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Sample records for spodoptera exigua larvae

  1. PENGARUH EKSTRAK LIMBAH DAUN TEMBAKAU MADURA TERHADAP AKTIVITAS MAKAN LARVA Spodoptera exigua

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    Harwanto -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ekstrak tanaman untuk insektisida nabati tidak hanya berpengaruh terhadap mortalitas saja akan tetapi juga berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas makan serangga. Tujuan pengujian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstraklimbah daun tembakau madura terhadap aktivitas makan larva instar III Spodoptera exigua. Metode uji ada dua yakni pakan pilihan dan pakan tanpa pilihan. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL, dengan 6 perlakuan konsentrasi dan 1 kontrol yang diulang 5 kali. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa pemaparan ekstrak limbah daun tembakau dengan metode pakan pilihan: (1 berpengaruh nyata terhadap bobot daun yang dikonsumsi pada semua konsentrasi dibandingkan dengan kontrol, (2 bersifat antifeedant terhadap larva S. exigua dengan indeks hambatan makan berkisar 17,51 – 38,12%, sedang ekstrak limbah daun tembakau pada uji pakan tanpa pilihan (3 berpengaruh nyata pada konsentrasi > 0,21% terhadap bobot daun yang dikonsumsi dibandingkan dengan kontrol, dan (4 bersifat antifeedant dengan indeks hambatan makan lebih tinggi (22,87 – 69,39% daripada dengan pakan pilihan (17,51 – 32,12%. Plants extracts used for botanical insecticides do not only influence the mortality but also the feeding activity of insects. The aim of this test was to determine the activity of the extract of Madura tobacco leaf on the feeding activity of the third instar of beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua. There were two test methods, choice and no-choice feeding tests. The design of each test was a completely randomized design (CRD, with six treatment concentrations and one control, replicated five times. The results showed that the exposure of tobacco leaf extracts with the choice feeding: (1 had significant effect on the leaf weight consumed at all concentration compared to the controls, (2 act as antifeedant against the larvae of S. exigua with the index of food consumption barrier ranging from 17.51 to 38.12%; while the extract of

  2. Dissimilar Regulation of Antimicrobial Proteins in the Midgut of Spodoptera exigua Larvae Challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins or Baculovirus.

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    Crava, Cristina M; Jakubowska, Agata K; Escriche, Baltasar; Herrero, Salvador; Bel, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes are the main effectors of the insect immune system, and they are involved in both local and systemic responses. Among local responses, midgut immune reaction plays an important role in fighting pathogens that reach the insect body through the oral route, as do many microorganisms used in pest control. Under this point of view, understanding how insects defend themselves locally during the first phases of infections caused by food-borne pathogens is important to further improve microbial control strategies. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional response of AMPs and lysozymes in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous pest that is commonly controlled by products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or baculovirus. First, we comprehensively characterized the transcripts encoding AMPs and lysozymes expressed in S. exigua larval midgut, identifying 35 transcripts that represent the S. exigua arsenal against microbial infection. Secondly, we analyzed their expression in the midgut after ingestion of sub-lethal doses of two different pore-forming B. thuringiensis toxins, Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa, and the S. exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). We observed that both Bt toxins triggered a similar, wide and in some cases high transcriptional activation of genes encoding AMPs and lysozymes, which was not reflected in the activation of the classical systemic immune-marker phenoloxidase in hemolymph. Baculovirus ingestion resulted in the opposed reaction: Almost all transcripts coding for AMPs and lysozymes were down-regulated or not induced 96 hours post infection. Our results shed light on midgut response to different virulence factors or pathogens used nowadays as microbial control agents and point out the importance of the midgut immune response contribution to the larval immunity.

  3. Mutations in the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin demonstrate the role of domain II and III in the specificity towards Spodoptera exigua larvae

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    Herrero Sendra, S.; González-Cabrera, J.; Ferré, J.; Bakker, P.L.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Several mutants of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin affected with regard to specific activity towards Spodoptera exigua were studied. Alanine was used to replace single residues in loops 2 and 3 of domain II (mutant pPB19) and to replace residues 541-544 in domain III (mutant pPB20).

  4. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of three putative aminopeptidases N affects susceptibility of Spodoptera exigua larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca.

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    Ren, Xiang-Liang; Ma, Yan; Cui, Jin-Jie; Li, Guo-Qing

    2014-08-01

    Aminopeptidase N (APN) isoforms in insects have been documented to be involved in the mode of action of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry) from Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we cloned two novel Seapns from the larval midgut of Spodoptera exigua, a major pest of many crops of economic importance in China. According to a phylogenetic analysis, these two novel SeAPNs, along with the four SeAPN isoforms already described, belong to six different clades. All the six SeAPNs share similar structural features. From N- to C-terminus a signal peptide, a gluzincin aminopeptidase motif, a zinc binding/gluzincin motif, and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor sequence are located. The six Seapn genes were highly expressed at the larval stage, especially in the larval gut. Ingestion during four consecutive days of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting Seapn1, Seapn2, Seapn3, Seapn4, Seapn5 and Seapn6 significantly reduced corresponding mRNA levels by 55.6%, 45.5%, 43.2%, 56.8%, 45.4%, and 46.0% respectively, compared with those recorded in control larvae fed on non-specific dsRNA (dsegfp). When the larvae that previously ingested phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-, dsegfp-, or six dsSeapns-overlaid diets were then exposed to a diet containing Cry1Ca, the larval mortalities were 71.2%, 69.3%, 52.0%, 77.2%, 43.3%, 62.0%, 65.4% and 53.8% respectively recorded after 6days. ANOVA analysis revealed that the larvae previously fed on dsSeapn1-, dsSeapn3-, and dsSeapn6-overlaid diets had significantly lower mortalities than those previously ingested PBS-, dsegfp-, dsSeapn2-, dsSeapn4- and dsSeapn5-overlaid diets. Thus, these results suggest that SeAPN1, SeAPN3 and SeAPN6 may be candidate receptors for Cry1Ca in S. exigua. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. REPAT, a new family of proteins induced by bacterial toxins and baculovirus infection in Spodoptera exigua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Ansems, M.; Oers, M.M. van; Vlak, J.M.; Bakker, P.L.; Maagd, R.A. de

    2007-01-01

    Insect larvae spend most of their time eating and the digestive tract is the most crucial barrier for the entrance of many pathogens. In our study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to compare Spodoptera exigua midgut gene expression between larvae exposed to the Bacillus

  6. REPAT, a new family of proteins induced by bacterial toxins and baculovirus infection in Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Ansems, M.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Bakker, P.L.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Insect larvae spend most of their time eating and the digestive tract is the most crucial barrier for the entrance of many pathogens. In our study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to compare Spodoptera exigua midgut gene expression between larvae exposed to the Bacillus

  7. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua larvae challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa toxin.

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    Bel, Yolanda; Jakubowska, Agata K; Costa, Juliana; Herrero, Salvador; Escriche, Baltasar

    2013-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions result in complex relationship, many aspects of which are not completely understood. Vip proteins, which are Bacillus thuringensis (Bt) insecticidal toxins produced during the vegetative stage, are selectively effective against specific insect pests. This new group of Bt proteins represents an interesting alternative to the classical Bt Cry toxins because current data suggests that they do not share the same mode of action. We have designed and developed a genome-wide microarray for the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a serious lepidopteran pest of many agricultural crops, and used it to better understand how lepidopteran larvae respond to the treatment with the insecticidal protein Vip3Aa. With this approach, the goal of our study was to evaluate the changes in gene expression levels caused by treatment with sublethal doses of Vip3Aa (causing 99% growth inhibition) at 8 and 24 h after feeding. Results indicated that the toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response, with 19% of the microarray unigenes responding significantly to treatment. The number of up- and down-regulated unigenes was very similar. The number of genes whose expression was regulated at 8 h was similar to the number of genes whose expression was regulated after 24 h of treatment. The up-regulated sequences were enriched for genes involved in innate immune response and in pathogen response such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and repat genes. The down-regulated sequences were mainly unigenes with homology to genes involved in metabolism. Genes related to the mode of action of Bt Cry proteins were found, in general, to be slightly overexpressed. The present study is the first genome-wide analysis of the response of lepidopteran insects to Vip3Aa intoxication. An insight into the molecular mechanisms and components related to Vip intoxication will allow designing of more effective management strategies for pest control.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua larvae challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa toxin.

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    Yolanda Bel

    Full Text Available Host-pathogen interactions result in complex relationship, many aspects of which are not completely understood. Vip proteins, which are Bacillus thuringensis (Bt insecticidal toxins produced during the vegetative stage, are selectively effective against specific insect pests. This new group of Bt proteins represents an interesting alternative to the classical Bt Cry toxins because current data suggests that they do not share the same mode of action. We have designed and developed a genome-wide microarray for the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a serious lepidopteran pest of many agricultural crops, and used it to better understand how lepidopteran larvae respond to the treatment with the insecticidal protein Vip3Aa. With this approach, the goal of our study was to evaluate the changes in gene expression levels caused by treatment with sublethal doses of Vip3Aa (causing 99% growth inhibition at 8 and 24 h after feeding. Results indicated that the toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response, with 19% of the microarray unigenes responding significantly to treatment. The number of up- and down-regulated unigenes was very similar. The number of genes whose expression was regulated at 8 h was similar to the number of genes whose expression was regulated after 24 h of treatment. The up-regulated sequences were enriched for genes involved in innate immune response and in pathogen response such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and repat genes. The down-regulated sequences were mainly unigenes with homology to genes involved in metabolism. Genes related to the mode of action of Bt Cry proteins were found, in general, to be slightly overexpressed. The present study is the first genome-wide analysis of the response of lepidopteran insects to Vip3Aa intoxication. An insight into the molecular mechanisms and components related to Vip intoxication will allow designing of more effective management strategies for pest control.

  9. Nuclear polyhedrosis virus as biological control agent of Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    Several aspects of the control of the beet armyworm, Spodopteraexigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in greenhouse crops with nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (NPVs) (Baculoviridae, subgroup A) were studied.

    Beet armyworm behaviour was observed in various

  10. Modeling climate change impacts on overwintering of Spodoptera exigua Hübner in regions of China

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    Xia-Lin Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inferential models are usually used to evaluate the effect of winter warming on range expansion of insects. Generally, correlative approaches used to predict changes in the distributions of organisms are based on the assumption that climatic boundaries are fixed. Spodoptera exigua Htibner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae overwinters as larvae or pupae in China regions. To understand the climate change impacts on overwintering of this species in regions of China, CLIMEX and Arc-GIS models were used to predict possible changes of distribution based on temperature. The climate change projection clearly indicated that the northern boundary of overwintering for S. exigua will shift northward from current distribution. Thus, the ongoing winter warming is likely to increase the frequency of S. exigua outbreaks.

  11. A novel Cry9Aa with increased toxicity for Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naimov, S.; Nedyalkova, R.; Staykov, N.; Weemen-Hendriks, M.; Minkov, I.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Cry9Aa, produced by Bacillus thuringiensis is reported to be not active against Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm). In this study we have cloned a new cry9Aa5 gene encoding a protoxin with increased activity against S. exigua as compared to Cry9Aa1. When aligned to Cry9Aa1, four amino acid

  12. Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus for the Microbial Control of Spodoptera exigua.

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    Han, Ji Hee; Jin, Byung Rae; Kim, Jeong Jun; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2014-12-01

    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is difficult to control using chemical insecticides because of the development of insecticide resistance. Several pest control agents are used to control the beet armyworm. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the candidates for eco-friendly pest control instead of chemical control agents. In this study, among various entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from soil two isolates were selected as high virulence pathogens against larva of beet armyworm. Control efficacy of fungal conidia was influenced by conidia concentration, temperature, and relative humidity (RH). The isolates Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 showed 100% cumulative mortality against second instar larvae of S. exigua 3 days after treatment at 1 × 10(7) conidia/mL and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus FG340 caused 100% mortality 6 days after treatment at 1 × 10(4) conidia/mL. Both M. anisopliae FT83 and P. fumosoroseus FG340 effectively controlled the moth at 20~30℃. M. anisopliae FT83 was significantly affected mortality by RH: mortality was 86.7% at 85% RH and 13.4% at 45% RH. P. fumosoroseus FG340 showed high mortality as 90% at 45% RH and 100% at 75% RH 6 days after conidia treatments. These results suggest that P. fumosoroseus FG340 and M. anisopliae FT83 have high potential to develop as a biocontrol agent against the beet armyworm.

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca-resistant Spodoptera exigua lacks expression of one of four Aminopeptidase N genes

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    Moar William J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis bind to receptors on midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insect larvae. Aminopeptidases N (APNs from several insect species have been shown to be putative receptors for these toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression analysis of four APN cDNAs from Spodoptera exigua. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH was used to construct cDNA libraries of genes that are up-and down-regulated in the midgut of last instar larvae of beet armyworm, S. exigua exposed to B. thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin. Among the clones from the SSH libraries, cDNA fragments coding for two different APNs were obtained (APN2 and APN4. A similar procedure was employed to compare mRNA differences between susceptible and Cry1Ca resistant S. exigua. Among the clones from this last comparison, cDNA fragments belonging to a third APN (APN1 were detected. Using sequences obtained from the three APN cDNA fragments and degenerate primers for a fourth APN (APN3, the full length sequences of four S. exigua APN cDNAs were obtained. Northern blot analysis of expression of the four APNs showed complete absence of APN1 expression in the resistant insects, while the other three APNs showed similar expression levels in the resistant and susceptible insects. Conclusion We have cloned and characterized four different midgut APN cDNAs from S. exigua. Expression analysis revealed the lack of expression of one of these APNs in the larvae of a Cry1Ca-resistant colony. Combined with previous evidence that shows the importance of APN in the mode of action of B. thuringiensis toxins, these results suggest that the lack of APN1 expression plays a role in the resistance to Cry1Ca in this S. exigua colony.

  14. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR... tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  15. Toxicity of nine insecticides on four natural enemies of Spodoptera exigua.

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    Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiangying; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-12-13

    Spodoptera exigua, which feeds on various crops worldwide, has natural enemies that are susceptible to the insecticides used against S. exigua. We investigate the toxicity and residue risk of 9 insecticides on the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus. S. manilae and T. remus adults were sensitive to all 9 insecticides (LC 50 less than 2.75 mg a.i. liter -1 ), while H. axyridis and C. sinica adults were less sensitive (LC 50 between 6 × 10 -5  mg a.i. liter -1 and 78.95 mg a.i. liter -1 ). Emamectin benzoate, spinosad, indoxacarb, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr and chlorantraniliprole showed no toxicity on H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus pupae with the recommended field concentrations. The risk analysis indicated that chlorantraniliprole is harmless to larvae of four natural enemies and adult of H. axyridis, C. sinica and S. manilae. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad had higher safety to the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus with the risk duration less than 4d. Indoxacarb, tebufenozide, chlorfenapyr, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos showed dangerously toxic and long risk duration on S. manilae and T. remus adults.

  16. Identification and recombinant expression of a novel chymotrypsin from Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Combes, E.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Maagd, de R.A.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel chymotrypsin which is expressed in the midgut of the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera exigua is described. This enzyme, referred to as SeCT34, represents a novel class of chymotrypsins. Its amino-acid sequence shares common features of gut chymotrpysins, but can be clearly distinguished from

  17. Characterization of a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the laboratory rearing of the beet armyworm Spodoptera Exigua (HBN.) in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Vlak, J.M.; Ziemnicka, J.

    2005-01-01

    A nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Polish laboratory culture), SeMNPV (P), morphologically similar to the viral bioinsecticide virus Spod-XR, was characterized molecularly and biologically. Phylogenetic analysis based on three conserved baculovirus genes, polh,

  18. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

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    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  19. Temperature dependent development parameters and population life table of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    HonQing Dai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is an important insect pest fed on many crops. Temperature and host plant dependent development, survival, and population parameters of S. exigua were studied in present article. The results showed that the generation duration of S. exigua at temperatures 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35 ℃ were 37.61, 30.78, 22.40, 18.57, and 13.74 days, respectively. S. exigua could not survive at 38 ℃. The generation duration of S. exigua, feeding on Lactuca sativa, Lactuca Sativa L., Raphanus sativus L., and Allium fistulosum at 27 ℃, were 18.86, 20.10, 22.67, and 22.50 days respectively. And the generation survivorship was 30.91, 29.00, 22.00, and 27.50% respectively, far less than observed 81.91% feeding on artificial diet. S. exigua feeding on L. sativa showed the highest net reproduction rate (216.29, intrinsic rate for increase (0.34, population trend index (76.59, finite rate for increase (1.33, and fecundity (606.5 eggs, while these values were the lowest when it fed on A. fistulosum. Relationship between development rate and temperature was fitted with three models, the linear model, Logistic model and Wang model, and Wang model produced the best fitting goodness. Wang model showed that for the egg, the 1st-5th instar larvae, pupa and adult of S. exigua, the upper limit temperatures for development are 45, 44.5, 44.4, 40.3, 43.6, 38.9, 38, and 38 ℃, resepctively; the lower limit temperatures for development are 7.5, 7.2, 13.4, 7.3, 6.6, 5.3, 5.6, and 5.6 ℃, respectively, and the optimum temperatures for development are 21.9, 28.9, 25.5, 24.5, 26, 31.6, 30.6, and 29.1 ℃, respectively. The upper limit, lower limit and optimum temperatures for development of the entire generation are 38, 5.7 and 30 ℃, resepctively.

  20. Identification and Functional Analysis of a Novel Cytochrome P450 Gene CYP9A105 Associated with Pyrethroid Detoxification in Spodoptera exigua Hübner

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    Rui-Long Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In insects, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s or CYPs are known to be involved in the detoxification and metabolism of insecticides, leading to increased resistance in insect populations. Spodoptera exigua is a serious polyphagous insect pest worldwide and has developed resistance to various insecticides. In this study, a novel CYP3 clan P450 gene CYP9A105 was identified and characterized from S. exigua. The cDNAs of CYP9A105 encoded 530 amino acid proteins, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that CYP9A105 was expressed at all developmental stages, with maximal expression observed in fifth instar stage larvae, and in dissected fifth instar larvae the highest transcript levels were found in midguts and fat bodies. The expression of CYP9A105 in midguts was upregulated by treatments with the insecticides α-cypermethrin, deltamethrin and fenvalerate at both LC15 concentrations (0.10, 0.20 and 5.0 mg/L, respectively and LC50 concentrations (0.25, 0.40 and 10.00 mg/L, respectively. RNA interference (RNAi mediated silencing of CYP9A105 led to increased mortalities of insecticide-treated 4th instar S. exigua larvae. Our results suggest that CYP9A105 might play an important role in α-cypermethrin, deltamethrin and fenvalerate detoxification in S. exigua.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

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    Li, Hang; Jiang, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Xing, Yanru; Li, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st) to 5(th) instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl) into the 4(th) instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3%) after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (Ppest control.

  2. Cadherin is involved in the action of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

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    Qiu, Lin; Hou, Leilei; Zhang, Boyao; Liu, Lang; Li, Bo; Deng, Pan; Ma, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoping; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Chen, Lizhen; Lei, Chaoliang

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins are effective against some insect pests in sprays and transgenic crops, although the evolution of resistance could threaten the long-term efficacy of such Bt use. One strategy to delay resistance to Bt crops is to "pyramid" two or more Bt proteins that bind to distinct receptor proteins within the insect midgut. The most common Bt pyramid in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) employs Cry1Ac with Cry2Ab to target several key lepidopteran pests, including the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), which is a serious migratory pest of many vegetable crops and is increasingly important in cotton in China. While cadherin and aminopeptidase-N are key receptors of Cry1 toxins in many lepidopterans including S. exigua, the receptor for Cry2A toxins remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that a heterologous expressed peptide corresponding to cadherin repeat 7 to the membrane proximal extracellular domain (CR7-MPED) in the S. exigua cadherin 1b (SeCad1b) binds Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa. Moreover, SeCad1b transcription was suppressed in S. exigua larvae by oral RNA interference and susceptibility to Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa was significantly reduced. These results indicate that SeCad1b plays important functional roles of both Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa, having major implications for resistance management for S. exigua in Bt crops. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of resistance risk in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to chlorantraniliprole.

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    Lai, Tiancai; Su, Jianya

    2011-11-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of numerous cultivated crops. Chlorantraniliprole, the first commercialised ryanodine receptor insecticide from the anthranilic diamide class, has exceptional insecticidal activity on a range of lepidopteran pests. The aim of this study was to assess the resistance of S. exigua to chlorantraniliprole in the laboratory. A field-collected population of S. exigua was selected after repeated exposure to chlorantraniliprole to determine the risk of resistance evolution. After 22 generations of selection, there was a 12.0-fold increase in LC(50) . The realised heritability (h(2)) of resistance was estimated as 0.1082 by using threshold trait analysis. The projected rate of resistance evolution indicated that, if h(2) = 0.1082 and 70% of the population was killed at each generation, then a tenfold increase in LC(50) would be expected in 21.7 generations for chlorantraniliprole. These results show that the risk of resistance development to chlorantraniliprole exists in S. exigua after continuous application. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Biological control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouses : development of a comprehensive process-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Vlak, J.M.; Rabbinge, R.; Werf, van der W.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the development of a comprehensive process-based model simulating the epizootiology and agronomic efficacy of baculoviruses used for biological control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model is built to help understand, evaluate, and predict the

  5. Relationship of Flight and Reproduction in Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a Migrant Lacking the Oogenesis-flight Syndrome

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    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, undertakes long-distance migration. We used flight mills to investigate the interaction between flight and reproduction in this species given the apparent absence of the oogenesis-flight syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by a suite of traits common in man...

  6. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Li

    Full Text Available The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st to 5(th instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl into the 4(th instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3% after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (P<0.05. About 80% of the surviving insects in the siRNA-treated group of five genes (PGCP, chitinase1, tubulin1, tubulin2 and helicase showed retarded development. In chitinase1-siRNA and chitinase7-siRNA administered groups, 12.5% survivors exhibited "half-ecdysis". In arf1-siRNA and arf2-siRNA groups, the body color of 15% became black 48 h after injections. In summary, the transcriptome could be a valuable genetic resource for identification of genes in S. exigua and this study provided putative targets for RNAi pest

  7. Cross-resistance and Inheritance of Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Wunan; Huang, Jianlei; Guan, Fang; Wu, Yidong; Yang, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a worldwide pest of many crops. Chemical insecticides are heavily used for its control in China, and serious resistance has been evolved in the field to a variety of insecticides including emamectin benzoate. Through repeated backcrossing to a susceptible strain (WH-S) and selection with emamectin benzoate, the trait conferring resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field-collected population of S. exigua (moderately resistant to emamectin benzoate and strongly resistant to pyrethroids and indoxacarb) was introgressed into WH-S to generate a near-isogenic resistant strain (WH-EB). Compared with WH-S, the WH-EB strain developed a 1,110-fold resistance to emamectin benzoate and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin (202-fold), with low levels of cross-resistance to cypermethrin (10-fold) and chlorfluazuron (7-fold), but no cross-resistance to representatives of another six different classes of insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, spinosad, tebufenozide, and chlorpyrifos). Resistance to emamectin benzoate in WH-EB was autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic. Limited cross-resistance in WH-EB indicates that emamectin benzoate can be rotated with other classes of insecticides to which it does not show cross-resistance to delay the evolution of resistance in S. exigua. The incompletely dominant nature of resistance in S. exigua may explain the rapid evolution of resistance to emamectin benzoate in the field, and careful deployment of this chemical within a resistance management program should be considered. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A Transformed Bacterium Expressing Double-Stranded RNA Specific to Integrin β1 Enhances Bt Toxin Efficacy against a Polyphagous Insect Pest, Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunseong Kim

    Full Text Available Oral toxicity of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA specific to integrin β1 subunit (SeINT was known in a polyphagous insect pest, Spodoptera exigua. For an application of the dsRNA to control the insect pest, this study prepared a transformed Escherichia coli expressing dsRNA specific to SeINT.The dsRNA expression was driven by T7 RNA polymerase overexpressed by an inducer in the transformed E. coli. The produced dsRNA amount was proportional to the number of the cultured bacteria. The transformed bacteria gave a significant oral toxicity to S. exigua larvae with a significant reduction of the SeINT expression. The resulting insect mortality increased with the fed number of the bacteria. Pretreatment with an ultra-sonication to disrupt bacterial cell wall/membrane significantly increased the insecticidal activity of the transformed bacteria. The larvae treated with the transformed bacteria suffered tissue damage in the midgut epithelium, which exhibited a marked loss of cell-cell contacts and underwent a remarkable cell death. Moreover, these treated larvae became significantly susceptible to a Cry toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt.This study provides a novel and highly efficient application technique to use dsRNA specific to an integrin gene by mixing with a biopesticide, Bt.

  9. A Transformed Bacterium Expressing Double-Stranded RNA Specific to Integrin β1 Enhances Bt Toxin Efficacy against a Polyphagous Insect Pest, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunseong; Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-01-01

    Oral toxicity of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to integrin β1 subunit (SeINT) was known in a polyphagous insect pest, Spodoptera exigua. For an application of the dsRNA to control the insect pest, this study prepared a transformed Escherichia coli expressing dsRNA specific to SeINT. The dsRNA expression was driven by T7 RNA polymerase overexpressed by an inducer in the transformed E. coli. The produced dsRNA amount was proportional to the number of the cultured bacteria. The transformed bacteria gave a significant oral toxicity to S. exigua larvae with a significant reduction of the SeINT expression. The resulting insect mortality increased with the fed number of the bacteria. Pretreatment with an ultra-sonication to disrupt bacterial cell wall/membrane significantly increased the insecticidal activity of the transformed bacteria. The larvae treated with the transformed bacteria suffered tissue damage in the midgut epithelium, which exhibited a marked loss of cell-cell contacts and underwent a remarkable cell death. Moreover, these treated larvae became significantly susceptible to a Cry toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). This study provides a novel and highly efficient application technique to use dsRNA specific to an integrin gene by mixing with a biopesticide, Bt.

  10. The Mechanism by Which Dodecyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride Increased the Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos to Spodoptera exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner is one of the most destructive pests that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, S. exigua have developed resistance toward the majority of insecticides. Synergists may provide an important choice to deal with the resistance problems. Dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (DDBAC is a cationic surfactant, which displayed enhancement effect when combined with chlorpyrifos against S. exigua, giving enhancement factors of 1.50 and 1.57 at the concentrations of 90 and 810 mg L−1. In order to clarify the possible mechanisms, we investigate the effects of DDBAC on detoxification enzymes. However, DDBAC showed no inhibition on these enzymes activities. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscope images indicated DDBAC did not affect the cuticle super micro structure of S. exigua. The alterations in cuticular penetration rate have also been observed; indeed, it has been suggested that synergism is obtained by an acceleration of insecticide penetration through the cuticle. The chlorpyrifos penetration increased sharply when combined with 90 and 810 mg L−1 DDBAC, with only 12.6 and 8.5% of the initial chlorpyrifos recovered by external rinsing after 8 h. In contrast, when there was no DDBAC, more than 23.3% of the initial dose was recovered after 8 h.

  11. Developmental control of a lepidopteran pest Spodoptera exigua by ingestion of bacteria expressing dsRNA of a non-midgut gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honggang Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi induced through double stranded RNA (dsRNA has been used widely to study gene function in insects. Recently, it has been reported that gene knockdown in several insects can be induced successfully through feeding with dsRNA. However, it is still unknown whether phenotypic silencing of genes not expressed in the midgut occurs after ingestion of insect dsRNA. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using chitin synthase gene A (SeCHSA as the target gene, which is expressed in the cuticle and tracheae of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera exigua, we showed that the growth and development of S. exigua larvae fed Escherichia coli expressing dsRNA of SeCHSA was disturbed, resulting in lethality. In the 4th and 5th larval instars, prepupae, and pupae, the mean survival rates of insects fed the dsRNA-containing diet were 88.64%, 74.24%, 68.43% and 62.63% respectively. The survival rates in the 5th instar larvae, prepupae and pupae stages were significantly lower than those of all controls, and significant lethality differences were also found between dsSeCHSA treatment and dsControl or ddH(2O control in the 4th instar larvae. The effects of ingesting bacterially expressed dsRNA on transcription of the target gene, tissue structure, and survival rates of insects were dose-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that SeCHSA dsRNA may be useful as a means of insect pest control.

  12. (Convolvulaceae) extracts and fractions on larvae of Spodoptera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of different parts of Ipomoea pauciflora were tested for their effects on the survival and development of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), a Lepidoptera pest. For seven days, neonatal larvae (grown at 27 ± 2°C with a 16: 8 (L: D) h photoperiod) were exposed to different ...

  13. (Convolvulaceae) extracts and fractions on larvae of Spodoptera f

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of different parts of Ipomoea pauciflora were tested for their effects on the survival and development of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), a Lepidoptera pest. For seven days, neonatal larvae (grown at 27 ± 2°C with a 16: 8 (L: D) h photoperiod) were exposed ...

  14. Two different Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes confer resistance to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) in transgenic Bt-shallots (Allium cepa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng Sijun, S.J.; Henken, B.; Maagd, de R.A.; Purwito, A.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2005-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was applied to produce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) resistant tropical shallots (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum). A cry1Ca or a H04 hybrid gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, driven by the chrysanthemum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate

  15. The influence of greenhouse chrysanthemum on the interaction between the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and the baculovirus SeMNPV : parameter quantification for a process-based simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Joosten, N.N.; Vlak, J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2001-01-01

    During the building of a process-based simulation model for the epidemiology of the multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of S. exigua (SeMNPV) in populations of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) in greenhouse chrysanthemum, it was found that the effect of host plants had been under-rated. 'Missing links'

  16. Impact of UV radiation on activity of linear furanocoumarins and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against Spodoptera exigua: Implications for tritrophic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumble, J.T.; Moar, W.J.; Brewer, M.J.; Carson, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    Acidic fogs with a pH of 2.0 and duration of 2 hr did not reduce the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Therefore, the impact of UV radiation was investigated on the interactions between (1) levels of the antibacterial linear furanocoumarins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin in Apium graveolens (L.) occurring following a 2.0 pH acidic fog episode, (2) the noctuid Spodoptera exigua, and (3) a sublethal dosage of the microbial pathogen B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Mean time to pupation in the absence of UV radiation was significantly extended by the addition of either psoralens or B. thuringiensis. Larvae developing on diets containing B. thuringiensis plus psoralens required nearly 40% longer to pupate than controls, but their effects were additive as the interaction was not significant. Mean time to mortality, a weighted average time of death, was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis, all main effects reduced survival significantly, as did the three-way interaction. Thus, antagonistic interactions with psoralens that would reduce the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis in the field were not observed. When pairs of main effects were nested within the two levels of the third factor, several two-way interactions were found. Interestingly, the activity of B. thuringiensis and the psoralens, individually or in combination, was enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. Implications of this research are discussed for both natural and agricultural ecosystems

  17. Impact of UV radiation on activity of linear furanocoumarins and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against Spodoptera exigua: Implications for tritrophic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, J.T.; Moar, W.J.; Brewer, M.J.; Carson, W.G. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Acidic fogs with a pH of 2.0 and duration of 2 hr did not reduce the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Therefore, the impact of UV radiation was investigated on the interactions between (1) levels of the antibacterial linear furanocoumarins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin in Apium graveolens (L.) occurring following a 2.0 pH acidic fog episode, (2) the noctuid Spodoptera exigua, and (3) a sublethal dosage of the microbial pathogen B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Mean time to pupation in the absence of UV radiation was significantly extended by the addition of either psoralens or B. thuringiensis. Larvae developing on diets containing B. thuringiensis plus psoralens required nearly 40% longer to pupate than controls, but their effects were additive as the interaction was not significant. Mean time to mortality, a weighted average time of death, was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. In a 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial analysis, all main effects reduced survival significantly, as did the three-way interaction. Thus, antagonistic interactions with psoralens that would reduce the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis in the field were not observed. When pairs of main effects were nested within the two levels of the third factor, several two-way interactions were found. Interestingly, the activity of B. thuringiensis and the psoralens, individually or in combination, was enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. Implications of this research are discussed for both natural and agricultural ecosystems.

  18. Characterization of DNA topoisomerase-1 in Spodoptera exigua for toxicity evaluation of camptothecin and hydoxy-camptothecin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhang

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT, a plant alkaloid originally isolated from the native Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminate, exerts the toxic effect by targeting eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase 1 (DNA Topo1. Besides as potent anti-cancer agents, CPT and its derivatives are now being explored as potential pesticides for insect control. In this study, we assessed their toxicity to an insect homolog, the Topo1 protein from beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua Hübner, a worldwide pest of many important crops. The S. exigua Topo1 gene contains an ORF of 2790 base pairs that is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 930 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide exhibits polymorphism at residue sites V420, L530, A653 and T729 (numbered according to human Topo1 among insect species, which are predicted to confer sensitivity to CPT. The DNA relaxation activity of this protein was subsequently examined using a truncated form that contained the residues 337-930 and was expressed in bacteria BL21 cells. The purified protein retained the ability to relax double-stranded DNA and was susceptible to CPT and its derivative hydroxy-camptothecin (HCPT in a dose-dependent manner. The same inhibitory effect was also found on the native Topo1 extracted from IOZCAS-Spex-II cells, a cell line established from beet armyworms. Additionally, CPT and HCPT treatment reduced the steady accumulation of Topo1 protein despite the increased mRNA expression in response to the treatment. Our studies provide information of the S. exigua Topo1 gene and its amino acid polymorphism in insects and uncover some clues about potential mechanisms of CPT toxicity against insect pests. These results also are useful for development of more effective Topo1-targeted CPT insecticides in the future.

  19. Molecular changes in vitellogenin gene of Spodoptera exigua after long-time exposure to cadmium - Toxic side effect or microevolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachetka-Bożek, Anna; Chwiałkowska, Karolina; Augustyniak, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The reproduction of pest insects is a continuously ongoing issue, especially in the environmental pollution context. Natural or artificial stressing factors enforce a kind of trade-off, most often between growth/survival and reproduction, which improves fitness of the organism. Harmful factors, such as cadmium, can affect the vitellogenesis leading to reduction of yolk synthesis and egg production. The aim of this study was to assess whether 130-generational selection to cadmium in food might have induced change in vitellogenesis of Spodoptera exigua. We analyzed the level of Vg gene expression in S. exigua from the control and the cadmium strain at regular time intervals within 48h after eclosion. The full sequence of Vg gene was also compared between strains. The vitellogenin gene expression in both strains was time-dependent. This dependence was more visible in the control strain. In the cadmium strain the vitellogenin expression was significantly lower, comparing with the control strain in the first day after eclosion but increased significantly in the second day. The sequenced CDS (5286bp long) of the control and the cadmium strains were translated into protein sequences containing both 1761 aa. The protein sequences comparison revealed that there is one amino acid change at aa position 1282. Multiple alignments of six orthologous proteins from different species showed that amino acid change is located in the conserved position. Long-lasting exposure to cadmium resulted in permanent mutation in vitellogenin gene. We do not know yet if the mutation can improve fitness of the cadmium-selected insects. However, we can suppose that the mutation is neutral or even beneficial. The mutation and most probably additional effects of cadmium exposure have an influence on the vitellogenin expression. Some modification in the expression of the vitellogenin receptor are also likely to be important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  1. A Transformed Bacterium Expressing Double-Stranded RNA Specific to Integrin ?1 Enhances Bt Toxin Efficacy against a Polyphagous Insect Pest, Spodoptera exigua

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunseong; Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral toxicity of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to integrin ?1 subunit (SeINT) was known in a polyphagous insect pest, Spodoptera exigua. For an application of the dsRNA to control the insect pest, this study prepared a transformed Escherichia coli expressing dsRNA specific to SeINT. Principal Findings The dsRNA expression was driven by T7 RNA polymerase overexpressed by an inducer in the transformed E. coli. The produced dsRNA amount was proportional to the number of the cul...

  2. Insecticidal activity of some essential oils against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman

    2005-12-01

    Thirty-four essential oils were tested for insecticidal activity (fumigation or topical application) against larvae Spodoptera littoralis. Twenty essential oils applied by fumigation were highly toxic to the third instar of S. littoralis larvae. Two essential oils Nepeta cataria and Thuja occidentalis were highly toxic, with LC50cataria, S. sclarea, O. vulgare, O. compactum, Melissa officinalis, T. mastichina, and Lavandula angustifolia were highly toxic with LD50 < or =0.05 microl/larvae.

  3. Insecticidal activity of compounds from Ailanthus altissima against Spodoptera littoralis larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Žabka, M.; Tylová, Tereza; Křesinová, Zdena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2014), s. 101-112 ISSN 0552-9034 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11133 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : insectidical activity * Ailanthus altissima * spodoptera * larvae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.049, year: 2014

  4. Progress on the artificial rearing of the army worm, Spodoptera (Laphygma) exigua Hb. and radiation sterilization in the male of this species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Chiravathanapong, S.

    1971-01-01

    The army worm, Spodoptera exigua Hb. was reared for 6 more generations in an artificial medium containing Mung bean as a major component. By improving the rearing temperature and humidity conditions, better rearing results were obtained. The average percentage of development from eggs to pupae, from eggs to adults, and from pupae to adults was 41.7+-4.93, 38.44+-6.32 and 88.1+-1.48 respectively. The pupal weight was also calculated. In sterilization studies, the 3-day-old male pupae were subjected to gamma rays at 0, 5 and 10 krads. Upon emerging into adults, they were mated with non-irradiated female moths. Male moths emerged from pupae subjected to 10 krads of gamma rays could significantly induce infertility in eggs deposited

  5. Inert powders alone or in combination with neem oil for controlling Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Christiane Constanski Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies was carry out to evaluated the potential of inert powders: bentonite, kaolin and diatomaceous earth (DE applied as dust and aqueous suspension alone and associated with neem oil to the control Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda second instar larvae. In dust applications, 100% mortality of S. eridania, at the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 grams of bentonite, and 93.3% of S. frugiperda, at the concentration of 2.0 g were observed. DE at the height concentration (2.0 g caused 76.2% mortality of S. eridania and 46.6% of S. frugiperda. Kaolin, in all concentrations, was the only treatment that did not differed from the control for S. eridania but was different, in the high concentration, for S. frugiperda. When the plants were treated, larvae of S. eridania fed in the treatment DE, had an increase of two days in larval period. For the sex ratio, the percentage of males was greater in the treatments with kaolin, for both species. When powders was applied suspended in water separately or combined with neem oil, the best results were observed in combined of the bentonite (10% + neem, with 100% mortality for both species, and kaolin (10% + neem with 78.5% and 95.6% mortality for S. frugiperda and S. eridania, respectively. These treatments were classified as non-additive synergistic.

  6. Aktivitas biologi enam jenis ekstrak tumbuhan famili Asteraceae terhadap larva Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Sari Dewi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological Activity of Six Plan Extract from Asteraceae on Spodoptera litura Fabricius (lipedoptera : Noctuidae Larvae. Asteraceae is one of plant family that is known to have insecticidal activity to several insect pests, such as Parthenium argentatum, Crysanthemum cineariaefolium, and Agerantum houstoneanum. The aim of this study is to explore other asteraceae species in other to search for insecticidal activity to Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Six species, Blumea balsamifera (leaf, Elephantopus scaber (leaf, Gynura procumbens (leaf Artemisia vulgaris (leaf Soncbus arvensis (leaf and Helianthus annus (seed were use in this study. Plant extract were obtained by meseration method using menthanol. The extract were bioassayed to the second instar larvae of S. litura to evaluate the mortality, antifeedant and growth regulation activity. Extract of B. balsamifera and E. scaber have high antifeedant activity at 5 % by reducing larval feeding 87.7% and 81.8% in no choice test, and 94.1% and 86.1% in choice test method, respectively Extract of H. annus, A. vulgaris, and E. scaber prolonged the development of larvae by 4.9, 4.1, 3.9 days, respectively. While extract of H. annus caused mortality of larvae by 86% at 5%.

  7. Influence of food diet in the radiosensitivity of spodoptera frugiperda smith abbot larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.; Labrada, A.; Fundora, Z.; Herrera, A.

    1988-01-01

    To apply the traditional method in pest control it is needed to know the reaction capability of the insect in reference to radiations as well as the influence which can be exerted over it by different factors. The radiosensitivity of Spodoptera Frugiperda Smith Abbot larvae raised with two different diets (natural and artificial) was studied using doses between 20 and 100 Gy, in Co-60 gamma source with a dose power of 13.4 Gy/min survival, formation and dimensions of pupas, adult emergency and other interesting aspects were determined. The multiple analysis of results showed the influence of the food diet on radiosensitivity of larvae. results of both diets are statistically compared

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  10. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi and parasitic nematodes on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in Central Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm larvae (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were collected from whorl-stage cornfields, between the V2 and V4 stages, in 22 localities of Central, Chiapas, México, called "La Frailesca" during late June 2009 to determine the occurrence of native entomopathogens and parasitic nema...

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca-resistant Spodoptera exigua lacks expression of one of four Aminopeptidase N genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Gechev, T.; Bakker, P.L.; Moar, W.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis bind to receptors on midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insect larvae. Aminopeptidases N (APNs) from several insect species have been shown to be putative receptors for these toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression analysis of

  12. Enhancing the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes by gamma radiation in controlling Spodoptera littoralis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Sayed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, finding a safe control program is the aim of all researchers. The goal of this work is to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the Entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema scapterisci and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (HP88 efficacy were tested against larvae of cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. under laboratory conditions. Results showed that 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci and H. bacteriophora were substantially effective in controlling S. littoralis larvae, while H. bacteriophora was more potent in controlling insect larvae. The results revealed that total protein concentration was significantly decreased (P < 0.05 after treatment with normal or irradiated H. bacteriophora or S. scapterisci. In addition, larvae infected with normal S. scapterisci or H. bacteriophora showed a significant elevation in phenoloxidase activity and represented significant reduce after treatment with 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci or H. bacteriophora as compared to control group. Also, lysozyme activity was significantly decreased after treatment with irradiated H. bacteriophora, but there was no significance with irradiated S. scapterisci, when compared with control. LDH activity was significantly high (p<0.05 in the haemolymph of larvae treated with normal or irradiated H. bacteriophora or S. scapterisci, as compared to control group. Furthermore among all treatments, 2 Gy irradiated H. bacteriophora was the most potent and efficient in the biomarkers changes. Therefore, it could be concluded that 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci and H. bacteriophora can serve within an integrated pest management (IPM program in an agroecosystem.

  13. Control of the release of digestive enzymes in the larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwalaba, Digali; Hoffmann, Klaus H; Woodring, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    There is a basal level of enzyme activity for trypsin, aminopeptidase, amylase, and lipase in the gut of unfed larval (L6) Spodoptera frugiperda. Trypsin activity does not decrease with non-feeding, possibly because of the low protein levels in plants along with high amino acid requirements for growth and storage (for later reproduction in adults). Therefore, trypsin must always be present so that only a minimal protein loss via egestion occurs. Larvae, however, adjust amylase activity to carbohydrate ingestion, and indeed amylase activity is five-fold higher in fed larvae compared to unfed larvae. Gut lipase activity is low, typical of insects with a high carbohydrate diet. A flat-sheet preparation of the ventriculus was used to measure the release of enzymes in response to specific nutrients and known brain/gut hormones in S. frugiperda. Sugars greatly increase (>300%) amylase release, but starch has no effect. Proteins and amino acids have little or no effect on trypsin or aminopeptidase release. The control of enzyme release in response to food is likely mediated through neurohormones. Indeed, an allatostatin (Spofr-AS A5) inhibits amylase and trypsin, and allatotropin (Manse- AT) stimulates amylase and trypsin release. Spofr-AS A5 also inhibits ileum myoactivity and Manse-AT stimulates myoactivity. The epithelial secretion rate of amylase and trypsin was about 20% of the amount of enzyme present in the ventricular lumen, which, considering the efficient counter-current recycling of enzymes, suggests that the secretion rate is adequate to replace egested enzymes. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Novel Peptidase Kunitz Inhibitor from Platypodium elegans Seeds Is Active against Spodoptera frugiperda Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Suellen Rodrigues; Bezerra, Cézar da Silva; Lourenço de Oliveira, Daniella Gorete; Souza Lima, Letícia; Maria Neto, Simone; Ramalho de Oliveira, Caio Fernando; Valério Verbisck, Newton; Rodrigues Macedo, Maria Lígia

    2018-02-14

    A novel Kunitz-type inhibitor from Platypodium elegans seeds (PeTI) was purified and characterized. The mass spectrometry analyses of PeTI indicated an intact mass of 19 701 Da and a partial sequence homologous to Kunitz inhibitors. PeTI was purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatographies. A complex with a 1:1 ratio was obtained only for bovine trypsin, showing a K i = 0.16 nM. Stability studies showed that PeTI was stable over a wide range of temperature (37-80 °C) and pH (2-10). The inhibitory activity of PeTI was affected by dithiothreitol (DTT). Bioassays of PeTI on Spodoptera frugiperda showed negative effects on larval development and weight gain, besides extending the insect life cycle. The activities of digestive enzymes, trypsin and chymotrypsin, were reduced by feeding larvae with 0.2% PeTI in an artificial diet. In summary, we describe a novel Kunitz inhibitor with promising biotechnological potential for pest control.

  15. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Biological activity of extracts of Melia azedarach on larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. Rossetti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en las dosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.In the course of searching for plant chemicals with potential insecticide properties, the activity of Melia azedarach L. senescent leaf and ripe fruit extracts (2, 5 and 10% was evaluated on larvae of Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This polyphagous species is considered a sporadic pest on many important crops. Food consumption was assessed and an antifeedant index was calculated through choice tests. Also, food consumption, larval mortality, weight and depositions were recorded and nutritional indices were calculated in no-choice tests. Results from choice tests

  16. Insecticidal effect of furanocoumarins from fruits of Angelica archangelica L. against larvae Spodoptera littoralis Boisd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, MAY 2013 (2013), s. 33-39 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Keywords : Angelica archangelica * furanocoumarins * essential oil s * plant extracts * spodoptera littoralis * botanical insecticides * insecticidal activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.208, year: 2013

  17. Growth inhibitory effect of extracts from Reynoutria sp. plants against Spodoptera littoralis larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Šerá, Božena

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2008), s. 573-584 ISSN 1405-3195 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D28.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Reynoutria * Spodoptera littoralis * growth inhibition * botanical insecticides * toxicity test * plant extracts Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.232, year: 2008

  18. Combinatorial effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AG1 biosurfactant and Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 toxin on Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Boukedi, Hanen; Dammak, Mariam; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahya; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim

    2017-03-01

    Spodoptera littoralis, one of the most serious and destructive agricultural pests in the world, is very susceptible to Vip3 toxin. In order to develop a new efficient bioinsecticide and to prevent the development of resistance by the target pest, insecticidal activity of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AG1 was evaluated against S. littoralis. Bioassays revealed the susceptibility of the first instar larvae of this pest to AG1 biosurfactant with an LC 50 of 245ng/cm 2 . Moreover, the histopathology examination of the larval midgut treated by AG1 biosurfactant showed vacuolization, necrosis and disintegration of the basement membrane. Binding experiments revealed that the AG1 biosurfactant recognized three putative receptors located in the brush border membrane vesicles of S. littoralis with sizes of 91, 72 and 64kDa. Competition assays using biotinylated metabolites indicated that AG1 biosurfactant and Vip3Aa16 toxin did not compete for the same S. littoralis receptors. When combined, AG1 biosurfactant and Vip3Aa16 showed an additive effect against S. littoralis larvae. These findings suggested that B. amyloliquefaciens AG1 biosurfactant could be a promising biocontrol agent to eradicate S. littoralis and to prevent resistance development by this pest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. ROSSETTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en ldosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.

  20. Ganho de peso e comportamento de oviposição de Podisus nigrispinus utilizando lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda e larvas de Tenebrio molitor como presas

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Harley Nonato de; Espindula, Marcelo Curitiba; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Pedruzzi, Eder Pin

    2004-01-01

    Esse trabalho avaliou o efeito de diferentes presas e da combinação destas sobre percevejo Podisus nigrispinus. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e 60 repetições. No tratamento um (T1), os percevejos receberam como alimento, lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda, de 4o estádio, durante todo o seu ciclo de vida, no tratamento dois (T2), larvas de Tenebrio molitor, também durante o todo ciclo, enquanto que, no tratamento três (T3), foram oferecidas lagart...

  1. Lyophilization of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae yields high-quality DNA for use in AFLP genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural research in the 21st century has become a collaborative effort. Research on crop pests like Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), commonly known as the fall armyworm (FAW), can involve international collaboration because it is a pest not only in the southern United States, but also in La...

  2. Biotransformation of (-)-(1R,4S)-Menthone and (+)-(1S,4R)-Menthone by the Common Cutworm Spodoptera litura Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumoto, Shinsuke; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Hagiwara, Yuki; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2017-08-01

    Using biotransformation as a biocatalytic process has the advantage of being able to proceed under mild conditions and with high regio- and enantioselectivity. This study investigated the biotransformation of (-)-(1R,4S)-menthone (1) and (+)-(1S,4R)-menthone (2) by Spodoptera litura larvae. Compound 1 was converted to (-)-(1R,4S)-7-hydroxymenthone (1-1), (+)-(1R,3S,4S)-7-hydroxyneomenthol (1-2) and (-)-(1R,4S,8R)-p-menth-3-one-9-oic acid (1-3). The metabolism of substrate 2 generated three enantiomers of the above metabolites, designated as 2-1 to 2-3, respectively. The C-9 position of (-)-menthone and (+)-menthone was oxidized to carboxylic acid by S. litura, which is a metabolic pathway not observed in any other example of biocatalysis.

  3. Ganho de peso e comportamento de oviposição de Podisus nigrispinus utilizando lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda e larvas de Tenebrio molitor como presas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Harley Nonato de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho avaliou o efeito de diferentes presas e da combinação destas sobre percevejo Podisus nigrispinus. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e 60 repetições. No tratamento um (T1, os percevejos receberam como alimento, lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda, de 4o estádio, durante todo o seu ciclo de vida, no tratamento dois (T2, larvas de Tenebrio molitor, também durante o todo ciclo, enquanto que, no tratamento três (T3, foram oferecidas lagartas de S. frugiperda do 2masculine ao 4masculine estádios, e larvas de T. molitor do 4masculine estádio até o final do ciclo de vida. O ganho de peso em todas as fases ninfais e em adultos de até terceiro dia mostrou valores semelhantes de incremento, para todas as dietas utilizadas. No entanto, para os percevejos alimentados, com S. frugiperda (T1, observaram-se uma maior produção de ovos num menor período, com 80% dos ovos até 31masculine dia, enquanto que, no tratamento com larvas de T. molitor (T2, os mesmos 80% foram conseguidos somente no 45masculine dia, e no tratamento com a combinação de presas (T3, no 48masculine dia.

  4. AKTIVITAS ANTI MAKAN EKSTRAK DAUN SIRSAK (ANNONA MURICATA L. DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP INDEKS NUTRISI SERTA TERHADAP STRUKTUR MEMBRAN PERITROFIK LARVA INSTAR V SPODOPTERA LITURA F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisnowati B. Ambarningrum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antifeeding activity of soursop leaf extract    (Annona muricata L. and its effect on nutrition indices and the microscopic structure of peritrophic membrane of the fifth-instar larvae of Spodoptera litura F. were studied.  Antifeeding test was conducted by choice method. Discs of caisin leaf were dipped into the ether fraction of soursop leaf extract with concentrations of 0; 0.63; 2.50; and 10.00%. Nutrition indices and peritrophic membrane structure were observed by giving fifth-instar larvae  one of the five diets, every group of diet was added to various concentrations of  the ether fraction of soursop leaf extract, containing either 0; 0.63; 1.25; 2.50; and 5.00%. The result showed that  soursop leaf extract had antifeeding activity at tested concentration 2.50%. Relative consumption rate (RCR, relative growth rate (RGR, and  efficiency of conversion of  ingested food  (ECI were significantly lower in the case of treated larvae than that of the controls. However the efficiency of conversion of digested food  (ECD, approximate digestibility (AD, and peritrophic membrane structure treated with  soursop leaf extract were not significantly affected as compared to those in  controls.

  5. Efecto de variedades de algodón genéticamente modificadas sobre larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jimena Valencia Cataño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda es una plaga polífaga de importancia económica en países tropicales y subtropicales. En Colombia ataca el algodonero (Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivo que ha tomado importancia gracias a la adopción de variedades genéticamente modificadas (GM. En el estudio se determinaron los efectos subletales de algunas de estas variedades sobre larvas de este insecto. Para el efecto, en condiciones de laboratorio (27°C, 65 ± 10% HR y 12 h fotoperiodo se evaluaron las variedades NuOPAL RR (proteína Cry1Ac, DP141 B2RF (proteínas Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab y DeltaOPAL RR (no Bt. Los parámetros evaluados fueron: (a peso de larvas, (bpeso de heces, (c peso del alimento ofrecido y (d peso del alimento no consumido. Como índices de consumo y digestibilidad se calcularon la tasa relativa de consumo (TRCo, la tasa relativa de crecimiento (TRCr, la eficiencia de conversión del alimento ingerido (ECI y la digestibilidad aproximada (DA. Los índices mostraron actividad antialimentaria de la variedad DP141 B2RF (Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab que afecta de forma negativa la tasa de crecimiento y la conversión del alimento por parte de las larvas. El peso de las larvas alimentadas en DP141 B2RF (Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab fue 58.6% menor que en la variedad no Bt. Los resultados muestran un efecto adverso de la variedad DP141 B2RF (Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab en el desarrollo larval de S. frugiperda. Se confirman los efectos antibióticos de las variedades GM evaluadas que inciden en un menor desarrollo y en la supervivencia de las larvas.

  6. Morphology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on neem-treated leaves; Morfologia do canal alimentar de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) alimentadas com folhas tratadas com nim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Alicely A.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Oliveira, Jose V. de; Torres, Jorge B. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Entomologia Agricola]. E-mail: aliceliac@yahoo.com.br; valeria@dmfa.ufrpe.br; Teixeira, Alvaro A.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal

    2009-01-15

    Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (Neemseto{sup R}) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 deg C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Bouein's aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (Neemseto{sup R}), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron. (author)

  7. Accumulation of a maize proteinase inhibitor in response to wounding and insect feeding, and characterization of its activity toward digestive proteinases of Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, M C; Rufat, M; Bravo, J M; San Segundo, B

    2000-06-01

    The mpi gene encodes a maize proteinase inhibitor (MPI) protein whose mRNA accumulates in response to mechanical wounding. In this study, mpi gene expression in response to different types of damage was investigated. In mechanically damaged leaves of maize (Zea mays L.), mpi mRNA accumulation was affected by the degree of damage inflicted on the leaf. Consecutive wounds resulted in higher levels of mpi transcripts. The MPI protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Polyclonal antibodies were then produced and used to study MPI accumulation in insect-wounded and mechanically wounded maize leaves. When larvae of the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera littoralis were fed on maize leaves, MPI accumulated in tissues adjacent to the wound site. The level of inhibitor accumulation was higher in leaves chewed by larvae than in leaves that had been damaged mechanically. Longer feeding periods also resulted in higher levels of MPI accumulation. Additionally, the inhibitory properties of MPI toward mammalian and insect digestive serine proteinases were determined. Contrary to the majority of the plant proteinase inhibitors described, MPI is an inhibitor of mammalian elastase that only weakly inhibits mammalian chymotrypsin. However, both elastase and chymotrypsin-like activities from the larval midgut of S. littoralis were effectively inhibited by MPI. We discuss these results with regard to the function and evolution of plant proteinase inhibitors. The availability of a plant proteinase inhibitor which is able to inhibit the two types of insect digestive proteinase, elastase and chymotrypsin, might be useful for engineering protection against lepidopteran insect pests in transgenic plants.

  8. First report of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize (Zea mays L.) under different cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R B; Cruz, I; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2014-08-01

    In the context of the modern agriculture, pest control is important in order to increase productivity in maize (Zea mays L.). However, this control should be done rationally, prioritising environmentally safer methods such as biological control. This paper aims to report the occurrence of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in maize subjected to different cropping systems. The experiment was conducted at the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo (CNPMS) in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using organic and conventional production. Ten plants were sampled from each of the 24 plots and for each production system, three times a week during the entire cycle of maize (variety BR 106). In the laboratory, larvae were distributed in individual rearing containers with artificial diet until the end of the biological cycle. An increased number of S. frugiperda larvae was observed in organic single crop maize; hence a higher percentage of S. frugiperda larvae parasitised by Hymenoptera and Diptera also occurred in the maize under this production system. Dolichozele koebelei had not yet been described in association with larvae of S. frugiperda. The percentage of parasitism of S. frugiperda larvae was high in both experiments, indicating the importance of natural control agents in reducing the population density of S. frugiperda, and especially the importance of an appropriate crop management.

  9. First report of Dolichozele koebeleiViereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in maize (Zea maysL. under different cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB Silva

    Full Text Available In the context of the modern agriculture, pest control is important in order to increase productivity in maize (Zea maysL.. However, this control should be done rationally, prioritising environmentally safer methods such as biological control. This paper aims to report the occurrence of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae in Spodoptera frugiperda(J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae collected in maize subjected to different cropping systems. The experiment was conducted at the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo (CNPMS in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using organic and conventional production. Ten plants were sampled from each of the 24 plots and for each production system, three times a week during the entire cycle of maize (variety BR 106. In the laboratory, larvae were distributed in individual rearing containers with artificial diet until the end of the biological cycle. An increased number of S. frugiperda larvae was observed in organic single crop maize; hence a higher percentage of S. frugiperda larvae parasitised by Hymenoptera and Diptera also occurred in the maize under this production system. Dolichozele koebelei had not yet been described in association with larvae of S. frugiperda. The percentage of parasitism of S. frugiperda larvae was high in both experiments, indicating the importance of natural control agents in reducing the population density of S. frugiperda, and especially the importance of an appropriate crop management.

  10. Lysozymes and lysozyme-like proteins from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Michael; Girard, Pierre-Alain; Cousserans, François; Volkoff, Nathalie-Anne; Duvic, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    Lysozyme is an important component of the insect non-specific immune response against bacteria that is characterized by its ability to break down bacterial cell-walls. By searching an EST database from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Negre et al., 2006), we identified five sequences encoding proteins of the lysozyme family. The deduced protein sequences corresponded to three classical c-type lysozymes Sf-Lys1, Sf-Lys2 and Sf-Lys3, and two lysozyme-like proteins, Sf-LLP1 and Sf-LLP2. Sf-Lys1 was purified from the hemolymph of Escherichia coli-challenged S. frugiperda larvae. The mature protein had a molecular mass of 13.975 Da with an isoelectric point of 8.77 and showed 98.3% and 96.7% identity with lysozymes from Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera exigua, respectively. As the other insect lysozymes, Sf-Lys1 was active against gram positive bacteria such as Micrococcus luteus but also induced a slight permeabilization of the inner membrane of E. coli. Genes encoding these five Sf-Lys or Sf-LLPs were differentially up-regulated in three immune-competent tissues (hemocytes, fat body and gut) after challenges with non-pathogenic bacteria, E. coli and M. luteus, or entomopathogenic bacterium, Photorhabdus luminescens. Sf-Lys1 and Sf-Lys2 were mainly induced in fat body in the presence of E. coli or P. luminescens. Sf-Lys3, which had an acidic isoelectric point, was found to be the most up-regulated of all five Sf-Lys or Sf-LLPs in hemocytes and gut after challenge with P. luminescens. More molecular data are now available to investigate differences in physiological functions of these different members of the lysozyme superfamily.

  11. Macrofauna Associated with the Sponge Neopetrosia exigua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamil Nadu, India. Keywords: Neopetrosia exigua, sponge, associated-fauna, species richness,. Mauritius, Indian Ocean. Abstract — The macrofaunal community associated with the sponge Neopetrosia exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1900) was studied across a ...

  12. Temperature-dependent development and reproduction of rice leaffolder, Marasmia exigua (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Ju Liao

    Full Text Available Marasmia exigua (Butler (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the major rice leaffolders negatively affecting the rice production in the world. The growth and development of M. exigua was studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. The results showed that M. exigua eggs failed to hatch at 10°C and the larvae could not complete development at 15 and 35°C. The developmental times of each stage, survival rates of pre-adult, adult longevity, fecundities and oviposition days of M. exigua at 20, 25, 27 and 30°C were investigated using age-stage, two-sex life table. The total pre-adult development time decreased with the increase in temperature decreasing from 61.58 days at 20°C to 28.94 days at 30°C. The highest survival rate was observed at 25°C (73%. Male adult longevities were generally longer than that of females, except at 30°C. The highest mean fecundity, age-stage specific fecundity and age-specific fecundity peak values were all observed at 27°C. The maximum intrinsic rate of increase r and finite rate of increase λ were observed at 27°C, while the maximum net reproduction rate R0 was observed at 25°C. The longest mean generation time occurred at 20°C and the shortest at 27°C. These results provide better understanding on the development, reproduction and dynamic of M. exigua populations, their distribution, and might be utilized to forecast and manage M. exigua outbreaks in China.

  13. Expression of Hox4 during development of the pentamerous juvenile sea star, Parvulastra exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, Paula; Byrne, Maria

    2009-12-01

    Expression of Hox4 during development of the bilateral larva and pentameral juvenile sea star was investigated in Parvulastra exigua. The role of Hox4, possibly the anterior-most gene in the echinoderm Hox cluster, in the formation of the echinoderm adult body plan has not been examined previously. In the larva of P. exigua, PeHox4 is expressed in the developing coeloms-the anterior and the right and left coeloms that generate the aboral and oral coeloms of the juvenile. At the rudiment stage, PeHox4 was expressed in the five primary lobes of the hydrocoel that give rise to primary podia, the foundation of the adult body plan. This suggests a role for this gene in the development of the echinoderm body plan. In contrast to other bilaterians, Hox4 was not expressed in the developing asteroid central nervous system.

  14. Characterization of A Baculovirus of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae Isolated from Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Wijonarko

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A Baculovirus has been isolated from cadaver of larvae of Spodoptera litura, a Noctuidae of agricultural pest, importance due to its wide-range hosts and the damage to their respective host. Phase contrast light microscopy observation from infected larvae showed that the fat body, hemocyte cells, and cells surrounding the trachea or tracheolus were the most tissue invaded by polyhedra. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the occlusion body purified from diseased larva showed that the baculovirus envelope containing multiple nucleocapsid. Digestion of viral DNA with three restriction enzymes showed that the genome pattern of baculovirus isolated from Bantul were close to SpliNPV isolated from Japan and those of Spodoptera littoralis and quite distinct from those isolated from Southeast Asia region. Bioassay test performed on first to fifth instar larvae showed that the virus effectively control the young larvae, but showed some level of resistance against older larvae of Spodoptera litura.

  15. [Approach to Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) phylogeny based on the sequence of the cytocrhome oxydase I (COI) mitochondrial gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldamando, Clara Inés; Marquez, Edna Judith

    2012-09-01

    The genus Spodoptera includes 30 species of moths considered important pests worldwide, with a great representation in the Western Hemisphere. In general, Noctuidae species have morphological similarities that have caused some difficulties for assertive species identification by conventional methods. The purpose of this work was to generate an approach to the genus phylogeny from several species of the genus Spodoptera and the species Bombyx mori as an out group, with the use of molecular tools. For this, a total of 102 S. frugiperda larvae were obtained at random in corn, cotton, rice, grass and sorghum, during late 2006 and early 2009, from Colombia. We took ADN samples from the larval posterior part and we analyzed a fragment of 451 base pairs of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxydase I (COI), to produce a maximum likelihood (ML) tree by using 62 sequences (29 Colombian haplotypes were used). Our results showed a great genetic differentiation (K2 distances) amongst S. frugiperda haplotypes from Colombia and the United States, condition supported by the estimators obtained for haplotype diversity and polymorphism. The obtained ML tree clustered most of the species with bootstrapping values from 73-99% in the interior branches; with low values also observed in some of the branches. In addition, this tree clustered two species of the Eastern hemisphere (S littoralis and S. litura) and eight species of the Western hemisphere (S. androgea, S. dolichos, S. eridania, S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. latifascia, S. ornithogalli and S. pulchella). In Colombia, S. frugiperda, S. ornithogalli and S. albula represent a group of species referred as "the Spodoptera complex" of cotton crops, and our work demonstrated that sequencing a fragment of the COI gene, allows researchers to differentiate the first two species, and thus it can be used as an alternative method to taxonomic keys based on morphology. Finally, the ML tree did not cluster S. frugiperda with S. ornithogalli

  16. Methods of estimation of the pathogenicity of the fungus Phoma exigua var. exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1977-1981 33 isolates of Phoma exigua were recovered from diseased leaves, stems, root crowns and seeds of soybean cultivated in different localities of Poland. None of the obtained isolates caused disease symptoms on soybean and other plant species when they were inoculated by spraying with conidial suspension. Infection developed only on wounded plants after inoculation. Phoma exigua occurring on soybean in Poland is not a specialized pathogen of this plant, but a plurivorous weak or waund parasite which attacks all kinds of plants and so is P. exigua var. exigua. Among seven of the applied inoculation methods the best one seems to be the laboratory one, in Petri plates, with culture discs exposed on the seedling hypocotyl. Other methods varied in precision and were more time-consuming.

  17. Pengaruh Tinopal terhadap Patogenisitas Nucleopolyhedrovirus pada Spodoptera litura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'unah Ambarwati

    2010-12-01

    Kepekaan larva instar 3, 4, dan 5 ulat grayak, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, terhadap nucleopolyhedrovirus diuji dengan metode droplet feeding. Larva berasal dari lapangan yang dikembangbiakkan di laboratorium dengan pakan buatan. Larva S. litura yang diuji diperlakukan dengan berbagai konsentrasi SlNPV (2×103, 2×104, 2×105, 2×106, 2×107, 2×108, 2×109 PIB/ml yang ditambahkan Tinopal (0,5% dan 1%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan penambahan Tinopal 1% berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kematian larva S. litura instar 3, 4, dan 5. Penambahan Tinopal pada larva instar 3, 4, dan 5 dapat meningkatkan efektivitas NPV sebesar 235, 24177, dan 6,6 juta kali. Pengamatan pada usus tengah larva yang diperlakukan dengan Tinopal, menunjukkan bahwa Tinopal secara fisik merusak membran peritropik sehingga diduga membantu masuknya virus ke dalam tubuh inangnya.

  18. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Phoma exigua Desm. var. exigua for selected species of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available P. exigua var. exigua was isolated from underground and aboveground organs of different herb plant species in the years 1998-2006. Pathogenicity tests of three randomly chosen isolates of the fungus T 299, T 261 and T 277 for thyme and of three isolates M 1657, M 1193 and M 1635 for lemon balm were carried out. The effect of water suspension of fungus spores on the germination ability of schizocarps and of infected soil on sprouting and seedling health was studied. The study of microscopic structures of the fungus developing on plants, isolation of the fungus on artificial media and macro- and microscopic analysis on standard media are essential for the correct identification of P. exigua var. exigua. The polyphagous nature of the fungus is confirmed by the obtained results. The tested isolates were found to be occasional pathogens of thyme and lemon balm in the studied conditions. The harmfulness of the tested isolates pointed to inhibition of schizocarp germination, sprouting of plants and the ability to cause necrosis of germs, roots and epicotyl.

  19. New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherre Sade Bezerra Da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.

  20. Diversity and biological activity of nucleopolyhedroviruses of the leafworm Spodoptera litura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Ghulam

    2018-01-01

    Increased resistance of emerging cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura in Pakistan and elsewhere to chemical insecticides calls for an alternative method of control. Isolates of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPVs) of S. litura (SpltNPV) were collected from infected larvae in different

  1. Constitutive Activation of the Midgut Response to Bacillus thuringiensis in Bt-Resistant Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Martinez, P.; Navarro-Cerrillo, G.; Caccia, S.; Maagd, de R.A.; Moar, W.J.; Ferre, J.; Escriche, B.; Herrero, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most effective microbial control agent for controlling numerous species from different insect orders. The main threat for the long term use of B. thuringiensis in pest control is the ability of insects to develop resistance. Thus, the identification of insect genes

  2. The genome of Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus : a study on unique features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJkel, W.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Baculoviridae are a family of rod-shaped viruses with large circular double-stranded DNA genomes (Chapter 1). The family is subdivided into two genera, Granulovirus (GV) and Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) on the basis of the

  3. Patogenisitas Beberapa Isolat Cendawan Entomopatogen Metarhizium spp. terhadap Telur Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trizelia Trizelia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium spp. is one of the entomopathogenic fungus that can be used to control Spodoptera litura. The purpose of this research was to study the pathogenicity of Metarhizium spp. to Spodoptera litura eggs. The isolates were collected from rhizosphere of different crops i.e., cabbage, onion, leek and chili. The results showed that there was effect of all isolates on egg mortality. Mortality of S. litura eggs depend on the fungal isolates, ranged between 19.79%-75.70%. First instar larvae was also died 3 days after eclosion. The maximum mortality of first instar larvae was 58.65%. At a concentration of 108 conidia/ml, isolate Mt-kb had the highest virulence which caused higher mortality of eggs and first instar larvae.

  4. Aproximación a la filogenia de Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae con el uso de un fragmento del gen de la citocromo oxidasa I (COI Approach to Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae phylogeny based on the sequence of the cytocrhome oxydase I (COI mitochondrial gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Saldamando

    2012-09-01

    several species of the genus Spodoptera and the species Bombyx mori as an out group, with the use of molecular tools. For this, a total of 102 S. frugiperda larvae were obtained at random in corn, cotton, rice, grass and sorghum, during late 2006 and early 2009, from Colombia. We took ADN samples from the larval posterior part and we analyzed a fragment of 451 base pairs of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxydase I (COI, to produce a maximum likelihood (ML tree by using 62 sequences (29 Colombian haplotypes were used. Our results showed a great genetic differentiation (K2 distances amongst S. frugiperda haplotypes from Colombia and the United States, condition supported by the estimators obtained for haplotype diversity and polymorphism. The obtained ML tree clustered most of the species with bootstrapping values from 73-99% in the interior branches; with low values also observed in some of the branches. In addition, this tree clustered two species of the Eastern hemisphere (S. littoralis and S. litura and eight species of the Western hemisphere (S. androgea, S. dolichos, S. eridania, S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. latifascia, S. ornithogalli and S. pulchella. In Colombia, S. frugiperda, S. ornithogalli and S. albula represent a group of species referred as “the Spodoptera complex” of cotton crops, and our work demonstrated that sequencing a fragment of the COI gene, allows researchers to differentiate the first two species, and thus it can be used as an alternative method to taxonomic keys based on morphology. Finally, the ML tree did not cluster S. frugiperda with S. ornithogalli, suggesting that both species do not share the same recent ancestral even though they coexist in cotton. We suggest sequencing other genes (mitochondrial and nuclear to increase our understanding of this genus evolution.

  5. Effect Of Beauveria Bassiana Doses On Spodoptera Litura Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rini Indriyanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana is a parasitic mold for insect it is commonly used as a control agent. Spodoptera litura is insect pest attacked tobacco plants in Salatiga. This studied would give analysis the effectiveness of B. Bassiana on S. litura larvae mortality with various doses. B. bassiana was obtained from Estate Crop Protection Board BPTBUN in Salatiga Central Java as dust formulation. The S. litura. larvae were obtained from tobacco farm then adapted to laboratory environment for two days before used for Bioessay. There were five different doses treatment 1g 100 mL-1 2g 100 mL-1 4g 100 mL-1 8g 100 mL-1 and 0 g 100 mL-1 as control. Each treatment used 10 larvae and repeated five times. The result showed that B. bassiana with 8 g100 mL-1 concentration was more effective to kill S.litura larvae than others doses. The important finding of this research is that B. Bassiana can be used to control S. litura larvae safely and not pollute the environment.

  6. against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... However, its activity against Spodoptera frugiperda is unclear. Therefore, to determinate the insecticidal and insectistatic activities of methanol, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the seeds and leaves of R. communis, castor oil and ricinine were tested at different concentrations against S. frugiperda.

  7. Identification of pif-2, a third conserved baculovirus gene required for per os infection of insect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.; Pruijssers, A.; Vlak, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Infection of cultured insect cells with Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) resulted in the generation of mutants with major genomic deletions. Some of the mutants lacked the ability to infect S. exigua larvae per os. The gene(s) responsible for this phenotype in SeMNPV was

  8. AKTIVITAS EKSTRAK BIJI TANAMAN MINDI MELIA AZEDARACH (L. TERHADAP SPODOPTERA LITURA (F. (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

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    Hamdani .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Activity of Melia azedarach (L. seed extract against armyworm Spodoptera litura (F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectivenes and biological activity of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae seed extract against armyworm, Spodoptera litura F. The first instar larvae were fed extract-treated cotton leaves for 2 days, then were maintained on untreated leaves until the third instar stage. Records were kept in regard to the larvae mortality and developmental time of surviving larvae from first instar to third instar. The result showed that Melia azedarach L. seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against S. litura larvae (43.33 - 68.33% mortality. Addition of detergen at 0.2% to extract did not increase insecticidal activity of the extract. However, boiling seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% during 10 until 20 minutes increased insecticidal activity of extract (66.67 - 68.33% mortality. Generally, M. azedarach seed extract treatment did not affect  developmental time of  S. litura larvae.

  9. (Convolvulaceae) extracts and fractions on larvae of Spodoptera f

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... 3Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria,. 04510, DF, Mexico. 4División de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro. Centro Universitario. S/N, las Campanas, 76010, Querétaro, Querétaro, ...

  10. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor Development of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor

    OpenAIRE

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira; Dirceu Pratissoli; Eder Pin Pedruzzi; Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

    2004-01-01

    Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em la...

  11. Rac1 mediates cytokine-stimulated hemocyte spreading via prostaglandin biosynthesis in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cell spreading is an integral component of insect hemocytic immune reactions to infections and invasions. Cell spreading is accomplished by cytoskeleton rearrangement, which is activated by three major immune mediators, biogenic monoamines, plasmatocyte-spreading peptide (PSP), and eicosanoids, part...

  12. Eicosanoids up-regulate production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH-dependent oxidase in Spodoptera exigua phagocytic hemocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicosanoids mediate cellular immune responses in insects, including phagocytosis of invading microbes. Phagocytosis entails two major steps, the internalization of microbes and the subsequent killing of them via formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we posed the hypothesis that eicosanoi...

  13. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor Development of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em lagartas de S. frugiperda e em larvas de T. molitor, em laboratório. A presa S. frugiperda proporcionou ao predador menor longevidade, maior produção e viabilidade de ovos do que as larvas de T. molitor. Esses resultados demonstram que a lagarta S. frugiperda melhora as características reprodutivas de P. nigrispinus, de forma que a sua utilização como presa alternativa pode servir para incrementar a produção massal desse inimigo natural.Nymphys of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae have been reared on Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, in laboratory conditions. However, there are no reports on P. nigrispinus predation, in field or laboratory, on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, one of the most damaging pests in crops in Brazil. This research had the objective to evaluate nymphal development and reproductive characteristics of the predator P. nigrispinus when reared on caterpillars of S. frugiperda and on larvae of T. molitor, in laboratory conditions. S. frugiperda provided a smaller longevity, higher egg production and viability to predator than T. molitor. The nutricional quality of this caterpillar improves the reproductive characteristics of the predator, so that its utilization as factitious host can increase mass production of this natural enemy.

  14. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PARTS OF SYNEDRELLA NODIFLORA GAERTN (COMPOSITAE ON SPODOPTERA LITURA (FAB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J MARTIN RATHI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura (Fabricius is the most serious pest of many cultivated and non-cultivated crops and it developed resistance against many synthetic pesticides. The impact of a Compositae annual weed, Synedrella nodifl ora Gaertn. solvent extracts on the fourth instar larvae of S. litura has been evaluated by leaf dip method. The LD50 results revealed that methanol extract is the most toxic to the pest followed by benzene and chloroform, petroleum ether (400 – 600 C and water. Qualitative phytochemical analysis has also been performed.

  15. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Harley Nonato de; Pratissoli,Dirceu; Pedruzzi,Eder Pin; Espindula,Marcelo Curitiba

    2004-01-01

    Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em la...

  16. Mate recognition and reproductive isolation in the sibling species Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera litura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Saveer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mate recognition is crucial for reproductive isolation and for maintaining species integrity. Chemosensory-mediated sexual communication with pheromones is an essential component of mate recognition in moths. Confronted with sex pheromone stimuli released from conspecific and closely related heterospecific females, which partially overlap in chemical composition, male moths are under strong selection to recognize compatible mates. Here, we investigated the role of pheromone signals in premating communication in the sibling species Spodoptera littoralis and S. litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae. Further, we measured the reproductive consequence of conspecific vs. heterospecific matings. Both species use Z9,E11-14:Ac as the major pheromone compound, and the 11-component blend found in pheromone glands of S. littoralis comprises the compounds found in S. litura. Accordingly, S. littoralis and S. litura males readily responded to conspecific and heterospecific calling females in no-choice behavioural tests. In contrast, in a dual-choice test, S. littoralis males choose conspecific calling females, whereas S. litura males did not discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific females. In S. littoralis females, heterospecific matings had a negative fitness effect as compared to conspecific matings. Female longevity, egg-laying and hatching of larvae were significantly reduced by matings with heterospecific males. Reciprocal crossings, between S. litura females and S. littoralis males, were prevented by genital morphology, which is consistent with reduced heterospecific attraction of S. littoralis males in a dual-choice assay. On the other hand, matings between S. littoralis females and S. litura males, under a no-choice situation, show that interspecific matings occur in zones of geographical overlap and corroborate the idea that mate quality, in these closely related species, is a continuous and not a categorical trait.

  17. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda fed on fresh ear of field corn expressing the Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcial Ceolin Bortolotto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate extent of larval period, larval survival (%, food consumption, and pupal biomass of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae fed on fresh ears of field corn expressing Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F+Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2. Larvae of Spodoptera spp. survived less than two days when they consumed Bt corncobs and showed 100% mortality. Spodoptera eridania reared on non-Bt corn cobs showed higher larval development (21.6 days than S. frugiperda (18.4 days and lower viability (56.4% and 80.2% for S. eridania and S. frugiperda , respectively. A higher amount of corn grains was consumed by S. eridania (5.4g than by S. frugiperda (3.9g. In summary, this study demonstrated that the toxins Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 expressed in fresh corn cobs contributed to protect ears of corn against S. frugiperda and the non-target pest S. eridania . However, itis important to monitor non-Bt cornfields because of the potential of both species to cause damage to ear sof corn.

  18. Diet dependent metabolic responses in three generalist insect herbivores Spodoptera spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A; Walker, W B; Vogel, H; Chattington, S; Larsson, M C; Anderson, P; Heckel, D G; Schlyter, F

    2016-04-01

    Adaption to dietary changes is critical in the evolution of host plant ranges in polyphagous insects. We compared three taxa of lepidopteran herbivores from the predominantly generalist genus Spodoptera showing different degrees of polyphagy: Spodoptera littoralis, with a broad host range including both mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and two Spodoptera frugiperda strains [Corn (i.e. maize) (C) and Rice (R)] adapted primarily to different grass species. When feeding on maize we show a lower performance in the broad generalist taxon compared to the grass adapted taxa. Among these taxa, the maize adapted S. frugiperda C-strain generally performed better than the R-strain on maize leaves. On artificial pinto diet, all taxa performed well. Our RNA-Seq analysis of midgut transcriptomes from 3rd instar larvae feeding on maize showed broader transcriptional readjustments in the generalist S. littoralis compared to grass adapted S. frugiperda strains. Substantial alteration in the expression levels of midgut physiological function related transcripts, such as digestive and detoxifying enzymes, transporters, immunity, and peritrophic membrane associated transcripts, existed in all taxa. We found high background expression of UDP-glucosyl transferases, which are known to neutralize maize leaf toxins, in the maize adapted S. frugiperda C-strain, contributing to its fitness on maize compared to the R-strain. Our findings provide evidence for divergent diet specific response of digestive physiology within these Spodoptera taxa. Unexpectedly, the C- and R-strains of S. frugiperda fed on the same diet showed large differences in expression patterns between these two closely related taxa. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Antiamoebic activity of marine sponge Haliclona exigua (Krikpatrick

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    V Lakshmi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanol and methanol-chloroform (1:1 extracts of the freshly collected Haliclona exigua showed minumim inhibitory concentration (MIC of 125 ug/ml and 250 ug/ml respectively in in vitro studies, but when both of these were tested in vivo in rats, only methanol-chloroform showed 80% inhibition of trophozoites at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight against Entamoeba histolytica. Therefore only methanol-chloroform extract was further fractionated into four fractions (hexane, chloroform, n-butanol soluble and n-butanol insoluble fractions. Out of these, only hexane and n-butanol soluble fractions showed 80% inhibition of trophozoites at 900 mg/kg dose. Further the chromatography of the n-butanol fraction yielded araguspongin-C which showed promising results at different doses.

  20. Effect of plant and fungous metabolites on Meloidogyne exigua Efeito de metabólitos vegetais e fúngicos sobre Meloidogyne exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rufino Amaral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As nematodes cause great damage to Brazilian coffee production, effective methods to control these parasites are necessary. In a previous work Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. and Coffea arabica L. produced active substances against Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, a nematode widely disseminated through Brazilian coffee fields. Thus, aqueous extracts of such plants, collected in a different season from that of the previous work, as well as crude metabolites produced in liquid medium by Fusarium moniliforme Shelden and Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc. Woll., were submitted to in vitro assays with M. exigua second-stage juveniles (J2. All plants and fungi produced active substances against J2. Therefore, their metabolites were applied to six-month-old coffee plants inoculated with M. exigua. After 90 days in a greenhouse, those samples obtained from A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens and F. moniliforme inhibited the production of galls and eggs by M. exigua, demonstrating potential to control such parasite.Os nematóides acarretam grandes perdas aos produtores brasileiros de café, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para o seu controle. Em trabalho anterior, Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. e Coffea arabica L. produziram substâncias ativas contra o nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, que é amplamente disseminado pelos cafezais brasileiros. Dando continuidade a esse trabalho, extratos aquosos das plantas mencionadas, coletadas em época diferente daquela

  1. Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) against Spodoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most studied plant species with insecticidal properties is the castor bean Ricinus communis. However, its activity against Spodoptera frugiperda is unclear. Therefore, to determinate the insecticidal and insectistatic activities of methanol, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the seeds and leaves of R. communis, ...

  2. Study of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 histopathological effects and determination of its putative binding proteins in the midgut of Spodoptera littoralis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Boukedi, Hanen; Dammak-Karray, Mariam; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahya; Jaoua, Samir; Tounsi, Slim

    2011-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces, at the vegetative stage of its growth, Vip3A proteins with activity against a broad spectrum of lepidopteran insects. The Egyptian cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) is an important agricultural pest that is susceptible to the Vip3Aa16 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki strain BUPM95. The midgut histopathology of Vip3Aa fed larvae showed vacuolization of the cytoplasm, brush border membrane destruction, vesicle formation in the apic...

  3. Estudo de métodos de infestação para avaliação precoce da resistência do cafeeiro a Meloidogyne exigua Evaluation of four screening methods for resistance to Meloidogyne exigua in coffee seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C Fazuoli

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se desenvolver um método para avaliar a resistência de mudas novas de cafeeiros ao nematóide Meloidogyne exigua. Dois experimentos foram realizados, a fim de testar a eficiência de quatro métodos de infestação, em mudas do cultivar mundo novo de Coffea arabica, utilizando-se areia como substrato, em caixas de plástico. A avaliação do ataque pelo nematóide foi realizada subjetivamente, dando-se um ponto na ausência de galhas e cinco pontos na presença de elevado número de galhas nas raízes do cafeeiro. Com base nos parâmetros estudados, verificou-se que 60 dias após a germinação das sementes, o sistema de infestação mais eficiente consistiu na colocação de pequenos pedaços de raízes de cafeeiro com galhas, misturados com o substrato das caixas de germinação, juntamente com uma suspensão em água, de ovos e larvas do nematóide. Em leitura efetuada 150 dias após a germinação, não se verificou diferença significativa entre a infestação provocada através do uso de pequenos pedaços de raízes e com a suspensão contendo ovos e larvas ou a associação de ambos os métodos de infestação. Em todos estes tratamentos notou-se que as raízes dos cafeeiros possuíam elevado número de galhas. Os dados obtidos indicam a possibilidade de realizar testes precoces de resistência ao nematóide M. exigua, o que é de particular interesse no plano geral de melhoramento visando resistência a esse parasita.Four methods of infestation namely: a sand infestation with small pieces of root-knots; b irrigation of sand with nematode eggs and larvae; c the combination of a and b, and d soil infested plus sand, were compared to develop a screening method for the evaluation of resistance of coffee seedlings to Meloidogyne exigua. Seedlings of Mundo Novo cultivar belonging to the Coffea arabica species were obtained by sowing seeds in plastic trays containing sand. A five point scale was used to determine the intensity of the

  4. Comparative transcriptome analysis of lufenuron-resistant and susceptible strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Antonio Rogério Bezerra; Fresia, Pablo; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis; Omoto, Celso

    2015-11-21

    The evolution of insecticide resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has resulted in large economic losses and disturbances to the environment and agroecosystems. Resistance to lufenuron, a chitin biosynthesis inhibitor insecticide, was recently documented in Brazilian populations of S. frugiperda. Thus, we utilized large-scale cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis) to compare the pattern of gene expression between lufenuron-resistant (LUF-R) and susceptible (LUF-S) S. larvae in an attempt to identify the molecular basis behind the resistance mechanism(s) of S. frugiperda to this insecticide. A transcriptome was assembled using approximately 19.6 million 100 bp-long single-end reads, which generated 18,506 transcripts with a N50 of 996 bp. A search against the NCBI non-redundant database generated 51.1% (9,457) functionally annotated transcripts. A large portion of the alignments were homologous to insects, with the majority (45%) being similar to sequences of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Moreover, 10% of the alignments were similar to sequences of various species of Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with 3% of them being similar to sequences of S. frugiperda. A comparative analysis of the gene expression between LUF-R and LUF-S S. frugiperda larvae identified 940 differentially expressed transcripts (p ≤ 0.05, t-test; fold change ≥ 4). Six of them were associated with cuticle metabolism. Of those, four were overexpressed in LUF-R larvae. The machinery involved with the detoxification process was represented by 35 differentially expressed transcripts; 24 of them belonging to P450 monooxygenases, four to glutathione-S-transferases, six to carboxylases and one to sulfotransferases. RNA-Seq analysis was validated for a number of selected candidate transcripts by using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). The gene expression profile of LUF-R larvae of S. frugiperda differs from LUF-S larvae. In general, gene expression is much

  5. Cuticular hydrocarbons of buffalo fly, Haematobia exigua, and chemotaxonomic differentiation from horn fly, H. irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, Rudolf; Brown, Geoffrey W; Moore, Christopher J; Green, Peter E

    2005-10-01

    We determined the quantity and chemical composition of cuticular hydrocarbons of different strains, sexes, and ages of buffalo flies, Haematobia exigua. The quantity of cuticular hydrocarbons increased from less than 1 microg/fly for newly emerged flies to over 11 microg/fly in 13-d-old flies. The hydrocarbon chain length varied from C(21) to C(29), with unbranched alkanes and monounsaturated alkenes the major components. Newly emerged flies contained almost exclusively C(27) hydrocarbons. Increasing age was accompanied by the appearance of hydrocarbons with shorter carbon chains and an increase in the proportion of alkenes. 11-Tricosene and 7-tricosene were the most abundant hydrocarbons in mature H. exigua. Cuticular hydrocarbons of H. exigua are distinctly different from those of horn flies, Haematobia irritans. The most noticeable differences were in the C(23) alkenes, with the major isomers 11- and 7-tricosene in H. exigua and (Z)-9- and (Z)-5-tricosene in H. irritans, respectively. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis provides a reliable method to differentiate the two species, which are morphologically difficult to separate. The differences in cuticular hydrocarbons also support their recognition as separate species, H. exigua and H. irritans, rather than as subspecies.

  6. Phylogenetic Molecular Species Delimitations Unravel Potential New Species in the Pest Genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Pascaline; Barbut, Jérôme; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Clamens, Anne-Laure; d’Alençon, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence). As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster) species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens) ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833)) and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904) with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852). They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities. PMID:25853412

  7. AISLAMIENTO, IDENTIFICACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE NUCLEOPOLIEDROVIRUS NATIVOS DE SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA EN COLOMBIA ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATIVE NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS OF SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andrea Gómez Valderrama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El gusano cogollero del maíz Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith es considerado la plaga más importante del cultivo en el mundo. En varios países se han empleado exitosamente los nucleopoliedrovirus de la familia Baculoviridae para su control. Sin embargo, en Colombia, no se cuenta ningún bioplaguicida viral registrado para el control de la plaga. En el presente trabajo, se realizó la búsqueda de aislamientos nativos de nucleopoliedrovirus en los departamentos de Tolima, Meta y Córdoba, mediante la recolección de larvas en diferentes cultivos. Las muestras fueron analizadas por microscopía para la búsqueda de partículas virales y los aislamientos encontrados se caracterizaron física y biológicamente. Se recolectaron 2.140 larvas de S. frugiperda en los tres departamentos muestreados. Sin embargo, sólo en un lugar (Cereté, Córdoba, se encontraron larvas con síntomas de infección viral en campo. El 2% de las muestras colectadas mostraron síntomas típicos de infección y en total se identificaron 3 aislamientos codificados como NPV003 (Córdoba, NPV009 (Tolima y NPV011 (Meta. Los aislamientos presentaron un tamaño de partícula entre 1,93 µm y 2,14 µm. Las concentraciones letales medias (CL50 sobre larvas neonatas oscilaron entre 2,2 x 105 CI/mL y 7,0 x 105 CI/mL y no se registraron estadísticas entre los aislamientos, sugiriendo que todos tienen la misma patogenicidad sobre larvas neonatas del insecto. Estos virus nativos representan la base para el desarrollo de una nueva alternativa biológica para el control de la plaga, siendo necesario iniciar los estudios para su formulación.Worldwide, the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith is considered the most important pest of maize crop. Nucleopolyhedrovirus of Baculoviridae family have been successfully used in several countries for its control. However, in Colombia there are not any biopesticide registered for the control of this pest. In the present work, native

  8. Atividade de extrato aquoso de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre Spodoptera frugiperda Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Teixeira Prates

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlorpyrifos como testemunha, revelaram, 15 dias após infestação com larvas, eficiência equivalente entre as concen- trações 3,60 a 10,00 mg mL-1. A análise de Probit mostrou CL50 = 2,67 mg mL-1; o extrato aquoso das folhas de nim apresenta, portanto, efeito inseticida sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith has been controlled with synthetic insecticides bringing risk to the environment. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is reported to be a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides against many insect species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves aqueous extract on fall armyworm, in laboratory. Bioassays carried out using artificial feed with various extract concentrations, and chlorpyrifos as control, indicated, 15 days after larvae infestation, similar efficiency in concentrations from 3.60 to 10.00 mg mL-1. Probit analysis showed LC50 = 2.67 mg mL-1. Hence, aqueous extract from neem leaves are active against fall armyworm.

  9. Survival and larval development of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on alternatives host; Sobrevivencia e desenvolvimento larval de Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em hospedeiros alternativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Verissimo G.M. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Montes Claros, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia; Fonseca, Bernardo V.C. [Universidade FUMEC, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Boregas, Katia G.B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia; Waquil, Jose M. [EMBRAPA Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: aaquil@cnpms.embrapa.br

    2009-01-15

    Two bioassays were conducted to evaluate the suitability of host plants of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith), in the Brazilian agro-ecosystem. Larval development and survival were analyzed by infesting leaves of maize, grain sorghum, Johnson grass, soybean, Brachiaria and tobacco with FAW newly hatched larvae in a no choice test. No significant differences of survival were observed among insects reared on different hosts, except for tobacco, where no survivors were recorded. Larvae fed on soybean and artificial diet grew larger than those fed on the other hosts. The heaviest pupa was observed from larva fed on artificial diet and the lighter from larva fed on Brachiaria grass. No significant differences were reported on larval development time on natural hosts, but it was longer for larvae reared on artificial diet. Three classes of larval development time were observed on maize, four on sorghum, Brachiaria and soybean, and five on artificial diet. Nearly 85% of FAW larvae completed development within 12 d on maize; 77% on grain sorghum, 80% on Johnson grass, 68% on Brachiaria and 83% on soybean within 14 d and 69% on artificial diet within 17 d. The host suitability to FAW decreases from maize to sorghum, soybean and Brachiaria. (author)

  10. Larval Dispersal of Spodoptera frugiperda Strains on Bt Cotton: A Model for Understanding Resistance Evolution and Consequences for its Management

    OpenAIRE

    Malaquias, José B.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.; Garcia, Adriano G.; Ramalho, Francisco de S.; Omoto, Celso

    2017-01-01

    High dispersal of Lepidoptera larvae between non-Bt and Bt cotton plants can favour the evolution of insect resistance; however, information on host acceptance of neonates in tropical transgenic crops is scarce. Therefore, the purposes of this study were as follows: (i) to investigate the feeding behaviour of susceptible and Cry1F-resistant strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) on Bt and non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties and (ii) to understand the possible effects of cot...

  11. Biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera dolichos (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora G. Montezano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius, 1794 were evaluated under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase. The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity, and fertility of 25 couples were evaluated. The longevity of females (12.9 days was not significantly different than that of males (12.4 days. The mean durations of the pre-, post- and oviposition periods were 3.0, 0.4 and 10.4 days, respectively. The mean fecundity was 4,086.0 eggs per female and mean fertility was 3,557.8 larvae per female. On average, a female copulated 1.4 times. The biotic potential of S. dolichos was estimated at 7.138 x 1018 individuals/female/year. The net reproductive rate (Ro was 1,711.98 times per generation and the mean generation time (T was 56.19 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.133, with a finite rate of increase (l of 1.142 per day. These results are compared with other species from Spodoptera and their relevance for management strategies of S. dolichos.

  12. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si. Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si or calcium carbonate (–Si. The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  13. A new quinolizidine alkaloid from the Papua New Guinean sponge Xestospongia exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagawa, T; Kaneko, M; Okamura, H; Nakatani, M; van Soest, R W; Shiro, M

    2000-09-01

    A new bis-quinolizidine alkaloid, xestosin A (1), possessing cis- and trans-quinolizidine nuclei, has been isolated from the Papua New Guinean sponge Xestospongia exigua. The structure was determined by spectrometric and single-crystal X-ray analyses.

  14. Host plants of leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: noctuidae in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura is a notorious leaf feeding insect pest of more than one hundred plants around the Asia-Pacific region. Host plant survey for two years from three different locations in cotton belt revealed 27 plant species as host plants of S. litura belonging to 25 genera of 14 families including cultivated crops, vegetables, weeds, fruits and ornamental plants. Major host plants on which it thrived for maximum period were Gossypium hirsutum L., Ricinus communis L., Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Colocasia esculenta L., Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Sesbania sesban L.. Eggs were also collected from tree plants but larvae did not complete their development. Reliance of S. litura on major plant species of cultivated crops necessitates their regular monitoring especially during March to April for their population abundance and early warning for their management on commercial crops like cotton.

  15. Antifeedant Activities of the Erythrinaline Alkaloids from Erythrina latissima against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidopteranoctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjala W. Cornelius

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The antifeedant activities of the Erythrina alkaloids from the seeds, seed pods and flowers ofErythrina latissima were investigated in laboratory dual- choice bioassays using third-instar Spodoptera littoralis(Boisduval larvae. The new compound (+-11-methoxy-10-oxoerysotramidine (1 from the flowers, showedpotent dose dependant activity at concentration ³ 500 ppm while (+-10,11-dioxoerysotramidine (2 also newfrom the flowers showed potent dose dependant activity at concentration ³100 ppm. Three known compounds(+-erysotrine, (+-erysotramidine, (+-erythraline, (+-11-hydroxyerysotramidine showed potent dosedependant antifeedant activity at concentrations ³100 ppm while (+-10,11-dioxoerysotrine and (+-11b-hydroxyerysotramidine also a known compounds showed potent dose dependant antifeedant activity atconcentrations ³ 300 ppm. Three known compounds (+-11-methoxyerysotramidine, (+-8-oxoerythralineand (+-15(16b-D-glucoerysodine showed no appreciable change in antifeedant activity with concentrationchange.

  16. Biology and nutrition of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae fed on different food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Mello da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We studied Spodoptera frugiperda development using different food sources in the laboratory and field. Newly hatched larvae were fed soybean, cotton, maize, wheat, and oat leaves. An artificial diet was used as the control. Duration of pre-pupal, pupal, and larva-adult period, pupal weight, sex ratio, survival, larva feeding preferences, oviposition preferences, and nutritional quality of different hosts were evaluated. Insects fed on wheat showed the shortest larva-adult period. The insects fed on cotton and soybean had longer larval development cycles and pupae of lower weight. Feeding preference was evident for third instar larvae and did not differ between wheat, oat, maize, and soybean, which were the preferred hosts. Moths oviposited to a greater extent on the upper canopy of wheat than that of other plants in both the no-choice and free-choice tests. Treatments influenced insect growth, food consumption, and digestion when nutritional variables were analyzed. Thus, grasses were better hosts for S. frugiperda development. Cotton was the least preferred food, followed by soybean. The present study can improve our understanding of S. frugiperda in these different crops and help in developing management strategies. Even though S. frugiperda is considered to be polyphagous, this pest is closely associated with grasses (maize, wheat, oat and has lower potential as a soybean or cotton feeder. Howerver, S. frugiperda food intake regulation appears to be triggered by a complex of different mechanisms. Thus, S. frugiperda can also damage soybean and cotton and adapt to them in the absence of preferred hosts.

  17. Determinación del nivel de daño de Spodoptera frugiperda en tres variedades de arroz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda está reportado como una plaga importante en la mayoría de países de Latinoamérica. Para determinar la efectividad de las estrategias de control se infestaron plántulas de tres variedades de arroz (Fedearroz 50, Tailandia3 y Tailandia 4 A los 15 y 25 días después de siembra inocularon con larvas de S. frugiperda de tercer instar (0, 100 y 400 larvas/m2, luego se cubrió las plántulas usando jaulas de nylon. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en rendimiento en ninguno de los tratamientos, lo cual correspondió con el área foliar recuperada por las plantas. Si esta plaga se controla en el cuarto instar, parece ser que se presenta poco daño económico al cultivo.

  18. Effect of antibiotic on survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its gut microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, A; Dhammi, P; Saini, H S; Kaur, S

    2016-06-01

    Addition of antibiotics to artificial diets of insects is a key component in the rearing of insects in the laboratory. In the present study an antimicrobial agent, streptomycin sulphate was tested for its influence on survival and fitness of Spodoptera litura (Fabricus) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as well as its gut microbial diversity. The antibiotic did not adversely affect the survival of S. litura. Faster growth of larvae was recorded on diet amended with different concentrations of streptomycin sulphate (0.03, 0.07 and 0.15%) as compared to diet without streptomycin sulphate. The overall activity of various digestives enzymes increased on S+ diet while the activity of detoxifying enzymes significantly decreased. In addition, alteration in microbial diversity was found in the gut of S. litura larvae fed on diet supplemented with antibiotic (S+) and without antibiotic (S-).

  19. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  20. The resistance of insects to plant proteinase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis describes the induction of proteinase inhibitor synthesis in solanaceous plants (tobacco and tomato), when lepidopteran larvae (Manduca sexta and Spodoptera exigua) are feeding on leaves. It is shown that the

  1. Suscetibilidade de Spodoptera Frugiperda a isolados geográficos de um vírus de poliedrose nuclear Spodoptera Frugiperda susceptibility to nuclear polyhedrosis virus geographical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Arce Gomez

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou verificar a suscetibilidade de larvas de segundo ínstar de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 a sete isolados geográficos de um vírus de poliedrose nuclear (VPN, conduzindo-se sete bioensaios no Laboratório de Patologia de Insetos da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja, Londrina. Para cada isolado preparou-se dieta artificial contendo 0, 2x10³, 4x10³, 8x10³, 16x10³, 32x10³ e 64x10³ corpos poliédricos de inclusão (CPI/mL. Cada dose foi oferecida às larvas em copos de plástico de 50 mL, sob condições controladas (temperatura: 26±2ºC; umidade relativa: 60±10%; fotófase:14 horas. A análise (Probits realizada sobre o somatório de larvas mortas (contadas, diariamente, do quinto ao décimo quarto dia após a inoculação mostrou, com base na ausência de sobreposição das amplitudes dos intervalos de confiança das concentrações letais médias (CL50, que: o isolado de Sertaneja, PR (5.631 CPI/mL, foi o mais virulento; o da Guatemala (11.520 CPI/mL equivaleu aos de Ponta Grossa, PR (14.184 CPI/mL, Argentina (15.891 CPI/mL e Alabama, EUA (17.558 CPI/mL, mas foi superior aos isolados de Louisiana, EUA (19.325 CPI/mL e Sete Lagoas, MG (25.310 CPI/mL. A variação do tempo letal médio, de 8,3 a 10 dias, não foi significativa em relação aos isolados.In order to verify the Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith,1797 second instar larvae susceptibility to seven nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV geographical isolates, seven bioassays were carried out at Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja, Insect Pathology Laboratory, Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. Artificial diet containing 0 (control, 2x10³, 4x10³, 8x10³, 16x10³, 32x10³, and 64x10³ polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB/mL was prepared for each virus isolate; each dose was offered, in 50 mL plastic cups to the larvae under controlled conditions (temperature 26±2ºC; relative humidity: 60±10% and photophase: 14 hours. The statistical analysis

  2. Toxicity of Secondary Metabolites from Meliaceae Against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo, A M M; Vendramim, J D; Freitas, S D L; Silva, M F G F

    2016-12-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the bioactivity of secondary metabolites from Trichilia pallida, Trichilia pallens, and Toona ciliata against fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) larvae. The studied compounds included (+/-)-catechins, a triglyceride, and cedrelone isolated from T. ciliata branches, fruits, and stems, respectively; dammaradienol isolated from T. pallida leaves; and scopoletin isolated from T. pallens branches. The compounds' activity was evaluated through ingestion and topic treatment. Treated artificial diet was offered to first instar larvae to evaluate ingestion effect, while an application on the dorsal thoracic region of third instar larvae was used to evaluate the topic effect. Mortality was assessed daily, and larval weight was recorded after 7 days for ingestion and 5 days for topic application. Scopoletin and triglyceride caused low mortality rates and reduction in larval weight by ingestion, (+/-)-catechins caused larval weight reduction by ingestion, and scopoletin reduced survival by topic treatment. The most effective compound was cedrelone that affected larval survival and development mainly by ingestion. The estimated LC 50 , LC 90 , and EC 50 for cedrelone were 0.0365, 0.0659, and 0.0095%, respectively. Further, cedrelone-treated corn leaf discs were offered to fourth instar larvae during 16 h in choice and no-choice tests. The deterrence indexes obtained in the choice tests were 23.5 and 36.3% at concentrations of 0.0365 and 0.0659, respectively. Consumption of cedrelone-treated leaf discs at the concentration of 0.0659% was lower compared to the control in the no-choice test. Thus, cedrelone caused lethal and sublethal effects and phagodeterrence on S. frugiperda and should be further studied.

  3. Characterization of putative virulence factors of Serratia marcescens strain SEN for pathogenesis in Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Chetana; Paul, Sangeeta; Tripathi, Vishwas; Paul, Bishwajeet; Khan, Md Aslam

    2017-02-01

    Two Serratia marcescens strains, SEN and ICC-4, isolated from diseased insect cadavers were observed to differ considerably in their virulence towards Spodoptera litura. The present study was aimed to characterize the possible virulence factors present in the virulent Serratia marcescens strain SEN. Both the S. marcescens strains were evaluated for the presence of various lytic enzymes such as chitinase, lipase, protease and phospholipase. The virulent S. marcescens strain SEN was observed to possess considerably higher activity of chitinase and protease enzymes; activity of phospholipase enzyme was also higher. Although, all the three toxin genes shlA, phlA and swr could be detected in both the S. marcescens strains, there was a higher expression of these genes in the virulent strain SEN. S. marcescens strain ICC-4 showed greater reduction in overall growth yield in the post-exponential phase in the presence of midgut juice and hemolymph of S. litura larvae, as compared to S. marcescens strain SEN. Proliferation of the S. marcescens strain SEN was also considerably higher in foregut, midgut and hemolymph of S. litura larvae, as compared to strain ICC-4. Peritrophic membrane treated with broth culture of the S. marcescens strain SEN showed higher damage as compared to strain ICC-4. The peritrophic membrane of larvae fed on diet treated with the virulent strain showed considerable damage while the peritrophic membrane of larvae fed on diet treated with the non-virulent strain showed no damage. This is the first report documenting the fate of ingested S. marcescens in S. litura gut and the relative expression of toxin genes from two S. marcescens strains differing in their virulence towards S. litura. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aproximación a la filogenia de Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae con el uso de un fragmento del gen de la citocromo oxidasa I (COI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Saldamando

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se secuenció un fragmento de 451pb del gen mitocondrial de la citocromo oxidasa I (COI en 62 secuencias del género Spodoptera y una secuencia de Bombix mori (grupo externo. Los resultados mostraron gran diferenciación genética (distancia K2 entre los haplotipos de Spodoptera frugiperda de Colombia y Estados Unidos, según los estimadores de diversidad haplotípica, diversidad y polimorfismo nucleotídicos calculados. Un árbol de ML agrupó las especies con valores de bootstrap entre 73-99% en las ramas internas. No obstante algunas ramas presentaron bajos valores de bootstrap. Este árbol formó un grupo constituido por las especies del hemisferio oriental (S. littoralis y S. litura y también agrupó las especies localizadas en el hemisferio occidental (S. androgea, S. dolichos, S. eridania, S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. latifascia, S. ornithogalli y S. pulchella. Esto demuestra que el árbol agrupó las especies con base en su origen geográfico. Contrariamente, el árbol no agrupó a S. frugiperda con S. ornithogalli, demostrando que a pesar de que ambas coexisten en el cultivo de algodón, no comparten un ancestro común reciente. En Colombia, estas especies forman parte del “complejo Spodoptera” del algodón, y nuestros resultados demuestran que la secuenciación de este gen permite diferenciarlas sin necesidad del uso de claves taxonómicas de sus estadios larvales. Este trabajo es una aproximación a la filogenia de este género, por lo cual la inclusión de más genes (mitocondriales y nucleares son necesarios para futuros trabajos.

  5. Identification and characterization of the Spodoptera Su(var) 3-9 histone H3K9 trimethyltransferase and its effect in AcMNPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin; Li, Sisi; Yin, Juan; Zhong, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Histone H3-lysine(9) (H3K9) trimethyltransferase gene Su(var) 3-9 was cloned and identified in three Spodoptera insects, Spodopterafrugiperda (S. frugiperda), S. exigua and S. litura. Sequence analysis showed that Spodoptera Su(var) 3-9 is highly conserved evolutionarily. Su(var) 3-9 protein was found to be localized in the nucleus in Sf9 cells, and interact with histone H3, and the heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a) and HP1b. A dose-dependent enzymatic activity was found at both 27 °C and 37 °C in vitro, with higher activity at 27 °C. Addition of specific inhibitor chaetocin resulted in decreased histone methylation level and host chromatin relaxation. In contrast, overexpression of Su(var) 3-9 caused increased histone methylation level and cellular genome compaction. In AcMNV-infected Sf9 cells, the transcription of Su(var) 3-9 increased at late time of infection, although the mRNA levels of most cellular genes decreased. Pre-treatment of Sf9 cells with chaetocin speeded up viral DNA replication, and increased the transcription level of a variety of virus genes, whereas in Sf9 cells pre-transformed with Su(var) 3-9 expression vector, viral DNA replication slow down slightly. These findings suggest that Su(var) 3-9 might participate in the viral genes expression an genome replication repression during AcMNPV infection. It provided a new insight for the understanding virus-host interaction mechanism.

  6. Encapsulation and Hemocyte Numbers in Crocidolomia pavonana and Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera Attacked by Parasitoid Eriborus argenteopilosus Cameron (Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMAYANTI BUCHORI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Eriborus argenteopilosus is the most important parasitoid attacking cabbage pest Crocidolomia pavonana in Indonesia. Previous studies proved that parasitoid encapsulation was found to be an important factor limiting the effectiveness of the parasitoid in controlling pest population in the field. Since 1998, we have conducted series studies to investigate encapsulation mechanism developed by hosts against parasitoid, responses of parasitoid toward encapsulation ability and to determine factors that may help parasitoid avoid encapsulation. Parasitoid responses were examined on two different hosts C. pavonana and Spodoptera litura. Our findings showed that parasitization level was found to be high both on C. pavonana and S. litura. Encapsulation occurred to be high in all larva stages of C. pavonana, in contrast encapsulation was recorded very low in all larvae stages of S. litura. We recorded that encapsulation in the larval body of C. pavonana was completed in 72 hours and mostly occurred in higher larval stage. Melanization was only recorded in encapsulated parasitoid inside larva body of C. pavonana, not in S. litura. We recorded that encapsulation increased blood cell number of both larvae C. pavonana and S. litura. Encapsulation may affect development of immature parasitoid. Weight of S. litura's pupae containing encapsulated parasitoid was found to be lower in S. litura, but not in C. pavonana. Our investigation also proved that superparasitism may help parasitoid avoid encapsulation.

  7. Biological characteristics of black armyworm Spodoptera cosmioides on genetically modified soybean and corn crops that express insecticide Cry proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vieira Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the development and reproduction of the black armyworm, Spodoptera cosmioides when larvae fed on leaves of Bt-corn hybrids, expressing a single Cry1F and also Cry1F, Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 in pyramided corn and their non-Bt-isoline (hybrid 2B688, as well as on leaves of two soybean isolines expressing the Cry1Ac protein and its non-Bt isoline (A5547-227. We also assessed the effect of these Bt and non-Bt plants on the leaf consumption rate of S. cosmioides larvae. This pest was unable to develop when fed on any of the corn isolines (Bt and non-Bt. When both 1st and 3rd instar larvae were fed on corn leaf, mortality was 100% in both Bt and non-Bt corn. In contrast, when corn leaves were offered to 5th instar larvae, there were survivors. Defoliation and leaf consumption was higher with non-Bt corn than with both of the Bt corn isolines. There was no negative effect of Bt soybean leaves on the development and reproduction of S. cosmioides with respect to all evaluated parameters. Our study indicates that both Bt and non-Bt corn adversely affect the development of S. cosmioides while Bt soybean did not affect its biology, suggesting that this lepidopteran has major potential to become an important pest in Bt soybean crops.

  8. Selection and characterisation of an HD1-like Bacillus thuringiensis isolate with a high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Hichem; Kebaili-Ghribi, Jihene; ben Farhat-Touzri, Dalel; Daoud, Fatma; Fakhfakh, Ines; Tounsi, Slim; Jaoua, Samir

    2014-08-01

    Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae are known by their susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strains. In order to prevent the appearance of B. thuringiensis (Bt) resistance and to develop economical Bt-based biopesticides, the selection and the characterisation of a B. thuringiensis isolate toxic against S. littoralis larvae and overproducing δ-endotoxins were investigated. Among 124 Tunisian B. thuringiensis isolates assessed against S. littoralis larvae, four isolates showed toxicity similar to and higher than the toxicity of the aizawai strain HD133 and the kurstaki strain HD1 respectively. The plasmid pattern of the selected isolates was similar to that of HD1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using specific primers revealed that these isolates present different gene contents. The only detected gene encoding Spodoptera-specific toxin was cry9. The selected isolates were found to produce bipyramidal and cubic crystals. The assessment of δ-endotoxin production by these isolates showed that BUPM28 produced 43.71 and 80.81% more δ-endotoxin than HD1 and HD133 respectively. The application of osmotic or heat shock stress on the BUPM28 isolate made it possible to enhance δ-endotoxin production by 22 and 23% respectively. On the basis of its potent insecticidal activity and its high level of δ-endotoxin production, the BUPM28 isolate can be considered to be an effective alternative for the control of S. littoralis. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Secondary metabolites from Glycine soja and their growth inhibitory effect against Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Ying; Luo, Shi-Hong; Yi, Ting-Shuang; Li, Chun-Huan; Luo, Qian; Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2011-06-08

    The wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) has been reported to be relatively resistant to insect and pathogenic pests. However, the responsible secondary metabolites in the aerial part of this important plant are largely unknown. From the aerial part of G. soja, 13 compounds were isolated and identified, including seven isoflavonoids (1-7), a cyclitol (8), two sterol derivatives (9 and 10), and three triterpenoids (11-13). Compound 7 is a new isoflavonoid, and compounds 9 and 10 are reported as natural products for the first time. The growth inhibitory activity of 1, 3, 4, and 8 against the larvae of Spodoptera litura was investigated. The most abundant isoflavonoid in the aerial part of G. soja, daidzein (1), which could not be metabolized by S. litura, was found to inhibit the insect larvae growth significantly in 3 days after feeding diets containing the compound. Compounds 3, 4, and 8, which could be partially or completely metabolized, were inactive. Our results suggested that the isoflavonoid daidzein (1) might function as a constitutive defense component in G. soja against insect pests.

  10. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  11. Larvae for layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lotte; Fischer, Christian Holst; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Companies and researchers are in close collaboration developing a container- based system for cultivating fly larvae at organic poultry farms. In a one week process, manure will be converted to compost and the live larvae will be harvested and used for feeding laying hens. The larvae are expected...

  12. NÃO PREFERÊNCIA PARA ALIMENTAÇÃO E ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS DE Spodoptera eridania EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO-CAUPI

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO HENRIQUE SARDINHA DE SOUZA; ARLINDO LEAL BOIÇA JÚNIOR; ANDERSON GONÇALVES DA SILVA; NARA ELISA LOBATO RODRIGUES

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the no-preference for feeding and biological aspects of Spodoptera eridania fed on cowpea cultivars BR17 Gurgueia, BRS Urubuquara, BRS Nova Era, Sempre Verde, BRS Milênio and BR3 Tracuateua. In free-choice test, leaf discs were placed in Petri dishes where one third instar larvae per cultivar was released, whereas in no-choice test one leaf disc was placed per Petri dish where one caterpillar per cultivar was released, evaluating their attractiveness afte...

  13. Biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Goulart Montezano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotic potential and reprodutcive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in the laboratory: This study aimed to evaluate the biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782 under controlled conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase. The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity and fertility of 15 couples was evaluated. The longevity of females (10.80 days was not significantly higher than those of males (9.27 days. The mean durations of the pre, post and oviposition periods were 2.067, 0.600 and 8.133 days, respectively. The mean fecundity per female was 1,398 eggs and the mean fertility was 1,367.50 larvae. On average, females copulated 1.133 times. A strong positive correlation was observed between the number of mating and fecundity (r = 0.881, P <0.001. However a strong negative correlation was observed between the number of copulations and the duration of the pre-oviposition period (r = -0.826, P = 0.002 and longevity (r = -0.823, P = 0.001. The biotic potential of S. eridania was estimated at 1.894 x 10(25 individuals/female/year. The net reproductive rate (Ro was 560.531 times per generation and the mean generation time (T was 35.807 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.177, with a finite rate of increase (l of 1.193, per week

  14. Histopathological effects and determination of the putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Da toxin in Spodoptera littoralis midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenFarhat-Touzri, Dalel; Saadaoui, Marwa; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Saadaoui, Imen; Azzouz, Hichem; Tounsi, Slim

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strain HD133, known by its effectiveness against Spodoptera species, produces many insecticidal proteins including Cry1Ab, Cry1Ca and Cry1Da. In the present study, the insecticidal activity of Cry1Da against Spodoptera littoralis was investigated. It showed toxicity with an LC(50) of 224.4 ng/cm(2) with 95% confidence limits of (178.61-270.19) and an LC(90) of 467.77 ng/cm(2) with 95% confidence limits of (392.89-542.65). The midgut histopathology of Cry1Da fed larvae showed vesicle formation in the apical region, vacuolization and destruction of epithelial cells. Biotinylated-activated Cry1Da toxin bound protein of about 65 kDa on blots of S. littoralis brush border membrane preparations. This putative receptor differs in molecular size from those recognized by Cry1C and Vip3A which are active against this polyphagous insect. This difference in midgut receptors strongly supports the use of Cry1Da as insecticidal agent, particularly in case of Cry and/or Vip-resistance management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A.

  16. Suitable areas of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, Spodoptera exigua, and their host plant Phaseolus vulgaris are projected to reduce and shift due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Cabral, Nadiezhda Yakovleva Zitz; Kumar, Lalit; Shabani, Farzin

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, crop pests (CPs) such as pathogens and insects affect agricultural production detrimentally. Species distribution models can be used for projecting current and future suitability of CPs and host crop localities. Our study overlays the distribution of two CPs (Asian soybean rust and beet armyworm) and common bean, a potential host of them, in order to determine their current and future levels of coexistence. This kind of modeling approach has rarely been performed previously in climate change studies. The soybean rust and beet armyworm model projections herein show a reduction of the worldwide area with high and medium suitability of both CPs and a movement of them away from the Equator, in 2100 more pronounced than in 2050. Most likely, heat and dry stress will be responsible for these changes. Heat and dry stress will greatly reduce and shift the future suitable cultivation area of common bean as well, in a similar manner. The most relevant findings of this study were the reduction of the suitable areas for the CPs, the reduction of the risk under future scenarios, and the similarity of trends for the CPs and host. The current results highlight the relation between and the coevolution of host and pathogens.

  17. Levantamento de Meloidogyne exigua na cultura da seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Eduardo Roberto de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de efetuar um levantamento da ocorrência de Meloidogyne exigua em seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT. Foram amostradas 191 propriedades agrícolas, totalizando cerca de 18.000ha. Os nematóides foram identificados no Laboratório de Nematologia do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, em Jaboticabal, SP. Foram encontrados níveis populacionais de M. exigua entre 0 e 61.824 juvenis/5g de raízes.

  18. EVALUACIÓN DE ISOESPINTANOL AISLADO DE Oxandra cf. xylopioides (ANNONACEAE SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE EVALUATION OF ISOESPINTANOL ISOLATED FROM Oxandra cf. xylopioides (ANNONACEAE ON Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Alberto Rojano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto biocida del isoespintanol extraído de Oxandra cf. xylopioides sobre el gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda. El isoespintanol fue usado a concentraciones de 100 300 900 y 2700 ppm y aplicado por inmersión de hojas de maíz evaluando sobre larvas del segundo instar. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad a las 24, 48 y 72 horas y se calculó la DL50 y DL90; el análisis de mortalidad demostró que el isoespintanol tiene un efecto tóxico, siendo la dosis de 2700 ppm la que presenta mayor mortalidad. Se determinó una DL50 de 147,07 ppm y una DL90 de 1394 ppm a las 48 horas postratamiento. Estos resultados permitirán avanzar en el estudio y aplicación de insecticidas biológicos para el manejo integrado de plagas.The biocide effect of isoespintanol extracted from Oxandra cf xylopioides was evaluated on the corn earworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Isoespintanol at concentrations of 100 300 900 and 2700 ppm was applied by foliar immersion of maize leaves and it was evaluated on larvae of the second instar. Percentage of mortality at 24, 48 and 72 hours was determined and calculated its DL50 and DL90; the mortality analysis demonstrated that compound has toxic effects, being the dose 2700 ppm the one that presented great mortality. A dose DL50 of 147.07 ppm and a DL90 of 1394 ppm to the 48 hours postreatment was determined. These results will allow to advance in the study and application of biological insecticides directed to the integrated handling of plagues.

  19. Novel chromone derivatives from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenhan; Brauers, Gernot; Ebel, Rainer; Wray, Victor; Berg, Albrecht; Sudarsono; Proksch, Peter

    2003-01-01

    From the marine sponge Xestospongia exigua collected in Indonesia the fungus Aspergillus versicolor was isolated. Following cultivation in a seawater-based medium seven new angular tricyclic chromone derivatives (1-7) were obtained from the mycelia and culture filtrate. Compounds 2-7 contain an additional dihydropyran ring system which is replaced by a pyridine ring in 1. The structures of the new natural products were established on the basis of extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic studies (1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOE difference spectra) as well as on mass spectral analysis.

  20. Effects of citronella oil (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor) on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) midgut and fat body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cts; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Cunha, F M; Oliveira, J V; Dutra, K A; Navarro, Dma Ferraz; Teixeira, Aac

    2017-12-05

    The armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is the principal pest of corn in Brazil. Control is achieved primarily by synthetic insecticides, which cause problems for the agro-ecosystem. Alternative methods of control are under investigation and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) essential oil appears to be a promising agent. We investigated the effects of citronella oil using histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The midgut of larvae treated with citronella exhibited altered epithelium including cytoplasmic protrusions, columnar cell extrusion, pyknotic nuclei, and increased periodic acid-Schiff positive granules. Regenerative cells in the epithelium of the midgut increased in number, which facilitated subsequent regeneration of this tissue. After exposure to citronella, trophocytes, the principal cell type of the fat body, possessed enlarged vacuoles and mitotic bodies, and contained reduced amounts of glycogen, lipid, and protein. Citronella oil caused morphological changes of the midgut and reduction of stored resources in the fat body, which may adversely affect insect reproduction and survival.

  1. Larval Dispersal of Spodoptera frugiperda Strains on Bt Cotton: A Model for Understanding Resistance Evolution and Consequences for its Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, José B; Godoy, Wesley A C; Garcia, Adriano G; Ramalho, Francisco de S; Omoto, Celso

    2017-11-23

    High dispersal of Lepidoptera larvae between non-Bt and Bt cotton plants can favour the evolution of insect resistance; however, information on host acceptance of neonates in tropical transgenic crops is scarce. Therefore, the purposes of this study were as follows: (i) to investigate the feeding behaviour of susceptible and Cry1F-resistant strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) on Bt and non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties and (ii) to understand the possible effects of cotton field contamination on the dispersal and infestation capacity of S. frugiperda larvae by using an individual-based model. The main results of this paper are as follows: (1) the highest post-feeding larval dispersal of the Cry1F-resistant strain occurred at an exposure time of 18-24 h; (2) via video tracking assays, we found that the least distance moved was by larvae resistant to Cry1F on non-Bt cotton; and (3) the model indicated differences in mobility capacity between Bt and non-Bt cotton. We conclude that resistant neonates exhibit sedentary behaviour. Our report represents the first findings concerning the fitness cost of larval behaviour traits of S. frugiperda associated with Cry1F resistance in Brazilian populations.

  2. Toxicity of copaiba extracts to armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity of copaiba extracts to armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). DS Alves, GA Carvalho, DF Oliveira, RR Sâmia, MA Villas-Boas, GA Carvalho, AD Côrrea. Abstract. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts from leaves, peels, seeds and pulps from fruits of Copaifera langsdorffii on ...

  3. Characterization of an Egyptian Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus and a possible use of a highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene for nucleopolyhedrovirus detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seufi AlaaEddeen M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An Egyptian isolate of Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV was tested for its potential as biocontrol agent in comparison to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV. Comparative assays of SpliNPV and AcMNPV against 2nd instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis revealed 4-fold greater susceptibility of S. littoralis to AcMNPV than to SpliNPV based on LC50 values for the two viruses. The LT50s determined for SpliNPV and AcMNPV using LC50 of the virus against 2nd instar larvae were 4.2 and 5.8 days, respectively. A DNA segment of 405 bp containing highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene of SpliNPV (Polh-cr was successfully amplified by PCR. Subsequently, this DNA segment was cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence were compared to all available sequences in GenBank. Sequence alignment results revealed that Polh-cr showed significant similarities with 91 different baculovirus isolates. The percentage of homology ranged from 78% for Plusia orichalcea NPV to 99% for SpliNPV. This highly conserved region provides a candidate that could be used in easy, fast and economic prospective systems for virus detection as well as in biological control strategies.

  4. Characterization of an Egyptian Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus and a possible use of a highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene for nucleopolyhedrovirus detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seufi, AlaaEddeen M

    2008-01-01

    An Egyptian isolate of Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) was tested for its potential as biocontrol agent in comparison to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Comparative assays of SpliNPV and AcMNPV against 2nd instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis revealed 4-fold greater susceptibility of S. littoralis to AcMNPV than to SpliNPV based on LC50 values for the two viruses. The LT50s determined for SpliNPV and AcMNPV using LC50 of the virus against 2nd instar larvae were 4.2 and 5.8 days, respectively. A DNA segment of 405 bp containing highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene of SpliNPV (Polh-cr) was successfully amplified by PCR. Subsequently, this DNA segment was cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence were compared to all available sequences in GenBank. Sequence alignment results revealed that Polh-cr showed significant similarities with 91 different baculovirus isolates. The percentage of homology ranged from 78% for Plusia orichalcea NPV to 99% for SpliNPV. This highly conserved region provides a candidate that could be used in easy, fast and economic prospective systems for virus detection as well as in biological control strategies. PMID:18215282

  5. Avoidance of crude-oil contaminated sediment by the Australian seastar, Patiriella exigua (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, K. [RMIT University, Victoria (Australia). Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology; Temara, A. [RMIT University, Victoria (Australia). Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology; Procter and Gamble, Environmental Safety (Belgium); Holdway, D.A. [RMIT University, Victoria (Australia). Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology; University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ont. (Canada). Faculty of Science

    2004-12-01

    This study attempted to determine whether Patiriella exigua, an Australian seastar, could detect and/or avoid oiled sediment when given an equal choice of unoiled sediment. The sediment was spiked once to produce one of three concentrations of oiled sediment used in the test chambers versus unoiled sediment. Behavioral observations were repeated over a 32 day period to test the effects of aging the oiled sediment. Results show that Patiriella exigua was capable of detecting oiled sediment and/or an oiled environment. Seastars avoided oiled sediment, with significantly higher numbers choosing either to reside on the clean sediment (p<0.05) or to travel up the glass sides of the tanks (p<0.0001). Avoidance of oiled sediment increased with increasing sediment oil concentrations. Aging the oiled sediment decreased the oil content of the sediment and increased the number of seastars able to inhabit it (p<0.001). A potential narcotic effect of exposure to oiled sediment was observed. (author)

  6. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars to attractive and repellent plant volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacem eRharrabe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Lepidoptera, the behavior of caterpillars to plant odors is poorly known. However, caterpillars are equipped with a reduced number of olfactory sensilla (3 on the antenna and 4-5 on the maxillary palps which they can use to make fine discrimination between complex plant odors. In this work, we characterized behavioral responses of Spodoptera littoralis larvae to 11 odorants found in plants using binary choices in a Petri dish assay. In this assay, 1-hexanol, hexanal and cis-jasmone elicited a dose-dependent attraction, camphene and eugenol were repellent, while the response to other odorants were less marked. We recorded the electrophysiological responses to 5 of these odors from olfactory neurons of sensillum B2 of the antenna. Several neurons from this sensillum responded to each of the chemicals tested by an increase of their firing activity on top of a high background activity, suggesting that olfactory neurons of caterpillars is broadly tuned to a range of odorants rather than being specialized to a few molecules.

  7. Herbivore-Induced Changes in Cotton Modulates Reproductive Behavior in the Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zakir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce chemical defense compounds to resist herbivore attack either by repelling the herbivores or attracting natural enemies of the herbivores. We have previously shown that volatile compounds from cotton released in response to herbivory by conspecifics reduce oviposition in cotton leafworm moth Spodoptera littoralis. It remained, however, unclear whether herbivore-induced changes also affect moth pre-mating and mating behaviors. In this study we examined the effect of herbivore-induced changes in cotton on reproductive behaviors i.e., female calling, male attraction and investment, and mating behavior in S. littoralis. We found a reduction in the number of females calling i.e., females releasing pheromone, in the presence of cotton plants damaged by larvae of S. littoralis compared to undamaged plants. Females also spent significantly less time calling and showed a delay in calling in the presence of damaged plants. Furthermore, males exhibited significantly delayed activation and reduced attraction toward female sex pheromone in the presence of damaged plants. We also found that mating success and the number of matings were significantly reduced in the presence of damaged plants whereas male investment i.e., spermatophore weight, was not affected. Thus, our study provides evidence that herbivory by conspecifics on host plants affect pre-mating and mating behaviors in an insect herbivore.

  8. Immature stages of Spodoptera albula (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): developmental parameters and host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montezano, Débora G; Specht, Alexandre; Bortolin, Tarciso M; Fronza, Edegar; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R; Roque-Specht, Vânia F; Pezzi, Patrícia; Luz, Priscila C; Barros, Neiva M

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to detail the temporal and morphological parameters of the immature stages of Spodoptera albula (Walker 1857) under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase) and to gather information about their larval host plants. For this purpose, a new rearing method and artificial diet was employed and validated. The viability of the egg, larval, pupal and pre-pupal stages was 94.54, 97.33, 93.84 and 92.34%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larval, pupal and pre-pupal stages was 4.14, 16.37, 1.69, and 9.34 days, respectively. During the larval stage, 80.85% of females and 93.99% of males passed through six and remaining through seven instars, with significant larval protandry. The larvae that developed through six and seven instars exhibited a mean growth rate of 1.58 and 1.48, respectively. Fifty five host plant species belonging to 29 families are listed. The female pupae were significantly larger, exhibiting protogyny. Both the rearing methods as well as the larval diet proved adequate, providing more detailled observations of the biological cycle, especially the larval stage, and resulting in an overall survival of almost 80%.

  9. Immature stages of Spodoptera albula (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Developmental parameters and host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÉBORA G. MONTEZANO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detail the temporal and morphological parameters of the immature stages of Spodoptera albula (Walker 1857 under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase and to gather information about their larval host plants. For this purpose, a new rearing method and artificial diet was employed and validated. The viability of the egg, larval, pupal and pre-pupal stages was 94.54, 97.33, 93.84 and 92.34%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larval, pupal and pre-pupal stages was 4.14, 16.37, 1.69, and 9.34 days, respectively. During the larval stage, 80.85% of females and 93.99% of males passed through six and remaining through seven instars, with significant larval protandry. The larvae that developed through six and seven instars exhibited a mean growth rate of 1.58 and 1.48, respectively. Fifty five host plant species belonging to 29 families are listed. The female pupae were significantly larger, exhibiting protogyny. Both the rearing methods as well as the larval diet proved adequate, providing more detailled observations of the biological cycle, especially the larval stage, and resulting in an overall survival of almost 80%.

  10. Managing fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with Bt maize and insecticides in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtet, Leonardo M; Bernardi, Oderlei; Melo, Adriano A; Pes, Maiquel P; Strahl, Thiago T; Guedes, Jerson Vc

    2017-12-01

    Maize plants expressing insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis are valuable options for managing fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, in Brazil. However, control failures were reported, and therefore insecticides have been used to control this species. Based on these, we evaluated the use of Bt maize and its integration with insecticides against FAW in southern Brazil. Early-planted Agrisure TL, Herculex, Optimum Intrasect and non-Bt maize plants were severely damaged by FAW and required up to three insecticidal sprays. In contrast, YieldGard VT Pro, YieldGard VT Pro 3, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 showed little damage and did not require insecticides. Late-planted Bt maize plants showed significant damage by FAW and required up to four sprays, with the exceptions of Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3. Exalt (first and second sprays); Lannate + Premio (first spray) and Avatar (second spray); and Karate + Match (first spray) and Ampligo (second spray) were the most effective insecticides against FAW larvae in Bt and non-Bt maize. Maize plants expressing Cry proteins exhibited FAW control failures in southern Brazil, necessitating insecticidal sprays. In contrast, Bt maize containing the Vip3Aa20 protein remained effective against FAW. However, regardless of the insecticide used against FAW surviving on Bt maize, grain yields were similar. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different structures of transgenic corn against Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bernardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith is the main target pest of Bt corn technologies, such as YieldGard VT PRO(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2 and PowerCore(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2/Cry1F. In this study, it was evaluated the biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different plant structures of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn against S. frugiperda . Complete mortality of S. frugiperda neonates was observed on leaf-disc of both Bt corn technologies. However, the mortality in silks and grains was lower than 50 and 6%, respectively. In addition, more than 49% of the surviving larvae in silks and grains completed the biological cycle. However, all life table parameters were negatively affected in insects that developed in silks and grains of both Bt corn events. In summary, the low biological activity of Bt proteins expressed on silks and grains of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn can contribute to the resistance evolution in S. frugiperda populations.

  12. Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda.

  13. Host influence on irradiation bioefficacy : growth and development of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    Survival and development of Spodoptera litura(F), a polyphagous pest was ascertained on a range of host plants, common and economic in the Indian context. Castor, cotton, green gram and okra constituted the preferred host group showing significantly better growth rate (GR) and growth index (GI) than the group of less preferred host plants that included groundnut, red gram, rose leaf and rose petal. Ontogenic growth profile vis-a-vis irradiation was studied with recording of GI at L3, pupa and adult levels in response to gamma dosages administered in L1 stage. Irradiation effect on the growth index was mainly due to reduction in survival, which was further pronounced owing to delay in development. On all the preferred host plants, adult-G1 was reduced by more than 50 per cent at 40 Gy gamma dose; whereas the same dose on less preferred host plants could prevent adult emergence on ground nut and red gram, and inhibited pupa formation on rose diet. The percentage mortality of larvae exhibiting delayed development was markedly more in the less preferred host group. Dose dependent reduction was observed in the larval growth rate of L3, L5 and L6 instars on all the host plants. 20 Gy exhibited almost same intensity of adverse impact in less preferred host group as was shown by 40 Gy in preferred hosts. 20 Gy dose reduced the pupal weight and conversion ratio of treated insects significantly. Age influence was evident on irradiation efficacy on all the diets. Insects treated in the later instar had less radiosusceptibility as compared to the young irradiated larvae. Irradiation had a negative correlation with survival and weight gain during the course of development that in turn bore a positive relation with the increase in radiation dosage. Food is an important governing factor in influencing the insects survival value and developmental behaviour and may modify its intrinsic sensitivity towards irradiation stress. (author). 21 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  14. Response of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura to zinc stress: Zn accumulation, metallothionein and cell ultrastructure of the midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Yinghua [Key Laboratory of Agro-Environments in Tropics, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); State Key Laboratory of Biological Control and Institute of Entomology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Guren [State Key Laboratory of Biological Control and Institute of Entomology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Jianwu, E-mail: wangjw@scau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Agro-Environments in Tropics, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2012-11-01

    By exposing the common cutworm Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae to a range of Zinc (Zn) stress, we investigated the effects of dietary Zn on Zn accumulation, metallothionein (MT), and on the ultrastructure of the midgut. The techniques we used were inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), real-time PCR combined with cadmium-hemoglobin total saturation, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the Zn accumulations in the midgut of the larvae and the Zn concentrations in the diet. Furthermore, both MT content and MT gene expression in the midgut were significantly induced in the 50-500 mg Zn/kg treatments, and were significantly positively correlated with the Zn accumulations in the midgut. When S. litura larvae were fed with the diet treated with 500 mg Zn/kg, Zn accumulation and MT content in the midgut was 4450.85 mg Zn/kg and 372.77 mg/kg, respectively, thereafter there was a little increase; the level of MT gene expression was maximal, thereafter there was a sharp decrease. TEM showed that numerous electron-dense granules (EDGs) and vacuoles appeared in the cytoplasm of the midgut cells, their number and size being closely correlated with the Zn accumulations in the midgut. Moreover, the nuclei were strongly influenced by Zn stress, evidenced by chromatin condensation and irregular nuclear membranes. Therefore, after being exposed to Zn in the threshold (500 mg Zn/kg) range, S. litura larvae could accumulate Zn in the midgut, which led to the induction of MT and changes in cell ultrastructure (mainly the presence of EDGs). The induction of MT and precipitation of Zn in EDGs may be the effective detoxification mechanisms by which the herbivorous insect S. litura defends itself against heavy metals. -- Graphical abstract: When the herbivorous insect Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae were fed on the artificial diet with different concentrations of Zn, amounts of

  15. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  16. Interaction of the koinobiont parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, with two entomopathogenic rhabditids, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwa, Atwa A; Hegazi, Esmat M; Khafagi, Wedad E; El-Aziz, Gehan M Abd

    2013-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are generally considered beneficial organisms. However, they can affect beneficial insects such as parasitoids. The interaction between the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, and the parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kokujev (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated in the laboratory. In non-parasitized hosts, Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae exposed to H. bacteriophora showed a higher percent mortality than those exposed to S. carpocapsae. Both nematodes were able to invade and propagate in non-parasitized S. littoralis larvae and those parasitized by M. rufiventris. Both nematode species reproduced in Microplitis-parasitized hosts, but there was a higher number of nematodes in non-parasitized larvae. S. carpocapsae yielded higher numbers of infective juveniles than H. bacteriophora. Generally, the number of nematodes harvested increased as their host's size increased. The interaction between the nematodes and parasitoid favored the nematodes when the nematodes were inoculated during the parasitoid egg stage or the young parasitoid larvae, thus giving the nematodes a better chance to grow and reproduce, resulting in the death of the parasitoid larvae. Conversely, when the nematodes were inoculated during the late larval instar of the parasitoid, the competition partially favored the wasp, thus giving approximately 50% of the wasps a better chance to develop, emerge, and reproduce, providing evidence that both nematodes and wasps could reproduce in the same host. Egg maturation of female wasps derived from nematode-infected hosts was not significantly different than those from control hosts. The combined application of nematodes and parasitoids may be beneficial if the detrimental effects of the nematodes on the parasitoid could be avoided by precisely timing the application strategies. It is clear that

  17. Response of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura to lead stress: changes in sex ratio, Pb accumulations, midgut cell ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yinghua; Zhou, Jialiang; Lu, Kai; Li, Keqing; Zhou, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    When cutworm Spodoptera litura larvae were fed on the diets with different lead (Pb) concentrations for one or five generations, changes in growth and food utilization were recorded; Pb accumulations were detected by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer; changes in midgut cell ultrastructure were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The effects of Pb stress on S. litura growth and food utilization differed significantly between insects of the 1st and 5th generation. The male-female rate of 200mgkg(-1) Pb treatment from the 1st generation and 50mgkg(-1) Pb treatment from the 5th generation was significantly higher than control. No significant difference of Pb accumulations was found in larvae, pupae and adults between the 1st and 5th generation. No significant difference of Pb accumulations in corresponding tissues of larvae was found between male and female. Compared to fat body, hemolymph, head, foregut and hindgut, the highest Pb accumulation was found in migut of larvae exposed to 200mgkg(-1) Pb. TEM showed that expanded intercellular spaces were observed in Pb-treated midgut cells. The nuclei were strongly destroyed by Pb stress, evidenced by chromatin condensation and destroyed nuclear envelope. Mitochondria became swollen with some broken cristae after exposure to Pb. Therefore, neither gender nor progeny difference was present in Pb accumulations of S. litura, although effects of Pb stress on S. litura growth and food utilization differed from different generations and genders. Pb accumulations in midgut caused pathological changes in cells ultrastructure, possibly reflected the growth and food utilization of S. litura. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. AVALIAÇÃO DE DANOS Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae NO ALGODOEIRO CULTIVAR IAC-17 EVALUATION OF Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE DAMAGES IN THE COTTON PLANT IAC-17 CULTIVAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria da Rocha Santos Veloso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com a finalidade de avaliar os danos causados por Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 na produção do algodoeiro, foi conduzido o presente trabalho. Foram utilizados quatro níveis de infestação artificial aos 75 e 95 dias da germinação das plantas. As avaliações foram feitas através da produção de algodão em caroço, por parcela. As diferenças na produção em plantas infestadas aos 75 e 95 dias da germinação, comparadas com a testemunha, foram estatisticamente significativas para as infestações com 1, 2 e 4 lagartas por planta. Aos 75 dias, devido ao fato de existirem poucos órgãos frutíferos, a redução na produção deu-se devido ao ataque das lagartas aos ponteiros e aos caules, com corte parcial ou total. Na infestação aos 95 dias a produção diminuiu linearmente em relação aos diferentes níveis de infestação; nesta época as lagartas mostraram preferência pelas estruturas frutíferas do algodoeiro.

    This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluate the damages provoked by Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 in cotton-plant yield. To evaluate the decrease in the cotton yield four levels of artificial infestation were used at 75 and 95 days from plant germination. The damage was evaluated on cotton seeds per plot. The differences in the yield of infested plants at 75 and 95 days from germination, when compared to the check, were statistically significant for the infestations of 1, 2 and 4 larvae per plant. At 75 days when the plants presented a low number of fruit organs, the yield decrease was due to the attack of larvae cutting partially or totally the shoots and stems. As to the infestation at 95 days the yield decreased linearly in relation to the different levels of infestation; at this time the larvae showed a preference for the fruit

  19. Insecticidal, food utilisation and biochemical effect of essential oils extracted from seeds of Brassica juncea (Czern. against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shallina Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The glucosinolate rich hot and cold hexane extracts of Brassica juncea had a negative effect on the development of Spodoptera litura larvae when they were fed on different concentrations of the extracts. Both larval growth index and pupal growth index declined with treatment. However the hot extract with 3-butenyl isothiocyanate as the predominant compound had a more deleterious effect as at 3125ppm the larvae were unable to complete their development. The nutritional indices too were more adversely affected with hot extract as compared to cold extract. The RGR, RCR, ECI and ECD declined significantly with increase in concentration of the hot hexane extract. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase decreased while that of phosphatases, GSTs, phenol oxidases increased during the initial treatment duration but decreased on prolonged treatment of the larvae with LC50 concentration of hot extract. A similar trend was observed for glutathione and lipid peroxides but a decrease in ascorbate content was observed as compared to control. The findings reveal a toxic effect of 3-butenylisothiocyanate rich hot hexane extract of B. juncea on S. litura larvae.

  20. Biochemical parameters of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) treated with citronella oil (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor) and its influence on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane Thalita Dos Santos; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Cunha, Franklin Magliano da; Oliveira, José Vargas de; Dutra, Kamilla de Andrade; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is the principal corn pest in Brazil. Searches for new control methods that minimize the adverse effects of synthetic insecticides have initiated a resurgence of the use of botanical insecticides. Citronella oil (a product of Cymbopogon winterianus) is an effective repellent and insecticide. Thus, biochemical profile changes in oil-treated larvae and its influence on reproduction were assessed. Corn leaves dipped in a 50mg/mL concentration were offered to third instar larvae for 24h and assessed in sixth instar to estimate protein, lipid, sugar, and glycogen levels. Adult testes and ovarioles were collected for histological and histochemical analysis 24h after emergence. Number of eggs and hatching rate were also measured. Oil-treated larvae showed an increase in glycogen and a decrease in protein, lipid, and totals sugar content. Control testes exhibited connective tissue lining and cysts with abundant spermatozoids. However, intense peripheral vacuolation and neutral carbohydrates reduction occurred in oil-treated individuals. Control ovarioles showed normal morphologic characteristics. On the other hand, oil-treatment ovarioles showed follicular cell stratification and removal, reduced nurse cell development, reduced yolk quantity, a thinner conjunctiva sheath, and a reduction in proteins and neutral carbohydrates. Eggs derived from oil-treated pairs were unviable. Therefore, sub-lethal doses of citronella oil alters the biochemical profile of S. frugiperda larvae, causing damage to their reproductive histophysiology and results in diminished reproduction or reproductive failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of the Volatile Oil from Water Celery (Helosciadium nodiflorum, Apiaceae) against the Filariasis Vector Culex quinquefasciatus, the Housefly Musca domestica, and the African Cotton Leafworm Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Water celery (Helosciadium nodiflorum, Apiaceae) is a common and invasive hydrophyte occurring in rivers and slow waters of Europe. In the past, it was consumed as a vegetable and spices, but currently it has mostly been abandoned. As a result, this plant produces an unexploited biomass occluding rivers and slow waters. With the aim to valorise water celery as an important biomass source for the development of botanical insecticides, in this work, we investigated the inhibitory effects of the essential oil hydrodistilled from its aerial parts against larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus, adults of the housefly Musca domestica, and larvae of the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. The essential oil, which was characterized by the insecticidal limonene (39.8%) and myristicin (35.3%), exerted important toxic effects on 3rd instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus and S. littoralis and on adults of M. domestica, with LD 50 of 50.4 μl l -1 , 116.7 μg larva -1 , and 45.1 (male) and 70.1 (female) μg adult -1 , respectively. The oil did not show any noticeable inhibitory activity on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Our findings add scientific evidences highlighting water celery as an important biomass source to be used for the control of insect pests and vectors of high economic importance. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. Plasmid patterns of efficient and inefficient strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, R B S; Picoli, E A T; Lana, U G P; Valicente, Fernando H

    2011-10-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis harbors genes encoding Cry proteins found in chromosomes or plasmids of different sizes (4-150 Mb). Although the smaller plasmids are more abundant in B. thuringiensis, their specific function is unknown. As for the megaplasmids, their main recognized function is to harbor cry genes, although the sequencing of some of these plasmids indicates the occurrence of other important genes. This work used a new protocol for practical and rapid extraction of plasmid DNA in order to characterize the plasmid patterns of Brazilian strains belonging to Embrapa Milho e Sorgo research center B. thuringiensis bank. We tried to further assess the relationship of plasmid patterns with strains belonging to the same serovars and strains causing 100% and no mortality to Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) larvae. It was possible to characterize 59 strains based on the migration of bands in agarose gel. Strains belonging to the same serovars showed different plasmid sizes (from 1,636 bp to 23,200 bp), with the exception of two strains belonging to serovar galleriae. The strain T09 Bt tolworthi showed a plasmid migration pattern identical to strains belonging to serovar galleriae. Plasmid patterns differed for 46 strains, confirming that this is a useful tool to discriminate specific strains. However, it was not possible to associate the plasmid pattern or the occurrence of particular plasmids with the pathogenicity of a given species towards S. frugiperda larvae.

  3. Assessment of electron beam-induced abnormal development and DNA damage in Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seon-Woo; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2014-03-01

    The armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) is a polyphagous and important agricultural pest worldwide. In this study, we examined the effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages, reproduction, and DNA damage of S. litura. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (3rd instar), pupae (3 days old after pupation), and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with electron beam irradiation of six levels between 30 and 250 Gy. When eggs were irradiated with 100 Gy, egg hatching was completely inhibited. When the larvae were irradiated, the larval period was significantly delayed, depending on the doses applied. At 150 Gy, the fecundity of adults that developed from irradiated pupae was entirely inhibited. However, electron beam irradiation did not induce the instantaneous death of S. litura adults. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated moths demonstrated that females were more radiosensitive than males. We also conducted the comet assay immediately after irradiation and over the following 5 days period. Severe DNA fragmentation in S. litura cells was observed just after irradiation and the damage was repaired during the post-irradiation period in a time-dependent manner. However, at more than 100 Gy, DNA damage was not fully recovered.

  4. Antifeedant and larvicidal effects of plant extracts against Spodoptera litura (F.), Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, C; Rahuman, A Abdul; Bagavan, A

    2008-07-01

    A screening for larvicidal activity of plant extracts with some known medicinal attributes could lead to the discovery of new agents for pest and vector control. In the backdrop of recent revival of interest in developing plant-based insecticides, the present study was carried out to evaluate the larvicidal properties in three medicinal plants growing abundantly in the region of Chitheri Hills, Dharmapuri District, India. Antifeedant and larvicidal activity of the acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Ocimum canum, Ocimum sanctum and Rhinacanthus nasutus were studied against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of O. canum, R. nasutus and acetone extract of O. sanctum against the larvae of S. litura (LC(50) = 36.46, 68.08 and 68.84 ppm), against A. aegypti (LC(50) = 99.42, 94.43 and 81.56 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 44.54, 73.40 and 38.30 ppm), respectively. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the agricultural pest, S. litura, and medically important vectors, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus.

  5. Dominance of Cry1F resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on TC1507 Bt maize in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Juliano R; Andow, David A; Horikoshi, Renato J; Sorgatto, Rodrigo J; dos Santos, Antonio C; Omoto, Celso

    2016-05-01

    Dominance of resistance has been one of the major parameters affecting the rate of evolution of resistance to Bt crops. High dose is the capacity of Bt crops to kill heterozygous insects and has been an essential component of the most successful strategy to manage resistance to these crops. Experiments were conducted to evaluate directly and indirectly whether the TC1507 event is high dose to Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith). About 8% of heterozygote neonate larvae were able to survive, complete larval development and emerge as normal adults on TC1507 leaves, while susceptible larvae could not survive for 5 days. The estimated dominance of resistance was 0.15 ± 0.09 and significantly higher than zero; therefore, the resistance to Cry1F expressed in TC1507 was not completely recessive. A 25-fold dilution of TC1507 maize leaf tissue in an artificial diet was able to cause a maximum mortality of only 37%, with growth inhibition of 82% at 7 days after larval infestation. Resistance to Cry1F in TC1507 maize is incompletely recessive in S. frugiperda. TC1507 maize is not high dose for S. frugiperda. Additional or alternative resistance management strategies, such as the replacement of single-trait Bt maize with pyramided Bt maize, which produces multiple proteins targeting the same insect pests, should be implemented wherever this technology is in use and S. frugiperda is the major pest. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Genotype assembly, biological activity and adaptation of spatially separated isolates of Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Ghulam; Abma-Henkens, Marleen H.C.; Werf, van der Wopke; Hemerik, Lia; Vlak, Just M.

    2018-01-01

    The cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura is a polyphagous insect. It has recently made a comeback as a primary insect pest of cotton in Pakistan due to reductions in pesticide use on the advent of genetically modified cotton, resistant to Helicoverpa armigera. Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus

  7. Análise química por CG-EM e toxicidade do óleo essencial de Ocimumselloi Benth. e estragol para Spodoptera frugiperda e Zabrotes subfasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Claubert Wagner Guimarães de

    2015-01-01

    A espécie Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae) possui constituintes químicos em seu óleo essencial com ação inseticida. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito inseticida por ingestão e por fumigação do óleo essencial de O. selloie do estragol sobre Spodoptera frugiperda(Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)eo efeito por fumigação do óleo essencial sobreZabrotes subfasciatus(Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). No primeiro experimento, larvas de 48 horas d...

  8. Life-History Traits of Spodoptera frugiperda Populations Exposed to Low-Dose Bt Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fernanda F; Mendes, Simone M; Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Araújo, Octávio G; Oliveira, Eugenio E; Pereira, Eliseu J G

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in low- and moderate-dose transgenic crops may induce sublethal effects and increase the rate of Bt resistance evolution, potentially compromising control efficacy against target pests. We tested this hypothesis using the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a major polyphagous lepidopteran pest relatively tolerant to Bt notorious for evolving field-relevant resistance to single-gene Bt maize. Late-instar larvae were collected from Bt Cry1Ab and non-Bt maize fields in five locations in Brazil, and their offspring was compared for survival, development, and population growth in rearing environment without and with Cry1Ab throughout larval development. Larval survival on Cry1Ab maize leaves varied from 20 to 80% among the populations. Larvae reared on Cry1Ab maize had seven-day delay in development time in relation to control larvae, and such delay was shorter in offspring of armyworms from Cry1Ab maize. Population growth rates were 50-70% lower for insects continuously exposed to Cry1Ab maize relative to controls, showing the population-level effect of Cry1Ab, which varied among the populations and prior exposure to Cry1Ab maize in the field. In three out of five populations, armyworms derived from Bt maize reared on Cry1Ab maize showed higher larval weight, faster larval development and better reproductive performance than the armyworms derived from non-Bt maize, and one of these populations showed better performance on both Cry1Ab and control diets, indicating no fitness cost of the resistance trait. Altogether, these results indicate that offspring of armyworms that developed on field-grown, single-gene Bt Cry1Ab maize had reduced performance on Cry1Ab maize foliage in two populations studied, but in other three populations, these offspring had better overall performance on the Bt maize foliage than that of the armyworms from non-Bt maize fields, possibly because of Cry1Ab resistance alleles in these populations

  9. Life-History Traits of Spodoptera frugiperda Populations Exposed to Low-Dose Bt Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda F Sousa

    Full Text Available Exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins in low- and moderate-dose transgenic crops may induce sublethal effects and increase the rate of Bt resistance evolution, potentially compromising control efficacy against target pests. We tested this hypothesis using the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a major polyphagous lepidopteran pest relatively tolerant to Bt notorious for evolving field-relevant resistance to single-gene Bt maize. Late-instar larvae were collected from Bt Cry1Ab and non-Bt maize fields in five locations in Brazil, and their offspring was compared for survival, development, and population growth in rearing environment without and with Cry1Ab throughout larval development. Larval survival on Cry1Ab maize leaves varied from 20 to 80% among the populations. Larvae reared on Cry1Ab maize had seven-day delay in development time in relation to control larvae, and such delay was shorter in offspring of armyworms from Cry1Ab maize. Population growth rates were 50-70% lower for insects continuously exposed to Cry1Ab maize relative to controls, showing the population-level effect of Cry1Ab, which varied among the populations and prior exposure to Cry1Ab maize in the field. In three out of five populations, armyworms derived from Bt maize reared on Cry1Ab maize showed higher larval weight, faster larval development and better reproductive performance than the armyworms derived from non-Bt maize, and one of these populations showed better performance on both Cry1Ab and control diets, indicating no fitness cost of the resistance trait. Altogether, these results indicate that offspring of armyworms that developed on field-grown, single-gene Bt Cry1Ab maize had reduced performance on Cry1Ab maize foliage in two populations studied, but in other three populations, these offspring had better overall performance on the Bt maize foliage than that of the armyworms from non-Bt maize fields, possibly because of Cry1Ab resistance alleles in

  10. Baylisascaris Larva Migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazacos, Kevin R.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles

    2016-05-26

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  11. Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae exhibits no preference between Bt and non-Bt maize fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C Dutra

    Full Text Available A recent shift in managing insect resistance to genetically engineered (GE maize consists of mixing non-GE seed with GE seed known as "refuge in a bag", which increases the likelihood of predators encountering both prey fed Bt and prey fed non-Bt maize. We therefore conducted laboratory choice-test feeding studies to determine if a predator, Harmonia axyridis, shows any preference between prey fed Bt and non-Bt maize leaves. The prey species was Spodoptera frugiperda, which were fed Bt maize (MON-810, expressing the single Cry1Ab protein, or non-Bt maize. The predators were third instar larvae and female adults of H. axyridis. Individual predators were offered Bt and non-Bt fed prey larvae that had fed for 24, 48 or 72 h. Ten and 15 larvae of each prey type were offered to third instar and adult predators, respectively. Observations of arenas were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 6, 15 and 24 h after the start of the experiment to determine the number and type of prey eaten by each individual predator. Prey larvae that fed on non-Bt leaves were significantly larger than larvae fed Bt leaves. Both predator stages had eaten nearly all the prey by the end of the experiment. However, in all combinations of predator stage and prey age, the number of each prey type consumed did not differ significantly. ELISA measurements confirmed the presence of Cry1Ab in leaf tissue (23-33 µg/g dry weight and S. frugiperda (2.1-2.2 µg/g, while mean concentrations in H. axyridis were very low (0.01-0.2 µg/g. These results confirm the predatory status of H. axyridis on S. frugiperda and that both H. axyridis adults and larvae show no preference between prey types. The lack of preference between Bt-fed and non-Bt-fed prey should act in favor of insect resistance management strategies using mixtures of GE and non-GE maize seed.

  12. Capacidade Predatória de Euborellia annulipes (Lucas, 1847 sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 = Predatory Capacity of Euborellia annulipes (Lucas, 1847 on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldeni Barbosa da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a Capacidade Predatória de Euborellia annulipes sobre Spodoptera frugiperda em laboratório. O estudo foi conduzido no Laboratório de Entomologia do Setor de Fitossanidade da Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB à temperatura de 25 ± 1ºC, umidade relativa de 70 + 10% e fotofase de 12h. Notou-se consumo crescente de ovos,podendo ser observado consumo diário médio de 11,06, 49,02, 122,7, 148,09 e 374,9 ovos, do 1° ao 5° instar, respectivamente. A capacidade predatória sobre lagartas de 1° instar de S. frugiperda aumentou de acordo com o seu desenvolvimento, com aumento de,aproximadamente, 14,3 vezes do 1° ao 5° instar, nos dez dias de consumo, sendo que, o 4° e o 5° instares apresentaram consumo diário médio de 25,5 e 26,6, respectivamente, bem superior em comparação aos demais instares; o maior consumo de lagartas de 2º instar pelopredador, ocorreu no 4º e 5º instar, que apresentaram consumo diário médio de 12,8 e 15,1, respectivamente. Verifica-se que E. annulipes demonstra ser predador potencial de ovos e lagartas de S. frugiperda, chegando um adulto a consumir 1.481,2; 89,20 e 48,6 ovos e lagartasde 1º e 2º instares, respectivamente, nos dez dias de consumo.The predatory capacity of Euborellia annulipes on Spodopterafrugiperda was studied in a laboratory setting. The study was conducted in the Laboratory of Entomology of the Division of Plant Protection, Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB at a temperature of 25 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 70 + 10% and a 12-hour photophase. Thestudy detected growing egg intake, with an average daily consumption of 11.06, 49.02, 122.7, 148.09 and 374.9 eggs, from the first to the fifth instars, respectively. A predatory capacity of fist-instar larvae of S. frugiperda increased in line with its development, with an increase of approximately 14.3 times from the first to the fifth instar, in the 10 days of consumption, whereas the fourth and fifth instars presented an

  13. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  14. SPODOBASE : an EST database for the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabourault Cécile

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda is a pest which causes widespread economic damage on a variety of crop plants. It is also well known through its famous Sf9 cell line which is used for numerous heterologous protein productions. Species of the Spodoptera genus are used as model for pesticide resistance and to study virus host interactions. A genomic approach is now a critical step for further new developments in biology and pathology of these insects, and the results of ESTs sequencing efforts need to be structured into databases providing an integrated set of tools and informations. Description The ESTs from five independent cDNA libraries, prepared from three different S. frugiperda tissues (hemocytes, midgut and fat body and from the Sf9 cell line, are deposited in the database. These tissues were chosen because of their importance in biological processes such as immune response, development and plant/insect interaction. So far, the SPODOBASE contains 29,325 ESTs, which are cleaned and clustered into non-redundant sets (2294 clusters and 6103 singletons. The SPODOBASE is constructed in such a way that other ESTs from S. frugiperda or other species may be added. User can retrieve information using text searches, pre-formatted queries, query assistant or blast searches. Annotation is provided against NCBI, UNIPROT or Bombyx mori ESTs databases, and with GO-Slim vocabulary. Conclusion The SPODOBASE database provides integrated access to expressed sequence tags (EST from the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera frugiperda. It is a publicly available structured database with insect pest sequences which will allow identification of a number of genes and comprehensive cloning of gene families of interest for scientific community. SPODOBASE is available from URL: http://bioweb.ensam.inra.fr/spodobase

  15. Evolutional and functional analysis of a serine protease in Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Tang, Zhuo; Liu, Wanfei; Xiao, Jingfa; Hu, Songnian; Yang, Li; Liu, Wanfei; Deng, Huimin; Feng, Qili

    2012-11-01

    Spodoptera litura is a threatening agricultural insect in tropical and subtropical areas and accounts for tremendous annual crop losses. As seen in virtually all insect species, serine proteases (SPs) are crucial to S. litura. The expression pattern of SPs from the midgut of S. litura was studied through expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis. One of SP (SlSP1) was chosen for detailed study, because the expression of the gene was midgut and larvae specific. SlSP1 was conducted as a model of its evolution, structure, and potential binding activity with corresponding substrates. SlSP1 is composed of 255 amino acids including a signal peptide at N-terminal followed by a putative activation peptide and the mature protein along with five putative phosphorylation sites, three disulphide bridges, and two N-glycosylation positions. At least nine conserved motifs were obtained in multiple sequence alignments. Some conserved residues, such as the catalytic triad His84, Asp127, and Ser229 as well as six cysteines at position 66, 82, 194, 211, 223, and 247, were examined. After homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation, the resultant three-dimensional (3D) structure of SlSP1 was docked with the substrates 2PTC-Arg and 2PTC-Lys, respectively. Molecular Mechanic/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area analysis was applied to anticipate optimal binding mode and crucial active sites of this enzyme. The residues Trp28, Gly187, Aso188, Arg249, Ile250, Lys246, and Lys278 are crucial for the substrate binding and molecule process. This information can be used in logical design of SPs inhibitors. New inhibitors may be a basis for development of a new pest control technology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Identification and expression profile of Halloween genes involved in ecdysteroid biosynthesis in Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iga, Masatoshi; Smagghe, Guy

    2010-03-01

    20-Hydroxyecdyone (20E), an active form of ecdysteroid, is the key hormone in insect growth and development. The biosynthesis of ecdysteroid is triggered and under the control of the neuropeptide, prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). To date, five cytochrome P450 enzymes, namely Spook (Spo), Phantom (Phm), Disembodied (Dib), Shadow (Sad) and Shade (Shd) related to ecdysteroid biosynthesis, are identified and the character of last four enzymes is well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori and Manduca sexta. These genes are called Halloween genes and mediate the biosynthesis of 20E from cholesterol. In this study, we extended these works to a major pest insect in agriculture, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We identified the sequence of five Halloween genes, and the converted amino acid sequences were compared with those of other insects. The phylogenetic analysis clearly showed separated clusters of each gene and the evolutional conservation in insects with a high similarity in Lepidoptera. Spo, phm, dib and sad were predominantly expressed in prothoracic glands, and shd was expressed in fat body and Malpighian tubules at the last instar larvae. Spo expression was kept high level between day 2 and day 4 after ecdysis. The expression of phm and dib peaked at day 2, and sad and shd expressions peaked at day 2 and day 4 after ecdysis. In addition, the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer showed a small peak at day 2 and a large peak at day 4 after ecdysis. These results suggest the importance of Halloween genes in ecdysone biosynthesis by prothoracic glands and conversion of ecdysone into 20E by fat body in larval-pupal metamorphosis. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of some botanical extracts on the midgut, integument and fat body of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatter, Najat A

    2010-08-01

    Botanical extracts (8%) of four plants (Artemisia monosperma, Zygophyllum cocccineum, Lupinus termis and Brassica tournifortii) fed to the 4th larval instars of Spodoptera littoralis induced histopathological changes in the structure of the midgut, integument and fat body of the 5th instars. Zygophyllum cocci-neum and Lupinus termis induced severe damages in the midgut. The integument of treated larvae showed degeneration in the cuticle and epidermal cells which were also detached from each other. Water extracts of A. monosperma, Z. coccinieum and L. termis were the most promising in inducing shrinkage in the fat body cells and detachment of midgut muscle layers. Also, the degeneration of the midgut membrane and epithelial layer occurs in different degrees with the tested plants. This study supports the use of botanical extracts in pest control programs of lepidopterous insects.

  18. Reducing the level of leaves damage of (Brassica rapa) caused by armyworm (Spodoptera litura F.) through liquid bioinsecticide formulation of bintaro (Cerbera odollam) leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Nurhatika, Sri; Ermavitalini, Dini; Saputro, Triono Bagus; Budiarti, Dwi Setia

    2017-06-01

    Bioinsecticide formulation conducted by adjuvant addition to improve its effecetiveness in the application. Its addition was only help to work whereas active compound and ingredient as a main core originated from plant simplicia. This research was utilized bintaro (Cerbera odollam) as simplicia. It already began to use it as bioinsecticide against armyworm (Spodoptera litura F) even formulation approachment was not conducted in mustard (Brassica rapa) in previous research. Mustard commodity commonly measured based on leaves performences, when its performance broke by pest such as armyworm might decline the commercial value. So this research aimed to determine the effectiveness of liquid biopesticide formulation of the active ingredient from bintaro (Cerbera odollam) leaf extract in pressing the attack larvae of S. litura F. Larvae deployed in mustard leaves (16 HST). Liquid bioinsecticide concentration formulated in 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70%. Spraying method used to against S. litura F. consisted on preventive (15 HST) and curative (17 HST). Leaves damage observation conducted at day - 35th (HST). The result showed the formulation suppressed larvae from 40% concentration in preventive way 15 HST and 60% concentration as curative way at 17 HST.

  19. Induction of resistance of corn plants to Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by application of silicon and gibberellic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, R; Moraes, J C; Auad, A M; Coelho, M; Nascimento, A M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon application and administration of the phytohormone gibberellic acid on resistance of the corn plants to the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, and their vegetative characteristics. We evaluated larval and pupal duration, survival and biomass, and adult longevity, malformation and fecundity of S. frugiperda after feeding on plant matter treated with silicon and/or gibberellic acid. The feeding preference of FAW first-instar larvae, the total leaf area consumed by the insects, and the vegetative parameters of corn plants were also evaluated. No significant differences were observed in the measured parameters of larval and pupal stages of S. frugiperda in response to silicon or gibberellic acid. In adult stage insects, the number of eggs per female was significantly reduced in insects derived from larvae fed plants treated with silicon or gibberellic acid. In a non-preference test, 48 h after release, caterpillars preferred control untreated plants and consumed less matter from plants that had received hormonal treatment (gibberellic acid). Gibberellic acid also altered the vegetative characteristics of plants, by increasing their height, shoot fresh and dry mass, and silicon content. We conclude that gibberellic acid can alter the vegetative characteristics and silicon uptake of corn plants, leading to a reduction in their consumption by S. frugiperda larvae and a decrease in female insect oviposition.

  20. Toxicity and physiological effect of quercetin on generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and a non-target earthworm Eisenia fetida Savigny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Lija-Escaline, Jalasteen; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Hunter, Wayne B; Alessandro, Rocco T

    2016-12-01

    A novel flavonoid, quercetin, was isolated from the medicinal plant Euphorbia hirta L. through chromatography techniques including: TLC, Column chromatography, NMR and then screened for toxicity to larvae of Spodoptera litura Fab. Bioassays were used to analyze pupal weight, survival rate, fecundity, egg hatchability, population growth index, Nutritional index and histopathology of treated larvae at a range of E. hirta extract concentrations. Results of toxicity assays demonstrated that, 6 ppm of quercetin caused 94.6% mortality of second, 91.8% of third, 88% of fourth, and 85.2% of fifth instars respectively. The lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 ) was calculated as 10.88 and 69.91 ppm for fourth instar larvae. The changes in consumption ratio and approximate digestibility produced a reduction in growth rates. Histopathology examinations revealed that the cell organelles were severely infected. Analyses of earthworm toxicity effects resulted in significantly lower rates compared to synthetic insecticides (chloropyrifos and cypermethrin). These results suggests that the botanical compound (quercetin), could have a part as a new biorational product which provides an ecofriendly alternative. Validation of the potential of quercetin, still needs to be demonstrated under field conditions, where formulation will be important in maintaining the activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Survival and Development of Spodoptera frugiperda and Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt Cotton and Implications for Resistance Management Strategies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgatto, Rodrigo J; Bernardi, Oderlei; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) and Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) are important cotton pests and target of control of Bollgard II (Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab2) and WideStrike (Cry1Ac/Cry1F) cotton technologies. To subsidize an insect resistance management program, we conducted laboratory studies to evaluate the toxicity of these Bt cotton plants throughout larval development of S. frugiperda and C. includens. In bioassays with leaf disc, the efficacy of both Bt cotton plants against neonates was >80% for S. frugiperda and 100% for C. includens. However, S. frugiperda larvae that survived on Bt cotton had >76% of growth inhibition and stunting. In bioassays with S. frugiperda and C. includens larvae fed on non-Bt near-isoline during different time period (from 3 to 18 d) and then transferred to Bollgard II or WideStrike leaves showed that larval susceptibility decreased as larval age increased. For Bollgard II cotton, in all S. frugiperda instars, there were larvae that reached the pupal and adult stages. In contrast, on WideStrike cotton, a few larvae in fifth and sixth instar completed the biological cycle. For C. includens, some larvae in sixth instar originated adults in both Bt cotton plants. In conclusion, Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton technologies showed high efficacy against neonates of S. frugiperda and C. includens. However, the mortality of these species decreases as larval age increase, allowing insect survival in a possible seed mixture environment and favoring the resistance evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Isolation of Araguspongine M, a New Stereoisomer of an Araguspongine/Xestospongin alkaloid, and Dopamine from the Marine Sponge Neopetrosia exigua Collected in Palau

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hongwei; Mishima, Yuri; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Nagai, Hiroshi; Kitazawa, Akira; Mine, Yuji; Kobayashi, Hisayoshi; Yao, Xinsheng; Yamada, Junko; Oda, Taiko; Namikoshi, Michio

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: A new stereoisomer of an araguspongine/xestospongin alkaloid, named araguspongine M (1), has been isolated together with 12 known compounds, araguspongines B (2) and D (3), dopamine, three galactosyl diacylglycerols, 24-methyl cholesterol, 5,6-dihydrocholesterol, β-sitosterol, and three 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols (11–13), from the marine sponge Neopetrosia exigua (formerly Xestospongia exigua) collected in Palau. The structure of 1 was assigned on the basis of its spectral...

  3. Integration between Steinernema feltiae and some of environmental friendly compounds to control Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adel, M. M.; Gelbič, Ivan; Půža, Vladimír; Salem, N. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 16 (2013), s. 2002-2015 ISSN 0323-5408 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : entomopathogenic nematodes * Steinernema feltiae * Spodoptera littoralis Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  4. Growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Sharma, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Spodoptera litura was reared on natural food (castor leaves, Ricinus communis) and on a several semi-synthetic diets using quasi mass rearing techniques. The effect of the different diets and rearing regimes on S. litura growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour was measured. Spodoptera litura reared from a modified chickpea-based diet provided the greatest growth index and index of adequacy. These studies were conducted as a prerequisite for the evaluation of F 1 sterility technique. (author)

  5. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elumalai Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  6. Selection and characterization of resistance to the Vip3Aa20 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Oderlei; Bernardi, Daniel; Horikoshi, Renato J; Okuma, Daniela M; Miraldo, Leonardo L; Fatoretto, Julio; Medeiros, Fernanda Cl; Burd, Tony; Omoto, Celso

    2016-09-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is one the main target pests of maize events expressing Vip3Aa20 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in Brazil. In this study, we selected a resistant strain of S. frugiperda on Bt maize expressing Vip3Aa20 protein and characterized the inheritance and fitness costs of the resistance. The resistance ratio of the Vip3Aa20-resistant strain of S. frugiperda was >3200-fold. Neonates of the Vip3Aa20-resistant strain were able to survive and emerge as fertile adults on Vip3Aa20 maize, while larvae from susceptible and heterozygous strains did not survive. The inheritance of Vip3Aa20 resistance was autosomal recessive and monogenic. Life history studies to investigate fitness cost revealed an 11% reduction in the survival rate until adult stage and a ∼50% lower reproductive rate of the Vip3Aa20-resistant strain compared with susceptible and heterozygous strains. This is the first characterization of S. frugiperda resistance to Vip3Aa protein. Our results provide useful information for resistance management programs designed to prevent or delay resistance evolution to Vip3Aa proteins in S. frugiperda. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Study on ecdysteroid levels and gene expression of enzymes related to ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the larval testis of Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iga, Masatoshi; Blais, Catherine; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-01-01

    We investigated here the ecdysteroid titers and the expression of six genes coding for known enzymes of the ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the testes of last instar larvae of the pest cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. We showed that the timing of the ecdysteroid profile was the same in testes and in hemolymph, with a small peak at day 2 and a large one at day 4 after ecdysis. Ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) were detected in both tissues. 20E was the major ecdysteroid in testes and in hemolymph from day 4. Interestingly, the gene expression of the steroidogenetic enzymes, Neverland, and the five cytochrome P450 enzymes encoded by the Halloween genes was confirmed in the testes, and varied during the instar. However, from the data obtained so far, we cannot conclude that the measured ecdysteroids in the testes result from the activity of the genes under study. Indeed, it is suggested that the ecdysone produced centrally in the prothoracic glands, could have been transformed into 20E in the testes, where Sl-shade is well expressed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Resistance to dual-gene Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda: selection, inheritance, and cross-resistance to other transgenic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Rodrigues, João V C; Souza, Thadeu C; Tavares, Clébson S; Campos, Silverio O; Guedes, Raul N C; Pereira, Eliseu J G

    2015-12-17

    Transgenic crop "pyramids" producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins active against the same pest are used to delay evolution of resistance in insect pest populations. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were performed with fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to characterize resistance to Bt maize producing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab and test some assumptions of the "pyramid" resistance management strategy. Selection of a field-derived strain of S. frugiperda already resistant to Cry1F maize with Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab maize for ten generations produced resistance that allowed the larvae to colonize and complete the life cycle on these Bt maize plants. Greenhouse experiments revealed that the resistance was completely recessive (Dx = 0), incomplete, autosomal, and without maternal effects or cross-resistance to the Vip3Aa20 toxin produced in other Bt maize events. This profile of resistance supports some of the assumptions of the pyramid strategy for resistance management. However, laboratory experiments with purified Bt toxin and plant leaf tissue showed that resistance to Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 maize further increased resistance to Cry1Fa, which indicates that populations of fall armyworm have high potential for developing resistance to some currently available pyramided maize used against this pest, especially where resistance to Cry1Fa was reported in the field.

  9. Distribución temporal y espacial de poblaciones larvarias de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae en diferentes hospederos en provincias del norte de la Argentina Spatial and temporal distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae larval populations on different host plants in northern Argentina provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabriela Murúa

    Full Text Available Para estudiar la distribución temporal y espacial de larvas del "cogollero del maíz" Spodoptera frugiperda en diferentes plantas hospederas, se realizaron muestreos sistemáticos desde el año 2004 al 2007 en diferentes asociaciones de cultivos en las provincias de Tucumán, Salta y Santiago del Estero. Se consideró "asociación de cultivos" a una zona donde coexistían simultáneamente (en tiempo y espacio más de dos cultivos colindantes. Los cultivos monitoreados fueron maíz, sorgo granífero, alfalfa, caña de azúcar, soja, trigo, cártamo, garbanzo y malezas. En cada uno se muestrearon cinco puntos al azar de 1 m² y se revisaron las plantas, recolectándose las posturas y/o larvas presentes. Se encontraron 3620 larvas. La mayor cantidad se recolectó durante los meses del verano en las tres campañas monitoreadas en todas las provincias. Su presencia estuvo relacionada con la aparición de los cultivos estivales como el maíz y el sorgo granífero, en todas las provincias. La mayor cantidad de larvas se obtuvieron en maíz (2894, independientemente de los otros cultivos que formaban parte de la asociación. Siguiendo en orden de importancia, los otros hospederos con larvas fueron: sorgo granífero (272, alfalfa (125 y malezas (282. En base al número de larvas encontradas, la soja, trigo y caña de azúcar, cultivos que estuvieron presentes en casi todas las asociaciones, no son hospederos preferenciales de esta especie.In order to study the spatial and temporal distribution of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda larval populations on different host plants, systematic samplings were made from 2004 to 2007 in different crop associations in the provinces of Tucumán, Salta and Santiago del Estero. A zone where more than two adjacent crops coexisted simultaneously (in time and space was considered a crop association. Sampled crops were corn, sorghum, alfalfa, sugarcane, soybean, wheat, safflower, chickpea and weeds. Five one

  10. Berbagai Cara Pengendalian Larva Nyamuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nungki Hapsari Suryaningtyas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tindakan pencegahan dengan memberantas sarang nyamuk dan membunuh larva serta nyamuk dewasa terus digalakkan. Stadium pradewasa atau larva dapat dikontrol secara biologi maupun kimiawi.1 Berikut adalah beberapa cara pengendalian larva nyamuk.Pengendalian secara biologi Beberapa organisme yang efektif untuk mengendalikan larva secara biologi diantaranya adalah Ikan (larvavivorous fish,Aplocheilus panchax (ikan kepala timah, Ctenops vittatus (ikan cupang,Oreochromis (Tilapia mossambicus (ikan nila dan Cyprinus carpio (ikan tombro, larva nyamuk dari genus Toxorhynchites, Capung (Dragonflies/Labellula . Kelompok Udang (Cyclopoid copepods Jenis Copepoda yang tersebar sebagai plankton dan bentos ini bersifat predator yang efektif untuk mengendalikan stadium pradewasa nyamuk instar satu dan instar dua. Pada suatu penelitian di Polynesia Perancis terbukti bahwa M. aspericornis pengaruhnya tidak konsisten terhadap larva Ae. aegypti yang ditemukan berada di tangki air, drum dan sumur yang tertutup. Keadaan tersebut tampaknya bergantung pada tersedianya mikrofauna di tempat perkembangbiakannya yang dibutuhkan untuk pertumbuhan Copepoda tersebut

  11. Spodoptera frugiperda X-tox protein, an immune related defensin rosary, has lost the function of ancestral defensins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: X-tox proteins are a family of immune-related proteins only found in Lepidoptera and characterized by imperfectly conserved tandem repeats of several defensin-like motifs. Previous phylogenetic analysis of X-tox genes supported the hypothesis that X-tox have evolved from defensins in a lineage-specific gene evolution restricted to Lepidoptera. In this paper, we performed a protein study in which we asked whether X-tox proteins have conserved the antimicrobial functions of their ancestral defensins and have evolved as defensin reservoirs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We followed the outcome of Spod-11-tox, an X-tox protein characterized in Spodoptera frugiperda, in bacteria-challenged larvae using both immunochemistry and antimicrobial assays. Three hours post infection, the Spod-11-tox protein was expressed in 80% of the two main classes of circulating hemocytes (granulocytes and plasmatocytes. Located in secretory granules of hemocytes, Spod-11-tox was never observed in contact with microorganisms entrapped within phagolyzosomes showing that Spod-11-tox is not involved in intracellular pathogen killing. In fact, the Spod-11-tox protein was found to be secreted into the hemolymph of experimentally challenged larvae. In order to determine antimicrobial properties of the Spod-11-tox protein, it was consequently fractionated according to a protocol frequently used for antimicrobial peptide purification. Over the course of purification, the anti-Spod-11-tox immunoreactivity was found to be dissociated from the antimicrobial activity. This indicates that Spod-11-tox is not processed into bioactive defensins in response to a microbial challenge. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, our results show that X-tox proteins have not evolved as defensin reservoirs and have lost the antimicrobial properties of the ancestral insect defensins. The lepidopteran X-tox protein family will provide a valuable and tractable model to improve our

  12. Spodoptera frugiperda X-tox protein, an immune related defensin rosary, has lost the function of ancestral defensins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Brehelin, Michel; Bulet, Philippe; Boublik, Yvan; Girard, Pierre-Alain; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Zumbihl, Robert; Escoubas, Jean-Michel

    2009-08-27

    X-tox proteins are a family of immune-related proteins only found in Lepidoptera and characterized by imperfectly conserved tandem repeats of several defensin-like motifs. Previous phylogenetic analysis of X-tox genes supported the hypothesis that X-tox have evolved from defensins in a lineage-specific gene evolution restricted to Lepidoptera. In this paper, we performed a protein study in which we asked whether X-tox proteins have conserved the antimicrobial functions of their ancestral defensins and have evolved as defensin reservoirs. We followed the outcome of Spod-11-tox, an X-tox protein characterized in Spodoptera frugiperda, in bacteria-challenged larvae using both immunochemistry and antimicrobial assays. Three hours post infection, the Spod-11-tox protein was expressed in 80% of the two main classes of circulating hemocytes (granulocytes and plasmatocytes). Located in secretory granules of hemocytes, Spod-11-tox was never observed in contact with microorganisms entrapped within phagolyzosomes showing that Spod-11-tox is not involved in intracellular pathogen killing. In fact, the Spod-11-tox protein was found to be secreted into the hemolymph of experimentally challenged larvae. In order to determine antimicrobial properties of the Spod-11-tox protein, it was consequently fractionated according to a protocol frequently used for antimicrobial peptide purification. Over the course of purification, the anti-Spod-11-tox immunoreactivity was found to be dissociated from the antimicrobial activity. This indicates that Spod-11-tox is not processed into bioactive defensins in response to a microbial challenge. Altogether, our results show that X-tox proteins have not evolved as defensin reservoirs and have lost the antimicrobial properties of the ancestral insect defensins. The lepidopteran X-tox protein family will provide a valuable and tractable model to improve our knowledge on the molecular evolution of defensins, a class of innate immune effectors largely

  13. Palaeoceanographic implications of abundance and mean proloculus diameter of benthic foraminiferal species Epistominella exigua in sub-surface sediments from distal Bay of Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Nigam, R.; Barreto, L.

    to infer increased seasonality in organic matter production, thus variation in strength or duration of monsoon. Thus, this study establishes that the down-core variation in the abundance and mean proloculus diameter of E. exigua can be used to infer past...

  14. Overview: Pyraloidea larvae (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larvae of pyraloid or snout moths are pests to many crops and stored products and rank as among the most destructive pests to graminaceous crops such as corn, sugarcane, and rice. On the other hand, some larvae have been investigated and used for the biological control of noxious terrestrial a...

  15. Sequential diets, metabolic costs, and growth of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding upon dill, lima bean, and cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriber, J Mark

    1981-01-01

    This study illustrates the diversity of feeding responses of individually polyphagous southern armyworms, Spodoptera eridania, to plants with differing allelochemics. In spite of the near optimal leaf water and nitrogen contents of the young foliage, it is apparent that vastly different larval growth performance results from dill, lima bean, and cabbage. Cabbage is the poorest food (as measured by larval growth rates and metabolic costs of processing the plant biomass). Unlike the case with certain other plant species or cultivars that are costly to process, with cabbage, S. eridania does not compensate for low efficiencies (E.C.D.'s) with increased consumption rates (R.C.R.'s). Biochemical or physiological reasons for this inability are unknown.A sequence of foods (changed each 18-24 h) apparently did not add sufficient stress upon the MFO system to be detected in the respiratory expenditures of S. eridania larvae, in spite of the fact that dill is known to contain insecticidal and synergistic chemicals (Lichtenstein et al. 1974). The larval growth performances and metabolic expenditures in these sequences were intermediate between the best food (dill) and the worse (cabbage). Significant differences were observed however between the sequential switching sequences, perhaps indicating that particular periods during the instar are especially more sensitive to certain allelochemics. Actual respiratory costs of the lima bean-cabbage-dill (i.e. B-C-D) sequence were 40-50% higher than observed for the other two sequences and more than 50% higher than the theoretical metabolic costs based on the proportions actually eaten and known costs associated with each food.This study and a related one (Scriber 1981a) illustrate how consumption rates, feeding efficiences, and larval growth of Spodoptera eridania are not species, population, or even individual characteristics, (cf. Fox and Morrow 1981), but instead depend largely upon variations in plant allelochemics and plant

  16. Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory and greenhouses conditions for the control of Spodoptera frugiperda Avaliação de nematoides entomopatogênicos em condições de laboratório e casa-de-vegetação visando ao controle de Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Andaló

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased corn planting grown in the late season crop and the use of a notillage planting system benefits the development of Spodoptera frugiperda, the main pest of corn crop. Thus, this study aimed to select entomopathogenic nematodes based on the mortality of S. frugiperda, and to adjust the nematode concentrations in the laboratory and evaluate the action of these organisms in greenhouse conditions. Seventeen nematode populations were tested at concentrations of 100, 250, and 500 infective juveniles (IJ/larvae. The obtained data were submitted to the polynomial regression test. In the greenhouse, corn sowing was performed in plastic buckets with soil, corn straw, and water. After 7 days, Steinernema arenarium or Heterorhabditis sp. RSC02, and the larvae were added (40 larvae, one larvae/repetition. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and the Scott-Knott test (PO aumento no plantio do milho "safrinha" e o uso do sistema de plantio direto favorecem o desenvolvimento de Spodoptera frugiperda, principal praga da cultura. Dessa forma, os objetivos deste trabalho foram selecionar nematoides entomopatogênicos, de acordo com a mortalidade causada sobre S. frugiperda, adequar as concentrações em laboratório e avaliar a ação desses organismos em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Foram testadas 17 populações de nematoides nas concentrações de 100, 250 e 500 juvenis infectantes (JI lagarta-1. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao teste de regressão polinomial. Em casa-de-vegetação, a semeadura do milho foi realizada em vasos de plástico contendo solo, palhada de milho e água. Após sete dias, foram adicionados Steinernema arenarium ou Heterorhabditis sp. RSC02 e as lagartas (40 lagartas, uma lagarta/repetição. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de médias Scott-Knott (P<0,05. Nos testes de laboratório, S. arenarium e Heterorhabditis sp. RSC02 causaram mortalidade de 85 e 90

  17. RNAi-mediated knockdown of catalase causes cell cycle arrest in SL-1 cells and results in low survival rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zhao

    Full Text Available Deregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS production can lead to the disruption of structural and functional integrity of cells as a consequence of reactive interaction between ROS and various biological components. Catalase (CAT is a common enzyme existing in nearly all organisms exposed to oxygen, which decomposes harmful hydrogen peroxide, into water and oxygen. In this study, the full length sequence that encodes CAT-like protein from Spodoptera litura named siltCAT (GenBank accession number: JQ_663444 was cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence alignment showed siltCAT shared relatively high conservation with other insect, especially the conserved residues which defined heme and NADPH orientation. Expression pattern analysis showed that siltCAT mRNA was mainly expressed in the fat body, midgut, cuticle and malpighian tube, and as well as over last instar larvae, pupa and adult stages. RNA interference was used to silence CAT gene in SL-1 cells and the fourth-instar stage of S. litura larvae respectively. Our results provided evidence that CAT knockdown induced ROS generation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SL-1 cells. It also confirmed the decrease in survival rate because of increased ROS production in experimental groups injected with double-stranded RNA of CAT (dsCAT. This study implied that ROS scavenging by CAT is important for S. litura survival.

  18. Identification and Characterization of CYP9A40 from the Tobacco Cutworm Moth (Spodoptera litura), a Cytochrome P450 Gene Induced by Plant Allelochemicals and Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Long; Staehelin, Christian; Xia, Qing-Qing; Su, Yi-Juan; Zeng, Ren-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) of insects play crucial roles in the metabolism of endogenous and dietary compounds. Tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura), an important agricultural pest, causes severe yield losses in many crops. In this study, we identified CYP9A40, a novel P450 gene of S. litura, and investigated its expression profile and potential role in detoxification of plant allelochemicals and insecticides. The cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding 529 amino acid residues. CYP9A40 transcripts were found to be accumulated during various development stages of S. litura and were highest in fifth and sixth instar larvae. CYP9A40 was mainly expressed in the midgut and fat body. Larval consumption of xenobiotics, namely plant allelochemicals (quercetin and cinnamic acid) and insecticides (deltamethrin and methoxyfenozide) induced accumulation of CYP9A40 transcripts in the midgut and fat body. Injection of dsCYP9A40 (silencing of CYP9A40 by RNA interference) significantly increased the susceptibility of S. litura larvae to the tested plant allelochemicals and insecticides. These results indicate that CYP9A40 expression in S. litura is related to consumption of xenobiotics and suggest that CYP9A40 is involved in detoxification of these compounds. PMID:26393579

  19. Selective effects of natural and synthetic insecticides on mortality of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its predator Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Wagner S; Costa, Mariana A; Cruz, Ivan; Silveira, Rodrigo D; Serrao, Jose E; Zanuncio, Jose C

    2010-08-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a serious pest of corn in several American countries. It is mainly controlled with synthetic insecticides. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the natural products, neem oil and pyroligneous extract, and the synthetic insecticide, lufenuron, at 2.50 mL water (0.25%) on the mortality of 2-, 4- and 6-day-old caterpillars of S. frugiperda, and their selectivities against fourth instar larvae of Eriopis connnexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Four- and 6-day-old S. frugiperda caterpillars showed higher mortality after exposure to neem oil (83.33 +/- 0.83 and 89.58 +/- 0.90%, respectively) and lufenuron (95.83 +/- 0.96 and 85.41 +/- 0.83%), compared to pyroligneous extract (68.75 +/- 0.69 and 31.25 +/- 0.31%). The deleterious effect of pyroligneous extract was higher in 2- (83.33 +/- 0.83% mortality) and 4-day-old (68.75 +/- 0.69%) S. frugiperda caterpillars than in 6-day-old caterpillars (31.25 +/- 0.31%). Larval mortality of the predator E. connexa was lower with neem oil and pyroligneous extract (25.00 +/- 0.33%) than with lufenuron (91.66 +/- 1.22%). Neem oil is thus recommended for control of S. frugiperda because of its high toxicity, combined with its relatively low toxicity to larvae of the natural enemy E. connexa.

  20. Lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyphenozide on the development, survival and reproduction of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate, N.; Diaz, O. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Facultad de Agronomia; Martinez, A.M.; Figueroa, J.I.; Pineda, S., E-mail: spineda_us@yahoo.co [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Tarimbaro, Michoacan (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales; Schneider, M.I. [National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CEPAVE/CCT/CONICET), La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Estudios Parasitologicos y de Vectores. Centro Cientifico Tecnologico; Smagghe, G. [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium). Faculty of Bioscience Engineering. Lab of Agrozoology; Vinuela, E.; Budia, F. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Madrid (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos. Proteccion de Cultivos

    2011-01-15

    The lethal and sublethal effects of the ecdysone agonist methoxyphenozide on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were investigated by feeding a methoxyphenozide-treated diet to fifth instars until pupation in doses corresponding to the LC{sub 10} and LC{sub 25} for the compound. Larval mortality reached 8% and 26% in the low and high concentration groups, respectively, on the seventh day of the experiment. A progressive larval mortality of 12% for the LC{sub 10} and 60% for the LC{sub 25} was observed before pupation. Treated larvae exhibited lower pupal weights, higher pupal mortality, presence of deformed pupae, and more deformed adults than untreated larvae. The incorporation of methoxyfenozide into the diet had a significant effect on the timing of larval development. The development period for males and females was about seven days longer than the controls for both concentrations tested. In contrast, the compound affected neither pupae nor adult longevity. Finally, S. frugiperda adults that resulted from fifth instars treated with methoxyfenozide were not affected in their mean cumulative number of eggs laid per female (fecundity), nor percentages of eggs hatched (fertility), or the sex ratio. Our results suggest that the combination of lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide may have important implications for the population dynamics of the fall armyworm. (author)

  1. Cutaneous larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wieczorek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM is a tropical zoonosis, caused by parasites, usually Ancylostoma braziliense. Humans are an accidental host. Polish patients with CLM are usually tourists visiting tropical and subtropical countries. The first symptoms do not always appear as creeping eruptions, which complicates the diagnosis. Objective. To present the case of a man with CLM after returning from Thailand to Poland and associated diagnostic difficulties. Case report. We present a case of a 28-year-old man who returned to Poland from Thailand. The first symptoms appeared as disseminated pruritic papules. No improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines was observed. The diagnosis was established after the appearance of serpentine erythemas and improvement after albendazole therapy. Conclusions. In the case of returnees from exotic countries suffering from raised, pruritic rashes, and no improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines, parasitic etiology should be considered.

  2. Involvement of the processing step in the susceptibility/tolerance of two lepidopteran larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Mariam; Khedher, Saoussen Ben; Boukedi, Hanen; Chaib, Ikbel; Laarif, Asma; Tounsi, Slim

    2016-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins are known for their effectiveness against lepidopteran insects. In this study, the entomopathogenic activity of Cry1Aa was investigated against two lepidopteran larvae causing serious threat to various crops, Spodoptera littoralis and Tuta absoluta. Contrarily to S. littoralis, which showed low susceptibility to Cry1Aa (40% mortality with 1μg/cm(2)), T. absoluta was very sensitive to this delta-endotoxin (LC50 of 95.8ng/cm(2)). The different steps in the mode of action of this toxin on the two larvae were studied with the aim to understand the origin of their difference of susceptibility. Activation of the 130kDa Cry1Aa protein by T. absoluta larvae juice generated a 65kDa active toxin, whereas S. littoralis gut juice led to a complete degradation of the protoxin. The study of the interaction of the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) with purified biotinylated Cry1Aa toxin revealed six and seven toxin binding proteins in T. absoluta and S. littoralis BBMV, respectively. Midgut histopathology of Cry1Aa fed larvae demonstrated approximately similar damage caused by the toxin in the two larvae midguts. These results suggest that the activation step was strongly involved in the difference of susceptibility of the two larvae to Cry1Aa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antifeedant activity of Jatropha gossypifolia and Melia azedarach senescent leaf extracts on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use as synergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullangpoti, Vasakorn; Wajnberg, Eric; Audant, Pascaline; Feyereisen, René

    2012-09-01

    To reduce rates of synthetic insecticide applications, natural product alternatives and synergists are needed. A study has been made of the toxicity of ethanolic senescent leaf extracts (SLEs) of Jatropha gossypifolia and Melia azedarach on larvae of the noctuid pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Their effects as syngergists and inhibitors of several enzyme activities are also reported. When added to the diet, M. azedarach SLE showed lower toxicity than J. gossypifolia SLE. However, after 2 weeks on the diet, the M. azedarach SLE proved to be lethal to 100% of the larval population. Artificial diets with both SLEs have an antifeedant effect on armyworm larvae. Acute toxicity after topical application in a dipping assay was relatively low for both J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs (LC(50) of 2.6 and 1.4 g L(-1), respectively, after 24 h). However, mixtures of the SLEs of M. azedarach and J. gossypifolia had a strong synergistic effect with cypermethrin. Synergism was higher with the J. gossypifolia SLE, perhaps because it contains several natural products with a methylenedioxyphenyl moiety. Both extracts inhibited P450, general esterase and acetylcholinesterase activities in vitro and in vivo. Both J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs are antifeedants to armyworm larvae when present in the food, and also have a synergistic effect with cypermethrin in topical assays. Although the synergistic effect is less than with piperonyl butoxide, both SLEs have some inhibitor activity against detoxification enzymes and acetylcholinesterase. Thus J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs may be considered as ecofriendly approaches for the control of S. frugiperda in order to reduce cypermethrin usage. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  5. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture.

  6. (JE Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) annually cause enormous loss to the producers and their combat has become a worldwide challenge mainly due to several reports of pesticides resistance. Today, one of the best alternatives used in this combat is the application of natural insecticides such ...

  7. Efeito de indutores de resistência sobre Meloidogyne exigua do cafeeiro Effect of resistance inducers on Meloidogyne exígua of coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria de Lima Salgado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de manejo de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa no cafeeiro representa uma alternativa potencialmente útil no manejo desse patógeno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. exigua na presença de produtos indutores de resistência e avaliar o efeito do acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion® na indução de resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. 'Catuaí- 144' contra M. exigua. A eclosão e mortalidade do J2 foram avaliadas no ASM e ácido salicílico (AS nas dosagens de 0,2; 0,35 e 0,5 g. i. a./L; e no fosfito de potássio (Hortifós® PK e silicato de potássio (Supa-potássio® nas dosagens 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 mL/L, empregando água e aldicarbe como testemunhas. No segundo ensaio o ASM (0,2 g i.a./L foi aplicado na quantidade de 125 mL por planta de 'Catuaí-144' com um ano de idade, via pulverização foliar e diretamente ao solo aos 7 dias antes da inoculação e aos 2 e 7 dias após a inoculação de aproximadamente 7000 ovos de M. exigua/planta. Foram utilizadas 8 plantas/tratamento/bloco, totalizando 6 tratamentos (3 épocas de aplicação do ASM, testemunhas absoluta e inoculada, em 4 blocos. Aos 90 dias da inoculação, foi feita a avaliação da população final (número de ovos e juvenis de M. exigua, número de galhas, fator de reprodução (população final/população inicial e peso da matéria fresca da raiz. A dosagem dos produtos não influenciou a eclosão e mortalidade dos J2 de M. exigua. Menor eclosão dos J2 de M. exigua ocorreu igualmente no Supa-potássio® e ácido salicílico, enquanto que a eclosão no ASM e na água foi igual (P The parasitism of coffee roots by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, widespread nematode in the main producing regions, can provoke a series of modifications in the normal development of the plant. The induction of resistance for the activation of existing latent mechanisms of

  8. Effects of nickel exposure on testicular function, oxidative stress, and male reproductive dysfunction in Spodoptera litura Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongxia; Wu, Wenjing; Guo, Jixing; Xiao, Rong; Jiang, Fengze; Zheng, Lingyan; Zhang, Guren

    2016-04-01

    Nickel is an environmental pollutant that adversely affects the male reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of nickel exposure on Spodoptera litura Fabricius were investigated by feeding larvae artificial diets containing different doses of nickel for three generations. Damage to testes and effects on male reproduction were examined. The amount of nickel that accumulated in the testes of newly emerged males increased as the nickel dose in the diet increased during a single generation. Nickel exposure increased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased the amount of glutathione in treatment groups compared with the control. The activity levels of the antioxidant response indices superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the testes showed variable dose-dependent relationships with nickel doses and duration of exposure. Nickel doses also disrupted the development of the testes by decreasing the weight and volume of testes and the number of eupyrene and apyrene sperm bundles in treatment groups compared with the control. When the nickel-treated males mated with normal females, fecundity was inhibited by the higher nickel doses in all three generations, but fecundity significantly increased during the second generation, which received 5 mg kg(-1) nickel. Hatching rates in all treatments significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the three successive generations. The effects of nickel on these parameters correlated with the duration of nickel exposure. Results indicate assays of testes may be a novel and efficient means of evaluating the effects of heavy metals on phytophagous insects in an agricultural environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Four Crop Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Gordy

    Full Text Available Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA, benzothiadiazole (BTH, gibberellic acid (GA, harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (FAW (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  10. Isolation of Araguspongine M, a New Stereoisomer of an Araguspongine/Xestospongin alkaloid, and Dopamine from the Marine Sponge Neopetrosia exigua Collected in Palau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Mishima, Yuri; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Nagai, Hiroshi; Kitazawa, Akira; Mine, Yuji; Kobayashi, Hisayoshi; Yao, Xinsheng; Yamada, Junko; Oda, Taiko; Namikoshi, Michio

    2004-01-01

    A new stereoisomer of an araguspongine/xestospongin alkaloid, named araguspongine M (1), has been isolated together with 12 known compounds, araguspongines B (2) and D (3), dopamine, three galactosyl diacylglycerols, 24-methyl cholesterol, 5,6-dihydrocholesterol, β-sitosterol, and three 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols (11–13), from the marine sponge Neopetrosia exigua (formerly Xestospongia exigua) collected in Palau. The structure of 1 was assigned on the basis of its spectral data analysis. This is the first report on the isolation of dopamine from a marine sponge. This compound may be produced by an endosymbiotic Synechococcus-like cyanobacterium. Compounds 1–3 and 11–13 showed cytotoxicity against HL-60 at IC50’s of 5.5, 5.5, 5.9, 22.4, 9.5, and 9.6 μM, respectively. The possible biosynthesis origin of the isolated metabolites is discussed.

  11. Potencial Insecticida de Extractos de MeliaAzederach L (Meliaceae. Actividad Biologica y Efectos sobre Spodoptera Frugiperda J.E: Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Ruiz Rodrigo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de alternativas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, diferentes al uso de insecticidas se planifico esta investigación con el objetivo de precisas las propiedades insecticidas de extractos de Melia azederach L. para el control de larvas en estado L2. El trabajo se adelantó en Laboratorios de la Universidad del Tolima en Ibagué, ubicados en una zona de vida correspondiente al bosque húmedo Montano Bajo (bh-MB, las condiciones de temperatura fueron de 28 ±2°C y 70%de humedad relativa. Estos trabajos se realizaron durante 1994 y 1995. Los extractos se obtuvieron empleando tres solventes: alcohólico y etéreo trabajando con un diseño complemente al azar con arreglo factorial 3ˆ2, con 5 replicaciones. Antes de hacer las aplicaciones de los extractos se procedió a verificar su actividad biológica sobre Artemia salina. La dieta alimenticia natural y la cría masiva de Spodoptera frugiperda, se organizó de tal forma que se pudiera obtener material para toda la investigación. Después de efectuados los tratamientos se hicieron lecturas de mortalidad hasta los 6 días y porteriormente se continuaron realizando observaciones bioecológicas sobre los individuos sobrevivientes, hasta el estado adulto y etapa de oviposición El análisis de mortalidad demostró que los extractos tienen un efecto antialimentario sobre las larvas del insecto-plaga, siendo el extracto alcohólico en su dosis alta el mejor. Al efectuar el establecimiento de las dosis letales medidas se precisó que se pueden trabajar concentraciones entre 1.000-3.000 ppm para obtener óptimos resultados. El efecto antialimentario de los extractos produce en los individuos sobrevivientes una prolongación de la duración en días de las fases de su ciclo de vida.

  12. Evaluation of the role of gamma irradiation and/or Red Gum plant extract, eucalyptus close-minded, on some physiological changes of the Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera Littorals (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm EL-Din, M.M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The combined effects of two sub-sterilizing doses (75 and 125 Gy) of gamma irradiation to male full grown pupae of Spodoptera littoralis and / or red gum plant extract, Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Family: Myrtaceae) to the resulting larvae of F1 progeny on the consumption and utilization of food during the fifth and sixth in star larvae were studied. In general, plant extract and gamma irradiation each of them alone or in combination reduced the amount of food consumed and digested by the F1 larvae as compared to the control. The red gum treatment combined with 125 Gy decreased significantly the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I.) together with the efficiency of conversion of digested food (E.C.D.) to body substances at the tested treatments when compared with the untreated ones. Also, the food utilization efficiencies decrement led to a significant reduction in weight gain and growth rate. In addition, the deleterious effect of combined treatments on development and growth aspects was recorded

  13. Desiccation resistance of Chironomid larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Frouz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to desiccation in larvae of eight species of aquatic, semiaquatic and terrestrial chironomids (Pseudodiamesa branickii, Macropelopia sp., Prodiamesa olivacea, Micropsectra sp., Chironomus riparius, Chironomus dorsalis, Metriocnemus martini and Camptocladius stercorarius was studied. The larvae were desiccated in exicator at constant conditions (15 °C, 80% RH and changes in moisture and body water content was recorded. The LD-50 for loss of body water was calculated. The lowest resistance to loss of body water was found in larvae from subfamilies Tanypodinae and Diamesinae Macropelopia sp. and P. branickii. They survived loss of 49.7 and 56.6% of original water content (presented values are LD-50. On the other hand the highest resistance to water loss was found in C. dorsalis. M. martini and C. stercorarius. The larvae of these species may survive loss of 67.4, 76.6 and 84.2% of original water content. Nevertheless the survival time under experimental conditions depends more closely on larval size than on lethal level of water loss. The smaller larvae desiccated faster and perished sooner than large ones despite they tolerate higher loss of body water.

  14. QSAR analysis on Spodoptera litura antifeedant activities for flavone derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchowicz, Pablo R.; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Ocsachoque, Marco A.; Romanelli, Gustavo P.; Ortiz, Erlinda del V.; Autino, Juan C.; Bennardi, Daniel O.; Ruiz, Diego M.; Castro, Eduardo A.

    2009-01-01

    We establish useful models that relate experimentally measured biological activities of compounds to their molecular structure. The pED 50 feeding inhibition on Spodoptera litura species exhibited by aurones, chromones, 3-coumarones and flavones is analyzed in this work through the hypothesis encompassed in the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) Theory. This constitutes a first necessary computationally based step during the design of more bio-friendly repellents that could lead to insights for improving the insecticidal activities of the investigated compounds. After optimizing the molecular structure of each furane and pyrane benzoderivative with the semiempirical molecular orbitals method PM3, more than a thousand of constitutional, topological, geometrical and electronic descriptors are calculated and multiparametric linear regression models are established on the antifeedant potencies. The feature selection method employed in this study is the Replacement Method, which has proven to be successful in previous analyzes. We establish the QSAR both for the complete molecular set of compounds and also for each chemical class, so that acceptably describing the variation of the inhibitory activities from the knowledge of their structure and thus achieving useful predictive results. The main interest of developing trustful QSAR models is that these enable the prediction of compounds having no experimentally measured activities for any reason. Therefore, the structure-activity relationships are further employed for investigating the antifeedant activity on previously synthesized 2-,7-substituted benzopyranes, which do not pose any measured values on the biological expression. One of them, 2-(α-naphtyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, results in a promising structure to be experimentally analyzed as it has predicted pED 50 = 1.162.

  15. QSAR analysis on Spodoptera litura antifeedant activities for flavone derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchowicz, Pablo R., E-mail: pabloducho@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Goodarzi, Mohammad [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ocsachoque, Marco A. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas ' Dr. J. J. Ronco' (CINDECA), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP-CONICET. Calle 47 No 257, B1900AJK La Plata (Argentina); Romanelli, Gustavo P. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas ' Dr. J. J. Ronco' (CINDECA), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP-CONICET. Calle 47 No 257, B1900AJK La Plata (Argentina); Catedra de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, UNLP. Calles 60 y 119, B1904AAN La Plata (Argentina); Ortiz, Erlinda del V. [Facultad de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional de Catamarca, Av. Maximio Victoria 55, (4700), Catamarca (Argentina); Autino, Juan C.; Bennardi, Daniel O.; Ruiz, Diego M. [Catedra de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, UNLP. Calles 60 y 119, B1904AAN La Plata (Argentina); Castro, Eduardo A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2009-12-20

    We establish useful models that relate experimentally measured biological activities of compounds to their molecular structure. The pED{sub 50} feeding inhibition on Spodoptera litura species exhibited by aurones, chromones, 3-coumarones and flavones is analyzed in this work through the hypothesis encompassed in the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) Theory. This constitutes a first necessary computationally based step during the design of more bio-friendly repellents that could lead to insights for improving the insecticidal activities of the investigated compounds. After optimizing the molecular structure of each furane and pyrane benzoderivative with the semiempirical molecular orbitals method PM3, more than a thousand of constitutional, topological, geometrical and electronic descriptors are calculated and multiparametric linear regression models are established on the antifeedant potencies. The feature selection method employed in this study is the Replacement Method, which has proven to be successful in previous analyzes. We establish the QSAR both for the complete molecular set of compounds and also for each chemical class, so that acceptably describing the variation of the inhibitory activities from the knowledge of their structure and thus achieving useful predictive results. The main interest of developing trustful QSAR models is that these enable the prediction of compounds having no experimentally measured activities for any reason. Therefore, the structure-activity relationships are further employed for investigating the antifeedant activity on previously synthesized 2-,7-substituted benzopyranes, which do not pose any measured values on the biological expression. One of them, 2-({alpha}-naphtyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, results in a promising structure to be experimentally analyzed as it has predicted pED{sub 50} = 1.162.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of lufenuron-resistant and susceptible strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Antonio Rog?rio Bezerra do; Fresia, Pablo; C?nsoli, Fernando Luis; Omoto, Celso

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The evolution of insecticide resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has resulted in large economic losses and disturbances to the environment and agroecosystems. Resistance to lufenuron, a chitin biosynthesis inhibitor insecticide, was recently documented in Brazilian populations of S. frugiperda. Thus, we utilized large-scale cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis) to compare the pattern of gene expr...

  17. The feeding preferences of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on cotton plant varieties=Preferência alimentar de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em variedades de plantas algodoeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostenildo Ribeiro Campos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the attractiveness and the non-preference for feeding of newly hatched fall armyworm larvae on the cotton plant parts and different varieties used in the study. The trials were performed at 27 ± 1ºC, a 70% ± 10% relative humidity and a 14h photoperiod. Leaves, bracts, squares and carpel walls of the BRS Itamarati-90 variety and leaves of Fibermax-966, Fibermax-977, DeltaOpal, DeltaPenta, BRS Acala-90, Coodetec-408, Coodetec-409, Coodetec-410, BRS-Cedro, BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, IPR-96, IPR-120, BRS-Araçá, IAC-24 and BRS Itamarati-90 varieties were used in attractiveness, multiple-choice and confinement (no-choice non-preference feeding trials. Twenty larvae were released per petri dish test (arena system with 10 repetitions. Attractiveness trials were evaluated by counting feeding caterpillars over 60 min. and by measuring non-preference at 24h. Leaves were the most attractive item and were preferred for feeding. In the multiple-choice arena trials, Coodetec-410 was the most attractive variety, and BRS Acala-90, Fibermax-966 and DeltaPenta were the least attractive to fall armyworm larvae. In the non-preference trial, BRS-Araça was the variety favored for feeding. BRS-Cedro, BRS Itamarati-90, DeltaPenta, Coodetec-408 and BRS-Aroeira were the least-favored varieties. In the 60 min. attractiveness trials, 46 min. proved to be the most suitable time for evaluating the attractiveness of cotton plants to newly hatched fall armyworm larvae.Avaliou-se atratividade e não-preferência alimentar de lagartas recém-eclodidas de Spodoptera frugiperda por partes de plantas e plantas de variedades de algodoeiro. Testes foram realizados a 27 ± 1ºC, UR de 70% ± 10% e fotofase de 14h. Folhas, brácteas, botões florais e cascas de maçãs da variedade BRS Itamarati-90 e folhas de Fibermax-966, Fibermax-977, DeltaOpal, DeltaPenta, BRS Acala-90, Coodetec-408, Coodetec-409, Coodetec-410, BRS-Cedro, BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, IPR-96, IPR-120

  18. The development of a reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and the production of transgenic garlic resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng Sijun, S.J.; Henken, B.; Ahn, Y.K.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its application in producing insect resistant GM garlic lines. The transformation system is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, using young callus derived from different callus

  19. Movement of Heterorhabditis amazonensis and Steinernema arenarium in search of corn fall armyworm larvae in artificial conditions

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    Vanessa Andaló

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is considered to be the main pest of maize crops in Brazil. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN may be used to control this pest and exhibit different, unique abilities to search for their hosts. The movement of EPN in relation to S. frugiperda was evaluated. To test for horizontal movement, a styrofoam enclosure filled with sand was divided into segments, nematodes were placed at the entrance to the enclosure and a larva was placed at the end of each division. The same approach was used to evaluate vertical movement; however, PVC pipes were used in this case. In general, the mortality was inversely proportional to the initial distance between host and nematodes. In the vertical displacement test, both nematodes were able to kill the larvae up to a distance of 25 cm. Therefore, the infective juveniles of H. amazonensis and S. arenarium can search out, infect and kill larvae of S. frugiperda at distances of up to 60 cm and 25 cm of horizontal and vertical displacement, respectively.

  20. [Biotechnological aspects in "loco" larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inestrosa, N C; Labarca, R; Perelman, A; Campos, E O; Araneda, R; González, M; Brandan, E; Sánchez, J P; González-Plaza, R

    1990-10-01

    The biology of planktotrophic larvae of Concholepas concholepas is the main bottleneck towards developing biotechnologies to rear this muricid. Data concerning planktonic larvae development, diets and environmental signals triggering larval settlement and recruitment is scarce. We have begun the study of the molecular and cell biology of embryos, larvae and recruits having as a final goal, the development of appropriate biotechnologies to rear this gastropod. First, an inverse ratio between BuChE and AChE enzyme activities was established. This ratio may be a precise developmental marker for this species. Second, for the first time a phosphoinositide related regulatory pathway is reported in a muricid, opening a new approach to the biotechnological management of larvae. Third, the relation between sulfate in sea water and larval motility was studied. Concentrations below 125 microM sulfate decreases larval motility. The sulfate is incorporated in proteoglycans which participate in different developmental phenomena. Lastly, a genomic Concholepas concholepas DNA sequence, similar to that of a human growth hormone probe was detected. This is very interesting since growth factors are key molecules during development, growth and are involved in food conversion rates in fish and also, in a variety of marine invertebrates.

  1. Host strain specific sex pheromone variation in Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Svatos Ales

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae consists of two distinct strains with different host plant preferences for corn and rice. To assess whether pheromonal-mediated behavioral isolation accompanies the habitat isolation on different host plants, we compared the sex pheromone composition among females of the two strains. Pheromone glands were extracted with or without injection of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN. To assess the mode of inheritance of this variation, we also analyzed the pheromone composition of F1 hybrid females. Results Relative to intra-strain variation, the pheromone composition of the two strains differed significantly. Corn strain females contained significantly more of the second most abundant pheromone compound Z11-16:Ac (m, and significantly less of most other compounds, than rice strain females. When females were injected with PBAN before their glands were extracted, the differences between the strains were less pronounced but still statistically significant. The pheromone composition of hybrid females showed a maternal inheritance of the major component Z9-14:Ac (M as well as of Z11-16:Ac (m. Most other compounds showed an inheritance indicating genetic dominance of the corn strain. The within-strain phenotypic correlations among the various components were consistent with their hypothesized biosynthetic pathway, and between-strain differences in the correlation structure suggested candidate genes that may explain the pheromone differences between the two strains. These include Δ9- and Δ11 desaturases, and possibly also a Δ7-desaturase, although the latter has not been identified in insects so far. Conclusion The two host strains of S. frugiperda produce systematically differing female sex pheromone blends. Previously-documented geographic variation in the sexual communication of this species did not take strain identity into account, and thus may be

  2. Target and non-target response of Swietenia Mahagoni Jacq. chemical constituents against tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura Fab. and earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae Kinb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh-Kumar, Anandan; Srimaan, Elangovan; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Karthi, Sengodan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Muthu-Pandian Chanthini, Kanagaraj; Shyam-Sundar, Narayanan; Annamalai, Mahendiran; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2018-05-01

    Toxicological screening of Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. (Meliaceae, West Indies Mahogany) against the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura was examined. Phytochemical screening through GC-MS analysis revealed nine peaks with prominent peak area % in Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (31.5%) was observed. The larvae exposed to discriminating dosage of 100 ppm deliver significant mortality rate compare to other treatment concentrations. The lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 ) was observed at the dosage of 31.04 and 86.82 ppm respectively. Sub-lethal concentrations (30 ppm) showed higher larval and pupal durations. However, pupal weight and mean fecundity rate reduced significantly. Similarly, the adult longevity reduced significantly in dose dependent manner. Midgut histology studies showed that the methanolic extracts significantly disturbs the gut epithelial layer, lumen and brush border membrane compare to the control. The soil assay on a non-target beneficial organism, the soil indicator earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, with extracts from S. mahagoni (200 mg/kg) showed no toxicity compared to Monocrotophos at the dosage of 10 ppm/kg. Current results suggest that this bio-rational plant product from S. mahagoni displays a significant effect to reduce lepidopteran pests with low toxicity to other beneficial species. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Larval and pupal stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in sweet and field corn genotypes Fases larval e pupal de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em genótipos de milho doce e comum

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    L. M. Santos

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a very significant polyphagous pest due to the damages it causes, and control difficulties. Lack of information about its impact on sweet corn motivated a comparison of its biology, with respect to the larval and pupal stages, among the genotypes ELISA, BR 400 (sweet corns, and BR PAMPA (field corn. In laboratory conditions (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% RH; photophase 12 hours, 35 caterpillars were individualized and fed daily with 3.14 cm² sections of corn leaves from the referred-to genotypes, cultivated in plots in the experimental area of the Departament of Fitossanidade, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS from October to November 2000. The caterpillars were weighed daily; after each molt, the cephalic capsules were collected and measured (in width, to establish growth rate; pupae were weighed and sexed when 24 hours old. The duration of the larval instars, the pupal sex ratio, and the mortality of larvae and pupae were evaluated. In the first three instars there were no differences registered in capsule width. In the fourth and fifth instars, capsules of caterpillars kept in BR 400 were smaller. The weight of caterpillars and pupae, instar duration and sex ratio did not differ among the genotypes. Pupal phase duration was less in females kept in BR 400. Mortality was greater in the larval phase in ELISA and in the pupal phase in BR PAMPA.Spodoptera frugiperda, a lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho, é uma praga polífaga de grande importância agrícola pelos danos e dificuldade de controle. A ausência de informações sobre seu impacto em milho doce motivou a comparação de sua biologia, no que tange as fases larval e pupal, entre os genótipos de milho ELISA, BR 400 (milhos doces e BR PAMPA (milho comum. Em condições de laboratório (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% UR; fotofase 12 horas, 35 lagartas foram individualizadas e alimentadas, diariamente, com seções de folhas de 3,14 cm² dos referidos genótipos, provenientes

  4. Susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strains from central Colombia to two insecticides, methomyl and lambda-cyhalothrin: a study of the genetic basis of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Díez, J D; Saldamando-Benjumea, C I

    2011-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of several crops in the western hemisphere. This insect has genetically differentiated into two host-associated populations: the corn (Zea mays L.) and the rice (Oryza sativa L.) strains. The corn strain also is found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and sorghum and the rice strain in Bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and millet. In the United States and Brazil, lines from corn, rice, Bermuda grass, and millet were used to evaluate the resistance of both strains to various insecticides, and found that the corn strain is more resistant than the rice strain. However, in these studies the larvae were not genotyped. In Colombia, genotyping of fall armyworm is necessary because the rice strain also can be found in corn fields. In this work, collected larvae from corn and rice fields from Tolima (central Colombia) were genotyped and evaluated for the resistance to methomyl and lambda-cyhalothrin. We found that the rice strain does not significantly differ in resistance to methomyl compared with the corn strain but it develops tolerance more rapidly to lambda-cyhalothrin. The eggs viability of treated females also was significantly affected by methomyl on each generation. The realized heritability of resistance was higher for lambda-cyhalothrin (0.23-0.42) than for methomyl (0.04-0.14). The number of generations needed for 10-fold increase in resistance is approximately 11.5 generations for methomyl and 6.5 for lambda-cyhalothrin. Finally, the genetic basis of resistance to both insecticides involves few recessive autosomal genes. The results obtained here suggest that methomyl is a better option than lambda-cyalothin to control fall armyworm.

  5. Effect of nitrogen fertigation and sowing time on the expression of Cry2Ab and on mortality of Spodoptera litura in Bollgard II cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Manpreet Kaur; Dhawan, A K

    2014-03-01

    Toxin expression of Cry2Ab was studied in plant parts of Bollgard II cotton genotype MRC 7031 sown under different treatments of nitrogen application and planting dates. The expression was quantified by using Cry2Aa ELISA kit. Mean per cent mortality of one-day-old, 3rd and 5th instar larvae of Spodoptera litura was observed on different plant parts of MRC 7031 and their respective non-Bt cotton genotypes. The study deduced that mean maximum expression (19.24, 20.93 and 20.71 microg g(-1) in leaves, squares and bolls, respectively) of Cry2Ab was observed at higher nitrogen dose @ 300 kg ha(-1) (N3), while it was minimum (18.67, 20.44 and 20.14 microg g(-1) in leaves, squares and bolls, respectively) at low nitrogen dose @ 150 kg ha(-1) (N1). Studies conducted for different planting dates showed mean maximum expression (18.98, 20.72 and 20.42 microg g(-1) in leaves, squares and bolls, respectively) of Cry2Ab during late sown crop (15th May) as compared to early sown crop (15th April), the expression was 18.66, 20.32 and 20.06 microg g(-1) in leaves, squares and bolls, respectively. Quantitative expression of Cry2Ab was found to vary among different plant parts, i.e more in squares followed by bolls and leaves. Regarding mortality of different instars of S. litura, it was significantly more at higher nitrogen doses and it ranged from 83.04 to 96.27, 53.38 to 61.87 and 16.87 to 22.58% in case of S. litura one-day-old larvae, 3rd and 5th instar, respectively. While, non significant difference in mortalitywas observed during different sowing dates.

  6. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsankar, Athirstam; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Alessandro, Rocco T; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Paik, Chae-Hoon; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-11-01

    Botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to synthetic insecticides for controlling Spodoptera litura (F.) and they are target specific, biodegradable, and harmless to mammals. Eight natural chemical compounds with larvicidal activity were identified from fraction F6 of C. guianensis flower extract. Probit analysis of 95% confidence level exposed an LC50 of 223ppm against S. litura third instar larvae. The growth and development of S. litura was affected in sub-lethal concentrations of fraction F6 (50, 100, 150 and 200ppm) compared to controls. Similarly nutritional indices values decreased significantly compared to controls. Fraction F6 also damaged the gut epithelial layer and brush border membrane (BBM). This study also resolved the effects of toxicity to non-target earthworm treated with fraction F6 and chemical pesticides (monotrophos and cypermethrin) and the results showed that fraction F6 had no harmful effect on E. fetida. Further, fraction F6 was eluted and sub fractions F6c (50ppm) showed high mortality against S. litura third instar larvae. Octacosane from fraction F6c was established and confirmed using IR spectrum and HPLC. The time of retention of fraction F6c was confirmed with the octacosane standard. Fraction F6 of C. guianensis extract caused dose-dependent mortality towards S. litura. Octacosane in fraction F6c was establish to be the prominent chemical compound associated with causing mortality but other compounds present in the fraction F6 were shown to be associated with changes in development of S. litura at low dosages. S. litura at low dosage. Therefore, these findings suggest that octacosane may be one of the major insecticidal compounds affecting S. litura survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of a novel cytochrome P450 CYP321B1 gene from tobacco cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and RNA interference to evaluate its role in commonly used insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Long; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Baerson, Scott R; Xin, Xiao-Wei; Li, Jun; Su, Yi-Juan; Zeng, Ren-Sen

    2017-04-01

    Insect cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs or P450s) play an important role in detoxifying insecticides leading to resistance in insect populations. A polyphagous pest, Spodoptera litura, has developed resistance to a wide range of insecticides. In the present study, a novel P450 gene, CYP321B1, was cloned from S. litura. The function of CYP321B1 was assessed using RNA interference (RNAi) and monitoring resistance levels for three commonly used insecticides, including chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin and methomyl. The full-length complementary DNA sequence of CYP321B1 is 1814 bp long with an open reading frame of 1 488 bp encoding 495 amino acid residues. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses during larval and pupal development indicated that CYP321B1 expression was highest in the midgut of fifth-instar larvae, followed by fat body and cuticle. The expression of CYP321B1 in the midgut was up-regulated by chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin and methomyl with both lethal concentration at 15% (LC 15 ) (50, 100 and 150 μg/mL, respectively) and 50%(LC 50 ) dosages (100, 200 and 300 μg/mL, respectively). Addition of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) significantly increased the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin and methomyl to S. litura, suggesting a marked synergism of the three insecticides with PBO and P450-mediated detoxification. RNAi-mediated silencing of CYP321B1 further increased mortality by 25.6% and 38.9% when the fifth-instar larvae were exposed to chlorpyrifos and β-cypermethrin, respectively, at the LC 50 dose levels. The results demonstrate that CYP321B1 might play an important role in chlorpyrifos and β-cypermethrin detoxification in S. litura. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Colecta, identificación y multiplicación de virus entomopatógenos en el género Spodoptera presente en el cultivo del maíz

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    Jorge A. Vargas Leandro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El uso de un insecticida biológico contra la plaga del maíz Spodoptera frugiperda, basado en la acción de un virus entomopatógeno, fue probada. Se estableció un pie de cría para el proceso de producción y multiplicación del virus por medio de hospederos vivos, infectando las larvas con una formulación líquida a base de larvas maceradas con síntomas virales. Se obtuvo el inóculo inicial del virus a base de larvas que presentaran la sintomatología característica. La formulación líquida fue utilizada sobre larvas sanas, con el fin de probar su efectividad in vivo. Se identificaron individuos con posible sintomatología de virus; sin embargo, la formulación líquida alcanzó bajas tasas de mortalidad en su aplicación, probablemente por la degradación del virus frente a la luz UV o la baja concentración viral presente en la solución. Se tomaron muestras del sistema digestivo de larvas muertas con sintomatología de infección viral para ser observadas en microscopía electrónica de transmisión. No se visualizaron claramente poliedros u otras partículas virales; por lo tanto, no se logró corroborar la infección viral. Varios factores afectaron las muestras. El congelamiento lento (2-4 oC de larvas muertas pudo provocar la formación de cristales de agua intracelulares, que destruyeron los tejidos. Un lapso prolongado entre la muerte de la larva y su disección pudo iniciar procesos de necrosamiento y putrefacción posteriores a la muerte celular, que también pudo provocar la dispersión del contenido celular, siendo esto una dificultad para visualizar el virus en el microscopio electrónico.

  9. The Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 on The Survival of The Non-Target Pest, Spodoptera litura

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    Kurnia Pratiwi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura is one of the important insect pest of maize besides the notoriously damaging corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis. S. litura has been the target of various controls including the use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2. This study was conducted to evaluate the acute effect of Bt toxin Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 on the growth and development of S. litura from larval to adult stages. Two sublethal concentrations were used; 0.1875 and 0.0469 ppm for Cry1A.105, and 0.0008 and 0.0003 ppm for Cry2Ab2. The bioassay using diet dipping was carried out on a CRD with three experiments and five repetitions. The observation was carried out on the mortality and survival rates of S. litura. The mortality reached 28% when the larvae were treated with 0.1875 ppm and 20% with 0.0469 ppm of Cry 1A.105. The exposed larvae and pupae were smaller than control. Larval and pupal weight were 117.0 and 165.6 g with 0.1875 ppm, while control were 212.9 and 211.2 g. Cry1A.105 also longer the larval stage, larval stage with higher and lower concentration were 24.5 and 22.3 day, while control was 20.5 day. The resulted pupae from larve which exposed by Cry1A.105 were less than control; there were 40% at concentration 0.1875 ppm and control 61%. The two concentration of Cry2Ab2 produced similar mortality of 20%. Similarly, Cry2Ab2 affected pupal to adult stages development. The longevity of pupal stage with concentration 0.0003 ppm was 9.5 days, followed by 0.0008 ppm (9.1 days and control (10.1 days. The adult emerge on the highest concentration was 47.4% while control only 34.6%. There results showed that both Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 were detrimental to the survival of S. litura which is the non-target insect of transgenic Bt maize.   INTISARI   Spodoptera litura merupakan salah satu hama penting yang menyerang tanaman jagung, selain Ostrinia furnacalis. Belakangan ini O. furnacalis diketahui telah menjadi target dari berbagai macam cara

  10. Isolamento de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae no Brasil Detectionof Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Tocchetto Schuch

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou detectar presença de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae em produtos de um entreposto do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a identificação de possíveis fontes de contaminação e a avaliação da possibilidade da transferência de esporos para colméias de apiários adjacentes a partir de produtos importados contaminados. Foram analisados mel e pólen importados disponíveis no entreposto, favo do ninho (crias, pólen e mel colhido de uma colméia sadia, mel estocado em um dos apiários e abelhas adultas. Os resultados foram positivosem relação ao mel e pólen importados, a três grupos de abelhas adultas e ao mel do favo.The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in products from a warehouse located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the identification of possible contamination sources, and the assessment of spores transference possibility from contaminated imported products from the warehouse to apiaries located in the surrounding area. Samples of imported pollen and bulk honey stocked in the warehouse, and honeycomb (brood, honey and pollen from a healthy hive, honey from one apiary and adult bees were analyzed. Imported honey and pollen, and three groups of adult bees and the honey collected from the honeycomb resulted positive.

  11. Resistência do cafeeiro a nematóides: I - Testes em progênies e híbridos, para Meloidogyne exigua Coffee breeding for resistance to Meloidogyne exigua: I - Screening test using arabica progenies and interespecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Fazuoli

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se identificar fontes de resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne exígua em cafeeiros derivados de híbridos interespecíficos e em progênies de café arábica oriundas da Etiópia, em experimentos estabelecidos em duas localidades. A infestação foi feita por dois processos usados com freqüência nesse tipo de trabalho. As avaliações do grau de ataque foram feitas quatro e 12 meses após a infestação, em Campinas e Ribeirão Preto, respectivamente, adotando-se escala variando de zero, para ausência de galhas, a cinco pontos para grande intensidade de ataque. Verificou-se que a leitura feita aos quatro meses é tão eficiente quanto aos 12 meses, indicando a possibilidade de abreviar consideravelmente a duração dessas avaliações. Notou-se, no experimento de Ribeirão Preto, uma redução de aproximadamente 8% no crescimento das mudas infestadas e verificou-se, também, uma redução de 11,5% e 12% nos pesos verde e seco das plantas, devido ao ataque do nematóide. De 1.692 plantas examinadas nos dois experimentos, selecionaram-se 106 (6,3%, caracterizadas pela ausência de galhas. As populações derivadas dos híbridos entre Coffea arabica e C. canephora revelaram-se mais promissoras, contribuindo com maior número de plantas resistentes. As plantas do experimento instalado em Campinas foram inoculadas também com a raça II de Hemileia vastatrix para o estudo da resistência conjunta aos dois patógenos. Essas seleções, em número de 38, representam valioso material para o programa de melhoramento do cafeeiro.Two coffee screening tests were undertaken in order to find out sources of resistance to the nematode M. exigua. Arabica progenies from Ethiopia origin and advanced popu-lations derived from interspecific crosses (Coffea arabica x C. canephora and C. arabica x C. dewevrei were evaluated. A five point scale (0 point to the roots without galls and 5 points to severely attacked roots was used for determination of the

  12. Cry1F Resistance in Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: Single Gene versus Pyramided Bt Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Fangneng; Qureshi, Jawwad A.; Meagher, Robert L.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Head, Graham P.; Andow, David A.; Ni, Xinzi; Kerns, David; Buntin, G. David; Niu, Ying; Yang, Fei; Dangal, Vikash

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report compelling evidence of field resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), to Cry1F maize (TC 3507) in the southea...

  13. 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate synthesis and involvement in sulphotransferase reactions in the insect, Spodoptera littoralis.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac, R E; Phua, K K; Rees, H H

    1982-01-01

    1. Synthesis of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate from ATP and 35SO4(-2) was demonstrated by homogenates of gut. Malpighian tubules and fat body of Spodoptera littoralis. 2. The enzyme system was most active in the gut tissue, and was primarily located in the cytosol fraction of the cell. Gut cytosol preparations were used as a source of the 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate generating system for more detailed studies. 3. Maximum synthesis required an incubation mixture containing T...

  14. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer fed on leaves of Bt maize expressing Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 proteins and its non-Bt isoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcial Ceolin Bortolotto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate, in controlled laboratory conditions (temperature of 25±2 °C, relative humidity of 60±10%, and 14/10 h L/D photoperiod, the larval development of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1784 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae fed with leaves of Bt maize expressing Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 insecticide proteins and its non-Bt isoline. Maize leaves triggered 100% of mortality on S. eridania larvae independently of being Bt or non-Bt plants. However, it was observed that in overall Bt maize (expressing a single or pyramided protein slightly affects the larval development of S. eridania, even under reduced leaf consumption. Therefore, these results showed that Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 can affect the larval development of S. eridania, although it is not a target pest of this plant; however, more research is needed to better understand this evidence. Finally, this study confirms that non-Bt maize leaves are unsuitable food source to S. eridania larvae, suggesting that they are not a potential pest in maize fields.

  15. Palaeoceanographic implications of abundance and mean proloculus diameter of benthic foraminiferal species Epistominella exigua in sub-surface sediments from distal Bay of Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Nigam, R.; Barreto, L.

    ‘SZX12’, with a maximum magnification of 180× and precision of ±3 µm, by keeping the specimen in dorsal view. A total of 872 E. exigua speci- mens were picked from 50 samples, for the present study and each data point is an average of ∼ 18 specimens...- ure 3). From ∼ 42kyr BP upwards, the abundance shows a fluctuating trend, with an increase till ∼ 33kyr BP. Above ∼ 33kyr BP, the abundance decreases sharply till ∼ 27kyr BP to increase again till ∼ 25kyr BP. From ∼ 25kyr BP upwards, the abundance...

  16. Radiosensitivity of spores of Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae in honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Wanderley Mendes de [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Inspecao de Produtos de Origem Animal]. E-mail: sipa-rj@agricultura.gov.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br; Schuch, Dulce Maria Tocchetto [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: micro-lara-rs@agricultura.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation, usually used in combination with other conventional methods of conservation, has been proven to be an efficient tool to ensure the safety of many types of foods by destroying pathogenic microorganisms and extending their shelf-lives. This work has investigated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate spores of the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae that causes the 'American foulbrood', a highly contagious disease still exotic in Brazil that kills bees and contaminates honey, preventing its commercialization and causing great economical losses. In this study, 60 g samples of two types of honey inoculated with 3.5x10{sup 3} spores/mL of that bacterium were irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 kGy and counted. The analyses indicated a mean reduction of 97.5{+-}0.7% in the number of viable spores exposed to 5 kGy. The application of doses of 7.5 kGy or higher yielded no viable spores above the detection threshold (10/mL). In addition the value of D{sub 10} (3.1{+-}0.3 kGy) was estimated and the logarithm of the population of viable spores of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae was determined as linear and quadratic polynomial functions of the radiation dose. The results indicated that the dose of 10 kGy could be insufficient to assure complete sterilization of honey in some cases while suggesting that 25 kGy would perform such task adequately. (author)

  17. Distribution of Glycan Motifs at the Surface of Midgut Cells in the Cotton Leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis Demonstrated by Lectin Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Walski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycans are involved in many biological phenomena, including signal transduction, cell adhesion, immune response or differentiation. Although a few papers have reported on the role of glycans in the development and proper functioning of the insect midgut, no data are available regarding the localization of the glycan structures on the surface of the cells in the gut of insects. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial distribution of glycans present on the surface of the midgut cells in larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, an important agricultural pest insect worldwide. For this purpose, we established primary midgut cell cultures, probed these individual cells that are freely suspended in liquid medium with a selection of seven fluorescently labeled lectins covering a range of different carbohydrate binding specificities [mannose oligomers (GNA and HHA, GalNAc/Gal (RSA and SSA, GlcNAc (WGA and Nictaba and Neu5Ac(α-2,6Gal/GalNAc (SNA-I], and visualized the interaction of these lectins with the different zones of the midgut cells using confocal microscopy. Our analysis focused on the typical differentiated columnar cells with a microvillar brush border at their apical side, which are dominantly present in the Lepidopteran midgut and function in food digestion and absorption, and as well as on the undifferentiated stem cells that are important for midgut development and repair. Confocal microscopy analyses showed that the GalNAc/Gal-binding lectins SSA and RSA and the terminal GlcNAc-recognizing WGA bound preferentially to the apical microvillar zone of the differentiated columnar cells as compared to the basolateral pole. The reverse result was observed for the mannose-binding lectins GNA and HHA, as well as Nictaba that binds preferentially to GlcNAc oligomers. Furthermore, differences in lectin binding to the basal and lateral zones of the cell membranes of the columnar cells were apparent. In the midgut stem cells, GNA and

  18. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.

    2016-01-01

    diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world...... was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults....

  19. Isolation of Araguspongine M, a New Stereoisomer of an Araguspongine/Xestospongin alkaloid, and Dopamine from the Marine Sponge Neopetrosia exigua Collected in Palau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Yao

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A new stereoisomer of an araguspongine/xestospongin alkaloid, named araguspongine M (1, has been isolated together with 12 known compounds, araguspongines B (2 and D (3, dopamine, three galactosyl diacylglycerols, 24-methyl cholesterol, 5,6-dihydrocholesterol, β-sitosterol, and three 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols (11–13, from the marine sponge Neopetrosia exigua (formerly Xestospongia exigua collected in Palau. The structure of 1 was assigned on the basis of its spectral data analysis. This is the first report on the isolation of dopamine from a marine sponge. This compound may be produced by an endosymbiotic Synechococcus-like cyanobacterium. Compounds 1–3 and 11–13 showed cytotoxicity against HL-60 at IC50’s of 5.5, 5.5, 5.9, 22.4, 9.5, and 9.6 μM, respectively. The possible biosynthesis origin of the isolated metabolites is discussed.

  20. Development of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers based on actin sequences and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF): a case study in the Phoma exigua species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aveskamp, M.M.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Gruyter, de J.; Turco, E.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Phoma exigua is considered to be an assemblage of at least nine varieties that are mainly distinguished on the basis of host specificity and pathogenicity. However, these varieties are also reported to be weak pathogens and secondary invaders on non-host tissue. In practice, it is difficult to

  1. Development of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers based on actin sequences and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) : a case study in the Phoma exigua species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aveskamp, M.M.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; de Gruyter, J.; Turco, E.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Phoma exigua is considered to be an assemblage of at least nine varieties that are mainly distinguished on the basis of host specificity and pathogenicity. However, these varieties are also reported to be weak pathogens and secondary invaders on non-host tissue. In practice, it is difficult to

  2. Evaluación de aislamientos de baculovirus para el control de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 (LEP.: NOCTUIDAE, plaga clave del maíz en el noroeste argentino Evaluation of baculovirus strains to control the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 (LEP.: NOCTUIDAE, a key corn pest in North Western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta G. Yasem de Romero

    Full Text Available Para el control de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, plaga clave del maíz en el noroeste argentino (NOA, se utilizan insecticidas químicos que muestran en muchas ocasiones, una baja efectividad. Los baculovirus constituyen una alternativa biológica para el manejo del gusano cogollero. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar la susceptibilidad de estadios larvales de S. frugiperda a distintas concentraciones de tres aislamientos del Nucleopolyhedrovirus de diferentes procedencias. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron constatar que la mortalidad de las orugas de S. frugiperda aumentó con el incremento de la concentración viral y que la susceptibilidad larval al virus decreció con el aumento de la edad del insecto. Se determinó una concentración letal media (CL50 de 7,6 x 10(4 y 4,5 x 10(5 poliedros/ml en larvas de tres y cinco días respectivamente, para el VPN aislamiento Leales (Tucumán, Argentina. Con niveles similares se ubicó el aislamiento Oliveros (Santa Fe, Argentina, cuya CL50 fue de 8,6 x 10(4 poliedros/ml y 4 x 10(5 poliedros/ml, respectivamente. Por último, el aislamiento oriundo de Brasil presentó CL50 igual a 5,9 x 105 poliedros/ml para larvas de tres días, y 1,5 x 106 poliedros/ml para orugas de cinco días. El aislamiento local demostró la mayor virulencia en la población nativa de larvas de S. frugiperda, registrando para larvas jóvenes (tres y cinco días de edad y a los valores de concentración letal media, un tiempo medio de mortalidad de seis días, resultando siete días para el aislamiento Oliveros y nueve días para el aislamiento Brasil. Considerando los resultados obtenidos, el VPNSf aislamiento Leales tuvo el mejor desempeño y sería conveniente continuar los estudios destinados a desarrollar un bioinsecticida para uso local, ya que evidencia una adecuada virulencia. Además, al ser un aislamiento nativo, su empleo sería el más apropiado en términos de impacto ambiental.Chemical insecticides are used

  3. Estádio de adaptação de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em hospedeiros alternativos Fitness stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on alternative hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Gisele Brasil Boregas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A principal praga-alvo na cultura do milho é a lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, que, pela sua ampla distribuição temporal e geográfica constitui-se em uma das espécies mais nocivas nas regiões tropicais das Américas. O objetivo foi avaliar o estádio de adaptação de S. frugiperda em 17 espécies hospedeiras, cultivadas ou selvagens, mais comuns no agroecossistema brasileiro. As plantas foram cultivadas em cinco épocas, entre 2006 e 2008, utilizando o milho como padrão. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram individualizadas e confinadas em copo plástico (50 mL, onde foram alimentadas com seções de folha nova de cada hospedeiro. O alimento foi substituído a cada dois dias por folhas frescas. Quatro variáveis biológicas foram avaliadas e utilizadas para se calcular um Índice de Adaptação (IA. Os resultados indicaram que a sobrevivência inicial de S. frugiperda variou de 100%, no milho, a 46%, no arroz. O período larval variou de 12,6 dias, no milho, a 27,1 dias, na grama batatais. A biomassa de pupa variou de 173,1 mg, no carrapicho, a 294,2 mg, no milho. O índice de adaptação, calculado com base nas variáveis biológicas de S. frugiperda, nos hospedeiros avaliados, variou de 17,43, no milho cultivado na época I, a 1,46, na cana-de-açúcar na época III. Para corrigir o efeito de época sobre o índice de adaptação de S. frugiperda nos hospedeiros, foi calculado o Índice Relativo de Adaptação (IRA, com base no índice de adaptação no milho (100%. Assim, com base no índice relativo de adaptação, estimado em condições de laboratório, os hospedeiros alternativos ao milho, para S. frugiperda, podem ser assim ordenados, do maior para o menor índice: sorgo granífero, sorgo selvagem, milheto, capim-tanzânia, amendoim, capim-marandu, capim-braquiária, caruru-de-porco, trigo, soja, algodão, feijão, arroz, capim-carrapicho, grama batatais e cana

  4. Design, Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Novel Phenylurea Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel phenylurea derivatives were designed and synthesized according to the method of active groups linkage and the principle of aromatic groups bioisosterism in this study. The structures of the novel phenylurea derivatives were confirmed based on ESI-MS, IR and 1H-NMR spectral data. All of the compounds were evaluated for the insecticidal activity against the third instars larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hiibner, Plutella xyllostella Linnaeus, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Pieris rapae Linne respectively, at the concentration of 10 mg/L. The results showed that all of the derivatives displayed strong insecticidal activity. Most of the compounds presented higher insecticidal activity against S. exigua than the reference compounds tebufenozide, chlorbenzuron and metaflumizone. Among the synthesized compounds, 3b, 3d, 3f, 4b and 4g displayed broad spectrum insecticidal activity.

  5. Synergistic effects of Cydia pomonella granulovirus GP37 on the infectivity of nucleopolyhedroviruses and the lethality of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyang; Ma, Xiaohe; Lei, Chengfeng; Xiao, Yuzhou; Zhang, Zhongxin; Sun, Xiulian

    2011-10-01

    To initiate an efficient primary infection, it is important for baculovirus virions to penetrate through the peritrophic membrane (PM) of the host insect. It is frequently reported that enhancins of baculoviruses significantly enhance viral infection by degrading the various protein components of PMs. However, not all baculoviruses encode enhancins. GP37s of baculoviruses share high amino acid identity with fusolins, synergistic factors found in entomopoxviruses. In this study, a truncated Cydia pomonella granulovirus GP37 was expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed GP37 effectively bound to chitin, and binding occurred predominantly within 3 h. GP37 altered the protein profiles of Spodoptera exigua PMs, from which a 50-kDa protein was dissociated. Droplet-feeding bioassays indicated that GP37 significantly enhanced the infectivity of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) and the lethality of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in S. exigua larvae. This is the first demonstration of the enhancement of NPVs and Bt infection by a baculovirus GP37.

  6. Differences in Nicotine Metabolism of Two Nicotiana attenuata Herbivores Render Them Differentially Susceptible to a Common Native Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Rathi, Preeti; Schöttner, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Pandit, Sagar

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotiana attenuata is attacked by larvae of both specialist (Manduca sexta) and generalist (Spodoptera exigua) lepidopteran herbivores in its native habitat. Nicotine is one of N. attenuata's important defenses. M. sexta is highly nicotine tolerant; whether cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidative detoxification and/or rapid excretion is responsible for its exceptional tolerance remains unknown despite five decades of study. Recently, we demonstrated that M. sexta uses its nicotine-induced CYP6B46 to efflux midgut-nicotine into the hemolymph, facilitating nicotine exhalation that deters predatory wolf spiders (Camptocosa parallela). S. exigua's nicotine metabolism is uninvestigated. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the ability of these two herbivores to metabolize, tolerate and co-opt ingested nicotine for defense against the wolf spider. In addition, we analyzed the spider's excretion to gain insights into its nicotine metabolism. Contrary to previous reports, we found that M. sexta larvae neither accumulate the common nicotine oxides (cotinine, cotinine N-oxide and nicotine N-oxide) nor excrete them faster than nicotine. In M. sexta larvae, ingestion of nicotine as well as its oxides increases the accumulation of CYP6B46 transcripts. In contrast, S. exigua accumulates nicotine oxides and exhales less (66%) nicotine than does M. sexta. Spiders prefer nicotine-fed S. exigua over M. sexta, a preference reversed by topical or headspace nicotine supplementation, but not ingested or topically-coated nicotine oxides, suggesting that externalized nicotine but not the nicotine detoxification products deter spider predation. The spiders also do not accumulate nicotine oxides. Conclusions Nicotine oxidation reduces S. exigua's headspace-nicotine and renders it more susceptible to predation by spiders than M. sexta, which exhales unmetabolized nicotine. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that generalist herbivores incur costs of

  7. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Marhaver, K.L.; Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelkerken, I.; Simpson, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to

  8. DENSIDAD CRÍTICA DE Meloidogyne exigua EN PLANTAS DE ALMÁCIGO DE CAFÉ VARIEDAD CATURRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainor Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de densidad creciente de Meloidogyne exigua sobre el desarrollo de plantas de almácigo. Se trasplantaron plántulas de café variedad caturra a bolsas de polietileno con 1335 cm3 de sustrato desinfectado, para establecer un ensayo con diseño de bloques completos al azar, con 8 repeticiones. Los tratamientos aplicados consistieron de poblaciones iniciales (Pi de 0; 0,125; 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32 y 64 huevos+J2/ cm3 de sustrato, aplicadas un mes después del trasplante. El modelo y=m+(1-m ZP-T aplicado 234 días después del trasplante para la altura, diámetro, número de nudos y peso fresco aéreo, indicó que el límite de tolerancia (T fue de 0,66; 0,06; 0,13 y 0,88 huevos+J2/cm3, respectivamente; la producción mínima relativa (m fue de 0,79; 0,79; 0,33 y 0,54 respectivamente, a Pi iguales o mayores a 64 huevos+J2/cm3. El índice de agallas alcanzó el máximo a partir de una Pi de 2; el pico máximo de nematodos en el suelo y las raíces se alcanzó con Pi entre 2 y 4; mientras la tasa máxima de reproducción fue de 114 con Pi de 0,125. Se concluyó que la densidad crítica fue cercana a cero huevos/cm3 de sustrato como población inicial, y que el almácigo se debe desarrollar libre de nematodos, ya que aún con Pi bajas se puede alcanzar la máxima población en corto tiempo.

  9. Performance and cross-crop resistance of Cry1F-maize selected Spodoptera frugiperda on transgenic Bt cotton: implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Brown, Sebe; Kurtz, Ryan; Dennehy, Tim; Braxton, Bo; Head, Graham; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-06-15

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary tool in pest management. Due to the intensive use of Bt crops, resistance of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to Cry1F maize has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and some areas of the southeastern U.S. The sustainability of Bt crops faces a great challenge because the Cry1F-maize resistant S. frugiperda may also infest other Bt crops in multiple cropping ecosystems. Here we examined the survival and plant injury of a S. frugiperda population selected with Cry1F maize on three single-gene and five pyramided Bt cotton products. Larvae of Cry1F-susceptible (SS), -heterozygous (RS), and -resistant (RR) genotypes of S. frugiperda were all susceptible to the pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac/Cry1F/Vip3A, Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae, or Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae/Vip3A, and the single-gene Cry2Ae cotton. Pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry1F was effective against SS and RS, but not for RR. These findings show that the Cry1F-maize selected S. frugiperda can cause cross-crop resistance to other Bt crops expressing similar insecticidal proteins. Resistance management and pest management programs that utilize diversify mortality factors must be implemented to ensure the sustainability of Bt crops. This is especially important in areas where resistance to single-gene Bt crops is already widespread.

  10. Toxicity of some insecticides to F1 progeny of the cotton leaf worm; Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) gamma irradiated as parental pupae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shall, S.S.A.; Hazaa, M.A.M.; Alm El-Din, M.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    The response of the F1 Progeny of Cotton Leaf worm; Spodoptera littoralis Boisd, (from male irradiated as parental pupae with 0, 50, 100 and 150 Gy of gamma irradiation) to Silicron, Atabron and Catabroun were studied. The lethal concentration doses of insecticides that kill 10,50 and 90 % of population (LC 10 , LC 50 and LC 90 ); The lethal time that kill 50% of population (LT 50 ) and the Tolerance Ratio(T.R) to the different previous insecticides were employed as parameters for measuring the response of irradiated and un-irradiated progeny. The results indicated that, the dose of irradiation and time post insecticides application had a great role in alter the response of F1 progeny of S. littoralis to the different-insecticides. Also, gamma irradiation increased the toxicity of Silicron at 2 and 4 days post insecticide treatments. By time elapsing after insecticide application the irradiated larvae became virtually the same degree of susceptibility as compared to non-irradiated ones. As well, 50 Gy slightly alter the toxicity of Atabron, while population irradiated with 100 and 150 Gy showed a high level of susceptibility to Atabron at 22 and 26 days post insecticide treatments as compared to un-irradiated population. In addition, the toxicity of Catabroun increased in case of irradiated population at most of interval time post insecticide treatments as compared to un-irradiated ones. Furthermore, a Comparison was made and discussed between the susceptibility of irradiated population only, population treated with insecticides only and population treated with both insecticides and radiation by using the standard parameter LT 50

  11. Evidence of field-evolved resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt corn expressing Cry1F in Brazil that is still sensitive to modified Bt toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerat, Rose; Martins, Erica; Macedo, Cristina; Queiroz, Paulo; Praça, Lilian; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Moreira, Helio; Grisi, Isabella; Silva, Joseane; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Brazil ranked second only to the United States in hectares planted to genetically modified crops in 2013. Recently corn producers in the Cerrado region reported that the control of Spodoptera frugiperda with Bt corn expressing Cry1Fa has decreased, forcing them to use chemicals to reduce the damage caused by this insect pest. A colony of S. frugiperda was established from individuals collected in 2013 from Cry1Fa corn plants (SfBt) in Brazil and shown to have at least more than ten-fold higher resistance levels compared with a susceptible colony (Sflab). Laboratory assays on corn leaves showed that in contrast to SfLab population, the SfBt larvae were able to survive by feeding on Cry1Fa corn leaves. The SfBt population was maintained without selection for eight generations and shown to maintain high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa toxin. SfBt showed higher cross-resistance to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins. As previously reported, Cry1A toxins competed the binding of Cry1Fa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from SfLab insects, explaining cross-resistance to Cry1A toxins. In contrast Cry2A toxins did not compete Cry1Fa binding to SfLab-BBMV and no cross-resistance to Cry2A was observed, although Cry2A toxins show low toxicity to S. frugiperda. Bioassays with Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod show that they are highly active against both the SfLab and the SfBt populations. The bioassay data reported here show that insects collected from Cry1Fa corn in the Cerrado region were resistant to Cry1Fa suggesting that resistance contributed to field failures of Cry1Fa corn to control S. frugiperda.

  12. Cross-resistance to purified Bt proteins, Bt corn and Bt cotton in a Cry2Ab2-corn resistant strain of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula; Huang, Fangneng

    2017-12-01

    Gene-pyramiding by combining two or more dissimilar Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins into a crop has been used to delay insect resistance. The durability of gene-pyramiding can be reduced by cross-resistance. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is a major target pest of the Cry2Ab2 protein used in pyramided Bt corn and cotton. Here, we provide the first experimental evaluation of cross-resistance in S. frugiperda selected with Cry2Ab2 corn to multiple Bt sources including purified Bt proteins, Bt corn and Bt cotton. Concentration - response bioassays showed that resistance ratios for Cry2Ab2-resistant (RR) relative to Cry2Ab2-susceptible (SS) S. frugiperda were -1.4 for Cry1F, 1.2 for Cry1A.105, >26.7 for Cry2Ab2, >10.0 for Cry2Ae and -1.1 for Vip3A. Larvae of Cry2Ab2-heterozygous (RS), SS and RR S. frugiperda were all susceptible to Bt corn and Bt cotton containing Cry1 (Cry1F or Cry1A.105) and/or Vip3A proteins. Pyramided Bt cotton containing Cry1Ac + Cry2Ab2 or Cry1Ab + Cry2Ae were also effective against SS and RS, but not RR. These findings suggest that Cry2Ab2-corn-selected S. frugiperda is not cross-resistant to Cry1F, Cry1A.105 or Vip3A protein, or corn and cotton plants containing these Bt proteins, but it can cause strong cross-resistance to Cry2Ae and Bt crops expressing similar Bt proteins. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Evidence of field-evolved resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt corn expressing Cry1F in Brazil that is still sensitive to modified Bt toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Monnerat

    Full Text Available Brazil ranked second only to the United States in hectares planted to genetically modified crops in 2013. Recently corn producers in the Cerrado region reported that the control of Spodoptera frugiperda with Bt corn expressing Cry1Fa has decreased, forcing them to use chemicals to reduce the damage caused by this insect pest. A colony of S. frugiperda was established from individuals collected in 2013 from Cry1Fa corn plants (SfBt in Brazil and shown to have at least more than ten-fold higher resistance levels compared with a susceptible colony (Sflab. Laboratory assays on corn leaves showed that in contrast to SfLab population, the SfBt larvae were able to survive by feeding on Cry1Fa corn leaves. The SfBt population was maintained without selection for eight generations and shown to maintain high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa toxin. SfBt showed higher cross-resistance to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins. As previously reported, Cry1A toxins competed the binding of Cry1Fa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV from SfLab insects, explaining cross-resistance to Cry1A toxins. In contrast Cry2A toxins did not compete Cry1Fa binding to SfLab-BBMV and no cross-resistance to Cry2A was observed, although Cry2A toxins show low toxicity to S. frugiperda. Bioassays with Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod show that they are highly active against both the SfLab and the SfBt populations. The bioassay data reported here show that insects collected from Cry1Fa corn in the Cerrado region were resistant to Cry1Fa suggesting that resistance contributed to field failures of Cry1Fa corn to control S. frugiperda.

  14. Detoxification of insecticides, allechemicals and heavy metals by glutathione S-transferase SlGSTE1 in the gut of Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Bin; Zou, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Ni; Feng, Qi-Li; Zheng, Si-Chun

    2015-08-01

    Insect glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play important roles in detoxifying toxic compounds and eliminating oxidative stress caused by these compounds. In this study, detoxification activity of the epsilon GST SlGSTE1 in Spodoptera litura was analyzed for several insecticides and heavy metals. SlGSTE1 was significantly up-regulated by chlorpyrifos and xanthotoxin in the midgut of S. litura. The recombinant SlGSTE1 had Vmax (reaction rate of the enzyme saturated with the substrate) and Km (michaelis constant and equals to the substrate concentration at half of the maximum reaction rate of the enzyme) values of 27.95 ± 0.88 μmol/min/mg and 0.87 ± 0.028 mmol/L for glutathione, respectively, and Vmax and Km values of 22.96 ± 0.78 μmol/min/mg and 0.83 ± 0.106 mmol/L for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, respectively. In vitro enzyme indirect activity assay showed that the recombinant SlGSTE1 possessed high binding activities to the insecticides chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, malathion, phoxim and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). SlGSTE1 showed higher binding activity to toxic heavy metals cadmium, chromium and lead than copper and zinc that are required for insect normal growth. Western blot analysis showed that SlGSTE1 was induced in the gut of larvae fed with chlorpyrifos or cadmium. SlGSTE1 also showed high peroxidase activity. All the results together indicate that SlGSTE1 may play an important role in the gut of S. litura to protect the insect from the toxic effects of these compounds and heavy metals. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Combined effect of gamma radiation and azadirachtin on the growth and development of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.K.; Seth, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Spodoptera litura is an economically serious and polyphagous pest in the Indian subcontinent. This pest is reported to attack a wide range of food plants belonging to diverse origin 112 cultivated food plants belonging to 44 families all over the world. In order to explore an eco-friendly strategy that could be coupled up with this radio generic method, i.e. F-1 sterility technique, the present attempt was made to study the effect of a safe chemical (azadirachtin) for the effective management of lepidoteran pest, S. litura. The studies show that insecticidal toxicity can be altered if the insects are exposed to radiation prior to insecticidal treatment. (author)

  16. Evidence of recent interspecies horizontal gene transfer regarding nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Gloria Patricia; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Villamizar, Laura Fernanda; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel

    2015-11-25

    Baculoviruses are insect-associated viruses carrying large, circular double-stranded-DNA genomes with significant biotechnological applications such as biological pest control, recombinant protein production, gene delivery in mammals and as a model of DNA genome evolution. These pathogens infect insects from the orders Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera, and have high species diversity which is expressed in their diverse biological properties including morphology, virulence or pathogenicity. Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the fall armyworm, represents a significant pest for agriculture in America; it is a host for baculoviruses such as the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) (Colombia strain, genotype A) having been classified as a Group II alphabaculovirus making it a very attractive target for bioinsecticidal use. Genome analysis by pyrosequencing revealed that SfMNPV ColA has 145 ORFs, 2 of which were not present in the other sequenced genotypes of the virus (SfMNPV-NicB, SfMNPV-NicG, SfMNPV-19 and SfMNPV-3AP2). An in-depth bioinformatics study showed that ORF023 and ORF024 were acquired by a recent homologous recombination process between Spodoptera frugiperda and Spodoptera litura (the Oriental leafworm moth) nucleopolyhedroviruses. Auxiliary genes are numerous in the affected locus which has a homologous region (hr3), a repetitive sequence associated with genome replication which became lost in SfColA along with 1 ORF. Besides, the mRNAs associated with two acquired genes appeared in the virus' life-cycle during the larval stage. Predictive studies concerning the theoretical proteins identified that ORF023 protein would be a phosphatase involved in DNA repair and that the ORF024 protein would be a membrane polypeptide associated with cell transport. The SfColA genome was thus revealed to be a natural recombinant virus showing evidence of recent horizontal gene transfer between different baculovirus species occurring

  17. Biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different structures of transgenic corn against Spodoptera frugiperda

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Horikoshi, Renato Jun; Salmeron, Eloisa; Okuma, Daniela Miyuki; Omoto, Celso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is the main target pest of Bt corn technologies, such as YieldGard VT PRO(tm) (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2) and PowerCore(tm) (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2/Cry1F). In this study, it was evaluated the biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different plant structures of YieldGard VT PRO(tm) and PowerCore(tm) corn against S. frugiperda . Complete mortality of S. frugiperda neonates was observed on leaf-disc of both Bt corn technologies. However, the mortality ...

  18. Developmental anatomy of the central nervous system of the cotton leaf worm, spodoptera littoralis boisd.

    OpenAIRE

    El Banhawy, M. A [محمود احمد البنهاوي; Anwar, I. M.

    1983-01-01

    The central nervous system, C. N. S., of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (B.) develops from a median row of embryonic neuroblasts which divide repeatedly to form a double ganglionic chain. The two chains fuse together laterally giving rise to the larval C.N.S. which is differentiated into a brain, a frontal, a suboesophageal, three thoracic and seven abdominal ganglia. During the pupation period, the larval C.N.S. undergoes marked changes leading to the formation of the C.N.S. ...

  19. Bt-potatoes resistant to the Colorado potato beetle affect performance of the Egyptian armyworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, Hany; Sehnal, František; Habuštová, Oxana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2005), s. 38-41 ISSN 1335-258X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bt-toxin * Cry3 Aa * Spodoptera littoralis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  20. A Z-linked sterility locus causes sexual abstinence in hybrid females and facilitates speciation in Spodoptera frugiperda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kost, S.; Heckel, D.G.; Yoshido, A.; Marec, F.; Groot, A.T.

    In the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), two sympatric strains have been recognized that have been termed corn strain (C) and rice strain (R), referring to their most common host plants. Both strains are reproductively isolated via a distinct prezygotic barrier as well

  1. Synthesis of tritiated sex pheromones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Angel; Feixas, Joan [CID (CDIC), Biological Organic Chemistry Dept., Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    Synthesis of tritiated sex phenomones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis has been accomplished by a simple route involving tritiated sodium borohydride reduction of the corresponding aldehyde followed by acetylation of the resulting radiolabelled alcohol. The process occurs with high chemical and radiochemical yields and the compounds have been used in pheromone catabolism studies. (author).

  2. Geographic variation in sexual attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda corn- and rice-strain males to pheromone lures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unbehend, M.; Hänniger, S.; Vásquez, G.M.; Juárez, M.L.; Reisig, D.; McNeil, J.N.; Meagher, R.L.; Jenkins, D.A.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this

  3. Beetle-specific Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin reduces larval growth and curbs reproduction in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, Hany; Habuštová, Oxana; Sehnal, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2005), s. 1186-1192 ISSN 1526-498X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/02/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * Spodoptera littoralis * Bt applications Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.175, year: 2005

  4. Image-based automatic recognition of larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ru; Yu, Guiying; Fan, Weijun; Guo, Tiantai

    2010-08-01

    As the main objects, imagoes have been researched in quarantine pest recognition in these days. However, pests in their larval stage are latent, and the larvae spread abroad much easily with the circulation of agricultural and forest products. It is presented in this paper that, as the new research objects, larvae are recognized by means of machine vision, image processing and pattern recognition. More visional information is reserved and the recognition rate is improved as color image segmentation is applied to images of larvae. Along with the characteristics of affine invariance, perspective invariance and brightness invariance, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted for the feature extraction. The neural network algorithm is utilized for pattern recognition, and the automatic identification of larvae images is successfully achieved with satisfactory results.

  5. Activity of R(+ limonene against Anisakis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giarratana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of R(+ limonene of against Anisakidae larvae. Its effectiveness was tested in vitro. The results obtained showing a significant activity of the compound against Anisakis larvae, suggesting further investigation on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. In this regard, the use of R(+ limonene in seafood products could be interesting, also due the sensory attributes resulting from its use and its relatively safe status.

  6. Activity of R(+) Limonene Against Anisakis Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolino, Daniele; Panebianco, Felice; Patania, Andrea; Benianti, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of R(+) limonene of against Anisakidae larvae. Its effectiveness was tested in vitro. The results obtained showed a significant activity of the compound against Anisakis larvae, suggesting further investigation on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. In this regard, the use of R(+) limonene in seafood products could be interesting, also due the sensory attributes resulting from its use and its relatively safe status. PMID:27800423

  7. Activity of R(+) limonene against Anisakis larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Filippo Giarratana; Daniele Muscolino; Felice Panebianco; Andrea Patania; Chiara Benianti; Graziella Ziino; Alessandro Giuffrida

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of R(+) limonene of against Anisakidae larvae. Its effectiveness was tested in vitro. The results obtained showing a significant activity of the compound against Anisakis larvae, suggesting further investigation on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. In this regard, the use of R(+) limonene in seafood products could be interesting, also due the sensory attributes resulting from its use and its relatively safe status.

  8. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel chemistries in botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to, or development of synthetic insecticides suitable for controlling the Lepidopteran pests, like Spodoptera litura (F.). Many botanical chemistries are biodegradable, and have lower mammalian toxicity. Eight natural chemical comp...

  9. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J A Vermeij

    Full Text Available Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency.

  10. Ação transovariana de lufenuron (50 g/l sobre adultos de Spodoptera Frugiperda (j. e. smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e seu efeito sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Transovarian action of lufenuron on adults of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and its effect on the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a ação transovariana do lufenuron em Spodoptera frugiperda e sua seletividade ao parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum. Casais da praga foram isolados em gaiolas de PVC e alimentados com solução de mel a 10% na testemunha, e nos outros tratamentos, foi adicionado à solução de mel o regulador de crescimento de insetos Match® CE nas proporções de 12,5; 15,0 e 17,5 g i.a/l. Para verificação da ação transovariana, diariamente foram coletadas as posturas, contado o número de ovos e, posteriormente, o número de larvas eclodidas. Quarenta ovos provenientes de cada tratamento foram colados em cartelas de papel (cartolina e expostos ao parasitismo, dentro de tubos de vidro de 1,0 x 3,5 cm, contendo uma fêmea de T. pretiosum no seu interior. Cartelas contendo 40 ovos de S. frugiperda foram imersas em soluções de lufenuron com a mesma concentração dos tratamentos anteriores e, posteriormente, expostas ao parasitismo por T. pretiosum. O lufenuron afetou consideravelmente a viabilidade dos ovos de S. frugiperda. Pelos resultados obtidos nos ensaios, relativos ao parasitóide, demonstram-se a seletividade do regulador de crescimento lufenuron e a possibilidade de sua utilização em programas de Manejo Integrado, juntamente com o parasitóide de ovos T. pretiosum.The transovarian action of insect growth regulator lufenuron in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and its effects on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, were evaluated. Pest couples were isolated in PVC's cages and provided with 10% honey solution as control. In the others treatments, the honey solution was mixed with the insect growth regulator Match® CE using the following concentrations of 12.5; 15.0 and 17.5 g i.a./l. For verification of the transovarian action, the eggs were collected daily, with the number of the hatched larvae being subsequently counted. Forty eggs from each treatment were fixed in

  11. Predatory activity of Rhantus sikkimensis and larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens on mosquito larvae in Darjeeling, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Gautam; Ash, Anirban; Saha, Goutam K

    2006-06-01

    Predation potential of the dytiscid beetle, Rhantus sikkimensis Regimbart 1899 and the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann 1819 occurring along with the larval stages of the mosquitoes in the annual lentic water bodies of Darjeeling was evaluated using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 as preys, in the laboratory under simulated natural conditions. Field collected R. sikkimensis and larvae of Tx. splendens were offered IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus to observe the rate of predation, at varying prey and predator densities. Based on the data obtained on the predation for a period of three consecutive days, two indices of predation, predatory impact (PI) and clearance rate (CR) values were estimated, and compared between the predator species. The rate of predation of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by R. sikkimensis ranged between 21.56 and 86.89 larvae per day, depending on the prey and predator densities. The PI value remained between 18.67 and 35.33 larvae/day depending on prey densities, while the CR ranged between 2.21 and 2.23 larvae litres/day/predator. Compared to these, the Tx. splendens larvae consumed the prey larvae at the rate of 0.67 to 34.22 larvae per day, depending on the prey and predator densities. The PI value ranged between 7.67 and 11.33 larvae/day, and the CR value ranged between 1.41 and 1.76 larvae litres/day/predator. The rate of predation, CR values and PI values of R. sikkimensis and Tx. splendens varied significantly. Both the predators R. sikkimensis and larvae of Tx. splendens can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, though the rate of consumption between the two predators vary owing to the difference in the life history traits and features. It can be assumed that these predators play an important role in larval population regulation of mosquitoes and thereby impart an effect on species composition and interactions in the aquatic insect communities of Darjeeling Hills, India.

  12. Identification of β-chain of FoF1-ATPase in apoptotic cell population induced by Microplitis bicoloratus bracovirus and its role in the development of Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Tian-Chao; Liu, Yue-Tong; Li, Ming; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Ji-Hui; Zhang, Xue-Wen; Dong, Shu-Mei; Xu, Sha; You, Shan; Yu, Dong-Shuai; Pang, Zun-Yu; Luo, Kai-Jun

    2017-06-01

    Two physiological changes of Spodoptera litura parasitized by Microplitis bicoloratus are hemocyte-apoptosis and retarded immature development. β-Chain of F o F 1 -ATPase was found from a S. litura transcriptome. It belongs to a conserved P-loop NTPase superfamily, descending from a common ancestor of Lepidopteran clade. However, the characterization of β-chain of ATPase in apoptotic cells and its involvement in development remain unknown. Here, the ectopic expression and endogenous F o F 1 -ATPase β-chain occurred on S. litura cell membrane: in vivo, at the late stage of apoptotic hemocyte, endogenous F o F 1 -ATPase β-chain was stably expressed during M. bicoloratus larva development from 4 to 7 days post-parasitization; in vitro, at an early stage of pre-apoptotic Spli221 cells by infecting with M. bicoloratus bracovirus particles, the proteins were speedily recover expression. Furthermore, endogenous F o F 1 -ATPase β-chain was localized on the apoptotic cell membrane. RNA interference (RNAi) of F o F 1 -ATPase β-chain led to significantly decreased head capsule width. This suggested that F o F 1 -ATPase β-chain positively regulated the development of S. litura. The RNAi effect on the head capsule width was enhanced with parasitism. Our research found that F o F 1 -ATPase β-chain was expressed and localized on the cell membrane in the apoptotic cells, and involved in the development of S. litura. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The sf32 unique gene of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV is a non-essential gene that could be involved in nucleocapsid organization in occlusion-derived virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Beperet

    Full Text Available A recombinant virus lacking the sf32 gene (Sf32null, unique to the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV, was generated by homologous recombination from a bacmid comprising the complete viral genome (Sfbac. Transcriptional analysis revealed that sf32 is an early gene. Occlusion bodies (OBs of Sf32null contained 62% more genomic DNA than viruses containing the sf32 gene, Sfbac and Sf32null-repair, although Sf32null DNA was three-fold less infective when injected in vivo. Sf32null OBs were 18% larger in diameter and contained 17% more nucleocapsids within ODVs than those of Sfbac. No significant differences were detected in OB pathogenicity (50% lethal concentration, speed-of-kill or budded virus production in vivo. In contrast, the production of OBs/larva was reduced by 39% in insects infected by Sf32null compared to those infected by Sfbac. The SF32 predicted protein sequence showed homology (25% identity, 44% similarity to two adhesion proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes and a single N-mirystoylation site was predicted. We conclude that SF32 is a non-essential protein that could be involved in nucleocapsid organization during ODV assembly and occlusion, resulting in increased numbers of nucleocapsids within ODVs.

  14. Desenvolvimento de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith em genótipos de milho tratados com extrato acetato de etila de Trichilia pallida (Swartz Development of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith on corn genotypes treated with ethyl acetade extract from Trichilia pallida (Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Railda Roel

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do extrato acetato de etila obtido de folhas e ramos de Trichillia pallida, (a 0,001%, sobre o desenvolvimento de Spodoptera frugiperda alimentada com folhas de quatro genótipos de milho, um suscetível, 'Piranão', e três resistentes, 'CMS 14C', 'Zapalote Chico', 'ESALQ-PB-4', à referida praga. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram peso, duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal. Verificou-se que o extrato provocou alongamento da fase larval e redução dos pesos larval e pupal e que os genótipos resistentes não confirmaram esse comportamento pois quando comparados ao genótipo suscetível, apenas reduziram o peso pupal. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores genótipo e extrato.The effect of the ethyl acetate extract of leaves and branches of Trichilia pallida was evaluated (at 0.001% on larvae of S. frugiperda, fed on leaves of the corn genotypes 'Zapalote Chico', 'CMS 14C' and 'ESALQ-PB-4', considered resistant to this pest, and the susceptible genotype 'Piranão'. The parameters evaluated were length, weight and viability of larval and pupal stages. The extract increased the length of the larval stage, and larval and pupal weight, while resistant genotypes only reduced the pupal weight, did however not confirm the resistant behaviour. There was no interaction between genotype and extract.

  15. Efecto de extractos vegetales de Polygonum hydropiperoides, Solanum nigrum y Calliandra pittieri sobre el gusano cogollero (Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizarazo H. Karol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El gusano cogollero Spodoptera frugiperda es una de las plagas que más afectan los cultivos en la región de Sumapaz (Cundinamarca, Colombia. En la actualidad se controla principalmente aplicando productos de síntesis química, sin embargo la aplicación de extractos vegetales surge como una alternativa de menor impacto sobre el ambiente. Este control se emplea debido a que las plantas contienen metabolitos secundarios que pueden inhibir el desarrollo de los insectos. Por tal motivo, la presente investigación evaluó el efecto insecticida y antialimentario de extractos vegetales de barbasco Polygonum hydropiperoides (Polygonaceae, carbonero Calliandra pittieri (Mimosaceae y hierba mora Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae sobre larvas de S. frugiperda biotipo maíz. Se estableció una cría masiva del insecto en el laboratorio utilizando una dieta natural con hojas de maíz. Posteriormente se obtuvieron extractos vegetales utilizando solventes de alta polaridad (agua y etanol y media polaridad (diclorometano los cuales se aplicaron sobre las larvas de segundo instar. Los resultados más destacados se presentaron con extractos de P. hydropiperoides, obtenidos con diclorometano en sus diferentes dosis, con los cuales se alcanzó una mortalidad de 100% 12 días después de la aplicación y un efecto antialimentario representado por un consumo de follaje de maíz inferior al 4%, efectos similares a los del testigo comercial (Clorpiriphos.

  16. Development of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers based on actin sequences and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF): a case study in the Phoma exigua species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveskamp, Maikel M; Woudenberg, Joyce H C; de Gruyter, Johannes; Turco, Elena; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    2009-05-01

    Phoma exigua is considered to be an assemblage of at least nine varieties that are mainly distinguished on the basis of host specificity and pathogenicity. However, these varieties are also reported to be weak pathogens and secondary invaders on non-host tissue. In practice, it is difficult to distinguish P. exigua from its close relatives and to correctly identify isolates up to the variety level, because of their low genetic variation and high morphological similarity. Because of quarantine issues and phytosanitary measures, a robust DNA-based tool is required for accurate and rapid identification of the separate taxa in this species complex. The present study therefore aims to develop such a tool based on unique nucleotide sequence identifiers. More than 60 strains of P. exigua and related species were compared in terms of partial actin gene sequences, or analysed using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) with short, arbitrary, mini-hairpin primers. Fragments in the fingerprint unique to a single taxon were identified, purified and sequenced. Alignment of the sequence data and subsequent primer trials led to the identification of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs), and to a set of specific oligonucleotide combinations that can be used to identify these organisms in plant quarantine inspections.

  17. Activity of chalcones derived from 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde against Meloidogyne exigua and in silico interaction of one chalcone with a putative caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase from Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Alexandro Silva; Campos, Vicente Paulo; Mascarello, Alessandra; Stumpf, Taisa Regina; Chiaradia-Delatorre, Louise Domenghini; Machado, Alan Rodrigues Teixeira; Santos Júnior, Helvécio Martins; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Nunes, Ricardo José; Oliveira, Denilson Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Meloidogyne exigua is a parasitic nematode of plants that causes great losses to coffee farmers. In an effort to develop parasitic controls, 154 chalcones were synthesized and screened for activity against this nematode. The best results were obtained with (2E)-1-(4'-nitrophenyl)-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (6) with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 171 μg/ml against M. exigua second-stage juveniles, in comparison to the commercially-available nematicide carbofuran which had an LC50 of 260 μg/ml under the same conditions. When coffee plants were used, 6 reduced the nematode population to ~50% of that observed in control plants. To investigate the mechanism of action of 6, an in silico study was carried out, which indicated that 6 may act against M. exigua through inhibition of a putative caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase homodimer, the amino acid sequence of which was determined by examining the genome of Meloidogyne incognita. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel baculovirus-derived promoter with high activity in the baculovirus expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Solís, María; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Escribano, José M; Jakubowska, Agata K; Herrero, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) has been widely used to produce a large number of recombinant proteins, and is becoming one of the most powerful, robust, and cost-effective systems for the production of eukaryotic proteins. Nevertheless, as in any other protein expression system, it is important to improve the production capabilities of this vector. The orf46 viral gene was identified among the most highly abundant sequences in the transcriptome of Spodoptera exigua larvae infected with its native baculovirus, the S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). Different sequences upstream of the orf46 gene were cloned, and their promoter activities were tested by the expression of the GFP reporter gene using the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) vector system in different insect cell lines (Sf21, Se301, and Hi5) and in larvae from S. exigua and Trichoplusia ni. The strongest promoter activity was defined by a 120 nt sequence upstream of the ATG start codon for the orf46 gene. On average, GFP expression under this new promoter was more than two fold higher than the expression obtained with the standard polyhedrin (polh) promoter. Additionally, the orf46 promoter was also tested in combination with the polh promoter, revealing an additive effect over the polh promoter activity. In conclusion, this new characterized promoter represents an excellent alternative to the most commonly used baculovirus promoters for the efficient expression of recombinant proteins using the BEVS.

  19. A novel baculovirus-derived promoter with high activity in the baculovirus expression system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez-Solís

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS has been widely used to produce a large number of recombinant proteins, and is becoming one of the most powerful, robust, and cost-effective systems for the production of eukaryotic proteins. Nevertheless, as in any other protein expression system, it is important to improve the production capabilities of this vector. The orf46 viral gene was identified among the most highly abundant sequences in the transcriptome of Spodoptera exigua larvae infected with its native baculovirus, the S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV. Different sequences upstream of the orf46 gene were cloned, and their promoter activities were tested by the expression of the GFP reporter gene using the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV vector system in different insect cell lines (Sf21, Se301, and Hi5 and in larvae from S. exigua and Trichoplusia ni. The strongest promoter activity was defined by a 120 nt sequence upstream of the ATG start codon for the orf46 gene. On average, GFP expression under this new promoter was more than two fold higher than the expression obtained with the standard polyhedrin (polh promoter. Additionally, the orf46 promoter was also tested in combination with the polh promoter, revealing an additive effect over the polh promoter activity. In conclusion, this new characterized promoter represents an excellent alternative to the most commonly used baculovirus promoters for the efficient expression of recombinant proteins using the BEVS.

  20. Insectos Asociados al Amaranto Amaranthus hypocondriacus L. (AMARANTHACEAE en Irapuato, Guanajuato, México Insectos Asociados al Amaranto Amaranthus hypocondriacus L. (AMARANTHACEAE en Irapuato, Guanajuato, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Darío Salas-Araiza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó con el fin de conocer la entomofauna asociada al amaranto en la región de Irapuato. Los muestreos se realizaron en la etapa fenológica de floración. Los estados inmaduros se mantuvieron en cámara de cría para obtener los adultos. Se determinaron 43 especies de insectos. No está clara la relación de varias de las especies recolectadas con la planta del amaranto; otras sin embargo, ocasionan severos daños a la planta como Diabrótica virgifera zeae cuyas larvas se recolectaron alimentándose de las raíces, las larvas del picudo Stictobaris ornatella barrenan el tallo de la planta. Alimentándosede la inflorescencia destacan varias larvas de lepidópteros: Ephyriades brunnea, Pholisora mexicana, Spodoptera exigua, Helvibotys helvialis, y Spolodea recurvalis. Este es el primer trabajo que se realiza sobre la entomofauna asociada al amaranto en el centro de México, y contribuirá a sentar las bases para realizar un manejo adecuado de los insectosfitófagos de este cultivo.The study was developed in order to know the insects associated to amaranth in Irapuato, Gto, Mexico. Samples were taken in the flowering stage. Larvae were reared under laboratory conditions to obtain the adult stage. Forty-three species of insects were identified. The relationships with the plant is not clear in several species; but others, were found to make severe damage to the plant, such as Diabrotica virgifera zeae larvae feeding on roots, Stictobaris ornatella larvaeas stem borer; there were also several insect larvae eating the flowers: Ephyriades brunnea, Pholisora mexicana, Spodoptera exigua, Helvibotys helvialis, and Spolodea recurvalis. This is the first study about insects associated to amaranth in the central Mexican plateau; this study will contribute to the effective integrated management pest on amaranth.

  1. Purification of DNA for the transfection of a Spodoptera frugiperda cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Jeffrey M; Lawrence, Susan D

    2002-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) cells have been widely used in baculovirus expression systems, transient gene expression studies and transgenic cell lines. These applications commonly require the transfection of bacterial plasmid DNA. One of the most reliable methods of preparing transfection-quality plasmid DNA is cesium chloride (CsCl) density gradient centrifugation. However, the traditional CsCl DNA purification is a long and laborious process. We have made a series of modifications to the traditional method that makes it faster, safer and easier. In the current study we demonstrate that DNA prepared by our modified CsCl method was also better for the transfection of Sf-9 cells than DNA prepared by the traditional CsCl method.

  2. effect of gamma radiation and heat stress on some biological aspects of Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazaa, M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    the present study dealt with the effects of exposure of full - grown pupa of the cotton leaf worm, spodoptera littoralis (Boise) to different high temperatures and/or substerilizing doss of gamma radiation on certain biological and histological aspects of the parental (P 1 ) and first filial (F 1 ) generations. it included the effect on adult longevity and malformation, mating, insemination, fecundity and egg hatchability; beside larval survival till adult emergence and sex ratio of produced adults at different mating crosses between treated and untreated or treated other sex.special attention was given to inherited sterility as well as to the mating competitiveness ability of treated males. the histological changes in testes and ovaries of produced adults were included

  3. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Dose Accumulation on the Histology of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Male Testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; El-Naggar, S.E.M.; Shibel, M.M.; El-Dossouki, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full-grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 25, 50, 75 or 100 Gy. The effects of accumulating doses applied to these pupae through three consequent filial generations and the retarded influence on their F 1 , F 2 and F 3 generations progeny were examined. The histological observations showed that the damage in the testes was correlated with increasing the dose applied to the male parents and was the highest among the adults of F 1 . Also, the damage at any acute dose was less than the damage occurred in the same accumulated dose. The deteriorations on the testes were more evident in case of F 1 males resulting from parental males irradiated through two or three successive generations or three accumulated doses of 25 or 50 Gy

  4. Identification and functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the common cutworm (Spodoptera litura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Yan, Shuwei; Liu, Yang; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths can finely discriminate the sex pheromone emitted by conspecific females from similar compounds. Pheromone receptors, expressed on the dendritic membrane of sensory neurons housed in the long trichoid sensilla of antennae, are thought to be associated with the pheromone reception. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized 4 pheromone receptors from the antennae of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A tissue distribution analysis showed that the expression of the 4 SlituPRs was restricted to antennae. In addition, SlituOR6 and SlituOR13 were specifically expressed in male antennae whereas SlituOR11 and SlituOR16 were male-biased. Functional investigation by heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed that SlituOR6 was specifically tuned to the second major pheromone component, Z9,E12-14:OAc, SlituOR13 was equally tuned to Z9,E12-14:OAc and Z9-14:OAc, with a small response to the major pheromone component Z9,E11-14:OAc, SlituOR16 significantly responded to the behavioral antagonist Z9-14:OH, whereas SlituOR11 did not show response to any of the pheromone compounds tested in this study. Our results provide molecular data to better understand the mechanisms of sex pheromone detection in the moth S. litura and bring clues to investigate the evolution of the sexual communication channel in closely related species through comparison with previously reported pheromone receptors in other Spodoptera species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Kinetic analysis of in vitro production of wild-type Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Farias de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the kinetic behavior of Sf9 and Sf21 cells used in the production of a baculovirus biopesticide to control the pest of corn Spodoptera frugiperda was analyzed. Kinetic variables such as maximum specific growth rate, cell productivity, mean rate of infection, as well as the mean rate of occlusion body production were determined during the infection of these cell-lines with the extracellular virus of the S. frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV. The Sf9 cell-line resulted in better viral production results (5.0 x 10(8 OB/mL than the Sf21 cell-line (2.5 x 10(8 OB/mL.Neste trabalho, analisou-se o comportamento cinético das células Sf9 e Sf21 utilizadas na produção de biopesticida para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda. Variáveis cinéticas, como velocidade específica máxima de crescimento, produtividade em células, velocidade média de infecção e a velocidade média de produção de OB foram determinadas durante a infecção destas linhagens com o vírus extracelular do nucleopoliedrovirus de S. frugiperda. A linhagem Sf9 resultou em melhores resultados de produção do baculovírus (5 x 10(8 OB/mL, quando comparada à linhagem Sf21 (2,5 x 10(8 OB/mL e outras linhagens da literatura.

  6. Complexity and variability of gut commensal microbiota in polyphagous lepidopteran larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshu Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gut of most insects harbours nonpathogenic microorganisms. Recent work suggests that gut microbiota not only provide nutrients, but also involve in the development and maintenance of the host immune system. However, the complexity, dynamics and types of interactions between the insect hosts and their gut microbiota are far from being well understood. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the composition of the gut microbiota of two lepidopteran pests, Spodoptera littoralis and Helicoverpa armigera, we applied cultivation-independent techniques based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and microarray. The two insect species were very similar regarding high abundant bacterial families. Different bacteria colonize different niches within the gut. A core community, consisting of Enterococci, Lactobacilli, Clostridia, etc. was revealed in the insect larvae. These bacteria are constantly present in the digestion tract at relatively high frequency despite that developmental stage and diet had a great impact on shaping the bacterial communities. Some low-abundant species might become dominant upon loading external disturbances; the core community, however, did not change significantly. Clearly the insect gut selects for particular bacterial phylotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their importance as agricultural pests, phytophagous Lepidopterans are widely used as experimental models in ecological and physiological studies. Our results demonstrated that a core microbial community exists in the insect gut, which may contribute to the host physiology. Host physiology and food, nevertheless, significantly influence some fringe bacterial species in the gut. The gut microbiota might also serve as a reservoir of microorganisms for ever-changing environments. Understanding these interactions might pave the way for developing novel pest control strategies.

  7. Resistance to dual-gene Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda: selection, inheritance, and cross-resistance to other transgenic events

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F.; Rodrigues, Jo?o V. C.; Souza, Thadeu C.; Tavares, Cl?bson S.; Campos, Silverio O.; Guedes, Raul N.C.; Pereira, Eliseu J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic crop ?pyramids? producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins active against the same pest are used to delay evolution of resistance in insect pest populations. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were performed with fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to characterize resistance to Bt maize producing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab and test some assumptions of the ?pyramid? resistance management strategy. Selection of a field-derived strain of S. frugiperda already resistant to...

  8. Enzymatic activity of α-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Characterization and Compartmentalization

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Darvishzadeh; Vahid Hosseininaveh; Siavash Salimian Rizi

    2014-01-01

    The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to...

  9. PEMELIHARAAN LARVA KEPITING BAKAU, Scylla olivacea DENGAN PENAMBAHAN BIOFLOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunarto Gunarto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak lengkap dapat dilihat pada Full PDF   Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek penambahan bioflok pada pemeliharaan larva kepiting bakau Scylla olivacea terutaman pada sintasan dan perkembangan larva hingga mencapai stadia krablet.

  10. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition....... To lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...... caught larvae had RNA/DNA ratios between the mean values found for starving and fed laboratory larvae. Only larvae aged 8-11 days had higher mean RNA/DNA ratios above 45 m than below (t-test, P...

  11. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HB to HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  12. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CP to DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names OM to OX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  14. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  15. Decapod larvae from the nearshore waters of Karwar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Paulinose, V.T.

    Abundance of decapod larvae at three stations in Binge Bay, Karwar has been reported based on surface collections taken during the period October 1975 to September 1976. The larvae were very common in the Bay and the postmonsoon months sustained...

  16. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names DH to EC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  17. Spodoptera frugiperda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... toxic activity against other insects (Mendonça et al.,. 2005). Although, the mechanism of action of this .... protocol described by Alves (2004) was used to prepare all samples. Initially, eggs were fixed with the ..... Pilocarpus spicatus essential oil on nymphs of the fifth instar of Rhodnius prolixus. The authors ...

  18. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  19. Low salinity tolerance 0/ eggs and larvae.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the larvae permitting C. krauss; to spread into areas where it is unable to breed successfully. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The author acknowledges the financial assistance of the Department of Nature Conserva- tion of the Cape Province of South Africa, and the South African National Committee for. Oceanographic Research ...

  20. Evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Alba, Marta; Kabra, Mayank; Branson, Kristin; Mirth, Christen

    2015-03-01

    Drosophilids, like other insects, go through a larval phase before metamorphosing into adults. Larvae increase their body weight by several orders of magnitude in a few days. We therefore hypothesized that foraging behavior is under strong evolutionary pressure to best fit the larval environment. To test our hypothesis we used a multidisciplinary approach to analyze foraging behavior across species and larval stages. First, we recorded several videos of larvae foraging for each of 47 Drosophilid species. Then, using a supervised machine learning approach, we automatically annotated the video collection for the foraging sub-behaviors, including crawling, turning, head casting or burrowing. We also computed over 100 features to describe the posture and dynamics of each animal in each video frame. From these data, we fit models to the behavior of each species. The models each had the same parametric form, but differed in the exact parameters. By simulating larva behavior in virtual arenas we can infer which properties of the environments are better for each species. Comparisons between these inferred environments and the actual environments where these animals live will give us a deeper understanding about the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae.

  1. ISOLASI BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DARI LARVA DAN PENGUJIAN PATOGENISITASNYA TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK VEKTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondine Ch. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate pathogenic organisms as cause of mosquito larvae death was conducted at Wonokerto and Pabelan villages, Salatiga Luar Kota subdistrict, Semarang regency in Central Java from May 1991 through December 1991. Bacterial isolation from dead larvae showed that 31 B. thuringicnsis isolates were obtained from 31 larvae samples collected from 2 location e.g Wonokerto village (3 samples, Pabelan village (28 samples. Nineteen isolates (61,3% showed a pathogenicity of more than 50% to third toward instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively 24 hours after exposure. This study shows the possible use of B. thuringiensis for biologic control of mosquitoes which can act as vectors for human diseases.

  2. Lagrangian Observations and Modeling of Marine Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Claire B.; Irisson, Jean-Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Just within the past two decades, studies on the early-life history stages of marine organisms have led to new paradigms in population dynamics. Unlike passive plant seeds that are transported by the wind or by animals, marine larvae have motor and sensory capabilities. As a result, marine larvae have a tremendous capacity to actively influence their dispersal. This is continuously revealed as we develop new techniques to observe larvae in their natural environment and begin to understand their ability to detect cues throughout ontogeny, process the information, and use it to ride ocean currents and navigate their way back home, or to a place like home. We present innovative in situ and numerical modeling approaches developed to understand the underlying mechanisms of larval transport in the ocean. We describe a novel concept of a Lagrangian platform, the Drifting In Situ Chamber (DISC), designed to observe and quantify complex larval behaviors and their interactions with the pelagic environment. We give a brief history of larval ecology research with the DISC, showing that swimming is directional in most species, guided by cues as diverse as the position of the sun or the underwater soundscape, and even that (unlike humans!) larvae orient better and swim faster when moving as a group. The observed Lagrangian behavior of individual larvae are directly implemented in the Connectivity Modeling System (CMS), an open source Lagrangian tracking application. Simulations help demonstrate the impact that larval behavior has compared to passive Lagrangian trajectories. These methodologies are already the base of exciting findings and are promising tools for documenting and simulating the behavior of other small pelagic organisms, forecasting their migration in a changing ocean.

  3. Feeding frequency and caste differentiation in Bombus terrestris larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.F.; Velthuis, H.H.W.; Duchateau, Marie José; Tweel, I. van der

    1998-01-01

    The frequency with which bumble bee larvae are fed during their development was studied using video-recordings. The behaviour of the workers while feeding worker, male and queen larvae of Bombus terrestris was recorded. At the beginning of development, female larvae of both castes were fed at a

  4. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    with electric shock in normal and mutant larvae and Tully et al. reported the passage of olfactory ... Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of ..... Pairing odour with shock drives the larvae to the opposite zone. Preference learning index PLI.

  5. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Identification of a New cry1I-Type Gene as a Candidate for Gene Pyramiding in Corn To Control Ostrinia Species Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Can; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Abdelgaffar, Heba M; Pan, Hongyu; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Pyramiding of diverse cry toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis with different modes of action is a desirable strategy to delay the evolution of resistance in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Considering the dependency of susceptibility to Cry toxins on toxin binding to receptors in the midgut of target pests, a diverse mode of action is commonly defined as recognition of unique binding sites in the target insect. In this study, we present a novel cry1Ie toxin gene (cry1Ie2) as a candidate for pyramiding with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in corn to control Ostrinia species larvae. The new toxin gene encodes an 81-kDa protein that is processed to a protease-resistant core form of approximately 55 kDa by trypsin digestion. The purified protoxin displayed high toxicity to Ostrinia furnacalis and O. nubilalis larvae but low to no activity against Spodoptera or heliothine species or the coleopteran Tenebrio molitor. Results of binding assays with (125)I-labeled Cry1Ab toxin and brush border membrane vesicles from O. nubilalis larvae demonstrated that Cry1Ie2 does not recognize the Cry1Ab binding sites in that insect. Reciprocal competition binding assays with biotin-labeled Cry1Ie2 confirmed the lack of shared sites with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in O. nubilalis brush border membrane vesicles. These data support Cry1Ie2 as a good candidate for pyramiding with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in corn to increase the control of O. nubilalis and reduce the risk of resistance evolution. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  8. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on liquid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol describes the analysis of larvae feeding on liquid food. The test is designed for quantitative assessment of the food ingestion rate of individual larvae under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as food deprivation is prolonged. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  9. The active evolutionary lives of echinoderm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, R A; Byrne, M

    2006-09-01

    Echinoderms represent a researchable subset of a dynamic larval evolutionary cosmos. Evolution of echinoderm larvae has taken place over widely varying time scales from the origins of larvae of living classes in the early Palaeozoic, approximately 500 million years ago, to recent, rapid and large-scale changes that have occurred within living genera within a span of less than a million years to a few million years. It is these recent evolutionary events that offer a window into processes of larval evolution operating at a micro-evolutionary level of evolution of discrete developmental mechanisms. We review the evolution of the diverse larval forms of living echinoderms to outline the origins of echinoderm larval forms, their diversity among living echinoderms, molecular clocks and rates of larval evolution, and finally current studies on the roles of developmental regulatory mechanisms in the rapid and radical evolutionary changes observed between closely related congeneric species.

  10. Sporulation and Germination of Paenibacillus larvae Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Osama S; Fisher, Nathan A

    2018-02-22

    Endospores are metabolically dormant cells formed by a variety of Gram-positive bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes in response to nutrient limiting or otherwise unfavorable growth conditions. American foulbrood disease (AFB) is a serious disease of honeybees that is caused by the introduction of Paenibacillus larvae endospores into a honeybee colony. Progression to fulminant disease and eventual collapse of the colony requires multiple rounds of endospore germination, vegetative replication, endospore formation, and subsequent spread within the colony. This unit includes protocols for the in vitro sporulation and germination of P. larvae to assist investigators in the study of these processes. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Amino Acid Content of the Gamma Irradiated Cotton Leaf-Worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobeiha, A.K.; Sallam, H.A.; El-Shall, S.S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on amino acid content of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis was studied.The identified amino acids in the total body tissue of male moths were Theronine, Serine, Glutamic, Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Cystine, Methionine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Tyrosine, Phenylalanine, Lysine, Histidine and Arginine. The irradiation of full grown male pupae with doses 100,200 and 300 Gy decreased the total quantity of amino acids and the amount of most individual amino acids in male moths of P 1 or F 1 generations with some exceptions for Threonine, Alanine, Glycine, Serine, Valine, Cystine and Methionine which were increased.The effect of irradiation on amino acid content of the reproductive system tissues for each male or female were also studied.The results indicated that irradiation decreased the total quantity of amino acid content of both sexes by increasing the dose and males were more radiosensitive than females. Also, irradiation decreased the amount of individual amino acids in both sexes with certain exceptions, e.g. Alanine, Methionine and Tyrosine which increased in the reproductive system of male, and Methionine which increased by more than four times as control.The amino acid content was determined as well in F 1 egg progeny, which was produced from irradiated males Irradiation doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy) decreased the total quantity of amino acids, and all individual ones except Cystine.The greatest reduction (54.9% was observed with Lysine at 300 Gy as compared to control

  12. Differential contribution of transcription factors to Arabidopsis thaliana defence against Spodoptera littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eSchweizer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to insect herbivory, Arabidopsis plants activate the synthesis of the phytohormone jasmonate-isoleucine (JA-Ile, which binds to a complex consisting of the receptor COI1 and JAZ repressors. Upon proteasome-mediated JAZ degradation, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TFs MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 become activated and this results in the expression of defence genes. Although the jasmonate (JA pathway is known to be essential for the massive transcriptional reprogramming that follows herbivory, there is however little information on other TFs that are required for defence against herbivores and whether they contribute significantly to JA-dependent defence gene expression. By transcriptome profiling, we identified 41 TFs that were induced in response to herbivory by the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Among them, nine genes, including WRKY18, WRKY40, ANAC019, ANAC055, ZAT10, ZAT12, AZF2, ERF13, and RRTF1, were found to play a significant role in resistance to S. littoralis herbivory. However, compared to the triple mutant myc234 that is as sensitive as coi1-1 to herbivory, knockout lines of these nine TFs were only partially more sensitive to S. littoralis and showed only minor gene expression changes at the whole genome level. Data thus reveal that MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 are master regulators of Arabidopsis resistance to a generalist herbivore and identify new genes involved in insect defence.

  13. Differential Contribution of Transcription Factors to Arabidopsis thaliana Defense Against Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Fabian; Bodenhausen, Natacha; Lassueur, Steve; Masclaux, Frédéric G; Reymond, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In response to insect herbivory, Arabidopsis plants activate the synthesis of the phytohormone jasmonate-isoleucine, which binds to a complex consisting of the receptor COI1 and JAZ repressors. Upon proteasome-mediated JAZ degradation, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TFs) MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 become activated and this results in the expression of defense genes. Although the jasmonate (JA) pathway is known to be essential for the massive transcriptional reprogramming that follows herbivory, there is however little information on other TFs that are required for defense against herbivores and whether they contribute significantly to JA-dependent defense gene expression. By transcriptome profiling, we identified 41 TFs that were induced in response to herbivory by the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Among them, nine genes, including WRKY18, WRKY40, ANAC019, ANAC055, ZAT10, ZAT12, AZF2, ERF13, and RRTF1, were found to play a significant role in resistance to S. littoralis herbivory. Compared to the triple mutant myc234 that is as sensitive as coi1-1 to herbivory, knockout lines of these nine TFs were only partially more sensitive to S. littoralis but, however, some displayed distinct gene expression changes at the whole-genome level. Data thus reveal that MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 are master regulators of Arabidopsis resistance to a generalist herbivore and identify new genes involved in insect defense.

  14. QTL mapping of antixenosis resistance to common cutworm (Spodoptera litura Fabricius) in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Nobuhiko; Kaga, Akito; Shimizu, Takehiko; Takahashi, Masakazu; Kono, Yuhi; Takahashi, Motoki

    2017-01-01

    The common cutworm (CCW; Spodoptera litura Fabricius) is a serious herbivorous insect pest of soybean (Glycine max) in Asia and Oceania. Previously, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for CCW-antibiosis-resistance, CCW-1 and CCW-2, and antixenosis-resistance, qRslx1 and qRslx2, in the cultivar 'Himeshirazu'. The effects of these QTLs are useful in the breeding of CCW-resistant cultivars. In this study, we conducted an antixenosis bioassay on CCW using recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between a wild soybean (Glycine soja) and the leading cultivar 'Fukuyutaka' to identify CCW-resistance genes in G. soja. The QTL analysis revealed six and four novel antixenosis-resistance QTLs in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Among them, the QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 7, designated qRslx4 and qRslx3, respectively, were stably detected in both years. qRslx3 exhibited the largest effect in both years, suggesting that qRslx3 can be exploited in the breeding of CCW-resistant soybean. Furthermore, qRslx3 and qRslx4 can be used, along with previously reported QTLs from 'Himeshirazu', to enhance the CCW-resistance of soybean cultivars because their chromosomal positions are unique. These new CCW-resistance QTLs from G. soja should play important roles in the breeding of CCW-resistant soybean cultivars.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on scent gland development and pheromone production in Spodoptera Littoralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazaa, M.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd) is one of the important pests of cotton and many other crops in egypt. Several methods have been tried for its control. Among these, the sterile insect technique and the application of sex attractant pheromones appeared to be promissing in an integrated programme for the control of this and other serious insect pests. The high doses of gamma radiation required in such technique may affect some physiological and biological aspects of the insect as well; specially its reproductive potential. This effect may disturb the intraspecific communication between males and females by adversely affecting pheromone glands and hence pheromone production (Stimman et al., 1972; abdu et al., 1985 and El - Degwi, 1990). Insect sex pheromones are chemical substances secreted by either sex to attract the other sex and get them together for copulation. Trials to seek some of the factors that can prevent such communication in the cotton leaf worm may be of importance in its integrated control programme. This stimulated the present study to investigate the effect of gamma radiation doses on sex pheromone gland and pheromone production in this economically important insect pest.8 tabs., 14 figs., 92 refs

  16. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted gene mutagenesis in Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hong-Lun; Xu, Jun; Tan, An-Jiang; Huang, Yong-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Custom-designed nuclease technologies such as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) system provide attractive genome editing tools for insect functional genetics. The targeted gene mutagenesis mediated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been achieved in several insect orders including Diptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. However, little success has been reported in agricultural pests due to the lack of genomic information and embryonic microinjection techniques in these insect species. Here we report that the CRISPR/Cas9 system induced efficient gene mutagenesis in an important Lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura. We targeted the S. litura Abdominal-A (Slabd-A) gene which is an important embryonic development gene and plays a significant role in determining the identities of the abdominal segments of insects. Direct injection of Cas9 messenger RNA and Slabd-A-specific single guide RNA (sgRNA) into S. litura embryos successfully induced the typical abd-A deficient phenotype, which shows anomalous segmentation and ectopic pigmentation during the larval stage. A polymerase chain reaction-based analysis revealed that the Cas9/sgRNA complex effectively induced a targeted mutagenesis in S. litura. These results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for genome manipulation in Lepidopteran pests such as S. litura. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Ocimum basilicum essential oil combined with deltamethrin to improve the management of Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Macedo Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For an important and expensive crop such as corn, the resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith to various pesticides has led to research throughout the world for a potential insecticide from a natural source. For the management of pest resistance, natural compounds associated with synthetic insecticides can be a promising tool because they can reduce the application of the synthetics molecules while maintaining their effectiveness and promoting the control of the pests. Linalool is a potential insecticide that is easily obtained because it is found in high concentrations in the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of this essential oil and its combination with deltamethrin to control S. frugiperda. Through dose response assays, the acute toxicities (LD50 of the essential oil and deltamethrin were estimated. Additionally, the combination of these materials was also assessed, attaining a reduction of 80% of the LD50 of deltamethrin while obtaining the same result as when the pyrethroid was administered alone. From these results, it is expected that the combination of natural compounds and synthetic insecticides will be a promising practice, helping to manage resistance while reducing the environmental impact of toxic compounds.

  18. Frequency of Cry1F resistance alleles in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Juliano R; Andow, David A; Horikoshi, Renato J; Bernardi, Daniel; Ribeiro, Rebeca da S; Nascimento, Antonio Rb do; Santos, Antonio C Dos; Omoto, Celso

    2016-12-01

    The frequency of resistance alleles is a major factor influencing the rate of resistance evolution. Here, we adapted the F 2 screen procedure for Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) with a discriminating concentration assay, and extended associated statistical methods to estimate the frequency of resistance to Cry1F protein in S. frugiperda in Brazil when resistance was not rare. We show that F 2 screen is efficient even when the resistance frequency is 0.250. It was possible to screen 517 isoparental lines from 12 populations sampled in five states of Brazil during the first half of 2012. Western Bahia had the highest allele frequency of Cry1F resistance, 0.192, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) between 0.163 and 0.220. All other states had a similar and lower frequency varying from 0.042 in Paraná to 0.080 in Mato Grosso do Sul. The high frequency in western Bahia may be related to year-round availability of maize, the high population density of S. frugiperda, the lack of refuges and the high adoption rate of Cry1F maize. Cry1F resistance alleles were not rare and occurred at frequencies that have already compromised the useful life of TC1507 maize in western Bahia. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Expression and evolution of delta9 and delta11 desaturase genes in the moth Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sergio; Hao, Guixia; Liu, Weitian; Piña, Benjamín; Rooney, Alejandro P; Camps, Francisco; Roelofs, Wendell L; Fabriàs, Gemma

    2004-12-01

    Desaturation of fatty acids is a key reaction in the biosynthesis of moth sex pheromones. The main component of Spodoptera littoralis sex pheromone blend is produced by the action of Delta11 and Delta9 desaturases. In this article, we report on the cloning of four desaturase-like genes in this species: one from the fat body (Sls-FL1) and three (Sls-FL2, Sls-FL3 and Sls-FL4) from the pheromone gland. By means of a computational/phylogenetic method, as well as functional assays, the desaturase gene products have been characterized. The fat body gene expressed a Delta9 desaturase that produced (Z)-9-hexadecenoic and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acids in a (1:4.5) ratio, whereas the pheromone gland Sls-FL2 expressed a Delta9 desaturase that produced (Z)-9-hexadecenoic and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acids in a (1.5:1) ratio. Although both Delta9 desaturases produced (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid from myristic acid, transformed yeast grown in the presence of a mixture of myristic and (E)-11-tetradecenoic acids produced (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid, but not (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid. The Sls-FL3 gene expressed a protein that produced a mixture of (E)-11-tetradecenoic, (Z)-11-tetradecenoic, (Z)-11-hexadecenoic and (Z)-11-octadecenoic acids in a 5:4:60:31 ratio. Despite having all the characteristics of a desaturase gene, no function could be found for Sls-FL4.

  20. Identification of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AbMod binding-proteins from Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Castro, Diana L; García-Gómez, Blanca I; Gómez, Isabel; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2017-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are currently used for pest control in transgenic crops but evolution of resistance by the insect pests threatens the use of this technology. The Cry1AbMod toxin was engineered to lack the alpha helix-1 of the parental Cry1Ab toxin and was shown to counter resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins in different insect species including the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. In addition, Cry1AbMod showed enhanced toxicity to Cry1Ab-susceptible S. frugiperda populations. To gain insights into the mechanisms of this Cry1AbMod-enhanced toxicity, we isolated the Cry1AbMod toxin binding proteins from S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), which were identified by pull-down assay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The LC-MS/MS results indicated that Cry1AbMod toxin could bind to four classes of aminopeptidase (N1, N3, N4 y N5) and actin, with the highest amino acid sequence coverage acquired for APN 1 and APN4. In addition to these proteins, we found other proteins not previously described as Cry toxin binding proteins. This is the first report that suggests the interaction between Cry1AbMod and APN in S. frugiperda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring of Resistance to New Chemistry Insecticides in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mehmood, Rashid

    2015-06-01

    The armyworm Spodoptera litura (F.) is a very serious pest of many crops, vegetables, and ornamentals. Due to persistent application of insecticides, this pest has developed resistance to conventional as well as new chemistries. The present studies investigated the level of resistance to new chemistry insecticides, having novel modes of action, in the Pakistani field populations of S. litura during 1997-2010 by using a leaf-dip bioassay. Generally, a low to moderate resistance was recorded to indoxacarb, abamectin, fipronil, and methoxyfenozide; along with a very low resistance to spinosad. Resistance to emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr, and lufenuron was none or very low, in spite of their intensive use against S. litura. The insecticides, showing no or very low resistance, can be used in rotation in conjunction with other integrated pest management tactics to manage insecticide resistance in S. litura. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Complete Sequence of the First Spodoptera frugiperda Betabaculovirus Genome: A Natural Multiple Recombinant Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola E. Cuartas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest in maize crops in Colombia, and affects several regions in America. A granulovirus isolated from S. frugiperda (SfGV VG008 has potential as an enhancer of insecticidal activity of previously described nucleopolyhedrovirus from the same insect species (SfMNPV. The SfGV VG008 genome was sequenced and analyzed showing circular double stranded DNA of 140,913 bp encoding 146 putative ORFs that include 37 Baculoviridae core genes, 88 shared with betabaculoviruses, two shared only with betabaculoviruses from Noctuide insects, two shared with alphabaculoviruses, three copies of own genes (paralogs and the other 14 corresponding to unique genes without representation in the other baculovirus species. Particularly, the genome encodes for important virulence factors such as 4 chitinases and 2 enhancins. The sequence analysis revealed the existence of eight homologous regions (hrs and also suggests processes of gene acquisition by horizontal transfer including the SfGV VG008 ORFs 046/047 (paralogs, 059, 089 and 099. The bioinformatics evidence indicates that the genome donors of mentioned genes could be alpha- and/or betabaculovirus species. The previous reported ability of SfGV VG008 to naturally co-infect the same host with other virus show a possible mechanism to capture genes and thus improve its fitness.

  3. Flight attraction of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae to cotton headspace and synthetic volatile blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eBorrero-Echeverry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect olfactory system discriminates odor signals of different biological relevance, which drive innate behavior. Identification of stimuli that trigger upwind flight attraction towards host plants is a current challenge, and is essential in developing new, sustainable plant protection methods, and for furthering our understanding of plant-insect interactions. Using behavioral, analytical and electrophysiological studies, we here show that both females and males of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, use blends of volatile compounds to locate their host plant, cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvales, Malvaceae. Female S. littoralis were engaged in upwind orientation flight in a wind tunnel when headspace collected from cotton plants was delivered through a piezoelectric sprayer. Although males took off towards cotton headspace significantly fewer males than females flew upwind towards the sprayed headspace. Subsequent assays with antennally active synthetic compounds revealed that a blend of nonanal, (Z-3 hexenyl acetate, (E-β-ocimene, and (R-(+-limonene was as attractive as cotton headspace to females and more attractive to males. DMNT and (R-(--linalool, both known plant defense compounds may have reduced the flight attraction of both females and males; more moths were attracted to blends without these two compounds. Our findings provide a platform for further investigations on host plant signals mediating innate behavior, and for the development of novel insect plant protection strategies against S. littoralis.

  4. Combined effect of gamma radiation and some plant extracts on spodoptera littoralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the effects of exposure of male full-grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis to sub sterilizing doses of gamma radiation (100,150 or 300 Gy), treating larval diet with different concentrations of Terminalia arjuna , Erythrine caffra, Taxodium distichum or Melaleuca cajuputi plant extracts on certain biological aspects of the parental (P 1 ),F 1 generation and combined effect of Taxodium distichum(1.25 ethanol , 2.5% water extracts) and 100 Gy of gamma radiation on also, the certain biological aspects of the parental (P 1 ) and first filial (F 1 ) generations. The biological aspects included the effect on fecundity, egg hatchability, mating ability, and malformation, beside larval survival until adult emergence and sex ratio of the produced adult at different mating crosses between treated and untreated or treated other sex. Special attention was given to inherited sterility of treated male. In addition, the studies also explained the effect of gamma radiation and different concentration of plant extracts of Taxodium disticum and combined effect of both on three tested enzymes (TOC,TAC and Cytochrom p 450 ) . In addition the effect of them on the free testosterone .Using radiation in combination with Taxodium disticum gave synergistic effect by decreasing the activity of these enzymes among F 1 adult male.This means that these treatments also interfered in the functions of these enzymes and hormone.

  5. Ultraviolet-B light induced oxidative stress: effects on antioxidant response of Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthi, Sengodan; Sankari, R; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S

    2014-06-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV-B), which emits radiation in the range of 280-315 nm, has been used worldwide in light trapping of insect pests. In this article, we test the hypothesis that one of the duration of UV-B exposure has a differential impact on oxidative stress marker enzymes in Spodoptera litura. Effect of UV-B exposure on total protein and antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were investigated in S. litura. The adults were exposed to UV-B light for various time periods (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min). We found that exposure to UV-B light for 30 and 60 min resulted in increased activities of POX. When the exposure time lasted for 60 and 90 min, the activities of SOD remained significantly higher than the control. However, the POX, CAT and GST activity decreased to control levels at 90 and 120 min. whereas relatively long duration exposure activates the xenobiotics detoxifying enzymes like GST and POX and CAT enzymes. Longer UV-B exposure may interfere with pesticide detoxification mechanism in insects, making them more susceptible to insecticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fitness costs and stability of Cry1Fa resistance in Brazilian populations of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Tavares, Clébson S; Rodrigues, João Victor C; Campos, Silverio O; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Alves, Analiza P; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2017-01-01

    The presence of fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins in insect populations may delay or even reverse the local selection of insect resistance to Bt transgenic crops, and deserves rigorous investigation. Here we assessed the fitness costs associated with Cry1Fa resistance in two strains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), derived from field collections in different Brazilian regions and further selected in the laboratory for high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa using leaves of TC1507 corn. Fitness components were compared using paired resistant and susceptible strains with similar genetic backgrounds and F 1 generations from reciprocal crosses, all of them reared on non-transgenic corn leaves. No apparent life history costs in the larval stage were observed in the Bt-resistant strains. Moreover, the resistance remained stable for seven generations in the absence of selection, with no decrease in the proportion of resistant individuals. Larval respiration rates were also similar between resistant and susceptible homozygotes, and heterozygotes displayed respiration rates and demographic performance equal or superior to those of susceptible homozygotes. In combination, these results indicate the lack of strong fitness costs associated with resistance to Cry1Fa in the fall armyworm strains studied. These findings suggest that Cry1Fa resistance in S. frugiperda populations is unlikely to be counterselected in Cry1Fa-free environments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Producing armyworm (spodoptera sp.) Bioinsecticide based on cysteine protease of red ginger (zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, N. T.; Nur, D. F.; Utami, T. S.; Sahlan, M.; Wijanarko, A.; Hermansyah, H.

    2018-03-01

    Armyworm (Spodoptera sp.) is highly polyphagous defoliator on various horticulture and grain plants. Various chemical insecticides have been created to control it. There is a need to create an eco-friendly and specific insecticide which only affect armyworm’s nervous system. This research investigates cysteine-protease’s enzyme activity of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) which is called zingibain. Its catalytic site matches with residue site in armyworm’s body so it can be used as bioinsecticide raw material which meets the criterias above. Fresh red ginger rhizomes were washed and extracted. The juice was then deposited in low temperature and centrifuged to get rid of its starch content. It was filtrated to remove large contaminants and poured into Potassium Phospate buffer. The liquid was then centrifuged again for 30 minutes before collecting the supernatant. Fresh leaves were then dipped into crude ginger protease extract and fed to fourth instar-armyworms. Leaves dipped into non-diluted extract were barely eaten by armyworm while the 50% and 25% dilution was half eaten and most eaten. The crude red ginger extract was not strong enough to kill them although the research showed its enzymatic activity reaches up to 169 PU. It still needs improvement to be produced as commercial bioinsecticide.

  8. An SSH library responsive to azadirachtin A constructed in Spodoptera litura Fabricius cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Xu, Han-Hong

    2012-05-31

    The present study revealed differentially expressed genes responsive to azadirachtin A (Aza) in Spodoptera litura cell line through suppression subtractive hybridization. In the Aza-responsive SSH library, approximately 270 sequences represent 53 different identified genes encoding proteins with various predicted functions, and the percentages of the gene clusters were 26.09% (genetic information processing), 11.41% (cell growth and death), 7.07% (metabolism), 6.52% (signal transduction/transport) and 2.72% (immunity), respectively. Eleven clones homologous to identified genes were selected to be confirmed through quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Among the eleven clones validated, all but one transcript of lipase showed an increase in SL cell line collected from ETA, whereas the transcripts of other genes were lower in the SL cell line collected from ETA compared with that of UETA. These genes were considered to be related to the response of SL cell line to Aza. These will provide a new clue to uncover the molecular mechanisms of Aza acting on SL cell line. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spodoptera frugiperda Nucleopolyhedrovirus Sf NPV003: Compatibility with agrochemicals and storage stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marcela Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A Colombian isolate of Spodoptera frugiperdanucleopolyhedrovirus Sf NPV003 was formulated as a powder by microencapsulating it with a methacrylic acid polymer, which increased the photostability of the virus. In order to generate recommendations for the use of this biopesticide, the objective of this study was to establish in vitro compatibility with chemicals (insecticides and fungicides and to determine the product stability during 15 months at 8 °C, 18 °C and 28 °C. The virus was compatible with eight chemicals tested, with an insecticidal activity greater than 80%. When the biopesticide was stored at 8 °C, 18 °C and 28 °C, the insecticidal activity and the content of contaminants were within acceptance limits established for each property. Results indicated that microencapsulated Sf MNPV can be stored at temperatures below 28 °C, thus ensuring product quality for at least 17 months, enough time for its distribution and use.

  10. Immunity through early development of coral larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C V; Graham, E; Baird, A H

    2012-10-01

    As a determinant of survival, immunity is likely to be significant in enabling coral larvae to disperse and successfully recruit, however, whether reef-building coral larvae have immune defenses is unknown. We investigated the potential presence and variation in immunity in the lecithotrophic larvae of Acropora tenuis through larval development. Enzymes indicative of tyrosinase and laccase-type melanin-synthesis were quantified, and the concentration of three coral fluorescent proteins was measured over six developmental stages; egg, embryo, motile planula, planula post-exposure to crustose coralline algae (CCA; settlement cue), settled, settled post-exposure to Symbiodinium (endosymbiont). Both types of melanin-synthesis pathways and the three fluorescent proteins were present in A. tenuis throughout development. Laccase-type activity and red fluorescence increased following exposure of planula to CCA, whereas tyrosinase-type activity and cyan fluorescence increased following settlement. No change was detected in the measured parameters following exposure to Symbiodinium. This study is the first to document coral larval immune responses and suggests the melanin-synthesis pathways have disparate roles-the laccase-type potentially non-immunological and the tyrosinase-type in cytotoxic defense. Our results indicate that corals have the potential to resist infection from the earliest life history phase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estádio de adaptação de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em hospedeiros alternativos Fitness stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on alternative hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Gisele Brasil Boregas; Simone Martins Mendes; José Magid Waquil; Geraldo Wilson Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    A principal praga-alvo na cultura do milho é a lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), que, pela sua ampla distribuição temporal e geográfica constitui-se em uma das espécies mais nocivas nas regiões tropicais das Américas. O objetivo foi avaliar o estádio de adaptação de S. frugiperda em 17 espécies hospedeiras, cultivadas ou selvagens, mais comuns no agroecossistema brasileiro. As plantas foram cultivadas em cinco épocas, entre 2006 e 2008, ut...

  12. Motuporamines, anti-invasion and anti-angiogenic alkaloids from the marine sponge Xestospongia exigua (Kirkpatrick): isolation, structure elucidation, analogue synthesis, and conformational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E; Craig, Kyle S; Patrick, Brian; McHardy, Lianne M; van Soest, Rob; Roberge, Michel; Andersen, Raymond J

    2002-01-11

    Extracts of the sponge Xestospongia exigua collected in Papua New Guinea were positive in a new assay for anti-invasion activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of the three known motuporamines A (1), B (2), and C (3) along with the new motuporamines D (4), E (5), and F (6) and a mixture of G, H, and I (15). Motuporamines A (1), B (2), and C (3) and the mixture of G, H, and I (15) were responsible for the anti-invasion activity of the crude extract. Motuporamine C (3) has also been found to be anti-angiogenic. A series of analogues of the motuporamines have been synthesized and evaluated for anti-invasive activity. These SAR results revealed that a saturated 15-membered cyclic amine fused to the natural motuporamine diamine side chain (13) represented the optimal structure for anti-invasive activity in this family. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of one of the analogues 20 showed that in the solid state its 16-membered macrocyclic amine fragment adopted the [4444] quadrangular conformation predicted by calculations to be the lowest energy conformation for the corresponding cycloalkane, cyclohexadecane. These data along with literature X-ray data and conformational analysis for derivatives of azacyclotridecane have been used as precedents for predicting the lowest energy ring conformations of other motuporamines. The SAR data from the natural and synthetic motuporamines have been combined with the conformational analyses to provide an outline of the functionality and shape required for activity in this family of alkaloids and to design a new analogue 49 that showed good anti-invasion activity.

  13. From trochophore to pilidium and back again - a larva's journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslakova, Svetlana A; Hiebert, Terra C

    2014-01-01

    Nemerteans, a phylum of marine lophotrochozoan worms, have a biphasic life history with benthic adults and planktonic larvae. Nemertean larval development is traditionally categorized into direct and indirect. Indirect development via a long-lived planktotrophic pilidium larva is thought to have evolved in one clade of nemerteans, the Pilidiophora, from an ancestor with a uniformly ciliated planuliform larva. Planuliform larvae in a member of a basal nemertean group, the Palaeonemertea, have been previously shown to possess a vestigial prototroch, homologous to the primary larval ciliated band in the trochophores of other spiralian phyla, such as annelids and mollusks. We review literature on nemertean larval development, and include our own unpublished observations. We highlight recent discoveries of numerous pilidiophoran species with lecithotrophic larvae. Some of these larvae superficially resemble uniformly ciliated planuliform larvae of other nemerteans. Others possess one or two transverse ciliary bands, which superficially resemble the prototroch and telotroch of some spiralian trochophores. We also summarize accumulating evidence for planktotrophic feeding by larvae of the order Hoplonemertea, which until now were considered to be lecithotrophic. We suggest that 1) non-feeding pilidiophoran larval forms are derived from a feeding pilidium; 2) such forms have likely evolved many times independently within the Pilidiophora; 3) any resemblance of such larvae to the trochophores of other spiralians is a result of convergence and that 4) the possibility of planktotrophy in hoplonemertean larvae may influence estimates of pelagic larval duration, dispersal, and population connectivity in this group.

  14. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

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    Francisco Del Pino

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b, Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  15. Chemical constituents of methanolic extracts of Jatropha curcas L and effects on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Sandra Santos; Silva, Thanany Brasil da; Moraes, Valeria Regina de Souza; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Bernardo, Antonio Rogerio; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Fernandes, Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Pessoa, Angela Maria dos Santos; Silva-Mann, Renata

    2012-01-01

    The biological activity of seven extracts from leaves of different Jatropha curcas L (Euphorbiaceae) accessions was evaluated on Spodoptera frugiperda. Methanol extracts were incorporated into an artificial diet and offered to the larval stage of S. frugiperda. The parameters evaluated were length of larval and pupal stages, mortality of larval and total cycle stage, and weight of pupae. The extracts of the EMB accessions showed the best result for larval mortality at 60.00 and 56.67%, compared with the control, respectively. Hexane partition of the methanol extract of the leaves of PM-14 accessions allowed the identification of phytosterols, phytol and n-alkanols. (author)

  16. Combined Effect of Thermal and Irradiation Treatment of Parental Male Pupae of Spodoptera Littoralis on Certain Biological Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; Ibrahim, S.M.; Hazaa, M.A.M.; Abdel-Rahman, H.A.; El-sayed, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the effects of exposure of full-grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) to different high temperatures and/or sub sterilizing doses of gamma radiation on certain biological aspects of the parental (P1) and the first filial (F1) generations. It includes the effect on adult longevity malformation, mating, insemination, fecundity and egg hatch; beside larval survival till adult emergence and sex ratio of produced adults at different mating crosses between treated and untreated or treated other sex. Special attention is given to inherited sterility as well as to the mating competitiveness ability of treated males

  17. Revisión de los hospederos del gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto CASMUZ; M. Laura JUÁREZ; M. Guillermina SOCÍAS; M. Gabriela MURÚA; Silvina PRIETO; Santiago MEDINA; Eduardo WILLINK; Gerardo GASTAMINZA

    2010-01-01

    Con la finalidad de actualizar los hospederos citados para Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. La búsqueda de hospederos fue agrupada por zona y país. Para el norte del Continente Americano, se incluyeron las citas encontradas para EE.UU., México, América Central e islas del Caribe. En Sudamérica, se agruparon todos los países del cono sur, a excepción de la Argentina, la cual fue considerada por separado. Se encontraron un total de 186 hospederos, repa...

  18. Chemical constituents of methanolic extracts of Jatropha curcas L and effects on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Sandra Santos; Silva, Thanany Brasil da; Moraes, Valeria Regina de Souza; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Bernardo, Antonio Rogerio; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Fernandes, Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Pessoa, Angela Maria dos Santos; Silva-Mann, Renata, E-mail: djbf@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agronomica

    2012-07-01

    The biological activity of seven extracts from leaves of different Jatropha curcas L (Euphorbiaceae) accessions was evaluated on Spodoptera frugiperda. Methanol extracts were incorporated into an artificial diet and offered to the larval stage of S. frugiperda. The parameters evaluated were length of larval and pupal stages, mortality of larval and total cycle stage, and weight of pupae. The extracts of the EMB accessions showed the best result for larval mortality at 60.00 and 56.67%, compared with the control, respectively. Hexane partition of the methanol extract of the leaves of PM-14 accessions allowed the identification of phytosterols, phytol and n-alkanols. (author)

  19. SEBARAN LARVA IKAN DAN KAITANNYA DENGAN KONDISI OSEANOGRAFI LAUT SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laut Sulawesi diketahui sebagai daerah penangkapan ikan yang potensial sekaligus diduga sebagai lokasi pemijahan. Berbagai jenis larva ikan pelagis maupun demersal ditemukan di perairan ini. Kelimpahan dan sebaran larva ikan di suatu perairan sangat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi oseanografi seperti temperatur, salinitas dan sejumlah parameter lainnya termasuk ketersediaan pakan. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh parameter oseanografi terhadap kelimpahan dan sebaran spasial larva ikan di Laut Sulawesi, telah dilakukan penelitian menggunakan kapal riset KR Baruna Jaya VII pada Oktober 2012. Parameter oseanografi yaitu temperatur dan salinitas diukur menggunakan iCTD dan sampling larva menggunakan bonggo net pada 18 stasiun pengukuran. Analisa hubungan kondisi oseanografi dengan sebaran larva dilakukan secara deskriptif dan pemetaan sebarannya dilakukan secara spasial. Hasil menunjukan keterkaitan sejumlah parameter oseanografi dengan kelimpahan dan sebaran spasial larva ikan. Sebaran larva famili Scombroidae dominan berada pada perairan bersalinitas tinggi karena merupakan jenis ikan oseanik. Larva ikan demersal banyak ditemukan di perairan sekitar Kep.Sangihe Talaud. Kelimpahan larva tertinggi ditemukan di perairan bagian utara dan barat lokasi penelitian dimana kelimpahan plankton tinggi ditemukan.   Celebes Sea is known as a potential fishing and spawning grounds for several pelagic fish species. Abundance and distribution of fish larvae are allegedly linked to oceanographic conditions such as temperature, salinity and others oceanographic parameters including food availablity. To see the effect of oceanographic on the abundance and spatial distribution of fish larvae in the Celebes Sea, has conducted a research in October 2012using the research vessel KR Baruna Jaya VII. The measurement of oceanographic parameters including temperature and salinity and larval sampling were done respectively by using iCTD and Bonggo net at 18 measuring stations. The

  20. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on solid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol is designed for quantitative assessment of the willingness of individual larvae to procure solid food under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as the period of food deprivation is increased. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  1. The toxicity evaluation of prepared Lantana camara nano extract against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmara, Hikmat; Melanie, Nurfajri, Dea Audia; Hermawan, Wawan; Panatarani, Camellia

    2018-02-01

    Nanotechnology plays an important role in providing opportunities and possibilities for the development of a plant extracts, particularly applied for agriculture using the organic nanoparticles extract as bioinsecticide. This paper reports the extraction of L. camaraas an insecticidal compound applied to control the S. litura larvae which is the main pest for agricultural commodities in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to evaluate the toxicity performance of nano extract to S. litura larvae. The extract was prepared by maceration and evaporation and followed by particles stabilization. The received suspension was characterized using a Particles Size Analyzer (PSA). The performance evaluation was conducted using dye feed method by observing at 24 h and 48 h. The toxicity performance of L. camara nano extract on S. litura larvae was evaluated based on the lethal concentration which was obtained at 50% of 3rd instar larvae S. litura (LC50) and the toxicity level. The larval mortality data was analyzed by probit analysis to obtain LC50 values. The results showed that the LC50 value of L. camara nano extract after 24 h was 16,347 ppm and after 48 h the LC50 value was 3,548 ppm. The smaller LC50 values indicate a stronger toxicity level, in contrast the best toxicity was LC50 after 48 h with the concentration of 3,548 ppm. Referring to toxicity category standard with LC50 pesticide value, the range 0.5-5 g/L is considered as medium toxic category. Toxicity level of L. camara nano extract to S. litura 3,548 ppm or 3,548 mg/L is considered as medium toxic category.

  2. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  3. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R.; Glanzman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory. PMID:23935566

  4. Antioxidant enzymes in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval): are they enhanced to protect gut tissues during oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2006-01-01

    The Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis is a polyphagous insect attacking a number of plant species including those belonging to the Solanaceae and Cruciferaceae families. Its digestive physiology must therefore adapt to the food plant to ensure maximum extraction of nutrients with minimum trade-off in terms of growth retardation by pro-oxidant allelochemicals. To investigate this, the caterpillars of S. littoralis were fed on a semi-artificial diet (Manduca Premix-Heliothis Premix) and for 24 h on potato plants (Solanum tuberosum), respectively, at the mature 6th instar, and the levels of oxidative radicals and antioxidant enzymes in their guts were compared. The gut pH, standard redox potential (Eh) and electron availability (pe) revealed that oxidizing conditions prevail which promote oxidation of pro-oxidant allelochemicals in foliage. Oxidative stress in the foregut and midgut tissue and the gut contents was assessed from the generation of superoxide radical, total peroxide content and protein carbonyl content. Antioxidant defense was measured by the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) and glutathione S-transferase peroxidase (GSTpx). A significant (p enzymes SOD (in midgut tissues), CAT (in foregut, midgut tissue and contents), APOX (in foregut contents, midgut tissue and contents) and GSTpx (in foregut tissues) was recorded on the plant diet in comparison to the semi-artificial diet. The pro-oxidant allelochemicals in the plant diet are thus eliminated by the insect at the expense of up-regulation of antioxidative enzymes in response to increased oxidative stress from oxidizable allelochemicals. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased concentrations of antioxidants form an important component of the defense of herbivorous insects against both exogenous and endogenous oxidative radicals.

  5. Potential of Trap Crops for Integrated Management of the Tropical Armyworm, Spodoptera litura in Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu

    2010-01-01

    The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20–30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage. PMID:20874598

  6. Pre-exposures to taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaf volatiles enhance the reproductive behaviors in Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinlong; Bai, Jiaxiu; Lu, Rui; Zhang, Daogen; Lin, Huiyue

    2017-05-01

    Plant volatiles serve as sensory cues for insects to find food and habitats. They are also reported to affect many insect behaviors. In the current study, we determined how exposures to taro (Colocasia esculenta) for 24h affect reproductive behaviors in Spodoptera litura. Further, we investigated the mechanisms that regulate taro volatiles-induced reproductive behavior in S. litura by recording peripheral, behavioral, and neuronal responses of male moths to sex pheromone components (Z9,E11-14:OAc and Z9,E12-14:OAc) and their mixtures in different ratios, as well as gene expression levels of sex pheromone receptors. The results showed that the exposure to taro volatiles significantly enhanced male mating rate, mating duration, and egg hatching rates, but not mating times and the number of oviposition per female. Consistently, the peripheral and behavioral responses of pre-exposed males to sex pheromone components and their mixtures wherein Z9,E11-14:OAc owned higher proportions, as well as neuronal responses to those at low dosages were significantly increased compared to non-exposed males. The expression levels of sex pheromone receptor genes were also significantly increased in pre-exposed males compared to non-exposed ones. These results suggest that taro volatile pre-exposures could promote the reproductive performance of S. litura by enhancing the competitiveness of male mating and communications between male and females. These findings provide new insights for the management of this insect pest as well as other moths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cry1F resistance in fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: single gene versus pyramided Bt maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangneng Huang

    Full Text Available Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report compelling evidence of field resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, to Cry1F maize (TC 3507 in the southeastern region of the U.S. An F2 screen showed a surprisingly high (0.293 Cry1F resistance allele frequency in a population collected in 2011 from non-Bt maize in south Florida. Field populations from non-Bt maize in 2012-2013 exhibited 18.8-fold to >85.4-fold resistance to purified Cry1F protein and those collected from unexpectedly damaged Bt maize plants at several locations in Florida and North Carolina had >85.4-fold resistance. In addition, reduced efficacy and control failure of Cry1F maize against natural populations of S. frugiperda were documented in field trials using Cry1F-based and pyramided Bt maize products in south Florida. The Cry1F-resistant S. frugiperda also showed a low level of cross-resistance to Cry1A.105 and related maize products, but not to Cry2Ab2 or Vip3A. The occurrence of Cry1F resistance in the U.S. mainland populations of S. frugiperda likely represents migration of insects from Puerto Rico, indicating the great challenges faced in achieving effective resistance management for long-distance migratory pests like S. frugiperda.

  8. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Female Reproduction in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Tang, Bin; Zou, Qi; Zheng, Huizhen; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is a rapidly reproducing pest of numerous agricultural ecosystems worldwide. The use of pesticides remains the primary means for controlling S. litura, despite their negative ecological impact and potential threat to human health. The use of exogenous hormone analogs may represent an alternative to insecticides. Juvenile hormones (JHs) play an important role in the reproductive systems of female insects, but the effects of pyriproxyfen, a JH analog, on reproduction in S. litura were poorly understood. In this paper, we topically treated the newly emerged females with 20, 60, or 100 μg of pyriproxyfen to determine its effects on reproduction. Then, we examined the expression of vitellogenin (Vg) and three hormone receptors, USP, HR3, and EcR, using quantitative reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and found that pyriproxyfen up-regulated the expression of Vg, USP, and HR3, whereas the expression of EcR was unaffected. An analysis of fecundity showed that the peak oviposition day, lifespan, and oviposition period were progressively shortened as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We also found that pyriproxyfen decreased egg laying amount, whereas the number of mature eggs that remained in the ovarioles of dead females increased as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We examined oocytes using transmission electron microscopy and found that treatment with 100 μg of pyriproxyfen increased the metabolism by increasing the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in the primary oocytes. Our results suggest that the topical application of pyriproxyfen on newly emerged females can efficiently reduce reproduction in S. litura and may represent an alternative to the use of insecticides for controlling the agricultural pest. PMID:26444432

  9. Fitness costs associated with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, S R K; Knight, V R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L

    2014-02-01

    Increasing adoption of transgenic crops expressing cry toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops) represents an augmented risk for development of insect resistance. While fitness costs can greatly influence the rate of resistance evolution, most available data related to Bt resistance have been obtained from laboratory-selected insect strains. In this article, we test the existence of fitness costs associated with high levels of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize event TC1507 in a strain of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) originated from maize fields in Puerto Rico. Fitness costs in resistant S. frugiperda were evaluated by comparing biological performance to susceptible insects when reared on meridic diet, maize or soybean leaf tissue, or cotton reproductive tissues. Parameters monitored included larval survival, larval and pupal weights, developmental time (larval and pupal), adult longevity, reproductive traits (fecundity and fertility), and sex ratio. We found that all monitored parameters were influenced to a similar extent by the host, independently of susceptibility to Bt maize. The only parameter that significantly differed between strains for all hosts was a longer larval developmental period in resistant S. frugiperda, which resulted in emergence asynchrony between susceptible and resistant adults. To test the relevance of fitness costs in resistant S. frugiperda, we performed a selection experiment to monitor the stability of resistance in a heterogeneous strain through 12 generations of rearing on meridic diet. Our data demonstrate lack of fitness costs relevant to stability of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize and help explain reported stability of field-evolved resistance in Puerto Rican populations of S. frugiperda.

  10. MicroRNAome of Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) and its alteration following baculovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Hussain, Mazhar; Asgari, Sassan

    2013-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) as small non-coding RNAs play important roles in many biological processes such as development, cell signalling and immune response. Studies also suggest that miRNAs are important in host-virus interactions where the host limits virus infection by differentially expressing miRNAs that target essential viral genes. Here, we identified conserved and new miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) using a combination of deep sequencing and bioinformatics as well as experimental approaches. S. frugiperda miRNAs share common features of miRNAs in other organisms, such as uracil (U) at the 5' end of miRNA. The 5' ends of the miRNAs were more conserved than the 3' ends, revealing evolutionary protection of the seed region in miRNAs. The predominant miRNAs were found to be conserved among arthropods. The majority of homologous miRNAs were found in Bombyx mori, with 76 of the 90 identified miRNAs. We found that seed shifting and arm switching have happened in this insect's miRNAs. Expression levels of the majority of miRNAs changed following baculovirus infection. Results revealed that baculovirus infection mainly led to an overall suppression of cellular miRNAs. We found four different genes being regulated by sfr-miR-184 at the post-transcriptional level. The data presented here further support conservation of miRNAs in insects and other organisms. In addition, the results reveal a differential expression of host miRNAs upon baculovirus infection, suggesting their potential roles in host-virus interactions. Seed shifting and arm switching happened during evolution of miRNAs in different insects and caused miRNA diversification, which led to changes in the target repository of miRNAs.

  11. Genomic Analysis and Isolation of RNA Polymerase II Dependent Promoters from Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Bleckmann

    Full Text Available The Baculoviral Expression Vector System (BEVS is the most commonly used method for high expression of recombinant protein in insect cells. Nevertheless, expression of some target proteins--especially those entering the secretory pathway--provides a severe challenge for the baculovirus infected insect cells, due to the reorganisation of intracellular compounds upon viral infection. Therefore, alternative strategies for recombinant protein production in insect cells like transient plasmid-based expression or stable expression cell lines are becoming more popular. However, the major bottleneck of these systems is the lack of strong endogenous polymerase II dependent promoters, as the strong baculoviral p10 and polH promoters used in BEVS are only functional in presence of the viral transcription machinery during the late phase of infection. In this work we present a draft genome and a transcriptome analysis of Sf21 cells for the identification of the first known endogenous Spodoptera frugiperda promoters. Therefore, putative promoter sequences were identified and selected because of high mRNA level or in analogy to other strong promoters in other eukaryotic organism. The chosen endogenous Sf21 promoters were compared to early viral promoters for their efficiency to trigger eGFP expression using transient plasmid based transfection in a BioLector Microfermentation system. Furthermore, promoter activity was not only shown in Sf21 cells but also in Hi5 cells. The novel endogenous Sf21 promoters were ranked according to their activity and expand the small pool of available promoters for stable insect cell line development and transient plasmid expression in insect cells. The best promoter was used to improve plasmid based transient transfection in insect cells substantially.

  12. In vivo Pyro-SIP assessing active gut microbiota of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi Shao

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is of crucial importance for the host with considerable metabolic activity. Although great efforts have been made toward characterizing microbial diversity, measuring components' metabolic activity surprisingly hasn't kept pace. Here we combined pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes with in vivo stable isotope probing (Pyro-SIP to unmask metabolically active bacteria in the gut of cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis, a polyphagous insect herbivore that consumes large amounts of plant material in a short time, liberating abundant glucose in the alimentary canal as a most important carbon and energy source for both host and active gut bacteria. With (13C glucose as the trophic link, Pyro-SIP revealed that a relatively simple but distinctive gut microbiota co-developed with the host, both metabolic activity and composition shifting throughout larval stages. Pantoea, Citrobacter and Clostridium were particularly active in early-instar, likely the core functional populations linked to nutritional upgrading. Enterococcus was the single predominant genus in the community, and it was essentially stable and metabolically active in the larval lifespan. Based on that Enterococci formed biofilm-like layers on the gut epithelium and that the isolated strains showed antimicrobial properties, Enterococcus may be able to establish a colonization resistance effect in the gut against potentially harmful microbes from outside. Not only does this establish the first in-depth inventory of the gut microbiota of a model organism from the mostly phytophagous Lepidoptera, but this pilot study shows that Pyro-SIP can rapidly gain insight into the gut microbiota's metabolic activity with high resolution and high precision.

  13. Cry1F resistance in fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: single gene versus pyramided Bt maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangneng; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Meagher, Robert L; Reisig, Dominic D; Head, Graham P; Andow, David A; Ni, Xinzi; Kerns, David; Buntin, G David; Niu, Ying; Yang, Fei; Dangal, Vikash

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report compelling evidence of field resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), to Cry1F maize (TC 3507) in the southeastern region of the U.S. An F2 screen showed a surprisingly high (0.293) Cry1F resistance allele frequency in a population collected in 2011 from non-Bt maize in south Florida. Field populations from non-Bt maize in 2012-2013 exhibited 18.8-fold to >85.4-fold resistance to purified Cry1F protein and those collected from unexpectedly damaged Bt maize plants at several locations in Florida and North Carolina had >85.4-fold resistance. In addition, reduced efficacy and control failure of Cry1F maize against natural populations of S. frugiperda were documented in field trials using Cry1F-based and pyramided Bt maize products in south Florida. The Cry1F-resistant S. frugiperda also showed a low level of cross-resistance to Cry1A.105 and related maize products, but not to Cry2Ab2 or Vip3A. The occurrence of Cry1F resistance in the U.S. mainland populations of S. frugiperda likely represents migration of insects from Puerto Rico, indicating the great challenges faced in achieving effective resistance management for long-distance migratory pests like S. frugiperda.

  14. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Female Reproduction in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xu

    Full Text Available The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is a rapidly reproducing pest of numerous agricultural ecosystems worldwide. The use of pesticides remains the primary means for controlling S. litura, despite their negative ecological impact and potential threat to human health. The use of exogenous hormone analogs may represent an alternative to insecticides. Juvenile hormones (JHs play an important role in the reproductive systems of female insects, but the effects of pyriproxyfen, a JH analog, on reproduction in S. litura were poorly understood. In this paper, we topically treated the newly emerged females with 20, 60, or 100 μg of pyriproxyfen to determine its effects on reproduction. Then, we examined the expression of vitellogenin (Vg and three hormone receptors, USP, HR3, and EcR, using quantitative reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, and found that pyriproxyfen up-regulated the expression of Vg, USP, and HR3, whereas the expression of EcR was unaffected. An analysis of fecundity showed that the peak oviposition day, lifespan, and oviposition period were progressively shortened as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We also found that pyriproxyfen decreased egg laying amount, whereas the number of mature eggs that remained in the ovarioles of dead females increased as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We examined oocytes using transmission electron microscopy and found that treatment with 100 μg of pyriproxyfen increased the metabolism by increasing the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in the primary oocytes. Our results suggest that the topical application of pyriproxyfen on newly emerged females can efficiently reduce reproduction in S. litura and may represent an alternative to the use of insecticides for controlling the agricultural pest.

  15. Characterization of an antennal carboxylesterase from the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis degrading a host plant odorant.

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    Nicolas Durand

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs are highly diversified in insects. These enzymes have a broad range of proposed functions, in neuro/developmental processes, dietary detoxification, insecticide resistance or hormone/pheromone degradation. As few functional data are available on purified or recombinant CCEs, the physiological role of most of these enzymes is unknown. Concerning their role in olfaction, only two CCEs able to metabolize sex pheromones have been functionally characterized in insects. These enzymes are only expressed in the male antennae, and secreted into the lumen of the pheromone-sensitive sensilla. CCEs able to hydrolyze other odorants than sex pheromones, such as plant volatiles, have not been identified.In Spodoptera littoralis, a major crop pest, a diversity of antennal CCEs has been previously identified. We have employed here a combination of molecular biology, biochemistry and electrophysiology approaches to functionally characterize an intracellular CCE, SlCXE10, whose predominant expression in the olfactory sensilla suggested a role in olfaction. A recombinant protein was produced using the baculovirus system and we tested its catabolic properties towards a plant volatile and the sex pheromone components.We showed that SlCXE10 could efficiently hydrolyze a green leaf volatile and to a lesser extent the sex pheromone components. The transcript level in male antennae was also strongly induced by exposure to this plant odorant. In antennae, SlCXE10 expression was associated with sensilla responding to the sex pheromones and to plant odours. These results suggest that a CCE-based intracellular metabolism of odorants could occur in insect antennae, in addition to the extracellular metabolism occurring within the sensillar lumen. This is the first functional characterization of an Odorant-Degrading Enzyme active towards a host plant volatile.

  16. Avaliação de cultivares de amendoim para resistência a Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniele Pianoscki de Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar cultivares de amendoim com resistência a Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, determinando os graus de resistência por meio da análise univariada e multivariada. Utilizaram-se cultivares de amendoim de hábitos de crescimento ereto (IAC 5, IAC 8112, IAC 22 e IAC Tatu ST e rasteiro (IAC 503, IAC 505, IAC 147, IAC 125, IAC Caiapó e IAC Runner 886, semeadas em campo. Lagartas de primeiro ínstar foram individualizadas em placas de Petri forradas com papel filtro umedecido e mantidas sob condições controladas de temperatura (25 ± 2 °C, umidade (60 ± 10% e fotofase (12 horas. Utilizaram-se cinco repetições de dez lagartas (recém-eclodidas, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Diariamente, foram fornecidos folíolos novos, lavados com solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Avaliaram-se a duração (dias, a massa (mg e a viabilidade (% dos períodos larval e pupal, a razão sexual, longevidade e fecundidade. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (teste F e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p<0,05, além da análise de agrupamento e de componentes principais. As cultivares de hábito de crescimento ereto, IAC 22, e rasteiro, IAC Runner 886, foram menos adequadas ao desenvolvimento do inseto, interferindo nas fases larval e pupal de S. frugiperda, demonstrando resistência moderada do tipo antibiose.

  17. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  18. A synthetic cryIC gene, encoding a Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin, confers Spodoptera resistance in alfalfa and tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strizhov, N.; Keller, M.; Mathur, J.; Koncz-Kaiman, Z.; Bosch, D.; Prudovksy, E.; Schell, J.; Sneh, B.; Koncz, C.; Zilberstein, A.

    1996-01-01

    Spodoptera species, representing widespread polyphagous insect pests, are resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxins used thus far as insecticides in transgenic plants. Here we describe the chemical synthesis of a cryIC gene by a novel template directed ligation–PCR method. This simple and

  19. A novel cytochrome P450 CYP6AB14 gene in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its potential role in plant allelochemical detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) play a prominent role in the adaptation of insects to host plant chemical defenses. To investigate the potential role of P450s in adaptation of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura to host plant allelochemicals, an expressed sequence data set derived from 6th...

  20. Biofilms and Marine Invertebrate Larvae: What Bacteria Produce That Larvae Use to Choose Settlement Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Communities of microorganisms form thin coats across solid surfaces in the sea. Larvae of many marine invertebrates use biofilm components as cues to appropriate settlement sites. Research on the tube-dwelling polychaete worm Hydroides elegans, a globally common member of biofouling communities, is described to exemplify approaches to understanding biofilm bacteria as a source of settlement cues and larvae as bearers of receptors for bacterial cues. The association of species of the bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas with larval settlement in many phyla is described, and the question of whether cues are soluble or surface-bound is reviewed, concluding that most evidence points to surface-bound cues. Seemingly contradictory data for stimulation of barnacle settlement are discussed; possibly both explanations are true. Paleontological evidence reveals a relationship between metazoans and biofilms very early in metazoan evolution, and thus the receptors for bacterial cues of invertebrate larvae are very old and possibly unique. Finally, despite more than 60 years of intense investigation, we still know very little about either the bacterial ligands that stimulate larval settlement or the cellular basis of their detection by larvae.

  1. Effect of gut bacterial isolates from Apis mellifera jemenitica on Paenibacillus larvae infected bee larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Ghamdi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The probiotic effects of seven newly isolated gut bacteria, from the indegenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia were investigated. In vivo bioassays were used to investigate the effects of each gut bacterium namely, Fructobacillus fructosus (T1, Proteus mirabilis (T2, Bacillus licheniformis (T3, Lactobacillus kunkeei (T4, Bacillus subtilis (T5, Enterobacter kobei (T6, and Morganella morganii (T7 on mortality percentage of honey bee larvae infected with P. larvae spores along with negative control (normal diet and positive control (normal diet spiked with P. larvae spores. Addition of gut bacteria to the normal diet significantly reduced the mortality percentage of the treated groups. Mortality percentage in all treated groups ranged from 56.67% up to 86.67%. T6 treated group exhibited the highest mortality (86.67%, whereas T4 group showed the lowest mortality (56.67%. Among the seven gut bacterial treatments, T4 and T3 decreased the mortality 56.67% and 66.67%, respectively, whereas, for T2, T6, and T7 the mortality percentage was equal to that of the positive control (86.67%. Mortality percentages in infected larval groups treated with T1, and T5 were 78.33% and 73.33% respectively. Most of the mortality occurred in the treated larvae during days 2 and 3. Treatments T3 and T4 treatments showed positive effects and reduced mortality.

  2. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Kloezen

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future.

  4. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, C., E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  5. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, C.; Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M.; Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K.; Vinnerås, B.

    2016-01-01

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  6. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  7. In vitro correction of disorders of lysosomal transport by microvesicles derived from baculovirus-infected Spodoptera cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoene, Jess; Goss, Thomas; Witcher, Marc; Mullet, Jodi; N'Kuli, Francisca; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Courtoy, Pierre; Hahn, Si Houn

    2013-05-01

    Infection of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells by baculovirus (BV) is well established for transgene expression of soluble proteins, but few correctly folded transmembrane proteins have been so produced. We here report the use of the BV/Sf9 (BVES) method for the expression and transfer, via microvesicles, of the exclusive lysosomal exporters for cystine and sialic acid, human cystinosin and sialin. These proteins and their mRNA are released into the culture medium as very low-density microvesicles (~1.05 g/ml), which do not label for lysobisphosphatidic acid. The presence of the human transgene proteins in the vesicles was confirmed by western blotting and confirmed and quantified by mass spectrometry. Addition of vesicles to cultures of human fibroblast lines deficient in either cystinosin or sialin produced a progressive depletion of stored lysosomal cystine or sialic acid, respectively. The depletion effect was slow (T1/2 ~48 h), saturable (down to ~40% of initial after 4 days) and stable (>one week). Surprisingly, BV infection of Spodoptera appeared to induce expression and release into microvesicles of the insect orthologue of cystinosin, but not of sialin. We conclude that BVES is an effective method to express and transfer functional transmembrane proteins so as to study their properties in mammalian cells, and has a generic potential for transport protein replacement therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of Two Receptors detecting the Same Pheromone Compound in Crop Pest Moths of the Genus Spodoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur ede Fouchier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In moths, mate finding strongly rely on the detection of sex pheromones by pheromone receptors. Any modification in the functional properties of these receptors can have a drastic impact on reproduction. In the course of characterizing candidate pheromone receptors in the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis, we expressed them in Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons and stimulated them with a large panel of moth pheromone compounds. We found that two pheromone receptors detect (Z,E-9,12-14:OAc, a minor component of the female pheromone blend. Whereas SlitOR6 is highly specific to this component, SlitOR13 is less sensitive and not strictly specific as it also detects (Z9-14:OAc, another minor component of the sex pheromone. Interestingly, SlitOR13 expression is restricted to the distal part of male antennae, where we could identify a novel functional class of pheromone-sensitive neurons whose response spectrum matches that of SlitOR13. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of Lepidoptera pheromone receptors, we built an evolutionary scenario in which four different paralogous lineages emerged through gene duplications. The ability to bind (Z,E-9,12-14:OAc appeared independently within three of these lineages, and an analysis of selective pressures revealed sites under positive selection that could have played a role in the emergence of functional properties of OR6 and OR13 in Spodoptera species.

  9. Fish larvae from the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Aceves-Medina

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic composition of fish larvae was analysed from 464 plankton samples obtained during 10 oceanographic surveys in the Gulf of California between 1984 and 1988. We identified 283 taxa: 173 species, 57 genera, and 53 families. Tropical and subtropical species predominated except during the winter, when temperate-subarctic species were dominant. The most abundant species were the mesopelagic Benthosema panamense, Triphoturus mexicanus and Vinciguerria lucetia, but the coastal pelagic species Engraulis mordax, Opisthonema spp., Sardinops caeruleus and Scomber japonicus were also prominent. The taxonomic composition of the ichthyoplankton shows the seasonality of the Gulf as well as environmental changes that occurred between the 1984-1987 warm period and the 1956-1957 cool period previously reported. The presence of E. mordax larvae as one of the most abundant species in the Gulf provides evidence of the reproduction of this species two years before the development of the northern anchovy fishery and the decline of the sardine fishery in the Gulf of California.

  10. A Model of Drosophila Larva Chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Davies

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed observations of larval Drosophila chemotaxis have characterised the relationship between the odour gradient and the runs, head casts and turns made by the animal. We use a computational model to test whether hypothesised sensorimotor control mechanisms are sufficient to account for larval behaviour. The model combines three mechanisms based on simple transformations of the recent history of odour intensity at the head location. The first is an increased probability of terminating runs in response to gradually decreasing concentration, the second an increased probability of terminating head casts in response to rapidly increasing concentration, and the third a biasing of run directions up concentration gradients through modulation of small head casts. We show that this model can be tuned to produce behavioural statistics comparable to those reported for the larva, and that this tuning results in similar chemotaxis performance to the larva. We demonstrate that each mechanism can enable odour approach but the combination of mechanisms is most effective, and investigate how these low-level control mechanisms relate to behavioural measures such as the preference indices used to investigate larval learning behaviour in group assays.

  11. Feeding behaviour of snake head fish, Channa striatus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumronk Amornsakun1*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding scheme experiments were done in a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 500 of two-dayold larvae (stage at first feeding. It was found that larval snake head fish aged 3-11 days (average total length 6.08-10.86 mmconsumed Moina. Larvae aged 12-15 days (average total length 10.79-14.61 mm consumed both Moina and commercialpellet (40 % crude protein. Larvae aged more than 16 days consumed only commercial pellet.Determining the daily food uptake by the larvae and juveniles was done in a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10liters containing 1,000 larvae. The larvae consumed Moina ,provide of a density of Moina 10 individual/ml. The amount offood intake was calculated based on changes of food density in the aquarium with and without fish larvae at 2-hour intervals.It was found that larvae aged 3-15 days consumed Moina. The average uptake of Moina in digestive tract per day of larvaeage 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days old was 28.7, 115.70, 162.27, 195.30 and 227.30 individual/larva, respectively at water temperaturesranging between 25 and 28°C.A starvation experiment was carried out using a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters with three replications.Two hundred newly hatched larvae were kept without feeding. Larvae started to die at 216 hr and totally died within 326 hrafter hatching at water temperature ranging between 28.0 and 30.5°C.

  12. Increase of the Bacillus thuringiensis secreted toxicity against lepidopteron larvae by homologous expression of the vip3LB gene during sporulation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Sameh; Jamoussi, Kaïs; Dabbeche, Emna; Jaoua, Samir

    2011-09-01

    The Vegetative insecticidal Vip3A proteins display a wide range of insecticidal spectrum against several agricultural insect pests. The fact that the expression of vip3 genes occurs only during the vegetative growth phase of Bacillus thuringiensis is a limiting factor in term of production level. Therefore, extending the synthesis of the Vip proteins to the sporulation phase is a good alternative to reach high levels of toxin synthesis. In this study, we have demonstrated that the maximal production of the secreted Vip3LB (also called Vip3Aa16) during the growth of the wild-type strain B. thuringiensis BUPM 95 is reached at the end of the vegetative growth phase, and that the protein remains relatively stable in the culture supernatant during the late sporulation stages. The vip3LB gene was cloned and expressed under the control of the sporulation dependant promoters BtI and BtII in B. thuringiensis BUPM 106 (Vip3(-)) and BUPM 95 (Vip3(+)) strains. The examination of the culture supernatants during the sporulation phase evidenced the synthesis of Vip3LB and its toxicity against the second-instars larvae of the Lepidopteron insect Spodoptera littoralis for the recombinant BUPM 106. Moreover, there was an increase of the Vip3LB synthesis level and an enhancement of the oral toxicity for the recombinant BUPM 95 resulting from the expression of the vip3LB gene during both the vegetative and sporulation phases and the relative stability of the Vip3LB protein.

  13. In vivo binding of the Cry11Bb toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin to the midgut of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Lina María

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin produces numerous proteins among which 94 kDa known as Cry11Bb, has mosquitocidal activity. The mode of action of the Cry11 proteins has been described as similar to those of the Cry1 toxins, nevertheless, the mechanism of action is still not clear. In this study we investigated the in vivo binding of the Cry11Bb toxin to the midgut of the insect species Anopheles albimanus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus by immunohistochemical analysis. Spodoptera frugiperda was included as negative control. The Cry11Bb protein was detected on the apical microvilli of the midgut epithelial cells, mostly on the posterior midgut and gastric caeca of the three mosquito species. Additionally, the toxin was detected in the Malpighian tubules of An. albimanus, Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and in the basal membrane of the epithelial cells of Ae. aegypti midgut. No toxin accumulation was observed in the peritrophic membrane of any of the mosquito species studied. These results confirm that the primary site of action of the Cry11 toxins is the apical membrane of the midgut epithelial cells of mosquito larvae.

  14. Two specific membrane-bound aminopeptidase N isoforms from Aedes aegypti larvae serve as functional receptors for the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba toxin implicating counterpart specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroonkesorn, Aratee; Pootanakit, Kusol; Katzenmeier, Gerd; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2015-05-29

    The interaction between Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins and their receptors on midgut cells of susceptible insect larvae is the critical determinant in toxin specificity. Besides GPI-linked alkaline phosphatase in Aedes aegypti mosquito-larval midguts, membrane-bound aminopeptidase N (AaeAPN) is widely thought to serve as a Cry4Ba receptor. Here, two full-length AaeAPN isoforms, AaeAPN2778 and AaeAPN2783, predicted to be GPI-linked were cloned and successfully expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells as 112- and 107-kDa membrane-bound proteins, respectively. In the cytotoxicity assay, Sf9 cells expressing each of the two AaeAPN isoforms showed increased sensitivity to the Cry4Ba mosquito-active toxin. Double immunolocalization revealed specific binding of Cry4Ba to each individual AaeAPN expressed on the cell membrane surface. Sequence analysis and homology-based modeling placed these two AaeAPNs to the M1 aminopeptidase family as they showed similar four-domain structures, with the most conserved domain II being the catalytic component. Additionally, the most variable domain IV containing negatively charged surface patches observed only in dipteran APNs could be involved in insect specificity. Overall results demonstrated that these two membrane-bound APN isoforms were responsible for mediating Cry4Ba toxicity against AaeAPN-expressed Sf9 cells, suggesting their important role as functional receptors for the toxin counterpart in A. aegypti mosquito larvae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary screening of plant essential oils against larvae of Culex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary screenings of 22 plant essential oils were tested for mortality of the mosquito larvae Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Percent (%) mortality of the mosquito larvae were obtained for each essential oil. At different exposure periods, viz. 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h among the 22 plant oils tested, eight ...

  16. Biological control agent for mosquito larvae: Review on the killifish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... Biological control of mosquito larvae by using fish has shown many advantages over ... number of malaria cases in India that has been reduced from 75 million to 150,000 and deaths from 750,000 to ... aquatic weeds and G. affinis on the mosquito larvae. In addition to that G. affinis has some adverse effects ...

  17. Temporal dynamics of Chaoborus larvae (Diptera : Chaoboridae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chaoborus larvae are voracious predators of zooplankton able to change their specific composition and size structure. Thus they appear as competitors of fish. They also represent food for planktophage fish. The temporal dynamics of Chaoborus larvae was studied (from january to october 1997) in the fishery of Bakro ...

  18. Activity of Bacillis thuringiensis toxins against cocoa pod borer larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santoso, D.; Chaidamsari, T.; Wiryadiputra, S.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of

  19. Protein Metabolism in Lecithotrophic Larvae (Gastropoda: Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavra, J; Manahan, D T

    1999-04-01

    Rates of protein depletion, synthesis, and turnover were measured in larvae of the abalone Haliotis rufescens as an approach to understanding macromolecular metabolism during lecithotrophic development. Protein content decreased linearly during development to metamorphic competence, with 34% of the initial protein in eggs depleted during the 8-day larval life span. Fractional rates of protein synthesis (percentage of total body-protein synthesized per day) decreased during development, from 40% (1-day-old trochophore larva) to 14% (7-day-old veliger larva). Separation of proteins by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that protein pools in larvae are dominated by two high-molecular-weight protein classes (88 and 121 kDa). When the proteins of 1- and 3-day-old larvae were labeled with a mixture of 35S-methionine and cysteine, the pattern on two-dimensional gels showed that the turnover process (protein synthesis and degradation) involved hundreds of different proteins. The energy gained from loss of protein could account for 20% of the protein turnover rates for trochophore larvae and 79% of the lower turnover costs for late-stage veligers. Lecithotrophic larvae of H. rufescens maintained high biosynthetic activities, with up to 40% of their whole-body protein being turned over each day. Such dynamic processes during development of nonfeeding larvae would contribute significantly to maintenance metabolism.

  20. Structure and occurrence of cyphonautes larvae (Bryozoa, Ectoprocta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Worsaae, Katrine

    2010-01-01

    We have studied larvae of the freshwater ctenostome Hislopia malayensis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and LM of serial sections. Some additional observations on larvae of M. membranacea using SEM and CLSM are also reported. The overall configu...

  1. Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Brachyuran Larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ocypodidae, Grapsidae and Xanthidae. Abundance of brachyuran larvae was significantly positively correlated with total zooplankton abundance (r2 = 0.8) and salinity (r2 = 0.71). Keywords: Brachyuran larvae, abundance, composition, Mida creek, Kenya West Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science Vol. 3 (2) 2004: pp.

  2. Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu basin, Tanzania. G Nkwengulila, ESP Kigadye. Abstract. A survey was carried out on digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails in five habitats in Dar es Salaam, Ruvu and Morogoro. 9424 snails belonging to 12 species from five families were examined for ...

  3. The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi-Temboni pond, Dar es Salaam. ESP Kigadye, G Nkwengulila. Abstract. The abundance of digenean larvae in snails at a pond in Mbezi-Temboni, Dar es Salaam, was investigated from July 1996 to June 1997. A total of 2,112 snails belonging to three species, ...

  4. Larvicidal effects of lemon peels on mosquito larvae | ANYANWU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extract of the dry peels of the common edible plant, Citrus limon (family, Rutaceae), was obtained using a Soxhlet extractor and its larviciding effect evaluated against the larvae of two household mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Each batch of larvae (20-30) were treated with 3.90, 15.63, ...

  5. Shrinkage Rates In Newly Hatched Larvae Of Macrobrachium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of formalin/sea-water solution (2% and 4% formalin conc. buffered with borax) on the total lengths of preserved samples of newly hatched Macrobrachium vollenhovenii larvae was investigated. The influence of an aesthesia on larvae in 2% and 4% formal in was also studied to determine the combine influence of ...

  6. Rapid bioassay to screen potential biopesticides in Tenebrio molitor larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simplified assay was devised to evaluate the response of Tenebrio molitor larvae to potential insect control products. The assay incorporates punched disks of flattened whole-grain bread placed in 96-well plates, with treatments applied topically, and neonate larvae added to each well. To evalua...

  7. Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Lind, Peter; Nansen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    of uninfected pigs was used as negative controls for blood parameters and weight gain. Toxocara canis migrated well in the pig, although the relative numbers of larvae recovered decreased significantly during the experiment. On day 7 p.i., high numbers of larvae were recovered from the lymph nodes around...

  8. Nutritional condition of fish larvae in South African estuaries: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is concluded that the individual RNA/DNA ratio can provide a reliable, sensitive and cost-effective method to assess the immediate effects of environmental changes on the nutritional condition of estuarine fish larvae. Keywords: estuarine ecology, Gilchristella aestuaria larvae, lipid content, protein content, RNA/DNA ratio, ...

  9. Observations on the seasonal dynamics of Caddisfly larvae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Trichoptera fauna in the water body consisted of two genera, Cheumatopsyche and Amphipsyche, which closely associated with the moss, Fontinalis (Bryophyta). The density of larvae increased with the occurrence and bloom of moss. The changes in density of larvae are discussed with reference to the resources ...

  10. Preliminary notes on the decapod larvae of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menon, M.K.; Menon, P.G.; Paulinose, V.T.

    fairly good numbers were captured are described and illustrated with suitable charts The possible effect of the time of haul and the season on the number of larvae caught is explained The probable parentage of the more commonly encountered types of larvae...

  11. Evaluation of Feeding Stimulant Mixed with Chemical and Bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Efficiency of feeding stimulants (Bioenhencer) was studied alone and in combinations with chemical insecticides or entomopathogens against the defoliating pests, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) and Spodoptera exigua Hbn. (in fields of cotton and soybean) and the bollworms Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders and ...

  12. Freshly squeezed: anaphylaxis caused by drone larvae juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoevesandt, J; Trautmann, A

    2017-11-30

    Drone larvae are mostly considered a by-product of beekeeping, but have recently been advo-cated as a high-protein source of food. There are as yet no data concerning their allergenic po-tential. We report on a 29-year old bee keeper who experienced an anaphylactic reaction following the consumption of a freshly prepared beverage from raw drone larvae. Larvae-specific sensitization was confirmed by prick-to-prick and basophil activation testing. Bee stings and classical bee products including honey and royal jelly were tolerated. This is the hitherto first report on IgE-mediated allergy to drone larvae. We suggest that a certain awareness towards the allergenicity of bee larvae is required.

  13. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  14. Sulfolipid in mulberry leaves and faeces of silkworm larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Tadaaki

    1975-01-01

    Sulfoquinovosyl diglyceride (sulfolipid) were separated by chromatography on a ECTEOLA cellulose column from the extracts of mulberry leaves and faeces of silkworm larvae. Lipid from the leaves which had been labeled with 35 S-sulfuric acid for 24 hours separated to five 35 S containing fractions on column chromatography. Most of the 35 S in the lipid fraction was recovered as sulfolipid. No appreciable amounts of 35 S, however, were recognized as sulfolipid in the extract of the faeces of silkworm larvae which were fed 35 S-containing mulberry leaves. These results suggest that silkworm larvae actively dissimilate sulfolipid, which is the most abundant among the sulfur containing lipids in mulberry leaves. When 35 S labeled sulfolipid which was recovered from the extract of mulberry leaves was fed to the larvae, 35 S was not incorporated into the cell constituent of the larvae and 35 S of sulfolipid was entirely excreted. (auth.)

  15. Estádio de adaptação de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em hospedeiros alternativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Gisele Brasil Boregas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A principal praga-alvo na cultura do milho é a lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, que, pela sua ampla distribuição temporal e geográfica constitui-se em uma das espécies mais nocivas nas regiões tropicais das Américas. O objetivo foi avaliar o estádio de adaptação de S. frugiperda em 17 espécies hospedeiras, cultivadas ou selvagens, mais comuns no agroecossistema brasileiro. As plantas foram cultivadas em cinco épocas, entre 2006 e 2008, utilizando o milho como padrão. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram individualizadas e confinadas em copo plástico (50 mL, onde foram alimentadas com seções de folha nova de cada hospedeiro. O alimento foi substituído a cada dois dias por folhas frescas. Quatro variáveis biológicas foram avaliadas e utilizadas para se calcular um Índice de Adaptação (IA. Os resultados indicaram que a sobrevivência inicial de S. frugiperda variou de 100%, no milho, a 46%, no arroz. O período larval variou de 12,6 dias, no milho, a 27,1 dias, na grama batatais. A biomassa de pupa variou de 173,1 mg, no carrapicho, a 294,2 mg, no milho. O índice de adaptação, calculado com base nas variáveis biológicas de S. frugiperda, nos hospedeiros avaliados, variou de 17,43, no milho cultivado na época I, a 1,46, na cana-de-açúcar na época III. Para corrigir o efeito de época sobre o índice de adaptação de S. frugiperda nos hospedeiros, foi calculado o Índice Relativo de Adaptação (IRA, com base no índice de adaptação no milho (100%. Assim, com base no índice relativo de adaptação, estimado em condições de laboratório, os hospedeiros alternativos ao milho, para S. frugiperda, podem ser assim ordenados, do maior para o menor índice: sorgo granífero, sorgo selvagem, milheto, capim-tanzânia, amendoim, capim-marandu, capim-braquiária, caruru-de-porco, trigo, soja, algodão, feijão, arroz, capim-carrapicho, grama batatais e cana-de-açúcar.

  16. Fixation of Ilyanassa snail embryos and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbiah, Maey; Cooley, James; Leise, Esther M; Nakamoto, Ayaki; Rabinowitz, Jeremy S; Lambert, J David; Nagy, Lisa M

    2009-04-01

    The marine gastropod Ilyanassa obsoleta is a long-standing and very useful model for studies of embryonic development. It is an especially important model for spiralian development, and for studies of asymmetric cell division. The embryos are amenable to classic embryological manipulation techniques, as well as a growing number of molecular approaches. Ilyanassa is also an important model for studies of metamorphosis, the ecology of parasitism, the effects of environmental contaminants on morphology and sexual function, and comparative neurobiology. Ilyanassa embryos are particularly well suited for RNA and protein localization studies because of the relatively large cells and favorable properties for imaging. This protocol describes how to fix and store Ilyanassa embryos and larvae for use in whole-mount in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies.

  17. The Pathogenicity of Bio-Insecticide Protecto to Gamma Irradiated Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazaa, M.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Toxicological study using commercial formulation of Protecto based on the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki (B.t) in concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 10% were carried out versus second and fourth larval instar of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). The different pathological and biological aspects as larval and pupal mortality and developmental periods obviously increased by concentration increment, where the maximum mortality percentage, 91.66%, was observed when a concentration of 10% was used against the second instar. The longest developmental period, 29.1 days, was obtained when a concentration of 10% was applied against the second instar while it was 24.88 days when the same concentration was applied against the fourth instar. The pupation percentage, adult emergence percentage, survival percentage and adult longevity almost decreased by concentration increase where the least pupation and adult emergence percentage of second larval instar were observed at a concentration of 10%, it was 18.33 and 45.45% respectively and survival percentage decreased to 8.33, 21.66% at both instars at the concentration of 10%. Also the adult female and male moth longevity decreased by increasing Bacterial concentration. LC50 was calculated for second and fourth instar. Two substerlizing doses of gamma radiation 175 and 125 Gy were applied to full grown male pupae and different mating aspects as mating percentage, fecundity, fertility, average number of spermatophores per mated female were calculated where the fecundity and fertility were significantly decreased among P1 and F1 generations compared to control. The second and fourth larval instar of the F1 generation of the two substerlizing doses were treated with LC50 of protecto and the different mating statuses were studied which indicated a clear decrease in fecundity and a significant decrease in fertility of females mated with treated males among P1 and F1 generations. The

  18. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato A Carvalho

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is an economically important pest of small grain crops that occurs in all maize growing regions of the Americas. The intensive use of chemical pesticides for its control has led to the selection of resistant populations, however, to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance have not been characterised. In this study the mechanisms involved in the resistance of two S. frugiperda strains collected in Brazil to chlorpyrifos (OP strain or lambda-cyhalothrin (PYR strain were investigated using molecular and genomic approaches. To examine the possible role of target-site insensitivity the genes encoding the organophosphate (acetylcholinesterase, AChE and pyrethroid (voltage-gated sodium channel, VGSC target-site proteins were PCR amplified. Sequencing of the S. frugiperda ace-1 gene identified several nucleotide changes in the OP strain when compared to a susceptible reference strain (SUS. These result in three amino acid substitutions, A201S, G227A and F290V, that have all been shown previously to confer organophosphate resistance in several other insect species. Sequencing of the gene encoding the VGSC in the PYR strain, identified mutations that result in three amino acid substitutions, T929I, L932F and L1014F, all of which have been shown previously to confer knockdown/super knockdown-type resistance in several arthropod species. To investigate the possible role of metabolic detoxification in the resistant phenotype of the OP and PYR stains all EST sequences available for S. frugiperda were used to design a gene-expression microarray. This was then used to compare gene expression in the resistant strains with the susceptible reference strain. Members of several gene families, previously implicated in metabolic resistance in other insects were found to be overexpressed in the resistant strains including glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome P450s and carboxylesterases. Taken together these results

  19. The other gastropod larvae: larval morphogenesis in a marine neritimorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Louise R; Ferguson, Samuel J

    2013-04-01

    Two of the three major gastropod clades with feeding larvae are sister groups and larval morphogenesis for members of these clades, the Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia, has been well studied. The third clade, the Neritimorpha, has an unstable phylogenetic position and little is known about development of their planktotrophic larvae. Information about larval morphology of neritimorphs and resolution of their controversial phylogenetic placement is critically important for understanding evolution of larval feeding within the Gastropoda. We describe larval morphogenesis to metamorphic competence for laboratory-reared larvae of Nerita melanotragus (Smith, 1884) (Neritimorpha: Neritidae). Preliminary observations suggest that prehatch larvae are capable of delayed hatching, possibly by entering a diapause state. Our description of larval morphogenesis, as based on tissue sections for light and transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, three-dimensional-reconstructions of sectioned tissue, and labeling of muscles with fluorphore-tagged phalloidin, revealed four features that are unprecedented among both feeding and nonfeeding gastropod larvae. Larvae of N. melanotragus have muscles on the left and right side that both meet current criteria of a larval retractor muscle; shell-anchored muscles with oblique striations that project inside the visceral nerve loop to insert mainly on the velar lobes. They also have left and right digestive glands of similar size and a left and right hypobranchial gland. A larval "heart" is absent, but water circulation through the mantle cavity may be facilitated by large circular orifices, lined by patches of motile cilia, leading in and out of the mantle cavity. Comparison of larval traits among all three groups of gastropods with feeding larvae indicates that larvae of N. melanotragus have many unique characteristics, but they show more similarities to caenogastropod than to heterobranch larvae. These results are a

  20. COMPARATIVE BIOLOGICAL DATA OF Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (LEPDOTERA: NOCTUIDAE IN COTTON AND MAIZE DADOS BIOLÓGICOS COMPARATIVOS DE Spodoptera frugiperda (L. E. Smith, 1797 (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE EM ALGODOEIRO E MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto P. Parra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This research deals with the compared biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smnith, 1797 on a natural diet consisting of leaves of the cotton plant (cultivar ";IAC-17"; and leaves of a hybrid corn plant (";HMD-7974";. The experiment was carried out under the following conditions: temperature, 25 +/- 2°C, moisture, 60 +/- 10% R.H. light, a 14-hour photoperiod. The following biological parameters were observed: egg stage: incubation period and viability; larval stage duration, number of instars, weight and viability; pupal stage: duration, weight and viability; adult stage: preoviposition period, fecundity and longevity. Generally speaking within these parameters, the results differed statistically, showing that the insects prefer the leaves of the corn plant.

    Estudou-se a biologia comparada de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 em dietas naturais (folhas de algodoeiro do cultivar "IAC-17" e folhas de milho provenientes do híbrido "HMD-7974". O ensaio foi conduzido à temperatura de 25 +/- 2°C, U.R. de 60 +/- 10% e fotoperíodo de 14 horas. Foram determinados em cada substrato: número e duração dos instares larvais, duração, peso e viabilidade larval, duração, peso e viabilidade pupal , período de pré-oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade dos adultos e período de incubação e viabilidade dos ovos. De modo geral, os resultados observados para esses parâmetros, diferiram estatisticamente, indicando a preferência das lagartas pelas folhas de milho.

  1. Effects of various diets on the calcium and phosphorus composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) and superworms (Zophobas morio larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'Toya V; Toddes, Barbara D; Wyre, Nicole R; Brown, Dorothy C; Michel, Kathryn E; Briscoe, Johanna A

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals. Treatment diets were as follows: wheat millings, avian hand feeding formula, organic avian mash diet, and a high-calcium cricket feed. Control groups received water only. After treatment, larvae were flash-frozen live with liquid nitrogen in preparation for complete proximate and mineral analyses. Analyses for the 2-day treatment group were performed in triplicate. RESULTS The nutrient composition of the high-calcium cricket feed groups had significant changes in calcium content, phosphorus content, and metabolizable energy at the 2-day interval, compared with other treatment groups, for both mealworms and superworms. Calcium content and calcium-to-phosphorus ratios for larvae in the high-calcium cricket feed group were the highest among the diet treatments for all treatment intervals and for both larval species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A 2-day interval with the high-calcium cricket feed achieved a larval nutrient composition sufficient to meet National Research Council dietary calcium recommendations for nonlactating rats. Mealworm calcium composition reached 2,420 g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours, and superworm calcium composition reached 2,070g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours. These findings may enable pet owners, veterinarians, insect breeders, and zoo curators to optimize nutritive content of larvae fed to insectivorous animals.

  2. Horários de atividade forrageadora e itens coletados por Protopolybia exigua (de Saussure) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) na região do médio São Francisco, Bahia

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Agda Alves da [UNESP

    2007-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi estudada a atividade diária de busca por recursos de Protopolybia exigua em duas áreas no município de Bom Jesus da Lapa (13º15 S; 43º25 W), Bahia, Brasil, localizado na região do Médio São Francisco, com o objetivo de responder as seguintes questões: Qual a amplitude de horário da atividade forrageadora? Qual a relação entre os fatores físicos do tempo (temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, luminosidade e velocidade do vento) e a freqüência de saídas do ninho? Qual a influê...

  3. Effects of Gamma Radiation on Reproduction and Mating Competitiveness in the Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H. A.; Alm El-Din, M. M. S.; El-Dessouki, S. A.; El-Awady, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    Full-grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 100, 125, 150 Gy. The fecundity of normal females crossed with treated males decreased with the increase of the dose given to males. The reduction in egg hatch was significant at all tested doses. The percentage of mated females was not clearly affected. However, the reduction observed in either percentage of inseminated female or the average number of spermatophores per mated female was increased by increasing the dose to males. Males irradiated by low doses of 125 and 150 Gy were fully competitive against untreated males for mating with normal females. Increasing the ratio of irradiated males to normal males from 1:1 to 5:1 decreased the rate of egg viability among P 1 and their successive filial generations. (Authors)

  4. A Z-linked sterility locus causes sexual abstinence in hybrid females and facilitates speciation in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Silvia; Heckel, David G; Yoshido, Atsuo; Marec, František; Groot, Astrid T

    2016-06-01

    In the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), two sympatric strains have been recognized that have been termed corn strain (C) and rice strain (R), referring to their most common host plants. Both strains are reproductively isolated via a distinct prezygotic barrier as well as via an intriguing postzygotic phenomenon: when R females have mated with C males, the resulting RC hybrid females exhibit dramatically reduced fertility independent of their mating partner. Here, we demonstrate that the reduced fertility is caused by the fact that these females refrain from mating, that is, females are behaviorally sterile. We identified a Z-chromosomally linked sterility locus that is most likely incompatible with yet to be identified autosomal (or cytoplasmic) factors, leading to the observed sexual abstinence. Within-chromosome mapping revealed the sterility locus to be located in an area of strongly reduced interstrain recombination. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Exploring three different expression systems for recombinant expression of globins: Escherichia coli, Pichia pastoris and Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, An; Hoogewijs, David; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2018-02-15

    Globins are among the best investigated proteins in biological and medical sciences and represent a prime tool for the study of the evolution of genes and the structure-function relationship of proteins. Here, we explore the recombinant expression of globins in three different expression systems: Escherichia coli, Pichia pastoris and the baculovirus infected Spodoptera frugiperda. We expressed two different human globin types in these three expression systems: I) the well-characterized neuroglobin and II) the uncharacterized, circular permutated globin domain of the large chimeric globin androglobin. It is clear from the literature that E.coli is the most used expression system for expression and purification of recombinant globins. However, the major disadvantage of E. coli is the formation of insoluble aggregates. We experienced that, for more complex multi-domain globins, like the chimeric globin androglobin, it is recommended to switch to a higher eukaryotic expression system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Larvas migrans ganglionar: Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Luis Álvarez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas migrans visceral cuya causa radica en la infestación con larvas de toxocara canis o cati, ocurre más frecuentemente en niños menores de 10 años. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 8 años de edad en el cual se diagnosticó larvas migrans ganglionar. Se comentan aspectos etioepidemiológicos de la enfermedad, su cuadro clínico y evolución. Se hace énfasis en las medidas higiénicas sanitarias de control y manipulación de excretas de animales domésticos, en este caso de perros y gatos.Visceral larvae migrans caused by the infestation with larvae of toxocara canis or cati are more frequent among children under 10. The case of an 8-year-old boy who was diagnosed ganglionar larva migrans is presented. Comments are made on some etioepidemiological aspects of the disease, as well as on his clinical picture and evolution. Emphasis is made on the hygienic and sanitary measures of control and manipulation of stools from pegs as dogs and cats. Las larvas migrans visceral cuya causa radica en la infestación con larvas de toxocara canis o cati, ocurre más frecuentemente en niños menores de 10 años. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 8 años de edad en el cual se diagnosticó larvas migrans ganglionar. Se comentan aspectos etioepidemiológicos de la enfermedad, su cuadro clínico y evolución. se hace énfasis en las medidas higiénicas sanitarias de control y manipulación de excretas de animales domésticos, en este caso de perros y gatos.

  7. Tools for automating the imaging of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulak, Rock

    2016-03-01

    The VAST BioImager system is a set of tools developed for zebrafish researchers who require the collection of images from a large number of 2-7 dpf zebrafish larvae. The VAST BioImager automates larval handling, positioning and orientation tasks. Color images at about 10 μm resolution are collected from the on-board camera of the system. If images of greater resolution and detail are required, this system is mounted on an upright microscope, such as a confocal or fluorescence microscope, to utilize their capabilities. The system loads a larvae, positions it in view of the camera, determines orientation using pattern recognition analysis, and then more precisely positions to user-defined orientation for optimal imaging of any desired tissue or organ system. Multiple images of the same larva can be collected. The specific part of each larva and the desired orientation and position is identified by the researcher and an experiment defining the settings and a series of steps can be saved and repeated for imaging of subsequent larvae. The system captures images, then ejects and loads another larva from either a bulk reservoir, a well of a 96 well plate using the LP Sampler, or individually targeted larvae from a Petri dish or other container using the VAST Pipettor. Alternative manual protocols for handling larvae for image collection are tedious and time consuming. The VAST BioImager automates these steps to allow for greater throughput of assays and screens requiring high-content image collection of zebrafish larvae such as might be used in drug discovery and toxicology studies. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Baculovirus p35 gene is oppositely regulated by P53 and AP-1 like factors in Spodoptera frugiperda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohareer, Krishnaveni [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, Center for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad 500001 (India); Institute of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad Campus, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Sahdev, Sudhir [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, Center for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad 500001 (India); Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals, Gurgaon, New Delhi (India); Hasnain, Seyed E., E-mail: seh@bioschool.iitd.ac.in [Institute of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad Campus, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, IIT Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); ILBS, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi (India); King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is regulated by both viral and host factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is negatively regulated by SfP53-like factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is positively regulated by SfAP-1-like factor. -- Abstract: Baculovirus p35 belongs to the early class of genes of AcMNPV and requires viral factors like Immediate Early protein-1 for its transcription. To investigate the role of host factors in regulating p35 gene expression, the putative transcription factor binding sites were examined in silico and the role of these factors in influencing the transcription of p35 gene was assessed. We focused our studies on AP-1 and P53-like factors, which are activated under oxidative stress conditions. The AP-1 motif is located at -1401 while P53 motif is at -1912 relative to p35 translation start site. The predicted AP-1 and P53 elements formed specific complexes with Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear extracts. Both AP-1 and P53 motif binding proteins were down regulated as a function of AcMNPV infection in Spodoptera cells. To address the question whether during an oxidative outburst, the p35 transcription is enhanced; we investigated the role of these oxidative stress induced host transcription factors in influencing p35 gene transcription. Reporter assays revealed that AP-1 element enhances the transcription of p35 by a factor of two. Interestingly, P53 element appears to repress the transcription of p35 gene.

  9. Expression of lacZ reporter gene under the control of the polyhedrin promoter of Spodoptera litura nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, A K; Kumar, M; Bansal, A; Bansal, O B; Das, R H

    1997-04-29

    Promoter function of the putative polyhedrin-encoding gene (polh) of Spodoptera litura nuclear polyhedrosis virus (S1MNPV) was determined by transferring it to the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) through the AcNPV polh based vector, pVL1393. Three transfer vectors pCBT2, pCBT3 and pCBT4 were constructed by substituting the promoter and the neighbouring sequences of AcNPV in pVL1393 by that of S1NPV. The Escherichia coli lacZ gene was placed downstream from the S1NPV polh promoter in the hybrid transfer vector (pCBT) constructs. Co-transfection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) with each of the pCBTlacZ vector and wild-type AcNPV DNAs led to synthesis of beta-galactosidase (beta Gal). The plaque-purified recombinant viruses (S1AcNPV.lacZ) expressing lacZ under the polh promoter of S1NPV are stable. The highest beta Gal activity was obtained with S1AcNPV4.lacZ. Production of beta Gal with recombinant virus, S1AcNPV3.lacZ in which S1NPV polh promoter is in the reverse orientation in the AcNPV genome, is 83% of that produced by S1AcNPV4.lacZ. These results indicate that the S1NPV polh promoter is active in the genetic environment of AcNPV; the polh of S1NPV is phylogenetically related to AcNPV like other baculoviruses.

  10. Chitinolytic activities in Bacillus thuringiensis and their synergistic effects on larvicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M; Cai, Q X; Liu, H Z; Zhang, B H; Yan, J P; Yuan, Z M

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of chitinase in Bacillus thuringiensis strains, and the enhancing effects of the chitinase-producing B. thuringiensis strains on insecticidal toxicity of active B. thuringiensis strain against Spodoptera exigua larvae. The chitinolytic activities of B.thuringiensis strains representing the 70 serotypes were investigated by the whitish opaque halo and the colorimetric method. Thirty-eight strains produced different levels of chitinase at pH 7.0, and so did 17 strains at pH 10.0. The strain T04A001 exhibited the highest production, reaching a specific activity of 355 U ml(-1) in liquid medium. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting showed that the chitinase produced by some B. thuringiensis strains had a molecular weight of about 61 kDa. The bioassay results indicated that the chitinase-producing B. thuringiensis strains could enhance the insecticidal activity of B. thuringiensis strain DL5789 against S. exigua larvae, with an enhancing ratio of 2.35-fold. This study demonstrated that chitinase was widely produced in B. thuringiensis strains and some of the strains could enhance the toxicity of active B. thuringiensis strain. This is the first investigation devoted exclusively to analyse the distribution of chitinase in B. thuringiensis. It infers that the chitinase produced by B. thuringiensis might play a role in the activity of the biopesticide.

  11. Functional characterization of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus gp16 (ac130)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Huang, Cui; Qian, Duo-Duo; Li, Lu-Lin, E-mail: lilulin@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

    2014-09-15

    To investigate the function of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) gp16, multiple gp16-knockout and repair mutants were constructed and characterized. No obvious difference in productivity of budded virus, DNA synthesis, late gene expression and morphogenesis was observed between gp16-knockout and repair viruses, but gp16 deletion resulted in six hours of lengthening in ST{sub 50} to the third instar Spodoptera exigua larvae in bioassays. GP16 was fractionated mainly in the light membrane fraction, by subcellular fractionation. A GP16-EGFP fusion protein was predominantly localized close around the nuclear membrane in infected cells, being coincident with formation of the vesicles associated with the nuclear membrane, which hosted nucleocapsids released from the nucleus. These data suggest that gp16 is not required for viral replication, but may be involved in membrane trafficking associated with the envelopment/de-envelopment of budded viruses when they cross over the nuclear membrane and pass through cytoplasm. - Highlights: • gp16 knockout and repair mutants of AcMNPV were constructed and characterized. • AcMNPV gp16 is not essential to virus replication. • Deletion of gp16 resulted in time lengthening to kill S. exigua larvae. • GP16 was localized close around the nuclear membrane of infected cells. • GP16 was fractionated in the light membrane fraction in subcellular fractionation.

  12. Vaccination of lambs with irradiated larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Singh, K.S.; Subramanian, G.

    1987-01-01

    Vaccination with a single dose of 2,000 infective larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum, irradiated at 40 kR, caused 80 per cent reduction in worm establishment and such lambs withstood a challenge infection which was otherwise fatal to non-vaccinated lambs. The female worms, which developed from irradiated larvae, were irregular in shape, had cuticular thickening at the genital opening and in many male worms the copulatory bursa was rudimentary. The sex ratio was adversely affected in worms developing from irradiated larvae. The population had preponderant sterile females and a very few male worms. (author)

  13. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  14. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  15. Microbial interference with hatch and survival of European eel larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Lauesen; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    Recent research has significantly improved our knowledge and capabilities in the field of in vitro production of yolk sac larvae from European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Female broodstock European eels are matured by weekly administration of pituitary extract and male eels with hCG (human chorionic...... gonadotropin), which afford gametes for in vitro fertilization studies. The maturing process may lead to mass hatchings of up to ½ million larvae of which some survive the entire yolk sac phase. However, the rearing of larvae suffers from high larval mortalities, and water quality might be a crucial factor...

  16. Foraging strategy switching in an antlion larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Jen; Okuyama, Toshinori

    2012-09-01

    Antlion larvae are typically considered as trap-building predators, but some species of antlions always forage without using pits or only sometimes use pits to capture prey; they can ambush prey without pits. This study examined a species that switches its strategy between pit-trapping and ambushing and asked the mechanism behind the switching behaviour. A dynamic optimization model incorporating tradeoffs between the two strategies was built. The tradeoffs were prey capture success and predation risk (both are higher when pit-trapping). The model predicted that antlions should use the trap-building strategy when their energy status is low and should use the ambush strategy when their energy status is high. These predictions as well as an assumption (i.e., predation risk associated with pit-trapping is higher than that associated with ambushing) of the model were empirically confirmed. The results suggest that antlions flexibly switch between pit-trapping and ambushing to maximize their fitness by balancing the costs and benefits of the two strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancement of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal activity by combining Cry1Ac and bi-functional toxin HWTX-XI from spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunjun; Fu, Zujiao; He, Xiaohong; Yuan, Chunhua; Ding, Xuezhi; Xia, Liqiu

    2016-03-01

    In order to assess the potency of bi-functional HWTX-XI toxin from spider Ornithoctonus huwena in improving the insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis, a fusion gene of cry1Ac and hwtx-XI was constructed and expressed in an acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strain Cry(-)B. Western blot analysis and microscopic observation revealed that the recombinant strain could express 140-kDa Cry1Ac-HWTX-XI fusion protein and produce parasporal inclusions during sporulation. Bioassay using the larvae of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua showed that the Cry1Ac-HWTX-XI fusion was more toxic than the control Cry1Ac protoxin, as revealed by 95% lethal concentration. Our study indicated that the HWTX-XI from spider might be a candidate for enhancing the toxicity of B. thuringiensis products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Amino Acid Absorption by Tiger Grouper Fish (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Larvae. (Absorbsi Asam Amino oleh Larva Ikan Kerapu Macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambariyanto Ambariyanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan Kerapu merupakan salah satu ikan unggulan yang ditargetkan sebagai komoditi eksport Indonesia. Usaha budidayanya saat ini sangat terganggu dengan tingginya mortalitas pada stadia larva. Usaha untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah dengan menggunakan obat seperti antibiotik yang ternyata tidak membuahkan hasil maksimal tetapi justru menimbulkan resistensi beberapa jenis bakteria. Salah satu aspek yang belum pernah dilihat dalam rangka mengatasi masalah ini adalah dengan mengusahakan percepatan pertumbuhan pada stadia larva sehingga akan lebih mampu menghindari dari beberapa penyebab mortalitas. Salah satu sumber energi yang terdapat dalam perairan namun dalam jumlah yang tidak besar adalah dissolved organic matter (DOM. Penelitian ini ditekankan untuk melihat kemampuan larva ikan Kerapu dalam memanfaatkan DOM (digunakan asam amino terlarut ;ATT yang terdapat di air laut. Sebanyak 16 (enam belas jenis asam amino yang terdiri dari tiga klas yakni neutral, basic, dan acidic digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Sedangkan larva ikan Kerapu yang digunakan berumur 2 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa larva ikan Kerapu menyerap seluruh jenis asam amino baik neutral, basic, dan acidic. Namun jenis asam amino yang diserap adalah glutamat, histidin, lisin, serin, metionin, tritopan dan iso leusin. Sedangkan yang paling banyak diserap oleh larva ikan ini adalah lisin. Hal yang menarik dalam penelitian ini adalah terdapat beberapa jenis asam amino yang diduga justru dikeluarkan oleh larva ikan tersebut yakni glysin, alanin, tyrosin, valin, phenil alanin dan leusin. Penyerapan beberapa jenis asam amino ini diduga dimanfaatkan oleh larva ikan Kerapu dalam proses pertumbuhannya. Kata kunci : asam amino terlarut, larva, Kerapu Macan, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus   Kerapu (grouper fish is known as an important and highly economic value fish and a good candidate for major export commodity for Indonesia. However, there is an important problem faced by its

  19. Automated high-throughput behavioral analyses in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richendrfer, Holly; Créton, Robbert

    2013-07-04

    We have created a novel high-throughput imaging system for the analysis of behavior in 7-day-old zebrafish larvae in multi-lane plates. This system measures spontaneous behaviors and the response to an aversive stimulus, which is shown to the larvae via a PowerPoint presentation. The recorded images are analyzed with an ImageJ macro, which automatically splits the color channels, subtracts the background, and applies a threshold to identify individual larvae placement in the lanes. We can then import the coordinates into an Excel sheet to quantify swim speed, preference for edge or side of the lane, resting behavior, thigmotaxis, distance between larvae, and avoidance behavior. Subtle changes in behavior are easily detected using our system, making it useful for behavioral analyses after exposure to environmental toxicants or pharmaceuticals.

  20. Bacteria and fungi isolated from housefly ( Musca domestica L.) larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variety of microorganisms, which includes the pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aerruginosa, Aspergillus tamarii and Bacullus cereus were found. Also, nonpathogenic microbes werer recovered including Bacillus subtilis and Stroplococcus faecalis. Keywords: Microorganism, isolation, housefly larvae.

  1. Spatial habitat for eel larva at Cimandiri estuary, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarina, N. D.; Supriatna

    2017-07-01

    The estuarine ecosystem is known as suitable breeding sites for fishes because this particular habitat is receiving continuous organic matters from river ways and constant sunlight due to its depth that allows sunlight penetration. Cimandiri estuary is one of the estuaries located in the south of Java Island close to the Indian Ocean and known as a suitable habitat for eel larva that routinely collected by local people. Eel habitat has a relationship with the dynamic of space. This dynamic influenced by season, water flow, tide, bathymetry, salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO). The geographic information system is an approach in studying habitat dynamic, through modeling. Furthermore, the spatial model for eel larva habitat is required for land use planning that aimed to achieve sustainable eels larva rearing and conserve estuarine habitat as well. The aim of this research was to investigate dynamics on spatial habitat of eel larva at Cimandiri estuary, West Java.

  2. Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Lind, Peter; Nansen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The migratory pattern of Toxocara canis was investigated following infection of pigs with 60 000 infective eggs. Groups of six pigs were slaughtered at 7, 14 and 28 days after infection (p.i.), and the number of larvae in selected organs and muscles was determined by digestion. A group...... of uninfected pigs was used as negative controls for blood parameters and weight gain. Toxocara canis migrated well in the pig, although the relative numbers of larvae recovered decreased significantly during the experiment. On day 7 p.i., high numbers of larvae were recovered from the lymph nodes around...... towards T. canis L2/L3 ES products was observed from day 14 p.i. until termination of the experiment, and the maximum eosinophil response was observed 14 days p.i. The pig is a useful non-primate model for human visceral larva migrans, since T. canis migrate well and induce a strong immunological response...

  3. Culturing Embryos and Larvae of Marine Molluscs and Protochordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, R.; Turner, S. C.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a description for maintaining adult forms of molluscs and protochordates in order to obtain gametes for laboratory studies of animal development. The methods also include those for culturing embryonic larvae forms in vitro. (Author/SA)

  4. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gende, L.B.; Pires, Sância; Fernandez, N.J.; Damiani, M.; Churio, M.S.; Fritz, R.; Eguaras, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    American foulbrood is a serious bacterial disease that affects Apis mellifera colonies; the causative agent is Paenibacillus larvae [1 ]. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oils against P. larvae. Oils from 21 botanical species were analyzed by gas chromatography (CG and CG/EM). All essential oils were classified according to the composition of their main components in two groups: benzene ring compounds (BRC) and terpene com...

  5. Rearing gymnolaemate bryozoan larvae for cellular and molecular analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Gymnolaemates represent the largest group of extant bryozoans, having more than 3,000 described species. Gymnolaemates display a diverse array of reproductive and developmental patterns including planktotrophy, lecithotrophy, and matrotrophy. The larvae of gymnolaemates have been broadly grouped into three types, cyphonautes (shelled, feeding), pseudocyphonautes (shelled, nonfeeding), and coronate (unshelled, nonfeeding), although each group is heterogeneous and probably includes various morphologies that are largely undescribed. Here, methods for rearing bryozoan colonies and larvae are presented.

  6. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  7. Larval structure of Passalus gravelyiand sexual dimorphism in Passalid larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Mattos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The adults and larvae of Passalidae are subsocial insects commonly found in tropical forests, living in decaying wood gallery systems constructed by adults. Currently, few repots on the larvae of Neotropical Passalidae have been published and information is scarce. In this study, the Passalus (Pertinax gravelyiMoreira, 1922 larvae is described for the first time, based on ten larval specimens 1 (1° instar, 4 (2° instar, and 5 (3° instar associated with three adults collected from a single colony at the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The description was carried out based on electronic and digital photographs of diagnostic structures, with some details on the systematic of the species. The larvae of Passalus gravelyihas the general setal 'Pertinax' pattern and differed from others by 16 to 18 setae on the anal ring, the other larvae data from Brazilian species show the anal ring with 10 to 12 setae. A discussion on the presence of sexual dimorphism in 62 species of two and three instars of Passalidae larvae is provided for the first time. Besides, a description of the terminal ampullapresent as a cuticular structure found in the medial-ventral area of the 9th abdominal sternite in males is also given. The terminal ampullawas only observed in the Passalidae male larvae and was not visible in female larvae. The terminal ampullaare acknowledged now in males of 64 passalid species, that are taxonomically distributed in world tropical forests, at the Oriental and Australian subfamily Aulacocyclinae (Aulacocyclini & Ceracupini and the cosmotropical subfamily Passalinae (Solenocyclini, Macrolinini, Passalini, & Proculini.

  8. Potential of turmeric rhizome essential oils against Aedes aegypti larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselina Panghiyangani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF has long been a serious health problem in Indonesia, including Kalimantan (Borneo, as is evident from the increased case fatality rate in Banjarbaru city. Synthetic chemical insecticides have frequently been used to eradicate mosquitoes, but are toxic to the body and resistance of adult and larvae mosquito Aedes aegypti has been reported. The present study aims to assess the effect of essential oils of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma domestica Val against Aedes aegypti larvae Methods This was an experimental study of post test one group design, performed in two phases, using Aedes aegypti larvae as test organisms. In the first phase, laboratory-reared larvae were used for calculation of the LC50 and LC90, while in the second phase the test organisms were larvae taken from 75 buildings that had been designated based on a preliminary survey in four sub-districts in Banjarbaru city with a high incidence of dengue cases. Probit analysis of was used to calculate LC50 and LC90, and the Kruskal-Wallis test to determine the larvicidal potency of turmeric rhizome essential oils. Results This study demonstrates that turmeric rhizome essential oils effectively killed laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti larvae at an LC50 of 9.239 ppm and an LC90 of 13.565 ppm. The effectiveness of the essential oils of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma domestica Val. for killing Aedes aegypti larvae in residential areas was 68%. Conclusion Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val. rhizome essential oils can kill Aedes aegypti larvae, are environment friendly and can be used for the control of mosquitoes.

  9. Evaluation of growth performance of Clarias gariepinus larvae fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial, involving the use of two starter diets (artemia and aqualis) was carried out in the laboratory, to evaluate the growth performance of C. gariepinus larvae fed artemia and aqualis fish feeds. A total of 200 (48 hours old C. gariepinus larvae) of mean weight 4.8 ± 0.01mg and length 6.16 ± 0.03mm were reared for ...

  10. Characterization of secreted proteases of Paenibacillus larvae, potential virulence factors in honeybee larval infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), the most severe bacterial disease that affects honeybee larvae. AFB causes a significant decrease in the honeybee population affecting the beekeeping industry and agricultural production. After infection of larvae, P. larvae se...

  11. Long-duration feedings and caste differentiation in Bombus terrestris larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    The duration of feedings received by Bombus terrestris larvae was studied using video-recordings. In the last days of development all larvae received feedings mainly of long duration. Worker larvae of the third brood received significantly longer feedings than worker larvae reared in the other

  12. Biorheological action of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae on human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Patricia Ponce; Del Balzo, Gonzalo; Riquelme, Bibiana

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that A. lumbricoides extracts capture sialic acid (SA) from human red blood cells (RBC). The aim of this work was to study hemorheological alterations in vitro caused by parasite larvae. The biorheological action of three larva concentrates of first and second larval stage on group O erythrocytes was analyzed by incubating the erythrocyte packed together with an equal volume of larvae (treated RBC) and PBS (control RBC). Distribution and parameters of aggregation (digital image analysis), aggregation kinetics (erythroaggregameter), and viscoelasticity (erythrodeformeter) were measured. The digital image analysis showed that all the larvae diminished the isolated cells percentage and increased the size of the formed aggregates. The aggregate formation velocity was lower in the treated than in the control. The deformability index (ID) values of treated RBC did not present variations with respect to those of the control, but a decrease in the erythrocyte elastic modulus (μ(m)) and membrane surface viscosity (η(m)) values was observed, indicating that the larvae not only induced a diminution in the membrane surface viscosity of RBC but also altered the dynamic viscoelasticity of the membrane. Experiments carried out in vitro support the conclusion that the contact between larvae and RBC produces hemorheological alterations.

  13. Using Real-time PCR for Identification of Paenibacillus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was identification of Paenibacillus larvae that causes American foulbrood disease (AFB in colony of bees (Apis mellifera. Bacterial isolates originated from honey samples, because presence of P. larvae in honey is treated as early diagnostic of AFB. Intense proteolytic activity and no catalase activity are typical for Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria P. larvae. We diluted honey (1:2, heated at 80 °C for 10 min and inoculated on semiselective medium MYPGP agar with nalidixic acid. Plates were cultivated at 37 °C for 48 – 72 h under the aerobic conditions. Selected colonies were transferred on MYT agar and cultivated 24 h. We analysed 30 honey samples and found 27 bacterial isolates. All isolates were Gram positive and mainly rod-shaped. No catalase activity was documented for 6 from 27 isolates. Identification was finished by real-time PCR to detect the 16S rRNA gene of Paenibacillus larvae with real-time cycler Rotor-Gene 6000. As DNA template we used genomic DNA isolated with commercial kit and DNA lysate obtaining by boiled cells. We used 2 strains of P. larvae from CCM (Czech Collection of Microorganisms as positive control. The reliable method of detection P. larvae has important rule for beekeeping.

  14. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Leonor; Negri, Pedro; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-04-12

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro -reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin , and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Quantification of vestibular-induced eye movements in zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Weike

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular reflexes coordinate movements or sensory input with changes in body or head position. Vestibular-evoked responses that involve the extraocular muscles include the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, a compensatory eye movement to stabilize retinal images. Although an angular VOR attributable to semicircular canal stimulation was reported to be absent in free-swimming zebrafish larvae, recent studies reveal that vestibular-induced eye movements can be evoked in zebrafish larvae by both static tilts and dynamic rotations that tilt the head with respect to gravity. Results We have determined herein the basis of sensitivity of the larval eye movements with respect to vestibular stimulus, developmental stage, and sensory receptors of the inner ear. For our experiments, video recordings of larvae rotated sinusoidally at 0.25 Hz were analyzed to quantitate eye movements under infrared illumination. We observed a robust response that appeared as early as 72 hours post fertilization (hpf, which increased in amplitude over time. Unlike rotation about an earth horizontal axis, rotation about an earth vertical axis at 0.25 Hz did not evoke eye movements. Moreover, vestibular-induced responses were absent in mutant cdh23 larvae and larvae lacking anterior otoliths. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a functional vestibulo-oculomotor circuit in 72 hpf zebrafish larvae that relies upon sensory input from anterior/utricular otolith organs.

  16. Observations of the sound producing organs in achelate lobster larvae

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    John A. Fornshell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Achelata, lobsters lacking claws and having a phyllosoma larva, are divided into two families, the Palinuridae or spiny lobsters and the Scyllaridae or slipper lobsters. Within the Palinuridae adults of two groups were identified by Parker (1884, the Stridentesthat are capable of producing sounds, and the Silentesthat are not known to produce sounds. The Stridentes employ a file-like structure on the dorsal surface of the cephalon and a plectrum consisting of a series of ridges on the proximal segment of the second antenna to produce their sounds. All species of Achelata hatch as an unpigmented thin phyllosoma larva. The phyllosoma larva of the Stridentes have a presumptive file-like structure on the dorsal cephalon. A similar file-like structure is found on the cephalon of one species of Silentes, Palinurellus wienckki, and some but not all of the phyllosoma larvae of the Scyllaridae. No presumptive plectrum is found on the second antenna of any of the phyllosoma larvae. Presence of a presumptive file-like structure on phyllosoma larvae of Silentes and Scyllaridae suggests that the ability to produce sounds may have been lost secondarily in the Silentes and Scyllaridae.

  17. Long-wavelength photosensitivity in coral planula larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Benjamin M; Cohen, Jonathan H

    2012-04-01

    Light influences the swimming behavior and settlement of the planktonic planula larvae of coral, but little is known regarding the photosensory biology of coral at this or any life-history stage. Here we used changes in the electrical activity of coral planula tissue upon light flashes to investigate the photosensitivity of the larvae. Recordings were made from five species: two whose larvae are brooded and contain algal symbionts (Porites astreoides and Agaricia agaricites), and three whose larvae are spawned and lack algal symbionts (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata,and Montastrea faveolata). Photosensitivity originated from the coral larva rather than from, or in addition to, its algal symbionts as species with and without symbionts displayed similar tissue-level electrical responses to light. All species exhibited as much (or more) sensitivity to red stimuli as to blue/green stimuli, which is consistent with a role for long-wavelength visible light in the preference for substrata observed during settlement and in facilitating vertical positioning of larvae in the water column.

  18. Guppies as predators of common mosquito larvae in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeza, S N R; Norma-Rashid, Y; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2014-03-01

    Observation on predation activities of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) on the larvae of three species of mosquito, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was carried out under laboratory conditions. Male and female guppies were used as predators for predation experiments on the 4th instars of mosquito larvae. The daily feeding rates comparing male and female guppies on mosquito larvae were different; the female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae than male guppies did. The daily feeding rates of female guppies were 121.3 for Ae. aegypti, 105.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 72.3 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The daily feeding rates of male guppies were 98.6 for Ae. aegypti, 73.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 47.6 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In terms of prey preference, there was greater preference towards mosquito larvae of Ae. aegypti, followed by Ae. albopictus, and the least preferred was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Male and female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae during lights on (day time) compared with lights off (night time). The water volume, prey species, number of fish predators available, prey densities, and prey's sex also influenced the predation activities.

  19. A fly larva (Syrphidae: Ocyptamus that preys on adult flies

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    Onanchi Ureña

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory syrphid larvae feed on relatively immobile prey, but here we report the first case (as far as we are aware of obligatory predation on very mobile prey. Larvae of an undescribed species of Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae were found in whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae aggregations on the undersides of citrus leaves. However, instead of preying on the whitefly nymphs (as would be expected, the larvae preyed on adult flies (Diptera that were attracted to the honeydew. In the laboratory, larvae captured significantly more flies on whitefly infested leaves than on washed leaves, and generally abandoned leaves that lacked whiteflies. Most cases of successful prey capture involved flies that probed the anterior part of the larva’s body with its proboscis (as if it were honeydew. The syrphid larva lashed out at the fly and entangled it in sticky oral secretion. The prey did not recover when they were removed from the larva, suggesting that this new predatory species also employs venom to subdue its prey. Although the larvae consumed some honeydew, they were unable to complete their development on this diet. Two parasitoids were reared from Ocyptamus puparia, Proaspicera sp. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Paracarotomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, both of which are endoparasitic koinobionts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1157-1163. Epub 2010 December 01.Las larvas depredadoras de Syrphidae se alimentan de presas relativamente inmóviles, pero aquí reportamos el primer caso (hasta ahora conocido de la depredación obligatoria en presas muy móviles. Se encontraron las larvas de una especie no descrita de Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae juntas con ninfas de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en el envés de las hojas de cítricos. Sin embargo, en vez de alimentarse de las ninfas de mosca blanca (como debería esperarse, las larvas se alimentaron de moscas adultas (Diptera que fueron atraídas a las excreciones azucaradas de la mosca blanca. En el

  20. Increased long-flight activity triggered in beet armyworm by larval feeding on diet containing Cry1Ac protoxin.

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    Xing Fu Jiang

    Full Text Available Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving

  1. Impact of the number of Spodoptera frugiperda egg layers on parasitism by Trichogramma atopovirilia Impacto do número de camadas de ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda no parasitismo por Trichogramma atopovirilia

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    Eduardo Barbosa Beserra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae can be found in several crops attacking Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae eggs. It is therefore necessary to demonstrate the capacity of these natural enemies in suppressing populations of the pest to allow them to be used in biological control programs against that species. This work had the objective of evaluating the impact of egg layer distribution in S. frugiperda egg masses on the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Masses containing one, two, and three layers were used as treatments, and 1.6 parasitoid per egg of the pest were released. Parasitism percentage differences were observed among the three types of masses under study, on average 66.24 ± 8.56%, 45.20 ± 6.20%, and 40.10± 3.46% for egg masses with one, two, and three layers, respectively, demonstrating the potential of use of the parasitoid for the control of fall armyworm.Parasitóides de ovos do gênero Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae ocorrem em diversas culturas atacando ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae sendo necessário que se demonstre a capacidade desses inimigos naturais em suprimir a população da praga para que eles possam ser utilizados em programas de controle biológico daquela espécie. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da distribuição dos ovos em camadas nas posturas de S. frugiperda sobre a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Foram utilizadas como tratamentos posturas com uma, duas e três camadas e liberado 1.6 parasitóide por ovo da praga. Observaram-se diferenças quanto à porcentagem de parasitismo entre os três tipos de posturas estudados, sendo em média de 66,24 ± 8,56%, 45,20 ± 6,20% e 40,10 ± 3,46% para posturas com uma, duas e três camadas respectivamente, mostrando o potencial de utilização do

  2. Amostragem por larva-única na vigilância de Aedes aegypti Single-larva sampling for Aedes aegypti surveillance

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    José Eduardo Bracco

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de testar a metodologia de amostragem por larva-única na vigilância entomológica do Aedes aegypti, foram pesquisados domicílios do Município de Araraquara, SP (Brasil. Nos criadouros que continham larvas de Aedes uma delas foi coletada. Como controle, após a coleta da larva-única, todas as larvas foram coletadas para identificação posterior. Esse processo foi repetido no laboratório. Dos 447 domicílios visitados, apenas 12 foram considerados positivos e 20 criadouros foram identificados; destes, 13 continham larvas de Aedes; 5, larvas de Aedes e Culex e 2, larvas de Culex. Os resultados mostram o reconhecimento correto, no campo, de todos os criadouros, evidenciando que o método poderia ser utilizado na vigilância entomológica de municípios sem infestação domiciliar ou infestados apenas com uma única espécie de Aedes.Buildings in Araraquara city, Southeastern Brazil, were searched during a year for the presence of Aedes larvae using single larva sampling in order to check the single-larva methodology. In those breeding places in wich Aedes larvae were found, one of them was collected. As a control, after the single larva had been collected, all the larvae from the breeding place were collected for later identification. This process was repeated in the laboratory. Of the 447 domiciles searched, 12 were considered positive and 20 breeding places were found. Of the breeding places, 13 contained Aedes larvae, 5 both Aedes and Culex larvae and 2 Culex larvae only. The results show that all the breeding places in the field were properly recognited showing the method may be used for Aedes surveillance in cities infested with one species only or without any domiciliary infestation.

  3. Image enhancement for tracking the translucent larvae of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukant Khurana

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster larvae are model systems for studies of development, synaptic transmission, sensory physiology, locomotion, drug discovery, and learning and memory. A detailed behavioral understanding of larvae can advance all these fields of neuroscience. Automated tracking can expand fine-grained behavioral analysis, yet its full potential remains to be implemented for the larvae. All published methods are unable to track the larvae near high contrast objects, including the petri-dish edges encountered in many behavioral paradigms. To alleviate these issues, we enhanced the larval contrast to obtain complete tracks. Our method employed a dual approach of optical-contrast boosting and post-hoc image processing for contrast enhancement. We reared larvae on black food media to enhance their optical contrast through darkening of their digestive tracts. For image processing we performed Frame Averaging followed by Subtraction then Thresholding (FAST. This algorithm can remove all static objects from the movie, including petri-dish edges prior to processing by the image-tracking module. This dual approach for contrast enhancement also succeeded in overcoming fluctuations in illumination caused by the alternating current power source. Our tracking method yields complete tracks, including at the edges of the behavioral arena and is computationally fast, hence suitable for high-throughput fine-grained behavioral measurements.

  4. Food web changes under ocean acidification promote herring larvae survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sswat, Michael; Stiasny, Martina H; Taucher, Jan; Algueró-Muñiz, Maria; Bach, Lennart T; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Riebesell, Ulf; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2018-05-01

    Ocean acidification-the decrease in seawater pH due to rising CO 2 concentrations-has been shown to lower survival in early life stages of fish and, as a consequence, the recruitment of populations including commercially important species. To date, ocean-acidification studies with fish larvae have focused on the direct physiological impacts of elevated CO 2 , but largely ignored the potential effects of ocean acidification on food web interactions. In an in situ mesocosm study on Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae as top predators in a pelagic food web, we account for indirect CO 2 effects on larval survival mediated by changes in food availability. The community was exposed to projected end-of-the-century CO 2 conditions (~760 µatm pCO 2 ) over a period of 113 days. In contrast with laboratory studies that reported a decrease in fish survival, the survival of the herring larvae in situ was significantly enhanced by 19 ± 2%. Analysis of the plankton community dynamics suggested that the herring larvae benefitted from a CO 2 -stimulated increase in primary production. Such indirect effects may counteract the possible direct negative effects of ocean acidification on the survival of fish early life stages. These findings emphasize the need to assess the food web effects of ocean acidification on fish larvae before we can predict even the sign of change in fish recruitment in a high-CO 2 ocean.

  5. Activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against Anisakis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, F; Muscolino, D; Beninati, C; Giuffrida, A; Panebianco, A

    2014-07-01

    Anisakiasis is an important food-borne disease especially in countries with high fish consumption. The increase of cases of human disease and the virtual absence of effective treatments have prompted the research on new active compounds against Anisakis larvae. As well known, the disease is related to the consumption of raw or almost raw seafood products, but also marinated and/or salted fishery products, if the processing is insufficient to destroy nematode larvae can represent a risks for the consumers. In the light of the biocidal efficacy against different pathogens demonstrated for various essential oils, the aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) against anisakidae larvae. The TEO at 10% and 5% concentration in oil sunflower seeds, caused in vitro the death of all larvae within 14 h, with cuticle and intestinal wall damages. The results obtained showing a significant activity against Anisakis larvae, suggest further investigation on TEO as a larvicidal agent and on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Odor-taste learning assays in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bertram; Biernacki, Roland; Thum, Jeannette

    2013-03-01

    The Drosophila larva is an emerging model for studies in behavioral neurogenetics because of its simplicity in terms of cell number. Despite this simplicity, basic features of neuronal organization and key behavior faculties are shared with adult flies and with mammals. Here, we describe a pavlovian-type learning assay in fruit fly larvae. A group of larvae is sequentially exposed to specific odors in the presence or the absence of sugar, and then tested to determine whether they prefer the odor previously experienced with the reward. The protocol uses a two-group, reciprocal training design: One group of Drosophila larvae is exposed to n-amyl acetate (AM) with a sugar reward (+), then subsequently exposed to 1-octanol (OCT) with no reward (denoted AM+/OCT). The other group receives the reciprocal training (AM/OCT+). The two groups of larvae are then tested for their choices between AM and OCT. Relatively higher preferences for AM after AM+/OCT training than after AM/OCT+ training reflect associative learning and are quantified by the learning index (LI). This method offers a robust, simple, cheap, and reasonably quick test for learning ability (an aversive version is available as well, using either high-concentration salt or quinine as punishment). With the concerted efforts of the Drosophila research community, we anticipate it will allow us to unravel the full circuitry underlying odor-taste learning on a single-cell level.

  7. Dimethyl Sulfide is a Chemical Attractant for Reef Fish Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foretich, Matthew A; Paris, Claire B; Grosell, Martin; Stieglitz, John D; Benetti, Daniel D

    2017-05-31

    Transport of coral reef fish larvae is driven by advection in ocean currents and larval swimming. However, for swimming to be advantageous, larvae must use external stimuli as guides. One potential stimulus is "odor" emanating from settlement sites (e.g., coral reefs), signaling the upstream location of desirable settlement habitat. However, specific chemicals used by fish larvae have not been identified. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is produced in large quantities at coral reefs and may be important in larval orientation. In this study, a choice-chamber (shuttle box) was used to assess preference of 28 pre-settlement stage larvae from reef fish species for seawater with DMS. Swimming behavior was examined by video-tracking of larval swimming patterns in control and DMS seawater. We found common responses to DMS across reef fish taxa - a preference for water with DMS and change in swimming behavior - reflecting a switch to "exploratory behavior". An open water species displayed no response to DMS. Affinity for and swimming response to DMS would allow a fish larva to locate its source and enhance its ability to find settlement habitat. Moreover, it may help them locate prey accumulating in fronts, eddies, and thin layers, where DMS is also produced.

  8. High magnetic field induced otolith fusion in the zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais-Roldán, Patricia; Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Schulz, Hildegard; Yu, Xin

    2016-04-11

    Magnetoreception in animals illustrates the interaction of biological systems with the geomagnetic field (geoMF). However, there are few studies that identified the impact of high magnetic field (MF) exposure from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners (>100,000 times of geoMF) on specific biological targets. Here, we investigated the effects of a 14 Tesla MRI scanner on zebrafish larvae. All zebrafish larvae aligned parallel to the B0 field, i.e. the static MF, in the MRI scanner. The two otoliths (ear stones) in the otic vesicles of zebrafish larvae older than 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) fused together after the high MF exposure as short as 2 hours, yielding a single-otolith phenotype with aberrant swimming behavior. The otolith fusion was blocked in zebrafish larvae under anesthesia or embedded in agarose. Hair cells may play an important role on the MF-induced otolith fusion. This work provided direct evidence to show that high MF interacts with the otic vesicle of zebrafish larvae and causes otolith fusion in an "all-or-none" manner. The MF-induced otolith fusion may facilitate the searching for MF sensors using genetically amenable vertebrate animal models, such as zebrafish.

  9. Microplastic ingestion in fish larvae in the western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Madeleine; Cole, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2017-07-01

    Microplastics have been documented in marine environments worldwide, where they pose a potential risk to biota. Environmental interactions between microplastics and lower trophic organisms are poorly understood. Coastal shelf seas are rich in productivity but also experience high levels of microplastic pollution. In these habitats, fish have an important ecological and economic role. In their early life stages, planktonic fish larvae are vulnerable to pollution, environmental stress and predation. Here we assess the occurrence of microplastic ingestion in wild fish larvae. Fish larvae and water samples were taken across three sites (10, 19 and 35 km from shore) in the western English Channel from April to June 2016. We identified 2.9% of fish larvae (n = 347) had ingested microplastics, of which 66% were blue fibres; ingested microfibers closely resembled those identified within water samples. With distance from the coast, larval fish density increased significantly (P microplastic concentrations (P microplastics and the incidence of ingestion in fish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature effects on the mating frequency of Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); Influencia da temperatura na frequencia de copula de Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner e Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milano, Patricia; Berti Filho, Evoneo [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola. Lab. de Entomologia Florestal; Parra, Jose R.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola. Lab. Biologia de Insetos; Consoli, Fernando L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola. Lab. de Ecologia Nutricional e Molecular de Interacoes entre Artropodes e Microrganismos]. E-mails: patmilano@gmail.com; eberti@esalq.usp.br; jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; fconsoli@esalq.usp.br

    2008-09-15

    This paper deals with the influence of temperature on the mating frequency of two lepidopterans, Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), which use different strategies of allocation, and with the utilization of nutrients for their reproductive activities. The insects were reared on artificial diets at 25 deg C, and the adults were exposed to five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 deg C) to observe the influence of each temperature on their mating frequency, fecundity, fertility and longevity. The temperature affected the mating frequency of both species, being more evident at 15 deg C and 35 deg C, mainly for A. gemmatalis, which presented a drastic reduction on mating activities. The highest number of matings were observed from 20 deg C to 30 deg C, with S. frugiperda presenting mating activity (0-8) much higher than that of A. gemmatalis (0-2), but no correlation was observed among the number of matings and all other biological parameters evaluated (fecundity, fertility and longevity). However, S. frugiperda showed a positive correlation between fecundity and mating activity of females (r = 0.589; P = 0.003) at 25 deg C. The highest fecundities were observed at temperatures from 20 deg C to 30 deg C for S. frugiperda and at 25 deg C for A. gemmatalis. For both species, the longevity of males and females decreased as temperature increased. (author)

  11. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  12. Antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates obtained from the housefly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Qin, Qi-Lian; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The housefly is an important resource insect and the housefly larvae are ideal source of food additives. The housefly larvae protein hydrolysates were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis by alcalase and neutral proteinase. Their antioxidant activities were investigated, including the superoxide and hydroxyl radicalscavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of both hydrolysates increased with their increasing concentrations. The alcalase hydrolysate (AH) showed higher scavenging activities against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical at low concentrations and higher metal-chelating activity than the neutral proteinase hydrolysate (NPH). The NPH exhibited higher scavenging activity against DPPH free radical and higher reducing power than the AH. Both hydrolysates showed more than 50% superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity at 10 μg/mL. These results indicate that both housefly larvae protein hydrolysates display high antioxidant activities and they could serve as potential natural antioxidant food additives.

  13. Histological Studies on Testes in Progeny of Gamma Irradiated Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Moth among Three Successive Generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; Alm El-Din, M.M.S.; El-Dessouki, S.A.; El-Awady, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full-grown male and female pupae of cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with the sub sterilizing dose of 125 Gy. The resulting P1 treated adults were crossed with the untreated opposite sex. All possible mating combinations of the resulting F1 adults and the untreated adult moths were carried out in order to obtain F2 generation. The histological observations on the testes of F1 males resulting from irradiated parental males or females showed moderate effect on the structure of testis contents. Most of sperm bundles showed retardation of spermatogenesis and less number of sperm bundles were found. The effects on testes of F2 and F3 males resulting from all possible crosses of F1 adults showed morphological abnormalities included shrinkage of testes contents, vacuolisation and dispersion of sperm bundles. Many spermatogonia and spermatocytes failed to develop to the next stages which lead to appearance of large vacuoles among the septum, or retardation in sperm maturation

  14. EFECTO DE DIETAS EN ADULTOS DE Spodoptera cosmioides (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE SOBRE LA FERTILIDAD, FECUNDIDAD Y LONGEVIDAD DEL ADULTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. CURIS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de cultivares de soja Bt + RR2Y determinó la emergencia de una nueva plaga, Spodoptera cosmioides, una plaga altamente polífaga de amplia distribución. La cría de insectos en cámaras de cría es necesaria para estudios de investigación básica y aplicada. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de tres dietas ricas en carbohidratos (solución de miel, de jarabe de glucosa y de jarabe de maíz en la alimentación de los adultos y determinar su efecto sobre la fecundidad, fertilidad y supervivencia de S. cosmioides. Se determinó que, si bien no se hallaron diferencias entre los tratamientos, la composición de los  azúcares de las dietas, puede afectar los parámetros reproductivos de esta plaga, ya que las hembras alimentadas con solución de miel natural, más rica en compuestos orgánicos, aumentaron la fecundidad, refl ejado en una mayor puesta y eclosión de huevos y la longevidad de los adultos.

  15. Enzymatic activity of α-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Characterization and Compartmentalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Darvishzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to gain a better understanding of the digestive physiology. The physiology and biochemistry of the insect digestive enzyme had an important role in the study of novel insecticidal strategies. The Egyptian cotton leafworm alimentary canal consists of a short foregut, a long midgut and a short hindgut. Application of pH indicators showed that alimentary canal was alkaline. Our results showed that activities of gut α-amylase were different in three parts of the insect gut. Also shown the greatest activity of α-amylase observed in the midgut followed by hindgut and foregut, respectively. However, there were not significant differences in activity of the enzyme in the midgut and hindgut. The optimal pH α-amylase in foregut, midgut and hindgut were 10.0. Zymogram analysis of different part of gut showed four bands in midgut, hind gut and two bands in foregut. Therefore, in midgut of S. littoralis, four isoenzymes were present. These results explain why more amylase activity was seen in these regions in the spectrophotometric assay.

  16. Identification of midgut microvillar proteins from Tenebrio molitor and Spodoptera frugiperda by cDNA library screenings with antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A H P; Cristofoletti, P T; Lorenzini, D M; Guerra, L O; Paiva, P B; Briones, M R S; Terra, W R; Ferreira, C

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify midgut microvillar proteins in insects appearing earlier (Coleoptera) and later (Lepidoptera) in evolution. For this, cytoskeleton-free midgut microvillar membrane from Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera) and Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) were used to raise antibodies. These were used for screening midgut cDNA expression libraries. Positive clones were sequenced, assembled and searched for similarities with gene/protein databases. The predicted midgut microvillar proteins from T. molitor were: cockroach allergens (unknown function), peritrophins (peritrophic membrane proteins), digestive enzymes (aminopeptidase, alpha-mannosidase) and unknown proteins. Predicted S. frugiperda midgut proteins may be grouped into six classes: (a) proteins involved in protection of midgut (thioredoxin peroxidase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, serpin and juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase); (b) digestive enzymes (astacin, transporter-like amylase, aminopeptidase, and carboxypeptidase); (c) peritrophins; (d) proteins associated with microapocrine secretion (gelsolin, annexin); (e) membrane-tightly bound-cytoskeleton proteins (fimbrin, calmodulin) and (f) unidentified proteins. The novel approach is compared with others and microvillar function is discussed in the light of the predicted proteins.

  17. Disentangling dispersal, vicariance and adaptive radiation patterns: a case study using armyworms in the pest genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergoat, Gael J; Prowell, Dorothy P; Le Ru, Bruno P; Mitchell, Andrew; Dumas, Pascaline; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Condamine, Fabien L; Silvain, Jean-François

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the recent development of integrative approaches that combine dated phylogenies with models of biogeographic evolution, it is becoming more feasible to assess the roles of dispersal and vicariance in creating complex patterns of geographical distribution. However, the historical biogeography of taxa with good dispersal abilities, like birds or flying insects, still remains largely unknown because of the lack of complete phylogenies accompanied by robust estimates of divergence times. In this study, we investigate the evolution and historical biogeography of the globally distributed pest genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) using complete taxon sampling and an extensive set of analyses. Through the analysis of a combined morphological and molecular dataset, we provide the first robust phylogenetic framework for this widespread and economically important group of moths. Historical biogeography approaches indicate that dispersal events have been the driving force in the biogeographic history of the group. One of the most interesting findings of this study is the probable occurrence of two symmetric long-distance dispersal events between the Afrotropical and the Neotropical region, which appear to have occurred in the late Miocene. Even more remarkably, our dated phylogenies reveal that the diversification of the clade that includes specialist grass feeders has followed closely the expansion of grasslands in the Miocene, similar to the adaptive radiation of specialist grazing mammals during the same period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanism and DNA-based detection of field-evolved resistance to transgenic Bt corn in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rahul; Hasler, James; Meagher, Robert; Nagoshi, Rodney; Hietala, Lucas; Huang, Fangneng; Narva, Kenneth; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2017-09-07

    Evolution of resistance threatens sustainability of transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a devastating pest of corn in the Western Hemisphere initially controlled by transgenic Bt corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein (event TC1507). However field-evolved resistance to TC1507 was observed in Puerto Rico in 2007 and has subsequently been reported in a number of locations in North and South America. Early studies on Puerto Rico fall armyworm populations found that the resistance phenotype was associated with reduced expression of alkaline phosphatase. However, in this work we show that field-evolved resistance to Cry1Fa Bt corn in Puerto Rico is closely linked to a mutation in an ATP Binding Cassette subfamily C2 (ABCC2) gene that functions as a Cry1Fa receptor in susceptible insects. Furthermore, we report a DNA-based genotyping test used to demonstrate the presence of the resistant (SfABCC2mut) allele in Puerto Rico populations in 2007, coincident with the first reports of damage to TC1507 corn. These DNA-based field screening data provide strong evidence that resistance to TC1507 in fall armyworm maps to the SfABCC2 gene and provides a useful molecular marker for detecting the SfABCC2mut allele in resistant fall armyworm.

  19. Morphological changes induced by thermal treatment and gamma irradiation on the males' hind legs of Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae; Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai S. EL-Degwi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of males' hind legs of Spodoptera littoralis subjected to thermal treatment (33 °C and 37 °C or/and irradiated with substerilizing doses of gamma radiation (75, 100 and 150 Gy were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM in the parental generation. Five types of sensilla have been distinguished; three types of trichoid sensilla (T1,T2 and T3, sensilla basiconica and sensilla auricillica, which are considered as olfactory chemoreceptors. Moreover, sensilla chaetica are contact chemoreceptors, whereas sensilla styloconica are thermo–hygro/gustatory mechanoreceptors. The impact of thermal treatment or/and gamma irradiation reflect a clear morphological change in S. littoralis legs'sensilla, claws, spurs and scales. Otherwise, the degree of deformity was thermal and dose dependent, as it increased with an increase of the degree of temperature and dose of irradiation applied. Substerilizing doses 75 and 100 Gy, either alone or combined with thermal treatment 33 °C, have low undesirable effects on the hind legs with successful mobility or courtship behavior. Consequently, synergistic effect of gamma radiation and thermal stress induced successful application in the integrated pest management program for controlling S. littoralis.

  20. Chemical constituents and ovicidal effects of mahlab, Prunus mahaleb L. kernels oil on cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mead Hala M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The carried out investigations evaluated ovicidal activity of mahlab, Prunus mahaleb L. kernel oil against cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.. The chemical constituents of the fixed oil of mahlab were analyzed using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC. Timnodonic (33.07%, oleic (28.71% and linoleic (24.35% were the basic fatty acids, while the major hydrocarbon and sterol were found to be heneicosane (62.57% and β-sitosterol (10.57%. The LC50 values for the one-day-old egg masses were found to be more susceptible than 3-day-old ones. Moreover, the leaf dip technique occurred to be more efficient than spraying technique. The results also showed abnormalities in the external morphology of egg shell, chorion surface, shell imprints and aeropyles of S. littoralis eggs treated with mahlab and KZ oils as compared to a control by using scanning electron microscope. Generally, the tested oils significantly reduced the activities of transaminase enzymes (AST and ALT, acid and alkaline phosphatases and total soluble protein except mahlab oil on acid phosphatase as compared to a control. Additionally, the oils of both mahlab and KZ oil affected some biological aspects such as incubation period, larval duration, larval mortality and pupal weight comparing to a control.

  1. Dynamics and regulation of glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid metabolism in the midgut of Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Luo, W; Fan, L F; Liu, F L; Gu, J; Deng, H M; Zhang, C; Huang, L H; Feng, Q L

    2016-04-01

    Significant changes usually take place in the internal metabolism of insects during metamorphosis. The glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid (glycolysis-TCA) pathway is important for energy metabolism. To elucidate its dynamics, the mRNA levels of genes involved in this pathway were examined in the midgut of Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis, and the pyruvate content was quantified. The expression patterns of these genes in response to starvation were examined, and the interaction between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) was studied. The results revealed that the expression or activities of most glycolytic enzymes was down-regulated in prepupae and then recovered in some degree in pupae, and all TCA-related genes were remarkably suppressed in both the prepupae and pupae. Pyruvate was enriched in the pupal midgut. Taken together, these results suggest that insects decrease both glycolysis and TCA in prepupae to save energy and then up-regulate glycolysis but down-regulate TCA in pupae to increase the supply of intermediates for construction of new organs. The expression of all these genes were down-regulated by starvation, indicating that non-feeding during metamorphosis may be a regulator of glycolysis-TCA pathway in the midgut. Importantly, interaction between PP1 and PFK was identified and is suggested to be involved in the regulation of glycolysis. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Li

    Full Text Available Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L. that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring.

  3. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoping; Reisig, Dominic; Miao, Jin; Gould, Fred; Huang, Fangneng; Feng, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring. PMID:27119741

  4. Temperature effects on the mating frequency of Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milano, Patricia; Berti Filho, Evoneo; Parra, Jose R.P.; Consoli, Fernando L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of temperature on the mating frequency of two lepidopterans, Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), which use different strategies of allocation, and with the utilization of nutrients for their reproductive activities. The insects were reared on artificial diets at 25 deg C, and the adults were exposed to five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 deg C) to observe the influence of each temperature on their mating frequency, fecundity, fertility and longevity. The temperature affected the mating frequency of both species, being more evident at 15 deg C and 35 deg C, mainly for A. gemmatalis, which presented a drastic reduction on mating activities. The highest number of matings were observed from 20 deg C to 30 deg C, with S. frugiperda presenting mating activity (0-8) much higher than that of A. gemmatalis (0-2), but no correlation was observed among the number of matings and all other biological parameters evaluated (fecundity, fertility and longevity). However, S. frugiperda showed a positive correlation between fecundity and mating activity of females (r = 0.589; P = 0.003) at 25 deg C. The highest fecundities were observed at temperatures from 20 deg C to 30 deg C for S. frugiperda and at 25 deg C for A. gemmatalis. For both species, the longevity of males and females decreased as temperature increased. (author)

  5. Reorientation and Swimming Stability in Sea Urchin Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J.; Chan, K. Y. K.; Anderson, E.; Helfrich, K. R.; Mullineaux, L. S.; Sengupta, A.; Stocker, R.

    2016-02-01

    Many benthic marine invertebrates have two-phase life histories, relying on planktonic larval stages for dispersal and exchange of individuals between adult populations. The dispersal of planktonic larvae is determined by two factors: passive advection by the ambient flow and active motility. By modifying dispersal and ultimately settlement, larval motility influences where and when individuals recruit into benthic communities. Despite its ecological relevance, our understanding of larval motility and behavior in the plankton remains limited, especially regarding the interactions of larval motility and ambient turbulence. As most larvae are smaller than the Kolmogorov scale, they experience ocean turbulence in part as a time-changing viscous torque produced by local fluid shear. This torque causes larval reorientation, impacting swimming direction and potentially dispersal at the macroscale. It is therefore paramount to understand the mechanisms of larval reorientation and the stability of larvae against reorientation. Here we report on the larval reorientation behavior of the sea urchins Arbacia punctulata and Heliocidaris crassispina. Both species have life histories characterized by ontogenetic changes to internal density structure and morphology, which we hypothesized to impact stability. To test this hypothesis, we performed "flip chamber" experiments, in which larvae swim freely in a small chamber that is intermittently inverted, mimicking the overturning experienced by larvae in turbulence. We investigated the role of larval age, body size, species, morphology (number of arms), and motility (live versus dead) on the reorientation dynamics. Our work contributes to a more mechanistic understanding of the role of hydrodynamics in the motility and transport of planktonic larvae.

  6. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  7. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    , larvae of flatfishes undergo a particularly evident and dramatic metamorphosis, because flatfishes completely reprogram their body to move from the pelagic habitat, in the water column, to the benthic habitat, on the sea floor. Due to the complex morphological and physiological changes, in aquaculture...... capture success. This thesis is part of a large international project aimed at improving the rearing techniques of high value fish species larvae fed with calanoid copepods, their natural prey, to achieve high levels of survival and quality. In fact, fish aquaculture is becoming increasingly important...

  8. Ultrastructural observations of the larva of Tubiluchus corallicola (Priapulida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R. P.; Storch, V.

    1989-03-01

    Larvae of Tubiluchus corallicola van der Land 1968 were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The scalids are sensory organs, each has a bipolar receptor cell with a single apical cilium similar to the scalid in the adult. Muscle cells of the larva are more differentiated than previously reported for other Priapulida; the larval arrangement of circular and longitudinal musculature differs from that of the adult, and a diaphragm is reported for the first time in Priapulida. The diaphragm may function in hydrostatic control of eversion and inversion of the introvert and mouth cone. The functional morphology of these two structures is discussed and contrasted with the Kinorhyncha.

  9. Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorous caddisflies in subalpine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissinger, S.A.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.; Steltzer, Heidi

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data from subalpine wetlands in Colorado indicate that larvae of the limnephilid caddisflies, Asynarchus nigriculus and Limnephilus externus, are reciprocally abundant among habitats - Limnephilus larvae dominate in permanent waters, whereas Asynarchus larvae dominate in temporary basins. The purpose of this paper is to report on field and laboratory experiments that link this pattern of abundance to biotic interactions among larvae. In the first field experiment, growth and survival were compared in single and mixed species treatments in littoral enclosures. Larvae, which eat mainly vascular plant detritus, grew at similar rates among treatments in both temporary and permanent habitats suggesting that exploitative competition is not important under natural food levels and caddisfly densities. However, the survival of Limnephilus larvae was reduced in the presence of Asynarchus larvae. Subsequent behavioral studies in laboratory arenas revealed that Asynarchus larvae are extremely aggressive predators on Limnephilus larvae. In a second field experiment we manipulated the relative sizes of larvae and found that Limnephilus larvae were preyed on only when Asynarchus larvae had the same size advantage observed in natural populations. Our data suggest that the dominance of Asynarchus larvae in temporary habitats is due to asymmetric intraguild predation (IGP) facilitated by a phenological head start in development. These data do not explain the dominance of Limnephilus larvae in permanent basins, which we show elsewhere to be an indirect effect of salamander predation. Behavioral observations also revealed that Asynarchus larvae are cannibalistic. In contrast to the IGP on Limnephilus larvae, Asynarchus cannibalism occurs among same-sized larvae and often involves the mobbing of one victim by several conspecifics. In a third field experiment, we found that Asynarchus cannibalism was not density-dependent and occurred even at low larval densities. We

  10. Monitoramento da suscetibilidade de populações de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) a inseticidas diamidas no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca da Silva Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) é uma das pragas mais importantes da cultura do milho no Brasil. Vários casos de resistência de S. frugiperda a inseticidas de grupos químicos distintos já foram documentados. A busca contínua de alternativas para o controle de S. frugiperda tem possibilitado o desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias como plantas de milho geneticamente modificadas, e até mesmo a introdução de inseticidas que aliam segurança ambiental e alta atividade inseticida, como o recente ...

  11. Utilization of metarhizium anisopliae and vegetable extract for control of the spodoptera frugiperda and helicoverpa zea (lepidoptera: noctuidae) in the corn

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Barbosa Beserra; Aldeni Barbosa da Silva; José Pires Dantas; Aldeni Barbosa da Silva; Eduardo Barbosa Beserra; José Pires Dantas

    2008-01-01

    The potential use of the vegetable extracts and Metarhizium anisopliae about the population and damage of the Spodoptera frugiperda and Helicoverpa zea in corn, it was evaluated when planted in two spacings. The experiment was installed in the culture of corn, in the city of Lagoa Seca/PB, in two areas of 500 m2, in the spacings 0,8 x 0,4 and 0,4 x 0,4 m, with two and one plant for hole. The basis was constituited of: 1) Water as witness; 2) Metarhizium anisopliae; 3) Extracts of Mormodica ch...

  12. Diet and prey selection in late-stage larvae of five species of fish in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pelagic prey. All larvae selected P. hessei as a prey item. Myxus capensis and R. holubi also selected this copepod and showed the largest diversity in diet. Keywords: copepod eggs, insect larvae, larval fish assemblage, predation, seasonality

  13. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of

  14. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes - Pisces) of the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    -1 53 BOTHID LARVAE (PLEURONECTIFORMES - PISCES) OF THE GULF OF THAILAND AND SOUTH CHINA SEA. C. B. LALITHAMBIKA DEVI National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Dr. Salim All Road, Kochi - 682031. ABSTRACTS The larvae of bothids were found...

  15. AUTOCORRELAÇÃO ESPACIAL NA AVALIAÇÃO DE COMPOSTOS DE MILHO PARA RESISTÊNCIA À LAGARTA DO CARTUCHO (Spodoptera frugiperda SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION IN THE EVALUATION OF MAIZE COMPOSITES FOR RESISTANCE TO FALL ARMYWORM (Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Branco de Miranda Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram gerados três compostos de milho (CRL-01, CRL-02 e CRL-03 entre materiais adaptados e materiais exóticos, com históricos de resistência à lagarta do cartucho (Spodoptera frugiperda. Famílias de irmãos germanos dos três compostos foram avaliadas para resistência à lagarta, usando uma escala de notas variando de 0 (sem danos a 5 (cartucho destruído. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com duas repetições. Dois modelos foram considerados: um modelo com erros independentes e outro assumindo erros espacialmente correlacionados (análise espacial. Na análise espacial a matriz de covariâncias de resíduos (R foi construída conforme a autocorrelação espacial detectada em cada experimento. O teste de Durbin-Watson foi usado para verificar presença da autocorrelação espacial entre parcelas, a qual foi altamente significativa. O alcance prático da autocorrelação espacial foi de cerca 1,5 m. A adoção da análise espacial permitiu uma melhoria no controle da variação local, resultando numa redução das estimativas das variâncias residuais e, conseqüentemente, num aumento dos coeficientes de herdabilidade estimados, com melhorias nos ganhos esperados com a seleção. O ordenamento das progênies foi alterado dependendo da escolha do modelo de análise. A analise espacial, nessas circunstâncias, foi mais apropriada que a análise com erros independentes.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Germoplasma exótico; autocorrelação espacial; modelos mistos; BLUP.

    Composites of maize (CRL-01, CRL-02 and CRL-03 were synthesized from crosses of adapted materials with exotic materials that have shown resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda. Full-sib progenies from the three composites were evaluated for

  16. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira Biology, fertility life table and effect of insecticides on Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in strawberry and grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.The biology of Spodoptera eridania was studied in the laboratory (22±1ºC, RH 70±10%, 14 hours of photoperiod in leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' and grape (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. The duration and viability of the entire cycle were respectively 52.2±1.32 days and 37.6% for strawberry and 42.2±0.45 days and 25.5% for grapes. The sex ratio in strawberry was 0.58 and 0.48 on grape. The average longevity of males and females in strawberry was 16.3±1.16 and 15.8±1.85 days, respectively, and 5.6±0.88 and 7.3±0.83 days in grape. The mean fecundity was 1,747.5±187.32 eggs per female in strawberry and 1,764.9±289.04 on grape. The life table of fertility showed that the net reproduction rate and finite rate of increase were 394.89 and 1.10, respectively, for strawberry and 213.98 and 1.12 for grapevine. Strawberry cv. 'Aromas' and grape cv

  17. Revisión de los hospederos del gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Review of the host plants of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Casmuz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de actualizar los hospederos citados para Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. La búsqueda de hospederos fue agrupada por zona y país. Para el norte del Continente Americano, se incluyeron las citas encontradas para EE.UU., México, América Central e islas del Caribe. En Sudamérica, se agruparon todos los países del cono sur, a excepción de la Argentina, la cual fue considerada por separado. Se encontraron un total de 186 hospederos, repartidos en 42 familias. Entre los hospederos más citados, el 35,5% perteneció a la familia Poaceae, el 11,3% a la familia Fabaceae, a la familia Solanaceae y Asteraceae un 4,3 % cada una, siguiéndoles las Rosaceae y Chenopodiaceae con un 3,7% cada una y, finalmente, las Brassicaceae y Cyperaceae con un 3,2%. Del total de plantas encontradas (186 el 64% se hallaron presentes en Norteamérica y Centroamérica, un 53% en Sudamérica y un 32% en Argentina. Las especies más citadas fueron (en orden decreciente para Norteamérica: maíz, sorgo, maní, grama bermuda, caña de azúcar y arroz; para Sudamérica: maíz, arroz, sorgo, poroto, algodón y maní; y por último, en Argentina fueron: maíz, soja, algodón, alfalfa, tomate, lino, papa y sorgo. También se aporta información sobre su ciclo de vida, hábitos y comportamiento sobre los principales hospederos, migración y biotipos.In order to update records of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith host plants, a bibliographic review was made. Host plant search was organized into groups per zones and countries. Records from the U.S., Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean Islands were grouped together as belonging to Northern America. As South American records, all reports were included except for those from Argentina. 186 host plants were found and they belong to 42 different families. The most cited hosts are part of the following families: Poaceae (35.5%, Fabaceae (11.3%, Solanaceae and

  18. Biologia comparada de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cebola, mamona, soja e feijão Compared biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in onion, castor oil plant, soybean and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar Bavaresco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. sobre quatro hospedeiros naturais (folhas de cebola, mamona, soja cv. Embrapa 48 e feijão cv. Carioca. Foram avaliados a duração e viabilidade das fases imaturas e do ciclo total, número de ínstares, peso de pupas, razão sexual, porcentagem de deformação de adultos e de adultos não liberados dos invólucros pupais, longevidade de adultos, fecundidade e viabilidade de ovos. Observou-se menor duração e maior viabilidade do período ovo-adulto para mamona e cebola (39,7 dias e 21,7% e 40,5 dias e 21,8%, respectivamente, do que para soja (46,0 dias e 3,9%. O peso pupal foi de 444,6 mg em cebola, 420,0 em feijão, 396,6 em mamona e 298,7 em soja. Constatou-se um predomínio de seis ínstares larvais em folhas de cebola e mamona, ocorrendo também sete para alguns indivíduos, enquanto que em soja predominou a ocorrência de sete, também verificando oito ínstares, indicando uma menor adequação nutricional deste hospedeiro. As fêmeas apresentaram duração da fase pupal significativamente menor do que os machos em todos hospedeiros, fazendo com que a emergência do adulto ocorresse antes dos machos. Em cebola, a longevidade de adultos foi significativamente superior aos demais hospedeiros. A fecundidade foi maior em cebola e mamona (3224 e 3206 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente, enquanto que para soja observou-se 1353 ovos/fêmea. Em folhas de feijão, o desenvolvimento do inseto foi prejudicado por caracteres morfológicos - pilosidade, que promoveram elevada mortalidade na fase larval.The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. was studied on four natural hosts (onion leaves, castor oil plant, soy cv. Embrapa 48 and bean cv. Carioca. The duration and viability of immature phases and total cycle, instar number, pupals weight, sexual ratio, percentage of deformed adults and adults not released of pupal beg, adults' longevity, fecundity and eggs viability were evaluated. It was observed in

  19. Migration Of Ancylostoma caninum Larvae Into Lungs Of Mice Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two randomly selected groups of Swiss Albino Wistar mice were therefore infected with 1000 infective larvae of Ancylostoma caninum/mouse. Test mice received 250mg Allium sativum/kg body weight daily ... KEY WORDS: Allium sativum, lungs, Ancylostoma caninum. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol.11(2) ...

  20. Response of larvae of Cirina forda Westwood (Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Older leaves contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) micronutrients than immature leaves of the same plant, and larvae developed faster with access to foliage of different ages significantly (P < 0.05) than those fed on exclusive diets. Variation in micronutrient content and, probably, phytosterols in the leaves of different ...

  1. Microbial Quality of Roasted Larvae of the Palm Weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean total viable bacterial and fungal counts were 6.24x104 and 4.1x104 cfu/g respectively. Although these larvae are rich sources of protein, their exposure to dust during hawking in motorized traffic is a major route of contamination with bacterial and fungal pathogens. Keyword: Rhyncophorus phoenicis, Microbial ...

  2. Biological control agent for mosquito larvae: Review on the killifish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review attempts to give an account on the recent advances on the killifish Aphanius dispar dispar as a biological control agent for mosquito larvae. Thirty six (36) articles of literature (scientific papers, technical and workshop reports) on this subject covering the period between 1980 and 2009 were reviewed.

  3. Ingestion of Nanoplastics and Microplastics by Pacific Oyster Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-12-15

    Plastic debris is a prolific contaminant effecting freshwater and marine ecosystems across the globe. Of growing environmental concern are "microplastics"and "nanoplastics" encompassing tiny particles of plastic derived from manufacturing and macroplastic fragmentation. Pelagic zooplankton are susceptible to consuming microplastics, however the threat posed to larvae of commercially important bivalves is currently unknown. We exposed Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae (3-24 d.p.f.) to polystyrene particles spanning 70 nm-20 μm in size, including plastics with differing surface properties, and tested the impact of microplastics on larval feeding and growth. The frequency and magnitude of plastic ingestion over 24 h varied by larval age and size of polystyrene particle (ANOVA, P plastic, with aminated particles ingested and retained more frequently (ANOVA, P plastic consumption and plastic load per organism was identified (Spearmans, r = 0.95, P micro- and nanoplastics were readily ingested by oyster larvae, exposure to plastic concentrations exceeding those observed in the marine environment resulted in no measurable effects on the development or feeding capacity of the larvae over the duration of the study.

  4. Roasted maggots (Dipteran larvae) as a dietary protein source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roasted maggots (Dipteran larvae) as a dietary protein source for laboratory animals. ... African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology ... One set were fed with the convectional feed (set G,) with Clarias fish as its protein portion while the other set (M) were fed with same diet with maggots from poultry wastes ...

  5. Metabolic alterations and molecular mechanism in silkworm larvae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori (L), is an important economic insect and also a tool to convert leaf protein into silk. The industrial and commercial use of silk, the historical and economic importance of production and its application in all over the world finely contributed to the silkworm promotion as a powerful laboratory model ...

  6. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Tapeworm Larvae in Salmon from North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Oros, M.; Ferguson, J.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2017), s. 351-353 ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Alaska * Diphyllobothrium * human * larva * nonhuman * Oncorhynchus * seashore Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 8.222, year: 2016

  7. Symbiotic Bacteria Enable Olive Fly Larvae to Overcome Host Defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. (author)

  8. (a photo-activated insecticide) in Culex pipiens larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histopathological effect of hematoporphyrin on the mid-gut and the integument of the fourth larval instar of C. pipiens was studied using a transmission electron microscope. In this study C. pipiens larvae were treated with different concentration of hematoporphyrin. The concentration 5 × 10-4 M/L was found to produce ...

  9. Simple clearing technique as species determination tool in blowfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederegger, Senta; Wartenberg, Nelly; Spiess, Roland; Mall, Gita

    2011-03-20

    A simple clearing technique is presented by which species specific structures and organs of blowfly larvae can easily be visualized and displayed without any danger of mechanical damages or dislocations of delicate formations and without fixation of the object. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of the susceptibility of bacteria Paenibacillus larvae. causative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    American foulbrood is a very serious disease of the honeybee Apis mellifrea worldwide and Algeria. It caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of AFB in the central region of Algeria (Algiers, Bouira, Blida, Boumerdes, Tizi Ouzou, Tipaza, Medea and Ain Defla) ...

  11. Diel vertical migration of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diel vertical migration of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus larvae was studied in the northern Benguela during a survey in April 2001. The diel pattern is described in relation to the degree of swimbladder inflation and the vertical structure of temperature and dissolved oxygen. During the survey, samples were also ...

  12. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-11

    Dec 11, 2008 ... Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of aversive conditioning and a procedure for decomposing learning retention curve that enables us to do a quantitative analysis of memory phases, short term (STM), middle term (MTM) ...

  13. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes-Pisces) of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    monsoons. In Bay of Bengal E. grandisquamis was dominant during both the seasons with a preference for S.W. monsoon and larvae of E. cocosensis, E. latifrons, Arnoglossus tapeinosoma and Bothus pantherinus dominated during N.E. monsoon. In the Arabian Sea...

  14. POTENSI DAUN PANDAN WANGI UNTUK MEMBUNUH LARVA NYAMUK AEDES AEGYPTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Susanna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of umbrella tree (Pandanus amoryllifolius Roxb. contained several compounds that can be used as natural insecticide. It is containing poliphenol, flavonoid, saponin, volatile oil and alkaloid. However, lethal concentration of the leaves extract of pandamus tree was unknown. The objectives of the research was to determine the LC50 of the extract towards Aedes aegypti larvae. A 24600 ppm water suspension of the umbrella tree extract was prepared. A series of suspension was prepared by diluting 16.25 ml; 19.3 ml; 22.36 ml; 25.4 ml respectively to approximately 200 ml, and than transferred them into 250 ml glass aquaria. To each aquarium, 20 larvas were added and the volume of the mixtures was adjusted to 250 ml by adding distill water. Mortality of the larva was observed in 24 to 48 hours. Log probit analysis of the larva mortality showed that the LC50 were 2198.4655 ppm and 1669.1678 ppm for 24 and 48 hours respectively.   Keywords: Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb, Aedes aegypti, lethal concentration

  15. Defensive enrolment in mantis shrimp larvae (Malacostraca: Stomatopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haug, C.; Haug, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a possible new defensive behaviour of larval stages of mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda). Mantis shrimp larvae are rarely observed in nature, thus the study is based on postures of museum material and functional morphological aspects. Specimens described here are tightly enrolled, their pleon

  16. Effect of Root Extracts of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) on Larvae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larvicidal activity of three solvent root (bark and wood) extracts of Lantana camara Linn. was investigated against first and fourth instars of Aedes aegypti larvae after 24 and 48 h post-treatment exposure to serial concentrations (0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.005, 0.001 %) of aqueous, ethanolic and acetone crude extracts. All extracts ...

  17. Mixing and pumping functions of the intestine of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinyou; Shimogonya, Yuji; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2017-04-21

    Due to its transparency, the intestine of zebrafish larvae has been widely used in studies of gastrointestinal diseases and the microbial flora of the gut. However, transport phenomena in the intestine of zebrafish larvae have not been fully clarified. In this study, therefore, transport caused by peristaltic motion in the intestine of zebrafish larvae was investigated by numerical simulation. An anatomically realistic three-dimensional geometric model of the intestine at various times after feeding was constructed based on the experimental data of Field et al. (2009). The flow of digested chyme was analyzed using the governing equations of fluid mechanics, together with peristaltic motion and long-term contraction of the intestinal wall. The results showed that retrograde peristaltic motion was the main contributor to the mixing function. The dispersion caused by peristalsis over 30min was in the order of 10 -12 m 2 /s, which is greater than the Brownian diffusion of a sphere of 0.4µm diameter. In contrast, anterograde peristaltic motion contributed mainly to the pumping function. The pressure decrease due to peristalsis was in the order of millipascals, which may reduce the activation and maintenance heat of intestinal muscle. These findings enhance our understanding of the mixing and pumping functions of the intestine of zebrafish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anaphe venata larva extract-induced purposeless chewing in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we investigated the effect of the crude aqueous and Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) extracts of this larva on altered spontaneous rat behavior in a novel environment particularly chewing behaviour, with a view to determine the mechanism(s) involved in these behavioural alteration. Animals were randomly ...

  19. Aluminium chloride-induced toxicity in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, A; Grimaldi, M C; Ferrandino, I

    2017-05-01

    Embryos at shield stage and larvae at protruding mouth stage were exposed to different concentrations of aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) for 72 h with the purpose to analyse their phenotype and lethality. After 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment, higher toxicity of the metal was observed on larvae with minimal lethal concentration of 0.25, 0.20 and 0.08 mm, respectively, while for embryos the corresponding values were 40, 25 and 16 mm. We observed pericardial oedema and alteration of heart rate in 50% of larvae after 48 h of exposure to 100 μm. In larvae exposed to the same concentration, there was also a neurological injury at the level of glial cells, with the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells being significantly reduced. This study confirms the toxic nature of this metal and shows that aluminium could also interestingly represent a cardiotoxin in addition to its neurotoxic ability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ingestion of microplastic has limited impact on a marine larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposi, Katrina L; Mos, Benjamin; Kelaher, Brendan P; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the impacts of microplastics (Microplastics may be mistaken for food items and ingested by a wide variety of organisms. While the effects of ingesting microplastic have been explored for some adult organisms, there is poor understanding of the effects of microplastic ingestion on marine larvae. Here, we investigated the ingestion of polyethylene microspheres by larvae of the sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Ingestion rates scaled with the concentration of microspheres. Ingestion rates were, however, reduced by biological fouling of microplastic and in the presence of phytoplankton food. T. gratilla larvae were able to egest microspheres from their stomach within hours of ingestion. A microsphere concentration far exceeding those recorded in the marine environment had a small nondose dependent effect on larval growth, but there was no significant effect on survival. In contrast, environmentally realistic concentrations appeared to have little effect. Overall, these results suggest that current levels of microplastic pollution in the oceans only pose a limited threat to T. gratilla and other marine invertebrate larvae, but further research is required on a broad range of species, trophic levels, and polymer types.