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Sample records for spme measurements ranging

  1. SPME-Based Ca-History Method for Measuring SVOC Diffusion Coefficients in Clothing Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianping; Liu, Ningrui; Zhang, Yinping

    2017-08-15

    Clothes play an important role in dermal exposure to indoor semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). The diffusion coefficient of SVOCs in clothing material (D m ) is essential for estimating SVOC sorption by clothing material and subsequent dermal exposure to SVOCs. However, few studies have reported the measured D m for clothing materials. In this paper, we present the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) based C a -history method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first try to measure D m with known relative standard deviation (RSD). A thin sealed chamber is formed by a circular ring and two pieces of flat SVOC source materials that are tightly covered by the targeted clothing materials. D m is obtained by applying an SVOC mass transfer model in the chamber to the history of gas-phase SVOC concentrations (C a ) in the chamber measured by SPME. D m 's of three SVOCs, di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), in a cotton T-shirt can be obtained within 16 days, with RSD less than 3%. This study should prove useful for measuring SVOC D m in various sink materials. Further studies are expected to facilitate application of this method and investigate the effects of temperature, relative humidity, and clothing material on D m .

  2. Scalable improvement of SPME multipolar electrostatics in anisotropic polarizable molecular mechanics using a general short-range penetration correction up to quadrupoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narth, Christophe; Lagardère, Louis; Polack, Étienne; Gresh, Nohad; Wang, Qiantao; Bell, David R; Rackers, Joshua A; Ponder, Jay W; Ren, Pengyu Y; Piquemal, Jean-Philip

    2016-02-15

    We propose a general coupling of the Smooth Particle Mesh Ewald SPME approach for distributed multipoles to a short-range charge penetration correction modifying the charge-charge, charge-dipole and charge-quadrupole energies. Such an approach significantly improves electrostatics when compared to ab initio values and has been calibrated on Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory reference data. Various neutral molecular dimers have been tested and results on the complexes of mono- and divalent cations with a water ligand are also provided. Transferability of the correction is adressed in the context of the implementation of the AMOEBA and SIBFA polarizable force fields in the TINKER-HP software. As the choices of the multipolar distribution are discussed, conclusions are drawn for the future penetration-corrected polarizable force fields highlighting the mandatory need of non-spurious procedures for the obtention of well balanced and physically meaningful distributed moments. Finally, scalability and parallelism of the short-range corrected SPME approach are addressed, demonstrating that the damping function is computationally affordable and accurate for molecular dynamics simulations of complex bio- or bioinorganic systems in periodic boundary conditions. Copyright © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Measurement of mercury species in human blood using triple spike isotope dilution with SPME-GC-ICP-DRC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Yuliya L; Verdon, Carl P; Fresquez, Mark R; Ward, Cynthia D; Wood, Elliott B; Pan, Yi; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of different mercury compounds in human blood can provide valuable information about the type of mercury exposure. To this end, our laboratory developed a biomonitoring method for the quantification of inorganic (iHg), methyl (MeHg), and ethyl (EtHg) mercury in whole blood using a triple-spike isotope dilution (TSID) quantification method employing capillary gas chromatography (GC) and inductively coupled dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS). We used a robotic CombiPAL(®) sample handling station featuring twin fiber-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) injector heads. The use of two SPME fibers significantly reduces sample analysis cycle times making this method very suitable for high sample throughput, which is a requirement for large public health biomonitoring studies. Our sample preparation procedure involved solubilization of blood samples with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) followed by the derivatization with sodium tetra(n-propyl)borate (NaBPr(4)) to promote volatility of mercury species. We thoroughly investigated mercury species stability in the blood matrix during the course of sample treatment and analysis. The method accuracy for quantifying iHg, MeHg, and EtHg was validated using NIST standard reference materials (SRM 955c level 3) and the Centre de Toxicologie du Québec (CTQ) proficiency testing (PT) samples. The limit of detection (LOD) for iHg, MeHg, and EtHg in human blood was determined to be 0.27, 0.12, and 0.16 μg/L, respectively.

  4. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Light detection and ranging systems are used in many engineering and environmental sensing applications. Their relatively large size and cost, however, tend to be prohibitive for general use in autonomous vehicles and drones. Suh and Vahala and Trocha et al. show that optical frequency combs generated by microresonator devices can be used for precision ranging and the tracking of fast-moving objects. The compact size of the microresonators could broaden the scope for widespread applications, providing a platform for miniaturized laser ranging systems suitable for photonic integration.

  5. UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-28

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  6. Range-Measuring Video Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.; Briscoe, Jeri M.; Corder, Eric L.; Broderick, David

    2006-01-01

    Optoelectronic sensors of a proposed type would perform the functions of both electronic cameras and triangulation- type laser range finders. That is to say, these sensors would both (1) generate ordinary video or snapshot digital images and (2) measure the distances to selected spots in the images. These sensors would be well suited to use on robots that are required to measure distances to targets in their work spaces. In addition, these sensors could be used for all the purposes for which electronic cameras have been used heretofore. The simplest sensor of this type, illustrated schematically in the upper part of the figure, would include a laser, an electronic camera (either video or snapshot), a frame-grabber/image-capturing circuit, an image-data-storage memory circuit, and an image-data processor. There would be no moving parts. The laser would be positioned at a lateral distance d to one side of the camera and would be aimed parallel to the optical axis of the camera. When the range of a target in the field of view of the camera was required, the laser would be turned on and an image of the target would be stored and preprocessed to locate the angle (a) between the optical axis and the line of sight to the centroid of the laser spot.

  7. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    The earths atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  8. Further research on the photo-SPME of triclosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Llompart, Maria; Lores, Marta; Fernandez-Alvarez, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Cela, Rafael [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Facultad de Quimica, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    In this study the photoinduced degradation of triclosan has been investigated by photo-solid-phase microextraction (photo-SPME). In photo-SPME, photodegradation is carried out on the SPME fibre containing the target compound. Triclosan was extracted from aqueous solutions by use of polydimethylsiloxane SPME fibres and these were subsequently exposed to UV irradiation (power 8 W, wavelength 254 nm) for different times (from 2 to 60 min). The photodegradation kinetics of triclosan were investigated, the photoproducts generated were tentatively identified, and the photochemical behaviour of these products was studied by use of this on-fibre approach followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. Eight photoproducts were tentatively identified, including chlorinated phenols, chlorohydroxydiphenyl ethers, 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and a possible dichlorodibenzodioxin isomer or dichlorohydroxydibenzofuran. The main photodegradation mechanisms were postulated and photodegradation pathways proposed. The effect of pH on triclosan degradation and on triclosan-to-dioxin conversion was also investigated. Triclosan degradation occurred, and generation of 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was confirmed, throughout the pH range studied (from 3 to 9). (orig.)

  9. Measuring volatility with the realized range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.E. Martens (Martin); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractRealized variance, being the summation of squared intra-day returns, has quickly gained popularity as a measure of daily volatility. Following Parkinson (1980) we replace each squared intra-day return by the high-low range for that period to create a novel and more efficient estimator

  10. Analysis of Volatile Markers for Virgin Olive Oil Aroma Defects by SPME-GC/FID: Possible Sources of Incorrect Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Romero, Inmaculada; García-González, Diego L

    2015-12-09

    The need to explain virgin olive oil (VOO) aroma descriptors by means of volatiles has raised interest in applying analytical techniques for trapping and quantitating volatiles. Static headspace sampling with solid phase microextraction (SPME) as trapping material is one of the most applied solutions for analyzing volatiles. The use of an internal standard and the determination of the response factors of the main volatiles seem to guarantee the correct determination of volatile concentrations in VOOs by SPME-GC/FID. This paper, however, shows that the competition phenomena between volatiles in their adsorption to the SPME fiber, inherent in static headspace sampling, may affect the quantitation. These phenomena are more noticeable in the particular case of highly odorant matrices, such as rancid and vinegary VOOs with high intensity of defect. The competition phenomena can modify the measurement sensitivity, which can be observed in volatile quantitation as well as in the recording of internal standard areas in different matrices. This paper analyzes the bias of the peak areas and concentrations of those volatiles that are markers for each sensory defect of VOOs (rancid, vinegary, musty, and fusty) when the intensity and complexity of aroma are increased. Of the 17 volatile markers studied in this work, 10 presented some anomalies in the quantitation in highly odorant matrices due the competition phenomena. However, quantitation was not affected in the concentration ranges at which each volatile marker is typically found in the defective oils they were characteristic of, validating their use as markers.

  11. Ultrasonic range measurements on the human body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Droog, Adriaan; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2013-01-01

    Ambulatory range estimation on the human body is important for the assessment of the performance of upper- and lower limb tasks outside a laboratory. In this paper an ultrasound sensor for estimating ranges on the human body is presented and validated during gait. The distance between the feet is

  12. Direct determination of anabolic steroids in pig urine by a new SPME-GC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Duan, Hongbin; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Xi; Liu, Wei; Chen, Guonan

    2009-05-15

    A new solid phase microextraction (SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for rapid determination of four anabolic steroids such as 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-androstane-17-one (HA), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione (AD) and methyltestosterone (MT) in pig urine. SPME was used to extract the four anabolic compounds directly without derivatization. The optimum SPME sampling conditions were based on the home-made carbowax-divinylbenzene (CW-DVB) fiber coating during extraction at 40 degrees C for 50 min with 0.18 g/mL NaCl solution and 750 rpm stirring speed. The linear ranges of the proposed method were in the range of 8-640 pg/mL for HA and DHT and 16-510 pg/mL for AD and MT, respectively. The detection limits (S/N=3) were from 2 to 8 pg/mL for the four anabolic steroids. This SPME method provided very high enrichment factors for the four anabolic steroids, which were 1063-fold and 965-fold for HA and DHT at the concentration of 8 pg/mL and 207-fold and 451-fold for AD and MT at the concentration of 16 pg/mL, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 71.3 to 121%, and the RSDs were lower than 12.9%. The method was sensitive and reliable for determination of trace anabolic steroids in biological samples.

  13. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, N.; Custer, T.; Song, W.; Pech, F.; Kesselmeier, J.; Williams, J.

    2010-11-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS), 50/30 μm divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-PDMS). Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m-2 s-1 respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  14. 47 CFR 15.33 - Frequency range of radiated measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... current system not intended to radiate, shall be investigated from the lowest radio frequency generated or... with the antenna conduction limits specified in § 15.111. The frequency range of measurements for AC... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency range of radiated measurements. 15.33...

  15. Small Device For Short-Range Antenna Measurements Using Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan Radkov; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Christensen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a practical solution for implementing an antenna radiation pattern measurement device using optical fibers. It is suitable for anechoic chambers as well as short range channel sounding. The device is optimized for small size and provides a cheap and easy way to make optical antenna...... measurements using off-the-shelf components. Verification measurements are made to confirm the benefits....

  16. SPME GC/MS determination of organochlorine pesticides in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerbolat Sailaukhanuly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME in combination with gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC/MS was studied for analysis of water samples. The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE were collected and analyzed by GC/MS. To select of effective fiber coatings four types of SPME fibers were examined and compared. The parameters effecting the efficiency of HS-SPME such as extraction and pre-incubation time and extraction temperature, effect of solvent nature, ionic strength were studied to obtain optimal parameters. The method was developed using spiked water samples in a concentration range  10 - 500 ng/L. The calibration curve was linear over the studied concentration range with r≥0.9925. The detection limits varied from 1.57 to 2.08 ng/L. An authentic water samples from contaminated lake with OCPs were analyzed by developed method.

  17. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  18. Short-Range Seismic and Acoustic Signature Measurements Through Forest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Decato, Stephen N; Albert, Donald G; Perron, Frank E., Jr; Carbee, David L

    2005-01-01

    .... In this report, the short-range measurements conducted by ERDC-CRREL are documented. Blast noise waveforms produced by C4 explosions at distances from 30 to 567 m were recorded and are presented in this report...

  19. A quantum inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements with applications to weak value measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, George

    2017-05-01

    Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.

  20. Smartphone photography utilized to measure wrist range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Eric R; Conti Mica, Megan; Shin, Alexander Y

    2018-02-01

    The purpose was to determine if smartphone photography is a reliable tool in measuring wrist movement. Smartphones were used to take digital photos of both wrists in 32 normal participants (64 wrists) at extremes of wrist motion. The smartphone measurements were compared with clinical goniometry measurements. There was a very high correlation between the clinical goniometry and smartphone measurements, as the concordance coefficients were high for radial deviation, ulnar deviation, wrist extension and wrist flexion. The Pearson coefficients also demonstrated the high precision of the smartphone measurements. The Bland-Altman plots demonstrated 29-31 of 32 smartphone measurements were within the 95% confidence interval of the clinical measurements for all positions of the wrists. There was high reliability between the photography taken by the volunteer and researcher, as well as high inter-observer reliability. Smartphone digital photography is a reliable and accurate tool for measuring wrist range of motion. II.

  1. Analysis of flavor-related compounds from tabacco using SPME-GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.B.; Lee, S.G. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The flavor-related compounds contained in tobacco were analyzed by selected ion monitoring (SIM) method using headspace SPME gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Flavor-related compounds were estragole, pulegone, trans-anethole, safrole, piperonal, eugenol, methyleugenol, coumarin, trans-isoeugenol, trans-methyleugenol and myristicin More than one of the flavor-related compounds were detected in the range of 0.001-1.3 {mu}g/g from all brands of tobacco studied. The recovery was ranged from 89.1 to 102.9% and relative standard deviation was ranged from 2.6 to 25.2%. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Spatial filtering velocimeter for vehicle navigation with extended measurement range

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Zhou, Jian; Nie, Xiaoming; Long, Xingwu

    2015-05-01

    The idea of using spatial filtering velocimeter is proposed to provide accurate velocity information for vehicle autonomous navigation system. The presented spatial filtering velocimeter is based on a CMOS linear image sensor. The limited frame rate restricts high speed measurement of the vehicle. To extend measurement range of the velocimeter, a method of frequency shifting is put forward. Theoretical analysis shows that the frequency of output signal can be reduced and the measurement range can be doubled by this method when the shifting direction is set the same with that of image velocity. The approach of fast Fourier transform (FFT) is employed to obtain the power spectra of the spatially filtered signals. Because of limited frequency resolution of FFT, a frequency spectrum correction algorithm, called energy centrobaric correction, is used to improve the frequency resolution. The correction accuracy energy centrobaric correction is analyzed. Experiments are carried out to measure the moving surface of a conveyor belt. The experimental results show that the maximum measurable velocity is about 800deg/s without frequency shifting, 1600deg/s with frequency shifting, when the frame rate of the image is about 8117 Hz. Therefore, the measurement range is doubled by the method of frequency shifting. Furthermore, experiments were carried out to measure the vehicle velocity simultaneously using both the designed SFV and a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). The measurement results of the presented SFV are coincident with that of the LDV, but with bigger fluctuation. Therefore, it has the potential of application to vehicular autonomous navigation.

  3. Sampling atmospheric pesticides with SPME: Laboratory developments and field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Junxia [EPCA-Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, UMR 5255 CNRS-Universite Bordeaux 1, ISM, Site universitaire, 24019 Perigueux Cedex (France); Tuduri, Ludovic [EPCA-Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, UMR 5255 CNRS-Universite Bordeaux 1, ISM, Site universitaire, 24019 Perigueux Cedex (France)], E-mail: l.tuduri@ism.u-bordeaux1.fr; Mercury, Maud [EPCA-Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, UMR 5255 CNRS-Universite Bordeaux 1, ISM, Site universitaire, 24019 Perigueux Cedex (France); Universites d' Aix-Marseille I, II et III-CNRS UMR 6264: Laboratoire Chimie Provence, Equipe Instrumentation et Reactivite Atmospherique (IRA), Universite de Provence Centre de Saint Jerome, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Millet, Maurice [Centre de Geochimie de la Surface UMR 7517 CNRS-Universite Louis Pasteur (ULP), LPCA, 1 rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Briand, Olivier [AFSSET, 253 avenue du General Leclerc, 94701 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France); Montury, Michel [EPCA-Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, UMR 5255 CNRS-Universite Bordeaux 1, ISM, Site universitaire, 24019 Perigueux Cedex (France)

    2009-02-15

    To estimate the atmospheric exposure of the greenhouse workers to pesticides, solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used under non-equilibrium conditions. Using Fick's law of diffusion, the concentrations of pesticides in the greenhouse can be calculated using pre-determined sampling rates (SRs). Thus the sampling rates (SRs) of two modes of SPME in the lab and in the field were determined and compared. The SRs for six pesticides in the lab were 20.4-48.3 mL min{sup -1} for the exposed fiber and 0.166-0.929 mL min{sup -1} for the retracted fiber. In field sampling, two pesticides, dichlorvos and cyprodinil were detected with exposed SPME. SR with exposed SPME for dichlorvos in the field (32.4 mL min{sup -1}) was consistent with that in the lab (34.5 mL min{sup -1}). SR for dichlorvos in the field (32.4 mL min{sup -1}) was consistent with that in the lab (34.5 mL min{sup -1}). The trends of temporal concentration and the inhalation exposure were also obtained. - SPME was proved to be a powerful and simple tool for determining pesticides' atmospheric concentration.

  4. Sampling atmospheric pesticides with SPME: Laboratory developments and field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junxia; Tuduri, Ludovic; Mercury, Maud; Millet, Maurice; Briand, Olivier; Montury, Michel

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the atmospheric exposure of the greenhouse workers to pesticides, solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used under non-equilibrium conditions. Using Fick's law of diffusion, the concentrations of pesticides in the greenhouse can be calculated using pre-determined sampling rates (SRs). Thus the sampling rates (SRs) of two modes of SPME in the lab and in the field were determined and compared. The SRs for six pesticides in the lab were 20.4-48.3 mL min -1 for the exposed fiber and 0.166-0.929 mL min -1 for the retracted fiber. In field sampling, two pesticides, dichlorvos and cyprodinil were detected with exposed SPME. SR with exposed SPME for dichlorvos in the field (32.4 mL min -1 ) was consistent with that in the lab (34.5 mL min -1 ). SR for dichlorvos in the field (32.4 mL min -1 ) was consistent with that in the lab (34.5 mL min -1 ). The trends of temporal concentration and the inhalation exposure were also obtained. - SPME was proved to be a powerful and simple tool for determining pesticides' atmospheric concentration

  5. Ion range measurements using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimpki, G.; Osinga, J.-M.; Herrmann, R.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) show excellent detection properties for heavy charged particles and have, therefore, been investigated in this study in terms of their potential for in-vivo range measurements. We irradiated FNTDs with protons as well as with C, Mg, S, Fe and Xe ion beams...

  6. Measuring the relativistic perigee advance with satellite laser ranging

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, L; Pavlis, E C

    2002-01-01

    The pericentric advance of a test body by a central mass is one of the classical tests of general relativity. Today, this effect is measured with radar ranging by the perihelion shift of Mercury and other planets in the gravitational field of the Sun, with a relative accuracy of the order of 10 sup - sup 2 -10 sup - sup 3. In this paper, we explore the possibility of a measurement of the pericentric advance in the gravitational field of Earth by analysing the laser-ranged data of some orbiting, or proposed, laser-ranged geodetic satellites. Such a measurement of the perigee advance would place limits on hypothetical, very weak, Yukawa-type components of the gravitational interaction with a finite range of the order of 10 sup 4 km. Thus, we show that, at the present level of knowledge of the orbital perturbations, the relative accuracy, achievable with suitably combined orbital elements of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II, is of the order of 10 sup - sup 3. With the corresponding measured value of (2 + 2 gamma - beta)/3, ...

  7. Recoil range distribution measurement in 20Ne + 181Ta reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Guin, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate linear momentum transfer in various transfer channels in 20 Ne + 181 Ta, recoil range distribution measurements have been carried out at E lab = 180 MeV, populating significant number of l-waves above l crit

  8. Monitoring biogenic volatile compounds emitted by Eucalyptus citriodora using SPME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, C A; Augusto, F; Christensen, T E; Smith, B P; Caramão, E B; Pawliszy, J

    2001-10-01

    A procedure to monitor BVOC emitted by living plants using SPME technique is presented. For this purpose, a glass sampling chamber was designed. This device was employed for the characterization of biogenic volatile compounds emitted by leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora. After extraction with SPME fibers coated with PDMS/ DVB, it was possible to identify or detect 33 compounds emitted by this plant. A semiquantitative approach was applied to monitor the behavior of the emitted BVOC during 9 days. Circadian profiles of the variation in the concentration of isoprene were plotted. Using diffusion-based SPME quantitation, a recently introduced analytical approach, with extraction times as short as 15 s, it was possible to quantify subparts-per-billion amounts of isoprene emitted by this plant.

  9. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1972-01-01

    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  10. Reliability of three measures of ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konor, Megan M; Morton, Sam; Eckerson, Joan M; Grindstaff, Terry L

    2012-06-01

    A variety of methods exist to measure ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM). Few studies have examined the reliability of a novice rater. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of ankle ROM measurements using three different techniques in a novice rater. Twenty healthy subjects (mean±SD, age=24±3 years, height=173.2±8.1 cm, mass=72.6±15.2 kg) participated in this study. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM measures were obtained in a weight-bearing lunge position using a standard goniometer, digital inclinometer, and a tape measure using the distance-to-wall technique. All measures were obtained three times per side, with 10 minutes of rest between the first and second set of measures. Intrarater reliability was determined using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC(2,3)) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Standard error of measurement (SEM) and the minimal detectable change (MDC) for each measurement technique were also calculated. The within-session intrarater reliability (ICC(2,3)) estimates for each measure are as follows: tape measure (right 0.98, left 0.99), digital inclinometer (right 0.96; left 0.97), and goniometer (right 0.85; left 0.96). The SEM for the tape measure method ranged from 0.4-0.6 cm and the MDC was between 1.1-1.5 cm. The SEM for the inclinometer was between 1.3-1.4° and the MDC was 3.7-3.8°. The SEM for the goniometer ranged from 1.8-2.8° with an MDC of 5.0-7.7°. The results indicate that reliable measures of weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion ROM can be obtained from a novice rater. All three techniques had good reliability and low measurement error, with the distance-to-wall technique using a tape measure and inclinometer methods resulting in higher reliability coefficients (ICC(2,3)=0.96 to 0.99) and a lower SEM compared to the goniometer (ICC(2,3)=0.85 to 0.96). 2b.

  11. Lifetime measurements in the picosecond range: Achievements and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, Reiner

    1999-01-01

    This contribution will review the recoil distance method (RDM), its current range of applications as well as future perspectives for the measurement of lifetimes in the picosecond range of excited nuclear levels. Recent Doppler-shift lifetime experiments with large gamma-ray spectrometers have achieved a new level of precision and sensitivity, providing new insights into nuclear structure physics. High precision RDM measurements of near-yrast states in various mass regions have revealed dynamic shape effects beyond the framework of collective models and have also allowed to study the interaction between coexisting shapes. The measurement of lifetimes in superdeformed bands has shown that lifetimes can be measured for nuclear excitations, which are only populated with a few percent of the production cross-section of a nucleus. These experiments have also enabled us to study the mechanism of the decay-out of superdeformed bands. Another example for the need of precise lifetime measurements is the recent verifications of the concept of 'magnetic rotation' in nuclei by the experimental observation of the characteristic drop of B(M1) values as a function of angular momentum. These recent breakthroughs have also opened new perspectives for the use of the RDM technique for more exotic regions of nuclei and nuclear excitations. Here the measurement of lifetimes in neutron rich nuclei, which are not accessible with conventional nuclear reactions using stable beams and targets, is of special interest. Possible experimental approaches and simple estimates for the feasibility of such experiments will be presented. (author)

  12. Entanglement-enhanced lidars for simultaneous range and velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Quntao; Zhang, Zheshen; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2017-10-01

    Lidar is a well-known optical technology for measuring a target's range and radial velocity. We describe two lidar systems that use entanglement between transmitted signals and retained idlers to obtain significant quantum enhancements in simultaneous measurements of these parameters. The first entanglement-enhanced lidar circumvents the Arthurs-Kelly uncertainty relation for simultaneous measurements of range and radial velocity from the detection of a single photon returned from the target. This performance presumes there is no extraneous (background) light, but is robust to the round-trip loss incurred by the signal photons. The second entanglement-enhanced lidar—which requires a lossless, noiseless environment—realizes Heisenberg-limited accuracies for both its range and radial-velocity measurements, i.e., their root-mean-square estimation errors are both proportional to 1 /M when M signal photons are transmitted. These two lidars derive their entanglement-based enhancements from the use of a unitary transformation that takes a signal-idler photon pair with frequencies ωS and ωI and converts it to a signal-idler photon pair whose frequencies are (ωS+ωI)/2 and (ωS-ωI)/2 . Insight into how this transformation provides its benefits is provided through an analogy to continuous-variable superdense coding.

  13. High-temperature absorbed dose measurements in the megagray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, P.; Ardonceau, J.; Zuppiroli, L.

    1988-01-01

    Organic conductors of the tetraselenotetracene family have been tested as ''high-temperature'' absorbed dose dosimeters. They were heated up to 120 0 C and irradiated at this temperature with 1-MeV electrons in order to simulate, in a short time, a much longer γ-ray irradiation. The electric resistance increase of the crystal can be considered a good measurement of the absorbed dose in the range 10 6 Gy to a few 10 8 Gy and presumably one order of magnitude more. This dosimeter also permits on-line (in-situ) measurements of the absorbed dose without removing the sensor from the irradiation site. The respective advantages of organic and inorganic dosimeters at these temperature and dose ranges are also discussed. In this connection, we outline new, but negative, results concerning the possible use of silica as a high-temperature, high-dose dosimeter. (author)

  14. An overview of Broadband Laser Ranging Architecture and Measurement Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daykin, Edward; La Lone, Brandon; Miller, Edward; Younk, Patrick; Bennett, Corey; Catenacci, Jared; LLNL BLR Development Group Collaboration; LANL BLR Development Group Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Broadband Laser Ranging (BLR) is a developmental diagnostic intended to measure the position of rapidly moving surfaces in combination with optical velocimetry. Design and employment of a BLR diagnostic on dynamic experiments requires consideration for both the inherent measurement system tradeoffs as well as architectural choices appropriate to the nature of investigation. The diagnostic uses spectral interferometry to measure distance by mapping femtosecond laser pulses to the time domain via chromatic dispersion within the fiber-optic architecture. The system parameters and governing equations that describe measurement range, resolution, and Doppler sensitivity will be discussed. We will also briefly review the impact of diagnostic architectural choices including: nature of interferometer, Interferometric dispersion matching, optical amplification, integration of optical velocimetry, BLR calibration, and field operability. To summarize we will present the architectural and operational approach currently being pursued by NSTec within an on-going collaboration between NSTec, Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Labs. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. MTF measurement of IR optics in different temperature ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Alexander; Duncker, Hannes; Dumitrescu, Eugen

    2017-10-01

    Infrared (IR) optical systems are at the core of many military, civilian and manufacturing applications and perform mission critical functions. To reliably fulfill the demanding requirements imposed on today's high performance IR optics, highly accurate, reproducible and fast lens testing is of crucial importance. Testing the optical performance within different temperature ranges becomes key in many military applications. Due to highly complex IR-Applications in the fields of aerospace, military and automotive industries, MTF Measurement under realistic environmental conditions become more and more relevant. A Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) test bench with an integrated thermal chamber allows measuring several sample sizes in a temperature range from -40 °C to +120°C. To reach reliable measurement results under these difficult conditions, a specially developed temperature stable design including an insulating vacuum are used. The main function of this instrument is the measurement of the MTF both on- and off-axis at up to +/-70° field angle, as well as measurement of effective focal length, flange focal length and distortion. The vertical configuration of the system guarantees a small overall footprint. By integrating a high-resolution IR camera with focal plane array (FPA) in the detection unit, time consuming measurement procedures such as scanning slit with liquid nitrogen cooled detectors can be avoided. The specified absolute accuracy of +/- 3% MTF is validated using internationally traceable reference optics. Together with a complete and intuitive software solution, this makes the instrument a turn-key device for today's state-of- the-art optical testing.

  16. An Observability Metric for Underwater Vehicle Localization Using Range Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Arrichiello

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses observability issues related to the general problem of single and multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV localization using only range measurements. While an AUV is submerged, localization devices, such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems, are ineffective, due to the attenuation of electromagnetic waves. AUV localization based on dead reckoning techniques and the use of affordable motion sensor units is also not practical, due to divergence caused by sensor bias and drift. For these reasons, localization systems often build on trilateration algorithms that rely on the measurements of the ranges between an AUV and a set of fixed transponders using acoustic devices. Still, such solutions are often expensive, require cumbersome calibration procedures and only allow for AUV localization in an area that is defined by the geometrical arrangement of the transponders. A viable alternative for AUV localization that has recently come to the fore exploits the use of complementary information on the distance from the AUV to a single transponder, together with information provided by on-board resident motion sensors, such as, for example, depth, velocity and acceleration measurements. This concept can be extended to address the problem of relative localization between two AUVs equipped with acoustic sensors for inter-vehicle range measurements. Motivated by these developments, in this paper, we show that both the problems of absolute localization of a single vehicle and the relative localization of multiple vehicles can be treated using the same mathematical framework, and tailoring concepts of observability derived for nonlinear systems, we analyze how the performance in localization depends on the types of motion imparted to the AUVs. For this effect, we propose a well-defined observability metric and validate its usefulness, both in simulation and by carrying out experimental tests with a real marine vehicle during which the

  17. JV Task 92 - Alcoa/Retec SFE and SPME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Hawthorne

    2009-02-15

    This report summarizes the work performed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) under the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program JV Task 92, which is a continuation of JV9. Successful studies performed in 1999 through the end of 2008 demonstrated the potential for using selective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for measuring sediment pore water polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to mimic the bioavailability of PAHs from manufactured gas plant and aluminum smelter soils and sediments both in freshwater and saltwater locations. The studies that the EERC has performed with the commercial partners have continued to generate increased interest in both the regulatory communities and in the industries that have historically produced or utilized coal tar products. Both ASTM International and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have accepted the pore water method developed at the EERC as standard methods. The studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of our techniques in predicting bioavailability of PAHs from ca. 250 impacted and background field sediments and soils. The field demonstrations from the final years of the project continued to build the foundation data for acceptance of our methods by the regulatory communities. The JV92 studies provide the single largest database in the world that includes measures of PAH bioavailability along with biological end points. These studies clearly demonstrated that present regulatory paradigms based on equilibrium partitioning greatly overpredict bioavailability. These investigations also laid the foundation for present (non-JV) studies being applied to PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at EPA Superfund sites, investigations into PAH and PCB bioavailability at U.S Department of Defense sites, and the application of the techniques to investigating the bioavailability of chlorinated dioxins and furans from impacted

  18. Optical measurements of long-range protein vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acbas, Gheorghe; Niessen, Katherine A.; Snell, Edward H.; Markelz, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Protein biological function depends on structural flexibility and change. From cellular communication through membrane ion channels to oxygen uptake and delivery by haemoglobin, structural changes are critical. It has been suggested that vibrations that extend through the protein play a crucial role in controlling these structural changes. While nature may utilize such long-range vibrations for optimization of biological processes, bench-top characterization of these extended structural motions for engineered biochemistry has been elusive. Here we show the first optical observation of long-range protein vibrational modes. This is achieved by orientation-sensitive terahertz near-field microscopy measurements of chicken egg white lysozyme single crystals. Underdamped modes are found to exist for frequencies >10 cm-1. The existence of these persisting motions indicates that damping and intermode coupling are weaker than previously assumed. The methodology developed permits protein engineering based on dynamical network optimization.

  19. An Experiment to Measure Range, Range Straggling, Stopping Power, and Energy Straggling of Alpha Particles in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouseph, P. J.; Mostovych, Andrew

    1978-01-01

    Experiments to measure range, range straggling, stopping power, and energy straggling of alpha particles are discussed in this article. Commercially available equipment with simple modifications is used for these measurements. (Author/GA)

  20. Proton range verification in homogeneous materials through acoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wei; Jones, Kevin C.; Petro, Scott; Kassaee, Alireza; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Avery, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Clinical proton beam quality assurance (QA) requires a simple and accurate method to measure the proton beam Bragg peak (BP) depth. Protoacoustics, the measurement of the pressure waves emitted by thermal expansion resulting from proton dose deposition, may be used to obtain the depth of the BP in a phantom by measuring the time-of-flight of the pressure wave. Rectangular and cylindrical phantoms of different materials (aluminum, lead, and polyethylene) were used for protoacoustic studies. Four different methods for analyzing the protoacoustic signals are compared. Data analysis shows that, for Methods 1 and 2, plastic phantoms have better accuracy than metallic ones because of the lower speed of sound. Method 3 does not require characterizing the speed of sound in the material, but it results in the largest error. Method 4 exhibits minimal error, less than 3 mm (with an uncertainty  ⩽1.5 mm) for all the materials and geometries. Psuedospectral wave-equation simulations (k-Wave MATLAB toolbox) are used to understand the origin of acoustic reflections within the phantom. The presented simulations and experiments show that protoacoustic measurements may provide a low cost and simple QA procedure for proton beam range verification as long as the proper phantoms and calculation methods are used.

  1. Model-based cartilage thickness measurement in the submillimeter range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streekstra, G. J.; Strackee, S. D.; Maas, M.; Wee, R. ter; Venema, H. W.

    2007-01-01

    Current methods of image-based thickness measurement in thin sheet structures utilize second derivative zero crossings to locate the layer boundaries. It is generally acknowledged that the nonzero width of the point spread function (PSF) limits the accuracy of this measurement procedure. We propose a model-based method that strongly reduces PSF-induced bias by incorporating the PSF into the thickness estimation method. We estimated the bias in thickness measurements in simulated thin sheet images as obtained from second derivative zero crossings. To gain insight into the range of sheet thickness where our method is expected to yield improved results, sheet thickness was varied between 0.15 and 1.2 mm with an assumed PSF as present in the high-resolution modes of current computed tomography (CT) scanners [full width at half maximum (FWHM) 0.5-0.8 mm]. Our model-based method was evaluated in practice by measuring layer thickness from CT images of a phantom mimicking two parallel cartilage layers in an arthrography procedure. CT arthrography images of cadaver wrists were also evaluated, and thickness estimates were compared to those obtained from high-resolution anatomical sections that served as a reference. The thickness estimates from the simulated images reveal that the method based on second derivative zero crossings shows considerable bias for layers in the submillimeter range. This bias is negligible for sheet thickness larger than 1 mm, where the size of the sheet is more than twice the FWHM of the PSF but can be as large as 0.2 mm for a 0.5 mm sheet. The results of the phantom experiments show that the bias is effectively reduced by our method. The deviations from the true thickness, due to random fluctuations induced by quantum noise in the CT images, are of the order of 3% for a standard wrist imaging protocol. In the wrist the submillimeter thickness estimates from the CT arthrography images correspond within 10% to those estimated from the anatomical

  2. Dynamic range measurement and calibration of SiPMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Lauscher, M.; Middendorf, L.; Niggemann, T.; Schumacher, J.; Stephan, M.; Bueno, A.; Navas, S.; Ruiz, A. G.

    2016-03-01

    Photosensors have played and will continue to play an important role in high-energy and Astroparticle cutting-edge experiments. As of today, the most common photon detection device in use is the photomultiplier tube (PMT). However, we are witnessing rapid progress in the field and new devices now show very competitive features when compared to PMTs. Among those state-of-the-art photo detectors, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are a relatively new kind of semiconductor whose potential is presently studied by many laboratories. Their characteristics make them a very attractive candidate for future Astroparticle physics experiments recording fluorescence and Cherenkov light, both in the atmosphere and on the ground. Such applications may require the measurement of the light flux on the sensor for the purpose of energy reconstruction. This is a complex task due to the limited dynamic range of SiPMs and the presence of thermal and correlated noise. In this work we study the response of three SiPM types in terms of delivered charge when exposed to light pulses in a broad range of intensities: from single photon to saturation. The influence of the pulse time duration and the SiPM over-voltage on the response are also quantified. Based on the observed behaviour, a method is presented to reconstruct the real number of photons impinging on the SiPM surface directly from the measured SiPM charge. A special emphasis is placed on the description of the methodology and experimental design used to perform the measurements.

  3. Capacitance variation measurement method with a continuously variable measuring range for a micro-capacitance sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Xiaozhou; Xie, Kai; Xue, Dongfeng; Zhang, Feng; Qi, Liang; Tao, Yebo; Li, Teng; Bao, Weimin; Wang, Songlin; Li, Xiaoping; Chen, Renjie

    2017-01-01

    Micro-capacitance sensors are widely applied in industrial applications for the measurement of mechanical variations. The measurement accuracy of micro-capacitance sensors is highly dependent on the capacitance measurement circuit. To overcome the inability of commonly used methods to directly measure capacitance variation and deal with the conflict between the measurement range and accuracy, this paper presents a capacitance variation measurement method which is able to measure the output capacitance variation (relative value) of the micro-capacitance sensor with a continuously variable measuring range. We present the principles and analyze the non-ideal factors affecting this method. To implement the method, we developed a capacitance variation measurement circuit and carried out experiments to test the circuit. The result shows that the circuit is able to measure a capacitance variation range of 0–700 pF linearly with a maximum relative accuracy of 0.05% and a capacitance range of 0–2 nF (with a baseline capacitance of 1 nF) with a constant resolution of 0.03%. The circuit is proposed as a new method to measure capacitance and is expected to have applications in micro-capacitance sensors for measuring capacitance variation with a continuously variable measuring range. (paper)

  4. Fabry-Perot interferometer utilized for displacement measurement in a large measuring range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yung-Cheng; Shyu, Lih-Horng; Chang, Chung-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The optical configuration of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is uncomplicated. This has already been applied in different measurement systems. For the displacement measurement with the Fabry-Perot interferometer, the result is significantly influenced by the tilt angles of the measurement mirror in the interferometer. Hence, only for the rather small measuring range, the Fabry-Perot interferometer is available. The goal of this investigation is to enhance the measuring range of Fabry-Perot interferometer by compensating the tilt angles. To verify the measuring characteristic of the self-developed Fabry-Perot interferometer, some comparison measurements with a reference standard have been performed. The maximum deviation of comparison experiments is less than 0.3 μm in the traveling range of 30 mm. The experimental results show that the Fabry-Perot interferometer is highly stable, insensitive to environment effects, and can meet the measuring requirement of the submicrometer order.

  5. Picosecond X-ray streak camera dynamic range measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, C., E-mail: celine.zuber@cea.fr; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Gontier, D.; Raimbourg, J.; Rubbelynck, C.; Trosseille, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fronty, J.-P.; Goulmy, C. [Photonis SAS, Avenue Roger Roncier, BP 520, 19106 Brive Cedex (France)

    2016-09-15

    Streak cameras are widely used to record the spatio-temporal evolution of laser-induced plasma. A prototype of picosecond X-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to answer the Laser MegaJoule specific needs. The dynamic range of this instrument is measured with picosecond X-ray pulses generated by the interaction of a laser beam and a copper target. The required value of 100 is reached only in the configurations combining the slowest sweeping speed and optimization of the streak tube electron throughput by an appropriate choice of high voltages applied to its electrodes.

  6. Scanning Photogrammetry for Measuring Large Targets in Close Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In close-range photogrammetry, images are difficult to acquire and organize primarily because of the limited field of view (FOV of digital cameras when long focal lenses are used to measure large targets. To overcome this problem, we apply a scanning photography method that acquires images by rotating the camera in both horizontal and vertical directions at one station. This approach not only enlarges the FOV of each station but also ensures that all stations are distributed in order without coverage gap. We also conduct a modified triangulation according to the traits of the data overlapping among images from the same station to avoid matching all images with one another. This algorithm synthesizes the images acquired from the same station into synthetic images, which are then used to generate a free network. Consequently, we solve the exterior orientation elements of each original camera image in the free network and perform image matching among original images to obtain tie points. Finally, all original images are combined in self-calibration bundle adjustment with control points. The feasibility and precision of the proposed method are validated by testing it on two fields using 300 and 600 mm lenses. The results confirm that even with a small amount of control points, the developed scanning photogrammetry can steadily achieve millimeter scale accuracy at distances ranging from 40 m to 250 m.

  7. Ionospheric Coherence Bandwidth Measurements in the Lower VHF Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszcynsky, D. M.; Light, M. E.; Pigue, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Radio Frequency Propagation (RFProp) experiment consists of a satellite-based radio receiver suite to study various aspects of trans-ionospheric signal propagation and detection in four frequency bands, 2 - 55 MHz, 125 - 175 MHz, 365 - 415 MHz and 820 - 1100 MHz. In this paper, we present simultaneous ionospheric coherence bandwidth and S4 scintillation index measurements in the 32 - 44 MHz frequency range collected during the ESCINT equatorial scintillation experiment. 40-MHz continuous wave (CW) and 32 - 44 MHz swept frequency signals were transmitted simultaneously to the RFProp receiver suite from the Reagan Test Site at Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands (8.7° N, 167.7° E) in three separate campaigns during the 2014 and 2015 equinoxes. Results show coherence bandwidths as small as ~ 1 kHz for strong scintillation (S4 > 0.7) and indicate a high degree of ionospheric variability and irregularity on 10-m spatial scales. Spread-Doppler clutter effects arising from preferential ray paths to the satellite due to refraction off of isolated density irregularities are also observed and are dominant at low elevation angles. The results are compared to previous measurements and available scaling laws.

  8. MQ NMR and SPME analysis of nonlinearity in the degradation of a filled silicone elastomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, S C; Alviso, C T; Berman, E S; Harvey, C A; Maxwell, R S; Wilson, T S; Cohenour, R; Saalwachter, K; Chasse, W

    2008-10-10

    Radiation induced degradation of polymeric materials occurs via numerous, simultaneous, competing chemical reactions. Though degradation is typically found to be linear in adsorbed dose, some silicone materials exhibit non-linear dose dependence due to dose dependent dominant degradation pathways. We have characterized the effects of radiative and thermal degradation on a model filled-PDMS system, Sylgard 184 (commonly used as an electronic encapsulant and in biomedical applications), using traditional mechanical testing, NMR spectroscopy, and sample headspace analysis using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The mechanical data and {sup 1}H spin-echo NMR indicated that radiation exposure leads to predominantly crosslinking over the cumulative dose range studies (0 to 250 kGray) with a rate roughly linear with dose. {sup 1}H Multiple Quantum NMR detected a bimodal distribution in the network structure, as expected by the proposed structure of Sylgard 184. The MQ-NMR further indicated that the radiation induced structural changes were not linear in adsorbed dose and competing chain scission mechanisms contribute more largely to the overall degradation process in the range of 50 -100 kGray (though crosslinking still dominates). The SPME-GC/MS data were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which identified subtle changes in the distributions of degradation products (the cyclic siloxanes and other components of the material) as a function of age that provide insight into the dominant degradation pathways at low and high adsorbed dose.

  9. Coupling of SPME with MCC/UV-IMS as a tool for rapid on-site detection of groundwater and surface water contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walendzik, G.; Baumbach, J.I.; Klockow, D. [ISAS-Institute for Analytical Sciences, Dortmund (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    The combination of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) [1] with fast chromatographic pre-separation by means of multi-capillary columns (MCC) coupled to an ion mobility spectrometer equipped with a 10.6 eV photoionisation source was applied to rapid on-site monitoring of ground and surface water contaminations. Under field conditions, water contaminants were directly detectable down to the upper {mu}g/L range. The potential of the developed method is illustrated by measurements of BTEX, naphthalene, chlorinated alkenes and chlorinated benzenes in water. Practical results from investigations of contaminated groundwater at a former gasworks site and groundwater from the site of a metal processing plant, focusing on the key substances benzene, naphthalene and tetrachloroethene, demonstrate the feasibility of the system for field studies. (orig.)

  10. SPME-based air sampling method for inhalation exposure assessment studies: case study on perchlorethylene exposure in dry cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Bahrami, Abdul Rahman; Ghiasvand, Alireza; Mahjub, Hossein; Tuduri, Ludovic

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to perchlorethylene, especially for dry cleaning workers and for people living near dry cleaning shops, could lead to several diseases and disorders. This study examines the value of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for sampling perchlorethylene in the atmosphere of dry cleaning shops. Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) in 0.5-cm retracted mode was selected. There were no significant differences between sampling rates at different temperatures (range of 20 to 30 °C) and air velocities (2 to 50 cm/s). On the opposite, relative humidity (RH) had a significant effect on sampling rates. Method reproducibility was realized in the laboratory and field conditions and was 6.2 % and 7 to 11 %, respectively. Repeatability was also determined as 8.9 %. Comparison of the results according to the American Industrial Hygiene Association exposure assessment strategy showed the SPME sampler yields more conservative results in comparison with traditional standard method.

  11. Multivariate statistical analysis of hemlock (Tsuga) volatiles by SPME/GC/MS: insights into the phytochemistry of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Lagalante; Frank Calvosa; Michael Mirzabeigi; Vikram Iyengar; Michael Montgomery; Kathleen Shields

    2007-01-01

    A previously developed single-needle, SPME/GC/MS technique was used to measure the terpenoid content of T. canadensis growing in a hemlock forest at Lake Scranton, PA (Lagalante and Montgomery 2003). The volatile terpenoid composition was measured over a 1-year period from June 2003 to May 2004 to follow the annual cycle of foliage development from...

  12. Development of a rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of 1,2-dibromoethane, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and naphthalene residues in honey using HS-SPME coupled with GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimeli, K; Triantis, T M; Dimotikali, D; Hiskia, A

    2008-06-09

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), naphthalene and 1,2-dibromoethane (1,2-DBE) residues in honey has been developed. Analysis is carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM), after extraction and preconcentration of target analytes by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), with a 100 microm film thickness polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber. Several parameters affecting the extension of the adsorption process (i.e., addition of salt, extraction time, extraction temperature) were studied. The optimal conditions for the determination of these analytes were established. The proposed HS-SPME method showed good sensitivity, without carryover between the samples. Linearity was studied from 5 to 2500 microg kg(-1) for p-DCB, 0.5 to 500 microg kg(-1) for naphthalene and 5 to 500 microg kg(-1) honey for 1,2-DBE with correlation coefficients (r(2)) ranging from 0.9901 to 0.9999. Precision was assessed and both intra and inter-day R.S.D.s (%) were below 6.3%. The detection limits were found to be 1, 0.1 and 2 microg kg(-1) honey for p-DCB, naphthalene and 1,2-DBE, respectively. The percentage recoveries that were evaluated with the proposed HS-SPME method and the standard addition calibration technique gave values among 72.8 and 104.3% for measurements in samples spiked with one target analyte or mixtures of the three. This method has been applied for the analysis of unknown honey samples. The results showed an excellent applicability of the proposed method for the determination of the target compounds in honey samples.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  14. Decreasing range resolution of a SAR image to permit correction of motion measurement errors beyond the SAR range resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Heard, Freddie E.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    2010-07-20

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  15. Model-based cartilage thickness measurement in the submillimeter range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streekstra, G. J.; Strackee, S. D.; Maas, M.; ter Wee, R.; Venema, H. W.

    2007-01-01

    Current methods of image-based thickness measurement in thin sheet structures utilize second derivative zero crossings to locate the layer boundaries. It is generally acknowledged that the nonzero width of the point spread function (PSF) limits the accuracy of this measurement procedure. We propose

  16. Recent Advances in Source Localisation Using Range Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    localisation and signal processing. ____________________ ________________________________________________ Kutluyil Dogancay Cyber and Electronic... function or the computation method used to minimise it. The two most popular cost functions considered in the literature are the range least squares (R... function and progressively minimise it by continuation [15][16]. In the first part of the paper we present source localization approaches based on

  17. Extending the range of turbidity measurement using polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Justin S.

    2017-11-21

    Turbidity measurements are obtained by directing a polarized optical beam to a scattering sample. Scattered portions of the beam are measured in orthogonal polarization states to determine a scattering minimum and a scattering maximum. These values are used to determine a degree of polarization of the scattered portions of the beam, and concentrations of scattering materials or turbidity can be estimated using the degree of polarization. Typically, linear polarizations are used, and scattering is measured along an axis that orthogonal to the direction of propagation of the polarized optical beam.

  18. Jacobians for Lebesgue registration for a range of similarity measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Darkner, Sune

    In [Darkner and Sporring, 2011] was presented a framework based on locally orderless images and Lebesgue integration resulting in a fast algorithm for registration using normalized mutual information as dissimilarity measure. This report extends the algorithm to arbitrary complex similarity...

  19. Selective molecularly imprinted polymer combined with restricted access material for in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS of parabens in breast milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Israel D.; Melo, Lidervan P. [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Jardim, Isabel C.S.F. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Monteiro, Juliana C.S.; Nakano, Ana Marcia S. [Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C., E-mail: mariaeqn@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-17

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer modified with restricted access material (a hydrophilic external layer), (MIP-RAM) was synthesized via polymerization in situ in an open fused silica capillary. This stationary phase was used as sorbent for in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) to determine parabens in breast milk samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) illustrate MIP surface modification after glycerol dimethacrylate (hydrophilic monomer) incorporation. The interaction between parabens and MIP-RAM was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Scatchard plot for MIP-RAM presented two linear parts with different slopes, illustrating binding sites with high- and low-affinity. Endogenous compounds exclusion from the MIP-RAM capillary was demonstrated by in-tube SPME/LC-UV assays carried out with blank milk samples. The in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS method presented linear range from 10 ng mL{sup −1} (LLOQ) to 400 ng mL{sup −1} with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99, inter-assay precision with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging from 2 to 15%, and inter-assay accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from −1% to 19%. Analytical validation parameters attested that in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS is an appropriate method to determine parabens in human milk samples to assess human exposure to these compounds. Analysis of breast milk samples from lactating women demonstrated that the proposed method is effective. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polymer modified with a hydrophilic external layer (RAM-MIP) was synthesized in a silica capillary. • RAM-MIP capillary, used as sorbent for in-tube SPME, established specific interaction with parabens present in milk samples. • The matrix components that interacted only with the hydrophilic external layer (non-adsorptive network) were excluded.

  20. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray; Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett

    1991-01-01

    The results of the NPN bipolar transistor (BJT) (2N6023) breakdown voltage measurements were analyzed. Switching measurements were made on the NPN BJT, the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) (TA9796) and the N-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) (RFH75N05E). Efforts were also made to build a H-bridge inverter. Also discussed are the plans that have been made to do life testing on the devices, to build an inductive switching test circuit and to build a dc/dc switched mode converter.

  1. Offshore wind profiling using light detection and ranging measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of the ZephlR (R), a continuous-wave, focused light detection and ranging (LiDAR) wind profiler, to observe offshore winds and turbulence characteristics were tested during a 6 month campaign at the tronsformer/platform of Hams Rev, the world's largest wind form....... The LiDAR system is a ground-based sensing technique which avoids the use of high and costly meteorological masts. Three different inflow conditions were selected to perform LiDAR wind profiling. Comparisons of LiDAR mean wind speeds against cup anemometers from different masts showed high correlations...... for the open sea sectors and good agreement with their longitudinal turbulence characteristics. Cup anemometer mean wind speed profiles were extended with LiDAR profiles up to 161 m on each inflow sector. The extension resulted in a good profile match for the three surrounding masts. These extended profiles...

  2. Evaluation of passive samplers with neutral or ion-exchange polymer coatings to determine freely dissolved concentrations of the basic surfactant lauryl diethanolamine: Measurements of acid dissociation constant and organic carbon-water sorption coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Yi; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2013-11-08

    A passive sampler tool (solid-phase microextraction, SPME) was optimized to measure freely dissolved concentrations (Cw,free) of lauryl diethanolamine (C12-DEA). C12-DEA can be protonated and act as a cationic surfactant. From the pH-dependent sorption to neutral SPME coatings (polyacrylate and PDMS), a pKa of 8.7 was calculated, which differs more than two units from the value of 6.4 reported elsewhere. Polyacrylate coated SPME could not adequately sample largely protonated C12-DEA in humic acid solutions of pH 6. A new hydrophobic SPME coating with cation-exchange properties (C18/SCX) sorbed C12-DEA 100 fold stronger than polyacrylate, because it specifically sorbs protonated C12-DEA species. The C18/SCX-SPME fiber showed linear calibration isotherms in a concentration range of acid at pH 6 (ionic strength 0.015 M) were measured over a broad concentration range with a sorption coefficient of 10(5.3). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Spot and Time Weighted Averaging (TWA Sampling with SPME-GC/MS Methods for Trihalomethane (THM Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don-Roger Parkinson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were collected and analyzed for conductivity, pH, temperature and trihalomethanes (THMs during the fall of 2014 at two monitored municipal drinking water source ponds. Both spot (or grab and time weighted average (TWA sampling methods were assessed over the same two day sampling time period. For spot sampling, replicate samples were taken at each site and analyzed within 12 h of sampling by both Headspace (HS- and direct (DI- solid phase microextraction (SPME sampling/extraction methods followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. For TWA, a two day passive on-site TWA sampling was carried out at the same sampling points in the ponds. All SPME sampling methods undertaken used a 65-µm PDMS/DVB SPME fiber, which was found optimal for THM sampling. Sampling conditions were optimized in the laboratory using calibration standards of chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2-dichloroethane, prepared in aqueous solutions from analytical grade samples. Calibration curves for all methods with R2 values ranging from 0.985–0.998 (N = 5 over the quantitation linear range of 3–800 ppb were achieved. The different sampling methods were compared for quantification of the water samples, and results showed that DI- and TWA- sampling methods gave better data and analytical metrics. Addition of 10% wt./vol. of (NH42SO4 salt to the sampling vial was found to aid extraction of THMs by increasing GC peaks areas by about 10%, which resulted in lower detection limits for all techniques studied. However, for on-site TWA analysis of THMs in natural waters, the calibration standard(s ionic strength conditions, must be carefully matched to natural water conditions to properly quantitate THM concentrations. The data obtained from the TWA method may better reflect actual natural water conditions.

  4. HS-SPME-GC-MS Analysis of onion (Allium cepa L. and shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Auria, M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compounds of onion and shallot were determined via HS-SPME-GC-MS. The main components were dipropyldisulphide and allylpropyldisulphide. Thiopropanal S-oxide were detected only in onion volatiles. In shallot is interesting the presence of 2-methyl-2-pentenal, a compound with an intense fruity aroma, that can characterize the different aroma between onion and shallot. The SPME-GC-MS analysis of shallot after absorption on the SPME fiber at 50°C showed the presence of new compounds, whose structures have been discussed.

  5. Analysis of the volatiles in the headspace above the plasmodium and sporangia of the slime mould (Physarum polycephalum) by SPME-GCMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kateb, Huda al; Costello, Ben de Lacy

    2013-01-01

    Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to extract and analyse the volatiles in the headspace above the plasmodial and sporulating stages of the slime mould Physarum Polycephalum. In total 115 compounds were identified from across a broad range of chemical classes. Although more (87) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified when using a higher incubation temperature of 75oC, a large number of compounds (79) were still ide...

  6. Determination of Pyrethroids in Tea Brew by GC-MS Combined with SPME with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Coated Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxia Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method has been developed to simultaneously determine 7 pyrethroid residues in tea brew using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS combined with solid phase microextraction (SPME with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs coated fiber. The MWCNTs coated fiber of SPME was homemade by using stainless steel wire as coating carrier and polyacrylonitrile (PAN solution as adhesive glue. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity was shown for bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, permethrin, and cyfluthrin in 1–50 ng mL−1 and for cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and deltamethrin in 5–50 ng mL−1. The correlation coefficients were in the range of 0.9948–0.9999. The average recoveries of 7 pyrethroids were 94.2%–107.3% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs were less than 15%. The detection limit of the method ranged from 0.12 to 1.65 ng mL−1. The tea brew samples made from some commercial tea samples were analyzed. Among them, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, and permethrin were found. The results show that the method is rapid and sensitive and requires low organic reagent consumption, which can be well used for the detection of the pyrethroids in tea brew.

  7. Improving the On-Line Extraction of Polar Compounds by IT-SPME with Silica Nanoparticles Modified Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Serra-Mora

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the extraction efficiency of in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME for polar herbicides has been evaluated using extractive capillaries coated with different polymeric sorbents. For this purpose, aqueous solutions of herbicides with a wide range of polarities, including some highly polar compounds (log Kow < 1, have been directly processed by IT-SPME coupled on-line to capillary liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detection. For extraction, commercially available capillary columns coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and polyetilenglicol (PEG-based phases have been used, and the results have been compared with those obtained with a synthesized tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS-trimethoxyethylsilane (MTEOS polymer, as well as the same polymer reinforced with silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs. The SiO2 NPs functionalized TEOS-MTEOS coating provided the best results for most herbicides, especially for the most polar compounds. On the basis of the results obtained, conditions for the quantification of the herbicides tested are described using a SiO2 NPs reinforced TEOS-MTEOS coated capillary. The proposed method provided satisfactory linearity up to concentrations of 200 μg/L. The precision was also suitable, with relative standard deviations (RSDs values ≤9% (n = 3, and the limits of detection (LODs were within the 0.5–7.5 µg/L range. The method has been applied to different water samples and the extract obtained from an agricultural soil.

  8. Selective molecularly imprinted polymer combined with restricted access material for in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS of parabens in breast milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Israel D; Melo, Lidervan P; Jardim, Isabel C S F; Monteiro, Juliana C S; Nakano, Ana Marcia S; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C

    2016-08-17

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer modified with restricted access material (a hydrophilic external layer), (MIP-RAM) was synthesized via polymerization in situ in an open fused silica capillary. This stationary phase was used as sorbent for in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) to determine parabens in breast milk samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) illustrate MIP surface modification after glycerol dimethacrylate (hydrophilic monomer) incorporation. The interaction between parabens and MIP-RAM was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Scatchard plot for MIP-RAM presented two linear parts with different slopes, illustrating binding sites with high- and low-affinity. Endogenous compounds exclusion from the MIP-RAM capillary was demonstrated by in-tube SPME/LC-UV assays carried out with blank milk samples. The in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS method presented linear range from 10 ng mL(-1) (LLOQ) to 400 ng mL(-1) with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99, inter-assay precision with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging from 2 to 15%, and inter-assay accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from -1% to 19%. Analytical validation parameters attested that in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS is an appropriate method to determine parabens in human milk samples to assess human exposure to these compounds. Analysis of breast milk samples from lactating women demonstrated that the proposed method is effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of an SPME-GC-MS/MS method for the determination of pesticides in rainwater: Laboratory and field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauret-Szczepanski, Nathalie; Mirabel, Philippe; Wortham, Henri

    2006-01-01

    A solid-phase microextraction - coupled to a gas chromatography - ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantitative determination in rainwater of 8 pesticides amongst the most used in France and 3 triazines metabolites. The main factors affecting the SPME process were studied. Using a 3 mL sample, the method developed showed good linearity for concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 50 μg L -1 with correlation coefficients between 0.997 and 0.9999 and relative standard deviations (% RSD) below 14%. The study of matrix effects showed that rainwater was too diluted to have any significant influence on the extraction efficiency. To validate the method, a field campaign was carried out on the rain events, which occurred in Strasbourg during a one-year period. The rain concentrations showed patterns of high pesticide concentrations during spring months, which were correlated to the spraying periods of most of these substances. - Solid-phase microextraction efficiency of pesticides in rainwater was optimized

  10. Passive Sampling and Analysis of Naphthalene in Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust with Retracted SPME Device and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiba Baimatova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gases from internal combustion engines are the main source of urban air pollution. Quantification of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the exhaust gases is needed for emissions monitoring, enforcement, development, and testing of control technologies. The objective was to develop quantification of gaseous naphthalene in diesel engine exhaust based on diffusion-controlled extraction onto a retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME fiber coating and analysis on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Extraction of naphthalene with retracted fibers followed Fick’s law of diffusion. Extracted mass of naphthalene was proportional to Cg, t, Dg, T and inversely proportional to Z. Method detection limit (p = 0.95 was 11.5 ppb (0.06 mg·m−3 at t = 9 h, Z = 10 mm and T = 40 °C, respectively. It was found that the % mass extracted of naphthalene by SPME needle assembly depended on the type of fiber. Storage time at different temperatures did not affect analyte losses extracted by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS 100 µm fiber. The developed method was tested on exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and tractor, and compared side-by-side with a direct injection of sampled exhaust gas method. Time-weighted average (TWA concentrations of naphthalene in exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and a tractor ranged from 0.08 to 0.3 mg·m−3 (15.3–53.7 ppb.

  11. Development of an SPME-GC-MS/MS method for the determination of pesticides in rainwater: Laboratory and field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauret-Szczepanski, Nathalie [Equipe de Physico-chimie de l' Atmosphere, Centre de Geochimie de la Surface (UMR 7517) 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France)]. E-mail: nathalie.sauret-szczepanski@alcan.com; Mirabel, Philippe [Equipe de Physico-chimie de l' Atmosphere, Centre de Geochimie de la Surface (UMR 7517) 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Wortham, Henri [Universite de Provence, Laboratoire Chimie et Environnement, Case 29, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex (France)]. E-mail: wortham@up.univ-mrs.fr

    2006-01-15

    A solid-phase microextraction - coupled to a gas chromatography - ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantitative determination in rainwater of 8 pesticides amongst the most used in France and 3 triazines metabolites. The main factors affecting the SPME process were studied. Using a 3 mL sample, the method developed showed good linearity for concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 50 {mu}g L{sup -1} with correlation coefficients between 0.997 and 0.9999 and relative standard deviations (% RSD) below 14%. The study of matrix effects showed that rainwater was too diluted to have any significant influence on the extraction efficiency. To validate the method, a field campaign was carried out on the rain events, which occurred in Strasbourg during a one-year period. The rain concentrations showed patterns of high pesticide concentrations during spring months, which were correlated to the spraying periods of most of these substances. - Solid-phase microextraction efficiency of pesticides in rainwater was optimized.

  12. Reliability of digital compass goniometer in knee joint range of motion measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaikwawongs, Nammond; Limpaphayom, Noppachart; Wilairatana, Vajara

    2009-04-01

    To compare the reliability of range of motion measurement in the knee joint using a digital compass goniometer combined with inclinometer with standard range of motion measurement from roentgenographic picture. Range of flexion and extension of the knee joint in volunteer participants was measured by the newly developed digital compass goniometer combined with inclinometer (DCG). The results were compared with range of knee joint motion obtained from standard roentgenographic picture by intraclass correlation coefficient. Range of motion of knee joint measured by DCG correlated very well with the data obtained from standard knee roentgenographic picture. The intraclass correlation coefficient equals 0.973. The digital compass goniometer was a reliable tool to measure knee joint range of motion in flexion and extension plane.

  13. Field measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere using solid-phase microextraction Arrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó Barreira, Luís Miguel; Duporté, Geoffroy; Rönkkö, Tuukka; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Hartonen, Kari; Hyrsky, Lydia; Heikkinen, Enna; Jussila, Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2018-02-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by terrestrial vegetation participate in a diversity of natural processes. These compounds impact both short-range processes, such as on plant protection and communication, and long-range processes, for example by participating in aerosol particle formation and growth. The biodiversity of plant species around the Earth, the vast assortment of emitted BVOCs, and their trace atmospheric concentrations contribute to the substantial remaining uncertainties about the effects of these compounds on atmospheric chemistry and physics, and call for the development of novel collection devices that can offer portability with improved selectivity and capacity. In this study, a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow sampling system was used for the static and dynamic collection of BVOCs from a boreal forest, and samples were subsequently analyzed on site by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This system offers higher sampling capacity and improved robustness when compared to traditional equilibrium-based SPME techniques, such as SPME fibers. Field measurements were performed in summer 2017 at the Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II) in Hyytiälä, Finland. Complementary laboratory tests were also performed to compare the SPME-based techniques under controlled experimental conditions and to evaluate the effect of temperature and relative humidity on their extraction performance. The most abundant monoterpenes and aldehydes were successfully collected. A significant improvement on sampling capacity was observed with the new SPME Arrow system over SPME fibers, with collected amounts being approximately 2 × higher for monoterpenes and 7-8 × higher for aldehydes. BVOC species exhibited different affinities for the type of sorbent materials used (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-carbon wide range (WR) vs. PDMS-divinylbenzene (DVB)). Higher extraction efficiencies were obtained with dynamic

  14. Partitioning of the pesticide trifluralin between dissolved organic matter and water using automated SPME-GC/MS

    KAUST Repository

    Caupos, Emilie

    2014-10-04

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to determine the equilibrium association constant for a pesticide, trifluralin (TFR), with dissolved organic matter (DOM). After optimization of the SPME method for the analysis of TFR, partition coefficients (K DOM) with three different sources of DOM were determined in buffered solutions at pH 7. Commercial humic acids and DOM fractions isolated from two surface waters were used. The values of log K DOMvaried from 4.3 to 5.8, depending on the nature of the organic material. A good correlation was established between log K DOMand DOM properties (as measured with the H/O atomic ratio and UV absorbance), in agreement with literature data. This is consistent with the effect of polarity and aromaticity for governing DOM-pollutant associations, regardless of the origin of DOM. This association phenomenon is relevant to better understand the behavior of pesticides in the environment since it controls part of pesticide leaching and fate in aquatic systems.

  15. Determination of organotin compounds by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-pulsed flame-photometric detection (HS-SPME-GC-PFPD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, Manuel [Universite de Pau et des Pays de L' Adour, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, LCABIE, UMR CNRS 5034, Pau (France); Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Valparaiso (Chile); Lespes, Gaetane; Gautier, Martine Potin [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Valparaiso (Chile); Gregori, Ida de; Pinochet, Hugo [Universite de Pau et des Pays de L' Adour, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, LCABIE, UMR CNRS 5034, Pau (France)

    2005-12-01

    A method based on Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, with a 100 {mu}m PDMS-fiber) in combination with gas-chromatography and pulsed flame-photometric detection (GC-PFPD) has been investigated for simultaneous determination of eight organotin compounds. Monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), monophenyltin (MPhT), and the semi-volatile diphenyltin (DPhT), triphenyltin (TPhT), monooctyltin (MOcT), and dioctyltin (DOcT) were determined after derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate. The conditions used for the extraction and preconcentration step were optimised by experimental design methodology. Tripropyltin (TPrT) and diheptyltin (DHepT) were used as internal standards for quantification of volatile and semi-volatile organotin compounds, respectively. The analytical precision (RSD) for ten successive injections of a standard mixture containing all the organic tin compounds ranged between 2 and 11%. The limits of detection for all the organotin compounds were sub ng (Sn) L{sup -1} in water and close to ng (Sn) kg{sup -1} in sediments. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analysis of two certified reference material (CRM) sediment samples. The HS-SPME-GC-PFPD was then applied to the analysis of three harbour sediment samples. The results showed that headspace SPME is an attractive tool for analysis of organotin compounds in solid environmental matrices. (orig.)

  16. Determination of organotin compounds by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-pulsed flame-photometric detection (HS-SPME-GC-PFPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Manuel; Lespes, Gaëtane; De Gregori, Ida; Pinochet, Hugo; Gautier, Martine Potin

    2005-12-01

    A method based on Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, with a 100 mum PDMS-fiber) in combination with gas-chromatography and pulsed flame-photometric detection (GC-PFPD) has been investigated for simultaneous determination of eight organotin compounds. Monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), monophenyltin (MPhT), and the semi-volatile diphenyltin (DPhT), triphenyltin (TPhT), monooctyltin (MOcT), and dioctyltin (DOcT) were determined after derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate. The conditions used for the extraction and preconcentration step were optimised by experimental design methodology. Tripropyltin (TPrT) and diheptyltin (DHepT) were used as internal standards for quantification of volatile and semi-volatile organotin compounds, respectively. The analytical precision (RSD) for ten successive injections of a standard mixture containing all the organic tin compounds ranged between 2 and 11%. The limits of detection for all the organotin compounds were sub ng (Sn) L(-1) in water and close to ng (Sn) kg(-1) in sediments. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analysis of two certified reference material (CRM) sediment samples. The HS-SPME-GC-PFPD was then applied to the analysis of three harbour sediment samples. The results showed that headspace SPME is an attractive tool for analysis of organotin compounds in solid environmental matrices.

  17. Method for sampling and analysis of volatile biomarkers in process gas from aerobic digestion of poultry carcasses using time-weighted average SPME and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziel, Jacek A; Nguyen, Lam T; Glanville, Thomas D; Ahn, Heekwon; Frana, Timothy S; Hans van Leeuwen, J

    2017-10-01

    A passive sampling method, using retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) - gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and time-weighted averaging, was developed and validated for tracking marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during aerobic digestion of biohazardous animal tissue. The retracted SPME configuration protects the fragile fiber from buffeting by the process gas stream, and it requires less equipment and is potentially more biosecure than conventional active sampling methods. VOC concentrations predicted via a model based on Fick's first law of diffusion were within 6.6-12.3% of experimentally controlled values after accounting for VOC adsorption to the SPME fiber housing. Method detection limits for five marker VOCs ranged from 0.70 to 8.44ppbv and were statistically equivalent (p>0.05) to those for active sorbent-tube-based sampling. The sampling time of 30min and fiber retraction of 5mm were found to be optimal for the tissue digestion process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) and HS-SPME-GCMS quantification of key aroma volatiles for fruit and sap of Australian mango cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Anh T; Joyce, Daryl C; Hofman, Peter J; Macnish, Andrew J; Webb, Richard I; Matovic, Nicolas J; Williams, Craig M; De Voss, James J; Wong, Siew H; Smyth, Heather E

    2017-04-15

    Reported herein is a high throughput method to quantify in a single analysis the key volatiles that contribute to the aroma of commercially significant mango cultivars grown in Australia. The method constitutes stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) in conjunction with headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Deuterium labelled analogues of the target analytes were either purchased commercially or synthesised for use as internal standards. Seven volatiles, hexanal, 3-carene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, limonene, α-terpinolene and ethyl octanoate, were targeted. The resulting calibration functions had determination coefficients (R 2 ) ranging from 0.93775 to 0.99741. High recovery efficiencies for spiked mango samples were also achieved. The method was applied to identify the key aroma volatile compounds produced by 'Kensington Pride' and 'B74' mango fruit and by 'Honey Gold' mango sap. This method represents a marked improvement over current methods for detecting and measuring concentrations of mango fruit and sap volatiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Volatile emerging contaminants in melon fruits, analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Fabrizio; Verzera, Antonella; Tripodi, Gianluca; Condurso, Concetta

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and validate a headspace-solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method for the determination of volatile emerging contaminants in fruit. The method showed good precision (RSD ≤ 14%) and satisfactory recoveries (99.1-101.7%) and LOD and LOQ values ranging between 0.011-0.033 μg kg -1 and 0.037-0.098 μg kg -1 , respectively. The method was applied to investigate the content of volatile emerging contaminants in two varieties of melon fruit (Cucumis melo L.) cultivated adjoining high-risk areas. Glycol ethers, BHT, BHA and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) were determined in melon fruit pulps for the first time, with different sensitivities depending on sample and variety. Although the amount of the volatile contaminants in the melon samples were in the order of µg kg -1 , the safety of vegetable crops cultivated near risk areas should be more widely considered. The results showed that this accurate and reproducible method can be useful for routine safety control of fruits and vegetables.

  20. Range Measurements of keV Hydrogen Ions in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Andersen, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Ranges of 1.3–3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen....... The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result agrees...... with that previously found for solid nitrogen....

  1. Enhanced Strain Measurement Range of an FBG Sensor Embedded in Seven-Wire Steel Strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Chul-Min; Choi, Song-Yi; Lee, Bang Yeon

    2017-07-18

    FBG sensors offer many advantages, such as a lack of sensitivity to electromagnetic waves, small size, high durability, and high sensitivity. However, their maximum strain measurement range is lower than the yield strain range (about 1.0%) of steel strands when embedded in steel strands. This study proposes a new FBG sensing technique in which an FBG sensor is recoated with polyimide and protected by a polyimide tube in an effort to enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands. The validation test results showed that the proposed FBG sensing technique has a maximum strain measurement range of 1.73% on average, which is 1.73 times higher than the yield strain of the strands. It was confirmed that recoating the FBG sensor with polyimide and protecting the FBG sensor using a polyimide tube could effectively enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands.

  2. Comparison of the atmospheric- and reduced-pressure HS-SPME strategies for analysis of residual solvents in commercial antibiotics using a steel fiber coated with a multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Nouriasl, Kolsoum; Yazdankhah, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    A low-cost, sensitive and reliable reduced-pressure headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) setup was developed and evaluated for direct extraction of residual solvents in commercial antibiotics, followed by determination by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). A stainless steel narrow wire was made porous and adhesive by platinization by a modified electrophoretic deposition method and coated with a polyaniline/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite. All experimental variables affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated for both atmospheric-pressure and reduced-pressure conditions. Comparison of the optimal experimental conditions and the results demonstrated that the reduced-pressure strategy leads to a remarkable increase in the extraction efficiency and reduction of the extraction time and temperature (10 min, 25 °Ϲ vs 20 min, 40 °Ϲ). Additionally, the reduced-pressure strategy showed better analytical performances compared with those obtained by the conventional HS-SPME-GC-FID method. Limit of detections, linear dynamic ranges, and relative standard deviations of the reduced-pressure HS-SPME procedure for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in injectable solid drugs were obtained over the ranges of 20-100 pg g -1 , 0.02-40 μg g -1 , and 2.8-10.2%, respectively. The procedure developed was successful for the analysis of BTEX in commercial containers of penicillin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and cefazolin. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the developed RP-HS-SPME setup.

  3. Correction of motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W [Albuquerque, NM; Heard, Freddie E [Albuquerque, NM; Cordaro, J Thomas [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-06-24

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  4. Development of source range measurement instrument in Xi'an pulsed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Han Shiju

    2002-01-01

    Source range measurement instrument in Xi'an pulsed reactor is key equipment of low-side measuring in source range. At the same time, it is also weighty component of out-of-pile neutron-flux level observation system. The authors have done some researching and renovating based on the similar type devices used in nuclear reactor to improve the meter sensitivity, measuring range, noise proof features, reliability in running and maintainability which belong to the main performance index of the instrument. The design ideas, configurations, working principle, performance indexes, technique features and effect in utilizing are introduced briefly

  5. ANALYTICAL APPROACH OF THE VOLATILE FRACTION OF Solanum quitoense BY HS-SPME/GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO CORPAS IGUARÁN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The species of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense, predominant in Colombia, is a promising fruit for both national and international market due to its flavor and nutritional characteristics, which generated the interest to know the volatile composition of its pulp. After adjusting, the chromatographic conditions necessary to analyze volatile fraction of this fruit, the effect of the temperature and time of adsorption was measured through the headspace - solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS, on the area of volatile compounds of S. quitoense, by applying the experimental design of a factor. The descriptive analysis suggested that the adsorption at 60°C and 30 minutes promoted optimal recovery of volatiles as well as internal standard (1-Octanol, with recovery of 99,66% at 60ºC, while the non-parametric test Kruskal-Wallis showed statistical differences in the effect of time (P= 0,018, but not of the temperature adsorption (P= 0,058 upon the volatiles compounds area. A predominance of esters (48,98%, aldehydes (18,37%, and alcohols (14,29% was observed and also were found compounds of greatest area such as 3-hexen-1-ol acetate, acetic acid methyl ester, and acetic acid hexyl ester. These metabolites determine the characteristic aroma from lulo pulp and influence the consumer preference.

  6. Comparison of two methods of surface profile extraction from multiple ultrasonic range measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barshan, B; Baskent, D

    Two novel methods for surface profile extraction based on multiple ultrasonic range measurements are described and compared. One of the methods employs morphological processing techniques, whereas the other employs a spatial voting scheme followed by simple thresholding. Morphological processing

  7. Application of Microextraction Techniques Including SPME and MESI to the Thermal Degradation of Polymers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaykhaii, Massoud; Linford, Matthew R

    2017-03-04

    Here, we discuss the newly developed micro and solventless sample preparation techniques SPME (Solid Phase Microextraction) and MESI (Membrane Extraction with a Sorbent Interface) as applied to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of thermal oxidative degradation products of polymers and their stabilizers. The coupling of these systems to analytical instruments is also described. Our comprehensive literature search revealed that there is no previously published review article on this topic. It is shown that these extraction techniques are valuable sample preparation tools for identifying complex series of degradation products in polymers. In general, the number of products identified by traditional headspace (HS-GC-MS) is much lower than with SPME-GC-MS. MESI is particularly well suited for the detection of non-polar compounds, therefore number of products identified by this technique is not also to the same degree of SPME. Its main advantage, however, is its ability of (semi-) continuous monitoring, but it is more expensive and not yet commercialized.

  8. Automated measurement of the static light scattering of macromolecular solutions over a broad range of concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Cristina; Minton, Allen P

    2008-10-15

    A method and apparatus for automated measurement of the concentration dependence of static light scattering of protein solutions over a broad range of concentrations is described. The gradient of protein concentrations is created by successive dilutions of an initially concentrated solution contained within the scattering measurement cell, which is maintained at constant total volume. The method is validated by measurement of the concentration dependence of light scattering of bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid at concentrations up to 130 g/L. The experimentally obtained concentration dependence of scattering obtained from all three proteins is quantitatively consistent with the assumption that no significant self-association occurs over the measured range of concentrations.

  9. Coherent change detection and interferometric ISAR measurements in the folded compact range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K.W.

    1996-08-01

    A folded compact range configuration has been developed ant the Sandia National Laboratories` compact range antenna and radar-cross- section measurement facility as a means of performing indoor, environmentally-controlled, far-field simulations of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements of distributed target samples (i.e. gravel, sand, etc.). The folded compact range configuration has previously been used to perform coherent-change-detection (CCD) measurements, which allow disturbances to distributed targets on the order of fractions of a wavelength to be detected. This report describes follow-on CCD measurements of other distributed target samples, and also investigates the sensitivity of the CCD measurement process to changes in the relative spatial location of the SAR sensor between observations of the target. Additionally, this report describes the theoretical and practical aspects of performing interferometric inverse-synthetic-aperture-radar (IFISAR) measurements in the folded compact range environment. IFISAR measurements provide resolution of the relative heights of targets with accuracies on the order of a wavelength. Several examples are given of digital height maps that have been generated from measurements performed at the folded compact range facility.

  10. Range and number-of-levels effects in derived and stated measures of attribute importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, PWJ; Schifferstein, HNJ; Wittink, DR

    We study how the range of variation and the number of ttribute levels affect five measures of attribute importance: full profile conjoint estimates, ranges in attribute level attractiveness ratings. regression coefficients. graded paired comparisons. and self-reported ratings, We find that all

  11. Comparative analysis of the aroma chemicals of Melissa officinalis using hydrodistillation and HS-SPME techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-u- Rehman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS has been used for the chemical analysis of Melissa officinalis (leaves cultivated in Institute Germplasm. The HS-SPME analysis led to the identification of 22 components constituting 99.1% of the total volatile constituents present in the leaves whereas its hydrodistillate led to the identification of 24 volatile constituents constituting 98.1% of the volatile material. The chemical composition of the SPME and hydrodistilled extract of M. officinalis leaves comprised mainly of oxygenated monoterpenes (78.5% and 57.8% respectively and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (14.9% and 29.7% respectively. The major components identified in the HS-SPME extract were citronellal (31.1%, citronellol (18.3%, β-caryophyllene (12.0%, (E-citral (11.9%, (Z-citral (9.6%, geraniol (3.6%, (Z-β-ocimene (3.1% and 1-octen-3-ol (2.0% whereas hydrodistilled essential oil was rich in (Z-citral (19.6%, β-caryophyllene (13.2%, (E-citral (11.2%, citronellal (10.2%, germacrene-d (8.3%, δ-3-carene (5.0%, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (3.7% and citronellyl acetate (3.7%. The comparative analysis of volatile constituents of M. officinalis leaf extract using HS-SPME and hydrodistillation techniques shows both qualitative as well as quantitative differences. The current study is the first report involving rapid analysis of volatile components of M. officinalis by HS-SPME.

  12. Prediction of Partition Coefficients of Organic Compounds for SPME/PDMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Hsuan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The partition coefficients of 51 organic compounds between SPME/PDMS and gas were compiled from the literature sources in this study. The effect of physicochemical properties and descriptors on the partitioning process of partition coefficients was explicated by the correlation analysis. The PDMS-gas partition coefficients were well correlated to the molecular weight of organic compounds (r = 0.832, p < 0.05. An empirical model, consisting of the molecular weight and the polarizability, was developed to appropriately predict the partition coefficients of organic compounds. The empirical model for estimating the PDMS-gas partition coefficient will contribute to the practical applications of the SPME technique.

  13. Quantitative Determination of Caffeine in Beverages Using a Combined SPME-GC/MS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawliszyn, Janusz; Yang, Min J.; Orton, Maureen L.

    1997-09-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been applied to the analysis of various caffeinated beverages. Unlike the current methods, this technique is solvent free and requires no pH adjustments. The simplicity of the SPME-GC/MS method lends itself to a good undergraduate laboratory practice. This publication describes the analytical conditions and presents the data for determination of caffeine in coffee, tea, and coke. Quantitation by isotopic dilution is also illustrated.

  14. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion in 20Ne + 51V system using recoil range measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sabir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recoil range distributions of evaporation residues, populated in 20Ne + 51V reaction at Elab ≈ 145 MeV, have been studied to determine the degree of momentum transferred through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions. Evaporation residues (ERs populated through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions have been identified on the basis of their recoil range in the Al catcher medium. Measured recoil range of evaporation residues have been compared with the theoretical value calculated using the code SRIM. Range integrated cross section of observed ERs have been compared with the value predicted by statistical model code PACE4.

  15. A comparison on radar range profiles between in-flight measurements and RCS-predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiden, R. van der; Ewijk, L.J. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The validation of Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction techniques against real measurements is crucial to acquire confidence in predictions when measurements are nut available. In this paper we present the results of a comparison on one-dimensional signatures, i.e. radar range profiles. The profiles

  16. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) for extraction of volatile oxidation products from complex food systems – Pros and cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    efficiency obtained with the SPME method can be affected by different factors such as fiber type, stirring of sample versus not stirring, extraction temperature and time. These factors can easily be controlled and optimized to obtain the highest possible extraction efficiency. However, extraction efficiency...... can also be affected by uncontrollable factors such as batch to batch variation between fibers of the same type and presence of compounds in the sample matrix, which competes with the compounds of interest for adsorption to the SPME fiber. The latter factor is particularly a problem when SPME is used...... for analysis of lipid oxidation during storage of complex food matrices. Examples on how uncontrollable factors have affected results obtained with the SPME method in the authors’ lab will be given and the appropriateness of the SPME method for the analysis of volatile oxidation products in selected food...

  17. Is Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) an appropriate method for extraction of volatile oxidation products from complex food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    efficiency obtained with the SPME method can be affected by different factors such as fiber type, stirring of sample versus not stirring, extraction temperature and time. These factors can easily be controlled and optimized to obtain the highest possible extraction efficiency. However, extraction efficiency...... can also be affected by uncontrollable factors such as batch to batch variation between fibers of the same type and presence of compounds in the sample matrix, which competes with the compounds of interest for adsorption to the SPME fiber. The latter factor is particularly a problem when SPME is used...... for analysis of lipid oxidation during storage of complex food matrices. Examples on how uncontrollable factors have affected results obtained with the SPME method in the authors’ lab will be given and the appropriateness of the SPME method for the analysis of volatile oxidation products in selected food...

  18. Clinical measurement of range of motion. Review of goniometry emphasizing reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosik, R L; Bohannon, R W

    1987-12-01

    Clinical measurement of range of motion is a fundamental evaluation procedure with ubiquitous application in physical therapy. Objective measurements of ROM and correct interpretation of the measurement results can have a substantial impact on the development of the scientific basis of therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this article is to review the related literature on the reliability and validity of goniometric measurements of the extremities. Special emphasis is placed on how the reliability of goniometry is influenced by instrumentation and procedures, differences among joint actions and body regions, passive versus active measurements, intratester versus intertester measurements, and different patient types. Our discussion of validity encourages objective interpretation of the meaning of ROM measurements in light of the purposes and the limitations of goniometry. We conclude that clinicians should adopt standardized methods of testing and should interpret and report goniometric results as ROM measurements only, not as measurements of factors that may affect ROM.

  19. Range compensation for backscattering measurements in the difference-frequency nearfield of a parametric sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kenneth G

    2012-05-01

    Measurement of acoustic backscattering properties of targets requires removal of the range dependence of echoes. This process is called range compensation. For conventional sonars making measurements in the transducer farfield, the compensation removes effects of geometrical spreading and absorption. For parametric sonars consisting of a parametric acoustic transmitter and a conventional-sonar receiver, two additional range dependences require compensation when making measurements in the nonlinearly generated difference-frequency nearfield: an apparently increasing source level and a changing beamwidth. General expressions are derived for range compensation functions in the difference-frequency nearfield of parametric sonars. These are evaluated numerically for a parametric sonar whose difference-frequency band, effectively 1-6 kHz, is being used to observe Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in situ. Range compensation functions for this sonar are compared with corresponding functions for conventional sonars for the cases of single and multiple scatterers. Dependences of these range compensation functions on the parametric sonar transducer shape, size, acoustic power density, and hydrography are investigated. Parametric range compensation functions, when applied with calibration data, will enable difference-frequency echoes to be expressed in physical units of volume backscattering, and backscattering spectra, including fish-swimbladder-resonances, to be analyzed.

  20. Detection of Low-Lattitude Plumes in the Outer Corona by Ulysses Radio Ranging Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Richard; Bird, Michael K.; Pold, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Plumes have been detected beyond the field of view of coronagraphs in the range of 23-42 R(sub o) in an equatorial coronal hole by Ulysses radio ranging measurements conducted in 1991 at 13 and 3.6 cm wavelengths. These results show that plumes are not exclusive to polar regions, but appear to be intrinsic to open magnetic field regions at any latitude.

  1. Polyelectrolyte coatings prevent interferences from charged nanoparticles in SPME speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinska, K.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a new approach for protection of the fiber in solid phase microextraction (SPME) from interfering charged particles present in the sample medium. It involves coating of commercial poly(dimethylsiloxane) extraction phase with polyelectrolyte layer composed of

  2. An Innovative Rapid Method for Analysis of 10 Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Wheat by HS-SPME-GC-FPD/MSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Ren, YongLin; Beckett, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    The rapid detection of pesticide residues in wheat has become a top food security priority. A solvent-free headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) has been evaluated for rapid screening of organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in wheat with high sensitivity. Individual wheat samples (1.7 g), spiked with 10 OPPs, were placed in a 4 mL sealed amber glass vial and heated at 60°C for 45 min. During this time, the OPP residues were extracted with a 50 μm/30 μm divinylbenzene (DVB)/carboxen (CAR)/plasma desorption mass spectroscopy polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber from the headspace above the sample. The fiber was then removed and injected into the GC injection port at 250°C for desorption of the extracted chemicals. The multiple residues were identified by a GC mass spectrometer detector (GC-MSD) and quantified with a GC flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). Seven spiked levels of 10 OPPs on wheat were analyzed. The GC responses for a 50 μm/30 μm DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber increased with increasing spiking levels, yielding significant (R(2) > 0.98) linear regressions. The lowest LODs of the multiple pesticide standards were evaluated under the conditions of the validation study in a range of levels from 0 (control) to 100 ng of pesticide residue per g of wheat that separated on a low-polar GC capillary column (Agilent DB-35UI). The results of the HS-SPME method were compared with the QuEChERS AOAC 2007.01 method and they showed several advantages over the latter. These included improved sensitivity, selectivity, and simplicity.

  3. Antenna-Range Consistency in Measurements of Gain and Phase Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, G.; Young, L.; Zuniga, L.

    2015-11-01

    Measurements have been conducted at two antenna ranges to assess whether internal range errors allow determination of the electrical location (phase center) of a Global Positioning System receiving antenna with submillimeter accuracy in the 1.1-1.6 GHz band. We first measured antennas in the tapered far-field chamber at Goddard Space Flight Center and later duplicated some of those measurements in the spherical near-field chamber at Nearfield Systems, Inc. (NSI). In general, the two ranges perform about equally well. Position errors due to thermal noise, mounting uncertainty, and instrumental drift are negligible at both. Multipath power at Goddard is about 40 dB below the direct signal but could significantly corrupt measurements at boresight angles near 90 deg. At NSI, multipath is about 50 dB below the direct signal after the application of software that detects it and reduces the effect. Direct comparison of phase centers calculated for identical configurations at the two ranges gives consistent results with a standard deviation of 0.58 mm. However, an offset of 6.5 mm remains unexplained. More detailed comparison of antenna phases over a range of directions also shows submillimeter consistency.

  4. Long-Range Channel Measurements on Small Terminal Antennas Using Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Christensen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, details are given on a novel measurement device for radio propagation-channel measurements. To avoid measurement errors due to the conductive cables on small terminal antennas, as well as to improve the handling of the prototypes under investigation, an optical measurement device has...... been developed. It utilizes thin, light, and flexible glass fibers as opposed to heavy, stiff, and conductive coaxial cables. This paper looks at the various system parameters such as overall gain, noise figure, and dynamic range and compares the solution to other methods. An estimate of the device...

  5. Impedance measurements on a fast transition-edge sensor for optical and near-infrared range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taralli, E; Portesi, C; Lolli, L; Monticone, E; Rajteri, M; Novikov, I; Beyer, J

    2010-01-01

    Impedance measurements of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) are a powerful tool to obtain information about the TES thermal and electrical properties. We apply this technique to a 20 μm x 20 μm Ti/Au TES, suitable for application in the optical and near-infrared range, and extend the measurements up to 250 kHz in order to obtain a complete frequency response in the complex plane. From these measurements we obtain important thermal and electrical device parameters such as heat capacity C, thermal conductance G and effective thermal time constant τ eff that will be compared with the corresponding values obtained from noise measurements.

  6. Wide-range Vacuum Measurements from MWNT Field Emitters Grown Directly on Stainless Steel Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Detian; Zhao, Yangyang; Cheng, Yongjun; Dong, Changkun

    2016-01-01

    The field emission properties and the vacuum measurement application are investigated from the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) grown directly on catalytic stainless steel substrates. The MWNT emitters present excellent emission properties after the acid treatment of the substrate. The MWNT gauge is able to work down to the extreme-high vacuum (XHV) range with linear measurement performance in wide range from 10-11 to 10-6 Torr. A modulating grid is attempted with improved gauge sensitivity. The extension of the lower pressure limit is attributed largely to low outgassing effect due to direct growth of MWNTs and justified design of the electron source.

  7. Adaptive digital fringe projection technique for high dynamic range three-dimensional shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Gao, Jian; Mei, Qing; He, Yunbo; Liu, Junxiu; Wang, Xingjin

    2016-04-04

    It is a challenge for any optical method to measure objects with a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface. Image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured fringe pattern images, leading to phase and measurement errors. This paper presents a new adaptive digital fringe projection technique which avoids image saturation and has a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement of objects that has a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface. Compared to previous high dynamic range 3-D scan methods using many exposures and fringe pattern projections, which consumes a lot of time, the proposed technique uses only two preliminary steps of fringe pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns, by adaptively adjusting the pixel-wise intensity of the projected fringe patterns based on the saturated pixels in the captured images of the surface being measured. For the bright regions due to high surface reflectivity and high illumination by the ambient light and surfaces interreflections, the projected intensity is reduced just to be low enough to avoid image saturation. Simultaneously, the maximum intensity of 255 is used for those dark regions with low surface reflectivity to maintain high SNR. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can achieve higher 3-D measurement accuracy across a surface with a large range of reflectivity variation.

  8. Measurement and prediction of post-fire erosion at the hillslope scale, Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan de Dios Benavides-Solorio; Lee H. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    Post-fire soil erosion is of considerable concern because of the potential decline in site productivity and adverse effects on downstream resources. For the Colorado Front Range there is a paucity of post-fire erosion data and a corresponding lack of predictive models. This study measured hillslope-scale sediment production rates and site characteristics for three wild...

  9. Baking enables McLeod gauge to measure in ultrahigh vacuum range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisman, W. S.

    1965-01-01

    Accurate measurements in the ultrahigh vacuum range by a conventional McLeod gage requires degassing of the gage's glass walls. A closed system, in which mercury is forced into the gage by gravity alone, and in which the gage components are baked out for long periods, is used to achieve this degassing.

  10. Polymeric pH nanosensor with extended measurement range bearing octaarginine as cell penetrating peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Peng; Sun, Honghao; Liu, Mingxing

    2016-01-01

    A synthetic peptide octaarginine which mimics human immunodeficiency virus-1, Tat protein is used as cell penetrating moiety for new pH nanosensors which demonstrate enhanced cellular uptake and expanded measurement range from pH 3.9 to pH 7.3 by simultaneously incorporating two complemental pH-s...

  11. 3D super resolution range-gated imaging for canopy reconstruction and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hantao; Wang, Xinwei; Sun, Liang; Lei, Pingshun; Fan, Songtao; Zhou, Yan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a method of canopy reconstruction and measurement based on 3D super resolution range-gated imaging. In this method, high resolution 2D intensity images are grasped by active gate imaging, and 3D images of canopy are reconstructed by triangular-range-intensity correlation algorithm at the same time. A range-gated laser imaging system(RGLIS) is established based on 808 nm diode laser and gated intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera with 1392´1040 pixels. The proof experiments have been performed for potted plants located 75m away and trees located 165m away. The experiments show it that can acquire more than 1 million points per frame, and 3D imaging has the spatial resolution about 0.3mm at the distance of 75m and the distance accuracy about 10 cm. This research is beneficial for high speed acquisition of canopy structure and non-destructive canopy measurement.

  12. Comparative speaking, shouting and singing voice range profile measurement: physiological and pathological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacki, T

    1996-01-01

    The Voice Range Profile (VRP) measurement offers a method for the investigation of voice modalities i.e. speaking voice, shouting voice and singing voice in their mutual pitch and intensity relations. The parameters FO and SPL are evaluated by means of automatic pitch and SPL measurements from (1) sustained phonation /a:/ in the speaker's natural pitch and intensity range, (2) the continuous speaking voice beginning with Pianissimo up to Fortissimo, (3) the shouting voice. Vocal intensity is plotted vertically, vocal pitch horizontally. The displays of the vocal intensity versus fundamental frequency are defined as singing voice range profile (VRP), speaking VRP and shouting VRP. The VRPs are superimposed on the same plot. Their form, their shape and their position to each other are analysed. The physiological relationships between the VRPs of the different voice modalities to each other are defined. The pathological relationships between the VRPs (i.e. reduction, shifting) give information about etiology and pathomechanism of voice disorders.

  13. SU-F-T-176: Therapeutic Proton Beam Range Measurement Method with EBT3 Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N [National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Ocular proton therapy has the following advantages: i) sparing optic nerve, ii) the minimal dose is delivered to surrounding normal tissues. Since the proton therapy center was opened in 2007, 30 patients with ocular tumor have been treated at National Cancer Center using single scattering technique. To develop a solid eye phantom which can verify the output and the beam range with EBT3 film for independent patient QA in ocular proton therapy. Methods: The proton therapy is very effective to treat ocular tumor, because of the Bragg peak feature. In general, the beam shape of eye treatment is about 3 cm in diameter and the beam range is under 5 cm. However, proton therapy has uncertainty of beam range problem due to various stopping power of normal tissue, bone, air and so on, so that we should verify the beam range before treatment. For this purpose, a new PMMA phantom with wedge has been developed to use the film dosimetry and the ionization chamber. It is able to place a film on the slope of the phantom, which the spread out Bragg Peak by the water equivalent thickness value of PMMA can be made on the film. We considered to relation with quenching effect of proton energy and range for simple second check. In addition, the ionization chamber (Pin-point chamber, PTW 31014) can be inserted into a hole in the phantom to measure the absolute dose. Results: The output difference and beam range difference were less than 2% and 1.0 mm, respectively, between the measurement and the plan. Conclusion: An eye phantom was developed and its performance was evaluated successfully and it was useful to verify the output. Also with EBT3 film with the quenching effect for measurement depth-dose profile, range to patient QA.

  14. Spin motion determination of the Envisat satellite through laser ranging measurements from a single pass measured by a single station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Jean-Noël; Šilha, Jiří; Schildknecht, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology is used to accurately determine the position of space objects equipped with so-called retro-reflectors or retro-reflector arrays (RRA). This type of measurement allows to measure the range to the spacecraft with high precision, which leads to determination of very accurate orbits for these targets. Non-active spacecraft, which are not attitude controlled any longer, tend to start to spin or tumble under influence of the external and internal torques and forces. If the return signal is measured for a non-spherical non-active rotating object, the signal in the range residuals with respect to the reference orbit is more complex. For rotating objects the return signal shows an oscillating pattern or patterns caused by the RRA moving around the satellite's centre of mass. This behaviour is projected onto the radial component measured by the SLR. In our work, we demonstrate how the SLR ranging technique from one sensor to a satellite equipped with a RRA can be used to precisely determine its spin motion during one passage. Multiple SLR measurements of one target over time allow to accurately monitor spin motion changes which can be further used for attitude predictions. We show our solutions of the spin motion determined for the non-active ESA satellite Envisat obtained from measurements acquired during years 2013-2015 by the Zimmerwald SLR station, Switzerland. All the necessary parameters are defined for our own so-called point-like model which describes the motion of a point in space around the satellite centre of mass.

  15. Auto-synchronized laser scanning range sensor for thermoplastic pavement marking material thickness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Chen, Xuemin; Chen, Yuanhang; Ekbote, Aditya; Liu, Richard Ce

    2006-03-01

    Pavement marking materials provide delineation on highways around the world. The condition of the marking materials is very important for the driver's safety as well as the comfort and the driving expenses. Currently thermoplastic pavement marking materials (TPMM) are widely used in states. Measuring the thickness of TPMM on pavement is an essential index to monitor the contractors, calculate durability of marking materials, and provide better information for the pavement marking evaluation. In recent years to measure the thickness of TPMM, a procedure involving pre-embedded plates sprayed with the marking materials has been widely accepted. This method is labor intensive, and cannot obtain a continuous-thickness profile. Therefore there are demands to develop a high-speed automatic measuring system for determining the thickness and uniformity of marking materials. In this paper, a laser range sensor based on auto-synchronized laser scanning is proposed for the thermoplastic pavement marking material thickness measurement. Compare to classical triangulation method, this approach doesn't scarify the system resolution for large field of view and it is more suitable for highway speed measurement. To achieve high speed measurement, PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) is used in the prototype system instead of CCD (Charge Couple Device) in traditional auto-synchronized system. The standoff distance and transverse scan range of the prototype system both are 1 foot. The lab test results show that the prototype system can measure the thermoplastic type thickness with error in 5mil at laser scanning rate up to 50Hz.

  16. Comparing range data across the slow-time dimension to correct motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Heard, Freddie E.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    2010-08-17

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  17. Ground level atmospheric gamma ray flux measurements in the 1 to 6 MeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, P.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement of atmospheric gamma ray flux in the 1 to 6 MeV range at ground level is examined. These measurements were carried out using a Compton gamma ray telescope. It utilizes the Compton scattering principle to detect and image gamma ray sources. The telescope was used to measure ground level atmospheric gamma rays at four locations (Leadville (10200 ft), Boulder (5430 ft), Mt. Washington (6072 ft) and Durham (80 ft)) which ranged in atmospheric depth from 720 to 1033 sq cm and in local cutoff rigidity from 1.4 to 2.9 GV. Data was collected over a two week period at each location during 1987. The results yielded for the first time statistically atmospheric gamma ray flux values at large depths in the atmosphere. The analysis provided differential energy flux at various zenith angles in the 1 to 6 MeV energy range. The zenith angle dependence of the differential energy flux indicated a cos(sup n) theta dependence where n approximately 2.8 at higher altitudes (Leadville and Mt. Washington) and n approximately 2.0 deeper in the atmosphere (Boulder and Durham). The vertical intensity fitted a power law spectrum of index approximately 1.2, with the spectrum softening at large atmospheric depths. The atmospheric depth dependence shows an e-folding depth of 153 g/sq cm. Using this depth dependence, all existing measurements below 700 g/sq cm were normalized to sea level. Good agreement is seen among the normalized sea level flux corresponding to different experiments. Comparing experimental results with existing theoretical and Monte Carlo calculations in the 1 to 10 MeV range, the measurements indicate a softer power law spectrum, indicating the need to further examine the calculations. Combining UNH results with University of California (Riverside) measurements, indicate a weak rigidity dependence in the vertical atmospheric gamma ray intensity

  18. Wind Field Reconstruction from Nacelle-Mounted Lidars Short Range Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borraccino, Antoine; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian

    2017-01-01

    IR Dual Mode). The reconstructed wind speed was within 0.5 % of the wind speed measured with a mast-top-mounted cup anemometer at 2.5 rotor diameters upstream of the turbine. The technique described in this paper overcomes measurement range limitations of the currently available nacelle lidar technology.......Profiling nacelle lidars probe the wind at several heights and several distances upstream of the rotor. The development of such lidar systems is relatively recent, and it is still unclear how to condense the lidar raw measurements into useful wind field characteristics such as speed, direction......, vertical and longitudinal gradients (wind shear). In this paper, we demonstrate an innovative method to estimate wind field characteristics using nacelle lidar measurements taken within the induction zone. Model-fitting wind field reconstruction techniques are applied to nacelle lidar measurements taken...

  19. The normal ranges of cardiovascular parameters in children measured using the Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattermole, Giles N; Leung, P Y Mia; Mak, Paulina S K; Chan, Stewart S W; Graham, Colin A; Rainer, Timothy H

    2010-09-01

    The Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitor is a noninvasive method of hemodynamic assessment and monitoring in critically ill patients. There are no published reference ranges for normal values in children for this device. This study aimed to establish normal ranges for cardiovascular indices measured using Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitor in children aged 0-12 yrs old and to assess interobserver reliability. This was a population-based cross-sectional observational study. Schools and kindergartens in Hong Kong. Chinese children aged up to 12 yrs old. Two operators performed Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitor scans on each child together with standard oscillometric measurement of blood pressure and heart rate. Software intrinsic to the Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitor device produces values for stroke volume, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance. For each parameter, normal ranges were defined as lying between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Interobserver reliability was assessed with Bland-Altman plots, coefficients of variation, and intraclass correlation. A total of 1,197 Chinese children (55% boys) were scanned. Normal ranges of values for cardiac output, stroke volume, and systemic vascular resistance indices are presented. Interobserver reliability for Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitor was superior to that for standard blood pressure and heart rate measurement. This large study presents normal values for cardiovascular indices in children using the Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitor with good interobserver reliability.

  20. Knee range of motion: reliability and agreement of 3 measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Paul G; Herbenick, Michael A; Anloague, Philip A; Markert, Ronald J; Rubino, L Joseph

    2011-12-01

    We conducted a study to compare 3 methods of measuring knee range of motion: visual estimation by physicians, hand goniometry by physical therapists, and radiographic goniometry. We hypothesized that reliability would be high within and across all techniques. We found intrarater and interrater reliability to be satisfactory for visual estimation, hand goniometry, and radiographic goniometry. Interrater reliability across methods did not agree satisfactorily. Between-methods differences in estimating knee range of motion may result from variations in technique among physicians and physical therapists.

  1. Range-resolved bistatic imaging lidar for the measurement of the lower atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meki, K; Yamaguchi, K; Li, X; Saito, Y; Kawahara, T D; Nomura, A

    1996-09-01

    A bistatic imaging lidar system using a cooled CCD camera as a detector has been developed for the observation of aerosols, fog, and clouds in the lower atmosphere, especially within several hundred meters of the Earth's surface. Theoretical discussion showed that the received signal does not depend on the measured range. The potential of the bistatic imaging lidar was confirmed through results of nighttime observations of atmospheric phenomena up to 300 m. A range-resolved profile was obtained without scanning and with a very short time resolution, within 1 min.

  2. Spatiotemporal treadmill gait measurements using a laser range scanner: feasibility study of the healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, S; Ii, T; Koyama, S; Saitoh, E; Itoh, N; Ohtsuka, K; Katoh, Y; Shimizu, A; Tomita, Y

    2017-04-01

    Spatio-temporal parameters are typically used for gait analysis. Although these parameters are measured by sophisticated systems such as 3D motion capture system or optoelectronic bars, these systems cannot be deployed easily because of their high costs, large space requirements and elaborate set-up. The purpose of this study is to develope a system for measuring spatiotemporal gait parameters using a laser range scanner during treadmill gait. To calculate accurate spatiotemporal parameters, the differences between the laser range scanner measured values and the reference values obtained from a 3D motion capture system were investigated in thirty subjects. From measurements in time and position at foot contact/off, adjustments to compensate for the differences in time and position were derived. Then, to determine the validity of the proposed system, values from the proposed system and the reference system were compared in four additional subjects. The results indicate that the data from the laser range scanner demonstrate certain differences in time and position compared with reference values. However, when compensation values were introduced, each spatiotemporal parameter correlated well with the reference values. This newer system is smaller, is easier to deploy and requires less training than the 3D motion capture system.

  3. Linear FMCW Laser Radar for Precision Range and Vector Velocity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Petway, Larry; Barnes, Bruce; Lockhard, George; Rubio, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    An all fiber linear frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) coherent laser radar system is under development with a goal to aide NASA s new Space Exploration initiative for manned and robotic missions to the Moon and Mars. By employing a combination of optical heterodyne and linear frequency modulation techniques and utilizing state-of-the-art fiber optic technologies, highly efficient, compact and reliable laser radar suitable for operation in a space environment is being developed. Linear FMCW lidar has the capability of high-resolution range measurements, and when configured into a multi-channel receiver system it has the capability of obtaining high precision horizontal and vertical velocity measurements. Precision range and vector velocity data are beneficial to navigating planetary landing pods to the preselected site and achieving autonomous, safe soft-landing. The all-fiber coherent laser radar has several important advantages over more conventional pulsed laser altimeters or range finders. One of the advantages of the coherent laser radar is its ability to measure directly the platform velocity by extracting the Doppler shift generated from the motion, as opposed to time of flight range finders where terrain features such as hills, cliffs, or slopes add error to the velocity measurement. Doppler measurements are about two orders of magnitude more accurate than the velocity estimates obtained by pulsed laser altimeters. In addition, most of the components of the device are efficient and reliable commercial off-the-shelf fiber optic telecommunication components. This paper discusses the design and performance of a second-generation brassboard system under development at NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance (ALHAT) project.

  4. Optimization of total vaporization solid-phase microextraction (TV-SPME) for the determination of lipid profiles of Phormia regina, a forensically important blow fly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, William; Carroll, Clinton; Dixon, Darren; Picard, Christine; Goodpaster, John

    2017-11-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of fatty acids, sterols, and other lipids which naturally occur within pupae of the blow fly Phormia regina. The method relies upon liquid extraction in non-polar solvent, followed by derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) w/ 1% trimethylchlorsilane (TMCS) carried out inside the sample vial. The analysis is facilitated by total vaporization solid-phase microextraction (TV-SPME), with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) serving as the instrumentation for analysis. The TV-SPME delivery technique is approximately a factor of five more sensitive than traditional liquid injection, which may alleviate the need for rotary evaporation, reconstitution, collection of high performance liquid chromatography fractions, and many of the other pre-concentration steps that are commonplace in the current literature. Furthermore, the ability to derivatize the liquid extract in a single easy step while increasing sensitivity represents an improvement over current derivatization methods. The most common lipids identified in fly pupae were various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ranging from lauric acid (12:0) to arachinoic acid (20:4), as well as cholesterol. The concentrations of myristic acid (14:0), palmitelaidic acid (16:2), and palmitoleic acid (16:1) were the most reliable indicators of the age of the pupae. Graphical abstract Blow fly pupae were extracted prior to emerging as adults. The extracts were analyzed via total vaporization solid-phase microextraction (TV-SPME), revealing a complex mixture of lipids that could be associated with the age of the insect. This information may assist in determining a post-mortum interval (PMI) in a death investigation.

  5. Is goniometry suitable for measuring ankle range of motion in female ballet dancers? An initial comparison with radiographic measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jeffrey A; Shave, Ruth M; Kruse, David W; Nevill, Alan M; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A

    2011-06-01

    Female ballet dancers require extreme ankle motion to attain the demi-plié (weight-bearing full dorsiflexion [DF]) and en pointe (weight-bearing full plantar flexion [PF]) positions of ballet. However, techniques for assessing this amount of motion have not yet received sufficient scientific scrutiny. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine possible differences between weight-bearing goniometric and radiographic ankle range of motion measurements in female ballet dancers. Ankle range of motion in 8 experienced female ballet dancers was assessed by goniometry and 2 radiographic measurement methods. The latter were performed on 3 mediolateral x-rays, in demi-plié, neutral, and en pointe positions; one of them used the same landmarks as goniometry. DF values were not significantly different among the methods, but PF values were (P ballet dancers and suggest that goniometry may not be ideal for assessing ankle range of motion in these individuals. Therefore, further research is needed to standardize how DF and PF are measured in ballet dancers. Diagnostic, Level I.

  6. LUMOS - A Sensitive and Reliable Optode System for Measuring Dissolved Oxygen in the Nanomolar Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehner, Philipp; Larndorfer, Christoph; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Most commercially available optical oxygen sensors target the measuring range of 300 to 2 mu mol L-1. However these are not suitable for investigating the nanomolar range which is relevant for many important environmental situations. We therefore developed a miniaturized phase fluorimeter based...... range of 20 mu M down to 10 nM. The LUMOS device is a dedicated system optimized for a high signal to noise ratio, but in principle any phase flourimeter can be adapted to act as a readout device for the highly sensitive and robust sensing chemistry. Vise versa, the LUMOS fluorimeter can be used...... for read out of less sensitive optical oxygen sensors based on the same or similar indicator dyes, for example for monitoring oxygen at physiological conditions. The presented sensor system exhibits lower noise, higher resolution and higher sensitivity than the electrochemical STOX sensor previously used...

  7. Absolute distance measurement with extension of nonambiguity range using the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yoon-Soo; Lee, Keunwoo; Han, Seongheum; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2014-12-01

    We revisit the method of synthetic wavelength interferometry (SWI) for absolute measurement of long distances using the radio-frequency harmonics of the pulse repetition rate of a mode-locked femtosecond laser. Our intention here is to extend the nonambiguity range (NAR) of the SWI method using a coarse virtual wavelength synthesized by shifting the pulse repetition rate. The proposed concept of NAR extension is experimentally verified by measuring a ˜13-m distance with repeatability of 9.5 μm (root-mean-square). The measurement precision is estimated to be 31.2 μm in comparison with an incremental He-Ne laser interferometer. This extended SWI method is found to be well suited for long-distance measurements demanded in the fields of large-scale precision engineering, geodetic survey, and future space missions.

  8. Potentiometric Measurement of Transition Ranges and Titration Errors for Acid/Base Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Paul A.

    1997-07-01

    Sophomore analytical chemistry courses typically devote a substantial amount of lecture time to acid/base equilibrium theory, and usually include at least one laboratory project employing potentiometric titrations. In an effort to provide students a laboratory experience that more directly supports their classroom discussions on this important topic, an experiment involving potentiometric measurement of transition ranges and titration errors for common acid/base indicators has been developed. The pH and visually-assessed color of a millimolar strong acid/base system are monitored as a function of added titrant volume, and the resultant data plotted to permit determination of the indicator's transition range and associated titration error. Student response is typically quite positive, and the measured quantities correlate reasonably well to literature values.

  9. Development of a differential column image motion light detection and ranging for measuring turbulence profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xu; Hou, Zaihong; Wu, Yi; Qin, Lai'an; He, Feng; Tan, Fengfu

    2013-09-01

    We have developed a differential column image motion (DCIM) lidar for measuring real-time vertical profiles of Fried's transverse coherence length (r0) and testing it against a differential image motion (DIM) lidar and a DIM monitor by observing stars throughout a range of turbulent conditions. With the DCIM lidar system parameters elaborately designed and the detector installed with an angle corresponding to the receiving telescope axis, the focal position of the laser guide star from a range of altitudes that coincide with the CCD's receiving area, r0 of different altitudes can be obtained simultaneously. The experiment results support the DCIM lidar and confirm that a high temporal and spatial resolution r0 profile can be measured with this method.

  10. Measurement range of phase retrieval in optical surface and wavefront metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Gregory R.; Fienup, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Phase retrieval employs very simple data collection hardware and iterative algorithms to determine the phase of an optical field. We have derived limitations on phase retrieval, as applied to optical surface and wavefront metrology, in terms of the speed of beam (i.e., f-number or numerical aperture) and amount of aberration using arguments based on sampling theory and geometrical optics. These limitations suggest methodologies for expanding these ranges by increasing the complexity of the measurement arrangement, the phase-retrieval algorithm, or both. We have simulated one of these methods where a surface is measured at unusual conjugates

  11. An extended set-value observer for position estimation using single range measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcal, Jose; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    the observability of the system is briefly discussed and an extended set-valued observer is presented, with some discussion about the effect of the measurements noise on the final solution. This observer estimates bounds in the errors assuming that the exogenous signals are bounded, providing a safe region......The ability of estimating the position of an underwater vehicle from single range measurements is important in applications where one transducer marks an important geographical point, when there is a limitation in the size or cost of the vehicle, or when there is a failure in a system...

  12. [Measurement of the knee range of motion: standard goniometer or smartphone?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwakabayiza, Sylvia; Pereira, Luis Carlos; Lécureux, Estelle; Jolles-Haeberli, Brigitte

    2013-12-18

    Universal standard goniometer is an essential tool to measure articulations' range of motion (ROM). In this time of technological advances and increasing use of smartphones, new measurement's tools appear as specific smartphone applications. This article compares the iOS application "Knee Goniometer" with universal standard goniometer to assess knee ROM. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses a goniometer application in a clinical context. The purpose of this study is to determine if this application could be used in clinical practice.

  13. Toward extended range sub-micron conoscopic holography profilometers using multiple wavelengths and phase measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enguita, José M.; Álvarez, Ignacio; Marina, Jorge; Ojea, Guillermo; Cancelas, José A.; Frade, María

    2009-05-01

    Conoscopic Holography proved to be a very adequate solution for in-situ optical measurement in industrial inspection and quality control systems, offering high-precision with a wide range of standoff distances, while being quite insensitive to the harsh environmental conditions often encountered in industry, as it is a common-path technique. With the aim of extending their applicability, we have already addressed, with good results, several issues that improve sensors based on this technology which include: the use of phase information to obtain one-shot profile measurements at frame rate with higher precision; new signal processing techniques; and speckle reduction to diminish measurement errors. However, the undesirable effect of using the phase information is that it reduces the maximum steep that can be measured without ambiguity, which becomes an issue when working with high precisions. In this article we present our ongoing work towards using the concepts of multiple-wavelength interferometry to extend the measurement range, something that, to our knowledge, has not been done for this technology before.

  14. Combined Infrared Stereo and Laser Ranging Cloud Measurements from Shuttle Mission STS-85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Redgie S.; Spinhirne, James D.; OCStarr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-angle remote sensing provides a wealth of information for earth and climate monitoring. And, as technology advances so do the options for developing instrumentation versatile enough to meet the demands associated with these types of measurements. In the current work, the multiangle measurement capability of the Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer is demonstrated. This instrument flew as part of mission STS-85 of the space shuttle Columbia in 1997 and was the first earth-observing radiometer to incorporate an uncooled microbolometer array detector as its image sensor. Specifically, a method for computing cloud-top height from the multi-spectral stereo measurements acquired during this flight has been developed and the results demonstrate that a vertical precision of 10.6 km was achieved. Further, the accuracy of these measurements is confirmed by comparison with coincident direct laser ranging measurements from the Shuttle Laser Altimeter. Mission STS-85 was the first space flight to combine laser ranging and thermal IR camera systems for cloud remote sensing.

  15. Ground based mobile isotopic methane measurements in the Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, B. H.; Rella, C.; Petron, G.; Sherwood, O.; Mielke-Maday, I.; Schwietzke, S.

    2014-12-01

    Increased development of unconventional oil and gas resources in North America has given rise to attempts to monitor and quantify fugitive emissions of methane from the industry. Emission estimates of methane from oil and gas basins can vary significantly from one study to another as well as from EPA or State estimates. New efforts are aimed at reconciling bottom-up, or inventory-based, emission estimates of methane with top-down estimates based on atmospheric measurements from aircraft, towers, mobile ground-based vehicles, and atmospheric models. Attributing airborne measurements of regional methane fluxes to specific sources is informed by ground-based measurements of methane. Stable isotopic measurements (δ13C) of methane help distinguish between emissions from the O&G industry, Confined Animal Feed Operations (CAFO), and landfills, but analytical challenges typically limit meaningful isotopic measurements to individual point sampling. We are developing a toolbox to use δ13CH4 measurements to assess the partitioning of methane emissions for regions with multiple methane sources. The method was applied to the Denver-Julesberg Basin. Here we present data from continuous isotopic measurements obtained over a wide geographic area by using MegaCore, a 1500 ft. tube that is constantly filled with sample air while driving, then subsequently analyzed at slower rates using cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS). Pressure, flow and calibration are tightly controlled allowing precise attribution of methane enhancements to their point of collection. Comparisons with point measurements are needed to confirm regional values and further constrain flux estimates and models. This effort was made in conjunction with several major field campaigns in the Colorado Front Range in July-August 2014, including FRAPPÉ (Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment), DISCOVER-AQ, and the Air Water Gas NSF Sustainability Research Network at the University of Colorado.

  16. A High Dynamic-Range Beam Position Measurement System for ELSA-2

    CERN Document Server

    Balleyguier, P; Guimbal, P; Borrion, H

    2003-01-01

    New beamlines are presently under construction for ELSA, a 20 MeV electron linac located at Bruyères-le-Châtel. These lines need a beam position measurement system filling the following requirements: small footprint, wide dynamic range, single-bunch/multi-bunch capability, simple design. We designed a compact 4-stripline sensor and an electronic treatment chain based on logarithmic amplifiers. This paper presents the design, cold and hot test results.

  17. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study

    OpenAIRE

    Adie Sam; Ko Victoria; Naylor Justine M; Gaskin Clive; Walker Richard; Harris Ian A; Mittal Rajat

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methods Design: Methodolo...

  18. Reliability of speaking and maximum voice range measures in screening for dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Estella; Robertson, Jennie; Radford, Claire; Vagne, Sarah; El-Halabi, Ruba; Yiu, Edwin

    2007-07-01

    Speech range profile (SRP) is a graphical display of frequency-intensity occurring interactions during functional speech activity. Few studies have suggested the potential clinical applications of SRP. However, these studies are limited to qualitative case comparisons and vocally healthy participants. The present study aimed to examine the effects of voice disorders on speaking and maximum voice ranges in a group of vocally untrained women. It also aimed to examine whether voice limit measures derived from SRP were as sensitive as those derived from voice range profile (VRP) in distinguishing dysphonic from healthy voices. Ninety dysphonic women with laryngeal pathologies and 35 women with normal voices, who served as controls, participated in this study. Each subject recorded a VRP for her physiological vocal limits. In addition, each subject read aloud the "North Wind and the Sun" passage to record SRP. All the recordings were captured and analyzed by Soundswell's computerized real-time phonetogram Phog 1.0 (Hitech Development AB, Täby, Sweden). The SRPs and the VRPs were compared between the two groups of subjects. Univariate analysis results demonstrated that individual SRP measures were less sensitive than the corresponding VRP measures in discriminating dysphonic from normal voices. However, stepwise logistic regression analyses revealed that the combination of only two SRP measures was almost as effective as a combination of three VRP measures in predicting the presence of dysphonia (overall prediction accuracy: 93.6% for SRP vs 96.0% for VRP). These results suggest that in a busy clinic where quick voice screening results are desirable, SRP can be an acceptable alternate procedure to VRP.

  19. Laser Ranging in Solar System: Technology Developments and New Science Measurement Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Mcgarry, J.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.

    2015-12-01

    Laser Ranging has played a major role in geodetic studies of the Earth over the past 40 years. The technique can potentially be used in between planets and spacecrafts within the solar system to advance planetary science. For example, a direct measurement of distances between planets, such as Mars and Venus would make significant improvements in understanding the dynamics of the whole solar system, including the masses of the planets and moons, asteroids and their perturbing interactions, and the gravity field of the Sun. Compared to the conventional radio frequency (RF) tracking systems, laser ranging is potentially more accurate because it is much less sensitive to the transmission media. It is also more efficient because the laser beams are much better focused onto the targets than RF beams. However, existing laser ranging systems are all Earth centric, that is, from ground stations on Earth to orbiting satellites in near Earth orbits or lunar orbit, and to the lunar retro-reflector arrays deployed by the astronauts in the early days of lunar explorations. Several long distance laser ranging experiments have been conducted with the lidar in space, including a two-way laser ranging demonstration between Earth and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on the MESSENGER spacecraft over 24 million km, and a one way laser transmission and detection experiment over 80 million km between Earth and the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the MGS spacecraft in Mars orbit. A one-way laser ranging operation has been carried out continuously from 2009 to 2014 between multiple ground stations to LRO spacecraft in lunar orbit. The Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) on the LADEE mission has demonstrated that a two way laser ranging measurements, including both the Doppler frequency and the phase shift, can be obtained from the subcarrier or the data clocks of a high speed duplex laser communication system. Plans and concepts presently being studied suggest we may be

  20. Cannabinoids determination in oral fluid by SPME-GC/MS and UHPLC-MS/MS and its application on suspected drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzillotti, Luca; Castrignanò, Erika; Strano Rossi, Sabina; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2014-12-01

    The confirmation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in oral fluid (OF) is an important issue for assessing Driving Under the Influence of Drugs (DUID). The aim of this research was to develop a highly sensitive method with minimal sample pre-treatment suitable for the analysis of small OF volumes (100 μL) for the confirmation of cannabinoids in DUID cases. Two methods were compared for the confirmation of THC in residual OF samples, obtained from a preliminary on-site screening with commercial devices. An ultra high performance LC-MS (UHPLC-MS/MS) method and an SPME-GC/MS method were hence developed. 100 μL of the residual mixture OF/preservative buffer or neat OF was simply added to 10 μL of THC-D3 (1 μg/mL) and submitted to the two different analyses: A - direct injection of 10 μL in UHPLC-MS/MS in positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode and B - sampling for 30 min with SPME (100 μm polydimethylsiloxane or PDMS fibre) and direct injection by desorption of the fibre in the GC injection port. The lowest limit of detection (LLOD) of THC was 2 ng/mL in UHPLC-MS/MS and 0.5 ng/mL in SPME-GC/MS. In addition, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) could be detected in GC/MS equipment at 2 ng/mL, whilst in UHPLC-MS/MS the LLOD was 20 ng/mL. Both methods were applied to 70 samples coming from roadside tests. By SPME-GC/MS analysis, THC was confirmed in 42 samples, whilst CBD was detected in 21 of them, along with CBN in 14 samples. THC concentrations ranged from traces below the lowest limit of quantification or LLOQ (2 ng/mL) up to 690 ng/mL. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Newly Designed Fiber-Optic Based Earth Pressure Transducer with Adjustable Measurement Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Zhen Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel fiber-optic based earth pressure sensor (FPS with an adjustable measurement range and high sensitivity is developed to measure earth pressures for civil infrastructures. The new FPS combines a cantilever beam with fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors and a flexible membrane. Compared with a traditional pressure transducer with a dual diaphragm design, the proposed FPS has a larger measurement range and shows high accuracy. The working principles, parameter design, fabrication methods, and laboratory calibration tests are explained in this paper. A theoretical solution is derived to obtain the relationship between the applied pressure and strain of the FBG sensors. In addition, a finite element model is established to analyze the mechanical behavior of the membrane and the cantilever beam and thereby obtain optimal parameters. The cantilever beam is 40 mm long, 15 mm wide, and 1 mm thick. The whole FPS has a diameter of 100 mm and a thickness of 30 mm. The sensitivity of the FPS is 0.104 kPa/με. In addition, automatic temperature compensation can be achieved. The FPS’s sensitivity, physical properties, and response to applied pressure are extensively examined through modeling and experiments. The results show that the proposed FPS has numerous potential applications in soil pressure measurement.

  2. Dynamic Data Filtering of Long-Range Doppler LiDAR Wind Speed Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauke Beck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Doppler LiDARs have become flexible and versatile remote sensing devices for wind energy applications. The possibility to measure radial wind speed components contemporaneously at multiple distances is an advantage with respect to meteorological masts. However, these measurements must be filtered due to the measurement geometry, hard targets and atmospheric conditions. To ensure a maximum data availability while producing low measurement errors, we introduce a dynamic data filter approach that conditionally decouples the dependency of data availability with increasing range. The new filter approach is based on the assumption of self-similarity, that has not been used so far for LiDAR data filtering. We tested the accuracy of the dynamic data filter approach together with other commonly used filter approaches, from research and industry applications. This has been done with data from a long-range pulsed LiDAR installed at the offshore wind farm ‘alpha ventus’. There, an ultrasonic anemometer located approximately 2.8 km from the LiDAR was used as reference. The analysis of around 1.5 weeks of data shows, that the error of mean radial velocity can be minimised for wake and free stream conditions.

  3. Evaluation of the volatile profile of Tuber liyuanum by HS-SPME with GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changjiao; Li, Yu

    2017-04-01

    The volatile components of Tuber liyuanum were determined by HS-SPME with GC-MS for the first time. The effects of different fibre coating, extraction time, extraction temperature and sample amount were studied to get optimal extraction conditions. The optimal conditions were SPME fibre of Carboxen/PDMS, extraction time of 40 min, extraction temperature of 80 °C, sample amount of 2 g. Under these conditions 57 compounds in volatile of T. liyuanum were detected with a resemblance percentage above 80%. Aldehydes and aromatics were the main chemical families identified. The contribution of 3-Octanone(11.67%), phenylethyl alcohol (10.60%), isopentana (9.29%) and methylbutana (8.06%) for the total volatile profile were more significant in T. liyuanum than other compounds.

  4. Comparison of SPME Methods for Determining Volatile Compounds in Milk, Cheese, and Whey Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Tunick

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but conditions have to be adjusted to maximize release while not generating new compounds that are absent in the original sample. Queso Fresco, a fresh non-melting cheese, may be heated at 60 °C for 30 min; in contrast, compounds are produced in milk when exposed to light and elevated temperatures, so milk samples are heated as little as possible. Products such as dehydrated whey protein are more stable and can be exposed to longer periods (60 min of warming at lower temperature (40 °C without decomposition, allowing for capture and analysis of many minor components. The techniques for determining the volatiles in dairy products by SPME and GC-MS have to be optimized to produce reliable results with minimal modifications and analysis times.

  5. Long-range correlations of serial FEV1 measurements in emphysematous patients and normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, A; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Madsen, F

    1998-01-01

    are autocorrelated. The purpose of this study was to describe the correlation structure in time series of FEV1 measurements. Nineteen patients with severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (phenotype PiZ) and moderate to severe emphysema and two subjects with normal lungs were followed for several years with daily self...... patients was approximately 0.35 for short intervals and decreased almost exponentially with a half time of 38 days. Between 3 and 4 mo, the autocorrelation function became negative. It reached a minimum of -0.1 at approximately 8 mo and then increased toward zero over the following 12 mo...... measurements show long-range correlations. The practical implication is that FEV1 need not be measured more often than once every 3 mo in studies of the long-term trends in lung function....

  6. Measurements and correlations of turbulent burning velocities over wide ranges of fuels and elevated pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Bradley, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The implosion technique has been used to extend measurements of turbulent burning velocities over greater ranges of fuels and pressures. Measurements have been made up to 3.5 MPa and at strain rate Markstein numbers as low as 23. The implosion technique, with spark ignition at two opposite wall positions within a fan-stirred spherical bomb is capable of measuring turbulent burning velocities, at higher pressures than is possible with central ignition. Pressure records and schlieren high speed photography define the rate of burning and the smoothed area of the flame front. The first aim of the study was to extend the previous measurements with ethanol and propane-air, with further measurements over wider ranges of fuels and equivalence ratios with mixtures of hydrogen, methane, 10% hydrogen-90% methane, toluene, and i-octane, with air. The second aim was to study further the low turbulence regime in which turbulent burning co-exists with laminar flame instabilities. Correlations are presented of turbulent burning velocity normalised by the effective rms turbulent velocity acting on the flame front, ut=u0k , with the Karlovitz stretch factor, K, for different strain rate Markstein numbers, a decrease in which increases ut=u0k . Experimental correlations are presented for the present measurements, combined with previous ones. Different burning regimes are also identified, extending from that of mixed turbulence/laminar instability at low values of K to that at high values of K, in which ut=u0k is gradually reduced due to increasing localised flame extinctions. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  7. SPME-GC analysis of THC in saliva samples collected with "EPITOPE" device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucci, N; De Giovanni, N; Chiarotti, M; Scarlata, S

    2001-07-15

    In this study we examined the presence of cannabinoids in saliva samples obtained from 24 drug-abusers. The saliva specimens were collected by "EPITOPE" system and the subsequent elution of samples was achieved by centrifugation. The resulting ultrafiltrates have been directly sampled with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and then analyzed by GC/MS. Saliva sampling is less invasive than collection of blood.

  8. Sensitivity of physiological emotional measures to odors depends on the product and the pleasantness ranges used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marie Pichon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are characterized by synchronized changes in several components of an organism. Among them, physiological variations provide energy support for the expression of approach/avoid action tendencies induced by relevant stimuli, while self-reported subjective pleasantness feelings integrate all other emotional components and are plastic.Consequently, emotional responses evoked by odors should be highly differentiated when they are linked to different functions of olfaction (e.g., avoiding environmental hazards. As this differentiation has been observed for contrasted odors (very pleasant or unpleasant, we questioned whether subjective and physiological emotional response indicators could still disentangle subtle affective variations when no clear functional distinction is made (mildly pleasant or unpleasant fragrances. Here, we compared the sensitivity of behavioral and physiological (respiration, skin conductance, facial electromyography (EMG, and heart rate indicators in differentiating odor-elicited emotions in two situations: when a wide range of odor families was presented (e.g., fruity, animal, covering different functional meanings; or in response to a restricted range of products in one particular family (fragrances. Results show clear differences in physiological indicators to odors that display a wide range of reported pleasantness, but these differences almost entirely vanish when fragrances are used even though their subjective pleasantness still differed. Taken together, these results provide valuable information concerning the ability of classic verbal and psychophysiological measures to investigate subtle differences in emotional reactions to a restricted range of similar olfactory stimuli.

  9. Varying the item format improved the range of measurement in patient-reported outcome measures assessing physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegl, Gregor; Gandek, Barbara; Fischer, H Felix; Bjorner, Jakob B; Ware, John E; Rose, Matthias; Fries, James F; Nolte, Sandra

    2017-03-21

    Physical function (PF) is a core patient-reported outcome domain in clinical trials in rheumatic diseases. Frequently used PF measures have ceiling effects, leading to large sample size requirements and low sensitivity to change. In most of these instruments, the response category that indicates the highest PF level is the statement that one is able to perform a given physical activity without any limitations or difficulty. This study investigates whether using an item format with an extended response scale, allowing respondents to state that the performance of an activity is easy or very easy, increases the range of precise measurement of self-reported PF. Three five-item PF short forms were constructed from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) wave 1 data. All forms included the same physical activities but varied in item stem and response scale: format A ("Are you able to …"; "without any difficulty"/"unable to do"); format B ("Does your health now limit you …"; "not at all"/"cannot do"); format C ("How difficult is it for you to …"; "very easy"/"impossible"). Each short-form item was answered by 2217-2835 subjects. We evaluated unidimensionality and estimated a graded response model for the 15 short-form items and remaining 119 items of the PROMIS PF bank to compare item and test information for the short forms along the PF continuum. We then used simulated data for five groups with different PF levels to illustrate differences in scoring precision between the short forms using different item formats. Sufficient unidimensionality of all short-form items and the original PF item bank was supported. Compared to formats A and B, format C increased the range of reliable measurement by about 0.5 standard deviations on the positive side of the PF continuum of the sample, provided more item information, and was more useful in distinguishing known groups with above-average functioning. Using an item format with an extended

  10. SPME as a promising tool in translational medicine and drug discovery: From bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryński, Krzysztof; Goryńska, Paulina; Górska, Agnieszka; Harężlak, Tomasz; Jaroch, Alina; Jaroch, Karol; Lendor, Sofia; Skobowiat, Cezary; Bojko, Barbara

    2016-10-25

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is a technology where a small amount of an extracting phase dispersed on a solid support is exposed to the sample for a well-defined period of time. The open-bed geometry and biocompatibility of the materials used for manufacturing of the devices makes it very convenient tool for direct extraction from complex biological matrices. The flexibility of the formats permits tailoring the method according the needs of the particular application. Number of studies concerning monitoring of drugs and their metabolites, analysis of metabolome of volatile as well as non-volatile compounds, determination of ligand-protein binding, permeability and compound toxicity was already reported. All these applications were performed in different matrices including biological fluids and tissues, cell cultures, and in living animals. The low invasiveness of in vivo SPME, ability of using very small sample volumes and analysis of cell cultures permits to address the rule of 3R, which is currently acknowledged ethical standard in R&D labs. In the current review systematic evaluation of the applicability of SPME to studies required to be conduct at different stages of drug discovery and development and translational medicine is presented. The advantages and challenges are discussed based on the examples directly showing given experimental design or on the studies, which could be translated to the models routinely used in drug development process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trumpold, H.; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    Background For the precise and accurate measurement of surface topography a whole range of surface detection systems is available. With their application in research and production problems arise due to the lack of traceable standard artefacts for the instrument calibration in X, Y and Z directions...... to be replicated during all stages of the replication processes. Procedures for cleaning glass, PVC, PC, PMM and Ni-surfaces have been developed and tested. Calibration procedures for calibration standards and for calibrating instruments in X-, Y- and Z-direction have been developed and tested. Proposals...... in industries ranging from automotive manufacture to ultraprecision manufacture of data storage systems and compact discs. Objectives The project is concerned with developing calibration standards including their production methods and calibration procedures as a consistent means of calibrating different types...

  12. Current Measurements Using Doppler Range Velocities over the Estuary of Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huimin; Wang, Yunhua; Zhang, Yanmin

    2014-11-01

    Measurements of oceanic surface current using range velocity over Estuary of Yangtze River are examined based on range Doppler velocity retrieved from Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar(ASAR). Sign Doppler Estimator (SDE) is employed to calculate Doppler Centroid with ASAR Imaging mode datasets. Both non- and geophysical errors are corrected to acquire more realistic surface current. In the process of corrections for geophysical errors, contributions of wind are removed utilizing phase velocity of wind-generated waves (Bragg resonant waves). In general, magnitude of retrieved current is approximately 1m/s, which is in reasonable concordance with long-term hydrological observations. Maps of ASAR-derived oceanic surface current seem to capture the synoptic characteristics of this Estuary. Assessments using tide table are implemented, which depict a potential in obtaining high precision currents. The derived results are encouraging and manifest that SAR does offer a valuable means to retrieve high-resolution current especially over coastal areas.

  13. Testing accuracy of long-range ultrasonic sensors for olive tree canopy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarra-Diezma, Juan Luis; Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Llorens, Jordi; Cuenca, Andrés; Blanco-Roldán, Gregorio L; Rodríguez-Lizana, Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Ultrasonic sensors are often used to adjust spray volume by allowing the calculation of the crown volume of tree crops. The special conditions of the olive tree require the use of long-range sensors, which are less accurate and faster than the most commonly used sensors. The main objectives of the study were to determine the suitability of the sensor in terms of sound cone determination, angle errors, crosstalk errors and field measurements. Different laboratory tests were performed to check the suitability of a commercial long-range ultrasonic sensor, as were the experimental determination of the sound cone diameter at several distances for several target materials, the determination of the influence of the angle of incidence of the sound wave on the target and distance on the accuracy of measurements for several materials and the determination of the importance of the errors due to interference between sensors for different sensor spacings and distances for two different materials. Furthermore, sensor accuracy was tested under real field conditions. The results show that the studied sensor is appropriate for olive trees because the sound cone is narrower for an olive tree than for the other studied materials, the olive tree canopy does not have a large influence on the sensor accuracy with respect to distance and angle, the interference errors are insignificant for high sensor spacings and the sensor's field distance measurements were deemed sufficiently accurate.

  14. Testing Accuracy of Long-Range Ultrasonic Sensors for Olive Tree Canopy Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Gamarra-Diezma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic sensors are often used to adjust spray volume by allowing the calculation of the crown volume of tree crops. The special conditions of the olive tree require the use of long-range sensors, which are less accurate and faster than the most commonly used sensors. The main objectives of the study were to determine the suitability of the sensor in terms of sound cone determination, angle errors, crosstalk errors and field measurements. Different laboratory tests were performed to check the suitability of a commercial long-range ultrasonic sensor, as were the experimental determination of the sound cone diameter at several distances for several target materials, the determination of the influence of the angle of incidence of the sound wave on the target and distance on the accuracy of measurements for several materials and the determination of the importance of the errors due to interference between sensors for different sensor spacings and distances for two different materials. Furthermore, sensor accuracy was tested under real field conditions. The results show that the studied sensor is appropriate for olive trees because the sound cone is narrower for an olive tree than for the other studied materials, the olive tree canopy does not have a large influence on the sensor accuracy with respect to distance and angle, the interference errors are insignificant for high sensor spacings and the sensor’s field distance measurements were deemed sufficiently accurate.

  15. Validation of a photography-based goniometry method for measuring joint range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonna, Davide; Zarkadas, Peter C; Fitzsimmons, James S; O'Driscoll, Shawn W

    2012-01-01

    A critical component of evaluating the outcomes after surgery to restore lost elbow motion is the range of motion (ROM) of the elbow. This study examined if digital photography-based goniometry is as accurate and reliable as clinical goniometry for measuring elbow ROM. Instrument validity and reliability for photography-based goniometry were evaluated for a consecutive series of 50 elbow contractures by 4 observers with different levels of elbow experience. Goniometric ROM measurements were taken with the elbows in full extension and full flexion directly in the clinic (once) and from digital photographs (twice in a blinded random manner). Instrument validity for photography-based goniometry was extremely high (intraclass correlation coefficient: extension = 0.98, flexion = 0.96). For extension and flexion measurements by the expert surgeon, systematic error was negligible (0° and 1°, respectively). Limits of agreement were 7° (95% confidence interval [CI], 5° to 9°) and -7° (95% CI, -5° to -9°) for extension and 8° (95% CI, 6° to 10°) and -7° (95% CI, -5° to -9°) for flexion. Interobserver reliability for photography-based goniometry was better than that for clinical goniometry. The least experienced observer's photographic goniometry measurements were closer to the reference measurements than the clinical goniometry measurements. Photography-based goniometry is accurate and reliable for measuring elbow ROM. The photography-based method relied less on observer expertise than clinical goniometry. This validates an objective measure of patient outcome without requiring doctor-patient contact at a tertiary care center, where most contracture surgeries are done. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement of Shoulder Range of Motion in Patients with Adhesive Capsulitis Using a Kinect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Lee

    Full Text Available Range of motion (ROM measurements are essential for the evaluation for and diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (AC. However, taking these measurements using a goniometer is inconvenient and sometimes unreliable. The Kinect (Microsoft, Seattle, WA, USA is gaining attention as a new motion detecting device that is nonintrusive and easy to implement. This study aimed to apply Kinect to measure shoulder ROM in AC; we evaluated its validity by calculating the agreement of the measurements obtained using Kinect with those obtained using goniometer and assessed its utility for the diagnosis of AC. Both shoulders of 15 healthy volunteers and affected shoulders of 12 patients with AC were included in the study. The passive and active ROM of each were measured with a goniometer for flexion, abduction, and external rotation. Their active shoulder motions for each direction were again captured using Kinect and the ROM values were calculated. The agreement between the two measurements was tested with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Diagnostic performance using the Kinect ROM was evaluated with Cohen's kappa value. The cutoff values of the limited ROM were determined in the following ways: the same as passive ROM values, reflecting the mean difference, and based on receiver operating characteristic curves. The ICC for flexion/abduction/external rotation between goniometric passive ROM and the Kinect ROM were 0.906/0.942/0.911, while those between active ROMs and the Kinect ROMs were 0.864/0.932/0.925. Cohen's kappa values were 0.88, 0.88, and 1.0 with the cutoff values in the order above. Measurements of the shoulder ROM using Kinect show excellent agreement with those taken using a goniometer. These results indicate that the Kinect can be used to measure shoulder ROM and to diagnose AC as an alternative to goniometer.

  17. Measurement of Shoulder Range of Motion in Patients with Adhesive Capsulitis Using a Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Hee Chan; Kwak, Youngbin; Park, Hee-won; Kim, Keewon

    2015-01-01

    Range of motion (ROM) measurements are essential for the evaluation for and diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (AC). However, taking these measurements using a goniometer is inconvenient and sometimes unreliable. The Kinect (Microsoft, Seattle, WA, USA) is gaining attention as a new motion detecting device that is nonintrusive and easy to implement. This study aimed to apply Kinect to measure shoulder ROM in AC; we evaluated its validity by calculating the agreement of the measurements obtained using Kinect with those obtained using goniometer and assessed its utility for the diagnosis of AC. Both shoulders of 15 healthy volunteers and affected shoulders of 12 patients with AC were included in the study. The passive and active ROM of each were measured with a goniometer for flexion, abduction, and external rotation. Their active shoulder motions for each direction were again captured using Kinect and the ROM values were calculated. The agreement between the two measurements was tested with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Diagnostic performance using the Kinect ROM was evaluated with Cohen’s kappa value. The cutoff values of the limited ROM were determined in the following ways: the same as passive ROM values, reflecting the mean difference, and based on receiver operating characteristic curves. The ICC for flexion/abduction/external rotation between goniometric passive ROM and the Kinect ROM were 0.906/0.942/0.911, while those between active ROMs and the Kinect ROMs were 0.864/0.932/0.925. Cohen’s kappa values were 0.88, 0.88, and 1.0 with the cutoff values in the order above. Measurements of the shoulder ROM using Kinect show excellent agreement with those taken using a goniometer. These results indicate that the Kinect can be used to measure shoulder ROM and to diagnose AC as an alternative to goniometer. PMID:26107943

  18. Inertial sensors as measurement tools of elbow range of motion in gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, G; Turpin, JM; Marteu, A; Sakarovitch, C; Teboul, B; Boscher, L; Brocker, P; Robert, P; Guerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Musculoskeletal system deterioration among the aging is a major reason for loss of autonomy and directly affects the quality of life of the elderly. Articular evaluation is part of physiotherapeutic assessment and helps in establishing a precise diagnosis and deciding appropriate therapy. Reference instruments are valid but not easy to use for some joints. The main goal of our study was to determine reliability and intertester reproducibility of the MP-BV, an inertial sensor (the MotionPod® [MP]) combined with specific software (BioVal [BV]), for elbow passive range-of-motion measurements in geriatrics. Methods This open, monocentric, randomized study compared inertial sensor to inclinometer in patients hospitalized in an acute, post-acute, and long-term-care gerontology unit. Results Seventy-seven patients (mean age 83.5±6.4 years, sex ratio 1.08 [male/female]) were analyzed. The MP-BV was reliable for each of the three measurements (flexion, pronation, and supination) for 24.3% (CI 95% 13.9–32.8) of the patients. Separately, the percentages of reliable measures were 59.7% (49.2–70.5) for flexion, 68.8% (58.4–79.5) for pronation, and 62.3% (51.2–73.1) for supination. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.15 (0.07–0.73), 0.46 (0.27–0.98), and 0.50 (0.31–40 0.98) for flexion, pronation, and supination, respectively. Conclusion This study shows the convenience of the MP-BV in terms of ease of use and of export of measured data. However, this instrument seems less reliable and valuable compared to the reference instruments used to measure elbow range of motion in gerontology. PMID:25759568

  19. Short-range optical air data measurements for aircraft control using rotational Raman backscatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraczek, Michael; Behrendt, Andreas; Schmitt, Nikolaus

    2013-07-15

    A first laboratory prototype of a novel concept for a short-range optical air data system for aircraft control and safety was built. The measurement methodology was introduced in [Appl. Opt. 51, 148 (2012)] and is based on techniques known from lidar detecting elastic and Raman backscatter from air. A wide range of flight-critical parameters, such as air temperature, molecular number density and pressure can be measured as well as data on atmospheric particles and humidity can be collected. In this paper, the experimental measurement performance achieved with the first laboratory prototype using 532 nm laser radiation of a pulse energy of 118 mJ is presented. Systematic measurement errors and statistical measurement uncertainties are quantified separately. The typical systematic temperature, density and pressure measurement errors obtained from the mean of 1000 averaged signal pulses are small amounting to < 0.22 K, < 0.36% and < 0.31%, respectively, for measurements at air pressures varying from 200 hPa to 950 hPa but constant air temperature of 298.95 K. The systematic measurement errors at air temperatures varying from 238 K to 308 K but constant air pressure of 946 hPa are even smaller and < 0.05 K, < 0.07% and < 0.06%, respectively. A focus is put on the system performance at different virtual flight altitudes as a function of the laser pulse energy. The virtual flight altitudes are precisely generated with a custom-made atmospheric simulation chamber system. In this context, minimum laser pulse energies and pulse numbers are experimentally determined, which are required using the measurement system, in order to meet measurement error demands for temperature and pressure specified in aviation standards. The aviation error margins limit the allowable temperature errors to 1.5 K for all measurement altitudes and the pressure errors to 0.1% for 0 m and 0.5% for 13000 m. With regard to 100-pulse-averaged temperature measurements, the pulse energy using 532 nm

  20. Apparatus intended for measuring heat capacity and heat transfer down to mK range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebral, B.; Frossati, G.; Godfrin, H.; Schumacher, G.; Thoulouze, D.

    1978-01-01

    A cryogenic apparatus to perform heat capacity and heat transfer measurements in the range 1.5 mK-50 mK is described. Measurements are performed in an adiabatic demagnetization cell attached to a dilution refrigerator. Heat capacity measurements were effected on CMN-helium systems; the CMN specific heat was deduced above 1.6 mK when using liquid 3 He or a mixture 1.1% 3 He - 98.9% 4 He. A specific heat anomaly was observed with 4 He below 10 mK. It does not seen possible to interprete it by simple thermal equilibrium considerations. The superfluid 3 He heat capacity was also deduced from the results obtained with liquid 3 He under pressure. In heat transfer measurements at the interface CMN-mixture 3 He- 4 He, the temperature dependence of the thermal boundary resistance is in rather good agreement with other powder results. The measured resistances are larger than those predicted by the classical phonon process [fr

  1. Wind field reconstruction from nacelle-mounted lidar short-range measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borraccino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Profiling nacelle lidars probe the wind at several heights and several distances upstream of the rotor. The development of such lidar systems is relatively recent, and it is still unclear how to condense the lidar raw measurements into useful wind field characteristics such as speed, direction, vertical and longitudinal gradients (wind shear. In this paper, we demonstrate an innovative method to estimate wind field characteristics using nacelle lidar measurements taken within the induction zone. Model-fitting wind field reconstruction techniques are applied to nacelle lidar measurements taken at multiple distances close to the rotor, where a wind model is combined with a simple induction model. The method allows robust determination of free-stream wind characteristics. The method was applied to experimental data obtained with two different types of nacelle lidar (five-beam Demonstrator and ZephIR Dual Mode. The reconstructed wind speed was within 0.5 % of the wind speed measured with a mast-top-mounted cup anemometer at 2.5 rotor diameters upstream of the turbine. The technique described in this paper overcomes measurement range limitations of the currently available nacelle lidar technology.

  2. An Adaptive Scheme for Robot Localization and Mapping with Dynamically Configurable Inter-Beacon Range Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Torres-González

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is motivated by robot-sensor network cooperation techniques where sensor nodes (beacons are used as landmarks for range-only (RO simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM. This paper presents a RO-SLAM scheme that actuates over the measurement gathering process using mechanisms that dynamically modify the rate and variety of measurements that are integrated in the SLAM filter. It includes a measurement gathering module that can be configured to collect direct robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements with different inter-beacon depth levels and at different rates. It also includes a supervision module that monitors the SLAM performance and dynamically selects the measurement gathering configuration balancing SLAM accuracy and resource consumption. The proposed scheme has been applied to an extended Kalman filter SLAM with auxiliary particle filters for beacon initialization (PF-EKF SLAM and validated with experiments performed in the CONET Integrated Testbed. It achieved lower map and robot errors (34% and 14%, respectively than traditional methods with a lower computational burden (16% and similar beacon energy consumption.

  3. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Pelosi, Mauro; Nurmi, Jari

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS-) based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip...... of human-induced perturbations for enhancing the final positioning accuracy through cooperative schemes has been assessed. It has been proved that the effect of cooperation is very limited if human factors are not taken into account when performing experimental activities....

  4. Measurement based scenario analysis of short-range distribution system planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on short-range distribution system planning using a probabilistic approach. Empirical probabilistic distributions of load demand and distributed generations are derived from the historical measurement data and incorporated into the system planning. Simulations with various...... feasible scenarios are performed based on a local distribution system at Støvring in Denmark. Simulation results provide more accurate and insightful information for the decision-maker when using the probabilistic analysis than using the worst-case analysis, so that a better planning can be achieved....

  5. Infrared fibers in the 1.5um to 18um range: availability and measured properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkel, Robert; Leeb, Walter

    2017-11-01

    With a view towards the application in space-borne optical instruments, we first performed a world-wide market survey of infrared fibers designed for the wavelength range of 1.5 μm to 18 μm. Fiber samples purchased and tested comprise fluoride fibers, chalcogenide fibers, a germanate fiber and a silver-halide fiber, as well as hollow fibers. While the majority of infrared fibers offered are of the multi-mode type, three of the fluoride fibers are single-mode. We report on the polarization degrading effect of a single-mode fiber and present a possible solution to achieve polarization maintainance by twisting the fiber. Secondly we report on measurements of numerical aperture, output beam profile, and attenuation of a hollow fiber. The measurements were performed at the wavelengths of λ= 3.39 μm and λ= 10.6 μm.

  6. Measurement precision and normal range of endometrial thickness in a postmenopausal population by transvaginal ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, L; Ravn, Pernille; Skouby, Sven O.

    2002-01-01

    of the ET. Measurements were performed by transvaginal ultrasound. A subset of the women (n = 178) was examined twice 3 months to 2 years apart to assess the long-term variability. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, ET varied with length of menopause. During the first 5 years after menopause (YSM) the mean ET...... was 2.3 mm but it decreased by 0.03 mm/year (P changes (P = 0.13). Thereafter there was a minimal increase of 0.01 mm/year (P changes on ET, only women who had...... reached the menopause more than 5 years earlier were entered into the subsequent long-term study. The mean ET was 2.0 mm +/- 1.0 mm with no significant differences within or between the observers' measurements. The precision errors were less than 1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The normal range of the thickness...

  7. Measurement of the cosmic optical background using the long range reconnaissance imager on New Horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemcov, Michael; Immel, Poppy; Nguyen, Chi; Cooray, Asantha; Lisse, Carey M; Poppe, Andrew R

    2017-04-11

    The cosmic optical background is an important observable that constrains energy production in stars and more exotic physical processes in the universe, and provides a crucial cosmological benchmark against which to judge theories of structure formation. Measurement of the absolute brightness of this background is complicated by local foregrounds like the Earth's atmosphere and sunlight reflected from local interplanetary dust, and large discrepancies in the inferred brightness of the optical background have resulted. Observations from probes far from the Earth are not affected by these bright foregrounds. Here we analyse the data from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) instrument on NASA's New Horizons mission acquired during cruise phase outside the orbit of Jupiter, and find a statistical upper limit on the optical background's brightness similar to the integrated light from galaxies. We conclude that a carefully performed survey with LORRI could yield uncertainties comparable to those from galaxy counting measurements.

  8. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francescantonio Della Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS- based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip on the RSS for enhancing proximity measurements among neighbouring devices in cooperative scenarios. Our main contribution is represented by experimental investigations. Analysis of the errors introduced in the distance estimation using path-loss-based methods has been carried out. Moreover, the exploitation of human-induced perturbations for enhancing the final positioning accuracy through cooperative schemes has been assessed. It has been proved that the effect of cooperation is very limited if human factors are not taken into account when performing experimental activities.

  9. Photopolarimetric properties of leaf and vegetation covers over a wide range of measurement directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongqiu; Peng, Zhiyan; Wu, Di; Lv, Yunfeng

    2018-02-01

    The optical scattering property of the target is the essential signal for passive remote sensing applications. To deepen our understanding of the light reflected from vegetation, we present results of photopolarimetric laboratory measurements from single leaf and two vegetation covers (planophile and erectophile) over a wide range of viewing directions. The bidirectional polarized reflectance factor (BPRF) was used to characterize the polarization property of our samples. We observed positive and negative polarization (-BPRFQ) of all samples in the forward scattering and backward scattering directions, respectively. Based on the comparison of the BPRF among single leaf, planophile vegetation and erectophile vegetation, our measurements demonstrate that the orientation of the leaf is a key factor in describing the amount of polarization in the forward scattering direction. Our measurements also validated certain model results stating that (1) specular reflection generates a portion of polarization in the forward scattering direction and diffuses scattering of polarized light in all hemisphere directions, (2) BPRFU is anti-symmetric in the principal plane from a recent study in which the authors simulated the polarized reflectance of vegetation cover using the vector radiative transfer theory. These photopolarimetric measurement results, which can be completely explained by the theoretical results, are useful in remote sensing applications to vegetation.

  10. Note: A self-calibrating wide range electrometer for in-cloud measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Marlton, Graeme J.; Nicoll, Keri A.; Airey, Martin W.; Williams, Paul D.

    2017-12-01

    Charge is observed in clouds of all forms, which may influence their development and properties. In-cloud charge measurements require a wide dynamic range, extending from charge in aerosols and dusts to that present in thunderstorms. Unexpectedly large charge densities (>200 pC m-3) have recently been detected in layer clouds using balloon-carried linear electrometers. These, however, lead to instrument saturation if sufficient sensitivity for aerosol and droplet charge is maintained. Logarithmic electrometers provide an alternative but suffer strong non-linear thermal effects. This is a limitation for balloon-carried instruments that encounter temperature changes up to ˜100 °C, as full thermal compensation requires complexity inappropriate for disposable devices. Here, a novel hybrid system is described, combining linear and logarithmic electrometers to provide extended dynamic range (±50 pA), employing the negligible (±4%) total temperature drift of the linear device to provide in situ calibration of the logarithmic device. This combination opens up new measurement opportunities for charge in clouds, dusts, and aerosols.

  11. Measuring sensitivity in pharmacoeconomic studies. Refining point sensitivity and range sensitivity by incorporating probability distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijten, M J

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe a refinement of a previously presented method, based on the concept of point sensitivity, to deal with uncertainty in economic studies. The original method was refined by the incorporation of probability distributions which allow a more accurate assessment of the level of uncertainty in the model. In addition, a bootstrap method was used to create a probability distribution for a fixed input variable based on a limited number of data points. The original method was limited in that the sensitivity measurement was based on a uniform distribution of the variables and that the overall sensitivity measure was based on a subjectively chosen range which excludes the impact of values outside the range on the overall sensitivity. The concepts of the refined method were illustrated using a Markov model of depression. The application of the refined method substantially changed the ranking of the most sensitive variables compared with the original method. The response rate became the most sensitive variable instead of the 'per diem' for hospitalisation. The refinement of the original method yields sensitivity outcomes, which greater reflect the real uncertainty in economic studies.

  12. Measurement of peak impact loads differ between accelerometers - Effects of system operating range and sampling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, Christina; Giangregorio, Lora M; Gibbs, Jenna C; Levine, Iris C; Tung, James; Laing, Andrew C

    2017-06-14

    A wide variety of accelerometer systems, with differing sensor characteristics, are used to detect impact loading during physical activities. The study examined the effects of system characteristics on measured peak impact loading during a variety of activities by comparing outputs from three separate accelerometer systems, and by assessing the influence of simulated reductions in operating range and sampling rate. Twelve healthy young adults performed seven tasks (vertical jump, box drop, heel drop, and bilateral single leg and lateral jumps) while simultaneously wearing three tri-axial accelerometers including a criterion standard laboratory-grade unit (Endevco 7267A) and two systems primarily used for activity-monitoring (ActiGraph GT3X+, GCDC X6-2mini). Peak acceleration (gmax) was compared across accelerometers, and errors resulting from down-sampling (from 640 to 100Hz) and range-limiting (to ±6g) the criterion standard output were characterized. The Actigraph activity-monitoring accelerometer underestimated gmax by an average of 30.2%; underestimation by the X6-2mini was not significant. Underestimation error was greater for tasks with greater impact magnitudes. gmax was underestimated when the criterion standard signal was down-sampled (by an average of 11%), range limited (by 11%), and by combined down-sampling and range-limiting (by 18%). These effects explained 89% of the variance in gmax error for the Actigraph system. This study illustrates that both the type and intensity of activity should be considered when selecting an accelerometer for characterizing impact events. In addition, caution may be warranted when comparing impact magnitudes from studies that use different accelerometers, and when comparing accelerometer outputs to osteogenic impact thresholds proposed in literature. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. At Home Photography-Based Method for Measuring Wrist Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, Samir K; Rancy, Schneider K; Johnsen, Parker H; Hillstrom, Howard J; Lee, Steve K; Wolfe, Scott W

    2017-11-01

    Purpose  To determine the reliability of wrist range of motion (WROM) measurements based on digital photographs taken by patients at home compared with traditional measurements done in the office with a goniometer. Methods  Sixty-nine postoperative patients were enrolled in this study at least 3 months postoperatively. Active and passive wrist flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation were recorded by one of the two attending surgeons with a 1-degree resolution goniometer at the last postoperative office visit. Patients were provided an illustrated instruction sheet detailing how to take digital photographic images at home in six wrist positions (active and passive flexion/extension, and radial/ulnar deviation). Wrist position was measured from digital images by both the attending surgeons in a randomized, blinded fashion on two separate occasions greater than 2 weeks apart using the same goniometer. Reliability analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient to assess agreement between clinical and photography-based goniometry, as well as intra- and interobserver agreement. Results  Out of 69 enrolled patients, 30 (43%) patients sent digital images. Of the 180 digital photographs, only 9 (5%) were missing or deemed inadequate for WROM measurements. Agreement between clinical and photography-based measurements was "almost perfect" for passive wrist flexion/extension and "substantial" for active wrist flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation. Inter- and intraobserver agreement for the attending surgeons was "almost perfect" for all measurements. Discussion  This study validates a photography-based goniometry protocol allowing accurate and reliable WROM measurements without direct physician contact. Passive WROM was more accurately measured from photographs than active WROM. This study builds on previous photography-based goniometry literature by validating a protocol in which patients or their families take and submit their own

  14. Accelerated ice-sheet mass loss in Antarctica from 18-year satellite laser ranging measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanggen Jin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the ice-sheet mass balance in Antarctic is very difficult due to complex ice sheet condition and sparse in situ measurements. In this paper, the low-degree gravity field coefficients of up to degree and order 5 derived from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR measurements are used to determine the ice mass variations in Antarctica for the period 1993–2011. Results show that the ice mass is losing with -36±13 Gt/y in Antarctica, -42±11 Gt/y in the West Antarctica and 6±10 Gt/y in the East Antarctica from 1993 to 2011. The ice mass variations from the SLR 5×5 have a good agreement with the GRACE 5×5, GRACE 5×5 (1&2 and GRACE (60×60 for the entire continent since 2003, but degree 5 from SLR is not sufficient to quantify ice losses in West and East Antarctica, respectively. The rate of ice loss in Antarctica is -28±17 Gt/y for 1993-2002 and -55±17 Gt/y for 2003-2011, indicating significant accelerated ice mass losses since 2003. Furthermore, the results from SLR are comparable with GRACE measurements.

  15. Realization of High Dynamic Range Imaging in the GLORIA Network and Its Effect on Astronomical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vítek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science project GLORIA (GLObal Robotic-telescopes Intelligent Array is a first free- and open-access network of robotic telescopes in the world. It provides a web-based environment where users can do research in astronomy by observing with robotic telescopes and/or by analyzing data that other users have acquired with GLORIA or from other free-access databases. Network of 17 telescopes allows users to control selected telescopes in real time or schedule any more demanding observation. This paper deals with new opportunity that GLORIA project provides to teachers and students of various levels of education. At the moment, there are prepared educational materials related to events like Sun eclipse (measuring local atmosphere changes, Aurora Borealis (calculation of Northern Lights height, or transit of Venus (measurement of the Earth-Sun distance. Student should be able to learn principles of CCD imaging, spectral analysis, basic calibration like dark frames subtraction, or advanced methods of noise suppression. Every user of the network can design his own experiment. We propose advanced experiment aimed at obtaining astronomical image data with high dynamic range. We also introduce methods of objective image quality evaluation in order to discover how HDR methods are affecting astronomical measurements.

  16. Measurement of the extreme ankle range of motion required by female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jeffrey A; Kruse, David W; Nevill, Alan M; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A

    2010-12-01

    Female ballet dancers require extreme ankle motion, especially plantar flexion, but research about measuring such motion is lacking. The purposes of this study were to determine in a sample of ballet dancers whether non-weight-bearing ankle range of motion is significantly different from the weight-bearing equivalent and whether inclinometric plantar flexion measurement is a suitable substitute for standard plantar flexion goniometry. Fifteen female ballet dancers (5 university, 5 vocational, and 5 professional dancers; age 21 ± 3.0 years) volunteered. Subjects received 5 assessments on 1 ankle: non-weight-bearing goniometry dorsiflexion (NDF) and plantar flexion (NPF), weight-bearing goniometry in the ballet positions demi-plié (WDF) and en pointe (WPF), and non-weight-bearing plantar flexion inclinometry (IPF). Mean NDF was significantly lower than WDF (17° ± 1.3° vs 30° ± 1.8°, P ballet proficiency. The authors conclude that assessment of extreme ankle motion in female ballet dancers is challenging, and goniometry and inclinometry appear to measure plantar flexion differently.

  17. The dynamics of the HS/SPME-GC/MS as a tool to assess the spoilage of minced beef stored under different packaging and temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E

    2015-01-16

    The aim of the current study was to assess meat spoilage through the evolution of volatile compounds using chemometrics. Microbiological and sensory assessment, pH measurement and headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (headspace SPME-GC/MS) analysis were carried out in minced beef stored aerobically and under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0, 5, 10, and 15 °C. It was shown that the HS/SPME-GC/MS analysis provided useful information about a great number of volatile metabolic compounds detected during meat storage. Many of the identified and semi-quantified compounds were correlated with the sensory scores through the use of chemometrics, depicting possible spoilage indicators such as 2-pentanone, 2-nonanone, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl propanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl acetate, ethanol, 2-heptanone, 3-octanone, diacetyl, and acetoin. Finally, the applied GC/MS global models were able to estimate the microbial counts of the different microorganisms and the sensory scores of a meat sample regardless of storage conditions (i.e. packaging and temperature). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurements of diurnal concentration variations of gaseous HCl in air in the sub-nanogram range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matusca, P.; Schwarz, B.; Baechmann, K.

    1984-01-01

    A diffusion sampling method, which allows a filterless dynamic gas-aerosol separation of HCl, has been developed. By gas-phase reaction with 7-oxabicyclo(4.1.0)heptane, HCl is converted into 2-chlorocyclohexanol and through the use of an electrolytic conductivity detector, the product is analyzed by GC-separation. A minimum HCl concentration of 40 pptv has been detected, and the gas has been found in rural areas at concentrations ranging between approximately 0.1 and 1.4 ng/l at STP, and in urban areas at concentrations of approximately 0.2 and 3.0 ng/l at STP. Consideration is also given to diurnal and spatial variations, and climate influence. The center of Darmstadt, a forest in the southeast of Darmstadt, and the Rhein-Main-Airport area of Frankfurt are the three areas where HCl measurements were made. 13 references.

  19. Two-dimensional displacement measurement using static close range photogrammetry and a single fixed camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah M. Khalil

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a simple approach to measure the displacement of a moving object in two directions simultaneously. The proposed approach is based on static close range photogrammetry with a single camera and the well-known collinearity equations. The proposed approach requires neither multi-camera synchronization nor mutual camera calibration. It requires no prior knowledge of the kinematic and kinetic data of the moving object. The proposed approach was used to evaluate predefined two-dimensional displacements of a moving object. The root mean square values of the differences between the predefined and evaluated displacements in the two directions are 0.11 and 0.02 mm.

  20. Measurements of long-range interactions between protein-functionalized surfaces by total internal reflection microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Gong, Xiangjun; Ngai, To

    2015-03-17

    Understanding the interaction between protein-functionalized surfaces is an important subject in a variety of protein-related processes, ranging from coatings for biomedical implants to targeted drug carriers and biosensors. In this work, utilizing a total internal reflection microscope (TIRM), we have directly measured the interactions between micron-sized particles decorated with three types of common proteins concanavalin A (ConA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYZ), and glass surface coated with soy proteins (SP). Our results show that the protein adsorption greatly affects the charge property of the surfaces, and the interactions between those protein-functionalized surfaces depend on solution pH values. At pH 7.5-10.0, all these three protein-functionalized particles are highly negatively charged, and they move freely above the negatively charged SP-functionalized surface. The net interaction between protein-functionalized surfaces captured by TIRM was found as a long-range, nonspecific double-layer repulsion. When pH was decreased to 5.0, both protein-functionalized surfaces became neutral and double-layer repulsion was greatly reduced, resulting in adhesion of all three protein-functionalized particles to the SP-functionalized surface due to the hydrophobic attraction. The situation is very different at pH = 4.0: BSA-decorated particles, which are highly charged, can move freely above the SP-functionalized surfaces, while ConA- and LYZ-decorated particles can only move restrictively in a limited range. Our results quantify these nonspecific kT-scale interactions between protein-functionalized surfaces, which will enable the design of surfaces for use in biomedical applications and study of biomolecular interactions.

  1. ISAR range measurement via complex analysis and its application to motion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jae Sok; Flores, Benjamin C.

    1998-10-01

    Standard ISAR image focusing techniques utilize the magnitude and position of range domain target signatures to achieve translational motion compensation. Alternatively, range can be determined by analyzing the slope of the unwrapped phase function associated with the frequency domain signature of a moving target. We propose a motion compensation method based on such phase slope analysis. To improve noise performance, the probability density function of additive noise corrupting the signature is modeled as a Weibull distribution to determine a threshold for constant false alarm rate filtering. Complex analysis is then utilized to determine sample intervals where noise is relatively weak, where the amplitude of the filtered signature is high above the noise interference level and the phase of the same signature is nearly linear Weighted least squares is subsequently used to estimate the target's kinematic parameters based on the phase slope measurement. Results show that parameter estimates for motion compensation obtained in this manner converge to a unique solution, thus providing focused ISAR imagery of the target.

  2. Headspace sorptive solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with a spectrophotometry system: A simple glass devise for extraction and simultaneous determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in environmental and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saidi, H M; Al-Harbi, Sami A; Aljuhani, E H; El-Shahawi, M S

    2016-10-01

    A simple, low cost and efficient headspace sorptive solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method for determination of cyanide has been developed. The system comprises of a glass tube with two valves and a moveable glass slide fixed at its centre. It includes an acceptor phase polyurethane foam treated mercury (II) dithizonate [Hg(HDz)2-PUF] complex fixed inside by a septum cap in a cylindrical configuration (5.0cm length and 1.0cm diameter). The extraction is based upon the contact of the acceptor phase to the headspace and subsequently measuring the absorbance of the recovered mercury (II) dithizonate from PUFs sorbent. Unlike other HSSE, extraction and back - extractions was carried out in a closed system, thereby improving the analytical performance by preventing the analyte loss. Under the optimized conditions, a linear calibration plot in the range of 1.0-50.0µmolL(-1) was achieved with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.34, 1.2µmolL(-1) CN(-), respectively. Simultaneous analysis of cyanide and thiocyanate in saliva was also performed with satisfactory recoveries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Development of prompt gamma measurement system for in vivo proton beam range verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Chul Hee

    2011-02-01

    In radiation therapy, most research has focused on reducing unnecessary radiation dose to normal tissues and critical organs around the target tumor volume. Proton therapy is considered to be one of the most promising radiation therapy methods with its physical characteristics in the dose distribution, delivering most of the dose just before protons come to rest at the so-named Bragg peak; that is, proton therapy allows for a very high radiation dose to the tumor volume, effectively sparing adjacent critical organs. However, the uncertainty in the location of the Bragg peak, coming from not only the uncertainty in the beam delivery system and the treatment planning method but also anatomical changes and organ motions of a patient, could be a critical problem in proton therapy. In spite of the importance of the in vivo dose verification to prevent the misapplication of the Bragg peak and to guarantee both successful treatment and patient safety, there is no practical methodology to monitor the in vivo dose distribution, only a few attempts have been made so far. The present dissertation suggests the prompt gamma measurement method for monitoring of the in vivo proton dose distribution during treatment. As a key part of the process of establishing the utility of this method, the verification of the clear relationship between the prompt gamma distribution and the proton dose distribution was accomplished by means of Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements. First, the physical properties of prompt gammas were investigated on the basis of cross-section data and Monte Carlo simulations. Prompt gammas are generated mainly from proton-induced nuclear interactions, and then emitted isotropically in less than 10 -9 sec at energies up to 10 MeV. Simulation results for the prompt gamma yield of the major elements of a human body show that within the optimal energy range of 4-10 MeV the highest number of prompt gammas is generated from oxygen, whereas over the

  4. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Baier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3, to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3 calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3 is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3 to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS directly measured net P(O3 in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3 was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3 was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3 for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3 behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3 and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2 discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3 discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model–data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3, then these results would imply that P(O3 in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3 regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone

  5. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bianca C.; Brune, William H.; Miller, David O.; Blake, Donald; Long, Russell; Wisthaler, Armin; Cantrell, Christopher; Fried, Alan; Heikes, Brian; Brown, Steven; McDuffie, Erin; Flocke, Frank; Apel, Eric; Kaser, Lisa; Weinheimer, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3), to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3) calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3) is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3) to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS) directly measured net P(O3) in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3) was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3) was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO) levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3) for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3) behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3) and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2) discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3) discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model-data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3), then these results would imply that P(O3) in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3) regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone regulations

  6. Analysis of volatile compounds in gluten-free bread crusts with an optimised and validated SPME-GC/QTOF methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Antolín, Beatriz; Román, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José

    2018-04-01

    The aroma of bread crust, as one of the first characteristics perceived, is essential for bread acceptance. However, gluten-free bread crusts exhibit weak aroma. A SPME-GC/QTOF methodology was optimised with PCA and RSM and validated for the quantification of 44 volatile compounds in bread crust, extracting 0.75 g of crust at 60 °C for 51 min. LODs ranged between 3.60 and 1760 μg Kg -1 , all the R 2 were higher than 0.99 and %RSD for precision and %Er for accuracy were lower than 9% and 12%, respectively. A commercial wheat bread crust was quantified, and furfural was the most abundant compound. Bread crusts of wheat starch and of japonica rice, basmati rice and teff flours were also quantified. Teff flour and wheat starch crusts were very suitable for improving gluten-free bread crust aroma, due to their similar content in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone compared to wheat flour crust and also for their high content in pyrazines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of visual range measurements to predict fine particulate matter exposures in Southwest Asia and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Shahir; Garshick, Eric; Hart, Jaime; Bouhamra, Walid; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Southwest Asia and Afghanistan were exposed to high levels of ambient particulate matter (PM). However, quantitative ambient exposure data for conducting health studies are limited due to a lack of PM monitoring stations. Since visual range (VR) is proportional to particle light extinction, VR can serve as a surrogate for PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) concentrations. We used data on VR, relative humidity (RH), and PM 2.5 ground measurements collected in Kuwait from years 2004-2005 to establish the relationship between PM 2.5 and VR. Model validation obtained by regressing trimester average PM 2.5 predictions against PM 2.5 measurements in Kuwait produced an r 2 value of 0.84. Cross validation of urban and rural sites in Kuwait also revealed good model fit. We applied this relationship to location-specific visibility data at 104 regional sites between years 2000-2012 to estimate monthly average PM 2.5 concentrations. Monthly averages at sites in Iraq, Afghanistan, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Djibouti, and Qatar ranged from 10 to 365 µg/m3 during this period, while site averages ranged from 22 to 80 µg/m3, indicating considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity in ambient PM 2.5 across these regions. These data support the use of historical visibility data to estimate location-specific PM 2.5 concentrations for application in epidemiological studies. This study demonstrates the ability to use airport visibility to estimate PM 2.5 concentrations in Southwest Asian and Afghanistan. This supports the use of historical and ongoing visibility data to estimate PM 2.5 exposure in this region of the world, where PM exposure information is otherwise scarce. This is of high utility to epidemiologists investigating the relationship between chronic exposure to PM 2.5 and respiratory diseases among deployed military personnel stationed at various military bases throughout the region. Such information will

  8. Prototype system for proton beam range measurement based on gamma electron vertex imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Rim [Neutron Utilization Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Jong Hoon [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Won Gyun [Heavy-ion Clinical Research Division, Korean Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 01812 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hansang [Department of Electronics Convergence Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Hyeong, E-mail: chkim@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-11

    In proton therapy, for both therapeutic effectiveness and patient safety, it is very important to accurately measure the proton dose distribution, especially the range of the proton beam. For this purpose, recently we proposed a new imaging method named gamma electron vertex imaging (GEVI), in which the prompt gammas emitting from the nuclear reactions of the proton beam in the patient are converted to electrons, and then the converted electrons are tracked to determine the vertices of the prompt gammas, thereby producing a 2D image of the vertices. In the present study, we developed a prototype GEVI system, including dedicated signal processing and data acquisition systems, which consists of a beryllium plate (= electron converter) to convert the prompt gammas to electrons, two double-sided silicon strip detectors (= hodoscopes) to determine the trajectories of those converted electrons, and a plastic scintillation detector (= calorimeter) to measure their kinetic energies. The system uses triple coincidence logic and multiple energy windows to select only the events from prompt gammas. The detectors of the prototype GEVI system were evaluated for electronic noise level, energy resolution, and time resolution. Finally, the imaging capability of the GEVI system was tested by imaging a {sup 90}Sr beta source, a {sup 60}Co gamma source, and a 45-MeV proton beam in a PMMA phantom. The overall results of the present study generally show that the prototype GEVI system can image the vertices of the prompt gammas produced by the proton nuclear interactions.

  9. Flexible core masking technique for beam halo measurements with high dynamic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egberts, J; Welsch, C P

    2010-01-01

    A thorough understanding of halo formation and its possible control is highly desirable for essentially all particle accelerators. Particles outside the beam core are not only lost for further experiments, they are also likely to hit the beam pipe, and activate this, as well as accelerator and experimental components in close proximity, which makes work on the accelerator costly and time consuming. Well established techniques for transverse beam profile measurements of electron or high energy hadron beams are the observation of synchrotron radiation, optical transition radiation or the like. A particular challenge, however, is the detection of particles in the tail regions of the beam distribution in close proximity of the very intense beam core. Results from laboratory measurements on two different devices are presented that might form the technical base of a future beam halo monitor: the novel SpectraCam XDR camera system which has an intrinsically high dynamic range due to its unique pixel design, and a flexible masking technique based on a DMD micro mirror array which allows for a fast mask generation to blank out the central core.

  10. The wide range in-core neutron measurement system used in the Windscale AGR concluding experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodings, A.; Budd, J.; Wilson, I.

    1982-06-01

    The Windscale AGR Concluding Experiments included a comparison of theoretical and experimental power transients and required measurements of neutron flux as a function of position and time within the reactor core. These measurements were specified to cover as wide as possible working range and had to be made against the in-core gamma background of up to 4 x 10 7 R(hr) - 1 . The detectors were required to operate in special, channels cooled by reactor inlet carbon dioxide and the overall system needed a response time such that it could follow transients with doubling times down to 2s with an accuracy of 2 or 3%. These problems were solved by the use of gas ion fission chambers operating in the current fluctuation or Campbelling mode with unusually low filling pressures and fitted with special trilaminax mineral insulated cables. Ten detectors were built and nine were installed in the reactor, three in each of three special stringers at different radial positions. The paper describes the specification against which this system was built, the design process for the detectors, and commissioning experiments together with some of the problems which were encountered. (U.K.)

  11. Prototype system for proton beam range measurement based on gamma electron vertex imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Rim; Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Jong Hoon; Jung, Won Gyun; Lim, Hansang; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2017-06-01

    In proton therapy, for both therapeutic effectiveness and patient safety, it is very important to accurately measure the proton dose distribution, especially the range of the proton beam. For this purpose, recently we proposed a new imaging method named gamma electron vertex imaging (GEVI), in which the prompt gammas emitting from the nuclear reactions of the proton beam in the patient are converted to electrons, and then the converted electrons are tracked to determine the vertices of the prompt gammas, thereby producing a 2D image of the vertices. In the present study, we developed a prototype GEVI system, including dedicated signal processing and data acquisition systems, which consists of a beryllium plate (= electron converter) to convert the prompt gammas to electrons, two double-sided silicon strip detectors (= hodoscopes) to determine the trajectories of those converted electrons, and a plastic scintillation detector (= calorimeter) to measure their kinetic energies. The system uses triple coincidence logic and multiple energy windows to select only the events from prompt gammas. The detectors of the prototype GEVI system were evaluated for electronic noise level, energy resolution, and time resolution. Finally, the imaging capability of the GEVI system was tested by imaging a 90Sr beta source, a 60Co gamma source, and a 45-MeV proton beam in a PMMA phantom. The overall results of the present study generally show that the prototype GEVI system can image the vertices of the prompt gammas produced by the proton nuclear interactions.

  12. Outlier Detection in GNSS Pseudo-Range/Doppler Measurements for Robust Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Zair

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas or space-constrained environments with obstacles, vehicle localization using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS data is hindered by Non-Line Of Sight (NLOS and multipath receptions. These phenomena induce faulty data that disrupt the precise localization of the GNSS receiver. In this study, we detect the outliers among the observations, Pseudo-Range (PR and/or Doppler measurements, and we evaluate how discarding them improves the localization. We specify a contrario modeling for GNSS raw data to derive an algorithm that partitions the dataset between inliers and outliers. Then, only the inlier data are considered in the localization process performed either through a classical Particle Filter (PF or a Rao-Blackwellization (RB approach. Both localization algorithms exclusively use GNSS data, but they differ by the way Doppler measurements are processed. An experiment has been performed with a GPS receiver aboard a vehicle. Results show that the proposed algorithms are able to detect the ‘outliers’ in the raw data while being robust to non-Gaussian noise and to intermittent satellite blockage. We compare the performance results achieved either estimating only PR outliers or estimating both PR and Doppler outliers. The best localization is achieved using the RB approach coupled with PR-Doppler outlier estimation.

  13. Outlier Detection in GNSS Pseudo-Range/Doppler Measurements for Robust Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zair, Salim; Le Hégarat-Mascle, Sylvie; Seignez, Emmanuel

    2016-04-22

    In urban areas or space-constrained environments with obstacles, vehicle localization using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data is hindered by Non-Line Of Sight (NLOS) and multipath receptions. These phenomena induce faulty data that disrupt the precise localization of the GNSS receiver. In this study, we detect the outliers among the observations, Pseudo-Range (PR) and/or Doppler measurements, and we evaluate how discarding them improves the localization. We specify a contrario modeling for GNSS raw data to derive an algorithm that partitions the dataset between inliers and outliers. Then, only the inlier data are considered in the localization process performed either through a classical Particle Filter (PF) or a Rao-Blackwellization (RB) approach. Both localization algorithms exclusively use GNSS data, but they differ by the way Doppler measurements are processed. An experiment has been performed with a GPS receiver aboard a vehicle. Results show that the proposed algorithms are able to detect the 'outliers' in the raw data while being robust to non-Gaussian noise and to intermittent satellite blockage. We compare the performance results achieved either estimating only PR outliers or estimating both PR and Doppler outliers. The best localization is achieved using the RB approach coupled with PR-Doppler outlier estimation.

  14. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Justine M; Ko, Victoria; Adie, Sam; Gaskin, Clive; Walker, Richard; Harris, Ian A; Mittal, Rajat

    2011-04-18

    The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methodology study assessing the validity and reliability of one method ('Marker Method') which uses a skin marker over the greater trochanter and another method ('Line of Femur Method') which requires estimation of the line of femur. Radiology and orthopaedic departments of two teaching hospitals. 31 volunteers (13 arthritic and 18 healthy subjects). Knee range of motion was measured radiographically and photographically using a goniometer. Three assessors were assessed for reliability and validity. Agreement between methods and within raters was assessed using concordance correlation coefficient (CCCs). Agreement between raters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). 95% limits of agreement for the mean difference for all paired comparisons were computed. Validity (referenced to radiographs): Each method for all 3 raters yielded very high CCCs for flexion (0.975 to 0.988), and moderate to substantial CCCs for extension angles (0.478 to 0.678). The mean differences and 95% limits of agreement were narrower for flexion than they were for extension. Intra-rater reliability: For flexion and extension, very high CCCs were attained for all 3 raters for both methods with slightly greater CCCs seen for flexion (CCCs varied from 0.981 to 0.998). Inter-rater reliability: For both methods, very high ICCs (min to max: 0.891 to 0.995) were obtained for flexion and extension. Slightly higher coefficients were obtained for flexion compared to extension, and with the Marker compared to the Line of Femur Method

  15. X-Band high range resolution radar measurements of sea surface forward scatter at low grazing angles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, JC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Radar measurements of a radar calibration sphere test target suspended in sea surface multipath propagation conditions are reported. Wideband measurements together with high range resolution (HRR) processing were employed to resolve the direct...

  16. The wide range in-core neutron measurement system used in the Windscale AGR concluding experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodings, A.; Budd, J.; Wilson, I.

    1982-06-01

    The Windscale AGR concluding experiments included a comparison of theoretical and experimental power transients and required measurements of neutron flux as a function of position and time within the reactor core. These measurements were specified to cover a working range as wide as possible and had to be made against the in-core gamma background of up to 4 x 10 7 R(hr) - 1 . The detectors were required to operate in special channels cooled by reactor inlet CO 2 and the overall system needed a response time such that it could follow transients with doubling times down to 2s with an accuracy of 2 or 3%. These problems were solved by the use of gas ion fission chambers operating in the current fluctuation or ''Campbelling'' mode. Their neutron to gamma sensitivity ratio was optimised by the use of unusually low filling pressures and they were fitted with special ''trilaminax'' mineral insulated cables to minimise the effects of electrical interference at the 100 kHz channel centre frequency. Ten detectors were built and nine were installed in the reactor, three in each of three special stringers at different radial positions. All were processed and tested for operation at 350 deg. C and their fissile coatings (430 μg cm - 1 of natural uranium) were matched to give individual neutron sensitivities with a population spread better than +- 6% about the mean. The mean absolute sensitivities were determined to about +- 5% against manganese foils in the NESTOR reactor at AEE Winfrith. The detectors were complemented by special signal processing channels which provided current fluctuation sensitivity and appropriate output signals to the experiment data acquisition system. These channels also permitted dc measurement of chamber current for more precise flux determination near reactor full power

  17. Critical micelle concentration values for different surfactants measured with solid-phase microextraction fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, Joris J H; Scherpenisse, Peter; Oetter, G??nter; Hodges, Geoff; Eadsforth, Charles V.; Kotthoff, Matthias; Hermens, Joop L M

    The amphiphilic nature of surfactants drives the formation of micelles at the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibres were used in the present study to measure CMC values of twelve nonionic, anionic, cationic and zwitterionic surfactants. The SPME derived CMC

  18. Inertial sensors as measurement tools of elbow range of motion in gerontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacco G

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available G Sacco,1–3,* JM Turpin,3,4,* A Marteu,5 C Sakarovitch,6 B Teboul,2 L Boscher,4,5 P Brocker,4 P Robert,1–3 O Guerin2,3,7 1Memory Center, Claude Pompidou Institut, Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital of Nice, Nice, France; 2Centre d’Innovation et d’Usages en Santé (CIU-S, University Hospital of Nice, Cimiez Hospital, Nice, France; 3CoBTeK Cognition Behaviour Technology EA 7276, Research Center Edmond and Lily Safra, Nice Sophia-Antipolis University, Nice, France; 4Rehabilitation Unit, Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital of Nice, Cimiez Hospital, Nice, France; 5Rehabilitation Unit, Department of Neurosciences, University Hospital of Nice, L’Archet Hospital, Nice, France; 6Department of Clinical Research and Innovation, University Hospital of Nice, Cimiez Hospital, Nice, France; 7Acute Geriatrics Unit, Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital of Nice, Cimiez Hospital, Nice, France *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and purpose: Musculoskeletal system deterioration among the aging is a major reason for loss of autonomy and directly affects the quality of life of the elderly. Articular evaluation is part of physiotherapeutic assessment and helps in establishing a precise diagnosis and deciding appropriate therapy. Reference instruments are valid but not easy to use for some joints. The main goal of our study was to determine reliability and intertester reproducibility of the MP-BV, an inertial sensor (the MotionPod® [MP] combined with specific software (BioVal [BV], for elbow passive range-of-motion measurements in geriatrics. Methods: This open, monocentric, randomized study compared inertial sensor to inclinometer in patients hospitalized in an acute, post-acute, and long-term-care gerontology unit. Results: Seventy-seven patients (mean age 83.5±6.4 years, sex ratio 1.08 [male/female] were analyzed. The MP-BV was reliable for each of the three measurements (flexion, pronation, and

  19. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers the naturalness of a raspberry...... flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. 27 food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry...

  20. MeV-range velocity-space tomography from gamma-ray and neutron emission spectrometry measurements at JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the measurement of a 2D MeV-range ion velocity distribution function by velocity-space tomography at JET. Deuterium ions were accelerated into the MeV-range by third harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating. We made measurements with three neutron emission spectrometers and a high-...

  1. Thermal/vacuum measurements of the Herschel space telescope by close-range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parian, J. Amiri; Cozzani, A.; Appolloni, M.; Casarosa, G.

    2017-11-01

    In the frame of the development of a videogrammetric system to be used in thermal vacuum chambers at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) and other sites across Europe, the design of a network using micro-cameras was specified by the European Space agency (ESA)-ESTEC. The selected test set-up is the photogrammetric test of the Herschel Satellite Flight Model in the ESTEC Large Space Simulator. The photogrammetric system will be used to verify the Herschel Telescope alignment and Telescope positioning with respect to the Cryostat Vacuum Vessel (CVV) inside the Large Space Simulator during Thermal-Vacuum/Thermal-Balance test phases. We designed a close-range photogrammetric network by heuristic simulation and a videogrammetric system with an overall accuracy of 1:100,000. A semi-automated image acquisition system, which is able to work at low temperatures (-170°C) in order to acquire images according to the designed network has been constructed by ESA-ESTEC. In this paper we will present the videogrammetric system and sub-systems and the results of real measurements with a representative setup similar to the set-up of Herschel spacecraft which was realized in ESTEC Test Centre.

  2. LHC MD2877: Beam-beam long range impact on coupling measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Jorg; Carlier, Felix Simon; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Hostettler, Michi; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Valuch, Daniel; Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    The LHC is now operating with a tune separation of ∼0.004 in collision. This puts tight constraints on the allowed transverse coupling since a |C−| larger than a fraction of the fractional tune split may lead to beam instabilities. In the last years a new tool based on the ADT used in a similar way as an AC-dipole to excite the beam was developed. The ADT AC-dipole gives coherent oscillations without increasing the beam emittance. These oscillations are analyzed automatically to obtain the value of the coupling. A coupling measurement campaign was done in 2017 and while the correction converged and stayed rather constant over time it was observed that depending on the target bunch and filling scheme the results could vary by Δ|C−| ∼ 0.002. In this MD report we investigated 3 different bunches, one with Long Range Beam-Beam (LRBB) in IPs 1 and 5, one with LRBB in all IPs and one with no LRBB. The results indicate that there are differences in coupling between the bunches experiencing different LR...

  3. Airborne Dust Cloud Measurements at the INL National Security Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Abbott; Norm Stanley; Larry Radke; Charles Smeltzer

    2007-09-01

    On July 11, 2007, a surface, high-explosive test (<20,000 lb TNT-equivalent) was carried out at the National Security Test Range (NSTR) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. Aircraft-mounted rapid response (1-sec) particulate monitors were used to measure airborne PM-10 concentrations directly in the dust cloud and to develop a PM-10 emission factor that could be used for subsequent tests at the NSTR. The blast produced a mushroom-like dust cloud that rose approximately 2,500–3,000 ft above ground level, which quickly dissipated (within 5 miles of the source). In general, the cloud was smaller and less persistence than expected, or that might occur in other areas, likely due to the coarse sand and subsurface conditions that characterize the immediate NSTR area. Maximum short time-averaged (1-sec) PM-10 concentrations at the center of the cloud immediately after the event reached 421 µg m-3 but were rapidly reduced (by atmospheric dispersion and fallout) to near background levels (~10 µg m-3) after about 15 minutes. This occurred well within the INL Site boundary, about 8 km (5 miles) from the NSTR source. These findings demonstrate that maximum concentrations in ambient air beyond the INL Site boundary (closest is 11.2 km from NSTR) from these types of tests would be well within the 150 µg m-3 24-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM-10. Aircraft measurements and geostatistical techniques were used to successfully quantify the initial volume (1.64E+9 m3 or 1.64 km3) and mass (250 kg) of the PM-10 dust cloud, and a PM-10 emission factor (20 kg m-3 crater soil volume) was developed for this specific type of event at NSTR. The 250 kg of PM-10 mass estimated from this experiment is almost seven-times higher than the 36 kg estimated for the environmental assessment (DOE-ID 2007) using available Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1995) emission factors. This experiment demonstrated that advanced aircraft-mounted instruments operated by

  4. Measurement and description of three-dimensional shoulder range of motion with degrees of freedom interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Diane; Raison, Maxime; Begon, Mickael

    2014-08-01

    The shoulder is the most mobile joint of the human body due to bony constraint scarcity and soft tissue function unlocking several degrees of freedom (DOF). Clinical evaluation of the shoulder range of motion (RoM) is often limited to a few monoplanar measurements where each DOF varies independently. The main objective of this study was to provide a method and its experimental approach to assess shoulder 3D RoM with DOF interactions. Sixteen participants performed four series of active arm movements with maximal amplitude consisting in (1) elevations with fixed arm axial rotations (elevation series), (2) axial rotations at different elevations (rotation series), both in five planes of elevation, (3) free arm movements with the instruction to fill the largest volume in space while varying hand orientation (random series), and (4) a combination of elevation and rotation series (overall series). A motion analysis system combined with an upper limb kinematic model was used to estimate the 3D joint kinematics. Thoracohumeral Euler angles with correction were chosen to represent rotations. The angle-time-histories were treated altogether to analyze their 3D interaction. Then, all 3D angular poses were included into a nonconvex hull representing the RoM space accounting for DOF interactions. The effect of series of movements (n = 4) on RoM volumes was tested with a one-way repeated-measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni posthoc analysis. A normalized 3D RoM space was defined by including 3D poses common to a maximal number of participants into a hull of average volume. A significant effect of the series of movements (p measured the largest RoM with an average volume of 3.46 ± 0.89 million cubic degrees. The main difference between the series of movements was due to axial rotation. A normalized RoM hull with average volume was found by encompassing arm poses common to more than 50% of the participants. In general, the results confirmed and characterized the complex 3D

  5. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adie Sam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methods Design: Methodology study assessing the validity and reliability of one method ('Marker Method' which uses a skin marker over the greater trochanter and another method ('Line of Femur Method' which requires estimation of the line of femur. Setting: Radiology and orthopaedic departments of two teaching hospitals. Participants: 31 volunteers (13 arthritic and 18 healthy subjects. Knee range of motion was measured radiographically and photographically using a goniometer. Three assessors were assessed for reliability and validity. Main outcomes: Agreement between methods and within raters was assessed using concordance correlation coefficient (CCCs. Agreement between raters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs. 95% limits of agreement for the mean difference for all paired comparisons were computed. Results Validity (referenced to radiographs: Each method for all 3 raters yielded very high CCCs for flexion (0.975 to 0.988, and moderate to substantial CCCs for extension angles (0.478 to 0.678. The mean differences and 95% limits of agreement were narrower for flexion than they were for extension. Intra-rater reliability: For flexion and extension, very high CCCs were attained for all 3 raters for both methods with slightly greater CCCs seen for flexion (CCCs varied from 0.981 to 0.998. Inter-rater reliability: For both methods, very high ICCs (min to max: 0.891 to 0.995 were obtained for flexion and extension. Slightly higher coefficients were obtained

  6. Analysis of organic micropollutants in drinking water using SPME and GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidotti, M.; Ravaioli, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this work the purpose was to develop accurate and reproducible methods for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticides/herbicides, phthalates, chlorinated solvents, trihalomethanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and chlorophenols in drinking waters, using solid-phase micro extraction and GC-MS techniques. The SPME developed by J. Pawliszyn and co-workers, consists of an fused silica fibre, coated with an appropriate absorbent phase, hosted inside the needle of a holder that looks like a GC-syringe; the needle pierces the septum of a sealed vial and the fibre is lowered, by depressing the plunger of the holder, into the liquid (or in the headspace, if that is the case) that contains the analytes of interest. After a set period of time, necessary to reach the partitioning equilibrium, the fibre is retracted inside the needle, the needle is inserted into the GC injector port and the fibre pushed in the heated injector. Here the compounds of interest (that have adsorbed onto the fibre) are thermally desorbed and analysed by GC-MS. After three minutes the fibre is extracted and is ready for a new analysis. The SPME technique has already found many applications in food and environmental analysis. Many of the analytes investigated in this research are listed Italian legislation as possible pollutants of drinking waters and their presence and concentrations require monitoring. The list of compounds included in this work is reported in Table 1

  7. Analysis of Organic Volatile Flavor Compounds in Fermented Stinky Tofu Using SPME with Different Fiber Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu (FST were studied using SPME-GC/MS. A total of 39 volatile compounds were identified, including nine esters, seven alcohols, five alkenes, four sulfides, three heterocycles, three carboxylic acids, three ketones, two aldehydes, one phenol, one amine and one ether. These compounds were determined by MS, and conformed by comparison of the retention times of the separated constituents with those of authentic samples and by comparison of retention indexes (RIs of separated constituents with the RIs reported in the literature. The predominant volatile compound in FST was indole, followed by dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl tetrasulfide. In order to find a better extraction time, the extraction times was optimized for each type of SPME fiber; the results show that the best extraction time for Carboxen/PDMS is 60 min, for PDMS/DVB 30 min, for DVB/CAR/PDMS 60 min and for PDMS 75 min. Of the four fibers used in this work, Carboxen/PDMS is found to be the most suitable to extract the organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu.

  8. Quantification of Polyfunctional Thiols in Wine by HS-SPME-GC-MS Following Extractive Alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Lauren E; Ryona, Imelda; Pan, Bruce S; Loscos, Natalia; Feng, Hui; Cleary, Michael T; Sacks, Gavin L

    2015-07-06

    Analyses of key odorous polyfunctional volatile thiols in wines (3-mercaptohexanol (3-MH), 3-mercaptohexylacetate (3-MHA), and 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4-MMP)) are challenging due to their high reactivity and ultra-trace concentrations, especially when using conventional gas-chromatography electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS). We describe a method in which thiols are converted to pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) derivatives by extractive alkylation and the organic layer is evaporated prior to headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and GC-EI-MS analysis. Optimal parameters were determined by response surface area modeling. The addition of NaCl solution to the dried SPME vials prior to extraction resulted in up to less than fivefold improvement in detection limits. Using 40 mL wine samples, limits of detection for 4-MMP, 3-MH, and 3-MHA were 0.9 ng/L, 1 ng/L, and 17 ng/L, respectively. Good recovery (90%-109%) and precision (5%-11% RSD) were achieved in wine matrices. The new method was used to survey polyfunctional thiol concentrations in 61 commercial California and New York State wines produced from V. vinifera (Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc and non-varietal rosé wines), V. labruscana (Niagara), and Vitis spp. (Cayuga White). Mean 4-MMP concentrations in New York Niagara (17 ng/L) were not significantly different from concentrations in Sauvignon blanc, but were significantly higher than 4-MMP in other varietal wines.

  9. Polyelectrolyte coatings prevent interferences from charged nanoparticles in SPME speciation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielińska, Katarzyna, E-mail: kzielinska@gmail.com; Leeuwen, Herman P. van

    2014-09-24

    Highlights: • For the first time SPME fiber is coated with polyelectrolyte layer. • Sorption of nanoparticles on the solid phase surface is prevented. • Polyelectrolyte-modified fiber enables extraction of free analyte in presence of sorbing nanoparticles. - Abstract: In this work we present a new approach for protection of the fiber in solid phase microextraction (SPME) from interfering charged particles present in the sample medium. It involves coating of commercial poly(dimethylsiloxane) extraction phase with polyelectrolyte layer composed of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). The modified fiber provides reproducible, convenient and fast extraction capabilities toward the model analyte, triclosan (TCS). A negatively charged polyelectrolyte coating prevents sorbing oxidic nanoparticles from both partitioning into the PDMS phase and aggregation at its surface. The results for the TCS/nanoparticle sample show that the polyelectrolyte layer-modified solid phase extracts just the free form of the organic compound and enables dynamic speciation analysis of the nanoparticulate target analyte complex.

  10. Polyelectrolyte coatings prevent interferences from charged nanoparticles in SPME speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielińska, Katarzyna; Leeuwen, Herman P. van

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time SPME fiber is coated with polyelectrolyte layer. • Sorption of nanoparticles on the solid phase surface is prevented. • Polyelectrolyte-modified fiber enables extraction of free analyte in presence of sorbing nanoparticles. - Abstract: In this work we present a new approach for protection of the fiber in solid phase microextraction (SPME) from interfering charged particles present in the sample medium. It involves coating of commercial poly(dimethylsiloxane) extraction phase with polyelectrolyte layer composed of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). The modified fiber provides reproducible, convenient and fast extraction capabilities toward the model analyte, triclosan (TCS). A negatively charged polyelectrolyte coating prevents sorbing oxidic nanoparticles from both partitioning into the PDMS phase and aggregation at its surface. The results for the TCS/nanoparticle sample show that the polyelectrolyte layer-modified solid phase extracts just the free form of the organic compound and enables dynamic speciation analysis of the nanoparticulate target analyte complex

  11. Photon Pressure Force on Space Debris TOPEX/Poseidon Measured by Satellite Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, D.; Kirchner, G.; Bennett, J. C.; Lachut, M.; Sośnica, K.; Koshkin, N.; Shakun, L.; Koidl, F.; Steindorfer, M.; Wang, P.; Fan, C.; Han, X.; Grunwaldt, L.; Wilkinson, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Bianco, G.; Vespe, F.; Catalán, M.; Salmins, K.; del Pino, J. R.; Lim, H.-C.; Park, E.; Moore, C.; Lejba, P.; Suchodolski, T.

    2017-10-01

    The (TOPography EXperiment) TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry mission operated for 13 years before the satellite was decommissioned in January 2006, becoming a large space debris object at an altitude of 1,340 km. Since the end of the mission, the interaction of T/P with the space environment has driven the satellite's spin dynamics. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) measurements collected from June 2014 to October 2016 allow for the satellite spin axis orientation to be determined with an accuracy of 1.7°. The spin axis coincides with the platform yaw axis (formerly pointing in the nadir direction) about which the body rotates in a counterclockwise direction. The combined photometric and SLR data collected over the 11 year time span indicates that T/P has continuously gained rotational energy at an average rate of 2.87 J/d and spins with a period of 10.73 s as of 19 October 2016. The satellite attitude model shows a variation of the cross-sectional area in the Sun direction between 8.2 m2 and 34 m2. The direct solar radiation pressure is the main factor responsible for the spin-up of the body, and the exerted photon force varies from 65 μN to 228 μN around the mean value of 138.6 μN. Including realistic surface force modeling in orbit propagation algorithms will improve the prediction accuracy, giving better conjunction warnings for scenarios like the recent close approach reported by the ILRS Space Debris Study Group—an approximate 400 m flyby between T/P and Jason-2 on 20 June 2017.

  12. Freeze-thaw method improves the detection of volatile compounds in insects using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is commonly used in analyzing insect volatiles. In order to improve the detection of volatiles in insects, a freeze-thaw method was applied to insect samples before the HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. ...

  13. Use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the determination of methadone and EDDP in human hair by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, A C; Bermejo, A M; Tabernero, M J; Fernández, P; Strano-Rossi, S

    2000-01-10

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a new extraction technique with many advantages: small sample volume, simplicity, quickness and solvent-free. It is mainly applied to environmental analysis, but is also useful for the extraction of drugs from biological samples. In this paper the use of SPME is proposed for the determination of methadone and its main metabolite EDDP in hair by GC-MS. The hair samples were washed, cut into 1-mm segments, and incubated with Pronase E for 12 h. A 100-micron polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film fibre was submerged for 30 min in a diluted solution of the hydrolysis liquid (1:4 with borax buffer) containing methadone-d3 and EDDP-d3 as internal standards. Once the microextraction was concluded the fibre was directly inserted into the CG injection port. Linearity was found for methadone and EDDP in the range studied, 1.0-50 ng/mg hair, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. Interassay relative standard deviation (R.S.D) was determined to be less than 13.30% for methadone and less than 8.94% for EDDP, at 3.0 and 30.0 ng/mg. Analytical recoveries were close to 100% for both compounds on spiked samples. The method was applied to the analysis of real hair samples from eight patients of a methadone maintenance programme. The concentration of methadone in hair ranged from 2.45 to 78.10 ng/mg, and for EDDP from 0.98 to 7.76 ng/mg of hair.

  14. Determination of plant growth rate and growth temperature range from measurement of physiological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Criddle; B. N. Smith; L. D. Hansen; J. N. Church

    2001-01-01

    Many factors influence species range and diversity, but temperature and temperature variability are always major global determinants, irrespective of local constraints. On a global scale, the ranges of many taxa have been observed to increase and their diversity decrease with increasing latitude. On a local scale, gradients in species distribution are observable with...

  15. Investigation of hopped frequency waveforms for range and velocity measurements of radar targets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kathree, U

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the field of radar, High Range Resolution (HRR) profiles are often used to improve target tracking accuracy in range and to allow the radar system to produce an image of an object using techniques such as inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR...

  16. Wildlife speed cameras: measuring animal travel speed and day range using camera traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowcliffe, J.M.; Jansen, P.A.; Kays, R.; Kranstauber, B.; Carbone, C.

    2016-01-01

    Travel speed (average speed of travel while active) and day range (average speed over the daily activity cycle) are behavioural metrics that influence processes including energy use, foraging success, disease transmission and human-wildlife interactions, and which can therefore be applied to a range

  17. Evaluation of knee range of motion: Correlation between measurements using a universal goniometer and a smartphone goniometric application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael Aparecido; Derhon, Viviane; Brandalize, Michelle; Brandalize, Danielle; Rossi, Luciano Pavan

    2017-07-01

    Goniometers are commonly used to measure range of motion in the musculoskeletal system. Recently smartphone goniometry applications have become available to clinicians. Compare angular measures using a universal goniometer and a smartphone application. Thirty four healthy women with at least 20° of limited range of motion regarding knee extension were recruited. Knee flexion angles of the dominant limb were measured with a universal goniometer and the ROM © goniometric application for the smartphone. Three trained examiners compared the two assessment tools. Strong correlations were found between the measures of the universal goniometer and smartphone application (Pearson's correlation and interclass correlation coefficient > 0.93). The measurements with both devices demonstrated low dispersion and little variation. Measurements obtained using the smartphone goniometric application analyzed are as reliable as those of a universal goniometer. This application is therefore a useful tool for the evaluation of knee range of motion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measuring Earth: Current status of the GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Daniel; LRI Team

    2016-05-01

    The GRACE mission that was launched in 2002 has impressively proven the feasibility of low-orbit satellite-to-satellite tracking for Earth gravity observations. Especially mass transport related to Earth's hydrological system could be well resolved both spatially and temporally. This allows to study processes such as polar ice sheet decline and ground water depletion in great detail. Owing to GRACE's success, NASA and GFZ will launch the successor mission GRACE Follow-On in 2017. In addition to the microwave ranging system, GRACE Follow-On will be the first mission to use a Laser Ranging Interferometer as technology demonstrator to track intersatellite distance changes with unprecedented precision. This new ranging device inherits some of the technologies which have been developed for the future spaceborne gravitational wave detector LISA. I will present the architecture of the Laser Ranging Interferometer, point out similarities and differences to LISA, and conclude with the current status of the flight hardware production.

  19. The Development of a Tactical-Level Full Range Leadership Measurement Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Behavioral Theory of Charismatic Leadership in Organizational Settings,” Academy of Management Review, 12: 637- 647 (1987). Conger, Jay A. and Rabindra...full range leadership theory has become established as the predominant and most widely researched theory on leadership . The most commonly used survey...instrument to assess full range leadership theory is the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, originally developed by Bass in 1985. Although much

  20. Critical micelle concentration values for different surfactants measured with solid-phase microextraction fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haftka, Joris J-H; Scherpenisse, Peter; Oetter, Günter; Hodges, Geoff; Eadsforth, Charles V; Kotthoff, Matthias; Hermens, Joop L M

    2016-09-01

    The amphiphilic nature of surfactants drives the formation of micelles at the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were used in the present study to measure CMC values of 12 nonionic, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic surfactants. The SPME-derived CMC values were compared to values determined using a traditional surface tension method. At the CMC of a surfactant, a break in the relationship between the concentration in SPME fibers and the concentration in water is observed. The CMC values determined with SPME fibers deviated by less than a factor of 3 from values determined with a surface tension method for 7 out of 12 compounds. In addition, the fiber-water sorption isotherms gave information about the sorption mechanism to polyacrylate-coated SPME fibers. A limitation of the SPME method is that CMCs for very hydrophobic cationic surfactants cannot be determined when the cation exchange capacity of the SPME fibers is lower than the CMC value. The advantage of the SPME method over other methods is that CMC values of individual compounds in a mixture can be determined with this method. However, CMC values may be affected by the presence of compounds with other chain lengths in the mixture because of possible mixed micelle formation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2173-2181. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Fractional momentum transfer in incomplete fusion reaction: measurement of recoil range distributions in 20Ne + 159Tb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Singh, D.; Pachouri, Dipti; Afzal Ansari, M.; Rashid, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    The recoil range distribution (RRD) of several residues have been measured for the system 20 Ne + 159 Tb at 165 MeV beam energy by collecting the recoiling residues in the Al-catcher foils of varying thickness

  2. Assessment of health status by molecular measures in adults ranging from middle-aged to old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, M. E. C.; Westendorp, R. G. J.; Goldeck, D.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to measures already used in clinical practice, molecular measures have been proposed to assess health status, but these have not yet been introduced into clinical practice. We aimed to test the association of functional capacity measures used in current practice and molecular measures...... disease, as was epidermal p16INK4a positivity. All associations with cardiovascular or metabolic disease attenuated when adjusting for age. In conclusion, in middle-aged to old persons, the molecular measures tested here were more weakly associated with age and health status than functional capacity...

  3. Recent Developments and Applications of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME in Food and Environmental Analysis—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybille Merkle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-phase microextraction (SPME is a simple, sensitive, rapid and solvent-free technique for the extraction of analytes from gaseous, liquid and solid samples and takes a leading position among microextraction methods. Application of SPME in sample preparation has been increasing continuously over the last decade. It is most often used as an automatized fiber injection system coupled to chromatographic separation modules for the extraction of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and also allows for the trace analysis of compounds in complex matrices. Since SPME was first introduced in the early 1990s, several modifications have been made to adapt the procedure to specific application requirements. More robust fiber assemblies and coatings with higher extraction efficiencies, selectivity and stability have been commercialized. Automation and on-line coupling to analytical instruments have been achieved in many applications and new derivatization strategies as well as improved calibration procedures have been developed to overcome existing limitations regarding quantitation. Furthermore, devices using tubes, needles or tips for extraction instead of a fiber have been designed. In the field of food analysis, SPME has been most often applied to fruit/vegetables, fats/oils, wine, meat products, dairy and beverages whereas environmental applications focus on the analysis of air, water, soil and sediment samples.

  4. Screening of transformation products in soils contaminated with unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine using headspace SPME and GC-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenessov, B.N.; Koziel, J.A.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Carlsen, L.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a novel SPME-based approach for sampling and analysis of transformation products of highly reactive and toxic unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) which is used as a fuel in many Russian, European, Indian, and Chinese heavy cargo carrier rockets. The effects of several

  5. Characterization of Fish Sauce Aroma Impact Compounds Using GC-MS, SPME-Osme-GCO, and Stevens' Power Law Exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile compounds and to determine the characteristic aromas associated with impact compounds in 4 fish sauces using solid-phase micro-extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Osme, and gas chromatography olfactometry (SPME-Osme-GCO) couple...

  6. HS-SPME-GC-MS ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE AND SEMI-VOLATILE COMPOUNDS FROM DRIED LEAVES OF Mikania glomerata Sprengel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeraldo A. Cappelaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the identification of volatile and semi-volatile compounds and a comparison of the chromatographic profiles obtained by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction/Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry detection (HS-SPME-GC-MS of dried leaves of Mikania glomerata Sprengel (Asteraceae, also known as 'guaco.' Three different types of commercial SPME fibers were tested: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB and polyacrylate (PA. Fifty-nine compounds were fully identified by HS-SPME-HRGC-MS, including coumarin, a marker for the quality control of guaco-based phytomedicines; most of the other identified compounds were mono- and sesquiterpenes. PA fibers performed better in the analysis of coumarin, while PDMS-DVB proved to be the best choice for a general and non-selective analysis of volatile and semi-volatile guaco-based compounds. The SPME method is faster and requires a smaller sample than conventional hydrodistillation of essential oils, providing a general overview of the volatile and semi-volatile compounds of M. glomerata.

  7. Separation and identification of volatile constituents in Artemisia argyi flowers by GC-MS with SPME and steam distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Mao, Yu; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2008-01-01

    Artemisia argyi leaf is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this work, for the first time, the separation and identification of volatile constituents in Artemisia argyi flowers is performed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is developed for the fast analysis of volatile constituents in the flowers. Several headspace SPME parameters, including fiber coating, extraction temperature, and extraction time, are optimized. Forty-nine compounds in the flowers are re-identified by SPME-GC-MS. At the same time, in order to compare with the SPME, steam distillation is used for analysis of the volatile constituents in the flowers, and forty-seven are detected. The total fifty-three compounds in the flowers, which mainly include cylcofenchene, alpha-pinene, alpha-myrcene, D-limonene, caryophyllene, and germacrene D, are identified by the two methods. Compared to the volatile components in Artemisia argyi leaves, the main components (including the two active compounds of borneol and borneol acetate) are also found in Artemisia argyi flowers. These results show that Artemisia argyi flowers as well as leaves might be used as TCM.

  8. Validation of SPME-GCMS method for the analysis of virgin olive oil volatiles responsible for sensory defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, I; García-González, D L; Aparicio-Ruiz, R; Morales, M T

    2015-03-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aroma of virgin olive oil and also for its quality. The high number and different nature of volatile compounds drive to the need of a reliable analytical method that allows their proper quantification to explain the standard method of panel test. Although there are some analytical solutions available, they have not been validated and the regulatory bodies are reluctant to adopt them since they can be subjected to unknown errors. In this regards, the European Union has encouraged the validation of these analytical tools through the research program Horizon2020, which involves gaining knowledge from the analytical properties of the chemical methods for sensory assessment. This work is focused on the analytical validation of the methodology used to determine the actual concentration of volatiles in virgin olive oils when applying SPME-GCMS. The validation process includes the calibration curves for 29 volatile compounds responsible for the most common sensory perceptions in virgin olive oils, the determination of their working ranges with linear response, the detection and quantification limits, the sensitivity, the accuracy estimated as trueness and precision and the selectivity. Sixty-seven percent of the compounds presented a relative standard deviation in repeatability lower than 10%, and this percentage rises to 95% in lampante virgin olive oils. The accuracy was established in 97% of the studied volatile compounds. Finally, an empirical example of the ability of the method to discriminate virgin olive oils of different categories (extra virgin, virgin, ordinary and lampante) by the quantification of their volatiles is provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A 160 GHZ Polarimetric Compact Range for Scale Model RCS Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coulombe, Michael J; Horgan, T; Waldman, Jerry; Neilson, J; Carter, S; Nixon, William

    1996-01-01

    .... Cross-polarization rejection ratios of better than 40 dB are routinely achieved. The compact range reflector consists of a 60-inch diameter, CNC-machined aluminum mirror fed from the side to produce a clean 20-inch quiet zone...

  10. High dynamic range isotope ratio measurements using an analog electron multiplier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Williams, P.; Lorinčík, Jan; Franzreb, K.; Herwig, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2013), s. 549-552 ISSN 0142-2421 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 894 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Isotope ratios * electron multiplier * dynamic range Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.393, year: 2013

  11. Inter and intra-rater reliability of mobile device goniometer in measuring lumbar flexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedekar, Nilima; Suryawanshi, Mayuri; Rairikar, Savita; Sancheti, Parag; Shyam, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of range of motion (ROM) is integral part of assessment of musculoskeletal system. This is required in health fitness and pathological conditions; also it is used as an objective outcome measure. Several methods are described to check spinal flexion range of motion. Different methods for measuring spine ranges have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, a new device was introduced in this study using the method of dual inclinometer to measure lumbar spine flexion range of motion (ROM). To determine Intra and Inter-rater reliability of mobile device goniometer in measuring lumbar flexion range of motion. iPod mobile device with goniometer software was used. The part being measure i.e the back of the subject was suitably exposed. Subject was standing with feet shoulder width apart. Spinous process of second sacral vertebra S2 and T12 were located, these were used as the reference points and readings were taken. Three readings were taken for each: inter-rater reliability as well as the intra-rater reliability. Sufficient rest was given between each flexion movement. Intra-rater reliability using ICC was r=0.920 and inter-rater r=0.812 at CI 95%. Validity r=0.95. Mobile device goniometer has high intra-rater reliability. The inter-rater reliability was moderate. This device can be used to assess range of motion of spine flexion, representing uni-planar movement.

  12. Reliability and Validity of Electro-Goniometric Range of Motion Measurements in Patients with Hand and Wrist Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashardoust Tajali, Siamak; MacDermid, Joy C; Grewal, Ruby; Young, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional reliability and validity study. 1. To determine intrarater, interrater and inter instrument reliabilities and validity of two digital electro goniometry to measure active wrist/finger range of motions (ROMs) in patients with limited motion. 2. To determine intrarater and interrater reliabilities of digital goniometry to measure torques of PIP passive flexion of the index finger in patients with limited motion. The study was designed in a randomized block plan on 44 patients (24 women, 20 men) with limited wrist or hand motions. Two experienced raters measured active wrist ROMs, and active and passive index PIP flexion using two digital goniometers. All measures were repeated by one rater 2-5 days after the initial measurements. The reliability measures were analyzed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) and the construct validity was determined by correlation coefficients analysis between sub measures of scores; patient rated pain and function (PRWE) and quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (quick DASH) scores. The intrarater, interrater and inter instrument reliabilities were high in most ROM measures (range 0.64-0.97) for both types of electro-goniometers. The 95% limit of agreements and Bland and Altman plots did not show progressive changes. There was a significant difference in force application between the raters when performing passive ROM measures for PIP index, but the same rater produced consistent force. Most of the NK and J-Tech ROM measures were moderately correlated with the patient rated pain and function scores (range 0.32-0.63).

  13. Use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) for profiling the volatile metabolites produced by Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Kimura, Minako; Yabe, Yoshito; Tsukamoto, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Masaya; Horibe, Isao; Okuno, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    The profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from Glomerella cingulata using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with different fibers, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), was investigated. C4-C6 aliphatic alcohols were the predominant fraction of VOCs isolated by CAR/PDMS fiber. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represented 20.3% of VOCs isolated by PDMS fiber. During the growth phase, Ochracin was produced in the large majority of VOCs. 3-Methylbutanol and phenylethyl alcohol were found in the log phase of it. Alcohols were found in cultures of higher age, while sesquiterpenes were found to be characteristic of initial growth stage of G. cingulata.

  14. [Analyze on volatile compounds of Antrodia camphorata using HS-SPME-GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Xu, Hong-Yu; Shi, Jing-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2011-11-01

    To analyze the volatile compounds of Antrodia camphorata in solid-state and submerged cultures. A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) were used to evaluate the profile of the volatile compounds. 49 volatile compounds were identified in A. camphorata mycelia in submerged culture, while 43 volatile compounds were identified in mycelia in solid-state culture. 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-ylacetate, acetic acid octyl ester and ethanol were the main volatile compounds in A. camphorata mycelia in submerged culture, while 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 3-methyl-butyraldenhyde, gamma-podecalactone and methyl 2-furozte were the most potent key volatile compounds in mycelia in solid-state culture. The volatile compounds in the mycelia of A. camphorata in solid-state and submerged cultures are similar but their relative contents are different.

  15. A comparison of sample preparation methods for extracting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from equine faeces using HS-SPME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Rachael; Archer, Debra; Probert, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Disturbance to the hindgut microbiota can be detrimental to equine health. Metabolomics provides a robust approach to studying the functional aspect of hindgut microorganisms. Sample preparation is an important step towards achieving optimal results in the later stages of analysis. The preparation of samples is unique depending on the technique employed and the sample matrix to be analysed. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) is one of the most widely used platforms for the study of metabolomics and until now an optimised method has not been developed for equine faeces. To compare a sample preparation method for extracting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from equine faeces. Volatile organic compounds were determined by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS). Factors investigated were the mass of equine faeces, type of SPME fibre coating, vial volume and storage conditions. The resultant method was unique to those developed for other species. Aliquots of 1000 or 2000 mg in 10 ml or 20 ml SPME headspace were optimal. From those tested, the extraction of VOCs should ideally be performed using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethysiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) SPME fibre. Storage of faeces for up to 12 months at - 80 °C shared a greater percentage of VOCs with a fresh sample than the equivalent stored at - 20 °C. An optimised method for extracting VOCs from equine faeces using HS-SPME-GCMS has been developed and will act as a standard to enable comparisons between studies. This work has also highlighted storage conditions as an important factor to consider in experimental design for faecal metabolomics studies.

  16. Optimization of HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis and its use in the profiling of illicit ecstasy tablets (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadio, Federica; Margot, Pierre; Delémont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre

    2009-05-30

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure (HS-SPME) was developed for the profiling of traces present in 3,4-methylenedioxymethylampethamine (MDMA). Traces were first extracted using HS-SPME and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The HS-SPME conditions were optimized using varying conditions. Optimal results were obtained when 40 mg of crushed MDMA sample was heated at 80 degrees C for 15 min, followed by extraction at 80 degrees C for 15 min with a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene coated fibre. A total of 31 compounds were identified as traces related to MDMA synthesis, namely precursors, intermediates or by-products. In addition some fatty acids used as tabletting materials and caffeine used as adulterant, were also detected. The use of a restricted set of 10 target compounds was also proposed for developing a screening tool for clustering samples having close profile. 114 seizures were analyzed using an SPME auto-sampler (MultiPurpose Samples MPS2), purchased from Gerstel GMBH & Co. (Germany), and coupled to GC-MS. The data was handled using various pre-treatment methods, followed by the study of similarities between sample pairs based on the Pearson correlation. The results show that HS-SPME, coupled with the suitable statistical method is a powerful tool for distinguishing specimens coming from the same seizure and specimens coming from different seizures. This information can be used by law enforcement personnel to visualize the ecstasy distribution network as well as the clandestine tablet manufacturing.

  17. Comparison of the measurement of heart rate in adult free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) by auscultation and electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C F; Gavaghan, B J; McSweeney, D; Powell, V; Lisle, A

    2014-12-01

    To compare the heart rates of adult free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) measured by auscultation with a stethoscope with those measured simultaneously using electrocardiography (ECG). With each bird in a standing position, estimation of the heart rate was performed by placing a mark on paper for every 4 beats for roosters and 8 beats for hens as detected by auscultation over 30 s, while simultaneous ECG was performed. Heart rates measured by auscultation showed a high correlation (r = 0.97) with those measured by ECG. There was a high correlation between the heart rates of adult free-range chickens measured by auscultation with a stethoscope and those measured simultaneously using ECG. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. High resolution kilometric range optical telemetry in air by radio frequency phase measurement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guillory, J.; Šmíd, Radek; García-Márquez, J.; Truong, D.; Alexandre, CH.; Wallerand, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 7 (2016), 075105:1-6 ISSN 0034-6748 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : distance-measuring instrument * index Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2016

  19. Microwave-range shielding effectiveness measurements using a dual vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Serra, Ramiro; Schipper, H.

    2012-01-01

    Reverberation chambers create a statistical uniformly distributed field which is very useful for reliable electromagnetic interference measurements. Another advantage of these chambers is the high field strength which can be generated compared to conventional test setups. A reverberation chamber

  20. Comparison of three different concepts of high dynamic range and dependability optimised current measurement digitisers for beam loss systems

    CERN Document Server

    Viganò, W; Effinger, E; Venturini, G G; Zamantzas, C

    2012-01-01

    Three Different Concepts of High Dynamic Range and Dependability Optimised Current Measurement Digitisers for Beam Loss Systems will be compared on this paper. The first concept is based on Current to Frequency Conversion, enhanced with an ADC for extending the dynamic range and decreasing the response time. A summary of 3 years’ worth of operational experience with such a system for LHC beam loss monitoring will be given. The second principle is based on an Adaptive Current to Frequency Converter implemented in an ASIC. The basic parameters of the circuit are discussed and compared with measurements. Several measures are taken to harden both circuits against single event effects and to make them tolerant for operation in radioactive environments. The third circuit is based on a Fully Differential Integrator for enhanced dynamic range, where laboratory and test installation measurements will be presented. All circuits are designed to avoid any dead time in the acquisition and have reliability and fail safe...

  1. Smartphone-based accelerometry is a valid tool for measuring dynamic changes in knee extension range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støve, Morten Pallisgaard; Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto

    2018-01-01

    the validity of smartphone-based accelerometry measuring the dynamic range of motion of the knee joint during a passively executed extension movement.Materials and methodsDynamic knee extension range of motion was examined three consecutive times in twenty-one healthy male subjects utilising an isokinetic...... dynamometer to generate passively the extension motion. Measurements of joint angles in dynamic knee extension were performed using two methods: (i) isokinetic dynamometer (gold-standard method, Biodex System 4 Pro) and (ii) smartphone (iPhone 6, attached to the tibia) accelerometry data.......ResultsTests of validity showed excellent correlation (rs = 0.899) between methods, with a low standard error of measurement of 0.62 deg. and limits of agreement ranging from − 9.1 to 8.8 deg. Interclass correlation coefficients showed excellent between-measures reliability (ICC > 0.862) for both methods.ConclusionsSmartphone...

  2. Wind Field Reconstruction from Nacelle-Mounted Lidars Short Range Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Borraccino, Antoine; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Wagner, Rozenn

    2017-01-01

    Profiling nacelle lidars probe the wind at several heights and several distances upstream of the rotor. The development of such lidar systems is relatively recent, and it is still unclear how to condense the lidar raw measurements into useful wind field characteristics such as speed, direction, vertical and longitudinal gradients (wind shear). In this paper, we demonstrate an innovative method to estimate wind field characteristics using nacelle lidar measurements taken within the induction z...

  3. Quantification of Polyfunctional Thiols in Wine by HS-SPME-GC-MS Following Extractive Alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Musumeci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of key odorous polyfunctional volatile thiols in wines (3-mercaptohexanol (3-MH, 3-mercaptohexylacetate (3-MHA, and 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4-MMP are challenging due to their high reactivity and ultra-trace concentrations, especially when using conventional gas-chromatography electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS. We describe a method in which thiols are converted to pentafluorobenzyl (PFB derivatives by extractive alkylation and the organic layer is evaporated prior to headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and GC-EI-MS analysis. Optimal parameters were determined by response surface area modeling. The addition of NaCl solution to the dried SPME vials prior to extraction resulted in up to less than fivefold improvement in detection limits. Using 40 mL wine samples, limits of detection for 4-MMP, 3-MH, and 3-MHA were 0.9 ng/L, 1 ng/L, and 17 ng/L, respectively. Good recovery (90%–109% and precision (5%–11% RSD were achieved in wine matrices. The new method was used to survey polyfunctional thiol concentrations in 61 commercial California and New York State wines produced from V. vinifera (Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc and non-varietal rosé wines, V. labruscana (Niagara, and Vitis spp. (Cayuga White. Mean 4-MMP concentrations in New York Niagara (17 ng/L were not significantly different from concentrations in Sauvignon blanc, but were significantly higher than 4-MMP in other varietal wines.

  4. Methane emission from free-ranging sheep: a comparison of two measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuning, R.; Baker, S. K.; Jamie, I. M.; Hsu, C. H.; Klein, L.; Denmead, O. T.; Griffith, D. W. T.

    Methane emissions from a flock of 14, 1-year old sheep grazing on a grass and legume pasture were measured using a micrometeorological mass-balance method and a sulphur hexaflouride (SF 6) tracer technique. The former measured the mean emission, over 45 min intervals, from all the sheep within a fenced 24 m×24 m enclosure, from the enrichment of methane (CH 4) in air as it passed over the sheep. The tracer technique measured emissions from a subset of 7 individual animals over 24 h periods from measurements of CH 4 and SF 6 concentrations in air exhaled by the sheep, and from the known rate of release of SF 6 from small permeation tubes placed in the animals' rumens. Both methods gave highly similar results for 4 out of 5 days. When the species composition of dietary intake was steady during the last two days of measurement, the mean emission rate from the mass-balance method was 11.9±1.5 (SEM) g CH 4 sheep -1 d -1, while the rate from the tracer technique was 11.7±0.4 (SEM) g CH 4 sheep -1 d -1. These rates are for sheep with mean live mass of 27 kg, with a measured dry matter intake of 508 g sheep -1 d -1 and pasture dry matter digestibility of 69.5%. There was close agreement between these measurements and estimates from algorithms used to predict methane emissions from sheep for the Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory.

  5. Instrumental measurement of iridium abundances in the part-per-trillion range following neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.W.; Asaro, F.; Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    An automated gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer has been constructed which, following neutron activation, can measure iridium (Ir) abundances of the order of 25 parts-per-trillion (ppt) in rock samples 500 times more rapidly than previously possible by instrumental techniques used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Twin intrinsic Ge gamma-ray detectors count coincidences between the 316.5 and 468.1 keV gamma rays of 192 Ir, and together with a mineral-oil-based Compton suppression shield provide a sensitivity of 50 ppt Ir in 7 minute measurements of 100 mg limestone samples subsequent to irradiation in the University of Missouri reactor. Over 3000 samples have been measured, and in collaboration with many geologists and paleontologists from around the world, anomalous amounts of Ir have been detected in rocks with approximate ages of 12, 39, 67, 91, 150 and 3500 million years. Modifications are nearly complete to measure ten other elements very important to geochemical studies simultaneously (in the singles rather than the coincidence mode) with the Ir measurements

  6. Varying the item format improved the range of measurement in patient-reported outcome measures assessing physical function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liegl, Gregor; Gandek, Barbara; Fischer, H. Felix

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical function (PF) is a core patient-reported outcome domain in clinical trials in rheumatic diseases. Frequently used PF measures have ceiling effects, leading to large sample size requirements and low sensitivity to change. In most of these instruments, the response category tha...

  7. Measurements of transition probabilities in the range from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peraza Fernandez, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this memory we describe the design, testing and calibration of different spectrometers to measure transition probabilities from the vacuum ultraviolet to the infrared spectral region. For the infrared measurements we have designed and performed a phase sensitive detection system, using an InGaAs photodiode like detector. With this system we have determined the transition probabilities of infrared lines of KrI and XeI. For these lines we haven't found previous measurements. In the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region we have designed a 3 m normal incidence monochromator where we have installed an optical multichannel analyzer. We have tested its accurate working, obtaining the absorption spectrum of KrI. In the visible region we have obtained the emission spectrum of Al using different spectral: hallow-cathode lamp and Nd: YAG laser produced Al plasma. With these spectra we have determined different atomic parameters like transition probabilities and electron temperatures.(author). 83 refs

  8. Measurements of diurnal concentration variations of gaseous HCl in air in the subnanogram range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matusca, P.; Schwarz, B.; Baechmann, K.

    1984-01-01

    A method of measuring gaseous HCl based on diffusion samplers has been developed. This sampling method allows a filterless dynamic gas-aerosol separation. After thermal desorption, HCl is converted into 2-chlorocyclohexanol by gas-phase reaction with 7-oxabicyclo(4.1.0)heptane. The derivatization product is analyzed by GC-separation using an electrolytic conductivity detector (HECD). The minimum concentration detectable is: 40 pptv HCl. Several results of measurements of gaseous HCl in air are reported. Gaseous HCl is present in concentrations between about 0.1 and 1.4 ng l/sup -1/ at STP in rural areas and 0.2 and 3.0 ng l/sup -1/ at STP in urban areas. Diurnal and spatial variations and the influence of climate were measured and are discussed.

  9. Measurements of diurnal concentration variations of gaseous HCl in air in the sub-nanogram range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusca, P.; Schwarz, B.; Bächmann, K.

    A method of measuring gaseous HCl based on diffusion samplers has been developed. This sampling method allows a filterless dynamic gas-aerosol separation. After thermal desorption, HCl is converted into 2-chlorocyclohexanol by gas-phase reaction with 7-oxabicyclo(4.1.0)heptane. The derivatization product is analysed by GC-separation using an electrolytic conductivity detector (HECD). The minimum concentration detectable is: 40 pptv HCl. Several results of measurements of gaseous HCl in air are reported. Gaseous HCl is present in concentrations between about 0.1 and 1.4 ngℓ -1 at STP in rural areas and 0.2 and 3.0 ng ℓ -1 at STP in urban areas. Diurnal and spatial variations and the influence of climate were measured and are discussed.

  10. High resolution kilometric range optical telemetry in air by radio frequency phase measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, Joffray; García-Márquez, Jorge; Truong, Daniel; Wallerand, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam (LCM), LNE, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Šmíd, Radek [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam (LCM), LNE, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Institute of Scientific Instruments of the CAS, Kralovopolska 147, 612 64 Brno (Czech Republic); Alexandre, Christophe [Centre d’Études et de Recherche en Informatique et Communications (CEDRIC), Cnam, 292 rue St-Martin, 75003 Paris (France)

    2016-07-15

    We have developed an optical Absolute Distance Meter (ADM) based on the measurement of the phase accumulated by a Radio Frequency wave during its propagation in the air by a laser beam. In this article, the ADM principle will be described and the main results will be presented. In particular, we will emphasize how the choice of an appropriate photodetector can significantly improve the telemeter performances by minimizing the amplitude to phase conversion. Our prototype, tested in the field, has proven its efficiency with a resolution better than 15 μm for a measurement time of 10 ms and distances up to 1.2 km.

  11. Comparison of repeated measurements of methane production in sheep over 5 years and a range of measurement protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Goopy, J P; Hegarty, R S; Oddy, V H

    2015-10-01

    Emissions of 710 ewes at pasture were measured for 1 h (between 09:00-16:30 h) in batches of 15 sheep in portable accumulation chambers (PAC) after an overnight fast continuing until 2 h before measurement, when the sheep had access to baled hay for 1 h. The test was used to identify a group of 104 low emitters (I-Low) and a group of 103 high emitters (I-Hi) for methane emissions adjusted for liveweight (CHawt). The 207 ewes selected at the initial study were remeasured in 5 repeat tests from 2009 through 2014 at another location. The first repeat used the original measurement protocol. Two modified protocols, each used in 2 yr, drafted unfasted sheep on the morning of the test into a yard or holding paddock until measurement. Emissions of the I-Hi sheep were higher (102-112%) than I-Low sheep in all subsequent PAC tests, with statistical significance ( sheep were measured in respiration chambers (RC); 10 high (Hi-10) and 10 low (Low-10) sheep were chosen, representing extremes (top and bottom 6.25%) for methane yield (MY; g CH/kg DMI). The Hi-10 group emitted 14% more methane (adjusted for feed intake) in a follow-up RC test, but Low-10 and Hi-10 sheep differed in only 1 of the 5 PAC tests, when Hi-10 sheep emitted less CHawt than Low-10 sheep ( = 0.002) and tended to eat less in the feeding opportunity ( = 0.085). Compared with their weight on good pasture, Low-10 sheep were proportionately lighter than Hi-10 sheep in the relatively poor pasture conditions of the initial test. Sheep identified as low emitters by PAC tests using the initial protocol did not produce less CH (mg/min) when fed a fixed level of intake in RC. Correlations between estimates of an animal's CHawt measured in PAC and CH adjusted for feed intake in RC were quite low ( = 0-19%) and significant ( sheep. With moderate repeatability over the 5 yr, PAC tests of CHawt could be a viable way to select for reduced emissions of grazing sheep. As well as exploiting any variation in MY, selecting for

  12. Patient Self-Assessed Passive Range of Motion of the Knee Cannot Replace Health Professional Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbjerg, Jens; Madsen, Frank; Odgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether patients can accurately self-assess their knee passive range of motion (PROM). A picture-based questionnaire for patient self-assessment of knee PROM was developed and posted to patients. The self-assessed PROM from 58 patients was compared...... (≥ 10-degree flexion contracture). Surgeon- and patient-assessed knee PROM showed a mean difference (95% limits of agreement) of -2.1 degrees (-42.5 to 38.3 degrees) for flexion and -8.1 degrees (-28.8 to 12.7 degrees) for extension. The sensitivity of patient self-assessed PROM in identifying knee...

  13. When to Perform Antenna Measurements in a Near-Field Range or a Short Tapered Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-SER-M 2800 Powder Mill Road Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...scanner, hampering any wideband characterization without relocating the AUT. In addition, the hemisphere transitions to a narrower cone measurement

  14. Quantifying uncertainty of measuring gully morphological evolution with close-range digital photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurement of geomorphic change may be of interest to researchers and practitioners in a variety of fields including geology, geomorphology, hydrology, engineering, and soil science. Landscapes are often represented by digital elevation models. Surface models generated of the same landscape over a ...

  15. A measurement of auroral electrons in the 1–10 MeV range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, J.N. van; Beek, H.F. van; Fetter, L.D. de; Hendrickx, R.V.

    Particle fluxes have been measured by means of shielded Geiger-Müller telescopes mounted m a rocket, which was launched from ESRANGE(Kiruna) into a diffuse aurora. The analysis of the dependence of the counting rates on altitude indicates that a weak flux of energetic electrons, 1–10 MeV, has been

  16. A high dynamic range structured light means for the 3D measurement of specular surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhan; Jiang, Hualie; Lin, Haibo; Tang, Suming

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel structured light approach for the 3D reconstruction of specular surface. The binary shifting strip is adopted as structured light pattern instead of conventional sinusoidal pattern. Based on the framework of conventional High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging technique, an efficient means is first introduced to estimate the camera response function. And then, dynamic range of the generated radiance map is compressed in the gradient domain by introducing an attenuation function. Subject to the change of lighting conditions caused by projecting different structured light patterns, the structure light image with middle exposure level is selected as the reference image and used for the slight adjustment of the primary fused image. Finally, the regenerated structured light images with well exposing condition are used for 3D reconstruction of the specular surface. To evaluate performance of the method, some stainless stamping parts with strong reflectivity are used for the experiments. And the results showed that, different specular targets with various shapes can be precisely reconstructed by the proposed method.

  17. Non-destructive testing principles and accurate evaluation of the hydraulic measure impact range using the DC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liming; Shen, Rongxi; Song, Dazhao; Wang, Enyuan; Liu, Zhentang; Niu, Yue; Jia, Haishan; Xia, Shankui; Zheng, Xiangxin

    2017-12-01

    An accurate and non-destructive evaluation method for the hydraulic measure impact range in coal seams is urgently needed. Aiming at the application demands, a theoretical study and field test are presented using the direct current (DC) method to evaluate the impact range of coal seam hydraulic measures. We firstly analyzed the law of the apparent resistivity response of an abnormal conductive zone in a coal seam, and then investigated the principle of non-destructive testing of the coal seam hydraulic measure impact range using the DC method, and used an accurate evaluation method based on the apparent resistivity cloud chart. Finally, taking hydraulic fracturing and hydraulic flushing as examples, field experiments were carried out in coal mines to evaluate the impact ranges. The results showed that: (1) in the process of hydraulic fracturing, coal conductivity was enhanced by high-pressure water in the coal seam, and after hydraulic fracturing, the boundary of the apparent resistivity decrease area was the boundary impact range. (2) In the process of hydraulic flushing, coal conductivity was reduced by holes and cracks in the coal seam, and after hydraulic flushing, the boundary of the apparent resistivity increase area was the boundary impact range. (3) After the implementation of the hydraulic measures, there may be some blind zones in the coal seam; in hydraulic fracturing blind zones, the apparent resistivity increased or stayed constant, while in hydraulic flushing blind zones, the apparent resistivity decreased or stayed constant. The DC method realized a comprehensive and non-destructive evaluation of the impact range of the hydraulic measures, and greatly reduced the time and cost of evaluation.

  18. Frequency Comb Driven Raman Transitions in the THz Range: High Precision Isotope Shift Measurements in Ca+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    to picoseconds in the previous experiments. For the broad spectrum, the additional effect of group delay dispersion (GDD) has to be taken into account, since the Raman process relies on the coherent interaction of all frequency components of the spectrum, with GDD influencing the relative phase which leads...... and frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) are used, and the two frequency comb systems used for the experiments are thoroughly characterized, a Coherent Mira Ti:sapph oscillator and a MenloSystems fiber based frequency comb system. The potential of frequency comb driven Raman transitions is shown...... isotope shifts are extracted. To complement these measurements, the isotopes shifts of the 729 nm S-D transition for the same series of isotopes are also determined with a relative accuracy of 5e-12, using a different technique. To the best of my knowledge, these measurements represent the most accurate...

  19. Reliability of two goniometric methods of measuring active inversion and eversion range of motion at the ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refshauge Kathryn M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active inversion and eversion ankle range of motion (ROM is widely used to evaluate treatment effect, however the error associated with the available measurement protocols is unknown. This study aimed to establish the reliability of goniometry as used in clinical practice. Methods 30 subjects (60 ankles with a wide variety of ankle conditions participated in this study. Three observers, with different skill levels, measured active inversion and eversion ankle ROM three times on each of two days. Measurements were performed with subjects positioned (a sitting and (b prone. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC[2,1] were calculated to determine intra- and inter-observer reliability. Results Within session intra-observer reliability ranged from ICC[2,1] 0.82 to 0.96 and between session intra-observer reliability ranged from ICC[2,1] 0.42 to 0.80. Reliability was similar for the sitting and the prone positions, however, between sessions, inversion measurements were more reliable than eversion measurements. Within session inter-observer measurements in sitting were more reliable than in prone and inversion measurements were more reliable than eversion measurements. Conclusion Our findings show that ankle inversion and eversion ROM can be measured with high to very high reliability by the same observer within sessions and with low to moderate reliability by different observers within a session. The reliability of measures made by the same observer between sessions varies depending on the direction, being low to moderate for eversion measurements and moderate to high for inversion measurements in both positions.

  20. Reliability of two goniometric methods of measuring active inversion and eversion range of motion at the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menadue, Collette; Raymond, Jacqueline; Kilbreath, Sharon L; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Adams, Roger

    2006-07-28

    Active inversion and eversion ankle range of motion (ROM) is widely used to evaluate treatment effect, however the error associated with the available measurement protocols is unknown. This study aimed to establish the reliability of goniometry as used in clinical practice. 30 subjects (60 ankles) with a wide variety of ankle conditions participated in this study. Three observers, with different skill levels, measured active inversion and eversion ankle ROM three times on each of two days. Measurements were performed with subjects positioned (a) sitting and (b) prone. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC[2,1]) were calculated to determine intra- and inter-observer reliability. Within session intra-observer reliability ranged from ICC[2,1] 0.82 to 0.96 and between session intra-observer reliability ranged from ICC[2,1] 0.42 to 0.80. Reliability was similar for the sitting and the prone positions, however, between sessions, inversion measurements were more reliable than eversion measurements. Within session inter-observer measurements in sitting were more reliable than in prone and inversion measurements were more reliable than eversion measurements. Our findings show that ankle inversion and eversion ROM can be measured with high to very high reliability by the same observer within sessions and with low to moderate reliability by different observers within a session. The reliability of measures made by the same observer between sessions varies depending on the direction, being low to moderate for eversion measurements and moderate to high for inversion measurements in both positions.

  1. Inferring bread doneness with air-pulse/ultrasonic ranging measurements of the loaf elastic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, Loren Elbert

    This research marks the discovery of a method by which bread doneness may be determined based on the elastic properties of the loaf as it bakes. The purpose of the study was to determine if changes in bread characteristics could be determined by non-contact methods during baking, as the basis for improved control of the baking process. Current control of the baking process is based on temperature and dwell time, which are determined by experience to produce a produce which is approximately ``done.'' There is no direct measurement of the property of interest, doneness. An ultrasonic measurement system was developed to measure the response of the loaf to an external stimulus. ``Doneness,'' as reflected in the internal elastic consistency of the bakery product, is assessed in less than 1/2 second, and requires no closer approach to the moving bakery product than about 2 inches. The system is designed to be compatible with strapped bread pans in a standard traveling-tray commercial oven.

  2. Direct measurement high resolution wide range extreme temperature optical sensor using an all-silicon carbide probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mumtaz; Riza, Nabeel A

    2009-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a temperature sensing method using an all-silicon carbide probe that combines wavelength-tuned signal processing for coarse measurements and classical Fabry-Perot etalon peak shift for fine measurements. This method gives direct unambiguous temperature measurements with a high temperature resolution over a wide temperature range. Specifically, temperature measurements from room temperature to 1000 degrees C are experimentally demonstrated with an estimated resolution varying from 0.66 degrees C at room temperature to 0.12 degrees C at 1000 degrees C. The proposed sensor has applications in next-generation greener gas turbines for power production.

  3. A simple and wide-range refractive index measuring approach by using a sub-micron grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chun-Wei; Wu, Chun-Che; Lin, Shih-Chieh [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-13

    This paper presents the design and simulation results of a high-precision low-cost refractometer that demonstrates the main advantage of a wide measurement range (1 ≤ n ≤ 2). The proposed design is based on the diffractive properties of sub-micron gratings and Snell's Law. The precision and uncertainty factors of the proposed system were tested and analyzed, revealing that the proposed refractometer demonstrates a wide measurement range with sensitivity of 10{sup −4}.

  4. Light detection and ranging measurements of wake dynamics. Part II: two-dimensional scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trujillo, Juan-José; Bingöl, Ferhat; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2011-01-01

    the instantaneous transversal wake position which is quantitatively compared with the prediction of the Dynamic Wake Meandering model. The results, shown for two 10-min time series, suggest that the conjecture of the wake behaving as a passive tracer is a fair approximation; this corroborates and expands...... the results of one-dimensional measurements already presented in the first part of this paper. Consequently, it is now possible to separate the deterministic and turbulent parts of the wake wind field, thus enabling capturing the wake in the meandering frame of reference. The results correspond, qualitatively...

  5. A compact design for monochromatic OSL measurements in the wavelength range 380-1020 NM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Poolton, N.R.J.; Willumsen, F.

    1994-01-01

    automated Riso TL/OSL dating apparatus, thus allowing for either routine scanning or more detailed thermo-optical investigations. The high throughput efficiency of the unit means that the existing 75 W tungsten-halogen lamp can be directly used for such measurements on both quartz and feldspar samples....... The design allows for rapid spectral scanning with a choice of resolution of anywhere between 10 and 80 nm: stray light levels are less than 0.01%. The unit can equally be used for recording wavelength-resolved emission spectra, whether photo-excited or thermally stimulated; the capabilities of the system...

  6. Respiration rate of stream insects measured in situ along a large altitude range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, S.; Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    Field studies of respiration in stream insects are few in comparison with laboratory studies. To evaluate the influence of temperature and oxygen along altitudinal gradients we measured the respiration rate of fully acclimatized larval Trichoptera, Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera under similar field...... at 100 and 50% oxygen saturation indicated that highland animals reduced their oxygen uptake more than their counterparts in the lowland when oxygen availability decreased. The temperature response of respiration calculated between the insect assemblages at different altitudes showed a mean assemblage Q...

  7. Light detection and ranging measurements of wake dynamics Part I: One-dimensional Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2010-01-01

    of the wake meandering, as well as the instantaneous wake expansion expressed in a meandering frame of reference. The experiment was conducted primarily to test the simple hypothesis that the wake deficit is advected passively by the larger-than-rotor-size eddies in the atmospheric flow, and that the wake...... at the same time widens gradually, primarily because of mixing caused by small-scale atmospheric eddies. In this first paper, we focus on our new measurement technique, and test if the wake meandering follows the wind direction fluctuations, i.e. if it is advected passively in the lateral direction...

  8. Radiometric characterization of six soils in the microwave X-range through complex permittivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palme, U.W.

    1987-10-01

    Estimating and monitoring up-to-date soil moisture conditions over extensive areas through passive (or active) microwave remote sensing techniques requires the knowledge of the complex relative permittivity (ε r * ) in function of soil moisture. X-band measurements of ε r * for different moisture conditions were made in laboratory for soil samples of six important Soils (PV 2 , LV 3 , LR d , LE 1 , SAP and Sc). Using a theoretical model and computational programmes developed, these measurements allowed estimates of the emissive characteristics of the soils that would be expected with the X-Band Microwave Radiometer built at INPE. The results, new, for soils from tropical regions, showed that only the physical characteristics and properties of the soils are not sufficient to explain the behaviour of ε r * in function of soil moisture, indicating that the chemical and/or mineralogical properties of the soils do have an important contribution. The results also showed thast ε r * in function of soil moisture depends on soil class. (author) [pt

  9. Switched ratiometric lock-in amplifier enabling sub-ppm measurements in a wide frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasoni, G.; Carminati, M.; Ferrari, G.

    2017-10-01

    Lock-in amplifiers (LIAs) are extensively used to perform high-resolution measurements. Ideally, when using LIAs, it would be possible to measure a minimum signal variation limited by the instrument input equivalent noise at the operating frequency and the chosen filtering bandwidth. Instead, digital LIAs show an unforeseen 1/f noise at the instrument demodulated output, proportional to the signal amplitude that poses a fundamental limit to the minimum detectable signal variation using the lock-in technique. In particular, the typical resolution limit of fast operating LIAs (>1 MHz) is of tens of ppm, orders of magnitude worse than the expected value. A detailed analysis shows that the additional noise is due to slow fluctuations of the signal gain from the generation stage to the acquisition one, mainly due to the digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters. To compensate them, a switched ratiometric technique based on two analog-to-digital converters alternately acquiring the signal coming from the device under test and the stimulus signal has been conceived. A field-programmabale gate array-based LIA working up to 10 MHz and implementing the technique has been realized, and results demonstrate a resolution improvement of more than an order of magnitude (from tens of ppm down to sub-ppm values) compared to standard implementations working up to similar frequencies. The technique is generally applicable without requiring calibration nor ad hoc experimental arrangements.

  10. Using satellite laser ranging to measure ice mass change in Greenland and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bonin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A least squares inversion of satellite laser ranging (SLR data over Greenland and Antarctica could extend gravimetry-based estimates of mass loss back to the early 1990s and fill any future gap between the current Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE and the future GRACE Follow-On mission. The results of a simulation suggest that, while separating the mass change between Greenland and Antarctica is not possible at the limited spatial resolution of the SLR data, estimating the total combined mass change of the two areas is feasible. When the method is applied to real SLR and GRACE gravity series, we find significantly different estimates of inverted mass loss. There are large, unpredictable, interannual differences between the two inverted data types, making us conclude that the current 5×5 spherical harmonic SLR series cannot be used to stand in for GRACE. However, a comparison with the longer IMBIE time series suggests that on a 20-year time frame, the inverted SLR series' interannual excursions may average out, and the long-term mass loss estimate may be reasonable.

  11. Using satellite laser ranging to measure ice mass change in Greenland and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer A.; Chambers, Don P.; Cheng, Minkang

    2018-01-01

    A least squares inversion of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data over Greenland and Antarctica could extend gravimetry-based estimates of mass loss back to the early 1990s and fill any future gap between the current Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the future GRACE Follow-On mission. The results of a simulation suggest that, while separating the mass change between Greenland and Antarctica is not possible at the limited spatial resolution of the SLR data, estimating the total combined mass change of the two areas is feasible. When the method is applied to real SLR and GRACE gravity series, we find significantly different estimates of inverted mass loss. There are large, unpredictable, interannual differences between the two inverted data types, making us conclude that the current 5×5 spherical harmonic SLR series cannot be used to stand in for GRACE. However, a comparison with the longer IMBIE time series suggests that on a 20-year time frame, the inverted SLR series' interannual excursions may average out, and the long-term mass loss estimate may be reasonable.

  12. Reliability and Validity of Electro-Goniometric Range of Motion Measurements in Patients with Hand and Wrist Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Bashardoust Tajali, Siamak; MacDermid, Joy C.; Grewal, Ruby; Young, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: Cross-sectional reliability and validity study. Purpose: 1. To determine intrarater, interrater and inter instrument reliabilities and validity of two digital electro goniometry to measure active wrist/finger range of motions (ROMs) in patients with limited motion. 2. To determine intrarater and interrater reliabilities of digital goniometry to measure torques of PIP passive flexion of the index finger in patients with limited motion. Methods: The study was designed in a randomi...

  13. Long-range correlations of serial FEV1 measurements in emphysematous patients and normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, A; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Madsen, F

    1998-01-01

    are autocorrelated. The purpose of this study was to describe the correlation structure in time series of FEV1 measurements. Nineteen patients with severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (phenotype PiZ) and moderate to severe emphysema and two subjects with normal lungs were followed for several years with daily self...... patients was approximately 0.35 for short intervals and decreased almost exponentially with a half time of 38 days. Between 3 and 4 mo, the autocorrelation function became negative. It reached a minimum of -0.1 at approximately 8 mo and then increased toward zero over the following 12 mo....... The autocorrelation function in the two normal subjects showed a similar pattern, but with a faster decay toward zero. In the patients, the power spectrum had a peak at 1 cycle/wk and showed a 1/f pattern, where f is frequency, with a slope of -0.88 at lower frequencies. We conclude that serial spirometric...

  14. Measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria, III: ranges and other measures of statistical dispersion, their interrelations and taxonomic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Williams

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the third of a series of papers examining the taxonomic relevance of some statistical treatments of measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Actiniaria. Some cnida lengths from fresh tissue samples (column ectoderm, tentacles or acontia from Nematostella vectensis, Haliplanella lineata, Sagartia elegans, Metridium senile, Cereus pedunculatus, Sagartia troglodytes, Anthopleura thallia, Urticina eques and Sagartiogeton lacerates were measured. Five measures of statistical dispersion (sample standard deviation, coefficient of variation, observed sample range, standard range, and 99% probable maximum value of the standard range were calculated, and their interrelations and potential applications were appraised. It has long been the convention to use the largest and smallest cnida sizes (observed sample range from tissue samples in attempts to establish differences between actiniarian taxa. However, such data do not reflect the true extremes of a population range. In the present study, the 99% probable maximum value of the standard range for a standard abundance of 1,000 gave the greatest and, therefore, the most cautious estimate of a population range of cnida sizes for a species. This maximum standard range is the only measure of dispersion of cnida sizes that may be used validly to demonstrate that anemone specimens are of different species, and then only if there is no overlap between the extreme cnida sizes being compared. However, partial or complete overlaps of cnida size extremes do not necessarily indicate that specimens are conspecific; other taxonomic characters must also be considered. Coefficients of variation may provide valuable clues as to the homogeneity or heterogeneity of samples of cnida measurements. This paper should be read in conjunction with the first two in this series, which address the taxonomic relevance of differences between mean cnida sizes (Williams, 1996, Sci. Mar., 60: 339-351; 1998, Sci. Mar., 62: 361-372.

  15. Attenuation on an Earth-space path measured in the wavelength range of 8 to 14 micrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R W

    1970-06-19

    A telescope operating over the wavelength range of 8 to 14 micrometers has been added to the Crawford Hill sun tracker for the purpose of measuring attenuation in that atmospheric window. Over a 9-month period the attenuation (typically from clouds) exceeded 10, 20, and 30 decibels for 48, 43, and 34 percent of the time.

  16. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges..., June 22, 2010, table C-1 to subpart C was revised, effective Aug. 23, 2010. For the convenience of the...

  17. Total photoabsorption cross section on nuclei measured in energy range 0.5-2.6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirazita, M.

    1998-03-01

    The total photoabsorption cross section on several nuclei has been measured in the energy range 0.5 - 2.6 GeV. Nuclear data show a significant reduction of the absorption strength with respect to the free nucleon case suggesting a shadowing effect at low energies

  18. Reliability of the spin-T cervical goniometer in measuring cervical range of motion in an asymptomatic Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shabnam; Allison, Garry T; Singer, Kevin P

    2005-09-01

    To examine the intratester reliability of the Spin-T goniometer, a cervical range of motion device, in a normal Indian population. Subjects comprised 30 healthy adults with mean age of 34 years (range, 18-65 years). The subjects were stabilized in the sitting position and the Spin-T goniometer mounted on the head of the subject. The study design was a within-subject repeated intratester reliability trial conducted for cervical range of motion in 6 directions of movement. Three measurements were taken in each direction (flexion, extension lateral flexion, and lateral rotation) per participant. Reliability coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients, and 95% confidence interval were derived from repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Where differences in ANOVA were detected, a paired t test was conducted and the typical error values and coefficient of variance were calculated. All repeated measures showed high intraclass correlation coefficients (all >0.96, P goniometer proved to be a reliable measuring instrument for cervical range of movement in an Indian population. The use of a laser pointer fixed to the instrument ensured a consistent neutral start position.

  19. How to measure atomic diffusion processes in the sub-nanometer range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Gupta, M.; Gutberlet, T.; Stahn, J.; Bruns, M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-diffusion of the atomic constituents in the solid state is a fundamental transport process that controls various materials properties. With established methods of diffusivity determination it is only possible to measure diffusion processes on a length scale down to 10 nm at corresponding diffusivities of 10 -23 m 2 s -1 . However, for complex materials like amorphous or nano-structured solids the given values are often not sufficient for a proper characterization. Consequently, it is necessary to detect diffusion length well below 1 nm. Here, we present the method of neutron reflectometry on isotope multilayers. For two model systems, an amorphous semiconductor and an amorphous metallic alloy, the efficiency of this method is demonstrated to detect minimum diffusion lengths of only 0.6-0.7 nm. It is further shown that diffusivities can be derived which are more than two orders of magnitude lower than those obtainable with conventional methods. Prospects of this method in order to solve actual kinetic problems in materials science are given

  20. Pose and Shape Reconstruction of a Noncooperative Spacecraft Using Camera and Range Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Volpe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in on-orbit proximity operations has pushed towards the development of autonomous GNC strategies. In this sense, optical navigation enables a wide variety of possibilities as it can provide information not only about the kinematic state but also about the shape of the observed object. Various mission architectures have been either tested in space or studied on Earth. The present study deals with on-orbit relative pose and shape estimation with the use of a monocular camera and a distance sensor. The goal is to develop a filter which estimates an observed satellite’s relative position, velocity, attitude, and angular velocity, along with its shape, with the measurements obtained by a camera and a distance sensor mounted on board a chaser which is on a relative trajectory around the target. The filter’s efficiency is proved with a simulation on a virtual target object. The results of the simulation, even though relevant to a simplified scenario, show that the estimation process is successful and can be considered a promising strategy for a correct and safe docking maneuver.

  1. Signal processing and analysis for copper layer thickness measurement within a large variation range in the CMP process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongkai; Zhao, Qian; Lu, Xinchun; Luo, Jianbin

    2017-11-01

    In the copper (Cu) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process, accurate determination of a process reaching the end point is of great importance. Based on the eddy current technology, the in situ thickness measurement of the Cu layer is feasible. Previous research studies focus on the application of the eddy current method to the metal layer thickness measurement or endpoint detection. In this paper, an in situ measurement system, which is independently developed by using the eddy current method, is applied to the actual Cu CMP process. A series of experiments are done for further analyzing the dynamic response characteristic of the output signal within different thickness variation ranges. In this study, the voltage difference of the output signal is used to represent the thickness of the Cu layer, and we can extract the voltage difference variations from the output signal fast by using the proposed data processing algorithm. The results show that the voltage difference decreases as thickness decreases in the conventional measurement range and the sensitivity increases at the same time. However, it is also found that there exists a thickness threshold, and the correlation is negative, when the thickness is more than the threshold. Furthermore, it is possible that the in situ measurement system can be used within a larger Cu layer thickness variation range by creating two calibration tables.

  2. SU-F-T-184: 3D Range-Modulator for Scanned Particle Therapy: Development, Monte Carlo Simulations and Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonov, Y; Penchev, P; Ringbaek, T Printz [University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany); Brons, S [Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Weber, U [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Zink, K [University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany); University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Active raster scanning in particle therapy results in highly conformal dose distributions. Treatment time, however, is relatively high due to the large number of different iso-energy layers used. By using only one energy and the so called 3D range-modulator irradiation times of a few seconds only can be achieved, thus making delivery of homogeneous dose to moving targets (e.g. lung cancer) more reliable. Methods: A 3D range-modulator consisting of many pins with base area of 2.25 mm2 and different lengths was developed and manufactured with rapid prototyping technique. The form of the 3D range-modulator was optimised for a spherical target volume with 5 cm diameter placed at 25 cm in a water phantom. Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA package were carried out to evaluate the modulating effect of the 3D range-modulator and simulate the resulting dose distribution. The fine and complicated contour form of the 3D range-modulator was taken into account by a specially programmed user routine. Additionally FLUKA was extended with the capability of intensity modulated scanning. To verify the simulation results dose measurements were carried out at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) with a 400.41 MeV 12C beam. Results: The high resolution measurements show that the 3D range-modulator is capable of producing homogeneous 3D conformal dose distributions, simultaneously reducing significantly irradiation time. Measured dose is in very good agreement with the previously conducted FLUKA simulations, where slight differences were traced back to minor manufacturing deviations from the perfect optimised form. Conclusion: Combined with the advantages of very short treatment time the 3D range-modulator could be an alternative to treat small to medium sized tumours (e.g. lung metastasis) with the same conformity as full raster-scanning treatment. Further simulations and measurements of more complex cases will be conducted to investigate the full potential of the 3D

  3. Sensitivity analysis of nacelle lidar free stream wind speed measurements to wind-induction reconstruction model and lidar range configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Elin; Borraccino, Antoine; Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul

    configurations. The wind speeds were reconstructed using both a onedimensional and two-dimensional induction model to test the sensitivity towards the wind-induction model. In all cases, the sensitivity of the reconstructed wind speed was determined from the wind speed error and root mean square error (RMSE...... based on the NKE sensitivity analysis results. Based on these results, it is recommended to configure nacelle lidars to measure at approximately 3-5 ranges. The minimum distance should be configured to roughly 0.5 rotor diameters (Drot) while it is recommended that the maximum range lay within 1-1.5Drot...

  4. [Vocal capabilities of nonprofessional singers evaluated by measurement and superimposition of their speaking, shouting and singing voice range profiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacki, T

    1999-09-01

    Voice range profile(VRP) measurement (Phonetography) was used for the evaluation of the vocal capabilities of 41 female (F) and 50 male (M) members of a nonprofessional choir. By means of an automatic VPR measurement system F0 and SPL dB(A) were determined and displayed real time, two-dimensionally. The speaking voice (reading a standard passage as well as counting from the softest to the loudest intensity), the shouting voice (3-4 times shouting a standard sentence) and the singing voice (sustained phonation / la:/ at minimum and maximum intensity level) were measured. The VRPs of these voice modalities were superimposed on the screen and the plot. The averaged values for the speaking VRP: intensity range (F): 48 dB (range 46 soft to 94 dB loud phonation), (M): 52 dB (range 46-98). Pitch range (F): 15 semitones (ST) (Cis3, 138-E4, 329 Hz), (M): 19 ST (E2, 82 Hz-H3, 246 Hz). The average slope for the speaking voice (F): 0,31 ST/dB, (M): 0,36 ST/dB. Shouting VRP highest intensity (F): 106,5 dB, (M): 108,5 dB, highest pitch (F): between Ais4, 466 and H4, 493 Hz. (M): E4, 329 Hz. Average slope for speaking and shouting voice (F): 0,36 ST/dB, (M): 0,39 ST/dB. Singing VRP pitch range (F): 34,6 ST, (M): 37 ST, intensity range (F): 60 dB, (M): 58 dB. The pitch extension of the speaking VRP ranges from 2,9 to 46,2%, speaking and shouting VRPs together with 2,9 to 65% of the pitch range of the singing VRP (F), (M) 2,7-54% and 2,7-67,5% accordingly. The average values for nonprofessional singers reflect an effective but not special use of the phonatory system for the speaking, shouting and singing voice functions with respect to pitch and intensity.

  5. Essential oil from Rhaponticum acaule L. roots: Comparative study using HS-SPME/GC/GC–MS and hydrodistillation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Benyelles

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition of essential oil extracted from Rhaponticum acaule L. roots growing wild in Algeria was studied by hydrodistillation (HD and by Head-Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS-SPME. Quantitative but not qualitative differences have been found in the chemical composition of both analysed samples depending on the extraction method. However, the oil obtained from R. acaule roots shows that aliphatic alcohols were found to be the major class (69.2%, followed by the terpenes (5.5%, alkenes (5.2% and alkynes (4.0%. In both cases the analysis were carried out using Gas Chromatography (GC and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS. Our study shows that HS-SPME extraction could be considered as an alternative technique for the isolation of volatiles from plant. 25 components were identified in oil vs. 39 in the HS-SPME. However the oil composition of roots was mainly represented by a variety of aliphatic hydrocarbons (alcohols, aldehydes and ketones and terpenes which are known for their antimicrobial activities.

  6. Development of a Direct Headspace Collection Method from Arabidopsis Seedlings Using HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Saito

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce various volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which are thought to be a crucial factor in their interactions with harmful insects, plants and animals. Composition of VOCs may differ when plants are grown under different nutrient conditions, i.e., macronutrient-deficient conditions. However, in plants, relationships between macronutrient assimilation and VOC composition remain unclear. In order to identify the kinds of VOCs that can be emitted when plants are grown under various environmental conditions, we established a conventional method for VOC profiling in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis involving headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS. We grew Arabidopsis seedlings in an HS vial to directly perform HS analysis. To maximize the analytical performance of VOCs, we optimized the extraction method and the analytical conditions of HP-SPME-GC-TOF-MS. Using the optimized method, we conducted VOC profiling of Arabidopsis seedlings, which were grown under two different nutrition conditions, nutrition-rich and nutrition-deficient conditions. The VOC profiles clearly showed a distinct pattern with respect to each condition. This study suggests that HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS analysis has immense potential to detect changes in the levels of VOCs in not only Arabidopsis, but other plants grown under various environmental conditions.

  7. A Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME method for the chromatographic determination of alkylpyrazines in cocoa samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pini Gláucia F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME procedure for isolation and determination of alkylpyrazines in cocoa liquor, using Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID for the separation and detection of the analytes, is presented here. The HS-SPME operational conditions were optimized using extractions of samples spiked with known amounts of alkylpyrazines typically found on cocoa products. The maximum extraction efficiency was obtained using SPME fibers coated with 65 µm Carbowax/divinylbenzene. Additionally, the best results were achieved with extraction temperature of 60 ºC, 15 min of sample/headspace equilibration time and 45 min extraction time. It was also observed that suspending the samples in saturated aqueous NaCl solution during extractions resulted in a significant increment on the peak areas. This procedure was found to be effective to determine the so-called pyrazinic ratios (quotient between peak areas of alkylpyrazines, which are useful as quality parameters for cocoa liquor.

  8. Analysis of Five Earthy-Musty Odorants in Environmental Water by HS-SPME/GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pressing issue of earthy and musty odor compounds in natural waters, which can affect the organoleptic properties of drinking water, makes it a public health concern. A simple and sensitive method for simultaneous analysis of five odorants in environmental water was developed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME coupled to chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, including geosmin (GSM and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB, as well as dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS, β-cyclocitral, and β-ionone. Based on the simple modification of original magnetic stirrer purchased from CORNING (USA, the five target compounds can be separated within 23 min, and the calibration curves show good linearity with a correlation coefficient above 0.999 (levels = 5. The limits of detection (LOD are all below 1.3 ng L−1, and the relative standard deviation (%RSD is between 4.4% and 9.9% (n = 7 and recoveries of the analytes from water samples are between 86.2% and 112.3%. In addition, the storage time experiment indicated that the concentrations did not change significantly for GSM and 2-MIB if they were stored in canonical environment. In conclusion, the method in this study could be applied for monitoring these five odorants in natural waters.

  9. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  10. Fingerprint of volatiles from plant extracts based on SPME-GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequias P. Siqueira

    Full Text Available The Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Products has an ex situ collection of extracts from organisms of the biodiversity aiming at bioprospecting. Nowadays the collection has about 4000 extracts from 1000 different species. Extracts are used to identify new bioactive compounds that could be useful for developing new drugs against neglected diseases like leishmaniosis, Chagas disease, malaria and tuberculosis. After biologic assays, the bioactive extracts need to be prepared in larger quantity to allow isolation and characterization of the bioactive component. At this time, it is important to not only confirm the bioactivity of new extract but also check if its composition is similar to the old one. It was evaluated the ability of Solid Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis (SPME-GC-MS. It was used the AMDIS (Automatic Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System software as tools to collect and to compare the chromatographic profiles of each extract (fingerprint. Forty six samples were analyzed, it was possible to infer from the composition of each sample and common compounds. Nine groups of samples, collected at different time, were analyzed and seasonal modifications between then could be elucidated. The results showed that this methodology can be used to monitor the composition of extracts, allowing to monitor chemical changes that may occur during storage periods and to investigate the occurrence of a determined component in different extracts.

  11. Potential semiochemicals in urine from free ranging wolverines (Gulo gulo Pallas, 1780)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. Wood; Jeffrey P. Copeland; Richard E. Yates; Iman K. Horsey; Lynne R. McGreevy

    2009-01-01

    Urine deposition has been observed as an important scent-marking behaviour among wolverines (Gulo gulo, Mustelinae, Mustelidae). Solid phase microextraction (SPME) of headspace volatiles of the urine from free ranging wolverines were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Urine samples were collected directly from the bladder of live-trapped animals...

  12. Measurement of double differential cross sections of secondary neutrons in the incident energy range 9-13 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hongqing; Qi Bujia; Zhou Zuying; Sa Jun; Ke Zunjian; Sui Qingchang; Xia Haihong; Shen Guanren

    1992-01-01

    The status and technique of double differential cross section measurement of secondary neutrons in the incident neutron energy range 9 to 13 MeV is reviewed with emphasis on the work done at CIAE. There are scarce measurements of secondary neutron double differential cross sections in this energy region up to now. A main difficulty for this is lack of an applicable monoenergetic neutron source. When monoenergetic neutron energy reaches 8 Me/v, the break-up neutrons from the d + D or p + T reaction starts to become significant. It is difficult to get a pure secondary neutron spectrum induced only by monoenergetic neutrons. To solve this problem an abnormal fast neutron TOF facility was designed and tested. Double differential neutron emission cross sections of 238 U and 209 Bi at 10 MeV were obtained by combining the data measured by both normal and abnormal TOF spectrometers and a good agreement between measurement and calculation was achieved

  13. Highly accurate nuclear and electronic stopping cross sections derived using Monte Carlo simulations to reproduce measured range data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmaack, Klaus; Mutzke, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    We have examined and confirmed the previously unexplored concept of using Monte Carlo calculations in combination with measured projected ranges of ions implanted in solids to derive a quantitative description of nuclear interaction and electronic stopping. The study involved 98 ranges of 11B in Si between 1 keV and 8 MeV, contained in 12 sets of 10 different groups. Systematic errors by up to ±8% were removed to establish a refined data base with 93 ranges featuring only statistical uncertainties (±1.8%). The Monte Carlo calculations could be set up to reproduce the refined ranges with a mean ratio 1.002 ± 1.7%. The input parameters required for this very high level of agreement are as follows. Nuclear interaction is best described by the Kr-C potential, but in obligatory combination with the Lindhard-Scharff (LS) screening length. Up to 300 keV, the electronic stopping cross section is proportional to the projectile velocity, Se = kSe,LS, with k = 1.46 ± 0.01. At higher energies, Se falls progressively short of kSe,LS. Around the Bragg peak, i.e., between 0.8 and 10 MeV, Se is modeled by an adjustable function serving to tailor the peak shape properly. Calculated and measured isotope effects for ranges of 10B and 11B in Si agree within the experimental uncertainty (±0.25%). The range-based Se,R(E) reported here predicts the scarce experimental data derived from the energy loss in projectile transmission through thin Si foils to within 2% or better. By contrast, Se(E) data of available stopping power tables exhibit deviations from Se,R(E) between -40% and +14%.

  14. Measurement of cervical range of motion (CROM) by electronic CROM goniometer: a test of reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ellis Yuk Hung; Chiu, Thomas Tai-Wing

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the reliability and validity of the Electronic Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) Goniometer in measurement of cervical spine mobility in adults with and without neck pain. A cross-sectional reliability study was conducted on 54 subjects (26 neck pain and 26 non-neck pain) aged from 20-70 years old. The Numerical Pain Rating Scale and Chinese version of Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire were used to assess neck pain severity and disability respectively. The CROM was measured in sitting position except left to right rotation was measured in supine lying. All the cervical active movements were measured by using the Electronic CROM Goniometer from ARCON TM Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE) systems. The intra-tester and inter-tester reliability were high in both normal and chronic neck pain groups with ICC coefficients ranged from 0.75-*0.92. There was significant difference in the total CROM between the normal (374.7°) and chronic neck pain group (292.6°). The ACRON cervical goniometer was found to be reliable for measuring cervical mobility in 3 planes for both normal and patient subjects. Construct validity of the goniometer was supported as the test's result documented significant difference in CROM between the control and the neck pain groups.

  15. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Concentration and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection IPDA Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Ramanathan, Anand; Riris, Haris; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Weaver, Clark J.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar to measure range and the column concentration of atmospheric CO2. The lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and samples the shape of the 1,572.33 nm CO2 absorption line. We participated in the ASCENDS science flights on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during August 2011 and report here lidar measurements made on four flights over a variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US. These included over a stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, to a dry lake bed surrounded by mountains in Nevada, to a desert area with a coal-fired power plant, and from the Rocky Mountains to Iowa, with segments with both cumulus and cirrus clouds. Most flights were to altitudes >12 km and had 5-6 altitude steps. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range, CO2 column absorption, and CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, through thin clouds, between cumulus clouds, and to stratus cloud tops. The retrievals shows the decrease in column CO2 due to growing vegetation when flying over Iowa cropland as well as a sudden increase in CO2 concentration near a coal-fired power plant. For regions where the CO2 concentration was relatively constant, the measured CO2 absorption lineshape (averaged for 50 s) matched the predicted shapes to better than 1% RMS error. For 10 s averaging, the scatter in the retrievals was typically 2-3 ppm and was limited by the received signal photon count. Retrievals were made using atmospheric parameters from both an atmospheric model and from in situ temperature and pressure from the aircraft. The retrievals had no free parameters and did not use empirical adjustments, and >70% of the measurements passed screening and were used in analysis. The differences between the lidar-measured retrievals and in situ measured average CO2 column concentrations were 6 km.

  16. Reliability and responsiveness of a goniometric device for measuring the range of motion in the dart-throwing motion plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasubuchi, Kenji; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Fukumoto, Takahiko

    2018-02-26

    Dart-throwing motion (DTM) is an important component of wrist function and, consequently, has the potential to become an evaluation tool in rehabilitation. However, no measurement method is currently available to reliably measure range of motion (ROM) of the wrist in the DTM plane. To determine the reliability and responsiveness of a goniometric device to measure wrist ROM in the DTM plane. ROM of the wrist in the DTM plane was measured in 70 healthy participants. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the relative reliability of measurement, and a Bland-Altman analysis conducted to establish its absolute reliability, including the 95% limits of agreement (95% LOA). The standard error of the measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level (MDC 95 ) were calculated as measures of responsiveness. The intra-rater ICC was 0.87, and an inter-rater ICC of 0.71. There was no evidence of a fixed or proportional bias. For intra- and inter-rater reliability, 95% LOA ranged from -13.83 to 11.12 and from -17.75 to 16.19, respectively. The SEM and MDC 95 were 4.5° and 12.4°, respectively, for intra-rater reliability, and 6.0° and 16.6°, respectively, for inter-rater reliability. The ROM of the wrist in the DTM plane was measured with fair-to-good reliability and responsiveness and, therefore, has the potential to become an evaluation tool for rehabilitation.

  17. Development of array-type prompt gamma measurement system for in vivo range verification in proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chul Hee; Lee, Han Rim; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Lee, Se Byeong

    2012-04-01

    In vivo range verification is one of the most important parts of proton therapy to fully utilize its benefits delivering high radiation dose to tumor, while sparing the normal tissue with the so-called Bragg peak. Currently, however, range verification method is not used in clinics. The purpose of the present study is to optimize and evaluate the configuration of an array-type prompt gamma measurement system on determining distal dose edge for in vivo range verification of proton therapy. To effectively measure the prompt gammas against the background gammas, the Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNPX code were employed in optimizing the configuration of the measurement system, and the Monte Carlo method was also used to understand the effect of the background gammas, mainly neutron capture gammas, in the measured gamma distribution. To reduce the effect of the background gammas, the optimized energy window of 4-10 MeV in measuring the prompt gammas was employed. A parameterized source was used to maximize computation speed in the optimization study. A simplified test measurement system, using only one detector moving from one measurement location to the next, was constructed and applied to therapeutic proton beams of 80-220 MeV. For accurate determination of the distal dose edge, the sigmoidal curve-fitting method was applied to the measured distributions of the prompt gammas, and then, the location of the half-value between the maximum and minimum value in the curve-fitting was determined as the distal dose edge and compared with the beam range assessed by the proton dose distribution. The parameterized source term employed in optimization process improved the calculation speed by up to ∼300 times. The optimization study indicates that an array-type measurement system with 3, 2, 2, and 150 mm for scintillator thickness, slit width, septal thickness, and slit length, respectively, can effectively measure the prompt gamma distributions minimizing the contribution

  18. Mathematical Model and Calibration Experiment of a Large Measurement Range Flexible Joints 6-UPUR Six-Axis Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhi Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays improving the accuracy and enlarging the measuring range of six-axis force sensors for wider applications in aircraft landing, rocket thrust, and spacecraft docking testing experiments has become an urgent objective. However, it is still difficult to achieve high accuracy and large measuring range with traditional parallel six-axis force sensors due to the influence of the gap and friction of the joints. Therefore, to overcome the mentioned limitations, this paper proposed a 6-Universal-Prismatic-Universal-Revolute (UPUR joints parallel mechanism with flexible joints to develop a large measurement range six-axis force sensor. The structural characteristics of the sensor are analyzed in comparison with traditional parallel sensor based on the Stewart platform. The force transfer relation of the sensor is deduced, and the force Jacobian matrix is obtained using screw theory in two cases of the ideal state and the state of flexibility of each flexible joint is considered. The prototype and loading calibration system are designed and developed. The K value method and least squares method are used to process experimental data, and in errors of kind Ι and kind II linearity are obtained. The experimental results show that the calibration error of the K value method is more than 13.4%, and the calibration error of the least squares method is 2.67%. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the sensor and the correctness of the theoretical analysis which are expected to be adopted in practical applications.

  19. Mathematical Model and Calibration Experiment of a Large Measurement Range Flexible Joints 6-UPUR Six-Axis Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Zhang, Caifeng; Zhang, Dan; Shi, Zhongpan; Zhao, Tieshi

    2016-08-11

    Nowadays improving the accuracy and enlarging the measuring range of six-axis force sensors for wider applications in aircraft landing, rocket thrust, and spacecraft docking testing experiments has become an urgent objective. However, it is still difficult to achieve high accuracy and large measuring range with traditional parallel six-axis force sensors due to the influence of the gap and friction of the joints. Therefore, to overcome the mentioned limitations, this paper proposed a 6-Universal-Prismatic-Universal-Revolute (UPUR) joints parallel mechanism with flexible joints to develop a large measurement range six-axis force sensor. The structural characteristics of the sensor are analyzed in comparison with traditional parallel sensor based on the Stewart platform. The force transfer relation of the sensor is deduced, and the force Jacobian matrix is obtained using screw theory in two cases of the ideal state and the state of flexibility of each flexible joint is considered. The prototype and loading calibration system are designed and developed. The K value method and least squares method are used to process experimental data, and in errors of kind Ι and kind II linearity are obtained. The experimental results show that the calibration error of the K value method is more than 13.4%, and the calibration error of the least squares method is 2.67%. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the sensor and the correctness of the theoretical analysis which are expected to be adopted in practical applications.

  20. Development and validation of an SPME-GC method for a degradation kinetics study of propiconazole I, propiconazole II and tebuconazole in blueberries in Concordia, the main production area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munitz, Martín S; Medina, María B; Montti, María I T

    2017-05-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of propiconazole isomers and tebuconazole residues in blueberries was developed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography. Confirmation was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected-ion monitoring mode. The SPME fibre coating selected was CWX-DVB, and the pH was adjusted to 7 with NaOH. The method is selective with adequate precision and high accuracy and sensitivity. Recoveries ranged between 97.4% and 98.9% for all compounds; and detection and quantification limits were respectively 0.21 and 0.49 μg kg -1 for propiconazole I; 0.16 and 0.22 μg kg -1 for propiconazole II; and 0.16 and 0.48 μg kg -1 for tebuconazole. The degradation of these fungicides in blueberries followed first-order rate kinetics. The half-life times for flowering and fruit set applications were respectively 4.0 and 10.3 days for propiconazole I, 4.0 and 11.4 days for propiconazole II, and 3.5 and 12.4 days for tebuconazole.

  1. Precise predictions of H2O line shapes over a wide pressure range using simulations corrected by a single measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, N. H.; Nguyen, H. T.; Tran, H.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we show that precise predictions of the shapes of H2O rovibrational lines broadened by N2, over a wide pressure range, can be made using simulations corrected by a single measurement. For that, we use the partially-correlated speed-dependent Keilson-Storer (pcsdKS) model whose parameters are deduced from molecular dynamics simulations and semi-classical calculations. This model takes into account the collision-induced velocity-changes effects, the speed dependences of the collisional line width and shift as well as the correlation between velocity and internal-state changes. For each considered transition, the model is corrected by using a parameter deduced from its broadening coefficient measured for a single pressure. The corrected-pcsdKS model is then used to simulate spectra for a wide pressure range. Direct comparisons of the corrected-pcsdKS calculated and measured spectra of 5 rovibrational lines of H2O for various pressures, from 0.1 to 1.2 atm, show very good agreements. Their maximum differences are in most cases well below 1%, much smaller than residuals obtained when fitting the measurements with the Voigt line shape. This shows that the present procedure can be used to predict H2O line shapes for various pressure conditions and thus the simulated spectra can be used to deduce the refined line-shape parameters to complete spectroscopic databases, in the absence of relevant experimental values.

  2. [Research on the range of motion measurement system for spine based on LabVIEW image processing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Deng, Linhong; Lu, Hu; He, Bin

    2014-08-01

    A measurement system based on the image processing technology and developed by LabVIEW was designed to quickly obtain the range of motion (ROM) of spine. NI-Vision module was used to pre-process the original images and calculate the angles of marked needles in order to get ROM data. Six human cadaveric thoracic spine segments T7-T10 were selected to carry out 6 kinds of loads, including left/right lateral bending, flexion, extension, cis/counterclockwise torsion. The system was used to measure the ROM of segment T8-T9 under the loads from 1 Nm to 5 Nm. The experimental results showed that the system is able to measure the ROM of the spine accurately and quickly, which provides a simple and reliable tool for spine biomechanics investigators.

  3. Current Practices of Measuring and Reference Range Reporting of Free and Total Testosterone in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Margaret; Flores, David; May, Danica; Gourley, Eric; Nangia, Ajay K

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation and management of male hypogonadism should be based on symptoms and on serum testosterone levels. Diagnostically this relies on accurate testing and reference values. Our objective was to define the distribution of reference values and assays for free and total testosterone by clinical laboratories in the United States. Upper and lower reference values, assay methodology and source of published reference ranges were obtained from laboratories across the country. A standardized survey was reviewed with laboratory staff via telephone. Descriptive statistics were used to tabulate results. We surveyed a total of 120 laboratories in 47 states. Total testosterone was measured in house at 73% of laboratories. At the remaining laboratories studies were sent to larger centralized reference facilities. The mean ± SD lower reference value of total testosterone was 231 ± 46 ng/dl (range 160 to 300) and the mean upper limit was 850 ± 141 ng/dl (range 726 to 1,130). Only 9% of laboratories where in-house total testosterone testing was performed created a reference range unique to their region. Others validated the instrument recommended reference values in a small number of internal test samples. For free testosterone 82% of laboratories sent testing to larger centralized reference laboratories where equilibrium dialysis and/or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was done. The remaining laboratories used published algorithms to calculate serum free testosterone. Reference ranges for testosterone assays vary significantly among laboratories. The ranges are predominantly defined by limited population studies of men with unknown medical and reproductive histories. These poorly defined and variable reference values, especially the lower limit, affect how clinicians determine treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) and critical temperature (Tc). The critical current (Ic) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new Ic measurement system that can carry out accurate Ic measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The Ic measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa2Cu3O7-x(YBCO) tapes Ic determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  5. Measurement of radon concentration for assessment of the radiological hazard in the Chakwal coalmines of the Salt Range, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, Arif; Tufail, M

    2011-01-01

    Radon and its progeny are prevalent everywhere on the lithosphere especially in the mining environment. Coal exists in the Salt Range that passes through Pakistan. The aim of the present study was to measure radon concentration and assess the associated radiological hazard in the coalmines developed in that portion of the Salt Range which passes through the district of Chakwal in Pakistan. Among the various coalmines in the coalfield, five were selected for radon survey. A passive integrated technique consisting of SSNTDs (solid state nuclear track detectors) was employed for the measurement of radon concentration in these coalmines. Box type dosimeters containing CN-85 detectors were placed for three months at six locations in every selected coalmine. After removing the dosimeters, the CN-85 detectors were etched in alkaline solution to enlarge the alpha tracks in the detectors and counted under an optical microscope. The track densities were converted to radon concentration. The average concentration of radon in the coalmines varied in the range 50-114 Bq m -3 . Radon exhalation rates from the samples of coal and shale collected from the coalmines were determined to be respectively 934 (830-1010) and 1302 (1020-1580) mBq m -2 h -1 . The radiation dose and corresponding health risk for the mine workers were also estimated.

  6. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Concentration and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection IPDA Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Abshire

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar to measure range and the column concentration of atmospheric CO2. The lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and samples the shape of the 1,572.33 nm CO2 absorption line. We participated in the ASCENDS science flights on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during August 2011 and report here lidar measurements made on four flights over a variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US. These included over a stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, to a dry lake bed surrounded by mountains in Nevada, to a desert area with a coal-fired power plant, and from the Rocky Mountains to Iowa, with segments with both cumulus and cirrus clouds. Most flights were to altitudes >12 km and had 5–6 altitude steps. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range, CO2 column absorption, and CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, through thin clouds, between cumulus clouds, and to stratus cloud tops. The retrievals shows the decrease in column CO2 due to growing vegetation when flying over Iowa cropland as well as a sudden increase in CO2 concentration near a coal-fired power plant. For regions where the CO2 concentration was relatively constant, the measured CO2 absorption lineshape (averaged for 50 s matched the predicted shapes to better than 1% RMS error. For 10 s averaging, the scatter in the retrievals was typically 2–3 ppm and was limited by the received signal photon count. Retrievals were made using atmospheric parameters from both an atmospheric model and from in situ temperature and pressure from the aircraft. The retrievals had no free parameters and did not use empirical adjustments, and >70% of the measurements passed screening and were used in analysis. The differences between the lidar-measured retrievals and in situ measured average CO2 column concentrations were <1.4 ppm for flight measurement altitudes >6

  7. The concurrent validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero Morales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background New reliable devices for range of motion (ROM measures in older adults are necessary to improve knowledge about the functional capability in this population. Dorsiflexion ROM limitation is associated with ankle injuries, foot pain, lower limb disorders, loss of balance, gait control disorders and fall risk in older adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM in older adults. Methods Adescriptive repeated-measures study was designed to test the reliability of Leg Motion in thirty-three healthy elderly patients older than 65 years. The subjects had to meet the following inclusion and exclusion criteria in their medical records: older than 65 years; no lower extremity injury for at least one year prior to evaluation (meniscopathy, or fractures and any chronic injuries (e.g., osteoarthritis; no previous hip, knee or ankle surgery; no neuropathic alterations and no cognitive conditions (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease or dementia. Participants were recruited through the person responsible for the physiotherapist area from a nursing center. The subjects were evaluated in two different sessions at the same time of day, and there was a break of two weeks between sessions. To test the validity of the Leg Motion system, the participants were measured in a weight-bearing lunge position using a classic goniometer with 1° increments, a smartphone with an inclinometer standard app (iPhone 5S® with 1° increments and a measuring tape that could measure 0.1 cm. All testing was performed while the patients were barefoot. The researcher had ten years of experience as a physiotherapist using goniometer, tape measure and inclinometer devices. Results Mean values and standard deviations were as follows: Leg Motion (right 5.15 ± 3.08; left 5.19 ± 2.98, tape measure (right 5.12 ± 3.08; left 5.12 ± 2.80, goniometer (right 45.87° ± 4.98; left 44

  8. New insight on biological interaction analysis: new nanocrystalline mixed metal oxide SPME fiber for GC-FID analysis of BTEX and its application in human hemoglobin-benzene interaction studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hosseinzadeh

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline mixed metal oxides (MMO of various metal cations were synthesized and were used for coating a piece of copper wire as a new high sensitive solid phase micro extraction (SPME fiber in extraction and determination of BTEX compounds from the headspace of aqueous samples prior to GC-FID analysis. Under optimum extraction conditions, the proposed fiber exhibited low detection limits, and quantification limits, good reproducibility, simple and fast preparation method, high fiber capacity and high thermal and mechanical durability. These are some of the most important advantages of the new fiber. The proposed fiber was used for human hemoglobin upon interaction with benzene. Binding isotherm, Scatchard and Klotz logarithmic plots were constructed using HS-SPME-GC data, accurately. The obtained binding isotherm analyzed using Hill method. The Hill parameters have been obtained by calculating saturation parameter from the ratio of measured chromatographic peak areas in the presence and absence of hemoglobin. In this interaction, Hill coefficient and Hill constant determined as (nH = 6.14 and log KH = 6.47 respectively. These results reveal the cooperativity of hemoglobin upon interaction with benzene.

  9. Reference range levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the US population by measurement of urinary monohydroxy metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, James; Huang, Wenlin; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Pirkle, James; Caudill, Samuel P.; Wang, Richard Y.; Needham, Larry L.; Sampson, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/Id-HRMS) method for measuring 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites representing seven parent PAHs in 3 mL of urine at low parts-per-trillion levels. PAH levels were determined in urine samples collected in 1999 and 2000 from approximately 2400 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and, for the first time, reference range values were calculated for these metabolites in the US population. Using this GC/ID-HRMS method, we found detectable concentrations for monohydroxy metabolite isomers of fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, and benz[a]anthracene. Some monohydroxy metabolite isomers of benzo[c]phenanthrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene exhibited low detection frequencies that did not allow for geometric mean calculations. Our study results enabled us to establish a reference range for the targeted PAHs in the general US population

  10. Validity and test-retest reliability of manual goniometers for measuring passive hip range of motion in femoroacetabular impingement patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nussbaumer Silvio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the construct validity (known group, concurrent validity (criterion based and test-retest (intra-rater reliability of manual goniometers to measure passive hip range of motion (ROM in femoroacetabular impingement patients and healthy controls. Methods Passive hip flexion, abduction, adduction, internal and external rotation ROMs were simultaneously measured with a conventional goniometer and an electromagnetic tracking system (ETS on two different testing sessions. A total of 15 patients and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Results The goniometer provided greater hip ROM values compared to the ETS (range 2.0-18.9 degrees; P P Conclusions The present study suggests that goniometer-based assessments considerably overestimate hip joint ROM by measuring intersegmental angles (e.g., thigh flexion on trunk for hip flexion rather than true hip ROM. It is likely that uncontrolled pelvic rotation and tilt due to difficulties in placing the goniometer properly and in performing the anatomically correct ROM contribute to the overrating of the arc of these motions. Nevertheless, conventional manual goniometers can be used with confidence for longitudinal assessments in the clinic.

  11. Airborne lidar measurements to investigate the impact of long-range transported dust on shallow marine trade wind convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S.; Gutleben, M.; Wirth, M.; Ewald, F.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols and clouds are still main contributors to uncertainties in estimates and interpretation of the Earth's changing energy budget. Their interaction with the Earth's radiation budged has a direct component by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation, and an indirect component, e.g. as aerosols modify the properties and thus the life-time of clouds or by changing the atmosphere's stability. Up to know now sufficient understanding in aerosol-cloud interaction and climate feedback is achieved. Thus studies with respect to clouds, aerosols, their interaction and influence on the radiation budged are highly demanded. In August 2016 the NARVAL-II (Next-generation airborne remote sensing for validation studies) mission took place. Measurements with a combined active (high spectral resolution and water vapor differential absorption lidar and cloud radar) and passive remote sensing (microwave radiometer, hyper spectral imager, radiation measurements) payload were performed with the German high altitude and long-range research aircraft HALO over the subtropical North-Atlantic Ocean to study shallow marine convection during the wet and dusty season. With this, NARVAL-II is follow-up of the NARVAL-I mission which took place during the dry and dust free season in December 2013. During NARVAL-II the measurement flights were designed the way to sample dust influenced areas as well as dust free areas in the trades. One main objective was to investigate the optical and macro physical properties of the dust layer, differences in cloud occurrence in dusty and non-dusty areas, and to study the influence of aerosols on the cloud properties and formation. This allows comparisons of cloud and aerosol distribution as well as their environment between the dry and the wet season, and of cloud properties and distribution with and without the influence of long-range transported dust across the Atlantic Ocean. In our presentation we will give an overview of the NARVAL

  12. Validity of an Alternate Hand Behind Back Shoulder Range of Motion Measurement in Patients With Shoulder Pain and Movement Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Kiran H; Hall, Toby; Adanani, Aditi

    2018-02-23

    The purpose of this study was to determine the criterion-related validity of a novel method of measuring hand behind back (HBB) shoulder range of motion (ROM) for evaluating pain and disability in people with shoulder pain and movement impairment. This cross-sectional study design evaluated shoulder ROM, pain, fear-avoidance beliefs, and disability in 60 people (aged 35-70 years, 31 male) with chronic unilateral shoulder dysfunction (mean duration 15.73 weeks). Shoulder HBB ROM was measured with a bubble inclinometer in a manner that did not require the patient to disrobe. Correlations were sought between HBB ROM and other shoulder movements, as well as scores recorded on the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), visual analogue scale for pain, Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), and duration of symptoms. Restriction of HBB movement was significantly correlated with SPADI total disability score (r = 0.39, P shoulder movements. These findings suggest that this novel method of measuring HBB ROM could be used as a functional outcome measure in the evaluation of patients with shoulder disorders. This method could be considered as an additional or alternative where there are challenges in measuring HBB because of restrictions in undressing a patient, such as for cultural reasons. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Absorption and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Weaver, Clark J.; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We report on airborne CO2 column absorption measurements made in 2009 with a pulsed direct-detection lidar operating at 1572.33 nm and utilizing the integrated path differential absorption technique. We demonstrated these at different altitudes from an aircraft in July and August in flights over four locations in the central and eastern United States. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The lidar measurement statistics were also calculated for each flight as a function of altitude. The optical depth varied nearly linearly with altitude, consistent with calculations based on atmospheric models. The scatter in the optical depth measurements varied with aircraft altitude as expected, and the median measurement precisions for the column varied from 0.9 to 1.2 ppm. The altitude range with the lowest scatter was 810 km, and the majority of measurements for the column within it had precisions between 0.2 and 0.9 ppm.

  14. Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct-detection integrated path differential absorption lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B; Riris, Haris; Weaver, Clark J; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R; Hasselbrack, William E; Browell, Edward V

    2013-07-01

    We report on airborne CO(2) column absorption measurements made in 2009 with a pulsed direct-detection lidar operating at 1572.33 nm and utilizing the integrated path differential absorption technique. We demonstrated these at different altitudes from an aircraft in July and August in flights over four locations in the central and eastern United States. The results show clear CO(2) line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The lidar measurement statistics were also calculated for each flight as a function of altitude. The optical depth varied nearly linearly with altitude, consistent with calculations based on atmospheric models. The scatter in the optical depth measurements varied with aircraft altitude as expected, and the median measurement precisions for the column varied from 0.9 to 1.2 ppm. The altitude range with the lowest scatter was 8-10 km, and the majority of measurements for the column within it had precisions between 0.2 and 0.9 ppm.

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Hyperspectral Imaging and Bathymetric Lidar for Measuring Channel Morphology Across a Range of River Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleiter, C. J.; Overstreet, B. T.; Glennie, C. L.; Pan, Z.; Fernandez-Diaz, J. C.; Singhania, A.

    2014-12-01

    Reliable topographic information is critical to many applications in the riverine sciences. Quantifying morphologic change, modeling flow and sediment transport, and assessing aquatic habitat all require accurate, spatially distributed measurements of bed elevation. Remote sensing has emerged as a powerful tool for acquiring such data, but the capabilities and limitations associated with various remote sensing techniques must be evaluated systematically. In this study, we assessed the potential of hyperspectral imaging and bathymetric LiDAR for measuring channel morphology across a range of conditions in two distinct field sites: the clear-flowing Snake River in Grand Teton National Park and the confluence of the Blue and Colorado Rivers in north-central Colorado, USA. Field measurements of water column optical properties highlighted differences among these streams, including the highly turbid Muddy Creek also entering the Colorado, and enabled theoretical calculations of bathymetric precision (smallest detectable change in depth) and dynamic range (maximum detectable depth). Hyperspectral imaging can yield more precise depth estimates in shallow, clear water but bathymetric LiDAR could provide more consistent performance across a broader range of depths. Spectrally-based depth retrieval was highly accurate on the Snake River but less reliable in the more complex confluence setting. Stratification of the Blue/Colorado site into clear and turbid subsets did not improve depth retrieval performance. To obtain bed elevations, image-derived depth estimates were subtracted from water surface elevations derived from near-infrared LiDAR acquired at the same time as the hyperspectral images. For the water-penetrating green LiDAR, bed elevations were inferred from laser waveforms. On the Snake River, hyperspectral imaging resulted in smaller mean and root mean square errors than bathymetric LiDAR, but at the Blue/Colorado site the optical approach was subject to a shallow

  16. Upper limit on a stochastic background of gravitational waves from seismic measurements in the range 0.05-1 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael; Harms, Jan

    2014-03-14

    In this Letter, we present an upper limit of ΩGWgravitational-wave (GW) background integrated over a year in the frequency range 0.05-1 Hz, which improves current upper limits from high-precision laboratory experiments by about 9 orders of magnitude. The limit is obtained using the response of Earth itself to GWs via a free-surface effect described more than 40 years ago by Dyson. The response was measured by a global network of broadband seismometers selected to maximize the sensitivity.

  17. Three-axis micro-force sensor with sub-micro-Newton measurement uncertainty and tunable force range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntwyler, S; Beyeler, F; Nelson, B J

    2010-01-01

    The first three-axis micro-force sensor with adjustable force range from ±20 µN to ±200 µN and sub-micro-Newton measurement uncertainty is presented. The sensor design, the readout electronics, the sensor characterization and an uncertainty analysis for the force predictions are described. A novel microfabrication process based on a double silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate has been developed enabling a major reduction in the fabrication complexity of multi-axis sensors and actuators.

  18. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Two of the most utilized outcome measures to assess knee joint range of motion (ROM) and intra-articular effusion are goniometry and circumference, respectively. Neither goniometry nor circumference of the knee joint have been examined for both intra-tester and inter......-tester in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference in patients with TKA when administered by physiotherapists (testers) with different clinical experience. METHOD......: The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were...

  19. Degradation product emission from historic and modern books by headspace SPME/GC-MS: evaluation of lipid oxidation and cellulose hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew J; Calvillo, Jesse L; Roosa, Mark S; Green, David B; Ganske, Jane A

    2011-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds emitted from a several decade series of bound periodicals (1859-1939) printed on ground wood paper, as well as historical books dating from the 1500s to early 1800s made from cotton/linen rag, were studied using an improved headspace SPME/GC-MS method. The headspace over the naturally aging books, stored upright in glass chambers, was monitored over a 24-h period, enabling the identification of a wide range of organic compounds emanating from the whole of the book. The detection of particular straight chain aldehydes, as well as characteristic alcohols, alkenes and ketones is correlated with oxidative degradation of the C(18) fatty acid constituency of paper. The relative importance of hydrolytic and oxidative chemistry involved in paper aging in books published between 1560 and 1939 was examined by comparing the relative abundances of furfural (FUR) a known cellulose hydrolysis product, and straight chain aldehydes (SCA) produced from the oxidation of fatty acids in paper. The relative abundance of furfural is shown to increase across the 379-year publication time span. A comparison of relative SCA peak areas across the series of books examined reveals that SCA emission is more important in the cotton/linen rag books than in the ground wood books.

  20. A study on the measurement of wrist motion range using the iPhone 4 gyroscope application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Seob; Park, David Dae Hwan; Lee, Young Bae; Han, Dong Gil; Shim, Jeong Su; Lee, Young Jig; Kim, Peter Chan Woo

    2014-08-01

    Measuring the range of motion (ROM) of the wrist is an important physical examination conducted in the Department of Hand Surgery for the purpose of evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of patients. The most common method for performing this task is by using a universal goniometer. This study was performed using 52 healthy participants to compare wrist ROM measurement using a universal goniometer and the iPhone 4 Gyroscope application. Participants did not have previous wrist illnesses and their measured values for wrist motion were compared in each direction. Normal values for wrist ROM are 73 degrees of flexion, 71 degrees of extension, 19 degrees of radial deviation, 33 degrees of ulnar deviation, 140 degrees of supination, and 60 degrees of pronation.The average measurement values obtained using the goniometer were 74.2 (5.1) degrees for flexion, 71.1 (4.9) degrees for extension, 19.7 (3.0) degrees for radial deviation, 34.0 (3.7) degrees for ulnar deviation, 140.8 (5.6) degrees for supination, and 61.1 (4.7) degrees for pronation. The average measurement values obtained using the iPhone 4 Gyroscope application were 73.7 (5.5) degrees for flexion, 70.8 (5.1) degrees for extension, 19.5 (3.0) degrees for radial deviation, 33.7 (3.9) degrees for ulnar deviation, 140.4 (5.7) degrees for supination, and 60.8 (4.9) degrees for pronation. The differences between the measurement values by the Gyroscope application and average value were 0.7 degrees for flexion, -0.2 degrees for extension, 0.5 degrees for radial deviation, 0.7 degrees for ulnar deviation, 0.4 degrees for supination, and 0.8 degrees for pronation. The differences in average value were not statistically significant. The authors introduced a new method of measuring the range of wrist motion using the iPhone 4 Gyroscope application that is simpler to use and can be performed by the patient outside a clinical setting.

  1. Precise Measurement of the $\\bar{p}p$ Total Cross-Section in the ISR Energy Range

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The major aim of this experiment is the precise measurement of the antiproton-proton total cross-section in the ISR energy range, using the total-rate method. The proton-proton total cross-section is remeasured with the same method and the same apparatus, and a precision of 0.5\\% is expected for both cross-sections. The total-rate method consists in the simultaneous measurement of the total interaction rate and the ISR luminosity. This is done with a set of scintillation-counter hodoscopes covering over 99.99\\% of the solid angle, which are sensitive to over 95\\% of all interactions. In addition to these detectors, small-angle drift-tube hodoscopes are used to measure the differential elastic cross-section as a function of the momentum transfert t. The total cross-section can be measured independently by extrapolating this differential cross-section to the forward direction and invoking the optical theorem. A study of the general features of charged-particle production is performed using finely divided scinti...

  2. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum and chemical composition in the 1015-1018 eV energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiavassa Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmic ray in the 1015–1018 eV energy range can only be detected with ground based experiments, sampling Extensive Air Showers (EAS particles. The interest in this energetic interval is related to the search of the knee of the iron component of cosmic ray and to the study of the transition between galactic and extra-galactic primaries. The energy and mass calibration of these arrays can only be performed with complete EAS simulations as no sources are available for an absolute calibration. The systematic error on the energy assignment can be estimated around 30 ± 10%. The all particle spectrum measured in this energy range is more structured than previously thought, showing some faint features: a hardening slightly above 1016 eV and a steepening below 1017 eV. The studies of the primary chemical composition are quickly evolving towards the measurements of the primary spectra of different mass groups: up to now we are able to separate (on a event by event basis light and heavy primaries. Above the knee a steepening of the heavy primary spectrum and a hardening of the light ones have been detected.

  3. Thermal properties of Nb from acoustic and electrical resistivity measurements in the temperature range 60--340 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannelli, G.; Cannelli, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal diffusivity and the relative difference in molar heat capacities, (C/subp/-C/subv/)/C/subv/, of polycrystalline niobium have been derived from acoustic measurements in the temperature range 60--340 K. The electrical resistivity has also been measured from 8 to 340 K; 0.833 μΩ cm, 18.7, and 9.25 K being the values of residual resistivity rho 0 , resistance ratio rho (300 K)/rho 0 , and superconducting transition temperature, respectively. The thermal conductivity, Lorenz ratio, and molar heat capacity at constant volume have been calculated for the temperature range 60--340 K, using present values of thermal diffusivity, electrical resistivity, and literature values of specific heat C/subp/. A shallow maximum in the derived thermal conductivity curve is observed around 180 K where the Lorenz ratio assumes the maximum value 3.15x10 -8 W Ω K -2 . It is suggested that the thermal conductivity maximum may originate in the phonon contribution

  4. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Range During the ASCENDS 2009-2011 Airborne Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, J. B.; Weaver, C. J.; Riris, H.; Mao, J.; Sun, X.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Browell, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission and have demonstrated the CO2 and O2 measurements from aircraft. Our technique uses two pulsed lasers allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line near 1572 nm, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band, surface height and backscatter profile. The lasers are stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line doublet during the measurement. The column densities for the CO2 and O2 are estimated from the differential optical depths (DOD) of the scanned absorption lines via the IPDA technique. For the 2009 ASCENDS campaign we flew the CO2 lidar only on a Lear-25 aircraft, and measured the absorption line shapes of the CO2 line using 20 wavelength samples per scan. Measurements were made at stepped altitudes from 3 to 12.6 km over the Lamont OK, central Illinois, North Carolina, and over the Virginia Eastern Shore. Although the received signal energies were weaker than expected for ASCENDS, clear C02 line shapes were observed at all altitudes. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps with 200-300 seconds of recorded measurements per step. We averaged every 10 seconds of measurements and used a cross-correlation approach to estimate the range to the scattering surface and the echo pulse energy at each wavelength. We then solved for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the DOD of the fitted CO2 line, and computed its statistics at the various altitude steps. We compared them to CO2 optical depths calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the column number densities calculated from the airborne in-situ readings. The 2009 measurements have been analyzed in detail and they were similar on all flights. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. They showed the expected nearly the linear dependence of DOD vs

  5. A preconcentrator chip employing μ-SPME array coated with in-situ-synthesized carbon adsorbent film for VOCs analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Yee; Cheng, Wei-Rui; Liu, Mao-Huang; Tian, Wei-Cheng; Lu, Chia-Jung

    2012-11-15

    We report the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a μ-preconcentrator chip that utilizes an array of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) needles coated with in-situ-grown carbon adsorbent film. The structure of the SPME needle (diameter=100 μm, height=250 μm) array inside the sampling chamber was fabricated using a deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) process to enhance the attachable surface area for adsorbent film. Heaters and temperature sensors were fabricated onto the back of a μ-preconcentrator chip using lithography patterning and a metal lift-off process. The devices were sealed by anodic bonding and diced prior to the application of the adsorbent film. An adsorbent precursor, cellulose was dissolved in water and dynamically coated onto the SPME needle array. The coated cellulose film was converted into a porous carbon film via pyrolysis at 600 °C in a N(2) atmosphere. The surface area of the carbon adsorbent film was 308 m(2)/g, which is higher than that of a commercial adsorbent Carbopack X. A preconcentration factor as high as 13,637-fold was demonstrated using toluene. Eleven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of different volatilities and functional groups were sampled and analyzed by GC-FID, and the desorption peak widths at half height were all less than 2.6 s after elution from a 15m capillary GC column. There was no sign of performance degradation after continuous operation for 50 cycles in air. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. HS-SPME-GC×GC-qMS volatile metabolite profiling of Chrysolina herbacea frass and Mentha spp. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Chiara; Zebelo, Simon Atsbaha; Gnavi, Giorgio; Griglione, Alessandra; Bicchi, Carlo; Maffei, Massimo E; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2012-02-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography combined with quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-qMS) with dedicated comparative data elaboration was applied to separate chemical patterns arising from the interaction between some Mentha species and the herbivore Chrysolina herbacea, also known as the mint bug. Upon feeding on different Mentha species (Mentha spicata L., Mentha × piperita L. and Mentha longifolia L.), C. herbacea produced frass (faeces) which were characterized by a typical volatile fraction. HS-SPME GC×GC-qMS analysis of the complex volatile fraction of both mint leaf and C. herbacea frass was submitted to advanced fingerprinting analysis of 2D chromatographic data. 1,8-Cineole, found in the leaves of all the Mentha species examined, was oxidized, and C. herbacea frass yielded high rates of several hydroxy-1,8-cineoles, including 2α-hydroxy-, 3α-hydroxy-, 3β-hydroxy- and 9-hydroxy-1,8-cineole. Upon insect feeding, several unknown oxidized monoterpenes, a p-menthane diol and three unknown phenylpropanoids were also detected in the frass volatiles. In M. longifolia, the occurrence of the monoterpene piperitenone oxide was found to be toxic and associated with insect death. The results of this work show that high throughput techniques such as HS-SPME and GC×GC-qMS fingerprint analysis are ideal tools to analyze complex volatile matrices, and provide a sensitive method for the direct comparison and chemical visualization of plant and insect emitted volatile components.

  7. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer; Olsen, Marie; Bandholm, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Two of the most utilized outcome measures to assess knee joint range of motion (ROM) and intra-articular effusion are goniometry and circumference, respectively. Neither goniometry nor circumference of the knee joint have been examined for both intra-tester and inter-tester in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference in patients with TKA when administered by physiotherapists (testers) with different clinical experience. The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were obtained using a universal goniometer and a tape measure, respectively. To establish reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(2,1)) and smallest real difference (SRD) were calculated. The knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were generally reliable (ICC > 0.8) within and between physiotherapists (except passive knee extension). Changes in knee joint ROM of more than 6.6 degrees and 10 degrees (except active knee flexion) and knee joint circumference of more than 1.0 cm and 1.63 cm represent a real clinical improvement (SRD) or deterioration for a single individual within and between physiotherapists, respectively. Generally, the experienced tester recorded larger knee joint ROM and lower circumference values than that of the inexperienced tester. In clinical practice, we suggest that repeated knee goniometric and circumferential measurements should be recorded by the same physiotherapist in individual patients with TKA. Tester experience appears not to influence the degree of reliability. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Radiological Assessment of the Sacrofemoral Angle: A Novel Method to Measure the Range of Hip Joint Flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xian-Zhao; Xu, Xi-Ming; Wang, Fei; Li, Ming; Wang, Zi-Min

    2015-09-05

    A quantitative and accurate measurement of the range of hip joint flexion (RHF) is necessarily required in the evaluation of disordered or artificial hip joint function. This study aimed to assess a novel method to measure RHF more accurately and objectively. Lateral radiographs were taken of 31 supine men with hip joints extended or flexed. Relevant angles were measured directly from the radiographs. The change in the sacrofemoral angle (SFA) (the angle formed between the axis of the femur and the line tangent to the upper endplate of S1) from hip joint extension to hip joint flexion, was proposed as the RHF. The validity of this method was assessed via concomitant measurements of changes in the femur-horizontal angle (between the axis of the femur and the horizontal line) and the sacrum-horizontal angle (SHA) (between the line tangent to the upper endplate of S1 and the horizontal line), the difference of which should equal the change in the SFA. The mean change in the SFA was 112.5 ± 7.4°, and was independent of participant age, height, weight, or body mass index. The mean changes in the femur-horizontal and SHAs were 123.0 ± 6.4° and 11.4 ± 3.0°, respectively. This confirmed that the change of SFA between hip joint extension and hip joint flexion was equal to the difference between the changes in the femur-horizontal and SHAs. Using the SFA, to evaluate RHF could prevent compromised measurements due to the movements of pelvis and lumbar spine during hip flexion, and is, therefore, a more accurate and objective method with reasonable reliability and validity.

  9. Liquid-phase turbulence measurements in air-water two-phase flows over a wide range of void fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinquan [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Sun, Xiaodong, E-mail: sun.200@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Liu, Yang [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, 635 Prices Fork Road, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    This paper focuses on liquid-phase turbulence measurements in air-water two-phase flows over a wide range of void fractions and flow regimes, spanning from bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug, to churn-turbulent flows. The measurements have been conducted in two test facilities, the first one with a circular test section and the second one with a rectangular test section. A particle image velocimetry-planar laser-induced fluorescence (PIV-PLIF) system was used to acquire local liquid-phase turbulence information, including the time-averaged velocity and velocity fluctuations in the streamwise and spanwise directions, and Reynolds stress. An optical phase separation method using fluorescent particles and optical filtration technique was adopted to extract the liquid-phase velocity information. An image pre-processing scheme was imposed on the raw PIV images acquired to remove noise due to the presence of bubble residuals and optically distorted particles in the raw PIV images. Four-sensor conductivity probes and high-speed images were also used to acquire the gas-phase information, which was aimed to understand the flow interfacial structure. The highest area-averaged void fraction covered in the measurements for the circular and rectangular test sections was about 40%.

  10. Liquid-phase turbulence measurements in air-water two-phase flows over a wide range of void fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xinquan; Sun, Xiaodong; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on liquid-phase turbulence measurements in air-water two-phase flows over a wide range of void fractions and flow regimes, spanning from bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug, to churn-turbulent flows. The measurements have been conducted in two test facilities, the first one with a circular test section and the second one with a rectangular test section. A particle image velocimetry-planar laser-induced fluorescence (PIV-PLIF) system was used to acquire local liquid-phase turbulence information, including the time-averaged velocity and velocity fluctuations in the streamwise and spanwise directions, and Reynolds stress. An optical phase separation method using fluorescent particles and optical filtration technique was adopted to extract the liquid-phase velocity information. An image pre-processing scheme was imposed on the raw PIV images acquired to remove noise due to the presence of bubble residuals and optically distorted particles in the raw PIV images. Four-sensor conductivity probes and high-speed images were also used to acquire the gas-phase information, which was aimed to understand the flow interfacial structure. The highest area-averaged void fraction covered in the measurements for the circular and rectangular test sections was about 40%.

  11. A new faces scale in pain measurement: a test of bias from current mood, trait affectivity, and scale range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Faces pain rating scales used among children have been criticized to confound affective states with pain when smiling faces are included. This experimental study is an attempt to examine the possible confounding of affective states with pain when smiling faces are used as part of a faces scale. The meaning of the faces was tested to depend on current mood, current pain, trait affectivity, and inclusion versus exclusion of smiling faces. Sixty-four participants made 6,720 two-categorical pain judgments on faces with different mouth curvature. In multilevel regression analysis, current level of pain and negative trait affectivity biased faces' meaning only when the smiling faces were excluded from the scale. In adults, the new full range faces pain scale including a midpoint neutral face and smiling faces was more robust than the restricted scale. The faces scale that was tested in this study is not applicable for patient measurement but it is an interesting tool for psychological research.

  12. Validation of Measured Damping Trends for Flight-Like Vehicle Panel/Equipment including a Range of Cable Harness Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew M.; Davis, R. Benjamin; LaVerde, Bruce T.; Fulcher, Clay W.; Jones, Douglas C.; Waldon, James M.; Craigmyle, Benjamin B.

    2012-01-01

    This validation study examines the effect on vibroacoustic response resulting from the installation of cable bundles on a curved orthogrid panel. Of interest is the level of damping provided by the installation of the cable bundles and whether this damping could be potentially leveraged in launch vehicle design. The results of this test are compared with baseline acoustic response tests without cables. Damping estimates from the measured response data are made using a new software tool that leverages a finite element model of the panel in conjunction with advanced optimization techniques. While the full test series is not yet complete, the first configuration of cable bundles that was assessed effectively increased the viscous critical damping fraction of the system by as much as 0.02 in certain frequency ranges.

  13. Dual sightline measurements of MeV range deuterons with neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy at JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, J.; Nocente, M.; Binda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations made in a JET experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to the MeV range by third harmonic radio-frequency (RF) heating coupled into a deuterium beam are reported. Measurements are based on a set of advanced neutron and gamma-ray spectrometers that, for the first time, observe...... the plasma simultaneously along vertical and oblique lines of sight. Parameters of the fast ion energy distribution, such as the high energy cut-off of the deuteron distribution function and the RF coupling constant, are determined from data within a uniform analysis framework for neutron and gamma...... around the resonance, which is not correctly portrayed within the adopted one dimensional model. A framework to calculate neutron and gamma-ray emission from a spatially resolved, two-dimensional deuteron distribution specified by energy/pitch is thus developed and used for a first comparison...

  14. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sciare

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term (5-year measurements of Elemental Carbon (EC and Organic Carbon (OC in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island. A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques was applied for these EC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols were shown to poorly contribute (+12% on a yearly average to light absorption coefficient (babs measurements performed by an optical method (aethalometer. Long-range transport of agricultural waste burning from European countries surrounding the Black Sea was shown for each year during two periods (March–April and July–September. The contribution of biomass burning to the concentrations of EC and OC was shown to be rather small (20 and 14%, respectively, on a yearly basis, although this contribution could be much higher on a monthly basis and showed important seasonal and interannual variability. By removing the biomass burning influence, our data revealed an important seasonal variation of OC, with an increase by almost a factor of two for the spring months of May and June, whereas BC was found to be quite stable throughout the year. Preliminary measurements of Water Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC have shown that the monthly mean WSOC/OC ratio remains stable throughout the year (0.45±0.12, suggesting that the partitioning between water soluble and water insoluble organic matter is not significantly affected by biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. A chemical mass closure performed in the fine mode (Aerodynamic Diameter, A.D.<1.5μm showed that the mass contribution of organic matter (POM was found to be essentially invariable during the year (monthly average of 26±5%.

  15. Application of the Two-Step Filter to Process Ranging Measurements for Relative Navigation in an Elliptical Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, James L.; Axelrad, Penina

    1997-01-01

    This estimator breaks a nonlinear estimation problem into a set of over determined 'first step' states which are linear in the observations and 'second step' states which are ultimately the states of interest. Linear estimation methods are applied to filter the observations and produce the optimal first step state estimate. The 'second step' states are obtained through iterative nonlinear parameter estimation considering the first step states as observations. It has been shown that this process exactly minimizes the least squares cost function for static problems and provides a better solution than the iterated extended Kalman filter (EKF) for dynamic problems. The two step filter is applied in this paper to process range and range rate measurements between the two spacecraft. Details of the application of the two step estimator to this problem will be given, highlighting the use of a test for ill-conditioned covariance estimates that can result from the first order covariance propagation. A comparison will be made between the performance of the two step filter and the IEKF.

  16. The range and effectiveness of short-term measures to reduce traffic emissions during high air pollution episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsom, Derek M.

    1999-01-01

    Concern for continuing poor urban air quality, caused primarily by motor vehicles emissions, and the slow progress being made towards reducing total vehicle emissions by long-term measures, such as improving fuel and vehicle technologies, has prompted some authorities to try to reduce the severity and duration of high air pollution episodes by implementing short-term traffic restraint measures. This paper reviews the range of episodic air quality management schemes applied in cities around the world and comments on the effectiveness of such schemes. The difficulty of targeting vehicles according to the contribution they make to the air quality problem is highlighted. The problem of some schemes simply causing a displacement of the area of excessive vehicle emissions rather than reducing total emissions is reviewed. Rapid developments in telematics and improved urban air quality and traffic monitoring networks (e.g. Urban Traffic Management and Control systems) may offer significant improvements in the effectiveness of episodic management schemes in the future. (Author)

  17. Thermal conductivity of a wide range of alternative refrigerants measured with an improved guarded hot-plate apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerschmidt, U.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of the refrigerants R22, R123, R134a, R142b, R143a, and R152a has been determined as a function of temperature in the range from 300 to 460 K. Measurements were carried out at atmospheric pressure with an improved guarded hot-plate apparatus. The width of the instrument's gas layer and the temperature difference across the metering section were varied to detect any stray heat transfer. Radiation correction factors were derived from IR absorption spectra. The uncertainty of the measurements is estimated to be 2% at a standard deviation of less than 0.1%. Our data sets are compared with corresponding hot wire results. In contrast to the generally preferred hot wire technique, with its possible electrical and chemical interactions between the wire and the polar refrigerant, there are no such difficulties using a guarded hot-plate apparatus. Our data sets may thus contribute to the discussions on discrepancies in thermal conductivity values from various authors using hot wire as one particular method

  18. A study of the normal interpedicular distance of the spine in Korean teenagers (Estimation of normal range by roentgenographic measurement)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Uk

    1979-01-01

    The radiological measurement of the interpedicular disease using a routine antero-posterior view of the spine gives important clinical criteria in evaluation of the intraspinal tumor and stenosis of the spinal canal, and aids for diagnosis of the lesions. In 1934 Elsberg and Dyke reported values of interpedicular distance as determined on roentgenograms for spine of white adult, and in 1968 Song prepared normal values of interpedicular distance for Korean adult. The present investigation was undertaken to provide normal interpedicular distance of Korean teenagers. The author observed the antero-posterior films of the spine of 200 normal teenagers which were composed of 100 male and 100 female. The normal values of the interpedicular distance of Korean teenagers were obtained, as well as 90% tolerance range for clinical use. In this statistical analysis, there were noted significant differences between male and female, and each age groups. It was observed that average male measurement were consistently larger than female by about 1 mm and the growth of the spinal canal appeared to be continued.

  19. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations with the extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometer at high-energy mixed fields

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00406842; Bay, Aurelio; Silari, Marco; Aroua, Abbas

    The use of spectrometry to provide information for neutron radiation protection has become an increasingly important activity over recent years. The need for spectral data arises because neither area survey instruments nor personal dosimeters give the correct dose equivalent results at all neutron energies. It is important therefore to know the spectra of the fields in which these devices are used. One of the systems most commonly employed in neutron spectrometry and dosimetry is the Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSS). The extended- range BSS that was used for this work, consists of 7 spheres with an overall response to neutrons up to 2 GeV. A 3He detector is used as a thermal counter in the centre of each sphere. In the context of this thesis the BSS was calibrated in monoenergetic neutron fields at low and intermediate energies. It was also used for measurements in several high energy mixed fields. These measurements have led to the calculation of neutron yields and spectral fluences from unshielded targets....

  20. Characterisation of the volatile profile of coconut water from five varieties using an optimised HS-SPME-GC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prades, Alexia; Assa, Rebecca Rachel Ablan; Dornier, Manuel; Pain, Jean-Pierre; Boulanger, Renaud

    2012-09-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water is a refreshing tropical drink whose international market has recently been growing. However, little is yet known about its physicochemical composition, particularly its aroma. This study set out to characterise the volatile profile of water from five coconut varieties. Aroma compounds were characterised by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC) analysis. An experimental design was established to optimise SPME conditions, leading to an equilibration time of 10 min followed by an extraction time of 60 min at 50 °C. Accordingly, immature coconut water from WAT (West African Tall), PB121 (MYD × WAT Hybrid), MYD (Malayan Yellow Dwarf), EGD (Equatorial Guinea Green Dwarf) and THD (Thailand Aromatic Green Dwarf) palms was analysed and described. Ketones were mainly present in the Tall and Hybrid varieties, whereas aldehydes were most abundant in the Dwarf palms. Tall coconut water was characterised by a high lactone content. THD exhibited a high ethyl octanoate level. The cluster analysis of the volatile fraction from the five coconut cultivars was found to be related to their genetic classification. The volatile compounds of immature coconut water from five varieties were characterised for the first time. Volatile profile analysis could be a useful tool for the selection of Dwarf coconut varieties, which are mainly consumed as a beverage. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Sagittal range of motion of the thoracic spine using inertial tracking device and effect of measurement errors on model predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibozorgi, M; Arjmand, N

    2016-04-11

    Range of motion (ROM) of the thoracic spine has implications in patient discrimination for diagnostic purposes and in biomechanical models for predictions of spinal loads. Few previous studies have reported quite different thoracic ROMs. Total (T1-T12), lower (T5-T12) and upper (T1-T5) thoracic, lumbar (T12-S1), pelvis, and entire trunk (T1) ROMs were measured using an inertial tracking device as asymptomatic subjects flexed forward from their neutral upright position to full forward flexion. Correlations between body height and the ROMs were conducted. An effect of measurement errors of the trunk flexion (T1) on the model-predicted spinal loads was investigated. Mean of peak voluntary total flexion of trunk (T1) was 118.4 ± 13.9°, of which 20.5 ± 6.5° was generated by flexion of the T1 to T12 (thoracic ROM), and the remaining by flexion of the T12 to S1 (lumbar ROM) (50.2 ± 7.0°) and pelvis (47.8 ± 6.9°). Lower thoracic ROM was significantly larger than upper thoracic ROM (14.8 ± 5.4° versus 5.8 ± 3.1°). There were non-significant weak correlations between body height and the ROMs. Contribution of the pelvis to generate the total trunk flexion increased from ~20% to 40% and that of the lumbar decreased from ~60% to 42% as subjects flexed forward from upright to maximal flexion while that of the thoracic spine remained almost constant (~16% to 20%) during the entire movement. Small uncertainties (±5°) in the measurement of trunk flexion angle resulted in considerable errors (~27%) in the model-predicted spinal loads only in activities involving small trunk flexion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of test gases in the ppb range for round-robin tests and quality assurance measures during the measurement of VOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Andreas; Breuer, Dietmar

    2008-12-01

    Workers exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) very often suffer damage to health, and VOC odours may also represent a serious nuisance. The compounds concerned may be numerous and highly diverse; the concentrations of the individual substances however are generally relatively low. Quality assurance measures such as round-robin tests for the measurement of VOCs in indoor areas or at workplaces have not so far been available. A particular reason for this is the challenge presented by the production of test gases in the necessary concentrations. The BGIA test gas facility has therefore been modified for the production of test gases in the microg/m(3) range. A two-stage primary gas purifier, a continuous test gas generator with multi-stage dilution, a capillary evaporator for low-volatility compounds and an online thermodesorber have been installed specifically for this purpose.Purification of the primary gas proved to be particularly difficult: the available pre-purified compressed air contained organic trace impurities which fluctuated over time. The essential requirement, i.e. the injection into the test gas stream of a primary gas which was constant over time and exhibited the lowest possible contamination, could be satisfied only by catalytic decomposition of the organic residual impurities and with a supplementary adsorber unit. Even with these measures in place, small quantities of organic substances remain present, and the blank readings must still be monitored continuously. Following completion of all modifications, it proved possible to produce test gases with a high degree of reproducibility with substance concentrations in the range of 1 to 500 microg/m(3).Since 2007, the BGIA has been offering round-robin tests for VOCs with local sampling in the range from 5 to 50 microg/m(3). The first round-robin tests show that good results are obtained at concentrations from 10 to 50 microg/m(3). At the lower concentration of < 15 microg/m(3), however, the

  3. Wide Dynamic Range Multiband Infrared Radiometer for In-Fire Measurements of Wildland Fire Radiant Flux Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremens, R.; Dickinson, M. B.; Hardy, C.; Skowronski, N.; Ellicott, E. A.; Schroeder, W.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a wide dynamic range (24-bit) data acquisition system for collection of radiant flux density (FRFD) data from wildland fires. The data collection subsystem was designed as an Arduino `shield' and incorporates a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter, precision voltage reference, real time clock, microSD card interface, audible annuciator and interface for various digital communication interfaces (RS232, I2C, SPI, etc.). The complete radiometer system consists of our custom-designed `shield', a commercially available Arduino MEGA computer circuit board and a thermopile sensor -amplifier daughter board. Software design and development is greatly assisted by the availability of a library of public-domain, user-implemented software. The daughter board houses a 5-band radiometer using thermopiles designed for this experiment (Dexter Research Corp., Dexter, MI) to allow determination of the total FRFD from the fire (using a wide band thermopile with a KRS-5 window, 0.1 - 30 um), the FRFD as would be received by an orbital asset like MODIS (3.95 um center wavelength (CWL) and 10.95 CWL, corresponding to MODIS bands 21/22 and 31, respectively) and wider bandpass (0.1-5.5 um and 8-14 um) corresponding to the FRFD recorded by `MWIR' and `LWIR' imaging systems. We required a very wide dynamic range system in order to be able to record the flux density from `cold' ground before the fire, through the `hot' flaming combustion stage, to the `cool' phase after passage of the fire front. The recording dynamic range required (with reasonable resolution at the lowest temperatures) is on the order of 106, which is not currently available in commercial instrumentation at a price point, size or feature set that is suitable for wildland fire investigations. The entire unit, along with rechargeable battery power supply is housed in a fireproof aluminum chassis box, which is then mounted on a mast at a height of 5 - 7 m above the fireground floor. We will report initial

  4. Evaluation of long-range transport potential of selected brominated flame retardants with measured 1-octanol-air partition coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kwon, Jung Hwan [Div. of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Various alternative flame retardants are used in many countries since polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, difficulties in the evaluation of the long-range transport potential (LRTP) of the alternatives are related to the lack of information on their physicochemical properties, which govern their environmental fates and transport. Based on the simulation of LRTP using OECD P{sub OV} and LRTP Screening Tool, five alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (hexabromobenzene [HBB], 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene [PBT], 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethylbenzene [PBEB], 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate [TBB], and 1,2,4,5-tetrabromo-3,6-dimethylbenzene [TBX]), and 3 PBDEs (BDE-28, BDE-47, and BDE-99) were chosen to perform a refined assessment. This was done using an experimentally measured 1-octanol–air partition coefficient (K{sub OA}) for the calculation of the air–water partition coefficient (K{sub AW}) required for the model. The four selected alternative BFRs (HBB, PBT, PBEB, TBX) have K{sub OA} values close to the in silico estimation used in the screening evaluation. On the other hand, the measured K{sub OA} value for TBB was two orders of magnitude lower than the estimated value used in the screening simulation. The refined simulation showed that characteristic travel distance (CTD) and transfer efficiency (TE) for HBB, PBT, PBEB, and TBX were greater than those for BDE-28, whereas CTD and TE for TBB were lower than those for BDE-28. This suggested that TBB has a lower LRTP than BDE-28, considering the refined partition coefficients.

  5. Uncertainties in forces extracted from non-contact atomic force microscopy measurements by fitting of long-range background forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sweetman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In principle, non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM now readily allows for the measurement of forces with sub-nanonewton precision on the atomic scale. In practice, however, the extraction of the often desired ‘short-range’ force from the experimental observable (frequency shift is often far from trivial. In most cases there is a significant contribution to the total tip–sample force due to non-site-specific van der Waals and electrostatic forces. Typically, the contribution from these forces must be removed before the results of the experiment can be successfully interpreted, often by comparison to density functional theory calculations. In this paper we compare the ‘on-minus-off’ method for extracting site-specific forces to a commonly used extrapolation method modelling the long-range forces using a simple power law. By examining the behaviour of the fitting method in the case of two radically different interaction potentials we show that significant uncertainties in the final extracted forces may result from use of the extrapolation method.

  6. Evaluation of Spatial Resolution for Heavy Ion CT System Based on the Measurement of Residual Range Distribution With HIMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraishi, H.; Nishimura, K.; Abe, S.; Satoh, H.; Hara, S.; Hara, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Mogaki, T.; Kawai, R.; Yokoyama, K.; Yasuda, N.; Tomida, T.; Ohno, Y.; Kanai, T.

    2009-10-01

    We report experimental results from a heavy ion CT system based on the measurement of residual range distribution using an X-ray intensifying screen and a charged coupled device (CCD) camera system. This technique was first investigated by Zygmanski (2000) for proton beams, and they reported that the spatial resolution was significantly degraded by multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) effects in the irradiated medium. Experiments were done on the spatial resolution phantom by using helium and carbon beams accelerated up to 120 MeV/u and 230 MeV/u by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), installed in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan, using a high performance intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. We show that the MCS blurring effect can be significantly reduced in the reconstructed image by using a carbon beam with this technique. Our results suggest that heavier particles such as carbon would be more useful if this technique is envisioned as a clinical tool to obtain data that would aid proton and/or heavy ion treatment planning.

  7. Ozone sonde measurements aboard long-range boundary-layer pressurized balloons over the western Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheusi, François; Barret, Brice; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Durand, Pierre; Jambert, Corinne

    ChArMEx (http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr), including TRAQA in 2012 (launch base at Martigues, France) and ADRIMED (launch base at Sant Lluís, Minorca Island, Spain) and SAFMED (launch base at Levant Island off Hyères, France) in 2013. Complementary radiosoundings -- including ozone -- were also launched from these sites. BLPB drifting altitudes were in the range 0.25-3.2 km. The longest flight lasted more than 32 hours and covered more than 1000 km between Minorca and the limit of the authorized area south of Malta. Those quasi-Lagrangian measurements allow an evaluation of the ozone production/destruction rate as a function of the solar radiation (also measured onboard, as well as standard weather variables) that will be helpful to test chemistry-transport models.

  8. Sol-gel-based SPME fiber as a reliable sampling technique for studying biogenic volatile organic compounds released from Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghader, Masoud; Shokoufi, Nader; Es-Haghi, Ali; Kargosha, Kazem

    2017-11-01

    A novel and efficient headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method, followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was developed to study volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emerging from microorganisms. Two homemade SPME fibers, a semi-polar poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) fiber, and a polar polyethylene glycol (PEG) fiber, along with two commercial fibers (PDMS and PDMS/DVB) were used to collect VOCs emerging from Clostridium tetani which was cultured in different media. The adsorbed VOCs were desorbed and identified, in vitro, using GC-MS. The adsorption efficiency was improved by optimizing the time duration of adsorption and desorption. About 50 components were identified by the proposed method. The main detected compounds appeared to be sulfur containing compounds such as butanethioic acid S-methyl ester, dimethyl trisulfide, and dimethyl tetrasulfide. These volatile sulfur containing compounds are derived from amino acids containing the sulfur element, which probably coexist in the mentioned bacterium or are added to the culture media. The developed HS-SPME-GC-MS method allowed the determination of the chemical fingerprint of Clostridium tetani volatile constituents, and thus provides a new, simple, and reliable tool for studying the growth of microorganisms. Graphical abstract Investigation of biogenic VOCs released from Clostridium tetani using SPME-GC-MS.

  9. A low-power tool for measuring acceleration, pressure, and temperature (APT) with wide dynamic range and bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesemann, Martin; Davis, Earl E.; Paros, Jerome; Johnson, Greg; Meldrum, Robert; Scherwath, Martin; Mihaly, Steven

    2017-04-01

    We present a new tool that facilitates the study of inter-related geodetic, geodynamic, seismic, and oceanographic phenomena. It incorporates a temperature compensated tri-axial accelerometer developed by Quartz Seismic Sensors, Inc., a pressure sensor built by Paroscientific Inc., and a low-power, high-precision frequency counter developed by Bennest Enterprises Ltd. and built by RBR, Ltd. The sensors are housed in a 7 cm o.d. titanium pressure case designed for use to full ocean depths (withstands more than 20 km of water pressure). Sampling intervals are programmable from 0.08 s to 1 hr; standard memory can store up to 130 million samples; total power consumption is roughly 115 mW when operating continuously and proportionately lower when operating intermittently (e.g., 2 mW average at 1 sample per min). Serial and USB communications protocols allow a variety of autonomous and cable-connection options. Measurement precision of the order of 10-8 of full scale (e.g., pressure equivalent to 4000 m water depth, acceleration = +/- 3 g) allows observations of pressure and acceleration variations of 0.4 Pa and 0.3 μm s-2. Long-term variations in vertical acceleration are sensitive to displacement through the gravity gradient down to a level of roughly 2 cm, and variations in horizontal acceleration are sensitive to tilt down to a level of 0.03 μrad. With the large dynamic ranges, high sensitivities and broad bandwidth (6 Hz to DC), ground motion associated with microseisms, strong and weak seismic ground motion, tidal loading, and slow and rapid geodynamic deformation - all normally studied using disparate instruments - can be observed with a single tool. Installation in the marine environment is accomplished by pushing the tool roughly 1 m vertically below the seafloor with a submersible or remotely operated vehicle, with no profile remaining above the seafloor to cause current-induced noise. The weight of the tool is designed to match the sediment it displaces to

  10. Voice Range Profile and Health-related Quality of Life Measurements Following Voice Rehabilitation After Radiotherapy; a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Lisa; Johansson, Mia; Lindell, Ellen; Folkestad, Lena; Malmerfors, Maria; Finizia, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of voice rehabilitation in patients treated with radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer. A total of 42 patients with laryngeal cancer who are treated with radiotherapy with curative intent participated in a randomized controlled study. The collected data were voice range profiles (VPRs) and patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for measurement of self-perceived communication function (Swedish Self-Evaluation for Communication Experiences after Laryngeal cancer (S-SECEL)) and health related quality of life (HRQL) (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30/Head and Neck module). Data were collected 1 month (pre voice rehabilitation), 6 months, and 12 months postradiotherapy. Of the patients, 19 received voice rehabilitation, whereas 23 constituted a control group. There were several statistically significant improvements in the study group concerning the HRQL and self-perceived communication function. The largest improvements occurred between occasions 1 (prevoice rehabilitation) and 2 (6-month postradiotherapy) and then remained constant. VRP area demonstrated a statistically significant difference when comparing changes over time, where the study group improved more than the control group. HRQL and self-perceived communication function showed improvement in the study group and trends of impairment in the control group. This result might suggest that it would be beneficial for the patients as well as in a health economic perspecitve, to receive voice rehabilitatiom to make a faster improvement of the HRQL and self-perceived communication function. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mapping the Ultrafast Changes of Continuous Shape Measures in Photoexcited Spin Crossover Complexes without Long-Range Order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canton, S. E. [Department; Zhang, X. [X-ray; Lawson Daku, M. L. [Département; Liu, Y. [Centre; Zhang, J. [School; Alvarez, S. [Departament

    2015-01-30

    Establishing a tractable yet complete reaction coordinate for the spin-state interconversion in d(4)-d(7) transition metal complexes is an integral aspect of controlling the dynamics that govern their functionality. For spin crossover phenomena, the limitations of a single-mode approximation that solely accounts for an isotropic increase in the metal-ligand bond length have long been recognized for all but the simple octahedral monodentate FeII compounds. However, identifying the coupled deformations that also impact on the unimolecular rate constants remains experimentally and theoretically challenging, especially for samples that do not display long-range order or when crystallization profoundly alters the dynamics. Owing to the rapid progress in ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), it is now possible to obtain transient structural information in any physical phase with unprecedented details. Using picosecond XAS and DFT modeling, the structure adopted by the photoinduced high-spin state of solvated [Fe(terpy)(2)](2+) (terpy: 2,2':6',2 ''-terpyridine) has been recently established. Based on these results, the methodology of the continuous shape measure is applied to classify and quantify the short-lived distortion of the first coordination shell. The reaction coordinate of the spin-state interconversion is clearly identified as a double axial bending. This finding sets a benchmark for gauging the influence of first-sphere and second-sphere interactions in the family of FeII complexes that incorporate terpy derivatives. Some implications for the optimization of related photoactive FeII complexes are also outlined.

  12. Wide range of body composition measures are associated with cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Huiloo; Abdul Manaf, Zahara; Mat Ludin, Arimi Fitri; Shahar, Suzana

    2017-04-01

    Studies of the association between body composition, both body fat and body muscle, and cognitive function are rarely reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between a wide range of body composition measures with cognitive function in older adults. A total of 2322 Malaysian older adults aged 60 years and older were recruited using multistage random sampling in a population-based cross-sectional study. Out of 2322 older adults recruited, 2309 (48% men) completed assessments on cognitive function and body composition. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Malay version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Bahasa Malaysia version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Digit Span Test, Digit Symbol Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Body composition included body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference, calf circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, percentage body fat and skeletal muscle mass. The association between body composition and cognitive functions was analyzed using multiple linear regression. After adjustment for age, education years, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, depression, smoking status and alcohol consumption, we found that calf circumference appeared as a significant predictor for all cognitive tests among both men and women (P < 0.05), except for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Waist-to-hip ratio was detected as a significant predictor for all cognitive tests among women (P < 0.05), but was only a significant predictor for the Bahasa Malaysia version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment among men (P < 0.05). These results suggest that there is a need to maintain muscle mass and lower adipose tissue among older adults for optimal cognitive function. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 554-560. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Validation and application of noninvasive glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone measures in free-ranging Hawaiian monk seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobush, K S; Booth, R K; Wasser, S K

    2014-01-01

    We validate fecal glucocorticoid (GC) and thyroid (T3) hormone metabolite measures in the Critically Endangered Hawaiian monk seal for the first time, and examine variation in the concentrations of these hormones in individuals across the species' range. We test hypotheses that monk seals from declining subpopulations have relatively high GCs and low T3 on average suggesting impacts of food limitation, and that this hormone pattern is more apparent in immature animals compared to adults, as food limitation is specifically indicated as a principal cause of poor body condition and survival of juvenile monk seals. We opportunistically sampled scat from 84 individually identifiable monk seals during the 2010 breeding season from two geographic regions, the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). The MHI subpopulation of monk seals is growing, whereas subpopulations at many sites in the NWHI are in decline. Best fit general linear models predicting variation in GCs and T3 (examined separately) were similar (after accounting for significantly elevated hormone concentrations associated with molt and possibly lactation); both included sample date, region, and monk seal age as predictors. GC concentrations were significantly lower in MHI versus NWHI monk seals and decreased as the breeding season progressed. T3 concentrations were significantly lower in immature monk seals compared to adults. GC and T3 concentrations were positively correlated at 4 NWHI sites; prey may be adequate for physiological growth or maintenance at these sites but relatively stressful to acquire. GCs were highest at French Frigate Shoals, (a NWHI site) while T3 was relatively low here, indicating a possible signal of food limitation. GCs were lowest in the MHI. Disturbance associated with living near a high human population in the MHI appears to impact monk seal physiology less than other stressors encountered in the remote and highly protected NWHI where human

  14. Analysis of Odor-Causing VOCs and Semi-VOCs Associated with Particulate Matter in Swine Barns Using SPME-GC-MS-Olfactometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lingshuang; Koziel, Jacek A.; Lo, Yin-Cheung; Hoff, Steven J.

    2009-05-01

    Swine operations can affect air quality by emissions of odor, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other gases, and particulate matter (PM). Particulate matter has been proposed to be an important pathway for carrying odor. However, little is known about the odor-VOCs-PM interactions. In this research, continuous PM sampling was conducted simultaneously with three collocated TEOM analyzers inside a 1000-head swine finish barn located in central Iowa. Each TEOM (tapered element oscillating microbalance) was fitted with total suspended particulate (TSP), PM-10, PM-2.5 and PM-1 preseparators. Used filters were stored in 40 mL vials and transported to the laboratory. VOCs adsorbed/absorbed to dust were allowed to equilibrate with vial headspace. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS) 85 μm fibers were used to extract VOCs. Simultaneous chemical and olfactometry analyses of VOCs and odor associated with swine PM were completed using a gas chromatography-mass-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) system. Fifty VOCs categorized into nine chemical function groups were identified and confirmed with standards. Five of them are classified as hazardous air pollutants. VOCs were characterized with a wide range of molecular weight, boiling points, vapor pressures, water solubilities, odor detection thresholds, and atmospheric reactivities. All characteristic swine VOCs and odorants were present in PM and their abundance was proportional to PM size. However, the majority of VOCs and characteristic swine odorants were preferentially bound to smaller-size PM. The findings indicate that a significant fraction of swine odor can be carried by PM. Research of the effects of PM control on swine odor mitigation is warranted.

  15. Optimization of an analytical methodology for the determination of alkyl- and methoxy-phenolic compounds by HS-SPME in biomass smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Francisco J; Afonso, Ana M; González, Venerando; Ayala, Juan H

    2006-08-01

    A sampling and analysis method for the determination of 21 phenolic compounds in smoke samples from biomass combustion has been developed. The smoke is used to make smoked foods, following an artisanal procedure used in some parts of the Canary Islands. The sampling system consists of a Bravo H air sampler, two impingers, each one containing an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide 0.1 mol L(-1), followed by a silica gel trap. The variables optimized to reach the best sampling conditions were volume of absorbent solution and sampling flow. Under the optimum conditions, 100 mL of absorbent solution of NaOH 0.10 mol L(-1) and 2 L min(-1) for the sampling flow, sampling efficiencies are higher than 80%. Analysis of phenolic compounds was carried out by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Five different fiber coatings were employed in this study. By means of a central composite design, extraction time, salt concentration, and pH of the solution were optimized: 65-microm carbowax-divinylbenzene, extraction time 90 min, concentration in NaCl of 35% (m/v), and pH 2 yielded the highest response. Detection limits of phenol and their alkyl derivatives, guaiacol and eugenol, are between 1.13 and 4.60 ng mL(-1). 3-Methoxyphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and vanillin have detection limits considerably higher. Good linearity (R2 > or = 0.98) was observed for all calibration curves in the established ranges. The reproducibility of the method (RSD, relative standard deviation) was found to oscillate between 7 and 18% (generally close or lower than 10%).

  16. Optimization of an analytical methodology for the determination of alkyl- and methoxy-phenolic compounds by HS-SPME in biomass smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, Francisco J.; Afonso, Ana M.; Gonzalez, Venerando; Ayala, Juan H. [University of La Laguna, Campus de Anchieta, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Science, La Laguna (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    A sampling and analysis method for the determination of 21 phenolic compounds in smoke samples from biomass combustion has been developed. The smoke is used to make smoked foods, following an artisanal procedure used in some parts of the Canary Islands. The sampling system consists of a Bravo H air sampler, two impingers, each one containing an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide 0.1 mol L{sup -1}, followed by a silica gel trap. The variables optimized to reach the best sampling conditions were volume of absorbent solution and sampling flow. Under the optimum conditions, 100 mL of absorbent solution of NaOH 0.10 mol L{sup -1} and 2 L min{sup -1} for the sampling flow, sampling efficiencies are higher than 80%. Analysis of phenolic compounds was carried out by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Five different fiber coatings were employed in this study. By means of a central composite design, extraction time, salt concentration, and pH of the solution were optimized: 65-{mu}m carbowax-divinylbenzene, extraction time 90 min, concentration in NaCl of 35% (m/v), and pH 2 yielded the highest response. Detection limits of phenol and their alkyl derivatives, guaiacol and eugenol, are between 1.13 and 4.60 ng mL{sup -1}. 3-Methoxyphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and vanillin have detection limits considerably higher. Good linearity (R {sup 2}{>=}0.98) was observed for all calibration curves in the established ranges. The reproducibility of the method (RSD, relative standard deviation) was found to oscillate between 7 and 18% (generally close or lower than 10%). (orig.)

  17. Simultaneous determination of salicylic, 3-methyl salicylic, 4-methyl salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in fruit, vegetables and derived beverages by SPME-LC-UV/DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, Antonella; Zambonin, Carlo

    2016-03-20

    Salicylic and benzoic acid are phenolic acids occurring in plant cells, thus they can be present in fruit and vegetables at various levels. They possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, however they may induce symptoms and health problems in a small percentage of the population. Therefore, a low phenolic acid diet may be of clinical benefit to such individuals. In order to achieve this goal, the concentration of these substances in different food and beverages should be assessed. The present work describes for the first time a new method, based on solid phase microextraction (polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber) coupled to liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection, for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, 3-methyl salicylic acid, 4-methyl salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and benzoic acid in selected fruit, vegetables and beverages. All the aspects influencing fiber adsorption (time, temperature, pH, salt addition) and desorption (desorption and injection time, desorption solvent mixture composition) of the analytes have been investigated. An isocratic separation was performed using an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 2.8; 2 mM) mixture (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. The estimated LOD and LOQ values (μg/mL) were in the range 0.002-0.028 and 0.007-0.095. The within-day and day-to-day precision values (RSD%) were between 4.7-6.1 and 6.6-9.4, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of fava beans, blueberries, kiwi, tangerines, lemons, oranges and fruit juice (lemon and blueberry) samples. The major advantage of the method is that it only requires simple homogenization and/or centrifugation and dilution steps prior to SPME and injection in the LC system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Caracterización de los compuestos del aroma en rones colombianos por HS-SPME-GC-MS-O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín Osorio Monsalve

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Se identificaron por primera vez 46 compuestos volátiles olfativamente activos con actividad aromática significativa presentes en rones comerciales de Colombia. Lo anterior, mediante microextracción en fase sólida en modo espacio de cabeza (HS-SPME, acoplada a cromatografía de gases con detectores de espectrometría de masas y olfatometría (GC-MS-O. Dentro de los compuestos identificados se encuentran ésteres, compuestos aromáticos, alcoholes, acetales, lactonas y furfural. De esos 46 compuestos, nueve están presentes en todos los rones estudiados y algunos otros son característicos solo de la marca.

  19. Close Range Photogrammetry in Space - Measuring the On-Orbit Clearance between Hardware on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Donn

    2017-01-01

    When photogrammetrists read an article entitled "Photogrammetry in Space" they immediately think of terrestrial mapping using satellite imagery. However in the last 19 years the roll of close range photogrammetry in support of the manned space flight program has grown exponentially. Management and engineers have repeatedly entrusted the safety of the vehicles and their crews to the results of photogrammetric analysis. In February 2010, the Node 3 module was attached to the port side Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Since this was not the location at which the module was originally designed to be located on the ISS, coolant lines containing liquid ammonia, were installed externally from the US Lab to Node 3 during a spacewalk. During mission preparation I had developed a plan and a set of procedures to have the astronauts acquire stereo imagery of these coolant lines at the conclusion of the spacewalk to enable us to map their as-installed location relative to the rest of the space station. Unfortunately, the actual installation of the coolant lines took longer than expected and in an effort to wrap up the spacewalk on time, the mission director made a real-time call to drop the photography. My efforts to reschedule the photography on a later spacewalk never materialized, so rather than having an as-installed model for the location of coolant lines, the master ISS CAD database continued to display an as-designed model of the coolant lines. Fast forward to the summer of 2015, the ISS program planned to berth a Japanese cargo module to the nadir Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), immediately adjacent to the Node 3 module. A CAD based clearance analysis revealed a negative four inch clearance between the ammonia lines and a thruster nozzle on the port side of the cargo vehicle. Recognizing that the model of the ammonia line used in the clearance analysis was "as-designed" rather than "as-installed", I was asked to determine the

  20. A hydrogel based nanosensor with an unprecedented broad sensitivity range for pH measurements in cellular compartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, M.; Søndergaard, Rikke Vicki; Ek, Pramod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    H was measured at 4.6. This quadruple-labelled nanosensor performs accurate measurements of fluctuations of lysosomal pH in both directions, which was shown by treatment with the V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 or its substrate ATP in HeLa cells. These measurements indicate that this novel quadruple...

  1. Volatile compound changes during shelf life of dried Boletus edulis: comparison between SPME-GC-MS and PTR-ToF-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Romano, Andrea; Betta, Emanuela; Biasioli, Franco; Cappellin, Luca; Fanti, Marco; Gasperi, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Drying process is commonly used to allow long time storage of valuable porcini mushrooms (Boletus edulis). Although considered a stable product dried porcini flavour changes during storage. Monitoring of volatile compounds during shelf life may help to understand the nature of the observed changes. In the present work two mass spectrometric techniques were used to monitor the evolution of volatile compounds during commercial shelf life of dried porcini. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allowed the identification of 66 volatile compounds, 36 of which reported for the first time, monitored during the commercial shelf life of dried porcini. Proton transfer reaction - time of flight - mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) , a direct injection mass spectrometric technique, was shown to be a fast and sensitive instrument for the general monitoring of volatile compound evolution during storage of dried porcini. Furthermore, PTR-ToF-MS grants access to compounds whose determination would otherwise require lengthy pre-concentration and/or derivatization steps such as ammonia and small volatile amines. The two techniques, both used for the first time to study dried porcini, provided detailed description of time evolution of volatile compounds during shelf life. Alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and monoterpenes diminish during the storage while carboxylic acids, pyrazines, lactones and amines increase. The storage temperature modifies the rate of the observed changes influencing the final quality of the dried porcini. We showed the advantages of both techniques, suggesting a strategy to be adopted to follow time evolution of volatile compounds in food products during shelf life, based on the identification of compounds by GC-MS and the rapid time monitoring by PTR-ToF-MS measurements in order to maximize the advantages of both techniques. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A meta-analysis of echocardiographic measurements of the left heart for the development of normative reference ranges in a large international cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and 95th centile of each measurement against age. CONCLUSION: This unique data set represents a large, multi-ethnic cohort of subjects resident in a wide range of countries. The resultant reference ranges will have wide applicability for normative data based on age, sex, and ethnicity.......AIM: To develop age-, sex-, and ethnic-appropriate normative reference ranges for standard echocardiographic measurements of the left heart by combining echocardiographic measurements obtained from adult volunteers without clinical cardiovascular disease or significant cardiovascular risk factors......, from multiple studies around the world. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Echocardiographic Normal Ranges Meta-Analysis of the Left heart (EchoNoRMAL) collaboration was established and population-based data sets of echocardiographic measurements combined to perform an individual person data meta-analysis. Data...

  3. Characteristics and reference ranges of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I measured with a commercially available immunoassay in 724 healthy adult Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Nielsen, Kaspar; Raymond, Ilan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Measurements of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) play a pivotal role in the evaluation of the growth hormone-IGF-I axis. Due to assay variation IGF-I reference ranges are assay specific. We provide serum IGF-I reference ranges for adult men and women obtained...

  4. Development and evaluation of a method to measure wrist range of motion on paretic hand rehabilitation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Yeon; Sung, Hyun-Seok; Kang, Youn-Kyung; Gaponov, Igor; Jung, Bong-Keun

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the development of wrist ROM measurement system that was implemented on a rehabilitation glove for paretic hand, Easy-Flex, using a rotary potentiometer. This approach enables the device to measure the angles of up to 80° with the approximate resolution of 0.1°. The method along with a universal goniometer and a smartphone clinometer application were tested on 17 healthy participants in terms of reliability. The three instruments were able to accurately measure three different angles (flexion: -10°, neutral: 0°, and extension: 20°) with measurement errors less than 2 ° . Moreover, ICCs of the proposed method were close to 0.90 indicating the method implemented on Easy-Flex is reliable for measuring wrist flexion and extension measurement.

  5. Repeated Measurements of Arm Joint Passive Range of Motion After Stroke : Interobserver Reliability and Sources of Variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Lex D.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Stewart, Roy E.; Postema, Klaas

    Background. Goniometric measurements of hemiplegic arm joints must be reliable to draw proper clinical and scientific conclusions. Previous reliability studies were cross-sectional and based on small samples. Knowledge about the contributions of sources of variation to these measurement results is

  6. A Comparison of Antenna Measurements in a Near-Field Range and a Newly Renovated Short-Tapered Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-SER-M 2800 Powder Mill Road Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 8...a narrower cone measurement as the test frequency lowers, thereby reducing the angular span of the measurement. The planar NFR uses waveguide probe

  7. A Supra-Thermal Energetic Particle detector (STEP) for composition measurements in the range approximately 20 keV/nucleon to 1 MeV/nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1981-01-01

    A detector system is described, employing a time-of-flight versus residual energy technique which allows measurement of particle composition (H-Fe), energy spectral and anisotropies in an energy range unaccessible with previously flown sensors. Applications of this method to measurements of the solar wind ion composition are discussed.

  8. A supra-thermal energetic particle detector /STEP/ for composition measurements in the range of about 20 keV/nucleon to 1 MeV/nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1981-01-01

    A novel detector system is described, employing a time-of-flight versus residual energy technique which allows measurement of particle composition (H-Fe), energy spectra and anisotropies in an energy range unaccessible with previously flown sensors. Applications of this method to measurements of the solar wind ion composition are also discussed.

  9. In-flight measurements and RCS-predictions: A comparison on broad-side radar range profiles of a Boeing 737

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiden, R. van der; Ewijk, L.J. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The validation of Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction techniques against real measurements is crucial to acquire confidence in predictions when measurements are not available. In this paper we present the first results of a comparison on one dimensional images, i.e., radar range profiles. The

  10. Inter-rater reliability for measurement of passive physiological range of motion of upper extremity joints is better if instruments are used: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Rachel J.; van Trijffel, Emiel; Lucas, Cees

    2010-01-01

    Question: What is the inter-rater reliability for measurements of passive physiological or accessory movements in upper extremity joints? Design: Systematic review of studies of inter-rater reliability. Participants: Individuals with and without upper extremity disorders. Outcome measures: Range of

  11. Calorimetry for dose measurement at electron accelerators in the 80-120 keV energy range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helt-Hansen, J.; Miller, A.; Duane, S.

    2005-01-01

    Calorimeters for dose measurement at low-energy electron accelerator energies (80-120 keV) are described. Three calorimeters with different characteristics were designed and their dose response and measurement uncertainties were characterized. The heated air between the beam exit window...... and the calorimeter absorber influences significantly the response of the calorimeter and a thermal model was applied to quantify this effect. All three calorimeters are capable of measuring absolute dose, and can thus be used for calibration of other dosimeters. (C) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Ankle joint range of motion measurements in spastic cerebral palsy children: intraobserver and interobserver reliability and reproducibility of goniometry and visual estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Nanni J; Leroy, Nathalie; Doneux, Carole

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra- and interobserver reliability and reproducibility of goniometry and visual estimation of ankle joint range of motion measurements in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Forty-six ankles of 24 spastic cerebral palsy children were measured under a strict protocol. The global mean measurement error was 5 degrees (SD, 5 degrees) for intra- and interobserver measurements and 3 degrees (SD, 3 degrees) for goniometry versus visual estimation. Statistical analysis showed a high reliability for intra- and interobserver measurements (r>0.75), between visual estimation and goniometry (correlation coefficient, r>0.967; concordance coefficient, r>0.957). Both visual estimation and goniometry ankle range-of-motion measurements are reliable and reproducible in spastic cerebral palsy children if a strict but simple protocol is applied.

  13. Radiological Assessment of the Sacrofemoral Angle: A Novel Method to Measure the Range of Hip Joint Flexion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Zhao Wei

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Using the SFA, to evaluate RHF could prevent compromised measurements due to the movements of pelvis and lumbar spine during hip flexion, and is, therefore, a more accurate and objective method with reasonable reliability and validity.

  14. Measurements of surface-layer turbulence in awide norwegian fjord using synchronized long-range doppler wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheynet, Etienne; Jakobsen, Jasna B.; Snæbjörnsson, Jónas

    2017-01-01

    lidar data with point-measurement to reduce the uncertainties linked to the atmospheric stability and the spatial averaging of the lidar probe volume. The measured lateral coherence was associated with a decay coefficient larger than expected for the along-wind component, with a value around 21...... for a mean wind velocity bounded between 10m·s-1 and 14m·s-1, which may be related to a stable atmospheric stratification....

  15. Improved Pulse Sequences for Measurement of Small Long-Range Couplings between Heteronuclei (29Si-13C) at Natural Abundance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blechta, Vratislav; Schraml, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2009), s. 511-514 ISSN 0749-1581 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720706; GA ČR GA203/06/0738 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : long-range Si * 13 NMR * 29Si NMR Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2009

  16. Two efficient methods for measuring hydrophone frequency response in the 100 kHz to 2 MHz range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G R; Maruvada, S; Gammell, P M

    2004-01-01

    As new medical applications of ultrasound emerge with operating frequencies in the hundreds of kilohertz to low megahertz region, it becomes more important to have convenient calibration methods for hydrophones in this frequency range. Furthermore, short diagnostic ultrasound pulses affected by finite amplitude distortion require that the hydrophone frequency response be known well below the center frequency. National standards laboratories can provide accurate calibration data at these frequencies, but the two methods now employed, laser interferometry and three-transducer reciprocity, are both single-frequency techniques, and they can be time-consuming procedures. Therefore, two efficient methods for generating a wideband acoustic pressure spectrum have been implemented to cover this frequency range. In one method a high-voltage pulse generator was used to excite a thick piezoelectric ceramic disk, producing a plane-wave acoustic pressure transient <1 μs in duration with peak amplitude of about 40 kPa. In the other technique, time delay spectrometry (TDS), a purpose-built 1-3 piezoelectric composite source transducer weakly focused at 20 cm was swept over the 0-2 MHz range. Its transmitting voltage response at 1 MHz was 11 kPa/V. The broadband pulse technique has the advantage of being simpler to implement, but TDS has a much greater signal-to-noise ratio because of the frequency-swept narrowband filter employed

  17. Areal-averaged trace gas emission rates from long-range open-path measurements in stable boundary layer conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schäfer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of land-surface emission rates of greenhouse and other gases at large spatial scales (10 000 m2 are needed to assess the spatial distribution of emissions. This can be readily done using spatial-integrating micro-meteorological methods like flux-gradient methods which were evaluated for determining land-surface emission rates of trace gases under stable boundary layers. Non-intrusive path-integrating measurements are utilized. Successful application of a flux-gradient method requires confidence in the gradients of trace gas concentration and wind, and in the applicability of boundary-layer turbulence theory; consequently the procedures to qualify measurements that can be used to determine the flux is critical. While there is relatively high confidence in flux measurements made under unstable atmospheres with mean winds greater than 1 m s−1, there is greater uncertainty in flux measurements made under free convective or stable conditions. The study of N2O emissions of flat grassland and NH3 emissions from a cattle lagoon involves quality-assured determinations of fluxes under low wind, stable or night-time atmospheric conditions when the continuous "steady-state" turbulence of the surface boundary layer breaks down and the layer has intermittent turbulence. Results indicate that following the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST flux-gradient methods that assume a log-linear profile of the wind speed and concentration gradient incorrectly determine vertical profiles and thus flux in the stable boundary layer. An alternative approach is considered on the basis of turbulent diffusivity, i.e. the measured friction velocity as well as height gradients of horizontal wind speeds and concentrations without MOST correction for stability. It is shown that this is the most accurate of the flux-gradient methods under stable conditions.

  18. Proton clouds to measure long-range contacts between nonexchangeable side chain protons in solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnige, Tessa; Daniëls, Mark; Baldus, Marc; Weingarth, Markus

    2014-03-26

    We show that selective labeling of proteins with protonated amino acids embedded in a perdeuterated matrix, dubbed 'proton clouds', provides general access to long-range contacts between nonexchangeable side chain protons in proton-detected solid-state NMR, which is important to study protein tertiary structure. Proton-cloud labeling significantly improves spectral resolution by simultaneously reducing proton line width and spectral crowding despite a high local proton density in clouds. The approach is amenable to almost all canonical amino acids. Our method is demonstrated on ubiquitin and the β-barrel membrane protein BamA.

  19. Polymeric nanosensors for measuring the full dynamic pH range of endosomes and lysosomes in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Honghao; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Benjaminsen, Rikke Vicki

    2009-01-01

    Polymer nanoparticle sensors have been constructed for studying pH in the endocytic pathway in mammalian cells. The pH sensors for fluorescence ratiometric measurements were prepared using inverse microemulsion polymerization with rhodamine as reference fluorophor and fluorescein and oregon green...

  20. Validation of techniques for simulating long range dispersal and deposition of atmospheric pollutants based upon measurements after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1987-02-01

    Problem specifications and a time schedule for an international study of computerized simulation of transfrontier atmospheric contamination are presented. Started on the initiative of the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy, the study will be based on international measurements after the Chernobyl accident

  1. A system to measure isomeric state half-lives in the 10 ns to 10 μs range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufen, D. L.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Medina, N. H.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Cybulska, E. W.; Seale, W. A.; Linares, R.; Silveira, M. A. G.; Ribas, R. V.

    2014-07-01

    The Isomeric State Measurement System (SISMEI) was developed to search for isomeric nuclear states produced by fusion-evaporation reactions. The SISMEI consists of 10 plastic phoswich telescopes, two lead shields, one NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, two Compton suppressed HPGe γ-ray detectors, and a cone with a recoil product catcher. The new system was tested at the 8 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator of the University of São Paulo with the measurement of two known isomeric states: 54Fe, 10+ state (E = 6527.1 (11) keV, T1/2 = 364(7) ns) and the 5/2+ state of 19F (E = 197.143 (4) keV, T1/2 = 89.3 (10) ns). The results indicate that the system is capable of identifying delayed transitions, of measuring isomeric state lifetimes, and of identifying the feeding transitions of the isomeric state through the delayed γ-γ coincidence method. The measured half-life for the 10+ state was T1/2 = 365(14) ns and for the 5/2+ state, 100(36) ns.

  2. A system to measure isomeric state half-lives in the 10 ns to 10 μs range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toufen, D. L., E-mail: dennis@if.usp.br [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of São Paulo - IFSP, 07115-000 Guarulhos, São Paulo (Brazil); Allegro, P. R. P.; Medina, N. H.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Cybulska, E. W.; Seale, W. A.; Ribas, R. V. [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Linares, R. [Fluminense Federal University, 24220-900 Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silveira, M. A. G. [Universitary Center of FEI, 09850-901 São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    The Isomeric State Measurement System (SISMEI) was developed to search for isomeric nuclear states produced by fusion-evaporation reactions. The SISMEI consists of 10 plastic phoswich telescopes, two lead shields, one NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, two Compton suppressed HPGe γ-ray detectors, and a cone with a recoil product catcher. The new system was tested at the 8 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator of the University of São Paulo with the measurement of two known isomeric states: {sup 54}Fe, 10{sup +} state (E = 6527.1 (11) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 364(7) ns) and the 5/2{sup +} state of {sup 19}F (E = 197.143 (4) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 89.3 (10) ns). The results indicate that the system is capable of identifying delayed transitions, of measuring isomeric state lifetimes, and of identifying the feeding transitions of the isomeric state through the delayed γ-γ coincidence method. The measured half-life for the 10{sup +} state was T{sub 1/2} = 365(14) ns and for the 5/2{sup +} state, 100(36) ns.

  3. Polarization Diversity Image-Reject Homodyne Receiver for Directional Radial Velocity Measurements in Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved method and a LIDAR system comprising an emitter for emission of a coherent electromagnetic EM signal and a transmitting optical arrangement configured to transmit the electromagnetic signal towards a measurement area. By the method and system, detection...

  4. Establishment of Exposure to Organophosphorus Warfare Agents by Means of SPME-GSMS Analysis of Bodily Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saveleva, E. I.; Koryagina, N. L.; Radilov, A. S.; Khlebnikova, N. S.; Khrustaleva, V. S.; Feld, V. E.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable chemical analytical procedures for revealing an exposure to toxic chemicals, identifying the active substance, and assessing the degree of exposure are necessary as a component of medical and forensic activities in cases of the possible use of highly toxic chemicals in war conflicts and terrorism acts, as well as emergency situations in chemical industry, specifically at chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities. According to Chemical Weapons Convention, Part XI, Appendix 4, e-17, 'samples of importance in the investigation of alleged use include biomedical samples from human or animal sources (blood, urine, excreta, tissue etc.)'. Urinary metabolites, O-alkyl esters of methylphosphic acid, offer one of the simplest means of confirming an exposure to organophosphorus warfare agents (OPWA). Urine, unlike blood or tissues, does not require invasive collection demanding in terms of sterility. Excretion with urine is the major route of elimination of OPWA from an organism. According to published data, 90% of OPWA metabolites are excreted within 48-72 h after intoxication. We developed an SPME-GCMS procedure for the determination of O-alkyl esters methylphosphonic acid in urine, with the following detection limits,: isopropyl and isobutyl esters 5 ng/ml and pinacolyl ester 1 ng/ml. The procedure involves derivatization of the target compounds directly on the microfiber. The total analysis time is 1-1.5 h. In animal experiments in vivo we could establish the exposure to OPWA at a half-LD50 level within no less than 48 h after intoxication. In principle, OPWA metabolites could be detected in urine within two weeks after intoxication but at higher doses. Retrospective analysis of urinary metabolites in cases of the exposure to low doses of OPWA requires lower detection limits (0.1-1 ng/ml). Optimal objects for the retrospective analysis of OPWA in an organism are long-lived blood protein adducts. We developed a procedure for revealing an exposure to

  5. Measurements of radiological data of some amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, Rajkumar M., E-mail: rajml358@gmail.com; More, Chaitali V.; Surung, Bharat S.; Raut, Siddheshwar D.; Pawar, Pravina P., E-mail: pravinapawar4@gmail.com [Department of physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Radiological parameters such as μ{sub m}, σ{sub t}, σ{sub e}, Z{sub eff} and N{sub eff} of amino acids, namely Lysine (C{sub 6}H{sub 15}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}), Histidine (C{sub 6}H{sub 9}N{sub 3}O{sub 2}) and Arginine (C{sub 6}H{sub 15}N{sub 4}O{sub 2}), were measured using NaI (Tl)-based gamma spectrometry. Radioactive sources used in the study are {sup 57}Co, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co and {sup 22}Na. Gamma ray transmission method in a narrow beam good geometry set up was used in the study. The measured data were compared against XCOM-based data. The agreement is within 2%.

  6. Thermoregulation of the bovine scrotum 1: measurements of free-range animals in a paddock and pen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallage, Andrea L.; Johnston, S. D.; Lisle, A. T.; Beard, L.; Lees, A. M.; Collins, C. W.; Gaughan, J. B.

    2017-08-01

    The bull's scrotum and scrotal cord vasculature has traditionally been regarded as a thermoregulatory device for maintaining optimal testicular temperature for normal spermatogenesis. This assumption has mostly been derived from discrete measurements using thermocouples with limited data correlating continuous scrotal temperature (ST) to body temperature (BT). From mid-summer to early autumn, four Wagyu bulls (9-18 months) were surgically implanted with two data loggers (DL) logging at 30 min intervals: one on the right hand side flank and the other was attached to the visceral vaginal tunic of the mid-testis. Bulls were firstly housed in a paddock (PK) for 13 days and then moved to individual pens (IP), again for 13 days. Repeated measures analysis modelled the long-term and diurnal trends in BT and ST. While both day and time of day (TOD) were significant effects for ST at both housing locations ( P thermoregulation capacity.

  7. Spectral analysis of ICRF [Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies] wave field measurements in the Tara Central Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Golovato, S.N.; Horne, S.F.

    1987-12-01

    A simple spectral analysis technique has been developed to analyse the digital signals from an array of magnetic probes for ICRF field measurements in the Tara Tandem Mirror central cell. The wave dispersion relations of both the applied ICRF and the Alfven Ion Cyclotron Instability have been studied and the waves have been identified as slow in cyclotron waves. The radial profiles of field amplitude and wave vectors were also generated. 9 refs., 10 figs

  8. A FDR Sensor for Measuring Complex Soil Dielectric Permittivity in the 10?500 MHz Frequency Range

    OpenAIRE

    Skierucha, Wojciech; Wilczek, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical details as well as electrical models of FDR (frequency domain reflectometry) sensors for the measurement of the complex dielectric permittivity of porous materials are presented. The sensors are formed from two stainless steel parallel waveguides of various lengths. Using the data from VNA (vector network analyzer) with the connected FDR sensor and selected models of the applied sensor it was possible obtain the frequency spectrum of dielectric permittivity from 10 to 500 MHz of re...

  9. Rapid sampling of BTEX in air by SPME in the city of Nice and at the Nice-Cote d'Azur airport; Echantillonnage rapide des BTEX dans l'air par SPME dans la ville de Nice et a l'aeroport Nice-Cote d'Azur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbiolo, S.; Gal, J.F.; Maria, P.Ch. [Nice Univ. Sophia Antipolis, Lab. de Radiochimie, Sciences Analytique et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences, 06 (France); Laborde, P.; Teton, S. [Qualitair, Nice Leader, 06 - Nice (France)

    2006-04-15

    This article presents the results of a tentative application of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) to the analysis of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes) at the {mu}g/m{sup 3} level in indoor and outdoor air. The salient features of the method validation are reported. Sampling by QUALITAIR using Radiello passive samplers, was carried out from 2001 to 2004 in the city of Nice and its airport. Urban traffic impact was proved, but a link between BTX concentrations and the variations of airport activities was not clearly established. During the same period, several samplings were performed using SPME. Taking into account the short (30 minutes) sampling time, rapid changes of BTEX concentrations were evidenced, as for example the start of airplane engines. As field studies have shown, SPME technique appears as a method of choice for fast qualitative analysis and quantitative determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). The small dimensions of the SPME sampling system and the short sampling time let envisage its utilisation for the rapid diagnostic and the monitoring of indoor air quality. (author)

  10. Quantitative methanol-burning lung model for validating gas-exchange measurements over wide ranges of FIO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miodownik, S; Melendez, J; Carlon, V A; Burda, B

    1998-06-01

    The methanol-burning lung model has been used as a technique for generating a predictable ratio of carbon dioxide production (VCO2) to oxygen consumption (VO2) or respiratory quotient (RQ). Although an accurate RQ can be generated, quantitatively predictable and adjustable VO2 and VCO2 cannot be generated. We describe a new burner device in which the combustion rate of methanol is always equal to the infusion rate of fuel over an extended range of O2 concentrations. This permits the assembly of a methanol-burning lung model that is usable with O2 concentrations up to 100% and provides continuously adjustable and quantitative VO2 (69-1,525 ml/min) and VCO2 (46-1,016 ml/min) at a RQ of 0.667.

  11. On the long-range dependence properties of annual precipitation using a global network of instrumental measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; O'Connell, Patrick Enda; Tzouka, Katerina; Iliopoulou, Theano

    2018-01-01

    The long-range dependence (LRD) is considered an inherent property of geophysical processes, whose presence increases uncertainty. Here we examine the spatial behaviour of LRD in precipitation by regressing the Hurst parameter estimate of mean annual precipitation instrumental data which span from 1916-2015 and cover a big area of the earth's surface on location characteristics of the instrumental data stations. Furthermore, we apply the Mann-Kendall test under the LRD assumption (MKt-LRD) to reassess the significance of observed trends. To summarize the results, the LRD is spatially clustered, it seems to depend mostly on the location of the stations, while the predictive value of the regression model is good. Thus when investigating for LRD properties we recommend that the local characteristics should be considered. The application of the MKt-LRD suggests that no significant monotonic trend appears in global precipitation, excluding the climate type D (snow) regions in which positive significant trends appear.

  12. Surface deformation measured with interferometric synthetic aperture radar: Case studies of basin and range and Garlock-San Andreas fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Fernando

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used to detect ground deformation from varieties of geophysical origins. However, most studies lack the spatial and temporal resolutions to better characterize such observations. The purpose of this research is to use multi-track satellite radar imagery to generate time series to study and monitor vertical ground deformation over large regions such as the Nevada portion of the Basin and Range Province and the western end of the Mojave Desert. We developed an innovative method to remove horizontal movements from InSAR line-of-sight (LOS) observations using a GPS velocity field and subsequently combine the multi-track imagery resulting in one single high spatial resolution map of observed vertical crustal and surface movements. By implementing this technique we detect vertical deformation signals with short and intermediate wavelength signals associated to tectonic processes such as interseismic and postseismic deformation. In Central Nevada Seismic Belt we detect in three independent orbits a broad area of uplift that confirms results of previous studies that associate the origin of this signal to post-seimic deformation of the historic earthquakes at this region. In south-central Nevada we detect several valleys that show a gradual eastward tilt of the valley floors due to deep geodynamical processes. The valleys located at the eastern side of Ruby Mountains show a range decrease that could indicate uplift related to magma intrusion or post-seismic deformation due to older, unrecognized earthquakes. In the Big Bend segment in southern California we detect vertical uplift as expected by mechanical models of interseismic deformation. Additionaly all our velocity maps reveal small wavelength deformation signals of anthropogenic origin.

  13. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC-MS as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for monitoring the cultivation of C. tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghader, Masoud; Shokoufi, Nader; Es-Haghi, Ali; Kargosha, Kazem

    2018-02-06

    Vaccine production is a biological process in which variation in time and output is inevitable. Thus, the application of Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) will be important in this regard. Headspace solid - phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with GC-MS can be used as a PAT for process monitoring. This method is suitable to chemical profiling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from microorganisms. Tetanus is a lethal disease caused by Clostridium tetani (C. tetani) bacterium and vaccination is an ultimate way to prevent this disease. In this paper, SPME fiber was used for the investigation of VOCs emerging from C. tetani during cultivation. Different types of VOCs such as sulfur-containing compounds were identified and some of them were selected as biomarkers for bioreactor monitoring during vaccine production. In the second step, the portable dynamic air sampling (PDAS) device was used as an interface for sampling VOCs by SPME fibers. The sampling procedure was optimized by face-centered central composite design (FC-CCD). The optimized sampling time and inlet gas flow rates were 10 min and 2 m L s -1 , respectively. PDAS was mounted in exhausted gas line of bioreactor and 42 samples of VOCs were prepared by SPME fibers in 7 days during incubation. Simultaneously, pH and optical density (OD) were evaluated to cultivation process which showed good correlations with the identified VOCs (>80%). This method could be used for VOCs sampling from off-gas of a bioreactor to monitoring of the cultivation process. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Investigating Ozone Sources in California Using AJAX Airborne Measurements and Models: Implications for Stratospheric Intrusion and Long Range Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Johnson, Matthew S.; Iraci, Laura T.; Yates, Emma L.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Gore, Warren

    2016-01-01

    High ozone concentrations at low altitudes near the surface were detected from airborne Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) measurements on May 30, 2012. We investigate the causes of the elevated ozone concentrations using the airborne measurements and various models. GEOSchem and WRF-STILT model simulations show that the contribution from local sources is small. From MERRA reanalysis, it is found that high potential vorticity (PV) is observed at low altitudes. This high PV appears to be only partially coming through the stratospheric intrusions because the air inside the high PV region is moist, which shows that mixing appears to be enhanced in the low altitudes. Considering that diabatic heating can also produce high PV in the lower troposphere, high ozone is partially coming through stratospheric intrusion, but this cannot explain the whole ozone concentration in the target areas of the western U.S. A back-trajectory model is utilized to see where the air masses originated. The air masses of the target areas came from the lower stratosphere (LS), upper (UT), mid- (MT), and lower troposphere (LT). The relative number of trajectories coming from LS and UT is low (7.7% and 7.6%, respectively) compared to that from LT (64.1%), but the relative ozone concentration coming from LS and UT is high (38.4% and 20.95%, respectively) compared to that from LT (17.7%). The air mass coming from LT appears to be mostly coming from Asia. Q diagnostics show that there is sufficient mixing along the trajectory to indicate that ozone from the different origins is mixed and transported to the western U.S. This study shows that high ozone concentrations can be detected by airborne measurements, which can be analyzed by integrated platforms such as models, reanalysis, and satellite data.

  15. Investigation of Ozone Sources in California Using AJAX Airborne Measurements and Models: Implications for Stratospheric Intrusion and Long Range Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Johnson, Matthew S.; Iraci, Laura T.; Yates, Emma L.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Gore, Warren

    2015-01-01

    High ozone concentrations at low altitudes near the surface were detected from airborne Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) measurements on May 30, 2012. We investigate the causes of the elevated ozone concentrations using the airborne measurements and various models. GEOS-chem and WRF-STILT model simulations show that the contribution from local sources is small. From MERRA reanalysis, it is found that high potential vorticity (PV) is observed at low altitudes. This high PV appears to be only partially coming through the stratospheric intrusions because the air inside the high PV region is moist, which shows that mixing appears to be enhanced in the low altitudes. Considering that diabatic heating can also produce high PV in the lower troposphere, high ozone is partially coming through stratospheric intrusion, but this cannot explain the whole ozone concentration in the target areas of the western U.S. A back-trajectory model is utilized to see where the air masses originated. The air masses of the target areas came from the lower stratosphere (LS), upper (UT), mid- (MT), and lower troposphere (LT). The relative number of trajectories coming from LS and UT is low (7.7 and 7.6, respectively) compared to that from LT (64.1), but the relative ozone concentration coming from LS and UT is high (38.4 and 20.95, respectively) compared to that from LT (17.7). The air mass coming from LT appears to be mostly coming from Asia. Q diagnostics show that there is sufficient mixing along the trajectory to indicate that ozone from the different origins is mixed and transported to the western U.S. This study shows that high ozone concentrations can be detected by airborne measurements, which can be analyzed by integrated platforms such as models, reanalysis, and satellite data.

  16. Determining Damping Trends from a Range of Cable Harness Assemblies on a Launch Vehicle Panel from Test Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Davis, R. Ben; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The team of authors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been investigating estimating techniques for the vibration response of launch vehicle panels excited by acoustics and/or aero-fluctuating pressures. Validation of the approaches used to estimate these environments based on ground tests of flight like hardware is of major importance to new vehicle programs. The team at MSFC has recently expanded upon the first series of ground test cases completed in December 2010. The follow on tests recently completed are intended to illustrate differences in damping that might be expected when cable harnesses are added to the configurations under test. This validation study examines the effect on vibroacoustic response resulting from the installation of cable bundles on a curved orthogrid panel. Of interest is the level of damping provided by the installation of the cable bundles and whether this damping could be potentially leveraged in launch vehicle design. The results of this test are compared with baseline acoustic response tests without cables. Damping estimates from the measured response data are made using a new software tool that employs a finite element model (FEM) of the panel in conjunction with advanced optimization techniques. This paper will report on the \\damping trend differences. observed from response measurements for several different configurations of cable harnesses. The data should assist vibroacoustics engineers to make more informed damping assumptions when calculating vibration response estimates when using model based analysis approach. Achieving conservative estimates that have more flight like accuracy is desired. The paper may also assist analysts in determining how ground test data may relate to expected flight response levels. Empirical response estimates may also need to be adjusted if the measured response used as an input to the study came from a test article without flight like cable harnesses.

  17. Determination of different recreational drugs in sweat by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME GC/MS): Application to drugged drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Stefano; Mortali, Claudia; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Berretta, Paolo; Zaami, Simona

    2016-09-10

    A procedure based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been developed for the determination of most commonly used drugs of abuse in sweat of drivers stopped during roadside controls. DrugWipe 5A sweat screening device was used to collect sweat by a specific pad rubbed gently over forehead skin surface. The procedure involved an acid hydrolysis, a HS-SPME extraction for drugs of abuse but Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, which was directly extracted in alkaline medium HS-SPME conditions, a GC separation of analytes by a capillary column and MS detection by electron impact ionisation. The method was linear from the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 50ng drug per pad (r(2)≥0.99), with an intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy always less than 15% and an analytical recovery between 95.1% and 102.8%, depending on the considered analyte. Using the validated method, sweat from 60 apparently intoxicated drivers were found positive to one or more drugs of abuse, showing sweat patches testing as a viable economic and simple alternative to conventional (blood and/or urine) and non conventional (oral fluid) testing of drugs of abuse in drugged drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultra trace analysis of PAHs by designing simple injection of large amounts of analytes through the sample reconcentration on SPME fiber after magnetic solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Nader; Mehdinia, Ali; Esfandiarnejad, Reyhaneh; Jabbari, Ali

    2016-01-15

    A simple solventless injection method was introduced based on the using of a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for injection of large amounts of the analytes extracted by the magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) procedure. The resulted extract from MSPE procedure was loaded on a G-coated SPME fiber, and then the fiber was injected into the gas chromatography (GC) injection port. This method combines the advantages of exhaustive extraction property of MSPE and the solvent-less injection of SPME to improve the sensitivity of the analysis. In addition, the analytes were re-concentrated prior to inject into the gas chromatography (GC) inlet because of the organic solvent removing from the remaining extract of MSPE technique. Injection of the large amounts of analytes was made possible by using the introduced procedure. Fourteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with different volatility were used as model compounds to investigate the method performance for volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The introduced method resulted in the higher enhancement factors (5097-59376), lower detection limits (0.29-3.3pgmL(-1)), and higher sensitivity for the semi-volatile compounds compared with the conventional direct injection method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Metamaterial near-field sensor for deep-subwavelength thickness measurements and sensitive refractometry in the terahertz frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, Benjamin; Schmitt, Klemens M.; Neu, Jens; Wollrab, Viktoria; Beigang, Rene; Rahm, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We present a metamaterial-based terahertz (THz) sensor for thickness measurements of subwavelength-thin materials and refractometry of liquids and liquid mixtures. The sensor operates in reflection geometry and exploits the frequency shift of a sharp Fano resonance minimum in the presence of dielectric materials. We obtained a minimum thickness resolution of 12.5 nm (1/16 000 times the wavelength of the THz radiation) and a refractive index sensitivity of 0.43 THz per refractive index unit. We support the experimental results by an analytical model that describes the dependence of the resonance frequency on the sample material thickness and the refractive index.

  20. Metamaterial near-field sensor for deep-subwavelength thickness measurements and sensitive refractometry in the terahertz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhard, Benjamin; Schmitt, Klemens M.; Neu, Jens [Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Wollrab, Viktoria; Beigang, Rene; Rahm, Marco [Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques IPM, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-05-28

    We present a metamaterial-based terahertz (THz) sensor for thickness measurements of subwavelength-thin materials and refractometry of liquids and liquid mixtures. The sensor operates in reflection geometry and exploits the frequency shift of a sharp Fano resonance minimum in the presence of dielectric materials. We obtained a minimum thickness resolution of 12.5 nm (1/16 000 times the wavelength of the THz radiation) and a refractive index sensitivity of 0.43 THz per refractive index unit. We support the experimental results by an analytical model that describes the dependence of the resonance frequency on the sample material thickness and the refractive index.

  1. A FDR Sensor for Measuring Complex Soil Dielectric Permittivity in the 10–500 MHz Frequency Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Skierucha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical details as well as electrical models of FDR (frequency domain reflectometry sensors for the measurement of the complex dielectric permittivity of porous materials are presented. The sensors are formed from two stainless steel parallel waveguides of various lengths. Using the data from VNA (vector network analyzer with the connected FDR sensor and selected models of the applied sensor it was possible obtain the frequency spectrum of dielectric permittivity from 10 to 500 MHz of reference liquids and soil samples of various moisture and salinity. The performance of the analyzed sensors were compared with TDR (time domain reflectometry ones of similar mechanical construction.

  2. A FDR Sensor for Measuring Complex Soil Dielectric Permittivity in the 10–500 MHz Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skierucha, Wojciech; Wilczek, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical details as well as electrical models of FDR (frequency domain reflectometry) sensors for the measurement of the complex dielectric permittivity of porous materials are presented. The sensors are formed from two stainless steel parallel waveguides of various lengths. Using the data from VNA (vector network analyzer) with the connected FDR sensor and selected models of the applied sensor it was possible obtain the frequency spectrum of dielectric permittivity from 10 to 500 MHz of reference liquids and soil samples of various moisture and salinity. The performance of the analyzed sensors were compared with TDR (time domain reflectometry) ones of similar mechanical construction. PMID:22319300

  3. Gastric emptying in rats following administration of a range of different fats measured as acetaminophen concentration in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    an indirect measure of gastric emptying. Emulsified fats with added acetaminophen were fed by gavage to rats, and the plasma concentration of acetaminophen was followed for 3 h by repeated blood sampling from the carotid artery. The fats administered included rapeseed, corn, and fish oils, lard, and cocoa...... in gastric emptying between the groups fed the different fats, except for the emptying of tridecanoin (tri-10:0) that was statistically significantly slower than that of randomized oil, cocoa butter, and rapeseed oil (p

  4. Quality assessment and consistency check of measured nuclear data up to 20 MeV including the range of resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedy, Z.T.

    1984-09-01

    This is the final report of a research contract with the IAEA. The object is the compilation and evaluation of all the data on (n,t) and (n,3He) reactions cross-sections, respectively. The main results of the research are given (some discrepancies in the experimental data; analytic formulas for an empirical description of the data, separately for the even and odd nuclei with z>20; methods to extrapolate to energies where measurements are missing; mass regions where data are needed), and publications by the authors with the detailed results are quoted

  5. Radiometric measurements of wall temperatures in the 800 K to 1150 K range for a quartz radiant heating tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, L.G.; Sivathanu, Y.R.; Gore, J.P.; Shahien, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Many industrial applications require heat transfer to a load in an inert environment, which can be achieved by using gas-fired radiant tubes. A radiant tube consists of a flame confined in a cylindrical metal or ceramic chamber. The flame heats the tube wall, which in turn radiates to the load. One important characteristic of radiant heating tubes is wall temperature uniformity. Numerical models of radiant tubes have been used to predict wall temperatures, but there is a lack of experimental data for validation. Recently, Namazian et al., Singh and Gorski, and Peters et al. have measured wall temperature profiles of radiant tubes using thermocouples. 13 refs., 3 figs

  6. Measurement of long-range correlations in pp collisions characterized by presence of a Z-boson

    CERN Document Server

    Milov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Recent measurements of correlations between two particles separated in pesudorapidity and azimuthal angles have shown striking similarities between results obtained in pp, and in p+A and A+A collision systems. In pp collision system, unlike in the p+A and A+A systems, the strength of the correlations quantified by the anisotropy parameter $v_2$ does not show any dependence on the charged-particle multiplicity. Recent theoretical models suggest that this can be due to lack of correlation between the charged-particle multiplicity and the impact parameter of the pp collision. An independent handle on the impact parameter can be obtained by requiring the presence of a hard-scattering process in the collision. This talk presents the first measurement of two-particle correlations in pp collisions with a Z boson identified via its dimuon decay channel. The analysis uses ATLAS data recorded under nominal pp luminosities, and a procedure to correct for contribution of the tracks coming from pileup vertices is used. Th...

  7. Cocontraction measured with short-range stiffness was higher in obstetric brachial plexus lesions patients compared to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, Galia V; de Vlugt, Erwin; Vardy, Alistair N; van Zwet, Erik W; van Dijk, J Gert; Malessy, Martijn J A; de Groot, Jurriaan H

    2017-10-03

    We suggest short range stiffness (SRS) at the elbow joint as an alternative diagnostic for EMG to assess cocontraction. Elbow SRS is compared between obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL) patients and healthy subjects (cross-sectional study design). Seven controls (median 28years) and five patients (median 31years) isometrically flexed and extended the elbow at rest and three additional torques [2.1,4.3,6.4Nm] while a fast stretch stimulus was applied. SRS was estimated in silico using a neuromechanical elbow model simulating the torque response from the imposed elbow angle. SRS was higher in patients (250±36Nm/rad) than in controls (150±21Nm/rad, p=0.014), except for the rest condition. Higher elbow SRS suggested greater cocontraction in patients compared to controls. SRS is a promising mechanical alternative to assess cocontraction, which is a frequently encountered clinical problem in OBPL due to axonal misrouting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. HS-SPME GC/MS characterization of volatiles in raw and dry-roasted almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lu; Lee, Jihyun; Zhang, Gong; Ebeler, Susan E; Wickramasinghe, Niramani; Seiber, James; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2014-05-15

    A robust HS-SPME and GC/MS method was developed for analyzing the composition of volatiles in raw and dry-roasted almonds. Almonds were analyzed directly as ground almonds extracted at room temperature. In total, 58 volatiles were identified in raw and roasted almonds. Straight chain aldehydes and alcohols demonstrated significant but minimal increases, while the levels of branch-chain aldehydes, alcohols, heterocyclic and sulfur containing compounds increased significantly (500-fold) in response to roasting (p<0.05). Benzaldehyde decreased from 2934.6±272.5 ng/g (raw almonds) to 315.8±70.0 ng/g (averaged across the roasting treatments evaluated i.e. 28, 33 and 38 min at 138 °C) after roasting. Pyrazines were detected in only the roasted almonds, with the exception of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, which was also found in raw almonds. The concentration of most alcohols increased in the roasted samples with the exception of 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethyl alcohol, which decreased 68%, 80%, and 86%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analytic escrutineo for plaguicidas organofosforados in blood in forensic cases by means of SPME-GC/NPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Quesada, K.; Saenz Ugalde, M. F.

    2003-01-01

    The plaguicidas organophosphorus represent one of the most important causes of intoxication in Costa Rica; 20% of the cases received in the Section of Toxicology of the Department of Forensic Sciences of the Organism of Judicial Investigation (OIJ) are related to these plaguicidas. At the present time, the employed techniques in this institution to carry out the organophosphorus analyses in blood, present important limitations in their analytic potential. As a consequence, it is necessary to look for new methodologies, with the purpose to obtain a great specificity, and to diminish the limits of detection. This would allow a more qualified service that assures the validity and reliability of the results. Besides, it is an ideal instrument for the correct administration of justice of the Judicial Authorities. In this final work of graduation, it develops a methodology for the scrutiny of pesticides organophosphorus, in which a sample of biological origin of forensic importance is used. This employs a technique of quick, simple and clean extraction, using a separation method of detection of high analytic sensibility. In the methodology's development, samples of total blood, and the microextraccion techniques in solid phase will be used (SPME), and detection with gas chromatography by a specific instrumental detector of match and nitrogen (GCINPD) [es

  10. [Difference of volatile constituents contained in female and male flowers of Trichosanthes kirilowii by HS-SPME-GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Chao, Zhimao; Wang, Chun; Wu, Xiaoyi; Tan, Zhigao

    2012-06-01

    To compare and analyze volatile constituents from flowers of Trichosanthes kirilowii, in order to point out characteristic differences between female and male flowers. Blooming female and male flowers were collected in the same place. Volatile constituents were extracted from the flower by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), then separated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-two and forty-five chromatographic peaks were separated from the female and male flowers, respectively. Forty seven constituents were identified and their relative percentage compositions were determined with the peak area normalization method. Linalool, alpha-farnesene, benzene methanol, and (Z)-2-methylbutanal oxime were the main volatile constituents. The contents of linalool and alpha-farnesene in female flower were remarkably higher than those in male. In contrast, the content of benzene methanol in male flower was remarkably higher than that in female. In the first study on chemical constituents from flowers in genus Trichosanthes, 37 compounds are separated from T. kirilowii. Contents of linalool, alpha-farnesene and benzene methanol show the characteristic differences of volatile constituents contained in male and female flowers of T. kirilowii, which enriches the basic studies on dioecious plant.

  11. Experimental design-based isotope-dilution SPME-GC/MS method development for the analysis of smoke flavouring products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Anupam; Zelinkova, Zuzana; Wenzl, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    For the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 2065/2003 related to smoke flavourings used or intended for use in or on foods a method based on solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) GC/MS was developed for the characterisation of liquid smoke products. A statistically based experimental design (DoE) was used for method optimisation. The best general conditions to quantitatively analyse the liquid smoke compounds were obtained with a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre, 60°C extraction temperature, 30 min extraction time, 250°C desorption temperature, 180 s desorption time, 15 s agitation time, and 250 rpm agitation speed. Under the optimised conditions, 119 wood pyrolysis products including furan/pyran derivatives, phenols, guaiacol, syringol, benzenediol, and their derivatives, cyclic ketones, and several other heterocyclic compounds were identified. The proposed method was repeatable (RSD% method proved to be fit for purpose, allowing the rapid identification and quantification of volatile compounds in liquid smoke flavourings.

  12. This week?s Citation Classic: 'Stickel, L. F. A comparison of certain methods of measuring ranges of small mammals. J. Mammalogy 35: 1-15, 1954.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    During my first employment as a junior biologist conducting food habits analyses at the Patuxent Research Refuge (now Patuxent Wildlife Research Center) of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the first station director, Arnold L. Nelson, gave each staff biologist the opportunity to spend a little time conducting field studies on the 2,600-acre research area. These studies were to help in ecological evaluation of the area, but also, no doubt, functioned as a morale builder for biologists daily engaged in difficult, demanding and confining laboratory work. I undertook to measure the population density of small mammals in different habitats. The state-of-the-art methods recommended to me and prevalent in the literature worried me, especially after preliminary field work. Reading the classic, paper by W.H. Burt [Terrioriality and home range concepts as applied to mammals. J. Mammalogy 24:346-352, 1943] was a turning point for me in seeing that knowledge of home-range size was the key to measuring population density. My first papers employed these concepts in field evaluations. However, they could give-only limited attention to the question of how home ranges could be measured. Furthermore, the importance of knowledge of the home range to habitat evaluation and to understanding animal behavior was becoming increasingly apparent. Advocacy of many different methods of measuring home ranges appeared in the literature. It did not seem possible to evaluate them objectively. It occurred to me that artificial populations could be used to help in understanding the mechanisms of measuring home ranges. The effects of random trap-visiting, bias toward central traps, trap-spacing, range shape, and other factors could be considered. So grids of traps were inked onto oversize graph paper, and simulated ranges were cut from plastic to be tossed as randomly as possible on the trap-grids. It was a slow, laborious job. Analysis showed that random captures in artificial populations produced

  13. Compressive strength measurements in aluminum for shock compression over the stress range of 4-22 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Asay, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of the high-pressure compressive strength are presented for several aluminum alloys shocked to 22GPa. Five well-characterized aluminum materials were studied, including 6061 alloy with three average grain sizes (50, 30, and strength varies with initial properties. The yield strength was estimated using combined reshock and release techniques previously developed. These results show that quasielastic recompression occurs for all materials investigated and is independent of grain size and impurity level. The shear stress and the shear strength at the shocked state were estimated from the reshock and release wave profiles. These results are consistent with previous investigations and suggest that the shear stress at the Hugoniot state is less than the yield strength. This is thought responsible for the observed quasielastic recompression. The present data, together with other reported measurements, illustrate that the yield strength of aluminum increases with applied shock stress to 90GPa. The Steinberg-Guinan strength model [Steinberg, Cochran, and Guinan, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1498 (1980)] was used to describe these data and was found to represent the overall data trend with increasing stress, but is not an accurate representation. The collective data suggest that the increase in strength at shock states, ΔY(ΔY =Yyield-YHEL), increases with applied stress and plastic strain. A strength model was developed to describe this increase, which fits the data accurately to 55GPa and reveals that ΔY increases with shock stress in three distinct regions. It also strongly indicates that metallurgical properties, such as impurities and grain size, influence the ambient yield strength, but not the change in strength, which appears to be controlled by the shock-deformed aluminum matrix and possibly grain boundaries.

  14. Optimisation and validation of a HS-SPME-GC-IT/MS method for analysis of carbonyl volatile compounds as biomarkers in human urine: Application in a pilot study to discriminate individuals with smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calejo, Isabel; Moreira, Nathalie; Araújo, Ana Margarida; Carvalho, Márcia; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; de Pinho, Paula Guedes

    2016-02-01

    A new and simple analytical approach consisting of an automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) sampler coupled to gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry detection (GC-IT/MS) with a prior derivatization step with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) was developed to detect volatile carbonyl metabolites with low molecular weights in human urine. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimise the PFBHA concentration and extraction conditions that affect the efficiency of the SPME procedure. With a sample volume of 1 mL, optimal conditions were achieved by adding 300 mg/L of PFBHA and allowing the sample to equilibrate for 6 min at 62°C and then extracting the samples for 51 min at the same temperature, using a divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/PDMS) fibre. The method allowed the simultaneous identification and quantification of 44 carbonyl compounds consisting of aldehydes, dialdehydes, heterocyclic aldehydes and ketones. The method was validated with regards to the linearity, inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy. The detection limits ranged from 0.009 to 0.942 ng/mL, except for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (15 ng/mL), and the quantification limits varied from 0.029 to 1.66 ng/mL, except for butanal (2.78 ng/mL), 2-butanone (2.67 ng/mL), 4-heptanone (3.14 ng/mL) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (50.0 ng/mL). The method accuracy was satisfactory, with recoveries ranging from 90 to 107%. The proof of applicability of the methodology was performed in a pilot target analysis of urine samples obtained from 18 healthy smokers and 18 healthy non-smokers (control group). Chemometric supervised analysis was performed using the volatile patterns acquired for these samples and clearly showed the potential of the volatile carbonyl profiles to discriminate urine from smoker and non-smoker subjects. 5-Methyl-2-furfural (p<0.0001), 2-methylpropanal, nonanal and 2-methylbutanal (p<0.05) were identified as potentially useful

  15. Static and Dynamic Accuracy of an Innovative Miniaturized Wearable Platform for Short Range Distance Measurements for Human Movement Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuletti, Stefano; Cereatti, Andrea; Comotti, Daniele; Caldara, Michele; Della Croce, Ugo

    2017-06-24

    Magneto-inertial measurement units (MIMU) are a suitable solution to assess human motor performance both indoors and outdoors. However, relevant quantities such as step width and base of support, which play an important role in gait stability, cannot be directly measured using MIMU alone. To overcome this limitation, we developed a wearable platform specifically designed for human movement analysis applications, which integrates a MIMU and an Infrared Time-of-Flight proximity sensor (IR-ToF), allowing for the estimate of inter-object distance. We proposed a thorough testing protocol for evaluating the IR-ToF sensor performances under experimental conditions resembling those encountered during gait. In particular, we tested the sensor performance for different (i) target colors; (ii) sensor-target distances (up to 200 mm) and (iii) sensor-target angles of incidence (AoI) (up to 60 ∘ ). Both static and dynamic conditions were analyzed. A pendulum, simulating the oscillation of a human leg, was used to generate highly repeatable oscillations with a maximum angular velocity of 6 rad/s. Results showed that the IR-ToF proximity sensor was not sensitive to variations of both distance and target color (except for black). Conversely, a relationship between error magnitude and AoI values was found. For AoI equal to 0 ∘ , the IR-ToF sensor performed equally well both in static and dynamic acquisitions with a distance mean absolute error <1.5 mm. Errors increased up to 3.6 mm (static) and 11.9 mm (dynamic) for AoI equal to ± 30 ∘ , and up to 7.8 mm (static) and 25.6 mm (dynamic) for AoI equal to ± 60 ∘ . In addition, the wearable platform was used during a preliminary experiment for the estimation of the inter-foot distance on a single healthy subject while walking. In conclusion, the combination of magneto-inertial unit and IR-ToF technology represents a valuable alternative solution in terms of accuracy, sampling frequency, dimension and power consumption, compared

  16. Static and Dynamic Accuracy of an Innovative Miniaturized Wearable Platform for Short Range Distance Measurements for Human Movement Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bertuletti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-inertial measurement units (MIMU are a suitable solution to assess human motor performance both indoors and outdoors. However, relevant quantities such as step width and base of support, which play an important role in gait stability, cannot be directly measured using MIMU alone. To overcome this limitation, we developed a wearable platform specifically designed for human movement analysis applications, which integrates a MIMU and an Infrared Time-of-Flight proximity sensor (IR-ToF, allowing for the estimate of inter-object distance. We proposed a thorough testing protocol for evaluating the IR-ToF sensor performances under experimental conditions resembling those encountered during gait. In particular, we tested the sensor performance for different (i target colors; (ii sensor-target distances (up to 200 mm and (iii sensor-target angles of incidence (AoI (up to 60 ∘ . Both static and dynamic conditions were analyzed. A pendulum, simulating the oscillation of a human leg, was used to generate highly repeatable oscillations with a maximum angular velocity of 6 rad/s. Results showed that the IR-ToF proximity sensor was not sensitive to variations of both distance and target color (except for black. Conversely, a relationship between error magnitude and AoI values was found. For AoI equal to 0 ∘ , the IR-ToF sensor performed equally well both in static and dynamic acquisitions with a distance mean absolute error <1.5 mm. Errors increased up to 3.6 mm (static and 11.9 mm (dynamic for AoI equal to ± 30 ∘ , and up to 7.8 mm (static and 25.6 mm (dynamic for AoI equal to ± 60 ∘ . In addition, the wearable platform was used during a preliminary experiment for the estimation of the inter-foot distance on a single healthy subject while walking. In conclusion, the combination of magneto-inertial unit and IR-ToF technology represents a valuable alternative solution in terms of accuracy, sampling frequency, dimension and power consumption

  17. Empirical ranking of a wide range of WC-Co grades in terms of their abrasion resistance measured by the ASTM standard B 611-85 test

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Quigley, DGF

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a comprehensive investigation into the abrasion resistance of WC-Co alloys, as measured by the ASTM Standard B 611-85 test. The alloys ranged from 3 to 50 wt% and from 0.6 to 5 mu-m average grain size. Careful...

  18. Measurement of the specific heat of small vanadium particles in the normal- and superconducting state in the temperature range of 1.5-12 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara Garcia, O.

    1982-01-01

    The specific heat of small crystalline vanadium particles in form of polyeders with diameters between 2.9 and 13.2 mm was measured in the temperature range of 1.5-12 K. Quantum effects are interpreted in the frame of theoretical models. (BEF)

  19. Kinetic energy measurement of hydrogen in LHD peripheral plasma with a multi-wavelength-range fine-resolution spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Mizushiri, Keisuke; Nishioka, Tomomi; Shikama, Taiichi; Iwamae, Atsushi; Goto, Motoshi; Morita, Shigeru; Hasuo, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    We have simultaneously measured high resolution emission spectra of the hydrogen atomic Balmer-α, -β, -γ lines and molecular Fulcher-α band for a LHD peripheral plasma generated under a central magnetic field strength of 0.4 T. It is found that the velocity distributions of excited atoms calculated from the Balmer-α, -β, and -γ line shapes show similar profiles to each other. The translational kinetic energy corresponding to the average velocity is about 13 eV, which is about 300 times larger than the rotational energy of hydrogen molecules estimated from the line intensities in the Fulcher-α band. The velocity distributions differ from Maxwellian and have a high velocity tail over 1x10 5 m/s. A correlation between the high velocity tail and the electron temperature and density is seen and suggesting the excited atoms having such high velocities to be generated by the charge exchange collisions from high velocity protons in the peripheral region.

  20. Extending the frequency range of free-field reciprocity calibration of measurement microphones to frequencies up to 150 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Torras Rosell, Antoni; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    machines and failure detection in aeronautic structures require that the sensitivity of the microphone is known at frequencies up to 150 kHz. Another area of particular interest is the investigation of the perception mechanisms of ultrasound. In any of these applications, it is of fundamental importance...... to establish a well-defined traceability chain to support the measurement results. In order to extend the frequency range of free-field calibration the measurement system and measurement methods must undergo a series of changes and adaptations including the type of excitation signal, techniques for eliminating...

  1. Alanine-EPR dosimetry for measurements of ionizing radiation absorbed doses in the range 0.5-10 kGy

    CERN Document Server

    Peimel-Stuglik, Z

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of two, easy accessible alanine dosimeters (ALANPOL from IChTJ and foil dosimeter from Gamma Service, Radeberg, Germany) to radiation dose measurement in the range of 0.5-10 kGy, were investigated. In both cases, the result of the test was positive. The foil dosemeter from Gamma Service is recommended for dose distribution measurements in fantoms or products, ALANPOL - for routine measurements. The EPR-alanine method based on the described dosimeters can be successfully used, among others, in the technology of radiation protection of food.

  2. Speed-of-sound measurements in (argon + carbon dioxide) over the temperature range from (275 to 500) K at pressures up to 8 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegge, Robin; McLinden, Mark O.; Perkins, Richard A.; Richter, Markus; Span, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The speed of sound was measured in (argon + carbon dioxide) mixtures. • Measurements were carried out from T = (275 to 500) K at pressures up to 8 MPa. • Measurements were made with the spherical acoustic resonator at NIST-Boulder. • The vibrational relaxation of pure carbon dioxide led to high sound absorption. • The relative combined expanded uncertainty (k = 2) ranged from (0.042 to 0.056)%. - Abstract: The speed of sound of two (argon + carbon dioxide) mixtures was measured over the temperature range from (275 to 500) K with pressures up to 8 MPa utilizing a spherical acoustic resonator. The compositions of the gravimetrically prepared mixtures were (0.50104 and 0.74981) mole fraction carbon dioxide. The vibrational relaxation of pure carbon dioxide led to high sound absorption, which significantly impeded the sound-speed measurements on carbon dioxide and its mixtures; pre-condensation may have also affected the results for some measurements near the dew line. Thus, in contrast to the standard operating procedure for speed-of-sound measurements with a spherical resonator, non-radial resonances at lower frequencies were taken into account. Still, the data show a comparatively large scatter, and the usual repeatability of this general type of instrument could not be realized with the present measurements. Nonetheless, the average relative combined expanded uncertainty (k = 2) in speed of sound ranged from (0.042 to 0.056)% for both mixtures, with individual state-point uncertainties increasing to 0.1%. These uncertainties are adequate for our intended purpose of evaluating thermodynamic models. The results are compared to a Helmholtz energy equation of state for carbon capture and storage applications; relative deviations of (−0.64 to 0.08)% for the (0.49896 argon + 0.50104 carbon dioxide) mixture, and of (−1.52 to 0.77)% for the (0.25019 argon + 0.74981 carbon dioxide) mixture were observed.

  3. Reliability of ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion measurements obtained using a hand-held goniometer and Biodex dynamometer in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, In-Gui; Yu, Il-Young; Kim, Soo-Yong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the reliability of ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion (DF-PROM) measurements obtained using a goniometer and Biodex dynamometer in stroke patients. [Subjects] Fifteen stroke patients participated in this study. [Methods] Ankle DF-PROM was assessed using a goniometer and Biodex dynamometer. Ankle DF-PROM was measured during two sessions with 7 days between tests. Intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change values were used to assess the reliability of measurements obtained using both instruments. [Results] The intra-rater reliability for ankle DF-PROM using the goniometer was moderate and good for the two raters, while using the Biodex dynamometer, it was good for both raters. Inter-rater reliability using the goniometer was moderate; using the Biodex, it was good. [Conclusion] Both intra- and inter-reliability measurements of ankle DF-PROM were higher using a Biodex dynamometer than with a goniometer.

  4. Signature of biased range in the non-dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity and its measurements with satellite-satellite tracking missions: theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Li-E [Chang' an University, Department of Geophysics, College of Geology Engineering and Geomatics, Xi' an (China); Xu, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Beijing (China)

    2015-08-15

    Having great accuracy in the range and range rate measurements, the GRACE mission and the planed GRACE follow on mission can in principle be employed to place strong constraints on certain relativistic gravitational theories. In this paper, we work out the range observable of the non-dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity for the satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) measurements. We find out that a characteristic time accumulating range signal appears in non-dynamical Chern-Simons gravity, which has no analogue found in the standard parity-preserving metric theories of gravity. The magnitude of this Chern-Simons range signal will reach a few times of χ cm for each free flight of these SST missions, here χ is the dimensionless post-Newtonian parameter of the non-dynamical Chern-Simons theory. Therefore, with the 12 years data of the GRACE mission, one expects that the mass scale M{sub CS} = (4ℎc)/(χa) of the non-dynamical Chern-Simons gravity could be constrained to be larger than 1.9 x 10.9 eV. For the GRACE FO mission that scheduled to be launched in 2017, the much stronger bound that M{sub CS} ≥ 5 x 10{sup -7} eV is expected. (orig.)

  5. Signature of biased range in the non-dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity and its measurements with satellite-satellite tracking missions: theoretical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Li-E; Xu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Having great accuracy in the range and range rate measurements, the GRACE mission and the planed GRACE follow on mission can in principle be employed to place strong constraints on certain relativistic gravitational theories. In this paper, we work out the range observable of the non-dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity for the satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) measurements. We find out that a characteristic time accumulating range signal appears in non-dynamical Chern-Simons gravity, which has no analogue found in the standard parity-preserving metric theories of gravity. The magnitude of this Chern-Simons range signal will reach a few times of χ cm for each free flight of these SST missions, here χ is the dimensionless post-Newtonian parameter of the non-dynamical Chern-Simons theory. Therefore, with the 12 years data of the GRACE mission, one expects that the mass scale M CS = (4ℎc)/(χa) of the non-dynamical Chern-Simons gravity could be constrained to be larger than 1.9 x 10.9 eV. For the GRACE FO mission that scheduled to be launched in 2017, the much stronger bound that M CS ≥ 5 x 10 -7 eV is expected. (orig.)

  6. Signature of biased range in the non-dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity and its measurements with satellite-satellite tracking missions: theoretical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Li-E.; Xu, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Having great accuracy in the range and range rate measurements, the GRACE mission and the planed GRACE follow on mission can in principle be employed to place strong constraints on certain relativistic gravitational theories. In this paper, we work out the range observable of the non-dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity for the satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) measurements. We find out that a characteristic time accumulating range signal appears in non-dynamical Chern-Simons gravity, which has no analogue found in the standard parity-preserving metric theories of gravity. The magnitude of this Chern-Simons range signal will reach a few times of cm for each free flight of these SST missions, here is the dimensionless post-Newtonian parameter of the non-dynamical Chern-Simons theory. Therefore, with the 12 years data of the GRACE mission, one expects that the mass scale of the non-dynamical Chern-Simons gravity could be constrained to be larger than eV. For the GRACE FO mission that scheduled to be launched in 2017, the much stronger bound that eV is expected.

  7. Improvement of the Measurement Range and Temperature Characteristics of a Load Sensor Using a Quartz Crystal Resonator with All Crystal Layer Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murozaki, Yuichi; Sakuma, Shinya; Arai, Fumihito

    2017-05-08

    Monitoring multiple biosignals, such as heart rate, respiration cycle, and weight transitions, contributes to the health management of individuals. Specifically, it is possible to measure multiple biosignals using load information obtained through contact with the environment, such as a chair and bed, in daily use. A wide-range load sensor is essential since load information contains multiple biosignals with various load ranges. In this study, a load sensor is presented by using a quartz crystal resonator (QCR) with a wide measurement range of 1.5 × 10⁶ (0.4 mN to 600 N), and its temperature characteristic of load is improved to -7 Hz/°C (-18 mN/°C). In order to improve the measurement range of the load, a design method of this sensor is proposed by restraining the buckling of QCR and by using a thinner QCR. The proposed sensor allows a higher allowable load with high sensitivity. The load sensor mainly consists of three layers, namely a QCR layer and two holding layers. As opposed to the conventional holding layer composed of silicon, quartz crystal is utilized for the holding layers to improve the temperature characteristic of the load sensor. In the study, multiple biosignals, such as weight and pulse, are detected by using a fabricated sensor.

  8. Assessment of biosecurity measures against highly pathogenic avian influenza risks in small-scale commercial farms and free-range poultry flocks in the northcentral Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Odetokun, I A

    2011-04-01

    There is considerable global concern over the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) that has affected domestic poultry flocks in Nigeria and other parts of the world. There have been little investigations on the proposition that free-range flocks are potentially at higher risk of HPAI than confined small-scale commercial enterprises. The objective is to analyse the biosecurity measures instituted in the small-scale commercial poultry farms and established free-range bird flocks owned by households in the rural areas and qualitatively assess the risk status at the two levels of poultry management systems in northcentral Nigeria. We used data collected through questionnaire administration to farms and flock owners and subjected them to a traffic light system model to test for relative risks of HPAI infection based on the biosecurity measures put in place at the farm and flock levels. The results indicate that free-range flocks are at lower risk compared to small-scale commercial operations. These findings are plausible as birds from free-range flocks have more opportunities to contact wild bird reservoirs of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strains than small-scale commercial poultry, thus providing them with constant challenge and maintenance of flock immunity. The development of efficient and effective biosecurity measures against poultry diseases on small-scale commercial farms requires adequate placement of barriers to provide segregation, cleaning and disinfection, while concerted community-led sanitary measures are required for free-range poultry flocks in the developing topical and subtropical economies. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. An autonomous multisensor in situ metrology system for enabling high dynamic range measurement of 3D surfaces on precision machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Samuel M Y; Cheung, Benny C F; Cheng, Ching-Hsiang; Whitehouse, David

    2016-01-01

    An in situ measurement is of prime importance when trying to maintain the position of the workpiece for further compensation processes in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the precision machining of three dimensional (3D) surfaces. However, the coordinates of most of the machine tools with closed machine interfaces and control system are not accessible for users, which make it difficult to use the motion axes of the machine tool for in situ measurements. This paper presents an autonomous multisensor in situ metrology system for enabling high dynamic range measurement of 3D surfaces on precision machine tools. It makes use of a designed tool path and an additional motion sensor to assist the registration of time-space data for the position estimation of a 2D laser scanner which measures the surface with a high lateral resolution and large area without the need to interface with the machine tool system. A prototype system was built and integrated into an ultra-precision polishing machine. Experimental results show that it measures the 3D surfaces with high resolution, high repeatability, and large measurement range. The system not only improves the efficiency and accuracy of the precision machining process but also extends the capability of machine tools. (paper)

  10. A study to compare the reliability of composite finger flexion with goniometry for measurement of range of motion in the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bridget; Bruton, Anne

    2002-08-01

    To establish the intra- and inter-rater reliability of composite finger flexion (CFF), and to compare this with goniometry. Fifty-one physiotherapists and occupational therapists took part in the study. The hand of a normal subject was splinted in three different positions. Using a goniometer and a ruler alternately, each therapist measured both the proximal interphalangeal joint and CFF of three digits, following a standardized protocol. This process was repeated three times. Eighteen NHS hospital sites in the UK. The two measurement methods produced different ranges and standard deviations for each digit. The repeatability coefficient shows that repeated intra-rater goniometric measures fall within 4-5 degrees of each other 95% of the time. Inter-rater goniometric measures fall within 7-9 degrees. Repeated intra-rater CFF measures fall within 5-6 mm of each other, whereas inter-rater fall within 7-9 mm. The influence of occupation, experience in hand therapy, years of practice and routine use were found to have no effect on reliability. Scaling of the two methods of measurement allowed comparison between them to be made. CFF and goniometry are equally reliable when comparing inter-rater reliability, but goniometry displays less variability than composite finger flexion for intra-rater measurements. In this study involving a subject with normal joints, goniometry is more reliable than CFF when only one measurer is involved. However, CFF may be a useful alternative where multiple joint measures are required, or when goniometry is impracticable.

  11. Volatiles and primary metabolites profiling in two Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle) cultivars via headspace SPME-GC-MS and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Rasheed, Dalia M; Kamal, Islam M

    2015-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle) is a plant of considerable commercial importance worldwide as functional food due to its organic acids, mucilage, anthocyanins, macro and micro-nutrients content. Although Hibiscus flowers are emerging as very competitive targets for phytochemical studies, very little is known about their volatile composition and or aroma, such knowledge can be suspected to be relevant for understanding its olfactory and taste properties. To provide insight into Hibiscus flower aroma composition and for its future use in food and or pharmaceutical industry, volatile constituents from 2 cultivars grown in Egypt, viz. Aswan and Sudan-1 were profiled using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to GCMS. A total of 104 volatiles were identified with sugar and fatty acid derived volatiles amounting for the major volatile classes. To reveal for cultivar effect on volatile composition in an untargeted manner, multivariate data analysis was applied. Orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed for 1-octen-3-ol versus furfural/acetic acid enrichment in Aswan and Sudan-1 cvs., respectively. Primary metabolites contributing to roselle taste and nutritional value viz. sugars and organic acids were profiled using GC-MS after silylation. The impact of probiotic bacteria on roselle infusion aroma profile was further assessed and revealed for the increase in furfural production with Lactobacillus plantarum inoculation and without affecting its anthocyanin content. This study provides the most complete map for volatiles, sugars and organic acids distribution in two Hibiscus flower cultivars and its fermented product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Usefulness of a PARAFAC decomposition in the fiber selection procedure to determine chlorophenols by means SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rocío; Cruz Ortiz, M; Sarabia, Luis A

    2012-05-01

    In this work, a procedure based on solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is proposed to determine chlorophenols in water without derivatization. The following chlorophenols are studied: 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. Three kinds of SPME fibers, polyacrylate, polydimethylsiloxane, and polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene are compared to identify the most suitable one for the extraction process on the basis of two criteria: (a) to select the equilibrium time studying the kinetics of the extraction, and (b) to obtain the best values of the figures of merit. In both cases, a three-way PARAllel FACtor analysis decomposition is used. For the first step, the three-way experimental data are arranged as follows: if I extraction times are considered, the tensor of data, X, of dimensions I × J × K is generated by concatenating the I matrices formed by the abundances of the J m/z ions recorded in K elution times around the retention time for each chlorophenol. The second-order property of PARAFAC (or PARAFAC2) assesses the unequivocal identification of each chlorophenol, as consequence, the loadings in the first mode estimated by the PARAFAC decomposition are the kinetic profile. For the second step, a calibration based on a PARAFAC decomposition is used for each fiber. The best figures of merit were obtained with PDMS/DVB fiber. The values of decision limit, CCα, achieved are between 0.29 and 0.67 μg L(-1) for the four chlorophenols. The accuracy (trueness and precision) of the procedure was assessed. This procedure has been applied to river water samples.

  13. Measurement of angularly dependent spectra of betatron gamma-rays from a laser plasma accelerator with quadrant-sectored range filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jong Ho, E-mail: jhjeon07@ibs.re.kr; Nakajima, Kazuhisa, E-mail: naka115@dia-net.ne.jp; Rhee, Yong Joo; Pathak, Vishwa Bandhu; Cho, Myung Hoon; Shin, Jung Hun; Yoo, Byung Ju; Jo, Sung Ha; Shin, Kang Woo [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Taek; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Choi, Il Woo [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Hojbota, Calin; Bae, Lee Jin; Jung, Jaehyung; Cho, Min Sang; Cho, Byoung Ick; Nam, Chang Hee [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Photon Science, GIST, Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Measurement of angularly dependent spectra of betatron gamma-rays radiated by GeV electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) are presented. The angle-resolved spectrum of betatron radiation was deconvolved from the position dependent data measured for a single laser shot with a broadband gamma-ray spectrometer comprising four-quadrant sectored range filters and an unfolding algorithm, based on the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The unfolded gamma-ray spectra in the photon energy range of 0.1–10 MeV revealed an approximately isotropic angular dependence of the peak photon energy and photon energy-integrated fluence. As expected by the analysis of betatron radiation from LWFAs, the results indicate that unpolarized gamma-rays are emitted by electrons undergoing betatron motion in isotropically distributed orbit planes.

  14. Accurate and stable equal-pressure measurements of water vapor transmission rate reaching the 10-6 g m-2 day-1 range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoichiro; Yanase, Takashi; Nagahama, Taro; Yoshida, Hajime; Shimada, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of a gas barrier coating is a critically important parameter for flexible organic device packaging, but its accurate measurement without mechanical stress to ultrathin films has been a significant challenge in instrumental analysis. At the current stage, no reliable results have been reported in the range of 10-6 g m-2 day-1 that is required for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this article, we describe a solution for this difficult, but important measurement, involving enhanced sensitivity by a cold trap, stabilized temperature system, pumped sealing and calibration by a standard conductance element.

  15. SETUP FOR MEASUREMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC, RADIOMETRIC, SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIATION OF LASER DIODES AND LEDS IN THE SPECTRAL RANGE FROM 250 TO 900 NM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Nikanenka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about principle of operation of the setup for measurement of the photometric, radiometric, spectral and spatial characteristics of radiation of laser diodes and LEDs in the spectral range from 250 to 900 nm constructed in the B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics of NAS of Belarus and the results of its metrological certification are presented. New approaches to measure the averaged value of the luminance and spectral radiance LEDs and laser diodes, the spatial distribution of luminous intensity and power density of laser diodes radiation, the luminous intensity and radiant intensity LEDs and laser diodes. 

  16. Measurement and modeling of density and viscosity of n-octanol-kerosene-phosphoric acid solutions in a temperature range 293.15-333.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Changwen; Pei, Xiangjun; Liu, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Densities and viscosities have been measured for the n-octanol + aviation kerosene (AK) + phosphoric acid (H3PO4) system with the mass fraction of H3PO4 in the range from w = 0 to 0.26 and in the temperature of 293.15-333.15 K. According to the experimental data, the measured viscosities were found well correlated with the temperature and mass fraction of H3PO4, which were fitted to regression equations. The result shows that the dilution effect of AK is obvious under the same temperature and mass fraction of H3PO4.

  17. Design of a sun tracker for the automatic measurement of spectral irradiance and construction of an irradiance database in the 330-1100 nm range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canada, J.; Maj, A. [Departamento de Termodinamica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Utrillas, M.P.; Martinez-Lozano, J.A.; Pedros, R.; Gomez-Amo, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra y Termodinamica, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    An automatic global and direct solar spectral irradiance system has been designed based on two LICOR spectro radiometers equipped with fibre optics and remote cosine sensors. To measure direct irradiance a sun tracker based on step motors has been developed. The whole system is autonomous and works continuously. From the measurements provided by this system a spectral irradiance database in the 330-1100 nm range has been created. This database contains normal direct and global horizontal irradiances as well as diffuse irradiance on a horizontal plane, together with total atmospheric optical thickness and aerosol optical depth. (author)

  18. Measurement of (n,/alpha/) cross sections of chromium, iron, and nickel in the 5- to 10-MeV neutron energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, A.; Liskien, H.; Arnotte, F.; Widera, R.

    1981-01-01

    A measuring program has been carried out at the Van de Graaff accelerator facility of the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements for the determination of (n,/alpha/) cross sections on the main constituents of fast reactor structural materials, namely the elements chromium, iron, and nickel. Results obtained in the energy range from 5 to 10 Mev are presented in terms of laboratory angle-differential cross sections, relative Legendre polynomial coefficients of angular distributions, angle-integrated cross sections, and average alpha energies. 13 refs

  19. Calibration of a T-History calorimeter to measure enthalpy curves of phase change materials in the temperature range from 40 to 200 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathgeber, Christoph; Schmit, Henri; Hennemann, Peter; Hiebler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Thermal energy storage using phase change materials (PCMs) provides high storage capacities in small temperature ranges. For the design of efficient latent heat storage, the enthalpy curve of a PCM has to be measured with high precision. Measurements are most commonly performed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The T-History method, however, proved to be favourable for the characterization of typical PCMs due to large samples and a measuring procedure close to conditions found in applications. As T-History calorimeters are usually individual constructions, performing a careful calibration procedure is decisive to ensure optimal measuring accuracy. We report in this paper on the calibration of a T-History calorimeter with a working range from 40 to 200 °C that was designed and built at our institute. A three-part procedure, consisting of an indium calibration, a measurement of the specific heat of copper and measurements of three solid–liquid PCMs (stearic acid, dimethyl terephthalate and d-mannitol), was performed and an advanced procedure for the correction of enthalpy curves was developed. When comparing T-History enthalpy curves to literature data and DSC step measurements, good agreement within the uncertainty limits demanded by RAL testing specifications was obtained. Thus, our design of a T-History calorimeter together with the developed calibration procedure provides the measuring accuracy that is required to identify the most suitable PCM for a given application. In addition, the dependence of the enthalpy curve on the sample size can be analysed by comparing results obtained with T-History and DSC and the behaviour of the bulk material in real applications can be predicted. (paper)

  20. Development of a quartz tuning-fork-based force sensor for measurements in the tens of nanoNewton force range during nanomanipulation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oiko, V. T. A., E-mail: oiko@ifi.unicamp.br; Rodrigues, V.; Ugarte, D. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Univ. Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas 13083-859 (Brazil); Martins, B. V. C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); Silva, P. C. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, CNPEM, Campinas 13083-970 (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Understanding the mechanical properties of nanoscale systems requires new experimental and theoretical tools. In particular, force sensors compatible with nanomechanical testing experiments and with sensitivity in the nN range are required. Here, we report the development and testing of a tuning-fork-based force sensor for in situ nanomanipulation experiments inside a scanning electron microscope. The sensor uses a very simple design for the electronics and it allows the direct and quantitative force measurement in the 1–100 nN force range. The sensor response is initially calibrated against a nN range force standard, as, for example, a calibrated Atomic Force Microscopy cantilever; subsequently, applied force values can be directly derived using only the electric signals generated by the tuning fork. Using a homemade nanomanipulator, the quantitative force sensor has been used to analyze the mechanical deformation of multi-walled carbon nanotube bundles, where we analyzed forces in the 5–40 nN range, measured with an error bar of a few nN.

  1. Cosmic ray antiproton measurements in the 4-19 GeV energy range using the NMSU/WiZard-matter antimatter superconducting spectrometer 2 (MASS2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Brunetti, M.T.; Codini, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy); Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Golden, R.L.; Stochaj, S.J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    The p/p-ratio from 4 to 19 GeV has been measured using the NMSU/WiZard balloon borne matter antimatter superconducting spectrometer (MASS2) instrument. This is the first confirmation of the cosmic ray antiproton component made in this energy range since their discovery in 1979. The MASS2 instrument is an updated version of the instrument flown in 1979. The p/p- ratio is 1.52x10{sup -}4.

  2. Investigating Multiphase Flow Phenomena in Fine-Grained Reservoir Rocks: Insights from Using Ethane Permeability Measurements over a Range of Pore Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Aidan Letham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to quantify effective permeability at the various fluid saturations and stress states experienced during production from shale oil and shale gas reservoirs is required for efficient exploitation of the resources, but to date experimental challenges prevent measurement of the effective permeability of these materials over a range of fluid saturations. To work towards overcoming these challenges, we measured effective permeability of a suite of gas shales to gaseous ethane over a range of pore pressures up to the saturated vapour pressure. Liquid/semiliquid ethane saturation increases due to adsorption and capillary condensation with increasing pore pressure resulting in decreasing effective permeability to ethane gas. By how much effective permeability to ethane gas decreases with adsorption and capillary condensation depends on the pore size distribution of each sample and the stress state that effective permeability is measured at. Effective permeability decreases more at higher stress states because the pores are smaller at higher stress states. The largest effective permeability drops occur in samples with dominant pore sizes in the mesopore range. These pores are completely blocked due to capillary condensation at pore pressures near the saturated vapour pressure of ethane. Blockage of these pores cuts off the main fluid flow pathways in the rock, thereby drastically decreasing effective permeability to ethane gas.

  3. Reliability and criterion validity of two applications of the iPhone™ to measure cervical range of motion in healthy participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Summary of background data Recent smartphones, such as the iPhone, are often equipped with an accelerometer and magnetometer, which, through software applications, can perform various inclinometric functions. Although these applications are intended for recreational use, they have the potential to measure and quantify range of motion. The purpose of this study was to estimate the intra and inter-rater reliability as well as the criterion validity of the clinometer and compass applications of the iPhone in the assessment cervical range of motion in healthy participants. Methods The sample consisted of 28 healthy participants. Two examiners measured cervical range of motion of each participant twice using the iPhone (for the estimation of intra and inter-reliability) and once with the CROM (for the estimation of criterion validity). Estimates of reliability and validity were then established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results We observed a moderate intra-rater reliability for each movement (ICC = 0.65-0.85) but a poor inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.50) to good (>0.65) for movements of flexion, extension, lateral flexions and right rotation, but poor (iPhone as an outcome measure in clinical settings, studies should be done on patients presenting with cervical problems. PMID:23829201

  4. Otimização dos parâmetros de extração para determinação multiresíduo de pesticidas em amostras de água empregando microextração em fase sólida Parameter optimization for pesticide multiresidue determination using SPME in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emy Komatsu

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the factors that affect the extraction of pesticide residues from water samples for their determination by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME and GC/MS were optimized. The fiber polymer, the extraction mode, the ionic strength, the stirring rate, the pH and the extraction time were the most significant parameters evaluated. The recovery obtained with the proposed method ranged from 94 to 110% and the sensitivity of the method, determined by calculating the detection limit (DL, ranged from 0.004 to 0.1 mug l-1. The results obtained with spiked real samples, at the 0.1 mug l-1 level, showed acceptable conformity with the expected values.

  5. Simulating a Range of Regolith Porosities in the Lab: An Investigation into the Effects of Porosity on Spectral Measurements of Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R.; Bowles, N. E.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Our current understanding of the composition of planetary bodies primarily comes from remote sensing spectroscopic observations. The interpretation of spectroscopic data requires analogue mineral spectra measured in the lab under appropriate environmental conditions.This is particularly true in the thermal infrared. At these wavelengths porosity, particle size, and near-surface environmental conditions have significant effects on the wavelength position and spectral contrast of diagnostic features. To isolate the effects due to porosity, diffuse reflectance measurements were made from 2.5 to 25 µm of a fine particulate San Carlos olivine sample (<25 µm). An experimental set-up was developed to prepare the olivine sample with a range of porosities (40% to 85%). The olivine sample, prepared with two different porosities (45% and 84%), was also measured in thermal emission from 6 to 25 µm in the University of Oxford's Simulated Lunar Environment Chamber. When measured in diffuse reflectance, we find that as the porosity increases the Christiansen feature (CF, a reflection minimum or emissivity maximum near 8 µm) shifts to longer wavelengths. In the thermal emissivity spectral measurements, we see no discernible shift in the CF position as the porosity changes. In both reflectance and emission the strength and position of the transparency feature (the spectral region from 11 to 13 µm where volume scattering dominates) behaves as expected, as the strength of the feature increases with porosity. In reflectance the relative strength of the reststrahlen bands (RB) were not observed to change systematically with porosity. In this presentation we provide details of our experimental set-up, the range of porosities simulated in the lab, and our spectroscopic results. These new measurements place important constraints for interpreting remote sensing measurements of planetary bodies.

  6. Detection of Methyl Salicylate Transforted by Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Using Solid Phase Microextration (SPME) Fibers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; RODACY, PHILIP J.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, GARY L.

    2001-01-01

    The ultimate goal of many environmental measurements is to determine the risk posed to humans or ecosystems by various contaminants. Conventional environmental monitoring typically requires extensive sampling grids covering several media including air, water, soil and vegetation. A far more efficient, innovative and inexpensive tactic has been found using honeybees as sampling mechanisms. Members from a single bee colony forage over large areas ((approx)2 x 10(sup 6) m(sup 2)), making tens of thousands of trips per day, and return to a fixed location where sampling can be conveniently conducted. The bees are in direct contact with the air, water, soil and vegetation where they encounter and collect any contaminants that are present in gaseous, liquid and particulate form. The monitoring of honeybees when they return to the hive provides a rapid method to assess chemical distributions and impacts (1). The primary goal of this technology is to evaluate the efficiency of the transport mechanism (honeybees) to the hive using preconcentrators to collect samples. Once the extent and nature of the contaminant exposure has been characterized, resources can be distributed and environmental monitoring designs efficiently directed to the most appropriate locations. Methyl salicylate, a chemical agent surrogate was used as the target compound in this study

  7. Detection of Methyl Salicylate Transforted by Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Using Solid Phase Microextration (SPME) Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; RODACY, PHILIP J.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, GARY L.

    2001-12-01

    The ultimate goal of many environmental measurements is to determine the risk posed to humans or ecosystems by various contaminants. Conventional environmental monitoring typically requires extensive sampling grids covering several media including air, water, soil and vegetation. A far more efficient, innovative and inexpensive tactic has been found using honeybees as sampling mechanisms. Members from a single bee colony forage over large areas ({approx}2 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 2}), making tens of thousands of trips per day, and return to a fixed location where sampling can be conveniently conducted. The bees are in direct contact with the air, water, soil and vegetation where they encounter and collect any contaminants that are present in gaseous, liquid and particulate form. The monitoring of honeybees when they return to the hive provides a rapid method to assess chemical distributions and impacts (1). The primary goal of this technology is to evaluate the efficiency of the transport mechanism (honeybees) to the hive using preconcentrators to collect samples. Once the extent and nature of the contaminant exposure has been characterized, resources can be distributed and environmental monitoring designs efficiently directed to the most appropriate locations. Methyl salicylate, a chemical agent surrogate was used as the target compound in this study.

  8. Use of boron nitride for neutron spectrum characterization and cross-section validation in the epithermal range through integral activation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radulović, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.radulovic@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Trkov, Andrej [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); IAEA, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jaćimović, Radojko [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gregoire, Gilles; Destouches, Christophe [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2016-12-21

    A recent experimental irradiation and measurement campaign using containers made from boron nitride (BN) at the Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia, has shown the applicability of BN for neutron spectrum characterization and cross-section validation in the epithermal range through integral activation measurements. The first part of the paper focuses on the determination of the transmission function of a BN container through Monte Carlo calculations and experimental measurements. The second part presents the process of tayloring the sensitivity of integral activation measurements to specific needs and a selection of suitable radiative capture reactions for neutron spectrum characterization in the epithermal range. A BN container used in our experiments and its qualitative effect on the neutron spectrum in the irradiation position employed is displayed in the Graphical abstract. - Graphical abstract: Neutron spectra inside the JSI TRIGA Mark II PT irradiation position, obtained with a Monte Carlo calculation: blue: unperturbed, green inside a BN container, of wall thickness 4 mm, 13 mm in diameter and 14 mm in height.

  9. Spectral Aerosol Extinction (SpEx): A New Instrument for In situ Ambient Aerosol Extinction Measurements Across the UV/Visible Wavelength Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Corr, C. A.; Dibb, J. E.; Greenslade, M. E.; Martin, R. F.; Moore, R. H.; Scheuer, E.; Shook, M. A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new instrument for the measurement of in situ ambient aerosol extinction over the 300-700 nm wavelength range, the Spectral Aerosol Extinction (SpEx) instrument. This measurement capability is envisioned to complement existing in situ instrumentation, allowing for simultaneous measurement of the evolution of aerosol optical, chemical, and physical characteristics in the ambient environment. In this work, a detailed description of the instrument is provided along with characterization tests performed in the laboratory. Measured spectra of NO2 and polystyrene latex spheres agreed well with theoretical calculations. Good agreement was also found with simultaneous aerosol extinction measurements at 450, 530, and 630 nm using CAPS PMex instruments in a series of 22 tests including non-absorbing compounds, dusts, soot, and black and brown carbon analogs. SpEx can more accurately distinguish the presence of brown carbon from other absorbing aerosol due to its 300 nm lower wavelength limit compared to measurements limited to visible wavelengths. In addition, the spectra obtained by SpEx carry more information than can be conveyed by a simple power law fit that is typically defined by the use of Angstrom Exponents. Future improvements aim at lowering detection limits and ruggedizing the instrument for mobile operation.

  10. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability of a method to measure ankle plantar-flexion range of motion in the hook-lying position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Guilherme S; Bayer, Gabriela S; M R da Costa, Letícia; de Noronha, Marcos

    2012-10-11

    Physical therapists often have to measure ankle range of motion (ROM) to decide on intervention and investigate improvements. The most common method of measurement is goniometry, but it has been questioned due to its unsatisfactory levels of reliability. To investigate the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of a new method of measuring plantar-flexion ROM. Prospective and descriptive. Laboratory. 20 healthy participants (12 women and 8 men). Ankle plantar flexion was measured by 3 observers (A, B, and C) with 3 methods (goniometry, measurement in hook-lying position [MHP], and static-image analysis [SIA]). Observer A was the most experienced therapist, and C, the least. MHP was performed with the participant in the supine position, knees flexed, and first and fifth metatarsals in contact with the treatment table. SIA was recorded and analyzed in the same position. Goniometry was performed with participant seated, lower legs unsupported, and axis positioned on the lateral malleolus. For the interobserver analysis, the ICC2,1 was high for the MHP (.88), high for SIA (.87), and moderate for goniometry (.57). For the intraobserver analysis, the ICC2,1 was high or very high for MHP (.91-.92), high for SIA (.79-.83), and low to moderate for goniometry (.18-.60). MHP is inexpensive, fast, and more reliable than goniometry for measuring plantar-flexion ROM.

  11. Measurement of Higgs couplings and mass in e$^+$e$^-$ collisions at CLIC in the $\\sqrt{s}$ range of 350 GeV - 3 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Lastovicka, T

    2014-01-01

    A future linear $e^+e^-$ collider running at center-of-mass energies in the range from 350 GeV to 3 TeV provides excellent possibilities for Higgs precision measurements. Precision Higgs (and top) measurements can be performed around 350 GeV, where the Higgs is studied in a modelindependent way through its recoil against a Z boson in the Higgs-strahlung process, providing not only an accurate mass measurement but also direct measurements of the branching ratios for most boson and fermion decay modes, including possible decays to invisible particles. At higher energies, the Higgs boson coupling to top quarks and the Higgs self-coupling can also be measured. For CLIC, these are studied at 1.4 TeV in Higgs production through WW fusion. At even higher energies, the rising WW fusion cross section, together with the higher machine luminosity, allows for the measurement of very small branching ratios. At the ultimate CLIC energy of 3 TeV this provides good precision for the Higgs coupling to muons and a currently un...

  12. SOLID PHASE MICRO EXTRACTION (SPME) FLAVOR ANALYSIS OF APPLE JUICE AND COFFEE MIXTURES USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC-MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Ja Kim; Jeehyun Lee; Jaeyoung Byun; Sunmi Choi; Wonsik Choi

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the flavor of apple juice and coffee mixtures and the sensory quality of SPME extracts using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three samples with different compositions were examined. Sample A1 contained85% apple juiceand 15% coffee, sample A2 had87.5% apple and 12.5% coffee, and sample A3 had90% apple juiceand 10% coffee. The sensory analysis involved 100 panelists and a sequential monadic test. Sample presentation orders were balanced in ...

  13. LHCb - First measurements of long-range near-side angular correlations in $\\sqrt {^SNN} = 5$ TeV proton-lead collisions in the forward region

    CERN Multimedia

    Yang, Zhenwei

    2015-01-01

    Two-particle angular correlations are studied in proton-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt {^SNN} = 5$ TeV, collected with the LHCb detector at the LHC. The analysis is based on data recorded in two opposing beam configurations, in which either the direction of the proton or that of the lead remnant is analysed. The correlations are measured as a function of relative pseudorapidity, $\\Delta \\eta$, and relative azimuthal angle, $\\Delta \\phi$, for events in different classes of event activity and for different bins of particle transverse momentum. In high-activity events a long-range correlation on the near side is observed in the pseudorapidity range $2.0 < \\eta < 4.9$. This is the first measurement of a long-range correlation on the near side in proton-lead collisions in the forward region and extends previous observations in the central region. The correlation increases with growing event activity and is found to be more pronounced in the direction of the lead beam. Wh...

  14. Measurement of the X-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver in the 5-20 keV range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Tauhidul; Tantau, Lachlan J; Rae, Nicholas A; Barnea, Zwi; Tran, Chanh Q; Chantler, Christopher T

    2014-03-01

    The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver were measured in the energy range 5-20 keV with an accuracy of 0.01-0.2% on a relative scale down to 5.3 keV, and of 0.09-1.22% on an absolute scale to 5.0 keV. This analysis confirms that with careful choice of foil thickness and careful correction for systematics, especially including harmonic contents at lower energies, the X-ray attenuation of high-Z elements can be measured with high accuracy even at low X-ray energies (silver in the low energy range, indicating the possibility of obtaining high-accuracy X-ray absorption fine structure down to the L1 edge (3.8 keV) of silver. Comparison of results reported here with an earlier data set optimized for higher energies confirms accuracy to within one standard error of each data set collected and analysed using the principles of the X-ray extended-range technique (XERT). Comparison with theory shows a slow divergence towards lower energies in this region away from absorption edges. The methodology developed can be used for the XAFS analysis of compounds and solutions to investigate structural features, bonding and coordination chemistry.

  15. Wireless network of stand-alone end effect probes for soil in situ permittivity measurements over the 100MHZ-6GHz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontoux, François; Bircher, Simone; Ruffié, Gilles; Bonnaudiin, Fabrice; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Kerr, Yann

    2017-04-01

    Microwave remote sensing and non-destructive analysis are a powerful way to provide properties estimation of materials. Numerous applications using microwave frequency behavior of materials (remote sensing above land surfaces, non-destructive analysis…) are strongly dependent on the material's permittivity (i.e. dielectric properties). This permittivity depends on numerous parameters such as moisture, texture, temperature, frequency or bulk density. Permittivity measurements are generally carried out in the laboratory. Additionally, dielectric mixing models allow, over a restricted range of conditions, the assessment of a material's permittivity. in-situ measurements are more difficult to obtain. Some in situ measurement probes based on permittivity properties of soil exist (e.g. Time Domain Reflectometers and Transmissometers, capacitance and impedance sensors). They are dedicated to the acquisition of soil moisture data based on permittivity (mainly the real part) estimations over a range of frequencies from around 50 MHz to 1 or 2 GHz. Other Dielectric Assessment Kits exist but they are expensive and they are rather dedicated to laboratory measurements. Furthermore, the user can't address specific issues related to particular materials (e.g. organic soils) or specific measurement conditions (in situ long time records). At the IMS Laboratory we develop probes for in situ soil permittivity measurements (real and imaginary parts) in the 0.5 - 6 GHz frequency range. They are based on the end effect phenomenon of a coaxial waveguide and so are called end effect probes in this paper. The probes can be connected to a portable Vector Network Analyzer (VNA, ANRITSU MS2026A) for the S11 coefficient measurements needed to compute permittivity. It is connected to a PC to record data using an USB connection. This measurement set-up is already used for in situ measurement of soil properties in the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) SMOS space mission. However

  16. Measurement of Long-Range Near-Side Two-Particle Angular Correlations in pp Collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Knünz, V; König, A; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Luyckx, S; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Van Parijs, I; Barria, P; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Perniè, L; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Gul, M; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Poyraz, D; Ryckbosch, D; Salva, S; Sigamani, M; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Nuttens, C; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Beliy, N; Hammad, G H; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hamer, M; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; De Souza Santos, A; Dogra, S; Tomei, T R Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Micanovic, S; Sudic, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Bodlak, M; Finger, M; Finger, M; El-Khateeb, E; Elkafrawy, T; Mohamed, A; Salama, E; Calpas, B; Kadastik, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Zghiche, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Davignon, O; Filipovic, N; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Miné, P; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sauvan, J B; Sirois, Y; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Goetzmann, C; Le Bihan, A-C; Merlin, J A; Skovpen, K; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Bouvier, E; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sabes, D; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Toriashvili, T; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Feld, L; Heister, A; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K

    2016-04-29

    Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles produced in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 270  nb^{-1}. The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudorapidity (|η|2.0), near-side (Δϕ≈0) structure emerges in the two-particle Δη-Δϕ correlation functions. The magnitude of the correlation exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range 1.0measurement extends the study of near-side long-range correlations up to charged particle multiplicities N_{ch}∼180, a region so far unexplored in pp collisions. The observed long-range correlations are compared to those seen in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at lower collision energies.

  17. Measurement of Long-Range Near-Side Two-Particle Angular Correlations in p p Collisions at √{s }=13 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.

    2016-04-01

    Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles produced in p p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 270 nb-1 . The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudorapidity (|η | 2.0 ), near-side (Δ ϕ ≈0 ) structure emerges in the two-particle Δ η -Δ ϕ correlation functions. The magnitude of the correlation exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range 1.0 measurement extends the study of near-side long-range correlations up to charged particle multiplicities Nch˜180 , a region so far unexplored in p p collisions. The observed long-range correlations are compared to those seen in p p , p Pb , and PbPb collisions at lower collision energies.

  18. Secondary neutron spectrum from 250-MeV passively scattered proton therapy: measurement with an extended-range Bonner sphere system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca M; Burgett, E A

    2014-09-01

    Secondary neutrons are an unavoidable consequence of proton therapy. While the neutron dose is low compared to the primary proton dose, its presence and contribution to the patient dose is nonetheless important. The most detailed information on neutrons includes an evaluation of the neutron spectrum. However, the vast majority of the literature that has reported secondary neutron spectra in proton therapy is based on computational methods rather than measurements. This is largely due to the inherent limitations in the majority of neutron detectors, which are either not suitable for spectral measurements or have limited response at energies greater than 20 MeV. Therefore, the primary objective of the present study was to measure a secondary neutron spectrum from a proton therapy beam using a spectrometer that is sensitive to neutron energies over the entire neutron energy spectrum. The authors measured the secondary neutron spectrum from a 250-MeV passively scattered proton beam in air at a distance of 100 cm laterally from isocenter using an extended-range Bonner sphere (ERBS) measurement system. Ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was calculated using measured fluence and fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. The neutron fluence spectrum had a high-energy direct neutron peak, an evaporation peak, a thermal peak, and an intermediate energy continuum between the thermal and evaporation peaks. The H*(10) was dominated by the neutrons in the evaporation peak because of both their high abundance and the large quality conversion coefficients in that energy interval. The H*(10) 100 cm laterally from isocenter was 1.6 mSv per proton Gy (to isocenter). Approximately 35% of the dose equivalent was from neutrons with energies ≥20 MeV. The authors measured a neutron spectrum for external neutrons generated by a 250-MeV proton beam using an ERBS measurement system that was sensitive to neutrons over the entire energy range being measured, i.e., thermal to

  19. A simple analysis method for measuring in real-time power spectral densities and coherence functions in a large frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time method which allows the measurement of auto and cross power spectral densities in a large frequency range with almost constant relative frequency resolution. Based on a normal digital frequency analysis the resolution at low frequencies can be increased to any extend without additional electronic equipment. The long time signals needed for the low frequencies are won from the high frequency data by a digital low pass filter. Due to this decimation of the time series only moderate storage region is needed allowing the use of a small digital computer for on-line application. The method is suitable to monitor the spectra in a wide frequency range without time delay. (orig.) [de

  20. Endocrine correlates of musth in free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus determined by non-invasive faecal steroid hormone metabolite measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Ghosal

    Full Text Available The occurrence of musth, a period of elevated levels of androgens and heightened sexual activity, has been well documented for the male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus. However, the relationship between androgen-dependent musth and adrenocortical function in this species is unclear. The current study is the first assessment of testicular and adrenocortical function in free-ranging male Asian elephants by measuring levels of testosterone (androgen and cortisol (glucocorticoid--a physiological indicator of stress metabolites in faeces. During musth, males expectedly showed significant elevation in faecal testosterone metabolite levels. Interestingly, glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations remained unchanged between musth and non-musth periods. This observation is contrary to that observed with wild and captive African elephant bulls and captive Asian bull elephants. Our results show that musth may not necessarily represent a stressful condition in free-ranging male Asian elephants.

  1. Measurement of the X-ray Spectrum of a Free Electron Laser with a Wide-Range High-Resolution Single-Shot Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Inubushi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a single-shot X-ray spectrometer for wide-range high-resolution measurements of Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL pulses. The spectrometer consists of a multi-layer elliptical mirror for producing a large divergence of 22 mrad around 9070 eV and a silicon (553 analyzer crystal. We achieved a wide energy range of 55 eV with a fine spectral resolution of 80 meV, which enabled the observation of a whole SASE-XFEL spectrum with fully-resolved spike structures. We found that a SASE-XFEL pulse has around 60 longitudinal modes with a pulse duration of 7.7 ± 1.1 fs.

  2. Towards an activation cross section measurement of the 17O(p,γ)18F reaction in a wide energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, A.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Oláh, Cs. M.; Fülöp, Zs.; Rajta, I.; Vajda, I.

    2018-01-01

    The CNO cycles are fusion processes in stars that convert hydrogen to helium. These hydrogen burning processes occur in several sites and stages of stellar evolution, such as red giants, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, massive stars, and classical novae. One of the important reactions in the CNO-III and CNO-IV cycles is 17O(p,γ)18F [1]. The only available total cross section measurement in a wide energy range for this reaction dates back to several decades ago [2] which makes the theoretical extrapolation to astrophysical energies more difficult and introduces uncertainty. The aim of the present work is to provide precise total cross section data in the energy range between about 500 keV and the 2MeV using the activation method. The experimental campaign at the new tandetron accelerator of Atomki is in progress.

  3. Measurement of differential cross sections for elastic K+p scattering in the momentum range 0.7 to 1.9 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, B.J.; Cowan, I.M.; Edwards, T.R.M.; Gibson, W.M.; Gillman, A.R.; Gilmore, R.S.; Gledhill, M.H.; Hughes, C.M.; Malos, J.; McPherson, A.C.; Sleeman, J.C.; Smith, V.J.; Tapper, R.J.; McCartney, B.; Oades, G.C.; Ward, D.L.; Wroath, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    Differential cross sections for elastic K + p scattering have been measured at nineteen momenta between 0.7 and 1.9 GeV/c. The data represent between 10 thousand and 20 thousand elastic events at each momentum and cover a wide range of scattering angles (-0.98 approximately < costheta* approximately < 0.95). A computer controlled system of scintillation counters and acoustic spark chambers was used to detect the elastic events. Various internal consistency checks indicate that the absolute normalization of the data is accurate to within 2-3%. The cross sections show a smooth transition from an isotropic angular distribution to a dominant forward peak over the range covered by the experiment. Phase-shift analyses including these results show little evidence for a direct-channel resonance, and fitting the results by t- and u-channel exchange processes alone gives a good fit. (Auth.)

  4. The Permeability of an Artificial Membrane for Wide Range of pH in Human Gastrointestinal Tract: Experimental Measurements and Quantitative StructureActivity Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Mare; Maran, Uko

    2015-06-01

    In silico models for membrane permeability have been based on values measured for single pH. Depending on the diet (fasted/fed state) and part of human intestine the range of pH varies approximately from 2.4 to 8.0. This motivated to study and model the membrane permeability of chemicals considering the whole range of pH in the human intestine. For this, effective membrane permeability values were measured for 65 drugs and drug-like compounds using PAMPA method at four pHs (3, 5, 7.4, 9) over 48 h, introducing technological innovations for the time-dependence measurement. The highest permeability value of a compound from four pHs was used to derive QSAR analyzing a large pool of molecular descriptors and introducing new descriptor. Using stepwise forward selection approach a significant QSAR model was derived that included only two mechanistically relevant descriptors, the logarithmic octanol-water partition coefficient and hydrogen bonding surface area. Prediction confidence of the model was blind tested with a true external validation set of 15 compounds. The resulting QSAR model shows potential to combine permeability values from various pH-s into one descriptive and predictive model for estimating maximum permeability in human gastrointestinal tract. The QSAR model and data are available through the QsarDB repository (http://dx.doi.org/10.15152/QDB.137). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Optical properties measurement of laser coagulated tissues with double integrating sphere and inverse Monte Carlo technique in the wavelength range from 350 to 2100 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Norihiro; Nanjo, Takuya; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2012-03-01

    In laser medicine, the accurate knowledge about the optical properties (absorption coefficient; μa, scattering coefficient; μs, anisotropy factor; g) of laser irradiated tissues is important for the prediction of light propagation in tissues, since the efficacy of laser treatment depends on the photon propagation within the irradiated tissues. Thus, it is likely that the optical properties of tissues at near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared wavelengths will be more important due to more biomedical applications of lasers will be developed. For improvement of the laser induced thermotherapy, the optical property change during laser treatment should be considered in the wide wavelength range. For estimation of the optical properties of the biological tissues, the optical properties measurement system with a double integrating sphere setup and an inverse Monte Carlo technique was developed. The optical properties of chicken muscle tissue were measured in the native state and after laser coagulation using the optical properties measurement system in the wavelength range from 350 to 2100 nm. A CO2 laser was used for laser coagulation. After laser coagulation, the reduced scattering coefficient of the tissue increased. And, the optical penetration depth decreased. For improvement of the treatment depth during laser coagulation, a quantitative procedure using the treated tissue optical properties for determination of the irradiation power density following light penetration decrease might be important in clinic.

  6. A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic for amplitude, polarization, and wavenumber measurements of ion cyclotron range-of frequency fields on ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoukov, R.; Bobkov, V.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic has been installed on an ASDEX Upgrade tokamak to characterize ion cyclotron range-of frequency (ICRF) wave generation and interaction with magnetized plasma. The diagnostic consists of a field-aligned array of B-dot probes, oriented to measure fast and slow ICRF wave fields and their field-aligned wavenumber (k // ) spectrum on the low field side of ASDEX Upgrade. A thorough description of the diagnostic and the supporting electronics is provided. In order to compare the measured dominant wavenumber of the local ICRF fields with the expected spectrum of the launched ICRF waves, in-air near-field measurements were performed on the newly installed 3-strap ICRF antenna to reconstruct the dominant launched toroidal wavenumbers (k tor ). Measurements during a strap current phasing scan in tokamak discharges reveal an upshift in k // as strap phasing is moved away from the dipole configuration. This result is the opposite of the k tor trend expected from in-air near-field measurements; however, the near-field based reconstruction routine does not account for the effect of induced radiofrequency (RF) currents in the passive antenna structures. The measured exponential increase in the local ICRF wave field amplitude is in agreement with the upshifted k // , as strap phasing moves away from the dipole configuration. An examination of discharges heated with two ICRF antennas simultaneously reveals the existence of beat waves at 1 kHz, as expected from the difference of the two antennas’ operating frequencies. Beats are observed on both the fast and the slow wave probes suggesting that the two waves are coupled outside the active antennas. Although the new diagnostic shows consistent trends between the amplitude and the phase measurements in response to changes applied by the ICRF antennas, the disagreement with the in-air near-field measurements remains. An electromagnetic model is currently under development to address this issue

  7. Investigating the influence of long-range transport on surface O3 in Nevada, USA, using observations from multiple measurement platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Rebekka; Miller, Matthieu B; Yates, Emma L; Iraci, Laura T; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2015-10-15

    The current United States (US) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O3 (75 ppb) is expected to be revised to between 60 and 70 ppb. As the NAAQS becomes more stringent, characterizing the extent of O3 and precursors transported into the US is increasingly important. Given the high elevation, complex terrain, and location in the Intermountain West, the State of Nevada is ideally situated to intercept air transported into the US. Until recently, measurements of O3 and associated pollutants were limited to areas in and around the cities of Las Vegas and Reno. In 2011, the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative began and through this project 13 surface monitoring sites were established. Also in 2011, the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) began making routine aircraft measurements of O3 and other greenhouse gases in Nevada. The availability of aircraft and surface measurements in a relatively rural, remote setting in the Intermountain West presented a unique opportunity to investigate sources contributing to the O3 observed in Nevada. Our analyses indicate that stratosphere to troposphere transport, long-range transport of Asian pollution, and regional emissions from urban areas and wildfires influence surface observations. The complexity of sources identified here along with the fact that O3 frequently approaches the threshold being considered for a revised NAAQS indicate that interstate and international cooperation will be necessary to achieve compliance with a more stringent regulatory standard. Further, on a seasonal basis we found no significant difference between daily 1-h maximum O3 at surface sites, which ranged in elevation from 888 to 2307 m, and aircraft measurements of O3 O3 across rural Nevada and indicates that column measurements from Railroad Valley, NV are useful in understanding these processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Patient burden of Sjögren’s: a comprehensive literature review revealing the range and heterogeneity of measures used in assessments of severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitt, Katherine M; Naegeli, April N; van den Broek, Remon W M; Birt, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    Context The severity of Sjögren’s syndrome has been evaluated using a wide variety of clinical measures and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). This may contribute to the lack of clarity concerning the burden of Sjögren’s from the patient perspective. Objective To perform a comprehensive peer-reviewed literature analysis of the patient aspects of Sjögren’s, focusing on PROs, to investigate the complexity underlying the evaluation of the syndrome and to elucidate the discordance between the different measures. Methods We searched Embase for articles published between January 2005 and September 2015. Research articles, clinical and diagnostic reviews, and validation studies with a focus on patient aspects of Sjögren’s were selected as the primary information source. Results 157 articles met the eligibility criteria. A wide variety of assessment measures used to evaluate glandular, extraglandular and functional domains were observed. Many different, non-validated Visual Analogue Scales, with a wide range of anchor words, were used in the quantification of Sjögren’s disease burden, impeding comparisons between studies. Relatively few clinical trials of drug therapies used validated scales: European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren’s Syndrome Patient Reported Index was used most often for symptom assessment and 36 Item Short Form Survey for quality of life (QoL). Conclusion A wide range and diversity of measures are used to evaluate the patient burden of Sjögren’s; most are not validated for use in this disease. PRO endpoints, validated specifically in Sjögren’s, that demonstrate improvement are needed. These measures should focus on QoL aspects important to patients and will most likely involve gauging change in function rather than patient-reported symptoms. PMID:28955493

  9. Highly sensitive digital optical sensor with large measurement range based on the dual-microring resonator with waveguide-coupled feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xing-Ye; Wang Kui-Ru; Yuan Jin-Hui; Jin Bo-Yuan; Sang Xin-Zhu; Yu Chong-Xiu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel high-performance digital optical sensor based on the Mach—Zehnder interferential effect and the dual-microring resonators with the waveguide-coupled feedback. The simulation results show that the sensitivity of the sensor can be orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional sensor, and high quality factor is not critical in it. Moreover, by optimizing the length of the feedback waveguide to be equal to the perimeter of the ring, the measurement range of the proposed sensor is twice as much as that of the conventional sensor in the weak coupling case

  10. Measurement of the differential cross section for elastic K - neutron scattering in the c.m. energy range 1.60-1.74 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, O.; Hepp, V.; Ströbele, H.; Wittek, W.; Baillon, P.

    1982-08-01

    The final state K - pn has been analyzed in a K - deuterium bubble chamber experiment at K - momenta between 680 and 840 MeV/ c. Differential cross sections for elastic K - p and K - n scattering in the c.m. energy range of 1.60-1.74 GeV are presented. The results for K -p→K -p agree well with existing data obtained with hydrogen targets. The results for K -n→K -n are lower but still compatible with recent measurements from a counter experiment.

  11. Measurement of the differential neutron-deuteron scattering cross section in the energy range from 100 keV to 600 keV using a proportional counter

    CERN Document Server

    Nolte, R; Plompen, A; Röttger, S

    2014-01-01

    The angular distribution of neutron-deuteron scattering was investigated using the proportional counter P2 simultaneously as scattering target and detector for the recoil deuterons. The measurements were carried out using monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range from 150 keV to 500 keV. Various techniques were employed to reduce distortions of the experimental pulse-height distribution by photon-induced events. The experimental data were compared with realistic simulations which were carried out using different evaluated data sets. This comparison allows to conclude on inconsistencies in the evaluations.

  12. The application of multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry in three-dimensional imaging and measurement of dental casts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Fu

    Full Text Available To explore a new technique for reconstructing and measuring three-dimensional (3D models of orthodontic plaster casts using multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry (MBDCRP with a single-lens reflex camera.Thirty sets of orthodontic plaster casts that do not exhibit severe horizontal overlap (>2 mm between any two teeth were recorded by a single-lens reflex camera with 72 pictures taken in different directions. The 3D models of these casts were reconstructed and measured using the open source software MeshLab. These parameters, including mesio-distal crown diameter, arch width, and arch perimeter, were recorded six times on both the 3D digital models and on plaster casts by two examiners. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Bland-Altman method to measure agreement between the novel method and the traditional calliper method by calculating the differences between mean values.The average differences between the measurements of the photogrammetric 3D models and the plaster casts were 0.011-0.402mm. The mean differences between measurements obtained by the photogrammetric 3D models and the dental casts were not significant except for the lower arch perimeter (P>0.05, and all the differences were regarded as clinically acceptable (<0.5 mm.Measurements obtained by MBDCRP are compared well with those obtained from plaster casts, indicating that MBDCRP is an alternate way to store and measure dental plaster casts without severe horizontal overlap between any two teeth.

  13. Contribution to time resolved X-ray fluence and differential spectra measurement method improvement in 5-200 KeV range. Application to pulsed emission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vie, M.

    1983-09-01

    Two types of sensors have been developed to measure locally the time-resolved fluence and differential energetic spectrum of pulsed X-ray in the energy range 5 to 200 keV. Rise time of these sensors is very short (10 ns) in order to permit time-resolved measurements. Fluence sensors have been developed by putting filters in front of detector in order to make sensor response independent of X-ray energy and proportional to X-ray fluence. The energetic differential spectrum was calculated by way of a method similar to the ROSS method but using filters separated within a pair defining adjacent spectral width. A detailed analysis of uncertainties affecting calculated fluence and spectrum has been done [fr

  14. Measurements of double differential charged particle emission cross sections and development of a wide range charged particles spectrometer for ten`s MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauchi, Yasushi; Baba, Mamoru; Kiyosumi, Takehide [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [and others

    1997-03-01

    We measured (n,xp), (n,xd) cross sections of C and Al for En=64.3 MeV neutrons at the {sup 7}Li(p,n) neutron sources facility at TIARA (Takasaki Establishment, JAERI) by using a conventional SSD-NaI telescope placed in the air. They show characteristic energy and angular dependence in high energy regions. In order to extend the measurements to low energy protons and {alpha} particles, a new spectrometer consisting of low pressure gas counters and BaF{sub 2} scintillators is now under development. A low threshold for low energy {alpha} particles will be achieved by using the gas counters. The particle identification over a wide energy range will be achieved by combining the {Delta}E-E method for low energy particles with the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method of BaF{sub 2} for high energy particles. (author)

  15. Reliability and validity of an iPhone® application for the measurement of lumbar spine flexion and extension range of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Jannati, Elham; Mohseni-Bandpei, Mohammad Ali; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Rajabzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Measurement of lumbar spine range of motion (ROM) is often considered to be an essential component of lumbar spine physiotherapy and orthopedic assessment. The measurement can be carried out through various instruments such as inclinometers, goniometers, and etc. Recent smartphones have been equipped with accelerometers and magnetometers, which, through specific software applications (apps) can be used for inclinometric functions. Purpose The main purpose was to investigate the reliability and validity of an iPhone® app (TiltMeter© -advanced level and inclinometer) for measuring standing lumbar spine flexion–extension ROM in asymptomatic subjects. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out. Setting This study was conducted in a physiotherapy clinic located at School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science and Health Services, Tehran, Iran. Subjects A convenience sample of 30 asymptomatic adults (15 males; 15 females; age range = 18–55 years) was recruited between August 2015 and December 2015. Methods Following a 2–minute warm-up, the subjects were asked to stand in a relaxed position and their skin was marked at the T12–L1 and S1–S2 spinal levels. From this position, they were asked to perform maximum lumbar flexion followed by maximum lumbar extension with their knees straight. Two blinded raters each used an inclinometer and the iPhone ® app to measure lumbar spine flexion–extension ROM. A third rater read the measured angles. To calculate total lumbar spine flexion–extension ROM, the measurement from S1–S2 was subtracted from T12–L1. The second (2 hours later) and third (48 hours later) sessions were carried out in the same manner as the first session. All of the measurements were conducted 3 times and the mean value of 3 repetitions for each measurement was used for analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) models (3, k) and (2, k) were used to determine the intra-rater and inter

  16. Reliability and validity of an iPhone(®) application for the measurement of lumbar spine flexion and extension range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Taghipour, Morteza; Jannati, Elham; Mohseni-Bandpei, Mohammad Ali; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Rajabzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of lumbar spine range of motion (ROM) is often considered to be an essential component of lumbar spine physiotherapy and orthopedic assessment. The measurement can be carried out through various instruments such as inclinometers, goniometers, and etc. Recent smartphones have been equipped with accelerometers and magnetometers, which, through specific software applications (apps) can be used for inclinometric functions. The main purpose was to investigate the reliability and validity of an iPhone(®) app (TiltMeter(©) -advanced level and inclinometer) for measuring standing lumbar spine flexion-extension ROM in asymptomatic subjects. A cross-sectional study was carried out. This study was conducted in a physiotherapy clinic located at School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science and Health Services, Tehran, Iran. A convenience sample of 30 asymptomatic adults (15 males; 15 females; age range = 18-55 years) was recruited between August 2015 and December 2015. Following a 2-minute warm-up, the subjects were asked to stand in a relaxed position and their skin was marked at the T12-L1 and S1-S2 spinal levels. From this position, they were asked to perform maximum lumbar flexion followed by maximum lumbar extension with their knees straight. Two blinded raters each used an inclinometer and the iPhone (®) app to measure lumbar spine flexion-extension ROM. A third rater read the measured angles. To calculate total lumbar spine flexion-extension ROM, the measurement from S1-S2 was subtracted from T12-L1. The second (2 hours later) and third (48 hours later) sessions were carried out in the same manner as the first session. All of the measurements were conducted 3 times and the mean value of 3 repetitions for each measurement was used for analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) models (3, k) and (2, k) were used to determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients were

  17. Investigating the influence of long-range transport on surface O3 in Nevada, USA, using observations from multiple measurement platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, Rebekka; Miller, Matthieu B.; Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T.; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2015-01-01

    The current United States (US) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O 3 (75 ppb) is expected to be revised to between 60 and 70 ppb. As the NAAQS becomes more stringent, characterizing the extent of O 3 and precursors transported into the US is increasingly important. Given the high elevation, complex terrain, and location in the Intermountain West, the State of Nevada is ideally situated to intercept air transported into the US. Until recently, measurements of O 3 and associated pollutants were limited to areas in and around the cities of Las Vegas and Reno. In 2011, the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative began and through this project 13 surface monitoring sites were established. Also in 2011, the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) began making routine aircraft measurements of O 3 and other greenhouse gases in Nevada. The availability of aircraft and surface measurements in a relatively rural, remote setting in the Intermountain West presented a unique opportunity to investigate sources contributing to the O 3 observed in Nevada. Our analyses indicate that stratosphere to troposphere transport, long-range transport of Asian pollution, and regional emissions from urban areas and wildfires influence surface observations. The complexity of sources identified here along with the fact that O 3 frequently approaches the threshold being considered for a revised NAAQS indicate that interstate and international cooperation will be necessary to achieve compliance with a more stringent regulatory standard. Further, on a seasonal basis we found no significant difference between daily 1-h maximum O 3 at surface sites, which ranged in elevation from 888 to 2307 m, and aircraft measurements of O 3 < 2500 m which suggests that similar processes influence daytime O 3 across rural Nevada and indicates that column measurements from Railroad Valley, NV are useful in understanding these processes. - Highlights: • Measurements indicate Asian LRT, STT, and

  18. Investigating the influence of long-range transport on surface O{sub 3} in Nevada, USA, using observations from multiple measurement platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fine, Rebekka, E-mail: rebekkafine@gmail.com [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Miller, Matthieu B. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T. [Atmospheric Science Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gustin, Mae Sexauer, E-mail: mgustin@cabnr.unr.edu [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The current United States (US) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O{sub 3} (75 ppb) is expected to be revised to between 60 and 70 ppb. As the NAAQS becomes more stringent, characterizing the extent of O{sub 3} and precursors transported into the US is increasingly important. Given the high elevation, complex terrain, and location in the Intermountain West, the State of Nevada is ideally situated to intercept air transported into the US. Until recently, measurements of O{sub 3} and associated pollutants were limited to areas in and around the cities of Las Vegas and Reno. In 2011, the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative began and through this project 13 surface monitoring sites were established. Also in 2011, the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) began making routine aircraft measurements of O{sub 3} and other greenhouse gases in Nevada. The availability of aircraft and surface measurements in a relatively rural, remote setting in the Intermountain West presented a unique opportunity to investigate sources contributing to the O{sub 3} observed in Nevada. Our analyses indicate that stratosphere to troposphere transport, long-range transport of Asian pollution, and regional emissions from urban areas and wildfires influence surface observations. The complexity of sources identified here along with the fact that O{sub 3} frequently approaches the threshold being considered for a revised NAAQS indicate that interstate and international cooperation will be necessary to achieve compliance with a more stringent regulatory standard. Further, on a seasonal basis we found no significant difference between daily 1-h maximum O{sub 3} at surface sites, which ranged in elevation from 888 to 2307 m, and aircraft measurements of O{sub 3} < 2500 m which suggests that similar processes influence daytime O{sub 3} across rural Nevada and indicates that column measurements from Railroad Valley, NV are useful in understanding these processes. - Highlights:

  19. Development and validation of automatic HS-SPME with a gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry method for analysis of volatiles in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Barros, Elisabete; Moreira, Nathalie; Elias Pereira, Giuliano; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Moraes Rezende, Claudia; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2012-11-15

    An automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry (GC-IT/MS) was developed in order to quantify a large number of volatile compounds in wines such as alcohols, ester, norisoprenoids and terpenes. The procedures were optimized for SPME fiber selection, pre-incubation temperature and time, extraction temperature and time, and salt addition. A central composite experimental design was used in the optimization of the extraction conditions. The volatile compounds showed optimal extraction using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, incubation of 5 ml of wine with 2g NaCl at 45 °C during 5 min, and subsequent extraction of 30 min at the same temperature. The method allowed the identification of 64 volatile compounds. Afterwards, the method was validated successfully for the most significant compounds and was applied to study the volatile composition of different white wines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison between solid phase microextraction (SPME) and hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HFLPME) for determination of extractables from post-consumer recycled PET into food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Éder Costa; Echegoyen, Yolanda; Cruz, Sandra Andrea; Nerin, Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HFLPME) and solid phase microextraction (SPME) methods for pre-concentration of contaminants (toluene, benzophenone, tetracosane and chloroform) in food simulants were investigated. For HFLPME 1-heptanol, 2-octanone and dibutyl-ether were studied as extracting solvents. Analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), flame ionization (GC-FID) and electron capture detectors (GC-ECD) were carried out. In addition, the methods were employed to evaluate the safety in use of a PET material after the recycling process (comprising washing, extrusion and solid state polymerization (SSP)) through extractability studies of the contaminants using 10% (v/v) ethanol in deionized water and 3% (w/v) acetic acid in deionized water as food simulants in different conditions: 10 days at 40°C and 2h at 70°C. The HFLPME preconcentration method provided increased sensitivity when compared to the SPME method and allowed to analyze concentration levels below 10 µg surrogate per kg food simulant. The results of the extractability studies showed considerable reductions after the extrusion and SSP processes and indicated the compliance with regulations for using recycled PET in contact with food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of long-range near-side two-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elkafrawy, Tamer; Mohamed, Amr; Salama, Elsayed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Khein, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Lukina, Olga; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Cerci, Salim; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Gecit, Fehime Hayal; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozcan, Merve; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; 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Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; 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You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; 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Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-04-27

    Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles produced in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 270 inverse-nanobarns. The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudo rapidity (|$ \\eta $| 2.0), near-side ($\\Delta\\phi\\approx$ 0) structure emerges in the two-particle $\\Delta\\eta$-$\\Delta\\phi$ correlation functions. The magnitude of the correlation exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range 1.0 < $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ < 2.0 GeV/$c$ and an approximately linear increase with the charged particle multiplicity. The overall correlation strength at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 13TeV is similar to that found in earlier pp data at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 7 TeV, but is measured up to much higher multiplicity values. The observed long-range correlations are compared to those seen in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at lower collision energies.

  2. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measureme