill heterozygous insects and has been an essential component of the most successful strategy to manage resistance to these crops. Experiments were conducted to evaluate directly and indirectly whether the TC1507 event is high dose to Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith). About 8% of heterozygote neonate larvae were able to survive, complete larval development and emerge as normal adults on TC1507 leaves, while susceptible larvae could not survive for 5 days. The estimated dominance of resistance was 0.15 ± 0.09 and significantly higher than zero; therefore, the resistance to Cry1F expressed in TC1507 was not completely recessive. A 25-fold dilution of TC1507 maize leaf tissue in an artificial diet was able to cause a maximum mortality of only 37%, with growth inhibition of 82% at 7 days after larval infestation. Resistance to Cry1F in TC1507 maize is incompletely recessive in S. frugiperda. TC1507 maize is not high dose for S. frugiperda. Additional or alternative resistance management strategies, such as the replacement of single-trait Bt maize with pyramided Bt maize, which produces multiple proteins targeting the same insect pests, should be implemented wherever this technology is in use and S. frugiperda is the major pest. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Resistance to dual-gene Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda: selection, inheritance, and cross-resistance to other transgenic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Rodrigues, João V C; Souza, Thadeu C; Tavares, Clébson S; Campos, Silverio O; Guedes, Raul N C; Pereira, Eliseu J G

    2015-12-17

    Transgenic crop "pyramids" producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins active against the same pest are used to delay evolution of resistance in insect pest populations. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were performed with fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to characterize resistance to Bt maize producing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab and test some assumptions of the "pyramid" resistance management strategy. Selection of a field-derived strain of S. frugiperda already resistant to Cry1F maize with Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab maize for ten generations produced resistance that allowed the larvae to colonize and complete the life cycle on these Bt maize plants. Greenhouse experiments revealed that the resistance was completely recessive (Dx = 0), incomplete, autosomal, and without maternal effects or cross-resistance to the Vip3Aa20 toxin produced in other Bt maize events. This profile of resistance supports some of the assumptions of the pyramid strategy for resistance management. However, laboratory experiments with purified Bt toxin and plant leaf tissue showed that resistance to Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 maize further increased resistance to Cry1Fa, which indicates that populations of fall armyworm have high potential for developing resistance to some currently available pyramided maize used against this pest, especially where resistance to Cry1Fa was reported in the field.

  18. Microscopic analysis of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) embryonic development before and after treatment with azadirachtin, lufenuron, and deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Alicely A; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Teixeira, Alvaro A C; Oliveira, José V; Gonçalves, Gabriel G A; Cavalcanti, MaríIia G S; Brayner, Fábio A; Alves, Luiz C

    2013-04-01

    The botanical insecticides, growth regulators, and pyrethroids have an effect on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith). However, no emphasis has been given to the effect of these insecticides on embryonic development of insects, in histological level. Thus, this research aimed to examine by light and scanning electron microscopy S. frugiperda eggs and to describe the embryonic development, before and after immersion treatment, using commercial concentrations and lower concentrations than commercial ones, of the compounds lufenuron (Match), azadirachtin (AzaMax), and deltamethrin (Decis-positive control). For light microscopy semithin sections of eggs were used, and for scanning electron microscopy, images of the surface of eggs, treated and untreated with insecticides. The morphological characteristics of S. frugiperda eggs, in general, were similar to those described in the literature for most of the insects in the order Lepidoptera. Spherical eggs slightly flattened at the poles, with chorion, yolk, vitelline membrane, and embryo formation. In both microscopic analysis, we observed that insecticides acted immediately and independent of concentration, resulting absence, or incomplete embryo, presented yolk granules widely dispersed, without vitellophage formation, chorion disintegration, disorganized blastoderm, presenting vacuoles, yolk region with amorphous cells, and formation of completely uncharacterized appendages. Thus, we conclude that the compounds lufenuron and azadirachtin interfere on S. frugiperda embryonic development.

  19. Antifeedant effect of polygodial and drimenol derivatives against Spodoptera frugiperda and Epilachna paenulata and quantitative structure-activity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Iván J; Del Corral, Soledad; Diaz Napal, Georgina N; Carpinella, María C; Mellado, Marco; Madrid, Alejandro M; Villena, Joan; Palacios, Sara M; Cuellar, Mauricio A

    2018-01-08

    The antifeedant activity of 18 sesquiterpenoids of the drimane family (polygodial, drimenol and derivatives) was investigated. Polygodial, drimanic and nordrimanic derivatives were found to exert antifeedant effects against two insect species, Spodoptera frugiperda and Epilachna paenulata, which are pests of agronomic interest, indicating that they have potential as biopesticide agents. Among the 18 compounds tested, the epoxynordrimane compound (11) and isonordrimenone (4) showed the highest activity [50% effective concentration (EC 50 ) = 23.28 and 25.63 nmol cm - 2 , respectively, against S. frugiperda, and 50.50 and 59.00 nmol/cm 2 , respectively, against E. paenulata]. The results suggest that drimanic compounds have potential as new agents against S. frugiperda and E. paenulata. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis of the whole series, supported by electronic studies, suggested that drimanic compounds have structural features necessary for increasing antifeedant activity, namely a C-9 carbonyl group and an epoxide at C-8 and C-9. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Susceptibility and aversion of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Cry1F Bt maize and considerations for insect resistance management.

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    Binning, Rachel R; Coats, Joel; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Hellmich, Richard L

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize was developed primarily for North American pests such as European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)). However, most Bt maize products are also cultivated outside of North America, where the primary pests may be different and may have lower susceptibility to Bt toxins. Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda JE Smith) is an important pest and primary target of Bt maize in Central and South America. S. frugiperda susceptibility to Cry1F (expressed in event TC1507) is an example of a pest-by-toxin interaction that does not meet the high-dose definition. In this study, the behavioral and toxic response of S. frugiperda to Cry1F maize was investigated by measuring the percentage of time naive third instars spent feeding during a 3-min exposure. S. frugiperda also were exposed as third instars to Cry1F maize for 14 d to measure weight gain and survival. S. frugiperda demonstrated an initial, postingestive aversive response to Cry1F maize, and few larvae survived the 14 d exposure. The role of susceptibility and avoidance are discussed in the context of global IRM refuge strategy development for Bt products.

  1. Attraction, Feeding Preference, and Performance of Spodoptera frugiperda Larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Two Varieties of Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa-Cancino, Wilmar; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-Lopez, Leopolodo; Castillo, Alfredo; Malo, Edi A

    2016-04-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest of maize and other crops in the Americas. Studies suggest that modern varieties of maize lost some of their natural defense mechanisms against herbivores during domestication and agricultural selection. In the present study, we evaluated the attraction, feeding preference (host fidelity and consumption rate), and performance of S. frugiperda larvae reared on hybrid (Pioneer P4063W) and landrace (Tuxpeño) varieties of maize. We also evaluated the damage caused by S. frugiperda to Pioneer and Tuxpeño maize plants in the field. We found that fifth-instar larvae were more attracted to Pioneer plants than to Tuxpeño plants in a Y-tube olfactometer. Additionally, the fall armyworm larvae showed more fidelity to Pioneer leaves than to Tuxpeño leaves. However, the larval consumption rate was similar for both types of maize plants. The life cycle of S. frugiperda was significantly longer when the larvae were reared on Tuxpeño leaves than on Pioneer leaves. In the field, the Pioneer variety was infested with more S. frugiperda larvae than the Tuxpeño variety. Thus, our results provide evidence that modern varieties of maize may have lost some of their defensive traits during selective breeding. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Selection and characterization of resistance to the Vip3Aa20 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis in Spodoptera frugiperda.

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    Bernardi, Oderlei; Bernardi, Daniel; Horikoshi, Renato J; Okuma, Daniela M; Miraldo, Leonardo L; Fatoretto, Julio; Medeiros, Fernanda Cl; Burd, Tony; Omoto, Celso

    2016-09-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is one the main target pests of maize events expressing Vip3Aa20 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in Brazil. In this study, we selected a resistant strain of S. frugiperda on Bt maize expressing Vip3Aa20 protein and characterized the inheritance and fitness costs of the resistance. The resistance ratio of the Vip3Aa20-resistant strain of S. frugiperda was >3200-fold. Neonates of the Vip3Aa20-resistant strain were able to survive and emerge as fertile adults on Vip3Aa20 maize, while larvae from susceptible and heterozygous strains did not survive. The inheritance of Vip3Aa20 resistance was autosomal recessive and monogenic. Life history studies to investigate fitness cost revealed an 11% reduction in the survival rate until adult stage and a ∼50% lower reproductive rate of the Vip3Aa20-resistant strain compared with susceptible and heterozygous strains. This is the first characterization of S. frugiperda resistance to Vip3Aa protein. Our results provide useful information for resistance management programs designed to prevent or delay resistance evolution to Vip3Aa proteins in S. frugiperda. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Impact of Spodoptera frugiperda neonate pretreatment conditions on Vip3Aa19 insecticidal protein activity and laboratory bioassay variation.

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    Da Silva, Karen F; Spencer, Terence A; Camargo Gil, Carolina; Siegfried, Blair D; Walters, Frederick S

    2016-04-01

    Variation in response to insecticidal proteins is common upon repetition of insect bioassays. Understanding this variation is a prerequisite to detecting biologically important differences. We tracked neonate Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) susceptibility to Vip3Aa19 over 17 generations using standardized bioassay methods. Five larval pretreatment conditions and one bioassay condition were tested to determine whether susceptibility was affected. These included: storage time; prefeeding; storage at reduced temperature; storage at reduced humidity; colony introgression of field-collected individuals. Extremes of photoperiod during the bioassay itself were also examined. LC50 values for two strains of S. frugiperda varied 6.6-fold or 8.8-fold over 17 generations. Storage time and humidity had no impact on Vip3Aa19 susceptibility, whereas prefeeding significantly reduced subsequent mortality (by 27%). Storage at reduced temperature increased mortality for one colony (from 45.6 to 73.0%) but not for the other. Introgression of field-collected individuals affected susceptibility at the first generation but not for subsequent generations. A 24 h bioassay photophase significantly reduced susceptibility (by 26%) for both colonies. Certain pretreatment and bioassay conditions were identified that can affect S. frugiperda Vip3Aa19 susceptibility, but innate larval heterogeneity was also present. Our observations should help to increase the consistency of insecticidal protein bioassay results. © 2015 Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Cyanogenic glycosides in Lotus corniculatus : Their effect upon growth, energy budget, and nitrogen utilization of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Scriber, J

    1978-01-01

    Two genotypes (one cyanogenic and the other acyanogenic) of birds-foot trefoil, Lotus corniculatus L., were used to study the effects of cyanogenic glycosides in leaf tissues upon a polyphagous herbivore, the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania Cram. (Lepidoptera). No differences were observed in consumption rate, assimilation efficiency, utilization of plant biomass, or metabolic costs in terms of expended calories between larvae fed acyanogenic or cyanogenic leaves. Similarly no differences were seen in the nitrogen or caloric utilization efficiencies, or in the nitrogen accumulation rate or growth rate of larvae on cyanogenic versus acyanogenic plants. Larval performance and growth on 20-week old plants was generally poorer than on 4 week old plants, however. This was reflected in slower growth, smaller pupal weights, lower nitrogen utilization efficiencies (N.U.E.) and biomass assimilation efficiencies (A.D.) on both the cyanogenic and acyanogenic plants.Although useful as a deterrent to some herbivores, cyanogenesis does not seem to provide an effective defense against this "adapted" herbivore. This study supports current hypotheses of insect/plant coevolution, and suggests that the metabolic costs of processing cyanogenic plant biomass are small in comparison to those imposed by the nutritional status of the plant leaves.

  5. Properties of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase and its relationship to microsomal mixed-function oxidation in the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F

    1975-07-01

    1. Activity of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase was measured in the midgut and other tissues of the last larval instar of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cramer, formerly Prodenia eridania Cramer). 2. Optimum conditions for measuring the activity were established with respect to all variables involved and considerable differences from those reported for mammalian enzyme preparations were found. 3. Maximum activity (20 nmol/h per mg of protein) occurs 18-24 h after the fifth moult and thereafter decreases to trace amounts as the larvae age and approach pupation. 4. Synthetase activity was rapidly induced by oral administration (in the diet) of pentamethylbenzene, phenobarbital, diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine-3, 5-dicarboxylate, and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide. 5. Puromycin inhibited the induction of synthetase by pentamethylbenzene. 6. Induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase correlated well with the induction of microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro-N-methylaniline, except for phenobarbital, which induced the microsomal oxidase relatively more than the synthetase.

  6. Morphological changes induced by thermal treatment and gamma irradiation on the males' hind legs of Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae; Lepidoptera

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    Mai S. EL-Degwi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of males' hind legs of Spodoptera littoralis subjected to thermal treatment (33 °C and 37 °C or/and irradiated with substerilizing doses of gamma radiation (75, 100 and 150 Gy were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM in the parental generation. Five types of sensilla have been distinguished; three types of trichoid sensilla (T1,T2 and T3, sensilla basiconica and sensilla auricillica, which are considered as olfactory chemoreceptors. Moreover, sensilla chaetica are contact chemoreceptors, whereas sensilla styloconica are thermo–hygro/gustatory mechanoreceptors. The impact of thermal treatment or/and gamma irradiation reflect a clear morphological change in S. littoralis legs'sensilla, claws, spurs and scales. Otherwise, the degree of deformity was thermal and dose dependent, as it increased with an increase of the degree of temperature and dose of irradiation applied. Substerilizing doses 75 and 100 Gy, either alone or combined with thermal treatment 33 °C, have low undesirable effects on the hind legs with successful mobility or courtship behavior. Consequently, synergistic effect of gamma radiation and thermal stress induced successful application in the integrated pest management program for controlling S. littoralis.

  7. The improvement of eggs quality of Mojosari duck (Anas javanica with soybean husk fermentation using cellulolytic bacteria of Spodoptera litura

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    Sri Hidanah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to improve the quality of the eggs of Mojosari duck (Anas javanica through complete feeding containing soybean husk was fermented using cellulolytic bacteria of Spodoptera litura. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of three stages: The first stages, isolation and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from S. litura; the second stage, the fermentation of soybean husk through the application of bacterial cellulolytic isolate from the first stage; and the third stage, the application of the best complete feed formulation from the second stage to Mojosari duck. Results: There are four dominant bacteria: Bacillus sp., Cellulomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Cytophaga sp. Furthermore, the best reduction of the crude fiber of soybean husks is the use of Cellulomonas sp. bacteria. The final of the study, the quality of the eggs of Anas javanica, was improved, as indicated by cholesterol decrease from the yolk without the decrease of egg weight and eggshell thickness, although the decrease in egg yolk color was inevitable. Conclusion: Soy husk fermentation using cellulolytic bacteria of S. litura was added to complete feeding can be performed to improve the quality of the eggs of Mojosari duck.

  8. Detection on emamectin benzoate-induced apoptosis and DNA damage in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiwei; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Chao; Zong, Mimi; Huang, Qingchun; Tao, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EMB), an important macrocyclic lactone insecticide that belongs to the avermectin family and possesses excellent potency in controlling pests, is non-carcinogenic and non-mutagenic conducted in rats and mice, but EMB-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in arthropod insect have been seldom reported yet. In the present paper, we quantified the cytotoxicity of EMB through the detections on cell viability, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cells in vitro. The results showed that EMB caused a concentration- and time-dependent reduction on the viability of Sf-9 cells, and the median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were 3.34μM at 72h of exposure. The dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining showed that exposure to EMB induced a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase on cell apoptosis. The alkaline comet assay revealed that EMB induced significant increases on single-strand DNA breaks, and the percentage of γH2AX-positive cells represented a time- and concentration-dependent formation of DNA double-strand breaks in Sf-9 cells. Interestingly, the similar cytotoxic actions of EMB also went for the human cancerous HeLa cells as a control cell group. Data demonstrated the potential cytotoxic effect of EMB on Sf-9 cells that was significantly greater than the effect of hydrogen peroxide at the same concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of insecticides chlorpyrifos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil on Spodoptera litura might be mediated by OBPs and CSPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X; Jiang, Y; Zhang, L; Cai, Y

    2017-12-04

    Spodoptera litura is a widespread polyphagous insect pest that can develop resistance and cross-resistance to insecticides, making it difficult to control. Insecticide exposure has previously been linked with induction of specific olfactory-related proteins, including some chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and odorant-binding proteins (OPBs), which may disrupt detection of environmental factors and reduce fitness. However, functional evidence supporting insecticide and OBPs/CSPs mediation remains unknown. Here we fed male S. litura moths with sucrose water containing one of three insecticides, chlorpyrifos, emamectin benzoate or fipronil, and used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and RNAi to investigate OBPs and CSPs expression and their correlations with survival. Chlorpyrifos and emamectin benzoate increased expression of 78% of OBPs, plus 63 and 56% of CSP genes, respectively, indicating a major impact on these gene families. RNAi knockdown of SlituCSP18, followed by feeding with chlorpyrifos or fipronil, decreased survival rates of male moths significantly compared with controls. Survival rate also decreased significantly with the downregulation of SlituOBP9 followed by feeding with chlorpyrifos. Thus, although these three insecticides had different effects on OBP and CSP gene expression, we hypothesize that SlituOBPs and SlituCSPs might mediate their effects by increasing their expression levels to improve survival. Moreover, the differential response of S. litura male moths to the three insecticides indicated the potential specificity of chlorpyrifos affect SlituCSP18 and SlituOBP9 expression.

  10. Encapsulation and Hemocyte Numbers in Crocidolomia pavonana and Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera Attacked by Parasitoid Eriborus argenteopilosus Cameron (Hymenoptera

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    DAMAYANTI BUCHORI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Eriborus argenteopilosus is the most important parasitoid attacking cabbage pest Crocidolomia pavonana in Indonesia. Previous studies proved that parasitoid encapsulation was found to be an important factor limiting the effectiveness of the parasitoid in controlling pest population in the field. Since 1998, we have conducted series studies to investigate encapsulation mechanism developed by hosts against parasitoid, responses of parasitoid toward encapsulation ability and to determine factors that may help parasitoid avoid encapsulation. Parasitoid responses were examined on two different hosts C. pavonana and Spodoptera litura. Our findings showed that parasitization level was found to be high both on C. pavonana and S. litura. Encapsulation occurred to be high in all larva stages of C. pavonana, in contrast encapsulation was recorded very low in all larvae stages of S. litura. We recorded that encapsulation in the larval body of C. pavonana was completed in 72 hours and mostly occurred in higher larval stage. Melanization was only recorded in encapsulated parasitoid inside larva body of C. pavonana, not in S. litura. We recorded that encapsulation increased blood cell number of both larvae C. pavonana and S. litura. Encapsulation may affect development of immature parasitoid. Weight of S. litura's pupae containing encapsulated parasitoid was found to be lower in S. litura, but not in C. pavonana. Our investigation also proved that superparasitism may help parasitoid avoid encapsulation.

  11. Impact of sesquiterpenes from Inula racemosa (Asteraceae) on growth, development and nutrition of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Kumar, Rakesh; Upendrabhai, Deep Patel; Singh, Inder Pal; Kaur, Sanehdeep

    2017-05-01

    The use of botanical pesticides for protecting crops from insect pests has assumed greater importance all over the world owing to growing awareness of harmful effects of indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides. Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Asteraceae), a medicinally important perennial herb, is rich in sesquiterpenes with many biological activities. The present studies were conducted with the objective to evaluate the sesquiterpenes isolated from I. racemosa for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura (F.). Alantolactone and isoalantolactone isolated from I. racemosa exerted growth inhibitory effects on S. litura. Addition of both the sesquiterpenes to larval diet extended the development period and reduced pupation as well as adult emergence. The dietary utilisation experiments on third-instar larvae of S. litura revealed reduction in consumption and growth rates of larvae as well as efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food owing to alantolactone and isoalantolactone. The root extract of I. racemosa, which is rich in two sesquiterpenes, i.e. alantolactone and isoalantolactone, has the potential for management of S. litura. However, there is a need to understand the specific mechanism of action of these compounds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON CUTICULAR PROTEINS OF SPODOPTERA LITURA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) VIS-A-VIS THE MODES OF APPLICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooboon, T; Pluempanupat, W; Koul, Opender; Bullangpoti, V

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachtin is a known botanical insecticide with multiple modes of action. Whether these effects have any relation with the modes of application, specifically during ecdysis process, has been the objective of the present study and accordingly the impairment, if any, among cuticular proteins of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) was determined. Azadirachtin was applied topically, via injection or oral administration. Azadirachtin administered via injection and topical applications severely impaired the ecdysis by 86.67 and 80.0%, respectively. However, this impairment via oral administration was significantly lower (73.33%). Using SDS-PAGE, the cuticular proteins were determined for treated insects under all the three modes of application. In all cases 6 protein bands (MW 9-34 kDa) were identified using markers as standard. In all treatments 3 induced proteins (MW. ~16, 20 and 23 kDa) and 1 reduced protein (~19 kDa) were observed. In case of the topical treatment a different induced protein of ~18 kDa was identified. The change in cuticular proteins, their possible role in ecdysis impairment vis-a-vis the mode of application of azadirachtin is being correlated. This will help in understanding the mode-of-action at cuticular level and also will allow developing a suitable application strategy under field conditions in insect pest management.

  13. Induction of Autophagy and Apoptosis via PI3K/AKT/TOR Pathways by Azadirachtin A in Spodoptera litura Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xuehua; Lai, Duo; Zhang, Ling; Xu, Hanhong

    2016-10-18

    Azadirachtin is one of the most effective botanical insecticides and has been widely used in pest control. Toxicological reports show that azadirachtin can induce apoptosis in various insect cell lines. However, studies of azadirachtin-induced autophagy in cultured insect cells are lacking. This study reports that azadirachtin A significantly inhibits cell proliferation by inducing autophagic and apoptotic cell death in Spodoptera litura cultured cell line (SL-1 cell). Characteristic autophagolysosome and Atg8-PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) accumulation were observed by electron microscopy and western blotting, indicating that azadirachtin triggered autophagy in SL-1 cell. Furthermore, azadirachtin inhibited survival signaling by blocking the activation of PI3K, AKT and the down-stream target of rapamycin. Similar to the positive control of starvation, azadirachtin induced the activation of insulin receptor (InR) via a cellular feedback mechanism. In addition, the autophagy-related 5 (Atg5), a molecular switch of autophagy and apoptosis, was truncated (tAtg5) to trigger cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm under azadirachtin stress, which indicated that azadirachtin induced apoptosis through autophagy. Our findings suggest that azadirachtin primarily induced autophagy in SL-1 cell by dysregulating InR- and PI3K/AKT/TOR pathways, then stimulated apoptosis by activating tAtg5.

  14. Enzymatic activity of α-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Characterization and Compartmentalization

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    Ali Darvishzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to gain a better understanding of the digestive physiology. The physiology and biochemistry of the insect digestive enzyme had an important role in the study of novel insecticidal strategies. The Egyptian cotton leafworm alimentary canal consists of a short foregut, a long midgut and a short hindgut. Application of pH indicators showed that alimentary canal was alkaline. Our results showed that activities of gut α-amylase were different in three parts of the insect gut. Also shown the greatest activity of α-amylase observed in the midgut followed by hindgut and foregut, respectively. However, there were not significant differences in activity of the enzyme in the midgut and hindgut. The optimal pH α-amylase in foregut, midgut and hindgut were 10.0. Zymogram analysis of different part of gut showed four bands in midgut, hind gut and two bands in foregut. Therefore, in midgut of S. littoralis, four isoenzymes were present. These results explain why more amylase activity was seen in these regions in the spectrophotometric assay.

  15. Biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em Algodoeiro de Fibra Colorida Tratado com Silício

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    Alex Silva

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. The caterpillar Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith is a key pest of the corn culture and each year its occurrence in the cotton culture has increased, causing severe damage from the seedling phase to maturation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the silicon on the biology of S. frugiperda in white and colored fiber cotton plants. The bioassays were conducted with two cultivars of cotton, BRS Cedro (white fibers and BRS Verde (green fibers, with and without silicon application. The silicon was applied as a solution of 1% silicon acid, at a dosage equivalent to 3 ton/ha of SiO2. The following biological parameters were evaluated: larval mortality, duration of the larval and pupal phase, pupal viability, pupal weight, gender ratio, adult longevity of males and females and the number of eggs/female. It was verified that the silicon application only increased the mortality of caterpillars fed with BRS Cedro leaves, not demonstrating any effect on the caterpillars when applied on BRS Verde. Furthermore, the BRS Cedro cultivar, when compared to the BRS Verde cultivar, presented a lower pupal weight and a lower eggs/female production.

  16. Extrato aquoso de ramos de Trichilia pallida e o desenvolvimento de Spodoptera frugiperda em genótipos de milho

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    Torrecillas Sônia Martins

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência da lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith criada em folhas de dois genótipos de milho (o padrão comercial C 901 e o resistente CMS 23 tratados com extratos aquosos (0,1 e 1% de ramos da planta inseticida Trichilia pallida Swartz (Meliaceae. As variáveis biológicas avaliadas foram peso, duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal. Em plantas tratadas com o extrato a 1%, ocorreu mortalidade total das lagartas nos dois genótipos, enquanto que a 0,1% o extrato reduziu a sobrevivência e o peso larval e prolongou o período de desenvolvimento. Lagartas alimentadas com o genótipo CMS 23 apresentaram menor sobrevivência, menor peso e maior período de desenvolvimento do que no genótipo C 901.

  17. Atividade inseticida de extratos etanólicos de plantas sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith (Leptopdera noctuidae

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    Sérgio Roberto Rodrigues

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda é uma importante praga na cultura do milho, e o estudo de plantas com propriedades inseticidas para auxílio no controle desta praga tem aumentado devido aos benefícios que pode proporcionar. Desta forma, desenvolveu-se o trabalho com objetivo de avaliar o efeito de extratos etanólicos de Ocotea minarum, Nectandra megapotamica, Mascagnia pubiflora, Terminalia argentea e Tabebuia aurea, sobre S. frugiperda. Folhas de milho foram imersas nos extratos a 1% (peso/volume e, depois de evaporado o excesso de água, fornecidas à lagartas de primeiro ínstar. Para o estudo de biologia, lagartas recém-eclodidas foram mantidas em tubos de vidro, enquanto que nos testes de preferência alimentar foram acondicionadas em placas de Petri. Os efeitos na biologia de S. frugiperda foram observados para os extratos de O. minarum, N. megapotamica, M. pubiflora e T. argentea. Tabebuia aurea promoveu maior mortalidade larval. Na fase pupal O. lancifolia, T. aurea e T. argentea promoveram redução do peso pupal. Folhas de milho tratadas com extratos de M. pubiflora, T. argentea e N. megapotamica não foram preferidos para alimentação. Todas as espécies vegetais apresentaram efeito inseticida.

  18. EFEITO DE BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (BT SOBRE LAGARTAS DE SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA E ANTICARSIA GEMMATALIS EM LABORATÓRIO

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    Fabrício Oliveira Fernandes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anticarsia gemmatalis (lagarta-da-soja e Spodoptera frugiperda (lagarta-do-cartucho são insetos polífagos e desfolhadores, responsáveis por prejuízos em diversas culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a mortalidade desses insetos através do consumo de dieta artificial com a adição de cepas de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. Para a realização dos experimentos foram utilizadas 30 lagartas de A. gemmatalis (3º instar e S. frugiperda (1º instar para cada tratamento, as quais foram acondicionadas em tubos de vidro esterilizados contendo 1 cm3 de dieta artificial. Posteriormente foram adicionadas alíquotas de 150µl de Bt var israelensis (Bti, Bt var kurstaki (Btk, Bt var oswaldo cruz (Bto e água destilada para o controle. O tratamento com Btk resultou em maior mortalidade ambas espécies, seguidas por Bto para A. gemmatalis e Bti para S. frugiperda.

  19. Morphology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on neem-treated leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Alicely A.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Oliveira, Jose V. de; Torres, Jorge B.; Teixeira, Alvaro A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (Neemseto R ) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 deg C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Bouein's aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (Neemseto R ), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron. (author)

  20. Feeding-induced phenol production in Capsicum annuum L. influences Spodoptera litura F. larval growth and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, Vijaya; Pathipati, Usha Rani

    2017-05-01

    We studied the role of induced plant phenols as a defense response to insect herbivory. Phenolic compounds were induced in Capsicum annuum L., the source of many culinary peppers, after feeding by different stages of the insect pest, Spodoptera litura F. The phenols were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and effects produced by these phenols on larval development were studied. Vanillic acid was identified in plants challenged by second, fourth, and fifth instar larvae, but not in plants challenged by third instar nor unchallenged plants. Syringic acid production was induced in chili plants infested with second (0.429 ± 0.003 μg/g fresh weight, fourth (0.396 ± 0.01 μg/g fresh weight), and fifth instar (5.5 ± 0.06 μg/g fresh weight) larvae, compared to untreated plants (0.303 ± 0.01 μg/g fresh weight) plants. Leaves surface treated with the rutin deterred oviposition. Dietary exposure to chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin led to enhanced activities of detoxifying enzymes, β-glucosidase, carboxyl esterase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase in the midgut tissues of all the larval instars, indicating the toxic nature of these compounds. Protein carbonyl content and acetylcholinesterase activity was analyzed to appreciate the role of induced plant phenols in insect protein oxidation and terminating nerve impulses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. EFECTO DE DIETAS EN ADULTOS DE Spodoptera cosmioides (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE SOBRE LA FERTILIDAD, FECUNDIDAD Y LONGEVIDAD DEL ADULTO

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    M. C. CURIS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de cultivares de soja Bt + RR2Y determinó la emergencia de una nueva plaga, Spodoptera cosmioides, una plaga altamente polífaga de amplia distribución. La cría de insectos en cámaras de cría es necesaria para estudios de investigación básica y aplicada. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de tres dietas ricas en carbohidratos (solución de miel, de jarabe de glucosa y de jarabe de maíz en la alimentación de los adultos y determinar su efecto sobre la fecundidad, fertilidad y supervivencia de S. cosmioides. Se determinó que, si bien no se hallaron diferencias entre los tratamientos, la composición de los  azúcares de las dietas, puede afectar los parámetros reproductivos de esta plaga, ya que las hembras alimentadas con solución de miel natural, más rica en compuestos orgánicos, aumentaron la fecundidad, refl ejado en una mayor puesta y eclosión de huevos y la longevidad de los adultos.

  2. Temperature effects on the mating frequency of Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milano, Patricia; Berti Filho, Evoneo; Parra, Jose R.P.; Consoli, Fernando L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of temperature on the mating frequency of two lepidopterans, Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), which use different strategies of allocation, and with the utilization of nutrients for their reproductive activities. The insects were reared on artificial diets at 25 deg C, and the adults were exposed to five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 deg C) to observe the influence of each temperature on their mating frequency, fecundity, fertility and longevity. The temperature affected the mating frequency of both species, being more evident at 15 deg C and 35 deg C, mainly for A. gemmatalis, which presented a drastic reduction on mating activities. The highest number of matings were observed from 20 deg C to 30 deg C, with S. frugiperda presenting mating activity (0-8) much higher than that of A. gemmatalis (0-2), but no correlation was observed among the number of matings and all other biological parameters evaluated (fecundity, fertility and longevity). However, S. frugiperda showed a positive correlation between fecundity and mating activity of females (r = 0.589; P = 0.003) at 25 deg C. The highest fecundities were observed at temperatures from 20 deg C to 30 deg C for S. frugiperda and at 25 deg C for A. gemmatalis. For both species, the longevity of males and females decreased as temperature increased. (author)

  3. Nerium oleander indirect leaf photosynthesis and light harvesting reductions after clipping injury or Spodoptera eridania herbivory: high sensitivity to injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Kevin J

    2012-04-01

    Variable indirect photosynthetic rate (P(n)) responses occur on injured leaves after insect herbivory. It is important to understand factors that influence indirect P(n) reductions after injury. The current study examines the relationship between gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with injury intensity (% single leaf tissue removal) from clipping or Spodoptera eridania Stoll (Noctuidae) herbivory on Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae). Two experiments showed intercellular [CO(2)] increases but P(n) and stomatal conductance reductions with increasing injury intensity, suggesting non-stomatal P(n) limitation. Also, P(n) recovery was incomplete at 3d post-injury. This is the first report of a negative exponential P(n) impairment function with leaf injury intensity to suggest high N. oleander leaf sensitivity to indirect P(n) impairment. Negative linear functions occurred between most other gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with injury intensity. The degree of light harvesting impairment increased with injury intensity via lower (1) photochemical efficiency indicated lower energy transfer efficiency from reaction centers to PSII, (2) photochemical quenching indicated reaction center closure, and (3) electron transport rates indicated less energy traveling through PSII. Future studies can examine additional mechanisms (mesophyll conductance, carbon fixation, and cardenolide induction) to cause N. oleander indirect leaf P(n) reductions after injury. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. An ascovirus isolated from Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) transmitted by the generalist endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Braconidae: Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Eiko; Ishii, Kazuo; Ishii, Hiroki; Sagawa, Shiori; Makiyama, Nao; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Katayama, Yukie; Kunimi, Yasuhisa; Inoue, Maki N; Nakai, Madoka

    2018-04-01

    The family Ascoviridae is a recently described virus family whose members are transmitted by parasitoids and cause chronic and lethal infections in lepidopteran insects. Little is known about the biology and ecology of ascoviruses, and few isolates have been found outside the United States. We report here the isolation of a new ascovirus variant from Spodoptera litura in Japan. Full genome sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that this virus was closely related to variants in Heliothis virescens ascovirus-3a, and it was named HvAV-3j. HvAV-3j has a DNA genome of 191 718 bp, with 189 putative ORFs and a GC content of 45.6 %, and is highly similar to HvAV-3h, which was isolated in China. In a field survey, the endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis caused a high percentage of parasitization in populations of S. litura larvae, and under laboratory conditions M. pulchricornis was able to transmit HvAV-3j from infected to uninfected larvae by oviposition. Meteorus pulchricornis is thus likely to be a major vector for HvAV-3j transmission in Japan. This species is recognized here for the first time as a vector of ascoviruses that parasitizes a range of host species that extends across families.

  5. Assessment of electron beam-induced abnormal development and DNA damage in Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Seung- Hwan; Lee, Seon-Woo; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil- Hah

    2014-01-01

    The armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) is a polyphagous and important agricultural pest worldwide. In this study, we examined the effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages, reproduction, and DNA damage of S. litura. Eggs (0–24 h old), larvae (3rd instar), pupae (3 days old after pupation), and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with electron beam irradiation of six levels between 30 and 250 Gy. When eggs were irradiated with 100 Gy, egg hatching was completely inhibited. When the larvae were irradiated, the larval period was significantly delayed, depending on the doses applied. At 150 Gy, the fecundity of adults that developed from irradiated pupae was entirely inhibited. However, electron beam irradiation did not induce the instantaneous death of S. litura adults. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated moths demonstrated that females were more radiosensitive than males. We also conducted the comet assay immediately after irradiation and over the following 5 days period. Severe DNA fragmentation in S. litura cells was observed just after irradiation and the damage was repaired during the post-irradiation period in a time-dependent manner. However, at more than 100 Gy, DNA damage was not fully recovered. - Highlights: • Electron beam irradiation induced abnormal development of the cutworm. • Electron beam irradiation induced the sterility of the cutworm. • Electron beam irradiation increased levels of DNA damage. • DNA damage by high irradiation exposure was not completely repaired

  6. Dynamics and regulation of glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid metabolism in the midgut of Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Luo, W; Fan, L F; Liu, F L; Gu, J; Deng, H M; Zhang, C; Huang, L H; Feng, Q L

    2016-04-01

    Significant changes usually take place in the internal metabolism of insects during metamorphosis. The glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid (glycolysis-TCA) pathway is important for energy metabolism. To elucidate its dynamics, the mRNA levels of genes involved in this pathway were examined in the midgut of Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis, and the pyruvate content was quantified. The expression patterns of these genes in response to starvation were examined, and the interaction between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) was studied. The results revealed that the expression or activities of most glycolytic enzymes was down-regulated in prepupae and then recovered in some degree in pupae, and all TCA-related genes were remarkably suppressed in both the prepupae and pupae. Pyruvate was enriched in the pupal midgut. Taken together, these results suggest that insects decrease both glycolysis and TCA in prepupae to save energy and then up-regulate glycolysis but down-regulate TCA in pupae to increase the supply of intermediates for construction of new organs. The expression of all these genes were down-regulated by starvation, indicating that non-feeding during metamorphosis may be a regulator of glycolysis-TCA pathway in the midgut. Importantly, interaction between PP1 and PFK was identified and is suggested to be involved in the regulation of glycolysis. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. First Report of Outbreaks of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a New Alien Invasive Pest in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goergen, Georg; Kumar, P Lava; Sankung, Sagnia B; Togola, Abou; Tamò, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a prime noctuid pest of maize on the American continents where it has remained confined despite occasional interceptions by European quarantine services in recent years. The pest has currently become a new invasive species in West and Central Africa where outbreaks were recorded for the first time in early 2016. The presence of at least two distinct haplotypes within samples collected on maize in Nigeria and São Tomé suggests multiple introductions into the African continent. Implications of this new threat to the maize crop in tropical Africa are briefly discussed.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of the Spodoptera frugiperda ascovirus in vivo provides insights into how its apoptosis inhibitors and caspase promote increased synthesis of viral vesicles and virion progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Heba; Hice, Robert; Arensburger, Peter; Federici, Brian A

    2017-09-27

    Ascoviruses are ds DNA viruses that attack caterpillars and differ from all other viruses by inducing nuclear lysis followed by cleavage of host cells into numerous anucleate vesicles in which virus replication continues as these grow in the blood. Ascoviruses are also unusual in that most encode apoptosis inhibitors and caspase or caspase-like proteins. A robust cell line to study the novel molecular biology of ascovirus replication in vitro is lacking. Therefore, we used strand-specific RNA-Seq to study transcription in vivo in third instars of Spodoptera frugiperda infected with the Spodoptera frugiperda ascovirus, a member of the type species, Spodoptera frugiperda ascovirus (SfAV-1a), sampling transcripts at different time points after infection. We targeted transcription of two types of SfAV-1a genes; first, 44 core genes that occur in several ascovirus species, and second, 26 genes predicted in silico to have metabolic functions likely involved in synthesizing viral vesicle membranes. Gene cluster analysis showed differences in temporal expression of SfAV-1a genes, enabling their assignment to three temporal classes; early, late and very late. Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP-like proteins; ORF016, ORF025 and ORF074) were expressed early, whereas its caspase (ORF073) was expressed very late, which correlated with apoptotic events leading to viral vesicle formation. Expression analysis revealed that a Diedel gene homolog (ORF121), the only known "virokine," was highly expressed, implying this ascovirus protein helps evade innate host immunity. Lastly, single-nucleotide resolution of RNA-Seq data revealed 15 bicistronic and tricistronic messages along the genome, an unusual occurrence for large ds DNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Unlike all other DNA viruses, ascoviruses code for an executioner caspase, apparently involved in a novel cytopathology in which viral replication induces nuclear lysis followed by cell cleavage yielding numerous large anucleate viral vesicles

  9. Aspectos Bionômicos de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer: Uma Praga em Expansão na Cultura da Soja na Região do Cerrado Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sardinha de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Abstract. Soybean, Glycine max (L. Merril, represents one of the major economically important crops to Brazil, and is considered a national commodity because of its high yield and participation in international trade exportations. Among the insect pests that cause damage to this crop, Spodoptera eridania (Cramer larvae highlighted in the last agricultural seasons by feeding on leaves and pods of soybean plants, and hence causing economical losses to soybean growers, especially in the Cerrado areas located in the Midwest region of the country. We aimed with this review to provide information about bionomical aspects of S. eridania in order to give subsides for further researches on the management of this pest.

  10. Radiation-induced phosphorylation of P53 protects radioresistant Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells by suppressing microRNA-31-Bim-Bax mediated apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Chandna, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the role of microRNA-31 (miR-31) in the regulation of radiation-induced apoptosis in model radioresistant insect cell line Sf9 (derived from the ovaries of insect Spodoptera frugiperda) which carries well-conserved apoptotic response. We also investigated the miR-31 expression regulation by p53 homologue in these cells. Our initial in silico analysis confirmed perfect conservation of mature miR-31 across various insect orders, hence we designed biotinylated probes from Bombyx mori sequence for successful detection of miR-31 in Sf9 cells

  11. Biologia comparada de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cebola, mamona, soja e feijão Compared biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in onion, castor oil plant, soybean and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar Bavaresco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. sobre quatro hospedeiros naturais (folhas de cebola, mamona, soja cv. Embrapa 48 e feijão cv. Carioca. Foram avaliados a duração e viabilidade das fases imaturas e do ciclo total, número de ínstares, peso de pupas, razão sexual, porcentagem de deformação de adultos e de adultos não liberados dos invólucros pupais, longevidade de adultos, fecundidade e viabilidade de ovos. Observou-se menor duração e maior viabilidade do período ovo-adulto para mamona e cebola (39,7 dias e 21,7% e 40,5 dias e 21,8%, respectivamente, do que para soja (46,0 dias e 3,9%. O peso pupal foi de 444,6 mg em cebola, 420,0 em feijão, 396,6 em mamona e 298,7 em soja. Constatou-se um predomínio de seis ínstares larvais em folhas de cebola e mamona, ocorrendo também sete para alguns indivíduos, enquanto que em soja predominou a ocorrência de sete, também verificando oito ínstares, indicando uma menor adequação nutricional deste hospedeiro. As fêmeas apresentaram duração da fase pupal significativamente menor do que os machos em todos hospedeiros, fazendo com que a emergência do adulto ocorresse antes dos machos. Em cebola, a longevidade de adultos foi significativamente superior aos demais hospedeiros. A fecundidade foi maior em cebola e mamona (3224 e 3206 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente, enquanto que para soja observou-se 1353 ovos/fêmea. Em folhas de feijão, o desenvolvimento do inseto foi prejudicado por caracteres morfológicos - pilosidade, que promoveram elevada mortalidade na fase larval.The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. was studied on four natural hosts (onion leaves, castor oil plant, soy cv. Embrapa 48 and bean cv. Carioca. The duration and viability of immature phases and total cycle, instar number, pupals weight, sexual ratio, percentage of deformed adults and adults not released of pupal beg, adults' longevity, fecundity and eggs viability were evaluated. It was observed in

  12. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira Biology, fertility life table and effect of insecticides on Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in strawberry and grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.The biology of Spodoptera eridania was studied in the laboratory (22±1ºC, RH 70±10%, 14 hours of photoperiod in leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' and grape (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. The duration and viability of the entire cycle were respectively 52.2±1.32 days and 37.6% for strawberry and 42.2±0.45 days and 25.5% for grapes. The sex ratio in strawberry was 0.58 and 0.48 on grape. The average longevity of males and females in strawberry was 16.3±1.16 and 15.8±1.85 days, respectively, and 5.6±0.88 and 7.3±0.83 days in grape. The mean fecundity was 1,747.5±187.32 eggs per female in strawberry and 1,764.9±289.04 on grape. The life table of fertility showed that the net reproduction rate and finite rate of increase were 394.89 and 1.10, respectively, for strawberry and 213.98 and 1.12 for grapevine. Strawberry cv. 'Aromas' and grape cv

  13. Larval and pupal stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in sweet and field corn genotypes Fases larval e pupal de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em genótipos de milho doce e comum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Santos

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a very significant polyphagous pest due to the damages it causes, and control difficulties. Lack of information about its impact on sweet corn motivated a comparison of its biology, with respect to the larval and pupal stages, among the genotypes ELISA, BR 400 (sweet corns, and BR PAMPA (field corn. In laboratory conditions (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% RH; photophase 12 hours, 35 caterpillars were individualized and fed daily with 3.14 cm² sections of corn leaves from the referred-to genotypes, cultivated in plots in the experimental area of the Departament of Fitossanidade, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS from October to November 2000. The caterpillars were weighed daily; after each molt, the cephalic capsules were collected and measured (in width, to establish growth rate; pupae were weighed and sexed when 24 hours old. The duration of the larval instars, the pupal sex ratio, and the mortality of larvae and pupae were evaluated. In the first three instars there were no differences registered in capsule width. In the fourth and fifth instars, capsules of caterpillars kept in BR 400 were smaller. The weight of caterpillars and pupae, instar duration and sex ratio did not differ among the genotypes. Pupal phase duration was less in females kept in BR 400. Mortality was greater in the larval phase in ELISA and in the pupal phase in BR PAMPA.Spodoptera frugiperda, a lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho, é uma praga polífaga de grande importância agrícola pelos danos e dificuldade de controle. A ausência de informações sobre seu impacto em milho doce motivou a comparação de sua biologia, no que tange as fases larval e pupal, entre os genótipos de milho ELISA, BR 400 (milhos doces e BR PAMPA (milho comum. Em condições de laboratório (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% UR; fotofase 12 horas, 35 lagartas foram individualizadas e alimentadas, diariamente, com seções de folhas de 3,14 cm² dos referidos genótipos, provenientes

  14. Morphology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on neem-treated leaves; Morfologia do canal alimentar de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) alimentadas com folhas tratadas com nim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Alicely A.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Oliveira, Jose V. de; Torres, Jorge B. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Entomologia Agricola]. E-mail: aliceliac@yahoo.com.br; valeria@dmfa.ufrpe.br; Teixeira, Alvaro A.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal

    2009-01-15

    Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (Neemseto{sup R}) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 deg C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Bouein's aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (Neemseto{sup R}), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron. (author)

  15. Response of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura to zinc stress: Zn accumulation, metallothionein and cell ultrastructure of the midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Yinghua [Key Laboratory of Agro-Environments in Tropics, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); State Key Laboratory of Biological Control and Institute of Entomology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Guren [State Key Laboratory of Biological Control and Institute of Entomology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Jianwu, E-mail: wangjw@scau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Agro-Environments in Tropics, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2012-11-01

    By exposing the common cutworm Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae to a range of Zinc (Zn) stress, we investigated the effects of dietary Zn on Zn accumulation, metallothionein (MT), and on the ultrastructure of the midgut. The techniques we used were inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), real-time PCR combined with cadmium-hemoglobin total saturation, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the Zn accumulations in the midgut of the larvae and the Zn concentrations in the diet. Furthermore, both MT content and MT gene expression in the midgut were significantly induced in the 50-500 mg Zn/kg treatments, and were significantly positively correlated with the Zn accumulations in the midgut. When S. litura larvae were fed with the diet treated with 500 mg Zn/kg, Zn accumulation and MT content in the midgut was 4450.85 mg Zn/kg and 372.77 mg/kg, respectively, thereafter there was a little increase; the level of MT gene expression was maximal, thereafter there was a sharp decrease. TEM showed that numerous electron-dense granules (EDGs) and vacuoles appeared in the cytoplasm of the midgut cells, their number and size being closely correlated with the Zn accumulations in the midgut. Moreover, the nuclei were strongly influenced by Zn stress, evidenced by chromatin condensation and irregular nuclear membranes. Therefore, after being exposed to Zn in the threshold (500 mg Zn/kg) range, S. litura larvae could accumulate Zn in the midgut, which led to the induction of MT and changes in cell ultrastructure (mainly the presence of EDGs). The induction of MT and precipitation of Zn in EDGs may be the effective detoxification mechanisms by which the herbivorous insect S. litura defends itself against heavy metals. -- Graphical abstract: When the herbivorous insect Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae were fed on the artificial diet with different concentrations of Zn, amounts of

  16. Estimation of resistance allele frequency to maize incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in field populations of the fall army Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from south region of the United State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South Americas. In the falls of 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were es...

  17. Model and scenario variations in predicted number of generations of Spodoptera litura Fab. on peanut during future climate change scenario.

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    Mathukumalli Srinivasa Rao

    Full Text Available The present study features the estimation of number of generations of tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura. Fab. on peanut crop at six locations in India using MarkSim, which provides General Circulation Model (GCM of future data on daily maximum (T.max, minimum (T.min air temperatures from six models viz., BCCR-BCM2.0, CNRM-CM3, CSIRO-Mk3.5, ECHams5, INCM-CM3.0 and MIROC3.2 along with an ensemble of the six from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1. This data was used to predict the future pest scenarios following the growing degree days approach in four different climate periods viz., Baseline-1975, Near future (NF -2020, Distant future (DF-2050 and Very Distant future (VDF-2080. It is predicted that more generations would occur during the three future climate periods with significant variation among scenarios and models. Among the seven models, 1-2 additional generations were predicted during DF and VDF due to higher future temperatures in CNRM-CM3, ECHams5 & CSIRO-Mk3.5 models. The temperature projections of these models indicated that the generation time would decrease by 18-22% over baseline. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to partition the variation in the predicted number of generations and generation time of S. litura on peanut during crop season. Geographical location explained 34% of the total variation in number of generations, followed by time period (26%, model (1.74% and scenario (0.74%. The remaining 14% of the variation was explained by interactions. Increased number of generations and reduction of generation time across the six peanut growing locations of India suggest that the incidence of S. litura may increase due to projected increase in temperatures in future climate change periods.

  18. Dynamics of Membrane Potential Variation and Gene Expression Induced by Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

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    Bricchi, Irene; Bertea, Cinzia M.; Occhipinti, Andrea; Paponov, Ivan A.; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Biotic stress induced by various herbivores and pathogens invokes plant responses involving different defense mechanisms. However, we do not know whether different biotic stresses share a common response or which signaling pathways are involved in responses to different biotic stresses. We investigated the common and specific responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to three biotic stress agents: Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Methodology/Principal Findings We used electrophysiology to determine the plasma membrane potential (Vm) and we performed a gene microarray transcriptome analysis on Arabidopsis upon either herbivory or bacterial infection. Vm depolarization was induced by insect attack; however, the response was much more rapid to S. littoralis (30 min −2 h) than to M. persicae (4–6 h). M. persicae differentially regulated almost 10-fold more genes than by S. littoralis with an opposite regulation. M. persicae modulated genes involved in flavonoid, fatty acid, hormone, drug transport and chitin metabolism. S. littoralis regulated responses to heat, transcription and ion transport. The latest Vm depolarization (16 h) was found for P. syringae. The pathogen regulated responses to salicylate, jasmonate and to microorganisms. Despite this late response, the number of genes differentially regulated by P. syringae was closer to those regulated by S. littoralis than by M. persicae. Conclusions/Significance Arabidopsis plasma membranes respond with a Vm depolarization at times depending on the nature of biotic attack which allow setting a time point for comparative genome-wide analysis. A clear relationship between Vm depolarization and gene expression was found. At Vm depolarization timing, M. persicae regulates a wider array of Arabidopsis genes with a clear and distinct regulation than S. littoralis. An almost completely opposite regulation was observed between the aphid and the pathogen, with the former

  19. Nuclear receptors HR96 and ultraspiracle from the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), developmental expression and induction by xenobiotics.

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    Giraudo, Maeva; Audant, Pascaline; Feyereisen, René; Le Goff, Gaëlle

    2013-05-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a major polyphagous pest in agriculture and little is known on how this insect can adapt to the diverse and potentially toxic plant allelochemicals that they ingest or to insecticides. To investigate the involvement of nuclear receptors in the response of S. frugiperda to its chemical environment, we cloned SfHR96, a nuclear receptor orthologous to the mammalian xenobiotic receptors, pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). We also cloned ultraspiracle (USP), the ortholog of retinoid X receptor (RXR) that serves as partner of dimerization of PXR and CAR. Cloning of SfUSP revealed the presence of two isoforms, SfUSP-1 and SfUSP-2 in this species, that differ in their N-terminal region. The expression of these receptors as well as the ecdysone receptor was studied during specific steps of development in different tissues. SfHR96 was constitutively expressed in larval midgut, fat body and Malpighian tubules throughout the last two instars and pupal stage, as well as in Sf9 cells. EcR and SfUSP-2 showed peaks of expression before larval moults and during metamorphosis, whereas SfUSP-1 was mainly expressed in the pre-pupal stage. Receptor induction was followed after exposure of larvae or cells to 11 chemical compounds. SfHR96 was not inducible by the tested compounds. EcR was significantly induced by the 20-hydroxyecdysone agonist, methoxyfenozide, and SfUSP showed an increase expression when exposed to the juvenile hormone analog, methoprene. The cloning of these nuclear receptors is a first step in understanding the important capacities of adaptation of this insect pest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Correlation of LNCR rasiRNAs Expression with Heterochromatin Formation during Development of the Holocentric Insect Spodoptera frugiperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojcic, Slavica; Gimenez, Sylvie; Permal, Emmanuelle; Cousserans, François; Quesneville, Hadi; Fournier, Philippe; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Repeat-associated small interfering RNAs (rasiRNAs) are derived from various genomic repetitive elements and ensure genomic stability by silencing endogenous transposable elements. Here we describe a novel subset of 46 rasiRNAs named LNCR rasiRNAs due to their homology with one long non-coding RNA (LNCR) of Spodoptera frugiperda. LNCR operates as the intermediate of an unclassified transposable element (TE-LNCR). TE-LNCR is a very invasive transposable element, present in high copy numbers in the S. frugiperda genome. LNCR rasiRNAs are single-stranded RNAs without a prominent nucleotide motif, which are organized in two distinct, strand-specific clusters. The expression of LNCR and LNCR rasiRNAs is developmentally regulated. Formation of heterochromatin in the genomic region where three copies of the TE-LNCR are embedded was followed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and we observed this chromatin undergo dynamic changes during development. In summary, increased LNCR expression in certain developmental stages is followed by the appearance of a variety of LNCR rasiRNAs which appears to correlate with subsequent accumulation of a heterochromatic histone mark and silencing of the genomic region with TE-LNCR. These results support the notion that a repeat-associated small interfering RNA pathway is linked to heterochromatin formation and/or maintenance during development to establish repression of the TE-LNCR transposable element. This study provides insights into the rasiRNA silencing pathway and its role in the formation of fluctuating heterochromatin during the development of one holocentric organism. PMID:21980354

  2. Pollen contamination in seed mixture increases the dominance of resistance to Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Brown, Sebe; Head, Graham P; Huang, Fangneng

    2017-11-01

    Seed mixture, also called 'RIB', has been used to provide refuge populations for delaying insect resistance. Pollen contamination in RIB could result in refuge kernels of non-Bt maize expressing variable Bt proteins. Data are lacking regarding the impact of pollen contamination on evolution of resistance for ear-feeding insects. Here, we used Spodoptera frugiperda and Cry1F-maize as a model to examine if pollen contamination in RIB increases the dominance of insect resistance. Pollen contamination caused >66% refuge kernels in 5:95% (non-Bt:Bt) and 20:80% RIBs to express Cry1F protein. Survival at adult stage on pure non-Bt ears was similar (54.4-63.3%) among Cry1F-susceptible (SS), Cry1F-resistant (RR) and Cry1F-heterozygous (RS) S. frugiperda. On Bt ears, survival was similar between SS and RS (0.0-1.7%), but it was significantly less than that of RR (59.2%). On the two RIB refuge ears, survival at adult stage for RS (42.3% in 5:95% RIB; 50.0% in 20:80% RIB) was significantly higher than for SS (8.7% in 5:95% RIB; 10.0% in 20:80% RIB). The results suggest that pollen contamination in RIB could increase the dominance of resistance for ear-feeding insects by significantly reducing susceptible refuge populations and supporting higher survival of heterozygotes relative to homozygous susceptible insects. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Renato J.; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B.; Okuma, Daniela M.; Miraldo, Leonardo L.; Amaral, Fernando S. De A. E.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-10-01

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants.

  4. Geographic Variation in Sexual Attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda Corn- and Rice-Strain Males to Pheromone Lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbehend, Melanie; Hänniger, Sabine; Vásquez, Gissella M.; Juárez, María Laura; Reisig, Dominic; McNeil, Jeremy N.; Meagher, Robert L.; Jenkins, David A.; Heckel, David G.; Groot, Astrid T.

    2014-01-01

    The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this could have been due to inter-strain and/or geographic differences. Therefore, we investigated whether corn- and rice-strain males differed in their response to different synthetic pheromone blends in different regions in North America, the Caribbean and South America. All trapped males were strain-typed by two strain-specific mitochondrial DNA markers. In the first experiment, we found a nearly similar response of corn- and rice-strain males to two different 4-component blends, resembling the corn- and rice-strain female blend we previously described from females in Florida. This response showed some geographic variation in fields in Canada, North Carolina, Florida, Puerto Rico, and South America (Peru, Argentina). In dose-response experiments with the critical secondary sex pheromone component (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:OAc), we found some strain-specific differences in male attraction. While the response to Z7-12:OAc varied geographically in the corn-strain, rice-strain males showed almost no variation. We also found that the minor compound (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:OAc) did not increase attraction of both strains in Florida and of corn-strain males in Peru. In a fourth experiment, where we added the stereo-isomer of the critical sex pheromone component, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate, to the major pheromone component (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc), we found that this compound was attractive to males in North Carolina, but not to males in Peru. Overall, our results suggest that both strains show rather geographic than strain-specific differences in their response to pheromone lures, and that regional sexual communication differences might cause geographic

  5. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordy, John W; Leonard, B Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A; Stout, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  6. Accumulation of dsRNA in endosomes contributes to inefficient RNA interference in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, June-Sun; Gurusamy, Dhandapani; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2017-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) efficiency varies among insects studied. The barriers for successful RNAi include the presence of double-stranded ribonucleases (dsRNase) in the lumen and hemolymph that could potentially digest double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and the variability in the transport of dsRNA into and within the cells. We recently showed that the dsRNAs are transported into lepidopteran cells, but they are not processed into small interference RNAs (siRNAs) because they are trapped in acidic bodies. In the current study, we focused on the identification of acidic bodies in which dsRNAs accumulate in Sf9 cells. Time-lapse imaging studies showed that dsRNAs enter Sf9 cells and accumulate in acidic bodies within 20 min after their addition to the medium. CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA also accumulated in the midgut and fat body dissected from Spodoptera frugiperda larvae with similar patterns observed in Sf9 cells. Pharmacological inhibitor assays showed that the dsRNAs use clathrin mediated endocytosis pathway for transport into the cells. We investigated the potential dsRNA accumulation sites employing LysoTracker and double labeling experiments using the constructs to express a fusion of green fluorescence protein with early or late endosomal marker proteins and CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA. Interestingly, CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA accumulated predominantly in early and late endosomes. These data suggest that entrapment of internalized dsRNA in endosomes is one of the major factors contributing to inefficient RNAi response in lepidopteran insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inheritance of Cry1F resistance, cross-resistance and frequency of resistant alleles in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, A M; Spencer, T A; Alves, A P; Moellenbeck, D; Meagher, R L; Chirakkal, H; Siegfried, B D

    2013-12-01

    Transgenic maize, Zea maize L., expressing the Cry1F protein from Bacillus thuringiensis has been registered for Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) control since 2003. Unexpected damage to Cry1F maize was reported in 2006 in Puerto Rico and Cry1F resistance in S. frugiperda was documented. The inheritance of Cry1F resistance was characterized in a S. frugiperda resistant strain originating from Puerto Rico, which displayed >289-fold resistance to purified Cry1F. Concentration-response bioassays of reciprocal crosses of resistant and susceptible parental populations indicated that resistance is recessive and autosomal. Bioassays of the backcross of the F1 generation crossed with the resistant parental strain suggest that a single locus is responsible for resistance. In addition, cross-resistance to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ba, Cry2Aa and Vip3Aa was assessed in the Cry1F-resistant strain. There was no significant cross-resistance to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ba and Cry2Aa, although only limited effects were observed in the susceptible strain. Vip3Aa was highly effective against susceptible and resistant insects indicating no cross-resistance with Cry1F. In contrast, low levels of cross-resistance were observed for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Because the resistance is recessive and conferred by a single locus, an F1 screening assay was used to measure the frequency of Cry1F-resistant alleles from populations of Florida and Texas in 2010 and 2011. A total frequency of resistant alleles of 0.13 and 0.02 was found for Florida and Texas populations, respectively, indicating resistant alleles could be found in US populations, although there have been no reports of reduced efficacy of Cry1F-expressing plants.

  8. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.

  9. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    María R. ROSSETTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en ldosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.

  10. Characterization of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Takeout Genes and Their Differential Responses to Insecticides and Sex Pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Yanyun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Spodoptera litura (S. litura) is one of the most serious agricultural insect pests worldwide. Takeout (TO) is involved in a variety of physiological and biochemical pathways and performs various biological functions. We characterized 18 S. litura TO genes and investigated their differential responses to insecticides and sex pheromones. All predicted TO proteins have two Cysteines that are unique to the N-terminal of the TO family proteins and contain four highly conserved Prolines, two Glycines, and one Tyrosine. The expression levels of seven TO genes in the male antennae were higher than those in the female antennae, although the expression levels of 10 TO genes in the female were higher than those in the male. We investigated the effects of the sex pheromone and three insecticides, that is, chlorpyrifos (Ch), emamectin benzoate (EB), and fipronil (Fi), on the expression levels of the TO genes in the antennae. The results showed that the insecticides and sex pheromone affect the expression levels of the TO genes. One day after the treatment, the expression levels of SlTO15 and SlTO4 were significantly induced by the Ch/EB treatment. Two days after the S. litura moths were treated with Fi, the expression of SlTO4 was significantly induced (28.35-fold). The expression of SlTO10 changed significantly after the Ch and EB treatment, although the expression of SlTO12 and SlTO15 was inhibited by the three insecticides after two days of treatment. Our results lay a foundation for studying the role of TO genes in the interaction between insecticides and sex pheromone. PMID:28973484

  11. Biopotency of serine protease inhibitors from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds on digestive proteases and the development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Cream7-purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki ) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect-resistant transgenic plants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of nickel exposure on testicular function, oxidative stress, and male reproductive dysfunction in Spodoptera litura Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongxia; Wu, Wenjing; Guo, Jixing; Xiao, Rong; Jiang, Fengze; Zheng, Lingyan; Zhang, Guren

    2016-04-01

    Nickel is an environmental pollutant that adversely affects the male reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of nickel exposure on Spodoptera litura Fabricius were investigated by feeding larvae artificial diets containing different doses of nickel for three generations. Damage to testes and effects on male reproduction were examined. The amount of nickel that accumulated in the testes of newly emerged males increased as the nickel dose in the diet increased during a single generation. Nickel exposure increased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased the amount of glutathione in treatment groups compared with the control. The activity levels of the antioxidant response indices superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the testes showed variable dose-dependent relationships with nickel doses and duration of exposure. Nickel doses also disrupted the development of the testes by decreasing the weight and volume of testes and the number of eupyrene and apyrene sperm bundles in treatment groups compared with the control. When the nickel-treated males mated with normal females, fecundity was inhibited by the higher nickel doses in all three generations, but fecundity significantly increased during the second generation, which received 5 mg kg(-1) nickel. Hatching rates in all treatments significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the three successive generations. The effects of nickel on these parameters correlated with the duration of nickel exposure. Results indicate assays of testes may be a novel and efficient means of evaluating the effects of heavy metals on phytophagous insects in an agricultural environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Degradation of pheromone and plant volatile components by a same odorant-degrading enzyme in the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

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    Nicolas Durand

    Full Text Available Odorant-Degrading Enzymes (ODEs are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly removing odorant molecules from the vicinity of the olfactory receptors. Only three ODEs have been both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized: two were specialized in the degradation of pheromone compounds and the last one was shown to degrade a plant odorant.Previous work has shown that the antennae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, a worldwide pest of agricultural crops, express numerous candidate ODEs. We focused on an esterase overexpressed in males antennae, namely SlCXE7. We studied its expression patterns and tested its catalytic properties towards three odorants, i.e. the two female sex pheromone components and a green leaf volatile emitted by host plants.SlCXE7 expression was concomitant during development with male responsiveness to odorants and during adult scotophase with the period of male most active sexual behaviour. Furthermore, SlCXE7 transcription could be induced by male exposure to the main pheromone component, suggesting a role of Pheromone-Degrading Enzyme. Interestingly, recombinant SlCXE7 was able to efficiently hydrolyze the pheromone compounds but also the plant volatile, with a higher affinity for the pheromone than for the plant compound. In male antennae, SlCXE7 expression was associated with both long and short sensilla, tuned to sex pheromones or plant odours, respectively. Our results thus suggested that a same ODE could have a dual function depending of it sensillar localisation. Within the pheromone-sensitive sensilla, SlCXE7 may play a role in pheromone signal termination and in reduction of odorant background noise, whereas it could be involved in plant odorant inactivation within the short sensilla.

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Four Crop Plants.

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    John W Gordy

    Full Text Available Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA, benzothiadiazole (BTH, gibberellic acid (GA, harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (FAW (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  15. Toxicity of the phenolic extract from jabuticabeira (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart. O. Berg fruit skins on Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Ana Paula C Alves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is the main pest of maize, besides attacking sorghum and cotton crops. The control of this pest has been accomplished mainly with the use of synthetic insecticides but, due to the growing concern about the environment and food quality, phenolic compounds have shown their potential for the biological control of this insect. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of the extract of jabuticabeira, Myrciaria cauliflora [Mart.] O. Berg (Myrtaceae fruit skin flour in the control of S. frugiperda. Skins of M. cauliflora Sabará genotype were dried at 45 °C in a forced air oven. In order to obtain the extract, 1.0 g flour was mixed with 10 mL acetone: water solution (7:3 v/v. Forty-eight-hour-old S. frugiperda caterpillars were placed in glass tubes with an artificial diet containing the extract at concentrations of 0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg L-1. The extract, in which the phenolic compounds gallic acid, gallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid, and salicylic acid were identified at a concentration of 2000 mg L-1, in average, increased mortality rates by 150% in the larval stage, duration of larval stages by 60%, and pupal by 17%, and decreased amount of females by 55%. On the other hand, the extract at 1000 mg L-1 only increased duration of larval period by 24%. It was concluded that the extract is harmful to this insect, probably due to the presence of phenolic compounds.

  16. Insect growth regulatory effects of some extracts and sterols from Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Salazar, J Rodrigo; Martínez, Mariano; Aranda, Eduardo

    2005-10-01

    A methanol extract from the roots and aerial parts of Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) yielded peniocerol 1, macdougallin 2, and chichipegenin 3. The natural products 1, 2 their mixtures, MeOH and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts showed insecticidal and insect growth regulatory activity against fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)], an important insect pest of corn, and [Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera)], a pest of stored grains in Mexico. The most active compounds were 1, 2, and a mixture (M(2)) of 1 and 2 (6:4). All these extracts, compounds and the mixture had insect growth regulating (IGR) activity between 5.0 and 50.0 ppm and insecticidal effects between 50 and 300 ppm in diets. The extracts were insecticidal to larvae, with lethal doses between 100 and 200 ppm. These compounds appear to have selective effects on the pre-emergence metabolism of Coleoptera, because in all treatments of the larvae of T. molitor, pupation were shortened and this process show precociousness in relation to controls. In contrast to S. frugiperda larvae, onset of pupation was noticeably delayed. Emergence in both cases was drastically diminished. In both pupae and in the few adults that were able to emerge, many deformations were observed. The results of these assays indicated that the compounds were more active than other known natural insect growth inhibitors such as gedunin and methanol extracts of Cedrela salvadorensis and Yucca periculosa. Peniocerol, macdougallin and chichipegenin, as well as mixtures of these substances, may be useful as natural insecticidal agents.

  17. Efficiency of Gamma Radiation Alone or In Combination With Heat Stress on Metal Contents of Parents and First Generation of Males of The Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera Littoralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Degwi, M.S.; Alm El-Din, M.M.S.; Hazaa, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to determine the influence of gamma radiation either alone or in combination with heat on the contents and concentration of elements detected in the whole body tissue of male parents and F1 generation of Spodoptera littoralis treated as full grown pupae. The doses applied were 75, 100 and 150 Gy. The data revealed the presence of eight elements in parents and F1 generation exposed to different heat stress (27±2, 33 and 37 degree C and P and Mg were the major contents. The obtained data indicated also that there were no differences in the composition of individual elements between male parents and male F1 generation. There were differences in relative concentration which depends on irradiation dose. The combination treatments were effective on elements concentration. The total concentration of light elements of male parents and F1 generation was increased by increasing the radiation dose. In the contrary, the concentration of heavy element was decreased by increasing the radiation dose. It could be concluded that gamma radiation and/or heat was effective on elements concentrations in adult body of male parents and F1 generation of Spodoptera littoralis which served as biological indicator of normal metabolic pathways and/or biological activity.

  18. Phenological patterns of Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is more affected by ENSO than seasonal factors and host plant availability in a Brazilian Savanna

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    Piovesan, Mônica; Specht, Alexandre; Carneiro, Eduardo; Paula-Moraes, Silvana Vieira; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2018-03-01

    The identification of factors responsible for the population dynamics is fundamental for pest management, since losses can reach 18% of annual production. Besides regular seasonal environmental factors and crop managements, additional supra-annual meteorological phenomena can also affect population dynamics, although its relevance has been rarely investigated. Among crop pests, Spodoptera stands out due to its worldwide distribution, high degree of polyphagy, thus causing damages in several crops in the world. Aiming to distinguish the relevance of different factors shaping population dynamics of Spodoptera in an ecosystem constituted of dry and rainy seasons, the current study used circular statistics to identify phenological patterns and test if its population fluctuation is driven by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect, seasonal meteorological parameters, and/or host plant availability. Samplings were done in an intercropping system, in the Brazilian Savanna, during the new moon cycles between July/2013 and June/2016. Species were recorded all year round, but demonstrated differently non-uniform distribution, being concentrated in different seasons of the year. Population fluctuations were mostly affected by the ENSO intensity, despite the contrasting seasonal meteorological variation or host plant availability in a 400-m radius. Studies involving the observation of supra-annual phenomena, although rare, reach similar conclusions in relation to Neotropical insect fauna. Therefore, it is paramount to have long-term sampling studies to obtain a more precise response of the pest populations towards the agroecosystem conditions.

  19. Desenvolvimento e mortalidade larval de Spodoptera frugiperda em folhas de milho tratadas com extrato aquoso de folhas de Azadirachta indica Larval development and mortality of Spodoptera frugiperda fed on corn leaves treated with aqueous extract from Azadirachta indica leaves

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    Paulo Afonso Viana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do extrato aquoso de folhas de nim sobre o desenvolvimento e a mortalidade de lagartas recém-eclodidas de Spodoptera frugiperda. Para constatação do efeito de contato e de ingestão, as lagartas foram pulverizadas e as folhas de milho submersas no extrato (10 mg.mL-1 em laboratório e/ou pulverizadas no campo com um pulverizador de CO2. Partes de folhas de milho tratadas foram colocadas em copos plásticos para alimentar as lagartas e trocadas a cada dois dias. Adjuvantes foram adicionados ao extrato visando melhorar sua aderência às superfícies tratadas. Os parâmetros avaliados foram a mortalidade e o desenvolvimento larval. As folhas de milho submergidas e pulverizadas com o extrato causaram elevada mortalidade (100% e prejudicaram o desenvolvimento das lagartas sobreviventes. Na avaliação realizada 10 dias após a aplicação, o espalhante adesivo e o óleo de soja misturados ao extrato melhoraram a eficiência deste. A mortalidade das lagartas ocorreu três dias após a aplicação do extrato e a sua pulverização diretamente sobre o inseto não prejudicou o desenvolvimento larval. O extrato aquoso de nim mostrou-se com potencial para o controle de S. frugiperda.The effect of aqueous extracts from neem leaves and spraying adjuvants were evaluated on development and mortality of neonate S. frugiperda larvae. Corn leaves were dipped in the aqueous extract (10 mg.mL-1 in the laboratory and/or sprayed in the field with a CO2 sprayer and placed in plastic cup for larvae rearing. The treated corn leaves were replaced every other day. Corn leaves submerged and sprayed with the extract caused high larval mortality (100% and showed a negative effect on the larval development. The spreading agent and soybean oil mixed with neem extract improved larval mortality at the end of the 10-day period. The aqueous extract caused lethal effect on S. frugiperda larvae after three days of the application and sprayed directly on the

  20. Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Exhibits No Preference between Bt and Non-Bt Maize Fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Carla C.; Koch, Robert L.; Burkness, Eric C.; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Joerg; Hutchison, William D.; Fernandes, Marcos G.

    2012-01-01

    A recent shift in managing insect resistance to genetically engineered (GE) maize consists of mixing non-GE seed with GE seed known as “refuge in a bag”, which increases the likelihood of predators encountering both prey fed Bt and prey fed non-Bt maize. We therefore conducted laboratory choice-test feeding studies to determine if a predator, Harmonia axyridis, shows any preference between prey fed Bt and non-Bt maize leaves. The prey species was Spodoptera frugiperda, which were fed Bt maize (MON-810), expressing the single Cry1Ab protein, or non-Bt maize. The predators were third instar larvae and female adults of H. axyridis. Individual predators were offered Bt and non-Bt fed prey larvae that had fed for 24, 48 or 72 h. Ten and 15 larvae of each prey type were offered to third instar and adult predators, respectively. Observations of arenas were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 6, 15 and 24 h after the start of the experiment to determine the number and type of prey eaten by each individual predator. Prey larvae that fed on non-Bt leaves were significantly larger than larvae fed Bt leaves. Both predator stages had eaten nearly all the prey by the end of the experiment. However, in all combinations of predator stage and prey age, the number of each prey type consumed did not differ significantly. ELISA measurements confirmed the presence of Cry1Ab in leaf tissue (23–33 µg/g dry weight) and S. frugiperda (2.1–2.2 µg/g), while mean concentrations in H. axyridis were very low (0.01–0.2 µg/g). These results confirm the predatory status of H. axyridis on S. frugiperda and that both H. axyridis adults and larvae show no preference between prey types. The lack of preference between Bt-fed and non-Bt-fed prey should act in favor of insect resistance management strategies using mixtures of GE and non-GE maize seed. PMID:23024772

  1. Detection of sister-species in invasive populations of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Wee Tek; Walsh, Thomas K.; Kanyesigye, Dalton; Adumo, Stella; Abongosi, Joseph; Ochen, Stephen; Sserumaga, Julius; Alibu, Simon; Abalo, Grace; Asea, Godfrey; Agona, Ambrose

    2018-01-01

    The fall armyworm (FAW) Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is a species native to the Americas. This polyphagous lepidopteran pest was first reported in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe in 2016, but its presence in eastern Africa has not been confirmed via molecular characterisation. In this study, FAW specimens from western and central Uganda were identified based on the partial mtDNA COI gene sequences, with mtDNA COI haplotypes matching those identified in Nigeria and São Tomé. In this study, we sequence an additional partial mtDNA Cyt b gene and also the partial mtDNA COIII gene in Ugandan FAW samples. We detected identical mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for both the mtDNA Cyt b and COI partial genes, while combining the mtDNA COI/Cyt b haplotypes and mtDNA COIII haplotypes enabled a new maternal lineage in the Ugandan corn-preferred FAW samples to be identified. Our results suggested that the African incursions of S. frugiperda involved at least three maternal lineages. Recent full genome, phylogenetic and microsatellite analyses provided evidence to support S. frugiperda as likely consisted of two sympatric sister species known as the corn-preferred and rice-preferred strains. In our Ugandan FAW populations, we identified the presence of mtDNA haplotypes representative of both sister species. It is not known if both FAW sister species were originally introduced together or separately, and whether they have since spread as a single population. Further analyses of additional specimens originally collected from São Tomé, Nigeria and throughout Africa would be required to clarify this issue. Importantly, our finding showed that the genetic diversity of the African corn-preferred FAW species is higher than previously reported. This potentially contributed to the success of FAW establishment in Africa. Furthermore, with the additional maternal lineages detected, there is likely an increase in paternal lineages, thereby increasing

  2. Distribution of Glycan Motifs at the Surface of Midgut Cells in the Cotton Leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis Demonstrated by Lectin Binding

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    Tomasz Walski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycans are involved in many biological phenomena, including signal transduction, cell adhesion, immune response or differentiation. Although a few papers have reported on the role of glycans in the development and proper functioning of the insect midgut, no data are available regarding the localization of the glycan structures on the surface of the cells in the gut of insects. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial distribution of glycans present on the surface of the midgut cells in larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, an important agricultural pest insect worldwide. For this purpose, we established primary midgut cell cultures, probed these individual cells that are freely suspended in liquid medium with a selection of seven fluorescently labeled lectins covering a range of different carbohydrate binding specificities [mannose oligomers (GNA and HHA, GalNAc/Gal (RSA and SSA, GlcNAc (WGA and Nictaba and Neu5Ac(α-2,6Gal/GalNAc (SNA-I], and visualized the interaction of these lectins with the different zones of the midgut cells using confocal microscopy. Our analysis focused on the typical differentiated columnar cells with a microvillar brush border at their apical side, which are dominantly present in the Lepidopteran midgut and function in food digestion and absorption, and as well as on the undifferentiated stem cells that are important for midgut development and repair. Confocal microscopy analyses showed that the GalNAc/Gal-binding lectins SSA and RSA and the terminal GlcNAc-recognizing WGA bound preferentially to the apical microvillar zone of the differentiated columnar cells as compared to the basolateral pole. The reverse result was observed for the mannose-binding lectins GNA and HHA, as well as Nictaba that binds preferentially to GlcNAc oligomers. Furthermore, differences in lectin binding to the basal and lateral zones of the cell membranes of the columnar cells were apparent. In the midgut stem cells, GNA and

  3. Geographic variation in sexual attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda corn- and rice-strain males to pheromone lures.

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    Melanie Unbehend

    Full Text Available The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this could have been due to inter-strain and/or geographic differences. Therefore, we investigated whether corn- and rice-strain males differed in their response to different synthetic pheromone blends in different regions in North America, the Caribbean and South America. All trapped males were strain-typed by two strain-specific mitochondrial DNA markers. In the first experiment, we found a nearly similar response of corn- and rice-strain males to two different 4-component blends, resembling the corn- and rice-strain female blend we previously described from females in Florida. This response showed some geographic variation in fields in Canada, North Carolina, Florida, Puerto Rico, and South America (Peru, Argentina. In dose-response experiments with the critical secondary sex pheromone component (Z-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:OAc, we found some strain-specific differences in male attraction. While the response to Z7-12:OAc varied geographically in the corn-strain, rice-strain males showed almost no variation. We also found that the minor compound (Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:OAc did not increase attraction of both strains in Florida and of corn-strain males in Peru. In a fourth experiment, where we added the stereo-isomer of the critical sex pheromone component, (E-7-dodecenyl acetate, to the major pheromone component (Z-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc, we found that this compound was attractive to males in North Carolina, but not to males in Peru. Overall, our results suggest that both strains show rather geographic than strain-specific differences in their response to pheromone lures, and that regional sexual communication differences might cause

  4. Estádio de adaptação de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em hospedeiros alternativos Fitness stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on alternative hosts

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    Katia Gisele Brasil Boregas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A principal praga-alvo na cultura do milho é a lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, que, pela sua ampla distribuição temporal e geográfica constitui-se em uma das espécies mais nocivas nas regiões tropicais das Américas. O objetivo foi avaliar o estádio de adaptação de S. frugiperda em 17 espécies hospedeiras, cultivadas ou selvagens, mais comuns no agroecossistema brasileiro. As plantas foram cultivadas em cinco épocas, entre 2006 e 2008, utilizando o milho como padrão. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram individualizadas e confinadas em copo plástico (50 mL, onde foram alimentadas com seções de folha nova de cada hospedeiro. O alimento foi substituído a cada dois dias por folhas frescas. Quatro variáveis biológicas foram avaliadas e utilizadas para se calcular um Índice de Adaptação (IA. Os resultados indicaram que a sobrevivência inicial de S. frugiperda variou de 100%, no milho, a 46%, no arroz. O período larval variou de 12,6 dias, no milho, a 27,1 dias, na grama batatais. A biomassa de pupa variou de 173,1 mg, no carrapicho, a 294,2 mg, no milho. O índice de adaptação, calculado com base nas variáveis biológicas de S. frugiperda, nos hospedeiros avaliados, variou de 17,43, no milho cultivado na época I, a 1,46, na cana-de-açúcar na época III. Para corrigir o efeito de época sobre o índice de adaptação de S. frugiperda nos hospedeiros, foi calculado o Índice Relativo de Adaptação (IRA, com base no índice de adaptação no milho (100%. Assim, com base no índice relativo de adaptação, estimado em condições de laboratório, os hospedeiros alternativos ao milho, para S. frugiperda, podem ser assim ordenados, do maior para o menor índice: sorgo granífero, sorgo selvagem, milheto, capim-tanzânia, amendoim, capim-marandu, capim-braquiária, caruru-de-porco, trigo, soja, algodão, feijão, arroz, capim-carrapicho, grama batatais e cana

  5. Biotransformation of (-)-(1R,4S)-Menthone and (+)-(1S,4R)-Menthone by the Common Cutworm Spodoptera litura Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumoto, Shinsuke; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Hagiwara, Yuki; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2017-08-01

    Using biotransformation as a biocatalytic process has the advantage of being able to proceed under mild conditions and with high regio- and enantioselectivity. This study investigated the biotransformation of (-)-(1R,4S)-menthone (1) and (+)-(1S,4R)-menthone (2) by Spodoptera litura larvae. Compound 1 was converted to (-)-(1R,4S)-7-hydroxymenthone (1-1), (+)-(1R,3S,4S)-7-hydroxyneomenthol (1-2) and (-)-(1R,4S,8R)-p-menth-3-one-9-oic acid (1-3). The metabolism of substrate 2 generated three enantiomers of the above metabolites, designated as 2-1 to 2-3, respectively. The C-9 position of (-)-menthone and (+)-menthone was oxidized to carboxylic acid by S. litura, which is a metabolic pathway not observed in any other example of biocatalysis.

  6. Influence of ionizing radiation on flight activity of F-1 progeny of sub-sterilized male moths of Spodoptera litura (fabr.) (lepidoptera: noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubeda; Zarin, Mahtab; Seth, R.K.; Seth, Ranjana

    2012-01-01

    Radiation mediated 'Inherited or F-1 sterility', as a parabiological (genetic) control measure using a range of 100-130 Gy to the male parents, has been proposed for the suppression of Spodoptera litura (Seth and Sehgal 1993; Seth and Sharma 2001). This is a modified Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) wherein sub-sterilizing gamma doses are preferred than the high (100%) sterilizing dose in order to sustain the insects competitiveness. In the present study the flight activity of F-1 progeny of sub-sterilized male moths was ascertained to judge the performance of F-1 sterility as a control tactic. The male flight ability of F-1 progeny males derived from sub-sterilized male moths, S. litura in presence of normal females, was tested in two modes in 'Flight assay chamber' (a perspex cage of size, 45 x 45 x 60 cm) having a black hollow cylinder (25.4 cm dia, 30.5 cm ht.) placed inside

  7. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae), parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L F; Brito, R A; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003) information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies.

  8. Effect of gamma rays on nucleic acids content (RNA and DNA) of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (BOISD). Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; El-Shall, S.A.; Sobeiha, A.K.; El-Bamby, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Full grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd) were exposed to exposed to sub sterilizing doses of 100, 200 and 300 Gy gamma radiation. The changes in nucleic acids content (RNA and DNA) of irradiated pupae, after 24 hours from irradiation, and also in 3 days old adults resulting from irradiated pupae were investigated. The total nucleic acids content in either pupae or adults was progressively reduced as the dose was increased. The reduction of both RNA and DNA in females was greater than in males. DNA was more radiosensitive than RNA. The destructive action of irradiation on nucleic acids was more pronounced in adult stage. Irradiation increased the RNA/DNA ratio than control at all treatments for female pupae at 200 Gy. 2 tabs

  9. Effect of gamma rays on nucleic acids content (RNA and DNA) of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (BOISD). Vol. 4.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallam, H A; El-Shall, S A [Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Sobeiha, A K; El-Bamby, M A [Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Full grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd) were exposed to exposed to sub sterilizing doses of 100, 200 and 300 Gy gamma radiation. The changes in nucleic acids content (RNA and DNA) of irradiated pupae, after 24 hours from irradiation, and also in 3 days old adults resulting from irradiated pupae were investigated. The total nucleic acids content in either pupae or adults was progressively reduced as the dose was increased. The reduction of both RNA and DNA in females was greater than in males. DNA was more radiosensitive than RNA. The destructive action of irradiation on nucleic acids was more pronounced in adult stage. Irradiation increased the RNA/DNA ratio than control at all treatments for female pupae at 200 Gy. 2 tabs.

  10. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae, parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Camargo

    Full Text Available Abstract The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886 using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003 information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies.

  11. Imidacloprid affects the functional response of predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) to strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) on Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, J B; Ramalho, F S; Omoto, C; Godoy, W A C; Silveira, R F

    2014-03-01

    Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is one of the most common asopine species in the neotropical region and its occurrence was reported in several countries of South and Central America, as an important biological control agent for many crops. This study was carried out to identify the imidacloprid impacts on the functional response of predator P. nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strain resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin, on Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac (Bollgard(®)). Spodoptera frugiperda larvae were used in the following conditions: resistant (1) and susceptible (2) strains to lambda-cyhalothrin fed on Bollgard(®) cotton leaves (DP 404 BG); and resistant (3) and susceptible (4) strains to lambda-cyhalothrin fed on non-genetically modified cotton leaves (cultivar DP4049). The predatory behavior of P. nigrispinus was affected by imidacloprid and the type II asymptotic curve was the one that best described the functional response data. Handling time (T h ) of predator females did not differ among treatments in the presence of imidacloprid. The attack rate did decrease, however, due to an increase in the density of larvae offered. Regardless of the treatment (S. frugiperda strain or cotton cultivar), the predation of P. nigrispinus females on S. frugiperda larvae was significantly lower when exposed to imidacloprid, especially at a density of 16 larvae/predator. The predation behavior of P. nigrispinus on S. frugiperda larvae is affected by the insecticide imidacloprid showing that its applications should be used in cotton crop with caution.

  12. Disposição espacial e injúrias da lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmo Pontes de Melo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento dos padrões de dispersão populacional de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, a mais importante praga do milho, no Brasil, é fundamental para o estabelecimento de técnicas eficientes de monitoramento e manejo. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a distribuição espacial da praga na cultura. A distribuição espacial foi avaliada em cinco campos experimentais, de um hectare cada, divididos em 100 unidades experimentais, onde se avaliaram de cinco a dez plantas por parcela. Foi testado o ajuste das frequências observadas às esperadas, de acordo com as distribuições de Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Spodoptera frugiperda ocorreu em elevados índices populacionais na área amostral, com correlação significativa entre a nota de injúria 3 e o número de lagartas médias, o que também ocorreu para o número de plantas infestadas com pelo menos uma lagarta média. Não houve correlação significativa entre a nota de injúria 3 e lagartas pequenas. O modelo que melhor se aproximou dos dados de distribuição da oviposição foi a Binomial Positiva, enquanto a disposição espacial de lagartas, atacando a espiga, foi descrita como aleatória. O modelo de distribuição Binomial Positiva foi o que melhor representou a distribuição espacial da população de plantas infestadas; a distribuição das lagartas de tamanho médio teve padrão de distribuição agregada.

  13. The feeding preferences of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on cotton plant varieties=Preferência alimentar de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em variedades de plantas algodoeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostenildo Ribeiro Campos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the attractiveness and the non-preference for feeding of newly hatched fall armyworm larvae on the cotton plant parts and different varieties used in the study. The trials were performed at 27 ± 1ºC, a 70% ± 10% relative humidity and a 14h photoperiod. Leaves, bracts, squares and carpel walls of the BRS Itamarati-90 variety and leaves of Fibermax-966, Fibermax-977, DeltaOpal, DeltaPenta, BRS Acala-90, Coodetec-408, Coodetec-409, Coodetec-410, BRS-Cedro, BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, IPR-96, IPR-120, BRS-Araçá, IAC-24 and BRS Itamarati-90 varieties were used in attractiveness, multiple-choice and confinement (no-choice non-preference feeding trials. Twenty larvae were released per petri dish test (arena system with 10 repetitions. Attractiveness trials were evaluated by counting feeding caterpillars over 60 min. and by measuring non-preference at 24h. Leaves were the most attractive item and were preferred for feeding. In the multiple-choice arena trials, Coodetec-410 was the most attractive variety, and BRS Acala-90, Fibermax-966 and DeltaPenta were the least attractive to fall armyworm larvae. In the non-preference trial, BRS-Araça was the variety favored for feeding. BRS-Cedro, BRS Itamarati-90, DeltaPenta, Coodetec-408 and BRS-Aroeira were the least-favored varieties. In the 60 min. attractiveness trials, 46 min. proved to be the most suitable time for evaluating the attractiveness of cotton plants to newly hatched fall armyworm larvae.Avaliou-se atratividade e não-preferência alimentar de lagartas recém-eclodidas de Spodoptera frugiperda por partes de plantas e plantas de variedades de algodoeiro. Testes foram realizados a 27 ± 1ºC, UR de 70% ± 10% e fotofase de 14h. Folhas, brácteas, botões florais e cascas de maçãs da variedade BRS Itamarati-90 e folhas de Fibermax-966, Fibermax-977, DeltaOpal, DeltaPenta, BRS Acala-90, Coodetec-408, Coodetec-409, Coodetec-410, BRS-Cedro, BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, IPR-96, IPR-120

  14. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus nucleic acid binding proteins BRO-B and BRO-E associate with host T-cell intracellular antigen 1 homologue BmTRN-1 to influence protein synthesis during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Eiji; Muto, Sayaka; Ijiri, Hiroshi; Mori, Hajime

    2015-07-01

    Previous reports have indicated that the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) nucleic acid binding proteins BRO-B and BRO-E are expressed during the early stage of infection and that the BRO family likely supports the regulation of mRNA; however, no study has directly examined the function of BRO family proteins in virus-permissive cells. Here, we show that BRO-B and BRO-E associate with cellular T-cell intracellular antigen 1 homologue (BmTRN-1), a translational regulator, and other cellular translation-related proteins in silkworm cells during viral infection. We created BM-N cells that expressed BRO-B/E to study molecular interactions between BmTRN-1 and BRO-B/E and how they influenced protein synthesis. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that BmTRN-1 was localized in cytoplasmic foci during BmNPV infection. Immunofluorescence studies confirmed that BmTRN-1 and BRO-B/E were colocalized in the amorphous conspicuous cytoplasmic foci. Reporter gene studies revealed that co-expression of BRO-B/E synergistically led to a significant decrease in protein synthesis from a designed transcript carrying the 5'untranslated region of a cellular mRNA with no significant change of transcript abundance. Additionally, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of BmTRN-1 resulted in a marked inhibition of the ability of BRO-B/E to regulate the transcript. These results suggested that the association of BmTRN-1 with BRO-B/E is responsible for the inhibitory regulation of certain mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level and add an additional mechanism for how baculoviruses control protein synthesis during infection.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of the brain of the silkworm Bombyx mori infected with Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus: A new insight into the molecular mechanism of enhanced locomotor activity induced by viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guobao; Zhang, Jianjia; Shen, Yunwang; Zheng, Qin; Feng, Min; Xiang, Xingwei; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2015-06-01

    Baculoviruses have been known to induce hyperactive behavior in their lepidopteran hosts for over a century. As a typical lepidopteran insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori displays enhanced locomotor activity (ELA) following infection with B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). Some investigations have focused on the molecular mechanisms underlying this abnormal hyperactive wandering behavior due to the virus; however, there are currently no reports about B. mori. Based on previous studies that have revealed that behavior is controlled by the central nervous system, the transcriptome profiles of the brains of BmNPV-infected and non-infected silkworm larvae were analyzed with the RNA-Seq technique to reveal the changes in the BmNPV-infected brain on the transcriptional level and to provide new clues regarding the molecular mechanisms that underlies BmNPV-induced ELA. Compared with the controls, a total of 742 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 218 up-regulated and 524 down-regulated candidates, were identified, of which 499, 117 and 144 DEGs could be classified into GO categories, KEGG pathways and COG annotations by GO, KEGG and COG analyses, respectively. We focused our attention on the DEGs that are involved in circadian rhythms, synaptic transmission and the serotonin receptor signaling pathway of B. mori. Our analyses suggested that these genes were related to the locomotor activity of B. mori via their essential roles in the regulations of a variety of behaviors and the down-regulation of their expressions following BmNPV infection. These results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of BmNPV-induced ELA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV): Natural occurrence and efficacy as a biological insecticide on young banana plants in greenhouse and open-field conditions on the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Ernesto Gabriel; Hernández-Suárez, Estrella; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo

    2017-01-01

    Chrysodeixis chalcites, an important pest of banana crops on the Canary Islands, is usually controlled by chemical insecticides. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the most prevalent isolate of the Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV, Baculoviridae) as a biological insecticide. Overall the prevalence of ChchNPV infection in C. chalcites populations was 2.3% (103 infected larvae out of 4,438 sampled), but varied from 0-4.8% on Tenerife and was usually low (0-2%) on the other islands. On Tenerife, infected larvae were present at 11 out of 17 plantations sampled. The prevalence of infection in larvae on bananas grown under greenhouse structures was significantly higher (3%) than in open-field sites (1.4%). The ChchNPV-TF1 isolate was the most abundant and widespread of four genetic variants of the virus. Application of 1.0x109 viral occlusion bodies (OBs)/l of ChchNPV-TF1 significantly reduced C. chalcites foliar damage in young banana plants as did commonly used pesticides, both in greenhouse and open-field sites. The insecticidal efficacy of ChchNPV-TF1 was similar to that of indoxacarb and a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based insecticide in one year of trials and similar to Bt in the following year of trails in greenhouse and field crops. However, larvae collected at different time intervals following virus treatments and reared in the laboratory experienced 2-7 fold more mortality than insects from conventional insecticide treatments. This suggests that the acquisition of lethal dose occurred over an extended period (up to 7 days) compared to a brief peak in larvae on plants treated with conventional insecticides. These results should prove useful for the registration of a ChchNPV-based insecticide for integrated management of this pest in banana crops on the Canary Islands.

  17. Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV: Natural occurrence and efficacy as a biological insecticide on young banana plants in greenhouse and open-field conditions on the Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Gabriel Fuentes

    Full Text Available Chrysodeixis chalcites, an important pest of banana crops on the Canary Islands, is usually controlled by chemical insecticides. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the most prevalent isolate of the Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV, Baculoviridae as a biological insecticide. Overall the prevalence of ChchNPV infection in C. chalcites populations was 2.3% (103 infected larvae out of 4,438 sampled, but varied from 0-4.8% on Tenerife and was usually low (0-2% on the other islands. On Tenerife, infected larvae were present at 11 out of 17 plantations sampled. The prevalence of infection in larvae on bananas grown under greenhouse structures was significantly higher (3% than in open-field sites (1.4%. The ChchNPV-TF1 isolate was the most abundant and widespread of four genetic variants of the virus. Application of 1.0x109 viral occlusion bodies (OBs/l of ChchNPV-TF1 significantly reduced C. chalcites foliar damage in young banana plants as did commonly used pesticides, both in greenhouse and open-field sites. The insecticidal efficacy of ChchNPV-TF1 was similar to that of indoxacarb and a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-based insecticide in one year of trials and similar to Bt in the following year of trails in greenhouse and field crops. However, larvae collected at different time intervals following virus treatments and reared in the laboratory experienced 2-7 fold more mortality than insects from conventional insecticide treatments. This suggests that the acquisition of lethal dose occurred over an extended period (up to 7 days compared to a brief peak in larvae on plants treated with conventional insecticides. These results should prove useful for the registration of a ChchNPV-based insecticide for integrated management of this pest in banana crops on the Canary Islands.

  18. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  19. Elevated carbon dioxide reduces emission of herbivore induced volatiles in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpene volatiles produced by sweet corn (Zea mays) upon infestation with pests such as beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) function as part of an indirect defense mechanism by attracting parasitoid wasps; yet little is known about the impact of atmospheric changes on this form of plant defense. To in...

  20. Translation of both 5'TOP and non-TOP host mRNAs continues into the late phase of Baculovirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Doitsidou, M.; Thomas, A.A.M.; Maagd, de R.A.; Vlak, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Complete cDNA sequences were obtained for ribosomal protein (rp) L15 and eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 from the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera frugiperda, and for elongation factor eEF2 from S. exigua. The presence of a 5' terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) tract classified the lepidopteran rpL15

  1. Different domains of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins can bind to insect midgut membrane proteins on ligand blots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.; Klei, van der H.; Bakker, P.L.; Stiekema, W.J.; Bosch, D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of the constituent domains of the CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) δ-endotoxins in binding to midgut epithelial cell membrane proteins of Spodoptera exigua and Manduca sexta on ligand blots. A collection of wild- type and CryIC-CryIA hybrid toxins was used for this purpose. As

  2. Interactive effects of above- and belowground herbivory and plant competition on plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Y.; Raaijmakers, C.; Kostenko, O.; Kos, M.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Competition and herbivory are two major factors that can influence plant growth and plant defence. Although these two factors are often studied separately, they do not operate independently. We examined how aboveground herbivory by beet armyworm larvae (Spodoptera exigua) and belowground herbivory

  3. RNAi-based silencing of genes encoding the vacuolar- ATPase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-09

    Nov 9, 2016 ... Spodoptera exigua larval development by silencing chitin synthase gene with RNA interference. Bull. Entomol. Res. 98:613-619. Dow JAT (1999). The Multifunctional Drosophila melanogaster V-. ATPase is encoded by a multigene family. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 31:75-83. Fire A, Xu SQ, Montgomery MK, ...

  4. In silico approaches in the identification of Cryptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    taylorsadmin

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... alignment was performed using the Clustal W software. exigua and Spodoptera litura based on the knowledge of highly conserved chemoreceptors in Drosophila melanogaster. Their research group employed bioinformatics approaches to identify the desired sequences and web-based TMHMM software to.

  5. The resistance of insects to plant proteinase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis describes the induction of proteinase inhibitor synthesis in solanaceous plants (tobacco and tomato), when lepidopteran larvae (Manduca sexta and Spodoptera exigua) are feeding on leaves. It is shown that the

  6. History and Current Status of Development and Use of Viral Insecticides in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulian Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of insect viruses as biological control agents started in the early 1960s in China. To date, more than 32 viruses have been used to control insect pests in agriculture, forestry, pastures, and domestic gardens in China. In 2014, 57 products from 11 viruses were authorized as commercial viral insecticides by the Ministry of Agriculture of China. Approximately 1600 tons of viral insecticidal formulations have been produced annually in recent years, accounting for about 0.2% of the total insecticide output of China. The development and use of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus, Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus, Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus, and Periplaneta fuliginosa densovirus are discussed as case studies. Additionally, some baculoviruses have been genetically modified to improve their killing rate, infectivity, and ultraviolet resistance. In this context, the biosafety assessment of a genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus is discussed.

  7. Potencial Insecticida de Extractos de MeliaAzederach L (Meliaceae. Actividad Biologica y Efectos sobre Spodoptera Frugiperda J.E: Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Ruiz Rodrigo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de alternativas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, diferentes al uso de insecticidas se planifico esta investigación con el objetivo de precisas las propiedades insecticidas de extractos de Melia azederach L. para el control de larvas en estado L2. El trabajo se adelantó en Laboratorios de la Universidad del Tolima en Ibagué, ubicados en una zona de vida correspondiente al bosque húmedo Montano Bajo (bh-MB, las condiciones de temperatura fueron de 28 ±2°C y 70%de humedad relativa. Estos trabajos se realizaron durante 1994 y 1995. Los extractos se obtuvieron empleando tres solventes: alcohólico y etéreo trabajando con un diseño complemente al azar con arreglo factorial 3ˆ2, con 5 replicaciones. Antes de hacer las aplicaciones de los extractos se procedió a verificar su actividad biológica sobre Artemia salina. La dieta alimenticia natural y la cría masiva de Spodoptera frugiperda, se organizó de tal forma que se pudiera obtener material para toda la investigación. Después de efectuados los tratamientos se hicieron lecturas de mortalidad hasta los 6 días y porteriormente se continuaron realizando observaciones bioecológicas sobre los individuos sobrevivientes, hasta el estado adulto y etapa de oviposición El análisis de mortalidad demostró que los extractos tienen un efecto antialimentario sobre las larvas del insecto-plaga, siendo el extracto alcohólico en su dosis alta el mejor. Al efectuar el establecimiento de las dosis letales medidas se precisó que se pueden trabajar concentraciones entre 1.000-3.000 ppm para obtener óptimos resultados. El efecto antialimentario de los extractos produce en los individuos sobrevivientes una prolongación de la duración en días de las fases de su ciclo de vida.

  8. Inherited sterility in the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis,(Boisd.), and changes in the DNA pattern as a result of using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABD EL-KADER, T.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on certain biological aspects of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the sub sterilizing doses of 0, 50, 150, 250, 350 and 450 Gy of gamma irradiation (cobalt and cesium sources) on different generations of Spodoptera littoralis irradiated as pupae to study the inherited sterility. A dose level at 450 Gy completely inhibited full pupal development, but the emerged adult at the dose 350 Gy did not lay eggs, whether they were combined with non-irradiated or irradiated individuals of opposite sexes. The produced adults (P) showed increasing sterility with increasing the irradiation dose. While, their fertility, fecundity, pupation percent and adult emergence were found to be reduced in the parents followed by F1, but increased in F2. In all cases, sex ratio was shifted in favor of males. A significant negative relationship between dose levels and percentage of egg hatching was obtained; [the higher the dose, the lower the percentage of egg hatching]. The percentage of egg hatching resulting from irradiated male pupae was higher than that resulting from irradiated female pupae. Females were more sensitive for irradiation than males. Cobalt irradiation source was more effective than cesium source. The effect of gamma irradiation on the DNA pattern of adult male parents, F1 and F2 showed alterations among the controls, the treated parents, F1 and F2 individuals. Exposure to irradiation caused very frequently the appearance of some extra bands and the deficiency of others in the RAPD- PCR and ISSR amplification pattern of the irradiated insects. The appearance of extra bands was attributed to the repair mechanism that occur in the irradiation damaged DNA. However, the similarity in DNA patterns between some normal and treated samples was interpreted by assuming that the irradiation induced damage was in regions

  9. Identificação de fontes de resistência de milho à Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Maria P. da Silva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar fontes de resistência à Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797, foram avaliadas as cultivares de milho CMS-22, CMS-35, AG-106, Dina-70, AG-510 e CMS-36 em campo, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Utilizaram-se as variáveis: danos foliares, obtidos através da escala visual de notas, sobrevivência, peso e comprimento das lagartas, 10 dias após a infestação artificial das plantas com lagartas de 1º ínstar. As cultivares diferiram significativamente (P=0,05 apenas com relação aos danos, destacando-se AG-510 como a mais resistente, com dano médio de 5,41 em comparação com CMS-35 e AG-106, as mais suscetíveis, com danos médios de 8,38 e 7,85 respectivamente. Foram determinadas correlações lineares significativas (p=0,01 entre os danos e peso de lagartas, danos e comprimento de lagartas e peso e comprimento de lagartas, indicando a possibilidade de utilização dessas variáveis nos estudos de resistência de milho a S. frugiperda.The objective of this work was to identify sources of resistance to Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith in six corn cultivars (CMS-22, CMS-35, AG-106, Dina-70, AG-510 and CMS-36 which were tested under field conditions using a complete randomized block design with four replications. The following parameters were observed: a foliar damage, obtained through a visual note scale; b larvae survival, weigth and length, measured 10 days after artificial plant infestation. There were significant statistical differences (P=0.05 among cultivars only in relation to foliar damage, being AG 510 the most resistant cultivar with an average damage of 5.41. The most susceptible cultivars were CMS 35 and AG 106 which had an average damage of 8.38 and 7.85 respectively. Significant linear correlations (P=0.01 were found between foliar damage and larvae weigth; foliar damage and larvae length; and larvae weigth and larvae length, indicating the

  10. Insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of metabolites isolated from the aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. and inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae); Actividad insecticida sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) de los compuestos aislados de la parte aerea de Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. y las inflorescencias de Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, Monica Constanza Avila; Suarez, Luis Enrique Cuca, E-mail: mcavilam@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Productos Naturales Vegetales, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Salamanca, Jairo Alonso Ceron [Laboratorio de Biopesticidas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2014-05-15

    The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. ) C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1), galangin (2), chrysin (5), 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6), pinostrobin (7); one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4); one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3); one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8); and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopy and spectrometry data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Spodoptera frugiperda. The results showed galangin and protocatechuic acid to be the most active (LC{sub 50} 13.63 and 17.16 ppm, respectively). (author)

  11. Overexpression of the PAP1 transcription factor reveals a complex regulation of flavonoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in Nicotiana tabacum plants attacked by Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunami, Tomoko; Nishihara, Masahiro; Galis, Ivan; Alamgir, Kabir Md; Hojo, Yuko; Fujita, Kohei; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nemoto, Keichiro; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments and associated flavonoids have demonstrated antioxidant properties and benefits for human health. Consequently, current plant bioengineers have focused on how to modify flavonoid metabolism in plants. Most of that research, however, does not consider the role of natural biotic stresses (e.g., herbivore attack). To understand the influence of herbivore attack on the metabolic engineering of flavonoids, we examined tobacco plants overexpressing the Arabidopsis PAP1 gene (encoding an MYB transcription factor), which accumulated anthocyanin pigments and other flavonoids/phenylpropanoids. In comparison to wild-type and control plants, transgenic plants exhibited greater resistance to Spodoptera litura. Moreover, herbivory suppressed the PAP1-induced increase of transcripts of flavonoid/phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes (e.g., F3H) and the subsequent accumulation of these genes' metabolites, despite the unaltered PAP1 mRNA levels after herbivory. The instances of down-regulation were independent of the signaling pathways mediated by defense-related jasmonates but were relevant to the levels of PAP1-induced and herbivory-suppressed transcription factors, An1a and An1b. Although initially F3H transcripts were suppressed by herbivory, after the S. litura feeding was interrupted, F3H transcripts increased. We hypothesize that in transgenic plants responding to herbivory, there is a complex mechanism regulating enriched flavonoid/phenylpropanoid compounds, via biotic stress signals.

  12. Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae) on the Growth and Reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sâmia, R R; de Oliveira, R L; Moscardini, V F; Carvalho, G A

    2016-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is considered a pest of maize crops throughout the Western Hemisphere. We report on the effects of aqueous extracts of leaves and bark of Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae) on the biology of S. frugiperda, as an alternative source of natural bioactive molecules for the sustainable management of this pest. Second instars were sprayed with aqueous extracts prepared with 5% (w/v) plant material and/or fed on an artificial diet containing extracts at a concentration equivalent to 0.25% (w/v) for 17 days. Both leaf and bark extracts of C. langsdorffii significantly reduced S. frugiperda food intake, feces, and larval weight and caused a delay in larval development. Additionally, C. langsdorffii-based extracts increased the oviposition period; induced morphological changes in the eggs, including deformation of the corium and malformation of the micropylar and aeropylar regions; and reduced egg viability. But, aqueous extracts of C. langsdorffii exhibited no negative effects on larval and pupal survival, duration of the pupal stage, survival of pupae, sex ratio, longevity, duration of pre-oviposition period, and female fecundity. Aqueous extracts of leaves and bark of C. langsdorffii are promising alternatives for the control of S. frugiperda in maize crops.

  13. Overexpression of the PAP1 transcription factor reveals a complex regulation of flavonoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in Nicotiana tabacum plants attacked by Spodoptera litura.

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    Tomoko Mitsunami

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin pigments and associated flavonoids have demonstrated antioxidant properties and benefits for human health. Consequently, current plant bioengineers have focused on how to modify flavonoid metabolism in plants. Most of that research, however, does not consider the role of natural biotic stresses (e.g., herbivore attack. To understand the influence of herbivore attack on the metabolic engineering of flavonoids, we examined tobacco plants overexpressing the Arabidopsis PAP1 gene (encoding an MYB transcription factor, which accumulated anthocyanin pigments and other flavonoids/phenylpropanoids. In comparison to wild-type and control plants, transgenic plants exhibited greater resistance to Spodoptera litura. Moreover, herbivory suppressed the PAP1-induced increase of transcripts of flavonoid/phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes (e.g., F3H and the subsequent accumulation of these genes' metabolites, despite the unaltered PAP1 mRNA levels after herbivory. The instances of down-regulation were independent of the signaling pathways mediated by defense-related jasmonates but were relevant to the levels of PAP1-induced and herbivory-suppressed transcription factors, An1a and An1b. Although initially F3H transcripts were suppressed by herbivory, after the S. litura feeding was interrupted, F3H transcripts increased. We hypothesize that in transgenic plants responding to herbivory, there is a complex mechanism regulating enriched flavonoid/phenylpropanoid compounds, via biotic stress signals.

  14. Overexpression of the PAP1 Transcription Factor Reveals a Complex Regulation of Flavonoid and Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Nicotiana tabacum Plants Attacked by Spodoptera litura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunami, Tomoko; Nishihara, Masahiro; Galis, Ivan; Alamgir, Kabir Md; Hojo, Yuko; Fujita, Kohei; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nemoto, Keichiro; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments and associated flavonoids have demonstrated antioxidant properties and benefits for human health. Consequently, current plant bioengineers have focused on how to modify flavonoid metabolism in plants. Most of that research, however, does not consider the role of natural biotic stresses (e.g., herbivore attack). To understand the influence of herbivore attack on the metabolic engineering of flavonoids, we examined tobacco plants overexpressing the Arabidopsis PAP1 gene (encoding an MYB transcription factor), which accumulated anthocyanin pigments and other flavonoids/phenylpropanoids. In comparison to wild-type and control plants, transgenic plants exhibited greater resistance to Spodoptera litura. Moreover, herbivory suppressed the PAP1-induced increase of transcripts of flavonoid/phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes (e.g., F3H) and the subsequent accumulation of these genes' metabolites, despite the unaltered PAP1 mRNA levels after herbivory. The instances of down-regulation were independent of the signaling pathways mediated by defense-related jasmonates but were relevant to the levels of PAP1-induced and herbivory-suppressed transcription factors, An1a and An1b. Although initially F3H transcripts were suppressed by herbivory, after the S. litura feeding was interrupted, F3H transcripts increased. We hypothesize that in transgenic plants responding to herbivory, there is a complex mechanism regulating enriched flavonoid/phenylpropanoid compounds, via biotic stress signals. PMID:25268129

  15. A Theoretical Approach to Analyze the Parametric Influence on Spatial Patterns of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A G; Godoy, W A C

    2017-06-01

    Studies of the influence of biological parameters on the spatial distribution of lepidopteran insects can provide useful information for managing agricultural pests, since the larvae of many species cause serious impacts on crops. Computational models to simulate the spatial dynamics of insect populations are increasingly used, because of their efficiency in representing insect movement. In this study, we used a cellular automata model to explore different patterns of population distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), when the values of two biological parameters that are able to influence the spatial pattern (larval viability and adult longevity) are varied. We mapped the spatial patterns observed as the parameters varied. Additionally, by using population data for S. frugiperda obtained in different hosts under laboratory conditions, we were able to describe the expected spatial patterns occurring in corn, cotton, millet, and soybean crops based on the parameters varied. The results are discussed from the perspective of insect ecology and pest management. We concluded that computational approaches can be important tools to study the relationship between the biological parameters and spatial distributions of lepidopteran insect pests.

  16. Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Annona Species on the Development and Reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A F; Pereira, F F; Formagio, A S N; Lucchetta, J T; Vieira, M C; Mussury, R M

    2014-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) causes significant losses in corn crops and necessitates the use of alternative control strategies, such as the application of bioinsecticides. We report the effect of methanolic leaf extracts of Annona dioica, Annona cacans, and Annona coriacea on the development and reproduction of S. frugiperda. A quantitative analysis was carried out to determine the total concentration of phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannin (CT) in leaf extracts. Corn leaves were immersed in a 1% methanolic leaf extract solution and fed to second instars of S. frugiperda. Leaf disks dipped in the synthetic insecticide Connect® (Bayer CropScience Ltda) composed of a neonicotinoid (imidacloprid) and a pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), which are harmful to S. frugiperda, was used as positive control. Distilled water was used as a negative control treatment. The leaf extract of A. coriacea decreased larval survivorship, arrested pupal development, and affected the weight gain of S. frugiperda. A. dioica also affected larval survivorship, but its effects were more pronounced for the adult stage, as fecundity, fertility, egg hatchability, and embryonic development were severely affected. Leaf extracts from A. cacans had no effect on S. frugiperda. The leaf extracts of A. dioica and A. coriacea showed a higher content of flavonoids and phenols, respectively. Our results indicated that both A. dioica and A. coriacea have the potential for development as botanical insecticides.

  17. Biochemical parameters of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) treated with citronella oil (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor) and its influence on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane Thalita Dos Santos; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Cunha, Franklin Magliano da; Oliveira, José Vargas de; Dutra, Kamilla de Andrade; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is the principal corn pest in Brazil. Searches for new control methods that minimize the adverse effects of synthetic insecticides have initiated a resurgence of the use of botanical insecticides. Citronella oil (a product of Cymbopogon winterianus) is an effective repellent and insecticide. Thus, biochemical profile changes in oil-treated larvae and its influence on reproduction were assessed. Corn leaves dipped in a 50mg/mL concentration were offered to third instar larvae for 24h and assessed in sixth instar to estimate protein, lipid, sugar, and glycogen levels. Adult testes and ovarioles were collected for histological and histochemical analysis 24h after emergence. Number of eggs and hatching rate were also measured. Oil-treated larvae showed an increase in glycogen and a decrease in protein, lipid, and totals sugar content. Control testes exhibited connective tissue lining and cysts with abundant spermatozoids. However, intense peripheral vacuolation and neutral carbohydrates reduction occurred in oil-treated individuals. Control ovarioles showed normal morphologic characteristics. On the other hand, oil-treatment ovarioles showed follicular cell stratification and removal, reduced nurse cell development, reduced yolk quantity, a thinner conjunctiva sheath, and a reduction in proteins and neutral carbohydrates. Eggs derived from oil-treated pairs were unviable. Therefore, sub-lethal doses of citronella oil alters the biochemical profile of S. frugiperda larvae, causing damage to their reproductive histophysiology and results in diminished reproduction or reproductive failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Rhabdovirus-like endogenous viral elements in the genome of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells are actively transcribed: Implications for adventitious virus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-07-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) cell lines are used to produce several biologicals for human and veterinary use. Recently, it was discovered that all tested Sf cell lines are persistently infected with Sf-rhabdovirus, a novel rhabdovirus. As part of an effort to search for other adventitious viruses, we searched the Sf cell genome and transcriptome for sequences related to Sf-rhabdovirus. To our surprise, we found intact Sf-rhabdovirus N- and P-like ORFs, and partial Sf-rhabdovirus G- and L-like ORFs. The transcribed and genomic sequences matched, indicating the transcripts were derived from the genomic sequences. These appear to be endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which result from the integration of partial viral genetic material into the host cell genome. It is theoretically impossible for the Sf-rhabdovirus-like EVEs to produce infectious virus particles as 1) they are disseminated across 4 genomic loci, 2) the G and L ORFs are incomplete, and 3) the M ORF is missing. Our finding of transcribed virus-like sequences in Sf cells underscores that MPS-based searches for adventitious viruses in cell substrates used to manufacture biologics should take into account both genomic and transcribed sequences to facilitate the identification of transcribed EVE's, and to avoid false positive detection of replication-competent adventitious viruses. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In Vivo and In Vitro Binding of Vip3Aa to Spodoptera frugiperda Midgut and Characterization of Binding Sites by 125I Radiolabeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Maissa

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip3A) have been recently introduced in important crops as a strategy to delay the emerging resistance to the existing Cry toxins. The mode of action of Vip3A proteins has been studied in Spodoptera frugiperda with the aim of characterizing their binding to the insect midgut. Immunofluorescence histological localization of Vip3Aa in the midgut of intoxicated larvae showed that Vip3Aa bound to the brush border membrane along the entire apical surface. The presence of fluorescence in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells seems to suggest internalization of Vip3Aa or a fragment of it. Successful radiolabeling and optimization of the binding protocol for the 125I-Vip3Aa to S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) allowed the determination of binding parameters of Vip3A proteins for the first time. Heterologous competition using Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae, and Vip3Af as competitor proteins showed that they share the same binding site with Vip3Aa. In contrast, when using Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac as competitors, no competitive binding was observed, which makes them appropriate candidates to be used in combination with Vip3A proteins in transgenic crops. PMID:25002420

  20. Transcript expression plasticity as a response to alternative larval host plants in the speciation process of corn and rice strains of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Horikoshi, Renato Jun; Bernardi, Daniel; Omoto, Celso; Figueira, Antonio; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes

    2017-10-16

    Our main purpose was to evaluate the expression of plastic and evolved genes involved in ecological speciation in the noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm (FAW); and to demonstrate how host plants might influence lineage differentiation in this polyphagous insect. FAW is an important pest of several crops worldwide, and it is differentiated into host plant-related strains, corn (CS) and rice strains (RS). RNA-Seq and transcriptome characterization were applied to evaluate unbiased genetic expression differences in larvae from the two strains, fed on primary (corn) and alternative (rice) host plants. We consider that genes that are differently regulated by the same FAW strain, as a response to different hosts, are "plastic". Otherwise, differences in gene expression between the two strains fed on the same host are considered constitutive differences. Individual performance parameters (larval and pupal weight) varied among conditions (strains vs. hosts). A total of 3657 contigs was related to plastic response, and 2395 contigs were differentially regulated in the two strains feeding on preferential and alternative hosts (constitutive contigs). Three molecular functions were present in all comparisons, both down- and up-regulated: oxidoreductase activity, metal-ion binding, and hydrolase activity. Metabolization of foreign chemicals is among the key functions involved in the phenotypic variation of FAW strains. From an agricultural perspective, high plasticity in families of detoxifying genes indicates the capacity for a rapid response to control compounds such as insecticides.

  1. Selection of Annonaceae Species for the Control of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Metabolic Profiling of Duguetia lanceolata Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D S; Machado, A R T; Campos, V A C; Oliveira, D F; Carvalho, G A

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the activity of 19 dichloromethane-soluble fractions obtained from the methanolic extracts of 10 Annonaceae species against the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). The stem bark of Duguetia lanceolata A. St.-Hil. showed the highest insecticidal activity, with a median lethal time (LT50) of 61.4 h and a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 946.5 µg/ml of diet. The dichloromethane-soluble fractions from six D. lanceolata specimens were subjected to evaluation of their activities against S. frugiperda and metabolomic analysis using hydrogen (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Although all of the samples affected S. frugiperda mortality, their insecticidal activities varied according to the sample used in the experiments. Using partial least squares regression of the results, the D. lanceolata specimens were grouped according to their metabolite profile and insecticidal activity. A detailed analysis via uni- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy showed that the peaks in the 1H NMR spectra associated with increased insecticidal activity could be attributed to 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene, which suggests that this substance is involved in the insecticidal activity of the stem bark fraction of D. lanceolata.

  2. Induction of resistance of corn plants to Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by application of silicon and gibberellic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, R; Moraes, J C; Auad, A M; Coelho, M; Nascimento, A M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon application and administration of the phytohormone gibberellic acid on resistance of the corn plants to the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, and their vegetative characteristics. We evaluated larval and pupal duration, survival and biomass, and adult longevity, malformation and fecundity of S. frugiperda after feeding on plant matter treated with silicon and/or gibberellic acid. The feeding preference of FAW first-instar larvae, the total leaf area consumed by the insects, and the vegetative parameters of corn plants were also evaluated. No significant differences were observed in the measured parameters of larval and pupal stages of S. frugiperda in response to silicon or gibberellic acid. In adult stage insects, the number of eggs per female was significantly reduced in insects derived from larvae fed plants treated with silicon or gibberellic acid. In a non-preference test, 48 h after release, caterpillars preferred control untreated plants and consumed less matter from plants that had received hormonal treatment (gibberellic acid). Gibberellic acid also altered the vegetative characteristics of plants, by increasing their height, shoot fresh and dry mass, and silicon content. We conclude that gibberellic acid can alter the vegetative characteristics and silicon uptake of corn plants, leading to a reduction in their consumption by S. frugiperda larvae and a decrease in female insect oviposition.

  3. Heritability of Wing Size and Shape of the Rice and Corn Strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas-Hoyos, N; Márquez, E J; Saldamando-Benjumea, C I

    2016-08-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) represents a pest of economic importance in all Western Hemisphere. This polyphagous species has diverged into two populations that have been mainly recognized with various mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers and named "the rice" and "the corn" strains. In Colombia, both strains have evolved prezygotic and postzygotic isolation. They differ in tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab endotoxins) and the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin and methomyl. In 2014, a wing morphometric analysis made in 159 individuals from a colony showed that both strains significantly differ in wing shape. The species also exhibits sexual dimorphism in the rice strain as in females wing size is larger than in males. Here, we continued this work with another wing morphometric approach in laboratory-reared strains to calculate wing size and shape heritabilities using a full-sib design and in wild populations to determine if this method distinguishes these strains. Our results show that male heritabilities of both traits were higher than female ones. Wild populations were significantly different in wing shape and size. These results suggest that wing morphometrics can be used as an alternative method to molecular markers to differentiate adults from laboratory-reared populations and wild populations of this pest, particularly in males of this species. Finally, Q ST values obtained for wing size and shape further demonstrated that both strains are genetically differentiated in nature.

  4. Sorghum Seed Maturity Affects the Weight and Feeding Duration of Immature Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Alysha M.; Whitworth, R. Jeff; McCornack, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, are occasional pests in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poales: Poaceae), and can be economically damaging when conditions are favorable. Despite the frequent occurrence of mixed-species infestations, the quantitative data necessary for developing yield loss relationships for S. frugiperda are not available. Although these species share similar biological characteristics, it is unknown whether their damage potentials in developing grain sorghum panicles are the same. Using no-choice feeding assays in the laboratory, this study examined larval growth and feeding duration for H. zea and S. frugiperda in the absence of competition. Each species responded positively when exposed to sorghum seed in the soft-dough stage, supporting evidence for the interactions between host-quality and larval growth and development. The results of this study also confirmed the suitability of using laboratory-reared H. zea to develop sorghum yield loss estimates in the field, and provided insights into the biological responses of S. frugiperda feeding on developing sorghum seed. PMID:24219328

  5. Seleção e caracterização molecular de isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis para o controle de Spodoptera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Christiane Constanski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo:O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar e caracterizar molecularmente isolados de Bacillus thuringiensistóxicos a Spodoptera eridaniaeS. frugiperda. Trinta e quatro isolados foram submetidos ao bioensaio, dos quais três foram selecionados e usados para a estimativa da CL50. Os isolados selecionados não diferiram da linhagem padrão HD-1. Na caracterização molecular, identificou-se a presença dos genes cry1 e cry2, nos isolados BR37 e BR94, e dos genes cry4A, cry4B, cry10, cry11 e cyt1 no isolado BR58, o que confirmou o perfil proteico obtido de 130, 70 e 65 kDa. Foram identificados cristais bipiramidais e esféricos. O isolado BR58, apesar de não conter os genes relacionados à toxicidade a Lepidoptera, causa mortalidade em ambas as espécies

  6. Development and reproduction of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its egg parasitoid Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) on the genetically modified soybean (Bt) MON 87701×MON 89788.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotto, O C; Silva, G V; de Freitas Bueno, A; Pomari, A F; Martinelli, S; Head, G P; Carvalho, R A; Barbosa, G C

    2014-12-01

    Genetically modified crops with insect resistance genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt-plants) are increasingly being cultivated worldwide. Therefore, it is critical to improve our knowledge of their direct or indirect impact not only on target pests but also on non-target arthropods. Hence, this study evaluates comparative leaf consumption and performance of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), a species that is tolerant of the Cry1Ac protein, fed with Bt soybean, MON 87701×MON 89788 or its near [corrected] non-Bt isoline. Using this species as a model, we assessed [corrected] the comparative performance of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon on eggs of S. eridania produced from individuals that fed on these two soybean genotypes [corrected] as larvae. Results showed that Bt soybean did not affect pest foliage consumption, but did reduce larvel duration by two days despite larvae in both treatments having six instars. Nevertheless, survival of S. eridania larvae, pupal weight, sex ratio, fecundity and longevity of female moths, and egg viability did not differ between Bt and non-Bt soybeans. Adult longevity of S. eridania males was increased when caterpillars were fed with Bt soybean versus the near isoline. No adverse effects of this technology were observed for the egg parasitoid T. remus. [corrected].

  7. Association of bioassays and molecular characterization to select new Bacillus thuringiensis isolates effective against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatoretto, Julio C.; Sena, Janete A.D.; Lemos, Manoel V.F.; Junior Boica, Arlindo L. , Jaboticabal, SP . Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade; Brazil)

    2007-01-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is one of the main corn pests and Bacillus thuringiensis is important in its control because of its entomopathogenic property. The objective of this study was the molecular characterization of B. thuringiensis isolates for cry1 locus presence and the assessment of the efficiency of these isolates in controlling S. frugiperda caterpillars. Gral-cry1 was used in the PCR analyses to confirm the presence of the cry1 locus in 15 isolates. A 3 x 108 spore/ml suspension bathed the diet used to feed 30 caterpillars per isolate, with three replications. The cry1 locus type genes of the different isolates were identified for five gene subclasses; linear regression analyses were carried out to ascertain possible associations between the presence of an individual cry1 locus gene and high levels of toxicity. All the DNAs amplified with Gral-cry1 presented an amplification product with the expected size. Regarding the levels of insecticide efficiency against the cob worm, 41 isolates presented 100% mortality and 16 presented an index between 70% and 90%. The cry1Ab gene was present in 80 isolates, cryb in 69 isolates, cry1Ac in all the isolates and cryv and cry1E in 93 and 27 isolates, respectively. The values regarding the individual effect of each gene on caterpillar mortality were significant at 1% probability for the cry1Ac and cry1E genes. (author)

  8. Spatial analysis of the distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and losses in maize crop productivity using geo statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Paulo R.S.; Miranda, Vicente S.; Ribeiro, Susane M.; Barbosa, Jose C.; Busoli, Antonio C.; Overal, William L.

    2008-01-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is one of the chief pests of maize in the Americas. The study of its spatial distribution is fundamental for designing correct control strategies, improving sampling methods, determining actual and potential crop losses, and adopting precise agricultural techniques. In Sao Paulo state, Brazil, a maize field was sampled at weekly intervals, from germination through harvest, for caterpillar densities, using quadrates. In each of 200 quadrates, 10 plants were sampled per week. Harvest weights were obtained in the field for each quadrate, and ear diameters and lengths were also sampled (15 ears per quadrate) and used to estimate potential productivity of the quadrate. Geostatistical analyses of caterpillar densities showed greatest ranges for small caterpillars when semivariograms were adjusted for a spherical model that showed greatest fit. As the caterpillars developed in the field, their spatial distribution became increasingly random, as shown by a model adjusted to a straight line, indicating a lack of spatial dependence among samples. Harvest weight and ear length followed the spherical model, indicating the existence of spatial variability of the production parameters in the maize field. Geostatistics shows promise for the application of precise methods in the integrated control of pests. (author)

  9. Ganho de peso e comportamento de oviposição de Podisus nigrispinus utilizando lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda e larvas de Tenebrio molitor como presas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Harley Nonato de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho avaliou o efeito de diferentes presas e da combinação destas sobre percevejo Podisus nigrispinus. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e 60 repetições. No tratamento um (T1, os percevejos receberam como alimento, lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda, de 4o estádio, durante todo o seu ciclo de vida, no tratamento dois (T2, larvas de Tenebrio molitor, também durante o todo ciclo, enquanto que, no tratamento três (T3, foram oferecidas lagartas de S. frugiperda do 2masculine ao 4masculine estádios, e larvas de T. molitor do 4masculine estádio até o final do ciclo de vida. O ganho de peso em todas as fases ninfais e em adultos de até terceiro dia mostrou valores semelhantes de incremento, para todas as dietas utilizadas. No entanto, para os percevejos alimentados, com S. frugiperda (T1, observaram-se uma maior produção de ovos num menor período, com 80% dos ovos até 31masculine dia, enquanto que, no tratamento com larvas de T. molitor (T2, os mesmos 80% foram conseguidos somente no 45masculine dia, e no tratamento com a combinação de presas (T3, no 48masculine dia.

  10. Evaluation of Strains of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana against Spodoptera litura on the Basis of Their Virulence, Germination Rate, Conidia Production, Radial Growth and Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlamul, Wanida; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2012-06-01

    Ten strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were evaluated to find the most effective strain for optimization studies. The first criterion tested for strain selection was the mortality (> 50%) of Spodoptera litura larvae after inoculation of the fungus for 4 days. Results on several bioassays revealed that B. bassiana BNBCRC showed the most virulence on mortality S. litura larvae (80% mortality). B. bassiana BNBCRC also showed the highest germination rate (72.22%). However, its conidia yield (7.2 × 10(8) conidia/mL) was lower than those of B. bassiana B 14841 (8.3 × 10(8) conidia/mL) and M. anisopliae M6 (8.2 × 10(8) conidia/mL). The highest accumulative radial growth was obtained from the strain B14841 (37.10 mm/day) while the strain BNBCRC showed moderate radial growth (24.40 mm/day). M. anisopliae M6 possessed the highest protease activity (145.00 mU/mL) while M. anisopliae M8 possessed the highest chitinase activity (20.00 mU/mL) during 96~144 hr cultivation. Amongst these criteria, selection based on virulence and germination rate lead to the selection of B. bassiana BNBCRC. B. bassiana B14841 would be selected if based on growth rate while M. anisopliae M6 and M8 possessed the highest enzyme activities.

  11. Lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyphenozide on the development, survival and reproduction of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate, N.; Diaz, O.; Martinez, A.M.; Figueroa, J.I.; Pineda, S.; Schneider, M.I.; Smagghe, G.; Vinuela, E.; Budia, F.

    2011-01-01

    The lethal and sublethal effects of the ecdysone agonist methoxyphenozide on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were investigated by feeding a methoxyphenozide-treated diet to fifth instars until pupation in doses corresponding to the LC 10 and LC 25 for the compound. Larval mortality reached 8% and 26% in the low and high concentration groups, respectively, on the seventh day of the experiment. A progressive larval mortality of 12% for the LC 10 and 60% for the LC 25 was observed before pupation. Treated larvae exhibited lower pupal weights, higher pupal mortality, presence of deformed pupae, and more deformed adults than untreated larvae. The incorporation of methoxyfenozide into the diet had a significant effect on the timing of larval development. The development period for males and females was about seven days longer than the controls for both concentrations tested. In contrast, the compound affected neither pupae nor adult longevity. Finally, S. frugiperda adults that resulted from fifth instars treated with methoxyfenozide were not affected in their mean cumulative number of eggs laid per female (fecundity), nor percentages of eggs hatched (fertility), or the sex ratio. Our results suggest that the combination of lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide may have important implications for the population dynamics of the fall armyworm. (author)

  12. Lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyphenozide on the development, survival and reproduction of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

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    Zarate, N.; Diaz, O. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Facultad de Agronomia; Martinez, A.M.; Figueroa, J.I.; Pineda, S., E-mail: spineda_us@yahoo.co [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Tarimbaro, Michoacan (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales; Schneider, M.I. [National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CEPAVE/CCT/CONICET), La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Estudios Parasitologicos y de Vectores. Centro Cientifico Tecnologico; Smagghe, G. [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium). Faculty of Bioscience Engineering. Lab of Agrozoology; Vinuela, E.; Budia, F. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Madrid (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos. Proteccion de Cultivos

    2011-01-15

    The lethal and sublethal effects of the ecdysone agonist methoxyphenozide on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were investigated by feeding a methoxyphenozide-treated diet to fifth instars until pupation in doses corresponding to the LC{sub 10} and LC{sub 25} for the compound. Larval mortality reached 8% and 26% in the low and high concentration groups, respectively, on the seventh day of the experiment. A progressive larval mortality of 12% for the LC{sub 10} and 60% for the LC{sub 25} was observed before pupation. Treated larvae exhibited lower pupal weights, higher pupal mortality, presence of deformed pupae, and more deformed adults than untreated larvae. The incorporation of methoxyfenozide into the diet had a significant effect on the timing of larval development. The development period for males and females was about seven days longer than the controls for both concentrations tested. In contrast, the compound affected neither pupae nor adult longevity. Finally, S. frugiperda adults that resulted from fifth instars treated with methoxyfenozide were not affected in their mean cumulative number of eggs laid per female (fecundity), nor percentages of eggs hatched (fertility), or the sex ratio. Our results suggest that the combination of lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide may have important implications for the population dynamics of the fall armyworm. (author)

  13. Linking Life Table and Predation Rate for Biological Control: A Comparative Study of Eocanthecona furcellata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Fed on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the predator-prey relationship and to compare predation rates, we studied the life table and predation rate of the predator Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) when reared on two major crucifer pests, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate, and net predation rates of E. furcellata reared on P. xylostella were 292.4 offspring, 0.1389 d(-1), 1.1490 d(-1), and 644.1 third instars of P. xylostella, respectively. These values are significantly higher than those reared on S. litura, i.e., 272.3 offspring, 0.1220 d(-1), 1.1298 d(-1), and 863.1 third instars of S. litura. To evaluate the predation potential of E. furcellata fed on P. xylostella and S. litura, we combined both the growth rate and predation rate to calculate the finite predation rate (ω); our results showed that E. furcellata is an effective predator of both S. litura (ω = 1.6029) and P. xylostella (ω = 1.4277). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Identification and Characterization of CYP9A40 from the Tobacco Cutworm Moth (Spodoptera litura), a Cytochrome P450 Gene Induced by Plant Allelochemicals and Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Long; Staehelin, Christian; Xia, Qing-Qing; Su, Yi-Juan; Zeng, Ren-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) of insects play crucial roles in the metabolism of endogenous and dietary compounds. Tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura), an important agricultural pest, causes severe yield losses in many crops. In this study, we identified CYP9A40, a novel P450 gene of S. litura, and investigated its expression profile and potential role in detoxification of plant allelochemicals and insecticides. The cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding 529 amino acid residues. CYP9A40 transcripts were found to be accumulated during various development stages of S. litura and were highest in fifth and sixth instar larvae. CYP9A40 was mainly expressed in the midgut and fat body. Larval consumption of xenobiotics, namely plant allelochemicals (quercetin and cinnamic acid) and insecticides (deltamethrin and methoxyfenozide) induced accumulation of CYP9A40 transcripts in the midgut and fat body. Injection of dsCYP9A40 (silencing of CYP9A40 by RNA interference) significantly increased the susceptibility of S. litura larvae to the tested plant allelochemicals and insecticides. These results indicate that CYP9A40 expression in S. litura is related to consumption of xenobiotics and suggest that CYP9A40 is involved in detoxification of these compounds. PMID:26393579

  15. Selective effects of natural and synthetic insecticides on mortality of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its predator Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Wagner S; Costa, Mariana A; Cruz, Ivan; Silveira, Rodrigo D; Serrao, Jose E; Zanuncio, Jose C

    2010-08-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a serious pest of corn in several American countries. It is mainly controlled with synthetic insecticides. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the natural products, neem oil and pyroligneous extract, and the synthetic insecticide, lufenuron, at 2.50 mL water (0.25%) on the mortality of 2-, 4- and 6-day-old caterpillars of S. frugiperda, and their selectivities against fourth instar larvae of Eriopis connnexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Four- and 6-day-old S. frugiperda caterpillars showed higher mortality after exposure to neem oil (83.33 +/- 0.83 and 89.58 +/- 0.90%, respectively) and lufenuron (95.83 +/- 0.96 and 85.41 +/- 0.83%), compared to pyroligneous extract (68.75 +/- 0.69 and 31.25 +/- 0.31%). The deleterious effect of pyroligneous extract was higher in 2- (83.33 +/- 0.83% mortality) and 4-day-old (68.75 +/- 0.69%) S. frugiperda caterpillars than in 6-day-old caterpillars (31.25 +/- 0.31%). Larval mortality of the predator E. connexa was lower with neem oil and pyroligneous extract (25.00 +/- 0.33%) than with lufenuron (91.66 +/- 1.22%). Neem oil is thus recommended for control of S. frugiperda because of its high toxicity, combined with its relatively low toxicity to larvae of the natural enemy E. connexa.

  16. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR Analysis in Larvae of Spodoptera litura Exposed to Azadirachtin Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benshui Shu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachtin is an efficient and broad-spectrum botanical insecticide against more than 150 kinds of agricultural pests with the effects of mortality, antifeedant and growth regulation. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR could be one of the powerful tools to analyze the gene expression level and investigate the mechanism of azadirachtin at transcriptional level, however, the ideal reference genes are needed to normalize the expression profiling of target genes. In this present study, the fragments of eight candidate reference genes were cloned and identified from the pest Spodoptera litura. In addition, the expression stability of these genes in different samples from larvae of control and azadirachtin treatments were evaluated by the computational methods of NormFinder, BestKeeper, Delta CT, geNorm, and RefFinder. According to our results, two of the reference genes should be the optimal number for RT-qPCR analysis. Furthermore, the best reference genes for different samples were showed as followed: EF-1α and EF2 for cuticle, β-Tubulin and RPL7A for fat body, EF2 and Actin for midgut, EF2 and RPL13A for larva and RPL13A and RPL7A for all the samples. Our results established a reliable normalization for RT-qPCR experiments in S. litura and ensure the data more accurate for the mechanism analysis of azadirachtin.

  17. Formulation of A Novel Phytopesticide PONNEEM and its Potentiality to control generalist Herbivorous Lepidopteran insect pests, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera (H übner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susaimanickam Maria Packiam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the deterrence of oviposition potentiality of a novel phytopesticide PONNEEM against the generalist herbivorous lepidopteran insect pests Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. Methods: Different phytopesticidal formulations were prepared at different ratio to evaluate the deterrence of oviposition activity against S. litura and H. armigera at 5, 10, 15, and 20毺 L/L concentrations. Results: The newly formulated different phytopesticides exhibited good results of oviposition deterrent activity against these two polyphagous insect pests. At 20毺 L/L concentration of PONNEEM, 77.48% of the maximum deterrence of oviposition activity was recorded, followed by formulation A (49.23%. And 68.12% was observed against H. armigera followed by A (49.52%. PONNEEM exhibited statistically significant oviposition deterrent activity compared to all other treatments. Conclusions: The newly formulated PONNEEM was found to be effective phytopesticidal formulation to control the adult of S. litura and H. armigera due to the synergistic effect of biomolecules such as azadirachtin and karanjin. This is the first report of PONNEEM which was patented under the government of India. The potential use of this novel phytopesticide could be an agent of controlling the adults of lepidopteran insect pests which can be applied in the integrated pest management programme.

  18. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR Analysis in Larvae of Spodoptera litura Exposed to Azadirachtin Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Benshui; Zhang, Jingjing; Cui, Gaofeng; Sun, Ranran; Sethuraman, Veeran; Yi, Xin; Zhong, Guohua

    2018-01-01

    Azadirachtin is an efficient and broad-spectrum botanical insecticide against more than 150 kinds of agricultural pests with the effects of mortality, antifeedant and growth regulation. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) could be one of the powerful tools to analyze the gene expression level and investigate the mechanism of azadirachtin at transcriptional level, however, the ideal reference genes are needed to normalize the expression profiling of target genes. In this present study, the fragments of eight candidate reference genes were cloned and identified from the pest Spodoptera litura . In addition, the expression stability of these genes in different samples from larvae of control and azadirachtin treatments were evaluated by the computational methods of NormFinder, BestKeeper, Delta CT, geNorm, and RefFinder. According to our results, two of the reference genes should be the optimal number for RT-qPCR analysis. Furthermore, the best reference genes for different samples were showed as followed: EF-1α and EF2 for cuticle, β-Tubulin and RPL7A for fat body, EF2 and Actin for midgut, EF2 and RPL13A for larva and RPL13A and RPL7A for all the samples. Our results established a reliable normalization for RT-qPCR experiments in S. litura and ensure the data more accurate for the mechanism analysis of azadirachtin.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells reveals putative apoptosis-related genes and a preliminary apoptosis mechanism induced by azadirachtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Benshui; Zhang, Jingjing; Sethuraman, Veeran; Cui, Gaofeng; Yi, Xin; Zhong, Guohua

    2017-10-16

    As an important botanical pesticide, azadirachtin demonstrates broad insecticidal activity against many agricultural pests. The results of a previous study indicated the toxicity and apoptosis induction of azadirachtin in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells. However, the lack of genomic data has hindered a deeper investigation of apoptosis in Sf9 cells at a molecular level. In the present study, the complete transcriptome data for Sf9 cell line was accomplished using Illumina sequencing technology, and 97 putative apoptosis-related genes were identified through BLAST and KEGG orthologue annotations. Fragments of potential candidate apoptosis-related genes were cloned, and the mRNA expression patterns of ten identified genes regulated by azadirachtin were examined using qRT-PCR. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that six putative apoptosis-related proteins were upregulated after being treated with azadirachtin while the protein Bcl-2 were downregulated. These data suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signal pathways comprising the identified potential apoptosis-related genes were potentially active in S. frugiperda. In addition, the preliminary results revealed that caspase-dependent or caspase-independent apoptotic pathways could function in azadirachtin-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells.

  20. Insecticidal, food utilisation and biochemical effect of essential oils extracted from seeds of Brassica juncea (Czern. against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shallina Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The glucosinolate rich hot and cold hexane extracts of Brassica juncea had a negative effect on the development of