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Sample records for splitting enzymes added

  1. Hfq stimulates the activity of the CCA-adding enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betat Heike

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterial Sm-like protein Hfq is known as an important regulator involved in many reactions of RNA metabolism. A prominent function of Hfq is the stimulation of RNA polyadenylation catalyzed by E. coli poly(A polymerase I (PAP. As a member of the nucleotidyltransferase superfamily, this enzyme shares a high sequence similarity with an other representative of this family, the tRNA nucleotidyltransferase that synthesizes the 3'-terminal sequence C-C-A to all tRNAs (CCA-adding enzyme. Therefore, it was assumed that Hfq might not only influence the poly(A polymerase in its specific activity, but also other, similar enzymes like the CCA-adding enzyme. Results Based on the close evolutionary relation of these two nucleotidyltransferases, it was tested whether Hfq is a specific modulator acting exclusively on PAP or whether it also influences the activity of the CCA-adding enzyme. The obtained data indicate that the reaction catalyzed by this enzyme is substantially accelerated in the presence of Hfq. Furthermore, Hfq binds specifically to tRNA transcripts, which seems to be the prerequisite for the observed effect on CCA-addition. Conclusion The increase of the CCA-addition in the presence of Hfq suggests that this protein acts as a stimulating factor not only for PAP, but also for the CCA-adding enzyme. In both cases, Hfq interacts with RNA substrates, while a direct binding to the corresponding enzymes was not demonstrated up to now (although experimental data indicate a possible interaction of PAP and Hfq. So far, the basic principle of these stimulatory effects is not clear yet. In case of the CCA-adding enzyme, however, the presented data indicate that the complex between Hfq and tRNA substrate might enhance the product release from the enzyme.

  2. 'Photosystem II: the water splitting enzyme of photosynthesis and the origin of oxygen in our atmosphere'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James

    2016-01-01

    About 3 billion years ago an enzyme emerged which would dramatically change the chemical composition of our planet and set in motion an unprecedented explosion in biological activity. This enzyme used solar energy to power the thermodynamically and chemically demanding reaction of water splitting. In so doing it provided biology with an unlimited supply of reducing equivalents needed to convert carbon dioxide into the organic molecules of life while at the same time produced oxygen to transform our planetary atmosphere from an anaerobic to an aerobic state. The enzyme which facilitates this reaction and therefore underpins virtually all life on our planet is known as Photosystem II (PSII). It is a pigment-binding, multisubunit protein complex embedded in the lipid environment of the thylakoid membranes of plants, algae and cyanobacteria. Today we have detailed understanding of the structure and functioning of this key and unique enzyme. The journey to this level of knowledge can be traced back to the discovery of oxygen itself in the 18th-century. Since then there has been a sequence of mile stone discoveries which makes a fascinating story, stretching over 200 years. But it is the last few years that have provided the level of detail necessary to reveal the chemistry of water oxidation and O-O bond formation. In particular, the crystal structure of the isolated PSII enzyme has been reported with ever increasing improvement in resolution. Thus the organisational and structural details of its many subunits and cofactors are now well understood. The water splitting site was revealed as a cluster of four Mn ions and a Ca ion surrounded by amino-acid side chains, of which seven provide direct ligands to the metals. The metal cluster is organised as a cubane structure composed of three Mn ions and a Ca2+ linked by oxo-bonds with the fourth Mn ion attached to the cubane. This structure has now been synthesised in a non-protein environment suggesting that it is a totally

  3. Introducing inducible fluorescent split cholesterol oxidase to mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Konstantin G; Neuvonen, Maarit; Brock, Ivonne; Ikonen, Elina; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2017-05-26

    Cholesterol oxidase (COase) is a bacterial enzyme catalyzing the first step in the biodegradation of cholesterol. COase is an important biotechnological tool for clinical diagnostics and production of steroid drugs and insecticides. It is also used for tracking intracellular cholesterol; however, its utility is limited by the lack of an efficient temporal control of its activity. To overcome this we have developed a regulatable fragment complementation system for COase cloned from Chromobacterium sp. The enzyme was split into two moieties that were fused to FKBP (FK506-binding protein) and FRB (rapamycin-binding domain) pair and split GFP fragments. The addition of rapamycin reconstituted a fluorescent enzyme, termed split GFP-COase, the fluorescence level of which correlated with its oxidation activity. A rapid decrease of cellular cholesterol induced by intracellular expression of the split GFP-COase promoted the dissociation of a cholesterol biosensor D4H from the plasma membrane. The process was reversible as upon rapamycin removal, the split GFP-COase fluorescence was lost, and cellular cholesterol levels returned to normal. These data demonstrate that the split GFP-COase provides a novel tool to manipulate cholesterol in mammalian cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Efficiency of the sulfur–iodine thermochemical water splitting process for hydrogen production based on ADS (accelerator driven system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Lázaro; González, Daniel; García, Carlos; García, Laura; Brayner, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The current hydrogen production is based on fossil fuels; they have a huge contribution to the atmosphere's pollution. Thermochemical water splitting cycles don't present this issue because the required process heat is obtained from nuclear energy and therefore, the environmental impact is smaller than using conventional fuels. Although, solar hydrogen production could be also used for practical applications because it's lower environmental impact. One of the promising approaches to produce large quantities of hydrogen in an efficient way using nuclear energy is the sulfur–iodine (S–I) thermochemical water splitting cycle. The nuclear source proposed in this paper is a pebble bed gas cooled transmutation facility. Pebble bed very high temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy. Softwares based on CPS (chemical process simulation) can be used to simulate the thermochemical water splitting sulfur-iodine cycle for hydrogen production. In this paper, a model for analyzing the sulfur-iodine process sensibility respect to the thermodynamics parameters: temperature, pressure and mass flow is developed. Efficiency is also calculated and the influence of different parameters on this value. The behavior of the proposed model for different values of initial reactant's flow, is analyzed. - Highlights: • Chemical Process Simulation (CPS) of the complete sulfur iodine cycle. • Conceptual design of an accelerator driven system for hydrogen production. • Radial and axial temperature profile for the end of stationary cycle (EOC). • Thermal stability of the sulfuric and hydriodic acid sections determination. • Sulfur iodine cycle efficiency analyses for different heat flow from the ADS

  5. Comparing Electrochemical and Biological Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Dimitrievski, Kristian; Siegbahn, P.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system and on the......On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system...... and on the inorganic catalyst surface of an acidic electrolysis cell, the thermochemical features of the catalysts can be directly compared. We suggest a simple test for a thermochemically optimal catalyst. We show that, although both the RuO2 surface and the Mn cluster in photo system II are quite close to optimal...

  6. A splitting algorithm for directional regularization and sparsification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau; Nielsen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    We present a new split-type algorithm for the minimization of a p-harmonic energy with added data fidelity term. The half-quadratic splitting reduces the original problem to two straightforward problems, that can be minimized efficiently. The minimizers to the two sub-problems can typically...... be computed pointwise and are easily implemented on massively parallel processors. Furthermore the splitting method allows for the computation of solutions to a large number of more advanced directional regularization problems. In particular we are able to handle robust, non-convex data terms, and to define...

  7. Conditional Toxin Splicing Using a Split Intein System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Spencer C; O'Sullivan, Connor; Howard, Perry L

    2017-01-01

    Protein toxin splicing mediated by split inteins can be used as a strategy for conditional cell ablation. The approach requires artificial fragmentation of a potent protein toxin and tethering each toxin fragment to a split intein fragment. The toxin-intein fragments are, in turn, fused to dimerization domains, such that addition of a dimerizing agent reconstitutes the split intein. These chimeric toxin-intein fusions remain nontoxic until the dimerizer is added, resulting in activation of intein splicing and ligation of toxin fragments to form an active toxin. Considerations for the engineering and implementation of conditional toxin splicing (CTS) systems include: choice of toxin split site, split site (extein) chemistry, and temperature sensitivity. The following method outlines design criteria and implementation notes for CTS using a previously engineered system for splicing a toxin called sarcin, as well as for developing alternative CTS systems.

  8. Are Ducted Mini-Splits Worth It?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zhang, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2018-02-01

    Ducted mini-split heat pumps are gaining popularity in some regions of the country due to their energy-efficient specifications and their ability to be hidden from sight. Although product and install costs are typically higher than the ductless mini-split heat pumps, this technology is well worth the premium for some homeowners who do not like to see an indoor unit in their living area. Due to the interest in this technology by local utilities and homeowners, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop capabilities within the Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) tool to model ducted mini-split heat pumps. After the fundamental capabilities were added, energy-use results could be compared to other technologies that were already in BEopt, such as zonal electric resistance heat, central air source heat pumps, and ductless mini-split heat pumps. Each of these technologies was then compared using five prototype configurations in three different BPA heating zones to determine how the ducted mini-split technology would perform under different scenarios. The result of this project was a set of EnergyPlus models representing the various prototype configurations in each climate zone. Overall, the ducted mini-split heat pumps saved about 33-60% compared to zonal electric resistance heat (with window AC systems modeled in the summer). The results also showed that the ducted mini-split systems used about 4% more energy than the ductless mini-split systems, which saved about 37-64% compared to electric zonal heat (depending on the prototype and climate).

  9. Efficiency of the sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting process for hydrogen production based on ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.; Garcia, L.; Garcia, C.; Garcia, L.; Brayner, C.

    2013-01-01

    The current hydrogel production is based on fossil fuels; they have a huge contribution to the atmosphere's pollution. thermochemical water splitting cycles don't present this issue because the required process heat is obtained from nuclear energy and therefore, the environmental impact is smaller than using conventional fuels. One of the promising approaches to produce large quantities of hydrogen in an efficient way using nuclear energy is the sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical water splitting cycle. The nuclear source proposed in this paper is a pebble bed gas cooled transmutation facility. Pebble bed very high temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy. Software based on Chemical Process Simulation (CPS) can be used to simulate the thermochemical water splitting sulfur-iodine cycle for hydrogen production. In this paper, a model for analyzing the sulfur-iodine process sensibility is developed. Efficiency is also calculated and the influence of different parameters on this value. The behavior of the proposed model before different values of initial reactant's flow is analyzed. (Author)

  10. Embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Illmensee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.

  11. On the local edge antimagicness of m-splitting graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albirri, E. R.; Dafik; Slamin; Agustin, I. H.; Alfarisi, R.

    2018-04-01

    Let G be a connected and simple graph. A split graph is a graph derived by adding new vertex v‧ in every vertex v‧ such that v‧ adjacent to v in graph G. An m-splitting graph is a graph which has m v‧-vertices, denoted by mSpl(G). A local edge antimagic coloring in G = (V, E) graph is a bijection f:V (G)\\to \\{1,2,3,\\ldots,|V(G)|\\} in which for any two adjacent edges e 1 and e 2 satisfies w({e}1)\

  12. Aβ-degrading enzymes: potential for treatment of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, James Scott; Barua, Neil; Kehoe, Patrick Gavin; Gill, Steven; Love, Seth

    2011-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that deficient clearance of β-amyloid (Aβ) contributes to its accumulation in late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Several Aβ-degrading enzymes, including neprilysin (NEP), insulin-degrading enzyme, and endothelin-converting enzyme reduce Aβ levels and protect against cognitive impairment in mouse models of AD. The activity of several Aβ-degrading enzymes rises with age and increases still further in AD, perhaps as a physiological response to minimize the buildup of Aβ. The age- and disease-related changes in expression of more recently recognized Aβ-degrading enzymes (e.g. NEP-2 and cathepsin B) remain to be investigated, and there is strong evidence that reduced NEP activity contributes to the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Regardless of the role of Aβ-degrading enzymes in the development of AD, experimental data indicate that increasing the activity of these enzymes (NEP in particular) has therapeutic potential in AD, although targeting their delivery to the brain remains a major challenge. The most promising current approaches include the peripheral administration of agents that enhance the activity of Aβ-degrading enzymes and the direct intracerebral delivery of NEP by convection-enhanced delivery. In the longer term, genetic approaches to increasing the intracerebral expression of NEP or other Aβ-degrading enzymes may offer advantages.

  13. Lateral ridge split and immediate implant placement in moderately resorbed alveolar ridges: How much is the added width?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Rahpeyma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lateral ridge split technique is a way to solve the problem of the width in narrow ridges with adequate height. Simultaneous insertion of dental implants will considerably reduce the edentulism time. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients who were managed with ridge splitting technique were enrolled. Thirty-eight locations in both jaws with near equal distribution in quadrants received 82 dental fixtures. Beta Tricalcium phosphate (Cerasorb® was used as biomaterial to fill the intercortical space. Submerged implants were used and 3 months later healing caps were placed. Direct bone measurements before and after split were done with a Collis. Patients were clinically re-evaluated at least 6 months after implant loading. All the data were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software version 11.5 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Illinois, USA. Frequency of edentulous spaces and pre/post operative bone width was analyzed. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. Difference was considered significant if P value was less than 0.05. Results: Mean value for presplit width was 3.2 ± 0.34 mm while post-split mean width was 5.57 ± 0.49 mm. Mean gain in crest ridge after ridge splitting was 2 ± 0.3 mm. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in width before and after operation ((P < 0.05. All implants (n = 82 survived and were in full function at follow up (at least 6 months after implant loading. Conclusion: Ridge splitting technique in both jaws showed the predictable outcomes, if appropriate cases selected and special attention paid to details; then the waiting time between surgery and beginning of prosthodontic treatment can be reduced to 3 month.

  14. Beneficial effects of adding lipase enzyme to broiler diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbarkouky, E.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A total number of 300 Ross broiler chicks were obtained from commercial hatchery at one day of age. The chicks were divided into three groups (50 males and 50 females in each). The first and second groups were supplemented with 3000 and 2000 lU/kg diet of lipase enzyme, respectively, while the third group served as control and fed on basal diet. Birds fed on diets that supplemented with lipase enzyme showed significant increase in body weight and dry matter intake, as well as fats and protein content dry matters. The serum lipase activity showed significant increase in treated groups compared to the control. Non-significant changes were determined in serum total lipids, T3, T4 and ash content. Birds supplemented with lipase showed significant decrease in cholesterol concentration. It could be concluded that birds fed diets containing 2000 or 3000 lU/kg diet of lipase enzyme exhibited improvement in broiler performance

  15. Reconstruction of bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome in a father and daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ganger, Rudolf; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Tibial aplasia is of heterogeneous aetiology, the majority of reports are sporadic. We describe the reconstruction procedures in two subjects - a daughter and father manifested autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance of the bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome. Reconstruction of these patients required multiple surgical procedures and orthoprosthesis was mandatory. The main goal of treatment was to achieve walking. Stabilization of the ankle joint by fibular-talar-chondrodesis on both sides, followed by bilateral Brown-procedure at the knee joint level has been applied accordingly. The outcome was with improved function of the deformed limbs and walking was achieved with simultaneous designation of orthotic fitting. This is the first study encompassing the diagnosis and management of a father and daughter with bilateral tibial aplasia associated with variable split hand/foot deformity without foot ablation. Our patients showed the typical AD pattern of inheritance of split-hand/foot and tibial aplasia.

  16. Effects of Added Enzymes on Sorted, Unsorted and Sorted-Out Barley: A Model Study on Realtime Viscosity and Process Potentials Using Rapid Visco Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Olsen, Rasmus Lyngsø

    2017-01-01

    Barley sorting is an important step for selecting grain of required quality for malting prior to brewing. However, brewing with unmalted barley with added enzymes has been thoroughly proven, raising the question of whether traditional sorting for high quality malting-barley is still necessary. To...

  17. SplitDist—Calculating Split-Distances for Sets of Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2004-01-01

    We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other.......We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other....

  18. Improved Bunch Splitting for the 75ns LHC Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2011-01-01

    The 75ns variant was added to the PS arsenal of LHC-type beams by adapting the 20MHz cavity used to produce the 25 and 50ns variants to operate at a switchable 13MHz. This permitted splitting from harmonic 14 to 28, but at a cost in adiabaticity compared with the h=2142 splitting of the other two cases. Consequently, a delicate empirical optimization was necessary to bring the 75ns beam inside specification. More recently the speed at which the bunches, once fully distinct, are moved apart has been revisited and further optimization achieved. As a by-product, deliberately degrading the splitting by moving the bunches apart too quickly led to sufficient coherent motion in the resultant bunch pair to permit a voltage calibration of the 13MHz cavity by means of the influence on convergence of the rf voltage input into the iterative algorithm of the Tomoscope [1,2].

  19. Reconstruction of bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome in a father and daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibial aplasia is of heterogeneous aetiology, the majority of reports are sporadic. We describe the reconstruction procedures in two subjects - a daughter and father manifested autosomal dominant (AD inheritance of the bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome. Materials and Methods: Reconstruction of these patients required multiple surgical procedures and orthoprosthesis was mandatory. The main goal of treatment was to achieve walking. Stabilization of the ankle joint by fibular-talar-chondrodesis on both sides, followed by bilateral Brown-procedure at the knee joint level has been applied accordingly. Results: The outcome was with improved function of the deformed limbs and walking was achieved with simultaneous designation of orthotic fitting. Conclusion: This is the first study encompassing the diagnosis and management of a father and daughter with bilateral tibial aplasia associated with variable split hand/foot deformity without foot ablation. Our patients showed the typical AD pattern of inheritance of split-hand/foot and tibial aplasia.

  20. Studies on the enzymes produced by Basidiomycetes. Part 1. The production of crude enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, J. S.; Kim, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Cellulase, protease, and xylanase, formation by the basidiomycetes, Pleurotus ostreatus 301 and Lentinus edodes 3-1 in growth on rice straw medium were studied. Cultural conditions adequate for enzyme production and effects of various materials and inorganic salts added to the rice straw media were investigated. Lentinus edodes 3-1 was an excellent producer of cellulase and xylanase, and Pleurotus ostreatus 301 of protease. The optimum conditions for enzyme production were 30 degrees for cellulase production and at 25 degrees for xylanase and protease production, with 75% moisture content and initial pH of 5.0-6.0. The appropriate incubation times for enzyme production were 30 days and 35 days for Pleurotus ostreatus 301 and Lentinus edodes 3-1, respectively. Among the various materials added, defatted soybean, defatted rape seed, or defatted sesame were all effective in enzyme production but reduced mycelial growth. Rice bran was also effective, particularly at a 30% concentration. The addition of inorganic salts enhanced enzyme production. Among inorganic salts, the optimum concentration of CaCO3 was 5%, and that of CaSO4 was 2%.

  1. Effects of Drift-Shell Splitting by Chorus Waves on Radiation Belt Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A. A.; Zheng, L.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Tu, W.; Cunningham, G.; Elkington, S. R.; Albert, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drift shell splitting in the radiation belts breaks all three adiabatic invariants of charged particle motion via pitch angle scattering, and produces new diffusion terms that fully populate the diffusion tensor in the Fokker-Planck equation. Based on the stochastic differential equation method, the Radbelt Electron Model (REM) simulation code allows us to solve such a fully three-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation, and to elucidate the sources and transport mechanisms behind the phase space density variations. REM has been used to perform simulations with an empirical initial phase space density followed by a seed electron injection, with a Tsyganenko 1989 magnetic field model, and with chorus wave and ULF wave diffusion models. Our simulation results show that adding drift shell splitting changes the phase space location of the source to smaller L shells, which typically reduces local electron energization (compared to neglecting drift-shell splitting effects). Simulation results with and without drift-shell splitting effects are compared with Van Allen Probe measurements.

  2. Value added transformation of ubiquitous substrates into highly efficient and flexible electrodes for water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Atharva; Dixit, Harsha; Majee, Rahul; Bhattacharyya, Sayan

    2018-05-22

    Herein, we present an innovative approach for transforming commonly available cellulose paper into a flexible and catalytic current collector for overall water splitting. A solution processed soak-and-coat method of electroless plating was used to render a piece of paper conducting by conformably depositing metallic nickel nanoparticles, while still retaining the open macroporous framework. Proof-of-concept paper-electrodes are realized by modifying nickel-paper current collector with model electrocatalysts nickel-iron oxyhydroxide and nickel-molybdenum bimetallic alloy through electrodeposition route. The paper-electrodes demonstrate exceptional activities towards oxygen evolution reaction and hydrogen evolution reaction, requiring overpotentials of 240 and 32 mV at 50 and -10 mA cm -2 , respectively, even as they endure extreme mechanical stress. The generality of this approach is demonstrated by fabricating similar electrodes on cotton fabric, which also show high activity. Finally, a two-electrode paper-electrolyzer is constructed which can split water with an efficiency of 98.01%, and exhibits robust stability for more than 200 h.

  3. ZrO2 nanoparticles' effects on split tensile strength of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, split tensile strength of self compacting concrete with different amount of ZrO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. ZrO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to cement paste (Portland cement together with polycarboxylate superplasticizer and split tensile strength of the specimens has been measured. The results indicate that ZrO2 nanoparticles are able to improve split tensile strength of concrete and recover the negative effects of polycarboxylate superplasticizer. ZrO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 4 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration. The increased the ZrO2 nanoparticles' content more than 4 wt. (%, causes the reduced the split tensile strength because of unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix.

  4. Aβ degradation or cerebral perfusion? Divergent effects of multifunctional enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, J Scott; Palmer, Jennifer C; Tayler, Hannah; Palmer, Laura E; Ashby, Emma; Kehoe, Patrick G; Love, Seth

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that deficient clearance of β-amyloid (Aβ) contributes to its accumulation in late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Several Aβ-degrading enzymes, including neprilysin (NEP), endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) reduce Aβ levels and protect against cognitive impairment in mouse models of AD. In post-mortem human brain tissue we have found that the activity of these Aβ-degrading enzymes rise with age and increases still further in AD, perhaps as a physiological response that helps to minimize the build-up of Aβ. ECE-1/-2 and ACE are also rate-limiting enzymes in the production of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II (Ang II), two potent vasoconstrictors, increases in the levels of which are likely to contribute to reduced blood flow in AD. This review considers the possible interdependence between Aβ-degrading enzymes, ischemia and Aβ in AD: ischemia has been shown to increase Aβ production both in vitro and in vivo, whereas increased Aβ probably enhances ischemia by vasoconstriction, mediated at least in part by increased ECE and ACE activity. In contrast, NEP activity may help to maintain cerebral perfusion, by reducing the accumulation of Aβ in cerebral blood vessels and lessening its toxicity to vascular smooth muscle cells. In assessing the role of Aβ-degrading proteases in the pathogenesis of AD and, particularly, their potential as therapeutic agents, it is important to bear in mind the multifunctional nature of these enzymes and to consider their effects on other substrates and pathways.

  5. THE EFFECTIVITY TEST OF SHEEP RUMEN LIQUOR ENZYME ADDED TO PALM KERNEL MEAL ON ITS DECREASE OF CRUDE FIBER AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENT FOR CATFISH Pangasius hypophthalmus DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the hydrolysis of fiber content in palm kernel meal (PKM by sheep rumen liquor enzyme and to know the apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed PKM for catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus. The first trial examined effectivity of sheep rumen liquor enzyme to decrease crude fiber content of PKM. The added volume of sheep rumen liquor enzyme was 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mL/kg PKM and then it was incubated for 0, 12, and 24 hours. A factorial completely randomized experimental design consisted of 2 variables and triplicates were selected. The second trial was conducted to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of hydrolized PKM for catfish. Apparent digestibility coefficients were determined using chromic oxide indicator added to both reference and test diets. The feed ingredients used in the trial were hydrolyzed PKM (PKMe and unhydrolyzed PKM (PKM. Ten fishes with weighing around 20 g were used in the trial and held in 80 l tanks. Feces were collected from three replicate groups of fish using a fecal collection column attached to fish rearing tank. PKM hydrolyzed with 100 mL/kg and incubated for 24 hour showed the lowest crude fiber content (6.99% among the treatments (P<0.05. Apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed PKM was 57.57% compared with unhydrolyzed PKM 15.31%. Based on the evaluation in those parameters it was concluded that sheep rumen liquor enzyme added to PKM was effective to decrease crude fiber content of PKM and improve apparent digestibility coefficient of PKM for catfish.

  6. Effect of adding cofactors to exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on preingestive hydrolysis, in vitro digestibility, and fermentation of bermudagrass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Ma, Z X; Gonzalez, C F; Adesogan, A T

    2015-07-01

    Our objectives were to examine if adding metal ion cofactors (COF) to exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) would increase the beneficial effects of the EFE on the preingestive hydrolysis and in vitro digestibility and fermentation of bermudagrass haylage. In experiment 1, 5 COF (Mn(2+), Co(2+), Fe(2+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+)) were screened to select the best candidates for synergistically enhancing release of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) from bermudagrass haylage by 5 EFE. The 5 EFE (1A, 2A, 11C, 13D, and 15D) were sourced from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae and they were the most effective of 12 EFE at increasing the neutral detergent fiber digestibility of bermudagrass haylage in a previous trial. Adding 1mM of each of the COF to EFE 2A or 11C synergistically increased release of WSC from bermudagrass haylage, as did adding (1mM) Fe(2+) to 1A, Mn(2+), Co(2+), or Fe(2+) to 13D, or Co(2+)or Fe(2+) to 15D. The greatest release of WSC responses were obtained by adding Mn(2+) to 11C (38%) or by adding Fe(2+) to 2A or 13D (10 and 21.9%, respectively). In experiment 2, the effect of increasing the COF dose on in vitro digestibility and fermentation of bermudagrass haylage was examined using the best EFE-COF combinations from experiment 1. Effects of adding increasing doses of these COF on EFE-mediated changes in vitro digestibility depended on the COF-EFE combination. Adding 10mM Mn(2+) alone to bermudagrass haylage increased DMD and NDFD by 2.7 and 6.3% and adding 11C alone increased these measures by 6.6 and 15.5%, respectively. However, adding 10mM Mn(2+) with 11C resulted in 3.5 and 8.1% increases in DMD and NDFD, respectively, beyond the increases caused by adding 11C alone. Adding Fe(2+) to 2A had no effects on EFE-mediated digestibility responses, but 2A prevented adverse effects of adding Fe(2+) alone on DMD and NDFD. In contrast, adding Fe(2+) to 13D reduced the increases in DMD and NDFD caused by adding the EFE alone. This study shows that adding COF

  7. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tongsong; Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong

    2015-01-01

    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics

  8. Study on the reaction mechanism of oxygen-added enzymes for the effective utilization of unused sea weeds; Miriyo kaiso no shigenka ni kansuru sanso tenka sanso no hanno kiko ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To effectively utilize unused sea weeds having ingestion obstructing activities for feed, the treatment by oxygen added enzyme has been investigated. Undaria pinnatifida was pasted and solidified with agar, to prepare the standard feed. Individuals of Holiotis discus hannai Ino were bred in the cistern. Extracts from ten kinds of sea weed distributed in the Sanriku Coast were added to the feed, which were compared with the standard feed to determine the ingestion obstructing activities. A testing method using cellulose painted aluminum sheet was also employed. All of the extracts from sea weeds having the ingestion obstructing activities exhibited the strong phenol reactions. The sensitivity of individuals of Holiotis discus hannai Ino depended greatly on the derived species and the chemical structures of phenolic substances. The {alpha}-hydroxymuconic acid semialdehyde (HMS), an enzyme decomposition product of catechol, provided no ingestion obstructing activity, and showed a little ingestion accelerating activity. This was considered to become ingestible through the biodegradation of phenolic substances. The HMS, a decomposition product of catechol 2,3-oxygen added enzyme derived from the petroleum decomposition bacteria, was prospective as a highly functional compound synthesizing material. 10 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Shear-driven redistribution of surfactant affects enzyme activity in well-mixed femtoliter droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Jung, Seung-Yong; Collier, C Patrick

    2009-06-15

    We developed a microfluidic platform for splitting well-mixed, femtoliter-volume droplets from larger water-in-oil plugs, where the sizes of the daughter droplets were not limited by channel width. These droplets were separated from mother plugs at a microfabricated T-junction, which enabled the study of how increased confinement affected enzyme kinetics in droplets 4-10 microm in diameter. Initial rates for enzyme catalysis in the mother plugs and the largest daughter drops were close to the average bulk rate, while the rates in smaller droplets decreased linearly with increasing surface to volume ratio. Rates in the smallest droplets decreased by a factor of 4 compared to the bulk rate. Traditional methods for detecting nonspecific adsorption at the water-oil interface were unable to detect evidence of enzyme adsorption, including pendant drop tensiometry, laser scanning confocal microscopy of drops containing labeled proteins in microemulsions, and epifluorescence microscopy of plugs and drops generated on-chip. We propose the slowing of enzyme reaction kinetics in the smaller droplets was the result of increased adsorption and inactivation of enzymes at the water-oil interface arising from transient interfacial shear stresses imparted on the daughter droplets as they split from the mother plugs and passed through the constricted opening of the T-junction. Such stresses are known to modulate the interfacial area and density of surfactant molecules that can passivate the interface. Bright field images of the splitting processes at the junction indicate that these stresses scaled with increasing surface to volume ratios of the droplets but were relatively insensitive to the average flow rate of plugs upstream of the junction.

  10. Enzymic conversion of starch to glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-08-19

    Corn is steeped in a SO/sub 2/ solution for 30 to 40 hours, coarsely ground, separated from the germ, and filtered. A 35% suspension of the germ-free corn, still containing fibers, hull, and gluten, is treated with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to raise the pH to 6.5 to 7.0. A starch-liquifying enzyme is added and after a 2 hours treatment at 85/sup 0/ the liquefied starch is cooled to 60/sup 0/ and the pH is adjusted to 4.5 to 5.0 with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. A saccharifying enzyme is now added. After 40 to 81 hours, a raw glucose solution is obtained and is freed from fibers and gluten by filtration. The commercial starch-liquifying enzymes are designated HT-1000 and Neozyme 3 LC (liquid). The saccharifying enzymes are Diazyme or Diazyme L 30 (liquid). The solid enzymes are used at a level up to 0.1% by weight of the starch. Up to 100% conversion of starch into glucose is achieved.

  11. Polarization Insensitivity in Double-Split Ring and Triple-Split Ring Terahertz Resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qian-Nan; Lan Feng; Tang Xiao-Pin; Yang Zi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A modified double-split ring resonator and a modified triple-split ring resonator, which offer polarization-insensitive performance, are investigated, designed and fabricated. By displacing the two gaps of the conventional double-split ring resonator away from the center, the second resonant frequency for the 0° polarized wave and the resonant frequency for the 90° polarized wave become increasingly close to each other until they are finally identical. Theoretical and experimental results show that the modified double-split ring resonator and the modified triple-split ring resonator are insensitive to different polarized waves and show strong resonant frequency dips near 433 and 444 GHz, respectively. The results of this work suggest new opportunities for the investigation and design of polarization-dependent terahertz devices based on split ring resonators. (paper)

  12. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review of fracture patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenen, S A; Becking, A G

    2016-07-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the mandibular sagittal split osteotomy is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Few restorative techniques to manage the situation have been described. In this article, a classification of reported bad split pattern types is proposed and appropriate salvage procedures to manage the different types of undesired fracture are presented. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 33 studies published between 1971 and 2015. These reported a total of 458 cases of bad splits among 19,527 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 10,271 patients. The total reported incidence of bad split was 2.3% of sagittal splits. The most frequently encountered were buccal plate fractures of the proximal segment (types 1A-F) and lingual fractures of the distal segment (types 2A and 2B). Coronoid fractures (type 3) and condylar neck fractures (type 4) have seldom been reported. The various types of bad split may require different salvage approaches. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Market Structure and Stock Splits

    OpenAIRE

    David Michayluk; Paul Kofman

    2001-01-01

    Enhanced liquidity is one possible motivation for stock splits but empirical research frequently documents declines in liquidity following stock splits. Despite almost thirty years of inquiry, little is known about all the changes in a stock's trading activity following a stock split. We examine how liquidity measures change around more than 2,500 stock splits and find a pervasive decline in most measures. Large stock splits exhibit a more severe liquidity decline than small stock splits, esp...

  14. [Effect of tongluo xingnao effervescent tablet on learning and memory of AD rats and expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin-Jie; Dai, Yuan; Hu, Yong; Ma, Yun-Tong; Xu, Shi-Jun; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2013-09-01

    To study the effect of Tongluo Xingnao effervescent tablet on learning and memory of dementia rats induced by injection of Abeta25-35 in hippocampus and expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in hippocampus, in order to provide basis for preventing and treating senile dementia. The dementia rat model was established by injecting Abeta25-35 in hippocampus. The rats were divided into the model control group, the Aricept (1.4 mg x kg(-1)) group, and Tongluo Xingnao effervescent tablet high dose (7.56 g x kg(-1)), middle dose (3.78 g x kg(-1)) and low dose (1.59 g x kg(-1)) groups. A sham operation group was established by injecting normal saline in hippocampus. The rats were orally given drugs for 90 days, once a day. Their learning and memory were tested by using Morris water maze. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis were utilized for a quantitative analysis on the expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in hippocampus. Tongluo Xingnao effervescent tablet could significantly shorten the escape latency of rats in the directional navigation test, prolong the retention time in the first quadrant dwell, decrease the retention time in the third quadrant dwell, increase the frequency of crossing the platform, show a more notable statistical significance than the model control group (P tablet has the effects of improving learning and memory capacity of AD rats and promoting the expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in hippocampus. Its effect in promoting intelligence will be related to increased insulin-degrading enzyme in hippocampus.

  15. Splitting methods for split feasibility problems with application to Dantzig selectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hongjin; Xu, Hong-Kun

    2017-01-01

    The split feasibility problem (SFP), which refers to the task of finding a point that belongs to a given nonempty, closed and convex set, and whose image under a bounded linear operator belongs to another given nonempty, closed and convex set, has promising applicability in modeling a wide range of inverse problems. Motivated by the increasingly data-driven regularization in the areas of signal/image processing and statistical learning, in this paper, we study the regularized split feasibility problem (RSFP), which provides a unified model for treating many real-world problems. By exploiting the split nature of the RSFP, we shall gainfully employ several efficient splitting methods to solve the model under consideration. A remarkable advantage of our methods lies in their easier subproblems in the sense that the resulting subproblems have closed-form representations or can be efficiently solved up to a high precision. As an interesting application, we apply the proposed algorithms for finding Dantzig selectors, in addition to demonstrating the effectiveness of the splitting methods through some computational results on synthetic and real medical data sets. (paper)

  16. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  17. Library of synthetic transcriptional AND gates built with split T7 RNA polymerase mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shis, David L; Bennett, Matthew R

    2013-03-26

    The construction of synthetic gene circuits relies on our ability to engineer regulatory architectures that are orthogonal to the host's native regulatory pathways. However, as synthetic gene circuits become larger and more complicated, we are limited by the small number of parts, especially transcription factors, that work well in the context of the circuit. The current repertoire of transcription factors consists of a limited selection of activators and repressors, making the implementation of transcriptional logic a complicated and component-intensive process. To address this, we modified bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) to create a library of transcriptional AND gates for use in Escherichia coli by first splitting the protein and then mutating the DNA recognition domain of the C-terminal fragment to alter its promoter specificity. We first demonstrate that split T7 RNAP is active in vivo and compare it with full-length enzyme. We then create a library of mutant split T7 RNAPs that have a range of activities when used in combination with a complimentary set of altered T7-specific promoters. Finally, we assay the two-input function of both wild-type and mutant split T7 RNAPs and find that regulated expression of the N- and C-terminal fragments of the split T7 RNAPs creates AND logic in each case. This work demonstrates that mutant split T7 RNAP can be used as a transcriptional AND gate and introduces a unique library of components for use in synthetic gene circuits.

  18. Evaluation of Mandibular Anatomy Associated With Bad Splits in Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy of Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongyue; Han, Jeong Joon; Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Jung, Seunggon; Park, Yeong-Joon; Kook, Min-Suk

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with bad splits during sagittal split ramus osteotomy by using three-dimensional computed tomography. This study included 8 bad splits and 47 normal patients without bad splits. Mandibular anatomic parameters related to osteotomy line were measured. These included anteroposterior width of the ramus at level of lingula, distance between external oblique ridge and lingula, distance between sigmoid notch and inferior border of mandible, mandibular angle, distance between inferior outer surface of mandibular canal and inferior border of mandible under distal root of second molar (MCEM), buccolingual thickness of the ramus at level of lingula, and buccolingual thickness of the area just distal to first molar (BTM1) and second molar (BTM2). The incidence of bad splits in 625 sagittal split osteotomies was 1.28%. Compared with normal group, bad split group exhibited significantly thinner BTM2 and shorter sigmoid notch and inferior border of mandible (P bad splits. These anatomic data may help surgeons to choose the safest surgical techniques and best osteotomy sites.

  19. Multi-line split DNA synthesis: a novel combinatorial method to make high quality peptide libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno Shingo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed a method to make a various high quality random peptide libraries for evolutionary protein engineering based on a combinatorial DNA synthesis. Results A split synthesis in codon units was performed with mixtures of bases optimally designed by using a Genetic Algorithm program. It required only standard DNA synthetic reagents and standard DNA synthesizers in three lines. This multi-line split DNA synthesis (MLSDS is simply realized by adding a mix-and-split process to normal DNA synthesis protocol. Superiority of MLSDS method over other methods was shown. We demonstrated the synthesis of oligonucleotide libraries with 1016 diversity, and the construction of a library with random sequence coding 120 amino acids containing few stop codons. Conclusions Owing to the flexibility of the MLSDS method, it will be able to design various "rational" libraries by using bioinformatics databases.

  20. Impaired activity of CCA-adding enzyme TRNT1 impacts OXPHOS complexes and cellular respiration in SIFD patient-derived fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwak-Muir, Urszula; Mamady, Hapsatou; Naas, Turaya; Wylie, Quinlan; McBride, Skye; Lines, Matthew; Michaud, Jean; Baird, Stephen D; Chakraborty, Pranesh K; Holcik, Martin

    2016-06-18

    SIFD (Sideroblastic anemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay) is a novel form of congenital sideroblastic anemia associated with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay caused by mutations in the CCA-adding enzyme TRNT1, but the precise molecular pathophysiology is not known. We show that the disease causing mutations in patient-derived fibroblasts do not affect subcellular localization of TRNT1 and show no gross morphological differences when compared to control cells. Analysis of cellular respiration and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes demonstrates that both basal and maximal respiration rates are decreased in patient cells, which may be attributed to an observed decrease in the abundance of select proteins of the OXPHOS complexes. Our data provides further insight into cellular pathophysiology of SIFD.

  1. Enzymic oxidation of carbon monoxide. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, T

    1959-01-01

    An enzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide was obtained in a cell free state from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. The enzyme activity was assayed manometrically by measuring the rate of gas uptake under the atmosphere of carbon monoxide in the presence of benzyl-viologen as an oxidant. The optimum pH range was 7 to 8. The activity was slightly suppressed by illumination. The enzyme was more stable than hydrogenase or formate dehydrogenase against the heat treatment, suggesting that it is a different entity from these enzymes. In the absence of an added oxidant, the enzyme preparation produced hydrogen gas under the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. The phenomenon can be explained assuming the reductive decomposition of water. 17 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Recent advances in rational approaches for enzyme engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Steiner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are an attractive alternative in the asymmetric syntheses of chiral building blocks. To meet the requirements of industrial biotechnology and to introduce new functionalities, the enzymes need to be optimized by protein engineering. This article specifically reviews rational approaches for enzyme engineering and de novo enzyme design involving structure-based approaches developed in recent years for improvement of the enzymes’ performance, broadened substrate range, and creation of novel functionalities to obtain products with high added value for industrial applications.

  3. Homozygous sequence variants in the WNT10B gene underlie split hand/foot malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmat Ullah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM, also known as ectrodactyly is a rare genetic disorder. It is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of limb malformations characterized by absence/hypoplasia and/or median cleft of hands and/or feet. To date, seven genes underlying SHFM have been identified. This study described four consanguineous families (A-D segregating SHFM in an autosomal recessive manner. Linkage in the families was established to chromosome 12p11.1–q13.13 harboring WNT10B gene. Sequence analysis identified a novel homozygous nonsense variant (p.Gln154* in exon 4 of the WNT10B gene in two families (A and B. In the other two families (C and D, a previously reported variant (c.300_306dupAGGGCGG; p.Leu103Argfs*53 was detected. This study further expands the spectrum of the sequence variants reported in the WNT10B gene, which result in the split hand/foot malformation.

  4. The Split-Brain Phenomenon Revisited: A Single Conscious Agent with Split Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; de Haan, Edward H F; Lamme, Victor A F

    2017-11-01

    The split-brain phenomenon is caused by the surgical severing of the corpus callosum, the main route of communication between the cerebral hemispheres. The classical view of this syndrome asserts that conscious unity is abolished. The left hemisphere consciously experiences and functions independently of the right hemisphere. This view is a cornerstone of current consciousness research. In this review, we first discuss the evidence for the classical view. We then propose an alternative, the 'conscious unity, split perception' model. This model asserts that a split brain produces one conscious agent who experiences two parallel, unintegrated streams of information. In addition to changing our view of the split-brain phenomenon, this new model also poses a serious challenge for current dominant theories of consciousness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Triadic split-merge sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rossum, Anne C.; Lin, Hai Xiang; Dubbeldam, Johan; van der Herik, H. Jaap

    2018-04-01

    In machine vision typical heuristic methods to extract parameterized objects out of raw data points are the Hough transform and RANSAC. Bayesian models carry the promise to optimally extract such parameterized objects given a correct definition of the model and the type of noise at hand. A category of solvers for Bayesian models are Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Naive implementations of MCMC methods suffer from slow convergence in machine vision due to the complexity of the parameter space. Towards this blocked Gibbs and split-merge samplers have been developed that assign multiple data points to clusters at once. In this paper we introduce a new split-merge sampler, the triadic split-merge sampler, that perform steps between two and three randomly chosen clusters. This has two advantages. First, it reduces the asymmetry between the split and merge steps. Second, it is able to propose a new cluster that is composed out of data points from two different clusters. Both advantages speed up convergence which we demonstrate on a line extraction problem. We show that the triadic split-merge sampler outperforms the conventional split-merge sampler. Although this new MCMC sampler is demonstrated in this machine vision context, its application extend to the very general domain of statistical inference.

  6. BAKERY ENZYMES IN CEREAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Koman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE Bread is the most common and traditional food in the world. For years, enzymes such as malt and fungal alpha-amylase have been used in bread making. Due to the changes in the baking industry and the ever-increasing demand for more natural products, enzymes have gained real importance in bread-making. If an enzyme is added, it is often destroyed by the heat during the baking process. For generations, enzymes have been used for the improvement of texture and appearance, enhancement of nutritional values and generation of appealing flavours and aromas. Enzymes used in bakery industry constitute nearly one third of the market. The bakery products have undergone radical improvements in quality over the past years in terms of flavour, texture and shelf-life. The the biggest contributor for these improvementsis the usage of enzymes. Present work seeks to systematically describe bakery enzymes, their classification, benefits, usage and chemical reactions in the bread making process.doi:10.5219/193

  7. A competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of diminazene residues in animal tissues. ... After six washes with buffer, enzyme activity was determined by adding tetramethyl-benzidine and hydrogen peroxide as substrate. The assay detection limits for diminazene were 2.4 ng/g in muscle, 2.5 ...

  8. Technological advances and applications of hydrolytic enzymes for valorization of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manisha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Hydrolytic enzymes are indispensable tools in the production of various foodstuffs, drugs, and consumables owing to their applications in almost every industrial process nowadays. One of the foremost areas of interest involving the use of hydrolytic enzymes is in the transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into value added products. However, limitations of the processes due to inadequate enzyme activity and stability with a narrow range of pH and temperature optima often limit their effective usage. The innovative technologies, involving manipulation of enzyme activity and stability through mutagenesis, genetic engineering and metagenomics lead to a major leap in all the fields using hydrolytic enzymes. This article provides recent advancement towards the isolation and use of microbes for lignocellulosic biomass utilisation, microbes producing the hydrolytic enzymes, the modern age technologies used to manipulate and enhance the hydrolytic enzyme activity and the applications of such enzymes in value added products development from lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. DETECTION OF FLUX EMERGENCE, SPLITTING, MERGING, AND CANCELLATION OF NETWORK FIELD. I. SPLITTING AND MERGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hagenaar, H. J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Org. ADBS, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    Frequencies of magnetic patch processes on the supergranule boundary, namely, flux emergence, splitting, merging, and cancellation, are investigated through automatic detection. We use a set of line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite. We found 1636 positive patches and 1637 negative patches in the data set, whose time duration is 3.5 hr and field of view is 112'' Multiplication-Sign 112''. The total numbers of magnetic processes are as follows: 493 positive and 482 negative splittings, 536 positive and 535 negative mergings, 86 cancellations, and 3 emergences. The total numbers of emergence and cancellation are significantly smaller than those of splitting and merging. Further, the frequency dependence of the merging and splitting processes on the flux content are investigated. Merging has a weak dependence on the flux content with a power-law index of only 0.28. The timescale for splitting is found to be independent of the parent flux content before splitting, which corresponds to {approx}33 minutes. It is also found that patches split into any flux contents with the same probability. This splitting has a power-law distribution of the flux content with an index of -2 as a time-independent solution. These results support that the frequency distribution of the flux content in the analyzed flux range is rapidly maintained by merging and splitting, namely, surface processes. We suggest a model for frequency distributions of cancellation and emergence based on this idea.

  10. Splitting: The Development of a Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Mary-Joan

    1984-01-01

    Described the development of a scale that measures splitting as a psychological structure. The construct validity of the splitting scale is suggested by the positive relationship between splitting scores and a diagnostic measure of the narcissistic personality disorder, as well as a negative relationship between splitting scores and levels of…

  11. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review and meta-analysis of reported risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenen, S A; van Wijk, A J; Becking, A G

    2016-08-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Patient factors predictive of a bad split reported in the literature are controversial. Suggested risk factors are reviewed in this article. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 30 studies published between 1971 and 2015 reporting the incidence of bad split and patient age, and/or surgical technique employed, and/or the presence of third molars. These included 22 retrospective cohort studies, six prospective cohort studies, one matched-pair analysis, and one case series. Spearman's rank correlation showed a statistically significant but weak correlation between increasing average age and increasing occurrence of bad splits in 18 studies (ρ=0.229; Pbad split among the different splitting techniques. A meta-analysis pooling the effect sizes of seven cohort studies showed no significant difference in the incidence of bad split between cohorts of patients with third molars present and concomitantly removed during surgery, and patients in whom third molars were removed at least 6 months preoperatively (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.85, Z=0.64, P=0.52). In summary, there is no robust evidence to date to show that any risk factor influences the incidence of bad split. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CONTROVERSIES ON THE APPLICATION OF THE VAT SPLIT PAYMENT MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the urgent need to attract additional amounts to the state budget to cover the increased budget expenditures involved in the implementation of the government program, by the end of August 2017, the Government of Romania adopted an ordinance obliging the entities to apply, starting on January 1st 2018, the VAT split payment mechanism, system which no longer allows them to use the value added tax cashed affently to the delivery of goods and provision of services, which is why these amounts are to be cashed in separate accounts opened by entities in the state treasury or credit institutions. Only that, later, through the draft of Law on the approval of that ordinance, the Senate made changes to the legislative act, so that the VAT split payment would only apply to companies in insolvency or that register delays in payment of the tax. Although this measure aims at combating the tax evasion and fraud by increasing the voluntary compliance and tax collection degree, the measure can prove to be unfounded, which violates the legislative technique and, in particular, the Community provisions by being inappropriate. In this context, the main objective of this scientific approach is to identify the special situations that arise at the level of entities as a result of the application of the breakdown mechanism of value added tax and to determine the possible advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Convergence of Batch Split-Complex Backpropagation Algorithm for Complex-Valued Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisheng Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The batch split-complex backpropagation (BSCBP algorithm for training complex-valued neural networks is considered. For constant learning rate, it is proved that the error function of BSCBP algorithm is monotone during the training iteration process, and the gradient of the error function tends to zero. By adding a moderate condition, the weights sequence itself is also proved to be convergent. A numerical example is given to support the theoretical analysis.

  14. Isospin Splittings in the Light-Baryon Octet from Lattice QCD and QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsanyi, Sz.; Dürr, S.; Fodor, Z.; Frison, J.; Hoelbling, C.; Katz, S. D.; Krieg, S.; Kurth, Th.; Lellouch, L.; Lippert, Th.; Portelli, A.; Ramos, A.; Sastre, A.; Szabo, K.; Budapest-Marseille-Wuppertal Collaboration

    2013-12-01

    While electromagnetic and up-down quark mass difference effects on octet baryon masses are very small, they have important consequences. The stability of the hydrogen atom against beta decay is a prominent example. Here, we include these effects by adding them to valence quarks in a lattice QCD calculation based on Nf=2+1 simulations with five lattice spacings down to 0.054 fm, lattice sizes up to 6 fm, and average up-down quark masses all the way down to their physical value. This allows us to gain control over all systematic errors, except for the one associated with neglecting electromagnetism in the sea. We compute the octet baryon isomultiplet mass splittings, as well as the individual contributions from electromagnetism and the up-down quark mass difference. Our results for the total splittings are in good agreement with experiment.

  15. Split Malcev algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    project of the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia MTM2007-60333. References. [1] Calderón A J, On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 118(2008) 351–356. [2] Calderón A J, On split Lie triple systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 119(2009). 165–177.

  16. Two-Loop Splitting Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes

  17. Two-loop splitting amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Kosower, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes

  18. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  19. Glutamate and GABA-metabolizing enzymes in post-mortem cerebellum in Alzheimer's disease: phosphate-activated glutaminase and glutamic acid decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbaeva, G Sh; Boksha, I S; Tereshkina, E B; Savushkina, O K; Prokhorova, T A; Vorobyeva, E A

    2014-10-01

    Enzymes of glutamate and GABA metabolism in postmortem cerebellum from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been comprehensively studied. The present work reports results of original comparative study on levels of phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG) and glutamic acid decarboxylase isoenzymes (GAD65/67) in autopsied cerebellum samples from AD patients and matched controls (13 cases in each group) as well as summarizes published evidence for altered levels of PAG and GAD65/67 in AD brain. Altered (decreased) levels of these enzymes and changes in links between amounts of these enzymes and other glutamate-metabolizing enzymes (such as glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase-like protein) in AD cerebella suggest significantly impaired glutamate and GABA metabolism in this brain region, which was previously regarded as not substantially involved in AD pathogenesis.

  20. Split-illumination electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Inada, Yoshikatsu [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Taniyama, Akira [Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); Shindo, Daisuke [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Tonomura, Akira [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate University, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan)

    2012-07-23

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  1. Split-illumination electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  2. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  3. Geometric phase in a split-beam experiment measured with coupled neutron interference loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.; Ioffe, A.

    1996-01-01

    A geometric phase factor is derived for a split-beam experiment as an example of cyclic evolutions. The geometric phase is given by one half of the solid angle independent of the spin of the beam. We observe this geometric phase with a two-loop neutron interferometer, where a reference beam can be added to the beam from one interference loop. All the experimental results show complete agreement with our theoretical treatment. (author)

  4. Interactions between co-expressed Arabidopsis sucrose transporters in the split-ubiquitin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalonde Sylvie

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis genome contains nine sucrose transporter paralogs falling into three clades: SUT1-like, SUT2 and SUT4. The carriers differ in their kinetic properties. Many transport proteins are known to exist as oligomers. The yeast-based split ubiquitin system can be used to analyze the ability of membrane proteins to interact. Results Promoter-GUS fusions were used to analyze the cellular expression of the three transporter genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. All three fusion genes are co-expressed in companion cells. Protein-protein interactions between Arabidopsis sucrose transporters were tested using the split ubiquitin system. Three paralogous sucrose transporters are capable of interacting as either homo- or heteromers. The interactions are specific, since a potassium channel and a glucose transporter did not show interaction with sucrose transporters. Also the biosynthetic and metabolizing enzymes, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and sucrose synthase, which were found to be at least in part bound to the plasma membrane, did not specifically interact with sucrose transporters. Conclusions The split-ubiquitin system provides a powerful tool to detect potential interactions between plant membrane proteins by heterologous expression in yeast, and can be used to screen for interactions with membrane proteins as baits. Like other membrane proteins, the Arabidopsis sucrose transporters are able to form oligomers. The biochemical approaches are required to confirm the in planta interaction.

  5. Evaluation of thermostable enzymes for bioethanol processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia

    of fermentable sugars (glucose) as cellulose is tightly linked to hemicellulose and lignin. Lignocellulose is disrupted during pretreatment, but to degrade cellulose to single sugars, lignocellulolytic enzymes such as cellulases and hemicellulases are needed. Lignocellulolytic enzymes are costly...... for the ioethanol production, but the expenses can be reduced by using thermostable enzymes, which are known for their increased stability and inhibitor olerance. However, the advantage of using thermostable enzymes has not been studied thoroughly and more knowledge is needed for development of bioethanol processes....... Enzymes are added to the bioethanol process after pretreatment. For an efficient sugar and ethanol yield, the solids content of biomass is normally increased, which results in highly viscous slurries that are difficult to mix. Therefore, the first enzymatic challenge is to ensure rapid reduction...

  6. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid, Spain and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Buljan, Marina [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  7. Bad split during bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible with separators: a retrospective study of 427 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Gertjan; Verweij, Jop P; Frank, Michael D; Eelco Bergsma, J; Richard van Merkesteyn, J P

    2013-09-01

    An unfavourable fracture, known as a bad split, is a common operative complication in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). The reported incidence ranges from 0.5 to 5.5%/site. Since 1994 we have used sagittal splitters and separators instead of chisels for BSSO in our clinic in an attempt to prevent postoperative hypoaesthesia. Theoretically an increased percentage of bad splits could be expected with this technique. In this retrospective study we aimed to find out the incidence of bad splits associated with BSSO done with splitters and separators. We also assessed the risk factors for bad splits. The study group comprised 427 consecutive patients among whom the incidence of bad splits was 2.0%/site, which is well within the reported range. The only predictive factor for a bad split was the removal of third molars at the same time as BSSO. There was no significant association between bad splits and age, sex, class of occlusion, or the experience of the surgeon. We think that doing a BSSO with splitters and separators instead of chisels does not increase the risk of a bad split, and is therefore safe with predictable results. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Facilitating Neuron-Specific Genetic Manipulations in Drosophila melanogaster Using a Split GAL4 Repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Michael-John; Luan, Haojiang; Shropshire, William C; Sutcliffe, Ben; Cocanougher, Benjamin; Scott, Robert L; Frechter, Shahar; Zlatic, Marta; Jefferis, Gregory S X E; White, Benjamin H

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to map neural circuits have been galvanized by the development of genetic technologies that permit the manipulation of targeted sets of neurons in the brains of freely behaving animals. The success of these efforts relies on the experimenter's ability to target arbitrarily small subsets of neurons for manipulation, but such specificity of targeting cannot routinely be achieved using existing methods. In Drosophila melanogaster , a widely-used technique for refined cell type-specific manipulation is the Split GAL4 system, which augments the targeting specificity of the binary GAL4-UAS (Upstream Activating Sequence) system by making GAL4 transcriptional activity contingent upon two enhancers, rather than one. To permit more refined targeting, we introduce here the "Killer Zipper" (KZip + ), a suppressor that makes Split GAL4 targeting contingent upon a third enhancer. KZip + acts by disrupting both the formation and activity of Split GAL4 heterodimers, and we show how this added layer of control can be used to selectively remove unwanted cells from a Split GAL4 expression pattern or to subtract neurons of interest from a pattern to determine their requirement in generating a given phenotype. To facilitate application of the KZip + technology, we have developed a versatile set of LexA op -KZip + fly lines that can be used directly with the large number of LexA driver lines with known expression patterns. KZip + significantly sharpens the precision of neuronal genetic control available in Drosophila and may be extended to other organisms where Split GAL4-like systems are used. Copyright © 2017 Dolan et al.

  9. Geometrical splitting in Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubi, A.; Elperin, T.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical model is presented by which a direct statistical approach yielded an analytic expression for the second moment, the variance ratio, and the benefit function in a model of an n surface-splitting Monte Carlo game. In addition to the insight into the dependence of the second moment on the splitting parameters the main importance of the expressions developed lies in their potential to become a basis for in-code optimization of splitting through a general algorithm. Refs

  10. Innovative wedge axe in making split firewood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutikainen, A.

    1998-01-01

    Interteam Oy, a company located in Espoo, has developed a new method for making split firewood. The tools on which the patented System Logmatic are based are wedge axe and cylindrical splitting-carrying frame. The equipment costs about 495 FIM. The block of wood to be split is placed inside the upright carrying frame and split in a series of splitting actions using the innovative wedge axe. The finished split firewood remains in the carrying frame, which (as its name indicates) also serves as the means for carrying the firewood. This innovative wedge-axe method was compared with the conventional splitting of wood using an axe (Fiskars -handy 1400 splitting axe costing about 200 FIM) in a study conducted at TTS-Institute. There were eight test subjects involved in the study. In the case of the wedge-axe method, handling of the blocks to be split and of the finished firewood was a little quicker, but in actual splitting it was a little slower than the conventional axe method. The average productivity of splitting the wood and of the work stages related to it was about 0.4 m 3 per effective hour in both methods. The methods were also equivalent of one another in terms of the load imposed by the work when measured in terms of the heart rate. As regards work safety, the wedge-axe method was superior to the conventional method, but the continuous striking action and jolting transmitted to the arms were unpleasant (orig.)

  11. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaowei; Liu Zhenyan; Li Yuan; Zhao Keke; Wang Zhigang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users

  12. TMD splitting functions in kT factorization. The real contribution to the gluon-to-gluon splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschinski, M.; Kusina, A.; Kutak, K.; Serino, M.

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the transverse momentum dependent gluon-to-gluon splitting function within k T -factorization, generalizing the framework employed in the calculation of the quark splitting functions in Hautmann et al. (Nucl Phys B 865:54-66, arXiv:1205.1759, 2012), Gituliar et al. (JHEP 01:181, arXiv:1511.08439, 2016), Hentschinski et al. (Phys Rev D 94(11):114013, arXiv:1607.01507, 2016) and demonstrate at the same time the consistency of the extended formalism with previous results. While existing versions of k T factorized evolution equations contain already a gluon-to-gluon splitting function i.e. the leading order Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) kernel or the Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) kernel, the obtained splitting function has the important property that it reduces both to the leading order BFKL kernel in the high energy limit, to the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) gluon-to-gluon splitting function in the collinear limit as well as to the CCFM kernel in the soft limit. At the same time we demonstrate that this splitting kernel can be obtained from a direct calculation of the QCD Feynman diagrams, based on a combined implementation of the Curci-Furmanski-Petronzio formalism for the calculation of the collinear splitting functions and the framework of high energy factorization. (orig.)

  13. MWAHCA: a multimedia wireless ad hoc cluster architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Juan R; Lloret, Jaime; Jimenez, Jose M; Sendra, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Ad hoc networks provide a flexible and adaptable infrastructure to transport data over a great variety of environments. Recently, real-time audio and video data transmission has been increased due to the appearance of many multimedia applications. One of the major challenges is to ensure the quality of multimedia streams when they have passed through a wireless ad hoc network. It requires adapting the network architecture to the multimedia QoS requirements. In this paper we propose a new architecture to organize and manage cluster-based ad hoc networks in order to provide multimedia streams. Proposed architecture adapts the network wireless topology in order to improve the quality of audio and video transmissions. In order to achieve this goal, the architecture uses some information such as each node's capacity and the QoS parameters (bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss). The architecture splits the network into clusters which are specialized in specific multimedia traffic. The real system performance study provided at the end of the paper will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal.

  14. MWAHCA: A Multimedia Wireless Ad Hoc Cluster Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R. Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Ad hoc networks provide a flexible and adaptable infrastructure to transport data over a great variety of environments. Recently, real-time audio and video data transmission has been increased due to the appearance of many multimedia applications. One of the major challenges is to ensure the quality of multimedia streams when they have passed through a wireless ad hoc network. It requires adapting the network architecture to the multimedia QoS requirements. In this paper we propose a new architecture to organize and manage cluster-based ad hoc networks in order to provide multimedia streams. Proposed architecture adapts the network wireless topology in order to improve the quality of audio and video transmissions. In order to achieve this goal, the architecture uses some information such as each node’s capacity and the QoS parameters (bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss. The architecture splits the network into clusters which are specialized in specific multimedia traffic. The real system performance study provided at the end of the paper will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal.

  15. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang; Wang, Jun; Vouga, Etienne; Wonka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  16. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-11-06

    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  17. Relationship between mandibular anatomy and the occurrence of a bad split upon sagittal split osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarabi, Mohammadali; Tabrizi, Reza; Hekmat, Mina; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Puzesh, Ayatollah

    2014-12-01

    A bad split is a troublesome complication of the sagittal split osteotomy (SSO). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the occurrence of a bad split and mandibular anatomy in SSO using cone-beam computed tomography. The authors designed a cohort retrospective study. Forty-eight patients (96 SSO sites) were studied. The buccolingual thickness of the retromandibular area (BLR), the buccolingual thickness of the ramus at the level of the lingula (BLTR), the height of the mandible from the alveolar crest to the inferior border of the mandible, (ACIB), the distance between the sigmoid notch and the inferior border of the mandible (SIBM), and the anteroposterior width of the ramus (APWR) were measured. The independent t test was applied to compare anatomic measurements between the group with and the group without bad splits. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test was used to find a cutoff point in anatomic size for various parts of the mandible related to the occurrence of bad splits. The mean SIBM was 47.05±6.33 mm in group 1 (with bad splits) versus 40.66±2.44 mm in group 2 (without bad splits; P=.01). The mean BLTR was 5.74±1.11 mm in group 1 versus 3.19±0.55 mm in group 2 (P=.04). The mean BLR was 14.98±2.78 mm in group 1 versus 11.21±1.29 mm in group 2 (P=.001). No statistically significant difference was found for APWR and ACIB between the 2 groups. The ROC test showed cutoff points of 10.17 mm for BLR, 36.69 mm for SIBM, and 4.06 mm for BLTR. This study showed that certain mandibular anatomic differences can increase the risk of a bad split during SSO surgery. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SplitRacer - a new Semi-Automatic Tool to Quantify And Interpret Teleseismic Shear-Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M. C.; Rumpker, G.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a semi-automatic, MATLAB-based GUI to combine standard seismological tasks such as the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting. Shear-wave splitting analysis is widely used to infer seismic anisotropy, which can be interpreted in terms of lattice-preferred orientation of mantle minerals, shape-preferred orientation caused by fluid-filled cracks or alternating layers. Seismic anisotropy provides a unique link between directly observable surface structures and the more elusive dynamic processes in the mantle below. Thus, resolving the seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere/asthenosphere is of particular importance for geodynamic modeling and interpretations. The increasing number of seismic stations from temporary experiments and permanent installations creates a new basis for comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. However, the increasingly large data sets pose new challenges for the rapid and reliably analysis of teleseismic waveforms and for the interpretation of the measurements. Well-established routines and programs are available but are often impractical for analyzing large data sets from hundreds of stations. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same well-defined quality criteria which may complicate comparison with results from different studies. SplitRacer has been designed to overcome these challenges by incorporation of the following processing steps: i) downloading of waveform data from multiple stations in mseed-format using FDSNWS tools; ii) automated initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold; iii) particle-motion analysis of selected phases at longer periods to detect and correct for sensor misalignment; iv) splitting analysis of selected phases based on transverse-energy minimization for multiple, randomly-selected, relevant time windows; v) one and two-layer joint-splitting analysis for all phases at one station by

  19. Inhibitors of the bacterial cell wall biosynthesis enzyme MurC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, F; Marmor, S; Fisher, S; Wuonola, M A

    2001-06-04

    A series of phosphinate transition-state analogues of the L-alanine adding enzyme (MurC) of bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis was prepared and tested as inhibitors of the Escherichia coli enzyme. Compound 4 was identified as a potent inhibitor of MurC from Escherichia coli with an IC(50) of 49nM.

  20. Stacked Transformer for Driver Gain and Receive Signal Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    In a high-speed signal transmission system that uses transformer coupling, there is a need to provide increased transmitted signal strength without adding active components. This invention uses additional transformers to achieve the needed gain. The prior art uses stronger drivers (which require an IC redesign and a higher power supply voltage), or the addition of another active component (which can decrease reliability, increase power consumption, reduce the beneficial effect of serializer/deserializer preemphasis or deemphasis, and/or interfere with fault containment mechanisms), or uses a different transformer winding ratio (which requires redesign of the transformer and may not be feasible with high-speed signals that require a 1:1 winding ratio). This invention achieves the required gain by connecting the secondaries of multiple transformers in series. The primaries of these transformers are currently either connected in parallel or are connected to multiple drivers. There is also a need to split a receive signal to multiple destinations with minimal signal loss. Additional transformers can achieve the split. The prior art uses impedance-matching series resistors that cause a loss of signal. Instead of causing a loss, most instantiations of this invention would actually provide gain. Multiple transformers are used instead of multiple windings on a single transformer because multiple windings on the same transformer would require a redesign of the transformer, and may not be feasible with high-speed transformers that usually require a bifilar winding with a 1:1 ratio. This invention creates the split by connecting the primaries of multiple transformers in series. The secondary of each transformer is connected to one of the intended destinations without the use of impedance-matching series resistors.

  1. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasiri, Hamidreza

    2011-04-15

    enzymes on interactions in the oil/brine/solid system was studied. It was found that enzymes can change the adhesion behavior of the crude oil on glass surfaces from adhesion to non-adhesion when they are added to the brine solution. This was confirmed by contact angle measurements, which showed that contact angles became more water-wet (i.e. decreased) after exposure to enzyme solutions. Possible mechanisms giving rise to these observations, including catalysis of ester hydrolysis and enzyme adsorption, were discussed and tested. An experimental study of changes in oil-water interfacial properties by addition of enzymes and proteins, including measurements of interfacial tension and electrophoretic mobility, has been performed. It was found that the effect of enzymes on oil-water properties is minor compared to their effect on oil-water-solid properties. Their contribution to change interfacial tension between oil and water is not significant while they affect the electrophoretic mobility of emulsified oil in enzyme-brine solution to some extent. Attempts were also made to study changes in both oil and water phase composition after equilibration with enzymes. However, since the chemical composition of crude oil is highly complex, a model oil was used in some of the experiments. The model oil was chosen to be a water insoluble ester (ethyl decanoate) solved in mineral oil in an effort to verify the possible role of catalysis of ester hydrolysis. Dynamic core displacements using sandstone and carbonate rocks were conducted to show the potential of improved oil recovery by enzyme- and combined enzyme-surfactant flooding. Most of the core flooding experiments commenced with water flooding from initial water saturation, Swi, (established with synthetic sea water) which will be referred to as secondary mode displacements. Accordingly, tertiary oil recovery processes were used to describe injection of enzyme and/or enzyme-surfactant solutions from residual oil saturation, Sor

  2. Particulate photocatalysts for overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-10-01

    The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a promising way of generating renewable energy. Hydrogen production by means of water splitting over semiconductor photocatalysts is a simple, cost-effective approach to large-scale solar hydrogen synthesis. Since the discovery of the Honda-Fujishima effect, considerable progress has been made in this field, and numerous photocatalytic materials and water-splitting systems have been developed. In this Review, we summarize existing water-splitting systems based on particulate photocatalysts, focusing on the main components: light-harvesting semiconductors and co-catalysts. The essential design principles of the materials employed for overall water-splitting systems based on one-step and two-step photoexcitation are also discussed, concentrating on three elementary processes: photoabsorption, charge transfer and surface catalytic reactions. Finally, we outline challenges and potential advances associated with solar water splitting by particulate photocatalysts for future commercial applications.

  3. Optimum concrete compression strength using bio-enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Bagio Tony Hartono; Basoeki Makno; Tistogondo Julistyana; Pradana Sofyan Ali

    2017-01-01

    To make concrete with high compressive strength and has a certain concrete specifications other than the main concrete materials are also needed concrete mix quality control and other added material is also in line with the current technology of concrete mix that produces concrete with specific characteristics. Addition of bio enzyme on five concrete mixture that will be compared with normal concrete in order to know the optimum level bio-enzyme in concrete to increase the strength of the con...

  4. THE VAT SPLIT-PAYMENT MECHANISM, MEASURE FOR COMBATING TAX EVASION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONUT - GHEORGHE CARAUS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to improve the methods of collecting and detecting value-added tax amounts is an increasingly difficult process for tax authorities. In this respect, a rigorous analysis of the ways in which the state manages to prevent or combat VAT evasion, in the context in which VAT fraud accounts for about 60% of Romania's total tax evasion, is required. Therefore, the new provisions concerning the VAT split payments, applicable from January 1, 2018 for all categories of taxpayers, can contribute significantly to the efficiency of collection, of the amounts derived from the VAT, as well as to reduce tax evasion in the field of value added tax and providing a fair competitive environment, by eliminating benefits for economic operators with incorrect tax behavior who do not pay VAT to the State budget. Also, through these measures taken by the state, the main motivation for the introduction of the value added tax splitpayments mechanism, contributes to the increase of the voluntary compliance degree by providing the financial resources for the payment of VAT due to the State budget.

  5. (O)Mega split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benakli, Karim; Darmé, Luc; Goodsell, Mark D. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589,LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589,LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France)

    2015-11-16

    We study two realisations of the Fake Split Supersymmetry Model (FSSM), the simplest model that can easily reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass for an arbitrarily high supersymmetry scale M{sub S}, as a consequence of swapping higgsinos for equivalent states, fake higgsinos, with suppressed Yukawa couplings. If the LSP is identified as the main Dark matter component, then a standard thermal history of the Universe implies upper bounds on M{sub S}, which we derive. On the other hand, we show that renormalisation group running of soft masses aboveM{sub S} barely constrains the model — in stark contrast to Split Supersymmetry — and hence we can have a “Mega Split” spectrum even with all of these assumptions and constraints, which include the requirements of a correct relic abundance, a gluino life-time compatible with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and absence of signals in present direct detection experiments of inelastic dark matter. In an appendix we describe a related scenario, Fake Split Extended Supersymmetry, which enjoys similar properties.

  6. Immobilization of enzymes using non-ionic colloidal liquid aphrons (CLAs): Surface and enzyme effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Keeran; Xi, Jingshu; Stuckey, David C

    2015-12-01

    The use of non-ionic colloidal liquid aphrons (CLAs) as a support for enzyme immobilisation was investigated. Formulation required the mixing of an aqueous-surfactant solution with a relatively non-polar solvent-surfactant solution, forming a solvent droplet surrounded by a thin stabilised aqueous film (soapy shell). Studies utilising anionic surfactants have showed increased retention, however, very little have been understood about the forces governing immobilisation. This study seeks to determine the effects of enzyme properties on CLA immobilisation by examining a non-ionic/non-polar solvent system comprised of two non-ionic surfactants, Tween 20 and 80, mineral oil and the enzymes lipase, aprotinin and α-chymotrypsin. From these results it was deduced that hydrophobic interactions strongly governed immobilisation. Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM) revealed that immobilisation was predominantly achieved by surface adsorption attributed to hydrophobic interactions between the enzyme and the CLA surface. Enzyme surface affinity was found to increase when added directly to the formulation (pre-manufacture addition), as opposed to the bulk continuous phase (post-manufacture addition), with α-chymotrypsin and aprotinin being the most perturbed, while lipase was relatively unaffected. The effect of zeta potential on immobilisation showed that enzymes adsorbed better closer to their pI, indicating that charge minimisation was necessary for immobilisation. Finally, the effect of increasing enzyme concentration in the aqueous phase resulted in an increase in adsorption for all enzymes due to cooperativity between protein molecules, with saturation occurring faster at higher adsorption rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An algorithm for the split-feasibility problems with application to the split-equality problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chih-Sheng; Chen, Chi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the split-feasibility problem in Hilbert spaces by using the projected reflected gradient algorithm. As applications, we study the convex linear inverse problem and the split-equality problem in Hilbert spaces, and we give new algorithms for these problems. Finally, numerical results are given for our main results.

  8. Stochastic split determinant algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvatha, Ivan

    2000-01-01

    I propose a large class of stochastic Markov processes associated with probability distributions analogous to that of lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermions. The construction incorporates the idea of approximate spectral split of the determinant through local loop action, and the idea of treating the infrared part of the split through explicit diagonalizations. I suggest that exact algorithms of practical relevance might be based on Markov processes so constructed

  9. M-Split: A Graphical User Interface to Analyze Multilayered Anisotropy from Shear Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgarmi, Bizhan; Ozacar, A. Arda

    2017-04-01

    Shear wave splitting analysis are commonly used to infer deep anisotropic structure. For simple cases, obtained delay times and fast-axis orientations are averaged from reliable results to define anisotropy beneath recording seismic stations. However, splitting parameters show systematic variations with back azimuth in the presence of complex anisotropy and cannot be represented by average time delay and fast axis orientation. Previous researchers had identified anisotropic complexities at different tectonic settings and applied various approaches to model them. Most commonly, such complexities are modeled by using multiple anisotropic layers with priori constraints from geologic data. In this study, a graphical user interface called M-Split is developed to easily process and model multilayered anisotropy with capabilities to properly address the inherited non-uniqueness. M-Split program runs user defined grid searches through the model parameter space for two-layer anisotropy using formulation of Silver and Savage (1994) and creates sensitivity contour plots to locate local maximas and analyze all possible models with parameter tradeoffs. In order to minimize model ambiguity and identify the robust model parameters, various misfit calculation procedures are also developed and embedded to M-Split which can be used depending on the quality of the observations and their back-azimuthal coverage. Case studies carried out to evaluate the reliability of the program using real noisy data and for this purpose stations from two different networks are utilized. First seismic network is the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake research institute (KOERI) which includes long term running permanent stations and second network comprises seismic stations deployed temporary as part of the "Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolian Tectonics (CD-CAT)" project funded by NSF. It is also worth to note that M-Split is designed as open source program which can be modified by users for

  10. Supersymmetric AdS3, AdS2 and bubble solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Waldram, Daniel; Kim, Nakwoo

    2007-01-01

    We present new supersymmetric AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity. The former are dual to conformal field theories in two dimensions with N = (0, 2) supersymmetry while the latter are dual to conformal quantum mechanics with two supercharges. Our construction also includes AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity that have non-compact internal spaces which are dual to three-dimensional N = 2 superconformal field theories coupled to point-like defects. We also present some new bubble-type solutions, corresponding to BPS states in conformal theories, that preserve four supersymmetries

  11. Mining anaerobic digester consortia metagenomes for secreted carbohydrate active enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Busk, Peter Kamp; Pilgaard, Bo

    thermophilic and mesophilic ADs a wide variety of carbohydrate active enzyme functions were discovered in the metagenomic sequencing of the microbial consortia. The most dominating type of glycoside hydrolases were β-glucosidases (up to 27%), α-amylases (up to 10%), α-glucosidases (up to 8%), α......, and food wastes (Alvarado et al., 2014). The processes and the roles of the microorganisms that are involved in biomass conversion and methane production in ADs are still not fully understood. We are investigating thermophilic and mesophilic ADs that use wastewater surplus sludge for methane production...... was done with the Peptide Pattern Recognition (PPR) program (Busk and Lange, 2013), which is a novel non-alignment based approach that can predict function of e.g. CAZymes. PPR identifies a set of short conserved sequences, which can be used as a finger print when mining genomes for novel enzymes. In both...

  12. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  13. Alteration of split renal function during Captopril treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio; Takayama, Teruhiko; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi; Yasuhara, Shuichirou; Miyamori, Isamu; Takeda, Ryoyu

    1987-01-01

    Two different methods to evaluate the alteration of split renal function following continued Captopril treatment were studied in a total of 21 patients with hypertension. Eight patients with renovascular hypertension (five with unilateral renal artery stenosis and three with bilateral renal artery stenoses), three patients with diabetic nephropathy, one patient with primary aldosteronism, and nine patients with essential hypertension were included. The studies were performed the day prior to receiving Captopril (baseline), and 6th or 7th day following continued Captopril treatment (37.5 mg or 75 mg/day). Split effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after injections of I-131 hippuran and Tc-99m DTPA were measured using kidney counting corrected for depth and dose, described by Schlegel and Gates. In the patients with renovascular hypertension, split GFR in the stenotic kidney was significantly decreased 6th or 7th day following continued Captopril treatment compared to a baseline value. And split ERPF in the stenotic kidney was slightly increased although significant increase of split ERPF was not shown. In the patients with diabetic nephropathy, primary aldosteronism or essential hypertension, on the other hand, split GFR was not changed and split ERPF was slightly increased. These findings suggest that the Captopril induced alterations of split renal function may be of importance for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. For this purpose, split GFR determination is more useful than split ERPF determination. (author)

  14. Effect of fat source, energy level and enzyme supplementation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina

    2014-09-24

    Sep 24, 2014 ... ISSN 0375-1589 (print), ISSN 2221-4062 (online) ... were fed ad libitum in cages from 1 to 30 days of age. ... diet, improve efficiency and increase nutrient digestibility in broilers (Baião & Lara, 2005; Fascina et al., ... feed to reduce the cost per ton of feed and then, by adding enzymes, restores the nutritional ...

  15. Spin Splitting in Different Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yafei

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the spin splitting in four undoped asymmetric quantum wells in the absence of external electric field and magnetic field. The quantum well geometry dependence of spin splitting is studied with the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling included. The results show that the structure of quantum well plays an important role in spin splitting. The Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin splitting in four asymmetric quantum wells are quite different. The origin of the distinction is discussed in this work. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. A Spoonful of (Added) Sugar Helps the Constitution Go Down: Curing the Compelled Speech Commercial Speech Doctrine with FDA’s Added Sugars Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colleen

    On May 27, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that it was adopting a new rule that requires food manufacturers to list—on the already mandated Nutrition Facts label—how many grams of sugar have been added to a food product. Many opponents have criticized this “added sugars” rule on First Amendment grounds, arguing that the rule violates the commercial speech rights of food manufacturers. Whether the rule would survive constitutional scrutiny or not is an open question because the compelled commercial speech doctrine is anything but clear. Courts are split over whether Zauderer’s rational basis test, Central Hudson’s intermediate scrutiny, or some combination of the two should apply to a mandated disclosure like FDA’s added sugars rule. This Paper explains that the added sugars rule is unique in the history of mandated nutrition labeling in that the rule is motivated largely by public health concerns and backed by reports that assert that consumers should limit their intake of added sugars. In contrast, correcting and preventing consumer deception has been a major driving force behind the remainder of FDA’s mandated nutrition labeling. Because of this distinct rationale, the added sugars rule does not fit neatly into any currently existing compelled commercial speech test. This Paper uses the added sugars rule to highlight the deficiencies in the existing tests. Finally, this Paper proposes a new compelled commercial speech test that would adequately balance the interest of all of the effected parties: the government, the public, and food manufacturers.

  17. Splitting Ward identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Mahmoud [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)

  18. Splitting Ward identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safari, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Enzyme phylogenies as markers for the oxidation state of the environment: the case of respiratory arsenate reductase and related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Simon; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara

    2008-07-16

    Phylogenies of certain bioenergetic enzymes have proved to be useful tools for deducing evolutionary ancestry of bioenergetic pathways and their relationship to geochemical parameters of the environment. Our previous phylogenetic analysis of arsenite oxidase, the molybdopterin enzyme responsible for the biological oxidation of arsenite to arsenate, indicated its probable emergence prior to the Archaea/Bacteria split more than 3 billion years ago, in line with the geochemical fact that arsenite was present in biological habitats on the early Earth. Respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr), another molybdopterin enzyme involved in microbial arsenic metabolism, serves as terminal oxidase, and is thus situated at the opposite end of bioenergetic electron transfer chains as compared to arsenite oxidase. The evolutionary history of the Arr-enzyme has not been studied in detail so far. We performed a genomic search of genes related to arrA coding for the molybdopterin subunit. The multiple alignment of the retrieved sequences served to reconstruct a neighbor-joining phylogeny of Arr and closely related enzymes. Our analysis confirmed the previously proposed proximity of Arr to the cluster of polysulfide/thiosulfate reductases but also unravels a hitherto unrecognized clade even more closely related to Arr. The obtained phylogeny strongly suggests that Arr originated after the Bacteria/Archaea divergence in the domain Bacteria, and was subsequently laterally distributed within this domain. It further more indicates that, as a result of accumulation of arsenate in the environment, an enzyme related to polysulfide reductase and not to arsenite oxidase has evolved into Arr. These findings are paleogeochemically rationalized by the fact that the accumulation of arsenate over arsenite required the increase in oxidation state of the environment brought about by oxygenic photosynthesis.

  20. Pharmaceutical counselling about different types of tablet-splitting methods based on the results of weighing tests and mechanical development of splitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, O; Meskó, A; Csorba, L; Szabó, P; Zelkó, R

    2017-08-30

    The division of tablets and adequate methods of splitting them are a complex problem in all sectors of health care. Although tablet-splitting is often required, this procedure can be difficult for patients. Four tablets were investigated with different external features (shape, score-line, film-coat and size). The influencing effect of these features and the splitting methods was investigated according to the precision and "weight loss" of splitting techniques. All four types of tablets were halved by four methods: by hand, with a kitchen knife, with an original manufactured splitting device and with a modified tablet splitter based on a self-developed mechanical model. The mechanical parameters (harness and friability) of the products were measured during the study. The "weight loss" and precision of splitting methods were determined and compared by statistical analysis. On the basis of the results, the external features (geometry), the mechanical parameters of tablets and the mechanical structure of splitting devices can influence the "weight loss" and precision of tablet-splitting. Accordingly, a new decision-making scheme was developed for the selection of splitting methods. In addition, the skills of patients and the specialties of therapy should be considered so that pharmaceutical counselling can be more effective regarding tablet-splitting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Frequency Splitting Elimination and Cross-Coupling Rejection of Wireless Power Transfer to Multiple Dynamic Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanamoorthi R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous power transfer to multiple receiver (Rx system is one of the key advantages of wireless power transfer (WPT system using magnetic resonance. However, determining the optimal condition to uniformly transfer the power to a selected Rx at high efficiency is the challenging task under the dynamic environment. The cross-coupling and frequency splitting are the dominant issues present in the multiple Rx dynamic WPT system. The existing analysis is performed by considering any one issue present in the system; on the other hand, the cross coupling and frequency splitting issues are interrelated in dynamic Rx’s, which requires a comprehensive design strategy by considering both the problems. This paper proposes an optimal design of multiple Rx WPT system, which can eliminate cross coupling, frequency splitting issues and increase the power transfer efficiency (PTE of selected Rx. The cross-coupling rejection, uniform power transfer is performed by adding an additional relay coil and independent resonance frequency tuning with capacitive compensation to each Rx unit. The frequency splitting phenomena are eliminated using non-identical transmitter (Tx and Rx coil structure which can maintain the coupling between the coil under the critical coupling limit. The mathematical analysis of the compensation capacitance calculation and optimal Tx coil size identification is performed for the four Rx WPT system. Finite element analysis and experimental investigation are carried out for the proposed design in static and dynamic conditions.

  2. Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations explains how to solve evolution equations via novel iterative-based splitting methods that efficiently use computational and memory resources. It focuses on systems of parabolic and hyperbolic equations, including convection-diffusion-reaction equations, heat equations, and wave equations. In the theoretical part of the book, the author discusses the main theorems and results of the stability and consistency analysis for ordinary differential equations. He then presents extensions of the iterative splitting methods to partial differential

  3. 2-Photon tandem device for water splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2014-01-01

    Within the field Of photocatalytic water splitting there are several strategies to achieve the goal of efficient and cheap photocatalytic water splitting. This work examines one particular strategy by focusing on monolithically stacked, two-photon photoelectrochemical cells. The overall aim...... for photocatalytic water splitting by using a large bandgap photocathode and a low bandgap photoanode with attached protection layers....

  4. Selective splitting of 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates by specific enzymes degrading dinucleoside polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Sillero, Antonio; Günther Sillero, María Antonia

    2003-01-01

    Several 3'-[(32)P]adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates (Np(n)N'p*As) were synthesized by the use of poly(A) polymerase (Sillero MAG et al., 2001, Eur J Biochem.; 268: 3605-11) and three of them, ApppA[(32)P]A or ApppAp*A, AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A, were tested as potential substrates of different dinucleoside polyphosphate degrading enzymes. Human (asymmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.17) acted almost randomly on both AppppAp*A, yielding approximately equal amounts of pppA + pAp*A and pA + pppAp*A, and GppppGp*, yielding pppG + pGp*A and pG + pppGp*A. Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) tetraphosphatase acted preferentially on the dinucleotide unmodified end of both AppppAp*A (yielding 90% of pppA + pAp*A and 10 % of pA + pppAp*A) and GppppGp*A (yielding 89% pppG + pGp*A and 11% of pG + pppGp*A). (Symmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.41) from Escherichia coli hydrolyzed AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A producing equal amounts of ppA + ppAp*A and ppG + ppGp*A, respectively, and, to a lesser extent, ApppAp*A producing pA + ppAp*A. Two dinucleoside triphosphatases (EC 3.6.1.29) (the human Fhit protein and the enzyme from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus)) and dinucleoside tetraphosphate phosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.53) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not degrade the three 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates tested.

  5. Semi-strong split domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alwardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.

  6. Numerical investigation of a dual-loop EGR split strategy using a split index and multi-objective Pareto optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jungsoo; Song, Soonho; Lee, Kyo Seung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Model-based control of dual-loop EGR system is performed. • EGR split index is developed to provide non-dimensional index for optimization. • EGR rates are calibrated using EGR split index at specific operating conditions. • Multi-objective Pareto optimization is performed to minimize NO X and BSFC. • Optimum split strategies are suggested with LP-rich dual-loop EGR at high load. - Abstract: A proposed dual-loop exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system that combines the features of high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) systems is considered a key technology for improving the combustion behavior of diesel engines. The fraction of HP and LP flows, known as the EGR split, for a given dual-loop EGR rate play an important role in determining the engine performance and emission characteristics. Therefore, identifying the proper EGR split is important for the engine optimization and calibration processes, which affect the EGR response and deNO X efficiencies. The objective of this research was to develop a dual-loop EGR split strategy using numerical analysis and one-dimensional (1D) cycle simulation. A control system was modeled by coupling the 1D cycle simulation and the control logic. An EGR split index was developed to investigate the HP/LP split effects on the engine performance and emissions. Using the model-based control system, a multi-objective Pareto (MOP) analysis was used to minimize the NO X formation and fuel consumption through optimized engine operating parameters. The MOP analysis was performed using a response surface model extracted from Latin hypercube sampling as a fractional factorial design of experiment. By using an LP rich dual-loop EGR, a high EGR rate was attained at low, medium, and high engine speeds, increasing the applicable load ranges compared to base conditions

  7. Splitting Functions at High Transverse Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Moutafis, Rhea Penelope; CERN. Geneva. TH Department

    2017-01-01

    Among the production channels of the Higgs boson one contribution could become significant at high transverse momentum which is the radiation of a Higgs boson from another particle. This note focuses on the calculation of splitting functions and cross sections of such processes. The calculation is first carried out on the example $e\\rightarrow e\\gamma$ to illustrate the way splitting functions are calculated. Then the splitting function of $e\\rightarrow eh$ is calculated in similar fashion. This procedure can easily be generalized to processes such as $q\\rightarrow qh$ or $g\\rightarrow gh$.

  8. SplitRacer - a semi-automatic tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Miriam Christina; Rümpker, Georg

    2017-04-01

    We present a semi-automatic, graphical user interface tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting in MATLAB. Shear wave splitting analysis is a standard tool to infer seismic anisotropy, which is often interpreted as due to lattice-preferred orientation of e.g. mantle minerals or shape-preferred orientation caused by cracks or alternating layers in the lithosphere and hence provides a direct link to the earth's kinematic processes. The increasing number of permanent stations and temporary experiments result in comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. Their successive comparison with a growing number of global models of mantle flow further advances our understanding the earth's interior. However, increasingly large data sets pose the inevitable question as to how to process them. Well-established routines and programs are accurate but often slow and impractical for analyzing a large amount of data. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same quality criteria which complicates a straight-forward comparison. SplitRacer consists of several processing steps: i) download of data per FDSNWS, ii) direct reading of miniSEED-files and an initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold. iii) an analysis of the particle motion of selected phases and successive correction of the sensor miss-alignment based on the long-axis of the particle motion. iv) splitting analysis of selected events: seismograms are first rotated into radial and transverse components, then the energy-minimization method is applied, which provides the polarization and delay time of the phase. To estimate errors, the analysis is done for different randomly-chosen time windows. v) joint-splitting analysis for all events for one station, where the energy content of all phases is inverted simultaneously. This allows to decrease the influence of noise and to increase robustness of the measurement

  9. The Effects of the Types of Milk (Cow, Goat, Soya and Enzymes (Rennet, Papain, Bromelain Toward Cheddar Cheese Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariestya Arlene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to study the effects of different types of milk and enzymes toward the yield and quality (moisture, ash, protein, fat content, and texture of cheddar cheese and the interaction between those two variables during the process. The types of milk are cow, goat, and soya milk, while the types of enzymes are rennet, papain, and bromelain enzymes. Regarding the procedure, the milk is first pasteurized before CaCl2 and Lactobacillus lactis that acts as the acidifier starter as much as 0.2% (w/v and 0.5% of the milk volume are added respectively. The amount of enzyme added is appropriate for the determination of enzyme dose. The curd is separated from the whey and then 2.5 grams of salt is added to 100 grams of curd. Afterwards, the curd is pressed until the water content decreases (cheese, then ripened for 1 month. The analyses conducted are moisture, ash, protein, fat content, and texture (hardness. The conclusion is the goat milk and the rennet enzyme are the suitable raw material for cheddar cheese production. Furthermore, different types of milk and enzymes affect the yield. However, there is no interaction between the types of milk and enzymes to the yield.

  10. Formulation of enzyme blends to maximize the hydrolysis of alkaline peroxide pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw by rumen enzymes and commercial cellulases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhan, Ajay; Wang, Yuxi; Gruninger, Robert; Patton, Donald; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; McAllister, Tim

    2014-04-26

    Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires the synergistic action of multiple enzymes; consequently enzyme mixtures must be properly formulated for effective hydrolysis. The nature of an optimal enzyme blends depends on the type of pretreatment employed as well the characteristics of the substrate. In this study, statistical experimental design was used to develop mixtures of recombinant glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic and anaerobic fungi that enhanced the digestion of alkaline peroxide treated alfalfa hay and barley straw by mixed rumen enzymes as well as commercial cellulases (Accelerase 1500, A1500; Accelerase XC, AXC). Combinations of feruloyl and acetyl xylan esterases (FAE1a; AXE16A_ASPNG), endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and polygalacturonase (PGA28A_ASPNG) with rumen enzymes improved straw digestion. Inclusion of pectinase (PGA28A_ASPNG), endoxylanase (XYN11A_THITE), feruloyl esterase (FAE1a) and β-glucosidase (E-BGLUC) with A1500 or endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and β-xylosidase (E-BXSRB) with AXC increased glucose release from alfalfa hay. Glucose yield from straw was improved when FAE1a and endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) were added to A1500, while FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG enhanced the activity of AXC on straw. Xylose release from alfalfa hay was augmented by supplementing A1500 with E-BGLUC, or AXC with EGL7A_THITE and XYN11A_THITE. Adding arabinofuranosidase (ABF54B_ASPNG) and esterases (AXE16A_ASPNG; AXE16B_ASPNG) to A1500, or FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG to AXC enhanced xylose release from barley straw, a response confirmed in a scaled up assay. The efficacy of commercial enzyme mixtures as well as mixed enzymes from the rumen was improved through formulation with synergetic recombinant enzymes. This approach reliably identified supplemental enzymes that enhanced sugar release from alkaline pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw.

  11. Enzyme activity and kinetics in substrate-amended river sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duddridge, J E; Wainwright, M

    1982-01-01

    In determining the effects of heavy metals in microbial activity and litter degradation in river sediments, one approach is to determine the effects of these pollutants on sediment enzyme activity and synthesis. Methods to assay amylase, cellulase and urease activity in diverse river sediments are reported. Enzyme activity was low in non-amended sediments, but increased markedly when the appropriate substrate was added, paralleling both athropogenic and natural amendment. Linear relationships between enzyme activity, length of incubation, sample size and substrate concentration were established. Sediment enzyme activity generally obeyed Michaelis-Menton kinetics, but of the three enzymes, urease gave least significant correlation coefficients when the data for substrate concentration versus activity was applied to the Eadie-Hofstee transformation of the Michaelis-Menten equation. K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ for amylase, cellulase and urease in sediments are reported. (JMT)

  12. Generalized field-splitting algorithms for optimal IMRT delivery efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, Srijit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sahni, Sartaj [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ranka, Sanjay [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2007-09-21

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) uses radiation beams of varying intensities to deliver varying doses of radiation to different areas of the tissue. The use of IMRT has allowed the delivery of higher doses of radiation to the tumor and lower doses to the surrounding healthy tissue. It is not uncommon for head and neck tumors, for example, to have large treatment widths that are not deliverable using a single field. In such cases, the intensity matrix generated by the optimizer needs to be split into two or three matrices, each of which may be delivered using a single field. Existing field-splitting algorithms used the pre-specified arbitrary split line or region where the intensity matrix is split along a column, i.e., all rows of the matrix are split along the same column (with or without the overlapping of split fields, i.e., feathering). If three fields result, then the two splits are along the same two columns for all rows. In this paper we study the problem of splitting a large field into two or three subfields with the field width as the only constraint, allowing for an arbitrary overlap of the split fields, so that the total MU efficiency of delivering the split fields is maximized. Proof of optimality is provided for the proposed algorithm. An average decrease of 18.8% is found in the total MUs when compared to the split generated by a commercial treatment planning system and that of 10% is found in the total MUs when compared to the split generated by our previously published algorithm. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org.

  13. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  14. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  15. Optimum concrete compression strength using bio-enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagio Tony Hartono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To make concrete with high compressive strength and has a certain concrete specifications other than the main concrete materials are also needed concrete mix quality control and other added material is also in line with the current technology of concrete mix that produces concrete with specific characteristics. Addition of bio enzyme on five concrete mixture that will be compared with normal concrete in order to know the optimum level bio-enzyme in concrete to increase the strength of the concrete. Concrete with bio-enzyme 200 ml/m3, 400 ml/m3, 600 ml/m3, 800 ml/m3, 1000 ml/m3 and normal concrete. Refer to the crushing test result, its tends to the mathematical model using 4th degree polynomial regression (least quartic, as represent on the attached data series, which is for the design mix fc′ = 25 MPa generate optimum value for 33,98 MPa, on the bio-additive dosage of 509 ml bio enzymes.

  16. 26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...'s death benefit proceeds, the policy's cash surrender value, or both. (ii) Payments that are only... regarding certain split-dollar term loans payable on the death of an individual, certain split-dollar term... insurance arrangement make a representation—(i) Requirement. An otherwise noncontingent payment on a split...

  17. A guiding oblique osteotomy cut to prevent bad split in sagittal split ramus osteotomy: a technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaj Arakeri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To present a simple technical modification of a medial osteotomy cut which prevents its misdirection and overcomes various anatomical variations as well as technical problems. Methods: The medial osteotomy cut is modified in the posterior half at an angle of 15°-20° following novel landmarks. Results: The proposed cut exclusively directs the splitting forces downwards to create a favorable lingual fracture, preventing the possibility of an upwards split which would cause a coronoid or condylar fracture. Conclusion: This modification has proven to be successful to date without encountering the complications of a bad split or nerve damage.

  18. Splitting and non splitting are pollution models photochemical reactions in the urban areas of greater Tehran area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarinasab, A.; Dabir, B.; Sahimi, M.; Badii, Kh.

    2003-01-01

    During the past years, one of the most important problems has been air pollution in urban areas. In this regards, ozone, as one of the major products of photochemical reactions, has great importance. The term 'photochemical' is applied to a number of secondary pollutants that appear as a result of sun-related reactions, ozone being the most important one. So far various models have been suggested to predict these pollutants. In this paper, we developed the model that has been introduced by Dabir, et al. [4]. In this model more than 48 chemical species and 114 chemical reactions are involved. The result of this development, showed good to excellent agreement across the region for compounds such as O 3 , NO, NO 2 , CO, and SO 2 with regard to VOC and NMHC. The results of the simulation were compared with previous work [4] and the effects of increasing the number of components and reactions were evaluated. The results of the operator splitting method were compared with non splitting solving method. The result showed that splitting method with one-tenth time step collapsed with non splitting method (Crank-Nicolson, under-relaxation iteration method without splitting of the equation terms). Then we developed one dimensional model to 3-D and were compared with experimental data

  19. Strangeness, charm and beauty production at the split field magnet detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Split Field Magnet detector is used to investigate heavy flavour production at the ISR by various techniques: (a) Decays of neutral strange particles are reconstructed in full phase space yielding detailed information on K 0 sub(s) and Λ production. (b) A trigger telescope with electron identification was added to the standard set-up at a polar angle of 90 0 to measure the prompt electron flux due to semileptonic decays of charmed and beauty hadrons. (c) Events with a triggering electron were also fully reconstructed to search for associated production of open charm and-open beauty. (d) A different study of charmed particle production is based on data taken with a K - trigger at forward angles

  20. Tune splitting in the presence of linear coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of random skew quadrupole field errors will couple the x and y motions. The x and y motions are then each given by the sum of 2 normal modes with the tunes v 1 and v 2 , which may differ appreciably from v x and v y , the unperturbed tunes. This is often called tune splitting since |v 1 - v 2 | is usually larger than |v x - v y |. This tune splitting may be large in proton accelerators using superconducting magnets, because of the relatively large random skew quadrupole field errors that are expected in these magnets. This effect is also increased by the required insertions in proton colliders which generate large β-functions in the insertion region. This tune splitting has been studied in the RHIC accelerator. For RHIC, a tune splitting as large as 0.2 was found in one worse case. A correction system has been developed for correcting this large tune splitting which uses two families of skew quadrupole correctors. It has been found that this correction system corrects most of the large tune splitting, but a residual tune splitting remains that is still appreciable. This paper discusses the corrections to this residual time

  1. ESolvent-free, enzyme-catalyzed biodiesel production from mango, neem, and shea oils via response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Nde, Divine Bup; Astete, Carlos; Boldor, Dorin

    2015-01-01

    Mango, neem and shea kernels produce non-conventional oils whose potentials are not fully exploited. To give an added value to these oils, they were transesterified into biodiesel in a solvent-free system using immobilized enzyme lipozyme from Mucor miehei. The Doehlert experimental design was used to evaluate the methyl ester (ME) yields as influenced by enzyme concentration?EC, temperature?T, added water content?AWC, and reaction time?RT. Biodiesel yields were quantified by 1H NMR spectrosc...

  2. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  3. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  4. Split scheduling with uniform setup times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a

  5. Numerical simulation and experiment on multilayer stagger-split die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Li, Mingzhe; Han, Qigang; Yang, Yunfei; Wang, Bolong; Sui, Zhou

    2013-05-01

    A novel ultra-high pressure device, multilayer stagger-split die, has been constructed based on the principle of "dividing dies before cracking." Multilayer stagger-split die includes an encircling ring and multilayer assemblages, and the mating surfaces of the multilayer assemblages are mutually staggered between adjacent layers. In this paper, we investigated the stressing features of this structure through finite element techniques, and the results were compared with those of the belt type die and single split die. The contrast experiments were also carried out to test the bearing pressure performance of multilayer stagger-split die. It is concluded that the stress distributions are reasonable and the materials are utilized effectively for multilayer stagger-split die. And experiments indicate that the multilayer stagger-split die can bear the greatest pressure.

  6. Tensor products of higher almost split sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquali, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how the higher almost split sequences over a tensor product of algebras are related to those over each factor. Herschend and Iyama gave a precise criterion for when the tensor product of an $n$-representation finite algebra and an $m$-representation finite algebra is $(n+m)$-representation finite. In this case we give a complete description of the higher almost split sequences over the tensor product by expressing every higher almost split sequence as the mapping cone of a suit...

  7. [Detection of split products of the immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM during chronic otitis media (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbauer, E R; Hochgesand, K; Hochstrasser, K; Tappermann, G

    1975-07-01

    Proteolytic enzymes such as pepsine or papaine are able to split IgG antibodies into large fragments in vitro. These immunoglobulin fragments (IgG, IgA, IgM) were now detected in vivo from the purulent secretions of cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media and radical mastoid cavities. During chronic otitis media the intact immunoglobulins are split due to the proteolytic activity of neutral proteinases. These fragments were qualitatively and quantitatively investigated by means of various immunological procedures. After the immunoelectrophoretic separation of the purulent middle-ear-secretions and after diffusion against anti-IgG-, anti-IgA- and anti-IgM- serum double precipitate lines could be observed especially in middle-ear-secretion with a bacterial flora of pseudomonas aeruginosa (pyocyanea) and of the proteus-providencia-group. This was the first proof of the presence of split products of the immunoglobulins. The exact demonstration of these split products could be carried out by gel-filtration and fractionation of the intact and split immunoglobulins. During chronic otitis media intact immunoglobulins are split by leucocytic and extracellular bacterial proteinases into fragments of different molecular weight. The most malignant extracellular proteinases with the greatest proteolytic activity against intact immunoglobulins are the bacterial proteinases of pseudomonas aeruginosa. These proteinases can not be inhibited by the other serum proteinaseinhibitors except for alpha-2-macroglobulin of the human blood serum. This inhibitor has a very high molecular weight so that we can not find it in a higher concentration in the middle-ear-secretion. We can liberate this inhibitor by injuring the blood vessels during a tympanoplasty. In this way we get an inhibitory effect against these proteinases and combined with an appropriate antibiotic therapy we can cure a chronic otitis media.

  8. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in the 21(st) century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Tony; Chan, Johanna; Graham, David Y

    2014-09-07

    Restitution of normal fat absorption in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency remains an elusive goal. Although many patients achieve satisfactory clinical results with enzyme therapy, few experience normalization of fat absorption, and many, if not most, will require individualized therapy. Increasing the quantity of lipase administered rarely eliminates steatorrhea but increases the cost of therapy. Enteric coated enzyme microbead formulations tend to separate from nutrients in the stomach precluding coordinated emptying of enzymes and nutrients. Unprotected enzymes mix well and empty with nutrients but are inactivated at pH 4 or below. We describe approaches for improving the results of enzyme therapy including changing to, or adding, a different product, adding non-enteric coated enzymes, (e.g., giving unprotected enzymes at the start of the meal and acid-protected formulations later), use of antisecretory drugs and/or antacids, and changing the timing of enzyme administration. Because considerable lipid is emptied in the first postprandial hour, it is prudent to start therapy with enteric coated microbead prior to the meal so that some enzymes are available during that first hour. Patients with hyperacidity may benefit from adjuvant antisecretory therapy to reduce the duodenal acid load and possibly also sodium bicarbonate to prevent duodenal acidity. Comparative studies of clinical effectiveness of different formulations as well as the characteristics of dispersion, emptying, and dissolution of enteric-coated microspheres of different diameter and density are needed; many such studies have been completed but not yet made public. We discuss the history of pancreatic enzyme therapy and describe current use of modern preparations, approaches to overcoming unsatisfactory clinical responses, as well as studies needed to be able to provide reliably effective therapy.

  9. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Tony; Chan, Johanna; Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Restitution of normal fat absorption in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency remains an elusive goal. Although many patients achieve satisfactory clinical results with enzyme therapy, few experience normalization of fat absorption, and many, if not most, will require individualized therapy. Increasing the quantity of lipase administered rarely eliminates steatorrhea but increases the cost of therapy. Enteric coated enzyme microbead formulations tend to separate from nutrients in the stomach precluding coordinated emptying of enzymes and nutrients. Unprotected enzymes mix well and empty with nutrients but are inactivated at pH 4 or below. We describe approaches for improving the results of enzyme therapy including changing to, or adding, a different product, adding non-enteric coated enzymes, (e.g., giving unprotected enzymes at the start of the meal and acid-protected formulations later), use of antisecretory drugs and/or antacids, and changing the timing of enzyme administration. Because considerable lipid is emptied in the first postprandial hour, it is prudent to start therapy with enteric coated microbead prior to the meal so that some enzymes are available during that first hour. Patients with hyperacidity may benefit from adjuvant antisecretory therapy to reduce the duodenal acid load and possibly also sodium bicarbonate to prevent duodenal acidity. Comparative studies of clinical effectiveness of different formulations as well as the characteristics of dispersion, emptying, and dissolution of enteric-coated microspheres of different diameter and density are needed; many such studies have been completed but not yet made public. We discuss the history of pancreatic enzyme therapy and describe current use of modern preparations, approaches to overcoming unsatisfactory clinical responses, as well as studies needed to be able to provide reliably effective therapy. PMID:25206255

  10. Acrolein inhibits NADH-linked mitochondrial enzyme activity: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocernich, Chava B; Butterfield, D Allan

    2003-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain increased lipid peroxidation and decreased energy utilization are found. Mitochondria membranes contain a significant amount of arachidonic and linoleic acids, precursors of lipid peroxidation products, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 2-propen-1-al (acrolein), that are extremely reactive. Both alkenals are increased in AD brain. In this study, we examined the effects of nanomolar levels of acrolein on the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH), both reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-linked mitochondrial enzymes. Acrolein decreased PDH and KGDH activities significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), acrolein was found to bind lipoic acid, a component in both the PDH and KGDH complexes, most likely explaining the loss of enzyme activity. Acrolein also interacted with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) in such a way as to decrease the production of NADH. Acrolein, which is increased in AD brain, may be partially responsible for the dysfunction of mitochondria and loss of energy found in AD brain by inhibition of PDH and KGDH activities, potentially contributing to the neurodegeneration in this disorder.

  11. Split Scheduling with Uniform Setup Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, F.; Sitters, R.A.; van der Ster, S.L.; Stougie, L.; Verdugo, V.; van Zuylen, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a machine cannot process or

  12. Factors affecting emulsion stability and quality of oil recovered from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S; Maurer, D; Johnson, L A

    2009-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess how the stability of the emulsion recovered from aqueous extraction processing of soybeans was affected by characteristics of the starting material and extraction and demulsification conditions. Adding endopeptidase Protex 6L during enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) of extruded soybean flakes was vital to obtaining emulsions that were easily demulsified with enzymes. Adding salt (up to 1.5 mM NaCl or MgCl(2)) during extraction and storing extruded flakes before extraction at 4 and 30 degrees C for up to 3 months did not affect the stabilities of emulsions recovered from EAEP of soy flour, flakes and extruded flakes. After demulsification, highest free oil yield was obtained with EAEP of extruded flakes, followed by flour and then flakes. The same protease used for the extraction step was used to demulsify the EAEP cream emulsion from extruded full-fat soy flakes at concentrations ranging from 0.03% to 2.50% w/w, incubation times ranging from 2 to 90 min, and temperatures of 25, 50 or 65 degrees C. Highest free oil recoveries were achieved at high enzyme concentrations, mild temperatures, and short incubation times. Both the nature of enzyme (i.e., protease and phospholipase), added alone or as a cocktail, concentration of enzymes (0.5% vs. 2.5%) and incubation time (1 vs. 3 h), use during the extraction step, and nature of enzyme added for demulsifying affected free oil yield. The free oil recovered from EAEP of extruded flakes contained less phosphorus compared with conventional hexane-extracted oil. The present study identified conditions rendering the emulsion less stable, which is critical to increasing free oil yield recovered during EAEP of soybeans, an environmentally friendly alternative processing method to hexane extraction.

  13. Study on the reaction mechanism of oxygen-added enzyme for effective use of unused seaweeds; Miriyo kaiso no shigenka ni shisuru sanso tenka koso no hanno kiko ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For effective use of unused seaweeds, efficient search of available microorganism systems and their conversion for effective use were studied. Since generally found Phaeophyceae includes a large amount of polyphenol such as phlorotannin, it is refused by plant-eating animals, inhibits protein from effective absorption, and is inadequate for livestock feed because of tasteless. Bacteria Rhodococcus sp. PG7-2 was isolated which can be effectively increased using phloroglucinol as substrate. Participation of oxygen- adding enzyme was suggested in the initial stage of decomposition which adds molecular oxygen to aromatic rings. In the experiment using combinations of extracted and isolated enzymes and various coenzymes, no significant decomposition was observed. Since phlorotannin of Phaeophyceae is the polymer which shows a matrix-like extent through difficult-to-decompose bond such as biphenyl bond and phenyl ether bond, its decomposition by one kind of bacterium is extremely difficult. Search of decomposition systems of polymer remains as the future issue. 15 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. NNLO time-like splitting functions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch, S.; Vogt, A.

    2008-07-01

    We review the status of the calculation of the time-like splitting functions for the evolution of fragmentation functions to the next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. By employing relations between space-like and time-like deep-inelastic processes, all quark-quark and the gluon-gluon time-like splitting functions have been obtained to three loops. The corresponding quantities for the quark-gluon and gluon-quark splitting at this order are presently still unknown except for their second Mellin moments. (orig.)

  15. FIX-II/3025, BWR FIX-II Pump Trip Experiment 3025, Immediate Split Size Break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NILSSON, Lars; GUSTAFSSON, Per-Ake; GUSTAFSON, Lennart; JANCZAK, Rajmund; OESTERLUNDH, Ingrid

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The FIX-II facility is a volume scaled 1:777 representation of a Swedish BWR with external pumps. The pressure vessel contains a 36 rod full length bundle and a spray condenser at the top to allow steady state operation. The downcomer, bypass channels and guide tube volumes are represented by external piping. The intact loop represents three of the four external reactor loops. The broken loop is constructed such that both guillotine breaks and split breaks may be simulated. The facility is equipped with ADS-simulation, but no ECCS injection are included. The FIX-II loop is also suited to investigate response of pump trips and MSIV closures in internal pump reactors. 2 - Description of test: Test 3025 simulates an intermediate size split break in one of the four main recirculation lines. The break area was 31 per cent of the scaled down pipe area of the reactor. The initial power of the 36-rod bundle was 3.38 MW, corresponding to the hot channel power of the reactor

  16. Recent Progress in Energy-Driven Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Si Yin; Win, Khin Yin; Teo, Wee Siang; Koh, Leng-Duei; Liu, Shuhua; Teng, Choon Peng; Han, Ming-Yong

    2017-05-01

    Hydrogen is readily obtained from renewable and non-renewable resources via water splitting by using thermal, electrical, photonic and biochemical energy. The major hydrogen production is generated from thermal energy through steam reforming/gasification of fossil fuel. As the commonly used non-renewable resources will be depleted in the long run, there is great demand to utilize renewable energy resources for hydrogen production. Most of the renewable resources may be used to produce electricity for driving water splitting while challenges remain to improve cost-effectiveness. As the most abundant energy resource, the direct conversion of solar energy to hydrogen is considered the most sustainable energy production method without causing pollutions to the environment. In overall, this review briefly summarizes thermolytic, electrolytic, photolytic and biolytic water splitting. It highlights photonic and electrical driven water splitting together with photovoltaic-integrated solar-driven water electrolysis.

  17. Supergravity one-loop corrections on AdS7 and AdS3, higher spins and AdS/CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Beccaria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As was shown earlier, the one-loop correction in 10d supergravity on AdS5×S5 corresponds to the contributions to the vacuum energy and 4d boundary conformal anomaly which are minus the values for one N=4 Maxwell supermultiplet, thus reproducing the subleading term in the N2−1 coefficient in the dual SU(N SYM theory. We perform similar one-loop computations in 11d supergravity on AdS7×S4 and 10d supergravity on AdS3×S3×T4. In the AdS7 case we find that the corrections to the 6d conformal anomaly a-coefficient and the vacuum energy are again minus the ones for one (2,0 tensor multiplet, suggesting that the total a-anomaly coefficient for the dual (2,0 theory is 4N3−9/4N−7/4 and thus vanishes for N=1. In the AdS3 case the one-loop correction to the vacuum energy or 2d central charge turns out to be equal to that of one free (4,4 scalar multiplet, i.e. is c=+6. This reproduces the subleading term in the central charge c=6(Q1Q5+1 of the dual 2d CFT describing decoupling limit of D5–D1 system. We also present the expressions for the 6d a-anomaly coefficient and vacuum energy contributions of general-symmetry higher spin field in AdS7 and consider their application to tests of vectorial AdS/CFT with the boundary conformal 6d theory represented by free scalars, spinors or rank-2 antisymmetric tensors.

  18. Skin symptoms in patients with atopic dermatitis using enzyme-containing detergents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Hundevadt; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Mosbech, H

    1998-01-01

    Detergent enzymes may cause skin irritation and occasionally hypersensitivity reactions. The potential hazards of these enzymes have led some physicians to advise atopic dermatitis patients against the use of enzyme-enriched detergents. A three-phased randomised, double-blind, cross-over experiment...... was designed to question this recommendation. Each period was of 1 month's duration.In the first phase patients continued using their normal washing detergent. In phase II patients used trial detergent with or without added enzymes, and during phase III patients were given the opposite trial detergent. A total...... differences in any of the primary or secondary parameters comparing treatment and placebo periods. Our data therefore seem to exclude that atopic dermatitis may exacerbate during 1 month's exposure to enzyme-enriched detergents. Since no significant irritant capacity was detected in atopic dermatitis patients...

  19. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Podorson, David [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Varshney, Kapil [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  20. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N.

    2016-09-01

    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν2 bending mode starting with 4ν2.

  1. On the additive splitting procedures and their computer realization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farago, I.; Thomsen, Per Grove; Zlatev, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Two additive splitting procedures are defined and studied in this paper. It is shown that these splitting procedures have good stability properties. Some other splitting procedures, which are traditionally used in mathematical models used in many scientific and engineering fields, are sketched. All...

  2. Splitting methods in communication, imaging, science, and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Osher, Stanley; Yin, Wotao

    2016-01-01

    This book is about computational methods based on operator splitting. It consists of twenty-three chapters written by recognized splitting method contributors and practitioners, and covers a vast spectrum of topics and application areas, including computational mechanics, computational physics, image processing, wireless communication, nonlinear optics, and finance. Therefore, the book presents very versatile aspects of splitting methods and their applications, motivating the cross-fertilization of ideas. .

  3. Irradiation-induced amorphization in split-dislocation cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovid'ko, I.A.; Rejzis, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The model describing special splitting of lattice and grain-boundary dislocations as one of the micromechanisms of solid-phase amorphization in irradiated crystals is proposed. Calculation of energy characteristics of the process of dislocations special splitting is carried out [ru

  4. Current concepts on selected plant secondary metabolites with promising inhibitory effects against enzymes linked to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, I Erdogan

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become one of the deadliest diseases for human beings with special incidence in elderly population. It is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most prevalent cause of dementia. The neuropathology of AD has not been fully elucidated yet, however, cholinergic hypothesis is the most accepted theory nowadays, resulting from the cholinergic deficit emerging in the brains of AD patients. Shortage of the neurotransmitters, acetylcholine and butyrylcholine has been demonstrated, and therefore, inhibition of the enzymes; acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) that break down acetylcholine and butyrylcholine has become a standard approach for AD treatment. However, cholinesterase inhibitors are only effective in symptomatic treatment and have no ability to impede the disease. The pathogenesis of AD is highly complex and another hypothesis is the formation of amyloid plaques containing beta-amyloid peptide, which causes neurolesions in the brains of AD patients. Beta-amyloid peptide is generated after the sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein, especially by the beta- and gamma-secretase in the amyloidogenic pathway. The secretases involved in the processing of amyloid precursor protein are of particular interest and, consequently, the inhibition of secretase enzyme family of protease type has become another desired treatment strategy for AD. On the other hand, medicinal plants are attractive sources for drug research and development as they produce chemically-varying molecules with preferred biological activities. The aim of this article is to review the available data on selected inhibitors from plant secondary metabolites with emphasis on cholinesterase, prolyl endopeptidase, and secretase enzyme families as being the current treatments of AD.

  5. Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogberashvili M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors. It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.

  6. The Splitting Loope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Teaching experiments have generated several hypotheses concerning the construction of fraction schemes and operations and relationships among them. In particular, researchers have hypothesized that children's construction of splitting operations is crucial to their construction of more advanced fractions concepts (Steffe, 2002). The authors…

  7. Purification and characterization of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... assay, each separated sample (50 μl) was added to the enzyme solution (50 μl) and then .... barriers in the human body might limit or enhance the activity of the .... tyrosine, proline or phenylalanine at the carboxy-terminal .... egg white hydrolysates: Effect of a simulated intestinal digestion. Food Chem.

  8. Splitting Strip Detector Clusters in Dense Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Tracking in high density environments, particularly in high energy jets, plays an important role in many physics analyses at the LHC. In such environments, there is significant degradation of track reconstruction performance. Between runs 1 and 2, ATLAS implemented an algorithm that splits pixel clusters originating from multiple charged particles, using charge information, resulting in the recovery of much of the lost efficiency. However, no attempt was made in prior work to split merged clusters in the Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), which does not measure charge information. In spite of the lack of charge information in SCT, a cluster-splitting algorithm has been developed in this work. It is based primarily on the difference between the observed cluster width and the expected cluster width, which is derived from track incidence angle. The performance of this algorithm is found to be competitive with the existing pixel cluster splitting based on track information.

  9. Hairy AdS solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-01-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  10. Hairy AdS solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales and Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru, E-mail: dumitru.astefanesei@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Choque, David, E-mail: brst1010123@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2016-11-10

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  11. Fee Splitting among General Practitioners: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Mojtaba; Larijani, Bagher; Aramesh, Kiarash; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Fotouhi, Akbar; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Ebrahimian, Nejatollah; Kandi, Mohamad Jafar

    2016-12-01

    Fee splitting is a process whereby a physician refers a patient to another physician or a healthcare facility and receives a portion of the charge in return. This survey was conducted to study general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes toward fee splitting as well as the prevalence, causes, and consequences of this process. This is a cross-sectional study on 223 general practitioners in 2013. Concerning the causes and consequences of fee splitting, an unpublished qualitative study was conducted by interviewing a number of GPs and specialists and the questionnaire options were the results of the information obtained from this study. Of the total 320 GPs, 247 returned the questionnaires. The response rate was 77.18%. Of the 247 returned questionnaires, 223 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among the participants, 69.1% considered fee splitting completely wrong and 23.2% (frequently or rarely) practiced fee splitting. The present study showed that the prevalence of fee splitting among physicians who had positive attitudes toward fee splitting was 4.63 times higher than those who had negative attitudes. In addition, this study showed that, compared to private hospitals, fee splitting is less practiced in public hospitals. The major cause of fee splitting was found to be unrealistic/unfair tariffs and the main consequence of fee splitting was thought to be an increase in the number of unnecessary patient referrals. Fee splitting is an unethical act, contradicts the goals of the medical profession, and undermines patient's best interest. In Iran, there is no code of ethics on fee splitting, but in this study, it was found that the majority of GPs considered it unethical. However, among those who had negative attitudes toward fee splitting, there were physicians who did practice fee splitting. The results of the study showed that physicians who had a positive attitude toward fee splitting practiced it more than others. Therefore, if physicians consider fee splitting unethical

  12. Enhancement of Biogas Production from Rice Husk by NaOH and Enzyme Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy source that can be used as an alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas. This research aims to analyze the impact of NaOH (Sodium hydroxide and enzyme usage on the production of rice husk biogas using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD. Generally, SS-AD occurs at solid concentrations higher than 15%. The waste of rice husk are used as substrate with a C/N ratio of 25% and the total of solid that are used is 21%. Rice husk contains high lignin, therefore it is handled with chemical and biological treatment. The chemical preliminary treatment was using NaOH with various concentrations from 3%, 6% and 9% while the biological preliminary treatment was using enzyme with various concentration from 5%, 8%, and 11%. The biogas that is produced then measured every two days during 60 days of research with the biogas volume as a parameter observed. The result of the research shows that preliminary treatment with NaOH and enzyme can increase the production of biogas. The highest biogas production was obtained by the NaOH pretreatment using 6% NaOH which was 497 ml and by enzyme pretreatment using 11% enzyme which was 667,5 ml.

  13. Enhancement of Biogas Production from Rice Husk by NaOH and Enzyme Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafrudin; Nugraha, Winardi Dwi; Agnesia, Shandy Sarima; Matin, Hashfi Hawali Abdul; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Biogas is a renewable energy source that can be used as an alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas. This research aims to analyze the impact of NaOH (Sodium hydroxide) and enzyme usage on the production of rice husk biogas using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD). Generally, SS-AD occurs at solid concentrations higher than 15%. The waste of rice husk are used as substrate with a C/N ratio of 25% and the total of solid that are used is 21%. Rice husk contains high lignin, therefore it is handled with chemical and biological treatment. The chemical preliminary treatment was using NaOH with various concentrations from 3%, 6% and 9% while the biological preliminary treatment was using enzyme with various concentration from 5%, 8%, and 11%. The biogas that is produced then measured every two days during 60 days of research with the biogas volume as a parameter observed. The result of the research shows that preliminary treatment with NaOH and enzyme can increase the production of biogas. The highest biogas production was obtained by the NaOH pretreatment using 6% NaOH which was 497 ml and by enzyme pretreatment using 11% enzyme which was 667,5 ml.

  14. The Split sudâmja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Šimunović

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The name of the Split feast Sudamja!Sudajma ("festa sancti Domnii" has not yet been adequately explained. The author believes that the name originated from the Old Dalmatian adjective san(ctu + Domnĭu. In the adjective santu the cluster /an/ in front of·a consonant gave in Croatian the back nasal /q/ pronounced until the end of the 10th century and giving /u/ after that. In this way the forms *Sudumja and similar originated. The short stressed /u/ in the closed syllable was percieved by the Croatian folk as their semivowel which later gave /a/ = Sudamja. The author connects this feature with that in the toponimes Makar ( /jm/ is well known in Croatian dialectology (sumja > sujma, and it resembles the metatheses which occurs in the Split toponimes: Sukošjân > Sukojšãn ( < *santu Cassianu, Pojišân/Pojšiin (< *pasianu < Pansianu. The author finds the same feature in the toponime Dumjača (: *Dumi- + -ača. He considers these features as Croatian popular adaptations which have not occured in the personal name Dujam, the toponime Dujmovača "terrae s. Domnii" and in the adjective sandujamski, because of the link with the saint's name Domnio!Duymo etc., which has been well liked and is frequent as name of Split Romas as well as Croats from the foundation of Split, has never been broken.

  15. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-07

    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν{sub 2} bending mode starting with 4ν{sub 2}.

  16. Determining the safety of enzymes used in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariza, Michael W; Cook, Mark

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance for evaluating the safety of enzyme preparations used in animal feed. Feed enzymes are typically added to animal feed to increase nutrient bioavailability by acting on feed components prior to or after consumption, i.e., within the gastrointestinal tract. In contrast, food processing enzymes are generally used during processing and then inactivated or removed prior to consumption. The enzymes used in both applications are almost always impure mixtures of active enzyme and other metabolites from the production strain, hence similar safety evaluation procedures for both are warranted. We propose that the primary consideration should be the safety of the production strain and that the decision tree mechanism developed previously for food processing enzymes (Pariza and Johnson, 2001) is appropriate for determining the safety of feed enzymes. Thoroughly characterized non-pathogenic, non-toxigenic microbial strains with a history of safe use in enzyme manufacture are also logical candidates for generating safe strain lineages, from which additional strains may be derived via genetic modification by traditional and non-traditional strategies. For new feed enzyme products derived from a safe strain lineage, it is important to ensure a sufficiently high safety margin for the intended use, and that the product complies with appropriate specifications for chemical and microbial contamination. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Splitting Descartes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Kognition og Pædagogik vol. 48:10-18. 2003 Short description : The cognitivistic paradigm and Descartes' view of embodied knowledge. Abstract: That the philosopher Descartes separated the mind from the body is hardly news: He did it so effectively that his name is forever tied to that division....... But what exactly is Descartes' point? How does the Kartesian split hold up to recent biologically based learning theories?...

  18. The Splitting Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Piagetian theory describes mathematical development as the construction and organization of mental operations within psychological structures. Research on student learning has identified the vital roles of two particular operations--splitting and units coordination--play in students' development of advanced fractions knowledge. Whereas Steffe and…

  19. AdS solutions through transgression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo

    2008-01-01

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or 'transgression' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS 3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial.

  20. One-loop triple collinear splitting amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Simon; Buciuni, Francesco; Peraro, Tiziano [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-28

    We study the factorisation properties of one-loop scattering amplitudes in the triple collinear limit and extract the universal splitting amplitudes for processes initiated by a gluon. The splitting amplitudes are derived from the analytic Higgs plus four partons amplitudes. We present compact results for primitive helicity splitting amplitudes making use of super-symmetric decompositions. The universality of the collinear factorisation is checked numerically against the full colour six parton squared matrix elements.

  1. Splitting in Dual-Phase 590 high strength steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Chao, Yuh J.; Li Xiaodong; Tan Jinzhu

    2008-01-01

    Charpy V-notch impact tests on 5.5 mm thick, hot-rolled Dual-Phase 590 (DP590) steel plate were evaluated at temperatures ranging from 90 deg. C to -120 deg. C. Similar tests on 2.0 mm thick DP590 HDGI steel plate were also conducted at room temperature. Splitting or secondary cracks was observed on the fractured surfaces. The mechanisms of the splitting were then investigated. Fracture surfaces were analyzed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Composition of the steel plates was determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Micro Vickers hardness of the steel plates was also surveyed. Results show that splitting occurred on the main fractured surfaces of hot-rolled steel specimens at various testing temperatures. At temperatures above the ductile-brittle-transition-temperature (DBTT), -95 deg. C, where the fracture is predominantly ductile, the length and amount of splitting decreased with increasing temperature. At temperatures lower than the DBTT, where the fracture is predominantly brittle, both the length and width of the splitting are insignificant. Splitting in HDGI steel plates only appeared in specimens of T-L direction. The analysis revealed that splitting in hot-rolled plate is caused by silicate and carbide inclusions while splitting in HDGI plate results from strip microstructure due to its high content of manganese and low content of silicon. The micro Vickers hardness of either the inclusions or the strip microstructures is higher than that of the respective base steel

  2. Split ring containment attachment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammel, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device is described for operatively connecting a glovebag to plastic sheeting covering hazardous material. The device includes an inner split ring member connected on one end to a middle ring member wherein the free end of the split ring member is inserted through a slit in the plastic sheeting to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting. A collar potion having an outer ring portion is provided with fastening means for securing the device together wherein the glovebag is operatively connected to the collar portion. 5 figs

  3. Split NMSSM with electroweak baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, S.V.; Gorbunov, D.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutsky per. 9, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation); Kirpichnikov, D.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-24

    In light of the Higgs boson discovery and other results of the LHC we reconsider generation of the baryon asymmetry in the split Supersymmetry model with an additional singlet superfield in the Higgs sector (non-minimal split SUSY). We find that successful baryogenesis during the first order electroweak phase transition is possible within a phenomenologically viable part of the model parameter space. We discuss several phenomenological consequences of this scenario, namely, predictions for the electric dipole moments of electron and neutron and collider signatures of light charginos and neutralinos.

  4. Mass splitting induced by gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    1982-08-01

    The exact combination of internal and geometrical symmetries and the associated mass splitting problem is discussed. A 10-parameter geometrical symmetry is defined in a curved space-time in such a way that it is a combination of de Sitter groups. In the flat limit it reproduces the Poincare-group and its Lie algebra has a nilpotent action on the combined symmetry only in that limit. An explicit mass splitting expression is derived and an estimation of the order of magnitude for spin-zero mesons is made. (author)

  5. Splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.

    2017-11-01

    Recent study (Wu et al., PNAS, 1509451112, 2015) demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of direct computation of the Osborne Reynolds' pipe transition problem without the unphysical, axially periodic boundary condition. Here we use this approach to study the splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow, a feature first discovered by E.R. Lindgren (Arkiv Fysik 15, 1959). It has been widely believed that spot splitting is a mysterious stochastic process that has general implications on the lifetime and sustainability of wall turbulence. We address the following two questions: (1) What is the dynamics of turbulent spot splitting in pipe transition? Specifically, we look into any possible connection between the instantaneous strain rate field and the spot splitting. (2) How does the passive scalar field behave during the process of pipe spot splitting. In this study, the turbulent spot is introduced at the inlet plane through a sixty degree wide numerical wedge within which fully-developed turbulent profiles are assigned over a short time interval; and the simulation Reynolds numbers are 2400 for a 500 radii long pipe, and 2300 for a 1000 radii long pipe, respectively. Numerical dye is tagged on the imposed turbulent spot at the inlet. Splitting of the imposed turbulent spot is detected very easily. Preliminary analysis of the DNS results seems to suggest that turbulent spot slitting can be easily understood based on instantaneous strain rate field, and such spot splitting may not be relevant in external flows such as the flat-plate boundary layer.

  6. Low sensitivity of type VII collagen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita : serration pattern analysis on skin biopsy is required for diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, J. B.; Jonkman, M. F.; Diercks, G. F. H.; Pas, H. H.

    BackgroundThe type VII collagen (coll VII) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been reported to have high sensitivity (>93%) and specificity (>96%) for diagnosing epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) in patients who are seropositive on indirect immunofluorescence on salt-split skin (SSS).

  7. Guidelines to Develop Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic overall water splitting is the only viable solar-to-fuel conversion technology. The research discloses an investigation process wherein by dissecting the photocatalytic water splitting device, electrocatalysts, and semiconductor

  8. Waste valorization by biotechnological conversion into added value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Amore, Antonella; Faraco, Vincenza

    2013-07-01

    Fossil fuel reserves depletion, global warming, unrelenting population growth, and costly and problematic waste recycling call for renewable resources of energy and consumer products. As an alternative to the 100 % oil economy, production processes based on biomass can be developed. Huge amounts of lignocellulosic wastes are yearly produced all around the world. They include agricultural residues, food farming wastes, "green-grocer's wastes," tree pruning residues, and organic and paper fraction of urban solid wastes. The common ways currently adopted for disposal of these wastes present environmental and economic disadvantages. As an alternative, processes for adding value to wastes producing high added products should be developed, that is the upgrading concept: adding value to wastes by production of a product with desired reproducible properties, having economic and ecological advantages. A wide range of high added value products, such as enzymes, biofuels, organic acids, biopolymers, bioelectricity, and molecules for food and pharmaceutical industries, can be obtained by upgrading solid wastes. The most recent advancements of their production by biotechnological processes are overviewed in this manuscript.

  9. Exposing the QCD Splitting Function with CMS Open Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkoski, Andrew; Marzani, Simone; Thaler, Jesse; Tripathee, Aashish; Xue, Wei

    2017-09-29

    The splitting function is a universal property of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which describes how energy is shared between partons. Despite its ubiquitous appearance in many QCD calculations, the splitting function cannot be measured directly, since it always appears multiplied by a collinear singularity factor. Recently, however, a new jet substructure observable was introduced which asymptotes to the splitting function for sufficiently high jet energies. This provides a way to expose the splitting function through jet substructure measurements at the Large Hadron Collider. In this Letter, we use public data released by the CMS experiment to study the two-prong substructure of jets and test the 1→2 splitting function of QCD. To our knowledge, this is the first ever physics analysis based on the CMS Open Data.

  10. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  11. The influence of addition of papain enzyme and Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose on the textural properties of Tofu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridah; Fachraniah; Arifien; Sari, C. M.

    2018-03-01

    Papain enzyme and carboxyl methyl cellulosa was used in tofu production as coagulant and thickener. Papain enzyme is a protease enzyme that can break proteins. Papain enzymeuseful as coagulant to replace acid and base coagulant. The goal of this study is to observe papain enzyme as coagulant and carboxyl methyl cellulose as thickener to increase characteristic of tofu. Tofu is from soy milk has been pasteurized at 70 °C with the addition of papain enzyme and carboxyl methly cellulose. The concenration of papain enzyme is varied such as 200, 400, 800, and 1000 ppm. After Temperature reachs at 90 °C, carboxyl methyl cellulosa is added in soy milk to produce tofu. This study focuses on introducing papain enzyme as coagulant as well as investigating its potential in improving tofu making process productivity. Further the present work attempts to determine the synergistic effect of combining CMC/enzyme in tofu characteristic. This research was conducted with soy milk pasteurized at 70 °C with increasing papain enzyme. Protein from tofu was determined by using Spectrophotometer UV-VIS Shimadzu UV-1800 type. The highest protein concentration of the papain enzyme was found in 1000 ppm with CMC concentration of 0.6% w/v and based on organoleptic tests that the adding CMC and enzyme papain does not effect the taste, smell, texture and color of tofu. The taste of tofu produced is similar to the taste of tofu in the market.

  12. Efficient, environmentally-friendly and specific valorization of lignin: promising role of non-radical lignolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenya; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinxiao; Su, Sisi; Li, Qiang; Linhardt, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant bio-resource in nature. It is increasingly important to convert lignin into high value-added chemicals to accelerate the development of the lignocellulose biorefinery. Over the past several decades, physical and chemical methods have been widely explored to degrade lignin and convert it into valuable chemicals. Unfortunately, these developments have lagged because of several difficulties, of which high energy consumption and non-specific cleavage of chemical bonds in lignin remain the greatest challenges. A large number of enzymes have been discovered for lignin degradation and these are classified as radical lignolytic enzymes and non-radical lignolytic enzymes. Radical lignolytic enzymes, including laccases, lignin peroxidases, manganese peroxidases and versatile peroxidases, are radical-based bio-catalysts, which degrade lignins through non-specific cleavage of chemical bonds but can also catalyze the radical-based re-polymerization of lignin fragments. In contrast, non-radical lignolytic enzymes selectively cleave chemical bonds in lignin and lignin model compounds and, thus, show promise for use in the preparation of high value-added chemicals. In this mini-review, recent developments on non-radical lignolytic enzymes are discussed. These include recently discovered non-radical lignolytic enzymes, their metabolic pathways for lignin conversion, their recent application in the lignin biorefinery, and the combination of bio-catalysts with physical/chemical methods for industrial development of the lignin refinery.

  13. Hydrogen Production from Semiconductor-based Photocatalysis via Water Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. S. Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the ideal fuel for the future because it is clean, energy efficient, and abundant in nature. While various technologies can be used to generate hydrogen, only some of them can be considered environmentally friendly. Recently, solar hydrogen generated via photocatalytic water splitting has attracted tremendous attention and has been extensively studied because of its great potential for low-cost and clean hydrogen production. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the development of photocatalytic water splitting for generating hydrogen, particularly under visible-light irradiation. The topics covered include an introduction of hydrogen production technologies, a review of photocatalytic water splitting over titania and non-titania based photocatalysts, a discussion of the types of photocatalytic water-splitting approaches, and a conclusion for the current challenges and future prospects of photocatalytic water splitting. Based on the literatures reported here, the development of highly stable visible–light-active photocatalytic materials, and the design of efficient, low-cost photoreactor systems are the key for the advancement of solar-hydrogen production via photocatalytic water splitting in the future.

  14. Optimal field splitting for large intensity-modulated fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Srijit; Sahni, Sartaj; Ranka, Sanjay; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder

    2004-01-01

    The multileaf travel range limitations on some linear accelerators require the splitting of a large intensity-modulated field into two or more adjacent abutting intensity-modulated subfields. The abutting subfields are then delivered as separate treatment fields. This workaround not only increases the treatment delivery time but it also increases the total monitor units (MU) delivered to the patient for a given prescribed dose. It is imperative that the cumulative intensity map of the subfields is exactly the same as the intensity map of the large field generated by the dose optimization algorithm, while satisfying hardware constraints of the delivery system. In this work, we describe field splitting algorithms that split a large intensity-modulated field into two or more intensity-modulated subfields with and without feathering, with optimal MU efficiency while satisfying the hardware constraints. Compared to a field splitting technique (without feathering) used in a commercial planning system, our field splitting algorithm (without feathering) shows a decrease in total MU of up to 26% on clinical cases and up to 63% on synthetic cases

  15. Differentiation of mass-forming focal pancreatitis from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: value of characterizing dynamic enhancement patterns on contrast-enhanced MR images by adding signal intensity color mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mimi [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hanyang Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kyung Mi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kang, Tae Wook; Kim, Young Kon; Cha, Dong Ik [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyunga [Samsung Medical Center, Biostatics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Research Institute for Future Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the value of dynamic enhancement patterns on contrast-enhanced MR images by adding signal intensity colour mapping (SICM) to differentiate mass-forming focal pancreatitis (MFFP) from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Forty-one clinicopathologically proven MFFPs and 144 surgically confirmed PDACs were enrolled. Laboratory and MR imaging parameters were used to differentiate MFFP from PDAC. In particular, enhancement patterns on MR images adding SICM were evaluated. By using classification tree analysis (CTA), we determined the predictors for the differentiation of MFFP from PDAC. In the CTA, with all parameters except enhancement pattern on SICM images, ductal obstruction grade and T1 hypointensity grade of the pancreatic lesion were the first and second splitting predictor for differentiation of MFFP from PDAC, in order. By adding an enhancement pattern on the SICM images to CTA, the enhancement pattern was the only splitting predictor to differentiate MFFP from PDAC. The CTA model including enhancement pattern on SICM images has sensitivity of 78.0 %, specificity of 99.3 %, and accuracy of 94.6 % for differentiating MFFP from PDAC. The characterization of enhancement pattern for pancreatic lesions on contrast-enhanced MR images adding SICM would be helpful to differentiate MFFP from PDAC. (orig.)

  16. Iterative group splitting algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    An efficient feedback algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems based on iterative group splitting is proposed in this paper. Similar to the opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm adjusts (or lowers) the feedback threshold

  17. Upregulation of glycolytic enzymes, mitochondrial dysfunction and increased cytotoxicity in glial cells treated with Alzheimer's disease plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharusha Jayasena

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Markers of increased protein, lipid and nucleic acid oxidation and reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes have been reported in AD plasma. Amyloid plaques in the AD brain elicit a range of reactive inflammatory responses including complement activation and acute phase reactions, which may also be reflected in plasma. Previous studies have shown that human AD plasma may be cytotoxic to cultured cells. We investigated the effect of pooled plasma (n = 20 each from healthy controls, individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD on cultured microglial cells. AD plasma and was found to significantly decrease cell viability and increase glycolytic flux in microglia compared to plasma from healthy controls. This effect was prevented by the heat inactivation of complement. Proteomic methods and isobaric tags (iTRAQ found the expression level of complement and other acute phase proteins to be altered in MCI and AD plasma and an upregulation of key enzymes involved in the glycolysis pathway in cells exposed to AD plasma. Altered expression levels of acute phase reactants in AD plasma may alter the energy metabolism of glia.

  18. Point-splitting regularization of composite operators and anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.; Schnabl, M.

    2000-01-01

    The point-splitting regularization technique for composite operators is discussed in connection with anomaly calculation. We present a pedagogical and self-contained review of the topic with an emphasis on the technical details. We also develop simple algebraic tools to handle the path ordered exponential insertions used within the covariant and non-covariant version of the point-splitting method. The method is then applied to the calculation of the chiral, vector, trace, translation and Lorentz anomalies within diverse versions of the point-splitting regularization and a connection between the results is described. As an alternative to the standard approach we use the idea of deformed point-split transformation and corresponding Ward-Takahashi identities rather than an application of the equation of motion, which seems to reduce the complexity of the calculations. (orig.)

  19. Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicedo, Benoit

    2011-05-15

    We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S{sup 3}. Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet {sigma}-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL{sub 2}(C). (orig.)

  20. Warped AdS3 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li Wei; Padi, Megha; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l -2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS 3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,R) x U(1)-invariant warped AdS 3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS 3 . We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS 3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS 3 . Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS 3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS 3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c R -formula and c L -formula.

  1. Identification of a novel SPLIT-HULL (SPH) gene associated with hull splitting in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gileung; Lee, Kang-Ie; Lee, Yunjoo; Kim, Backki; Lee, Dongryung; Seo, Jeonghwan; Jang, Su; Chin, Joong Hyoun; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2018-07-01

    The split-hull phenotype caused by reduced lemma width and low lignin content is under control of SPH encoding a type-2 13-lipoxygenase and contributes to high dehulling efficiency. Rice hulls consist of two bract-like structures, the lemma and palea. The hull is an important organ that helps to protect seeds from environmental stress, determines seed shape, and ensures grain filling. Achieving optimal hull size and morphology is beneficial for seed development. We characterized the split-hull (sph) mutant in rice, which exhibits hull splitting in the interlocking part between lemma and palea and/or the folded part of the lemma during the grain filling stage. Morphological and chemical analysis revealed that reduction in the width of the lemma and lignin content of the hull in the sph mutant might be the cause of hull splitting. Genetic analysis indicated that the mutant phenotype was controlled by a single recessive gene, sph (Os04g0447100), which encodes a type-2 13-lipoxygenase. SPH knockout and knockdown transgenic plants displayed the same split-hull phenotype as in the mutant. The sph mutant showed significantly higher linoleic and linolenic acid (substrates of lipoxygenase) contents in spikelets compared to the wild type. It is probably due to the genetic defect of SPH and subsequent decrease in lipoxygenase activity. In dehulling experiment, the sph mutant showed high dehulling efficiency even by a weak tearing force in a dehulling machine. Collectively, the results provide a basis for understanding of the functional role of lipoxygenase in structure and maintenance of hulls, and would facilitate breeding of easy-dehulling rice.

  2. 15 CFR 30.28 - “Split shipments” by air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false âSplit shipmentsâ by air. 30.28... Transactions § 30.28 “Split shipments” by air. When a shipment by air covered by a single EEI submission is... showing the portion of the split shipment carried on that flight, a notation will be made showing the air...

  3. Electroweak splitting functions and high energy showering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junmou; Han, Tao; Tweedie, Brock

    2017-11-01

    We derive the electroweak (EW) collinear splitting functions for the Standard Model, including the massive fermions, gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. We first present the splitting functions in the limit of unbroken SU(2) L × U(1) Y and discuss their general features in the collinear and soft-collinear regimes. These are the leading contributions at a splitting scale ( k T ) far above the EW scale ( v). We then systematically incorporate EW symmetry breaking (EWSB), which leads to the emergence of additional "ultra-collinear" splitting phenomena and naive violations of the Goldstone-boson Equivalence Theorem. We suggest a particularly convenient choice of non-covariant gauge (dubbed "Goldstone Equivalence Gauge") that disentangles the effects of Goldstone bosons and gauge fields in the presence of EWSB, and allows trivial book-keeping of leading power corrections in v/ k T . We implement a comprehensive, practical EW showering scheme based on these splitting functions using a Sudakov evolution formalism. Novel features in the implementation include a complete accounting of ultra-collinear effects, matching between shower and decay, kinematic back-reaction corrections in multi-stage showers, and mixed-state evolution of neutral bosons ( γ/ Z/ h) using density-matrices. We employ the EW showering formalism to study a number of important physical processes at O (1-10 TeV) energies. They include (a) electroweak partons in the initial state as the basis for vector-boson-fusion; (b) the emergence of "weak jets" such as those initiated by transverse gauge bosons, with individual splitting probabilities as large as O (35%); (c) EW showers initiated by top quarks, including Higgs bosons in the final state; (d) the occurrence of O (1) interference effects within EW showers involving the neutral bosons; and (e) EW corrections to new physics processes, as illustrated by production of a heavy vector boson ( W ') and the subsequent showering of its decay products.

  4. Tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jijie; Gong, Jinlong

    2014-07-07

    Solar energy utilization is one of the most promising solutions for the energy crises. Among all the possible means to make use of solar energy, solar water splitting is remarkable since it can accomplish the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. The produced hydrogen is clean and sustainable which could be used in various areas. For the past decades, numerous efforts have been put into this research area with many important achievements. Improving the overall efficiency and stability of semiconductor photocatalysts are the research focuses for the solar water splitting. Tantalum-based semiconductors, including tantalum oxide, tantalate and tantalum (oxy)nitride, are among the most important photocatalysts. Tantalum oxide has the band gap energy that is suitable for the overall solar water splitting. The more negative conduction band minimum of tantalum oxide provides photogenerated electrons with higher potential for the hydrogen generation reaction. Tantalates, with tunable compositions, show high activities owning to their layered perovskite structure. (Oxy)nitrides, especially TaON and Ta3N5, have small band gaps to respond to visible-light, whereas they can still realize overall solar water splitting with the proper positions of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. This review describes recent progress regarding the improvement of photocatalytic activities of tantalum-based semiconductors. Basic concepts and principles of solar water splitting will be discussed in the introduction section, followed by the three main categories regarding to the different types of tantalum-based semiconductors. In each category, synthetic methodologies, influencing factors on the photocatalytic activities, strategies to enhance the efficiencies of photocatalysts and morphology control of tantalum-based materials will be discussed in detail. Future directions to further explore the research area of tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting

  5. High efficiency beam splitting for H- accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H - accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H - beam to H 0 which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10 -3 to 10 -2 splitting of a 50 MeV H - beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction

  6. Optimal space-energy splitting in MCNP with the DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubi, A.; Gurvitz, N.

    1990-01-01

    The Direct Statistical Approach (DSA) particle transport theory is based on the possibility of obtaining exact explicit expressions for the dependence of the second moment and calculation time on the splitting parameters. This allows the automatic optimization of the splitting parameters by ''learning'' the bulk parameters from which the problem dependent coefficients of the quality function (second moment time) are constructed. The above procedure was exploited to implement an automatic optimization of the splitting parameters in the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) code. This was done in a number of steps. In the first instance, only spatial surface splitting was considered. In this step, the major obstacle has been the truncation of an infinite series of ''products'' of ''surface path's'' leading from the source to the detector. Encouraging results from the first phase led to the inclusion of full space/energy phase space splitting. (author)

  7. Hawking radiation from AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E; Rangamani, Mukund; Marolf, Donald

    2010-01-01

    We study Hartle-Hawking-like states of quantum field theories on asymptotically AdS black hole backgrounds, with particular regard to the phase structure of interacting theories. By a suitable analytic continuation we show that the equilibrium dynamics of field theories on large asymptotically AdS black holes can be related to the low-temperature states of the same field theory on the AdS soliton (or pure AdS) background. This allows us to gain insight into Hartle-Hawking-like states on large-radius Schwarzschild- or rotating-AdS black holes. Furthermore, we exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to explore the physics of strongly coupled large N theories on asymptotically AdS black holes. In particular, we exhibit a plausibly complete set of phases for the M2-brane world-volume superconformal field theory on a BTZ black hole background. Our analysis partially resolves puzzles previously raised in connection with Hawking radiation on large AdS black holes.

  8. Splitting automorphisms of free Burnside groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabekyan, Varuzhan S

    2013-01-01

    It is proved that, if the order of a splitting automorphism of odd period n≥1003 of a free Burnside group B(m,n) is a prime, then the automorphism is inner. This implies, for every prime n≥1009, an affirmative answer to the question on the coincidence of the splitting automorphisms of period n of the group B(m,n) with the inner automorphisms (this question was posed in the 'Kourovka Notebook' in 1990). Bibliography: 17 titles.

  9. Photoelectrochemical water splitting: optimizing interfaces and light absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis several photoelectrochemical water splitting devices based on semiconductor materials were investigated. The aim was the design, characterization, and fabrication of solar-to-fuel devices which can absorb solar light and split water to produce hydrogen.

  10. 7 CFR 51.2543 - U.S. Non-Split.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2543 U.S. Non-Split. “U.S. Non-Split” consists of non-split pistachio nuts in the shell which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic requirements...

  11. Effect of Chemical and Biological Phosphorus on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Some Biochemical Traits of Spring Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. under Water Deficit Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heshmati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of biological and chemical phosphorus on antioxidant enzyme activity in safflower under water deficit conditions, an experiment was conducted in 2012 at the Research Field of the Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. The experimental design was a split-factorial with three replicates. The main factor was the three levels of irrigation treatment: full irrigation (irrigation up to 50% soil moisture depletion relative to field capacity, water stress in the vegetative and flowering stages (irrigation up to 75% soil moisture depletion relative to field capacity. The sub-factor was the six treatments resulting from three levels of phosphate chemical fertilizer (0, 50, and 100 kg ha-1 Triple Super Phosphate, each at two levels of Barvar-2 bio-fertilizer (with and without inoculation with Barvar-2. According to the results of our experiment, antioxidant enzyme activity is affected by high levels of chemical phosphorus when there is no inoculation with biofertilizer (Barvar 2 under water stress in the vegetative and flowering stages. The results showed that inoculation with Barvar 2 in the absence of added chemical phosphorus increases the catalase activity and soluble protein concentration under drought stress in the vegetative and flowering stages. Also, using chemical phosphorus followed by Barvar 2 led to increase in the polyphenol oxidase activity and superoxide dismutase activity under these conditions. Inoculation with Barvar 2 in the absence of added chemical phosphorus significantly decreased the amount of malondialdehyde under stress condition at the flowering stage. It was demonstrated that inoculation with a biological fertilizer (Barvar 2 followed by application of a chemical phosphorus fertilizer under drought conditions could decrease the detrimental effects of drought stress on spring safflower.

  12. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  13. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.

  14. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S.; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-05-03

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  15. Effective Gravitational Theories in String Theory and the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Andreas Vigand

    an effective theory for higher dimensional extended black holes in a uid/elastic perturbative derivative expansion. Moreover, we show that the approach is quite universal and can be extended to various supergravities. Finally, we consider a new generalization of the method, which allows us to treat (SUGRA...... as low/high spin. As a byproduct of our analysis, we find a new stationary dipole-charged black hole solution on the AdS S backgrounds of type IIB/M-theory. We finally consider, via a double scaling extremal limit, a novel null-wave zero-temperature giant graviton exhibiting a BPS spectrum. Finally......We consider various aspects of effective gravitational theories, including supergravity, within the framework of the blackfold approach. The thesis is naturally split into three parts. In the first part of the thesis, we explore the blackfold approach and explain how it is possible to write down...

  16. Geometrical Applications of Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merab Gogberashvili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that physical signals and space-time intervals modeled on split-octonion geometry naturally exhibit properties from conventional (3 + 1-theory (e.g., number of dimensions, existence of maximal velocities, Heisenberg uncertainty, and particle generations. This paper demonstrates these properties using an explicit representation of the automorphisms on split-octonions, the noncompact form of the exceptional Lie group G2. This group generates specific rotations of (3 + 4-vector parts of split octonions with three extra time-like coordinates and in infinitesimal limit imitates standard Poincare transformations. In this picture translations are represented by noncompact Lorentz-type rotations towards the extra time-like coordinates. It is shown how the G2 algebra’s chirality yields an intrinsic left-right asymmetry of a certain 3-vector (spin, as well as a parity violating effect on light emitted by a moving quantum system. Elementary particles are connected with the special elements of the algebra which nullify octonionic intervals. Then the zero-norm conditions lead to free particle Lagrangians, which allow virtual trajectories also and exhibit the appearance of spatial horizons governing by mass parameters.

  17. Can the ''doublet-triplet splitting'' problem be solved without doublet-triplet splitting?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.R.

    1992-03-01

    We consider a new possible mechanism for the natural solution of the doublet-triplet splitting problem in SUSY GUTs. In contrast to the usually discussed scenarios, in our case the GUT symmetry breaking does not provide any splitting between the Higgs doublet and the triplet masses. The weak doublet and its colour triplet partner both remain light, but the triplet automatically occurs decoupled from the quark and lepton superfields and cannot induce proton decay. The advantage of the above scenarios is the absence at the GUT scale of the baryon number violating the tree level d = 5 and d = 6 operators via the colour-triple exchange. It is shown that in flipped SU(5) GUT they do not appear at any scale. In the SO(10) model, such operators can be induced after SUSY breaking but are strongly suppressed. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs

  18. Quantitative analysis on electric dipole energy in Rashba band splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jisook; Rhim, Jun-Won; Kim, Changyoung; Ryong Park, Seung; Hoon Shim, Ji

    2015-09-01

    We report on quantitative comparison between the electric dipole energy and the Rashba band splitting in model systems of Bi and Sb triangular monolayers under a perpendicular electric field. We used both first-principles and tight binding calculations on p-orbitals with spin-orbit coupling. First-principles calculation shows Rashba band splitting in both systems. It also shows asymmetric charge distributions in the Rashba split bands which are induced by the orbital angular momentum. We calculated the electric dipole energies from coupling of the asymmetric charge distribution and external electric field, and compared it to the Rashba splitting. Remarkably, the total split energy is found to come mostly from the difference in the electric dipole energy for both Bi and Sb systems. A perturbative approach for long wave length limit starting from tight binding calculation also supports that the Rashba band splitting originates mostly from the electric dipole energy difference in the strong atomic spin-orbit coupling regime.

  19. Optimizing TCP Performance over UMTS with Split TCP Proxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Dittmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    . To cope with large delay bandwidth product, we propose a novel concept of split TCP proxy which is placed at GGSN between UNITS network and Internet. The split proxy divides the bandwidth delay product into two parts, resulting in two TCP connections with smaller bandwidth delay products which can...... be pipelined and thus operating at higher speeds. Simulation results show, the split TCP proxy can significantly improve the TCP performance in terms of RLC throughput under high bit rate DCH channel scenario (e.g.256 kbps). On the other hand, it only brings small performance improvement under low bit rate DCH...... scenario (e.g.64 kbps). Besides, the split TCP proxy brings more performance gain for downloading large files than downloading small ones. To the end, for the configuration of the split proxy, an aggressive initial TCP congestion window size (e.g. 10 MSS) at proxy is particularly useful for radio links...

  20. Non-protected operators in N=4 SYM and multiparticle states of AdS5 SUGRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunov, G.; Penati, S.; Petkou, A.C.; Santambrogio, A.; Sokatchev, E.

    2002-01-01

    We study a class of non-protected local composite operators which occur in the R-symmetry singlet channel of the OPE of two stress-tensor multiplets in N=4 SYM. At tree level these are quadrilinear scalar dimension four operators, two single-traces and two double-traces. In the presence of interaction, due to a non-trivial mixing under renormalization, they split into linear combinations of conformally covariant operators. We resolve the mixing by computing the one-loop two-point functions of all the operators in an N=1 setup, then diagonalizing the anomalous dimension matrix and identifying the quasiprimary operators. We find one operator whose anomalous dimension is negative and suppressed by a factor of 1/N 2 with respect to the anomalous dimensions of the Konishi-like operators. We reveal the mechanism responsible for this suppression and argue that it works at every order in perturbation theory. In the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence such an operator should be dual to a multiparticle supergravity state whose energy is less than the sum of the corresponding individual single-particle states

  1. Electrokinetic control of sample splitting at a channel bifurcation using isotachophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persat, Alexandre; Santiago, Juan G

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel method for accurately splitting ionic samples at microchannel bifurcations. We leverage isotachophoresis (ITP) to focus and transport sample through a one-inlet, two-outlet microchannel bifurcation. We actively control the proportion of splitting by controlling potentials at end-channel reservoirs (and thereby controlling the current ratio). We explore the effect of buffer chemistry and local electric field on splitting dynamics and propose and validate a simple Kirchoff-type rule controlling the split ratio. We explore the effects of large applied electric fields on sample splitting and attribute a loss of splitting accuracy to electrohydrodynamic instabilities. We propose a scaling analysis to characterize the onset of this instability. This scaling is potentially useful for other electrokinetic flow problems with self-sharpening interfaces.

  2. Added value of pharmacogenetic testing in predicting statin response: Results from the REGRESS trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Baan, F.H.; Knol, M.J.; Maitland-Van Der Zee, A.H.; Regieli, J.J.; Van Iperen, E.P.A.; Egberts, A.C.G.; Klungel, O.H.; Grobbee, D.E.; Jukema, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether pharmacogenetic factors, both as single polymorphism and as gene-gene interactions, have an added value over non-genetic factors in predicting statin response. Five common polymorphisms were selected in apolipoprotein E, angiotensin-converting enzyme, hepatic lipase and

  3. Symmetric splitting of very light systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotowski, K.; Majka, Z.; Planeta, R.

    1985-01-01

    Fission reactions that produce fragments close to one half the mass of the composite system are traditionally observed in heavy nuclei. In light systems, symmetric splitting is rarely observed and poorly understood. It would be interesting to verify the existence of the symmetric splitting of compound nuclei with A 12 C + 40 Ca, 141 MeV 9 Be + 40 Ca and 153 MeV 6 Li + 40 Ca. The out-of-plane correlation of symmetric products was also measured for the reaction 186 MeV 12 C + 40 Ca. The coincidence measurements of the 12 C + 40 Ca system demonstrated that essentially all of the inclusive yield of symmetric products around 40 0 results from a binary decay. To characterize the dependence of the symmetric splitting process on the excitation energy of the 12 C + 40 C system, inclusive measurements were made at bombarding energies of 74, 132, 162, and 185 MeV

  4. Assessment of the Maximal Split-Half Coefficient to Estimate Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barry L.; Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2010-01-01

    The maximal split-half coefficient is computed by calculating all possible split-half reliability estimates for a scale and then choosing the maximal value as the reliability estimate. Osburn compared the maximal split-half coefficient with 10 other internal consistency estimates of reliability and concluded that it yielded the most consistently…

  5. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairi M. S. Fahelelbom

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves. The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.

  6. Soluble inhibitors/deactivators of cellulase enzymes from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmi; Ximenes, Eduardo; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R

    2011-04-07

    Liquid hot water, steam explosion, and dilute acid pretreatments of lignocellulose generate soluble inhibitors which hamper enzymatic hydrolysis as well as fermentation of sugars to ethanol. Toxic and inhibitory compounds will vary with pretreatment and include soluble sugars, furan derivatives (hydroxymethyl fulfural, furfural), organic acids (acetic, formic and, levulinic acid), and phenolic compounds. Their effect is seen when an increase in the concentration of pretreated biomass in a hydrolysis slurry results in decreased cellulose conversion, even though the ratio of enzyme to cellulose is kept constant. We used lignin-free cellulose, Solka Floc, combined with mixtures of soluble components released during pretreatment of wood, to prove that the decrease in the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis is due to a combination of enzyme inhibition and deactivation. The causative agents were extracted from wood pretreatment liquid using PEG surfactant, activated charcoal or ethyl acetate and then desorbed, recovered, and added back to a mixture of enzyme and cellulose. At enzyme loadings of either 1 or 25mg protein/g glucan, the most inhibitory components, later identified as phenolics, decreased the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis by half due to both inhibition and precipitation of the enzymes. Full enzyme activity occurred when the phenols were removed. Hence detoxification of pretreated woods through phenol removal is expected to reduce enzyme loadings, and therefore reduce enzyme costs, for a given level of cellulose conversion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 8184 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... these proposed regulations. The regulations affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. Special... of the Federal Register.] Sec. 1.909-6 Pre-2011 foreign tax credit splitting events. [The text of...

  8. Analysis of operator splitting errors for near-limit flame simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhen; Zhou, Hua [Center for Combustion Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Shan [Center for Combustion Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Aerospace Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ren, Zhuyin, E-mail: zhuyinren@tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Combustion Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Aerospace Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Tianfeng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States); Law, Chung K. [Center for Combustion Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    High-fidelity simulations of ignition, extinction and oscillatory combustion processes are of practical interest in a broad range of combustion applications. Splitting schemes, widely employed in reactive flow simulations, could fail for stiff reaction–diffusion systems exhibiting near-limit flame phenomena. The present work first employs a model perfectly stirred reactor (PSR) problem with an Arrhenius reaction term and a linear mixing term to study the effects of splitting errors on the near-limit combustion phenomena. Analysis shows that the errors induced by decoupling of the fractional steps may result in unphysical extinction or ignition. The analysis is then extended to the prediction of ignition, extinction and oscillatory combustion in unsteady PSRs of various fuel/air mixtures with a 9-species detailed mechanism for hydrogen oxidation and an 88-species skeletal mechanism for n-heptane oxidation, together with a Jacobian-based analysis for the time scales. The tested schemes include the Strang splitting, the balanced splitting, and a newly developed semi-implicit midpoint method. Results show that the semi-implicit midpoint method can accurately reproduce the dynamics of the near-limit flame phenomena and it is second-order accurate over a wide range of time step size. For the extinction and ignition processes, both the balanced splitting and midpoint method can yield accurate predictions, whereas the Strang splitting can lead to significant shifts on the ignition/extinction processes or even unphysical results. With an enriched H radical source in the inflow stream, a delay of the ignition process and the deviation on the equilibrium temperature are observed for the Strang splitting. On the contrary, the midpoint method that solves reaction and diffusion together matches the fully implicit accurate solution. The balanced splitting predicts the temperature rise correctly but with an over-predicted peak. For the sustainable and decaying oscillatory

  9. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  10. Insulin‐degrading enzyme is genetically associated with Alzheimer's disease in the Finnish population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, Saila; Parkinson, Michele; Helisalmi, Seppo; Mannermaa, Arto; Soininen, Hilkka; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Bertram, Lars; Hiltunen, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    The gene for insulin‐degrading enzyme (IDE), which is located at chromosome 10q24, has been previously proposed as a candidate gene for late‐onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on its ability to degrade amyloid β‐protein. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IDE gene in Finnish patients with AD and controls revealed SNPs rs4646953 and rs4646955 to be associated with AD, conferring an approximately two‐fold increased risk. Single locus findings were corroborated by the results obtained from haplotype analyses. This suggests that genetic alterations in or near the IDE gene may increase the risk for developing AD. PMID:17496198

  11. Study on Mechanical Features of Brazilian Splitting Fatigue Tests of Salt Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microtest, SEM, was carried out to study the fracture surface of salt rock after the Brazilian splitting test and splitting fatigue test were carried out with a servo-controlled test machine RMT-150B. The results indicate that the deviation of using the tablet splitting method is larger than that of using steel wire splitting method, in Brazilian splitting test of salt rock, when the conventional data processing method is adopted. There are similar deformation features in both the conventional splitting tests and uniaxial compression tests. The stress-strain curves include compaction, elasticity, yielding, and failure stage. Both the vertical deformation and horizontal deformation of splitting fatigue tests under constant average loading can be divided into three stages of “loosening-tightness-loosening.” The failure modes of splitting fatigue tests under the variational average loading are not controlled by the fracturing process curve of the conventional splitting tests. The deformation extent of fatigue tests under variational average loading is even greater than that of conventional splitting test. The tensile strength of salt rock has a relationship with crystallization conditions. Tensile strength of thick crystal salt rock is lower than the bonded strength of fine-grain crystals.

  12. Heat split imbalance study for annular fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaojun; Ji Songtao; Zhang Yingchao

    2014-01-01

    Annular fuel rod has two gaps at inner and outer side. Under irradiation condition, the dimensional change of pellets is always larger than claddings' due to thermal expansion, swelling and densification, and this tends to enlarge the inner gap and reduce the outer gap. The gap size asymmetry must induce heat split imbalance problem that the heat flux will be larger at outer side of the rod. In this work, computer code AFPAC l.0 is used to simulate this heat split imbalance phenomena. The effect of initial gap size, rod inner pressure, roughness of pellets and cladding is studied, the results reveal that: l) Adjusting initial size of both gaps, reducing inner gap and enlarging outer gap could effectively alleviate heat split imbalance problem; 2) Adjusting the initial roughness of pellets and cladding is another effective approach to reducing heat split imbalance; 3) It seems that changing the rod inner pressure has a little effect on solving the heat flux asymmetry problem. (authors)

  13. Higgs, Binos and Gluinos: Split Susy within Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Daniele S.M.; Izaguirre, Eder; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2012-09-14

    Recent results from the LHC for the Higgs boson with mass between 142 GeV {approx}< m{sub h{sup 0}} {approx}< 147 GeV points to PeV-scale Split Supersymmetry. This article explores the consequences of a Higgs mass in this range and possible discovery modes for Split Susy. Moderate lifetime gluinos, with decay lengths in the 25 {micro}m to 10 yr range, are its imminent smoking gun signature. The 7TeV LHC will be sensitive to the moderately lived gluinos and trilepton signatures from direct electroweakino production. Moreover, the dark matter abundance may be obtained from annihilation through an s-channel Higgs resonance, with the LSP almost purely bino and mass m{sub {chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}} {approx_equal} 70 GeV. The Higgs resonance region of Split Susy has visible signatures in dark matter direct and indirect detection and electric dipole moment experiments. If the anomalies go away, the majority of Split Susy parameter space will be excluded.

  14. String Theory on AdS Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.

    2000-01-01

    In these notes we discuss various aspects of string theory in AdS spaces. We briefly review the formulation in terms of Green-Schwarz, NSR, and Berkovits variables, as well as the construction of exact conformal field theories with AdS backgrounds. Based on lectures given at the Kyoto YITP Workshop

  15. Influence of the large-small split effect on strategy choice in complex subtraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yan Hui; Wu, Hao; Shang, Rui Hong; Chao, Xiaomei; Ren, Ting Ting; Zheng, Li Ling; Mo, Lei

    2018-04-01

    Two main theories have been used to explain the arithmetic split effect: decision-making process theory and strategy choice theory. Using the inequality paradigm, previous studies have confirmed that individuals tend to adopt a plausibility-checking strategy and a whole-calculation strategy to solve large and small split problems in complex addition arithmetic, respectively. This supports strategy choice theory, but it is unknown whether this theory also explains performance in solving different split problems in complex subtraction arithmetic. This study used small, intermediate and large split sizes, with each split condition being further divided into problems requiring and not requiring borrowing. The reaction times (RTs) for large and intermediate splits were significantly shorter than those for small splits, while accuracy was significantly higher for large and middle splits than for small splits, reflecting no speed-accuracy trade-off. Further, RTs and accuracy differed significantly between the borrow and no-borrow conditions only for small splits. This study indicates that strategy choice theory is suitable to explain the split effect in complex subtraction arithmetic. That is, individuals tend to choose the plausibility-checking strategy or the whole-calculation strategy according to the split size. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Open strings on AdS2 branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Peter; Ooguri, Hirosi.; Park, Jongwon; Tannenhauser, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    We study the spectrum of open strings on AdS 2 branes in AdS 3 in an NS-NS background, using the SL(2,R) WZW model. When the brane carries no fundamental string charge, the open string spectrum is the holomorphic square root of the spectrum of closed strings in AdS 3 . It contains short and long strings, and is invariant under spectral flow. When the brane carries fundamental string charge, the open string spectrum again contains short and long strings in all winding sectors. However, branes with fundamental string charge break half the spectral flow symmetry. This has different implications for short and long strings. As the fundamental string charge increases, the brane approaches the boundary of AdS 3 . In this limit, the induced electric field on the worldvolume reaches its critical value, producing noncommutative open string theory on AdS 2

  17. Use of Protease and Lipase Enzymes by Different Methods to Accelerate Kaşar Cheese Ripening 1. The Effect on Cheese Physical and Chemical Properties (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pasteurized cow milk was used for Kaşar cheese processing. One lipase (Palatase M, one protease (Neutrase, and combination of both enzymes were added to milk which was processed into cheese. Three different enzymes with the levels (based on raw milk amount of 0.0001% Palatese M. 0.004% Neutrase and 0.0001% Palatase M + 0.004% Neutrase were evaluated for physical and chemical properties at 2nd, 30th, 60th and 90th day of the ripening periods. Enzyme added cheese samples were compared with the Control-I (from fresh milk and Control-II (from pasteurized and starter added cheese samples. The 1% starter composed of Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris (1:1 was added into the milk. Experiment was set up according to random block design with factorial arrangement, and the analysis were carried out in duplicate. Cheese yields of all the cheese samples produced with the enzyme addition were lower than the control groups. But, 0.0001% Palatase M(Mik-L added with microencapsulation technique gave the higher cheese yield which is closer to the control groups. With the enzyme addition, dry-matter; fat, protein, salt, acidity, fat in dry-matter, salt in dry-matter and the ripening degree; with the ripening period dry-matter, fat, protein, ash, salt, acidity, salt in dry-matter and the ripening degree gave statistically (P<0.01 significant results. It was determined that the interaction of enzyme addition x ripened period had an significant influence on dry-matter, fat, protein, acidity, fat in dry-matter and ripening degree of the cheeses produced in this research (P<0.01. The best ripened condition was achieved by adding lipase+protease enzymes together into milk with direct technique (Di-L+P. The same ripened state in the cheeses was reached in 30-60 days ripened period with the direct incorporation of lipase + protease enzymes together (Di+L+P or protease only (Di-P, but in 90 days in control groups containing no enzymes.

  18. Towards Highly Efficient Bias-Free Solar Water Splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdi, F.F.

    2013-01-01

    Solar water splitting has attracted significant attention due to its potential of converting solar to chemical energy. It uses semiconductor to convert sunlight into electron-hole pairs, which then split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can be used as a renewable fuel, or it can serve as

  19. 77 FR 8127 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and... affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the... that if there is a foreign tax credit splitting event with respect to a foreign income tax paid or...

  20. Aromatase Expression in the Hippocampus of AD Patients and 5xFAD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Prange-Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies show that 17β-estradiol (E2 protects against Alzheimer’s disease (AD induced neurodegeneration. The E2-synthesizing enzyme aromatase is expressed in healthy hippocampi, but although the hippocampus is severely affected in AD, little is known about the expression of hippocampal aromatase in AD. To better understand the role of hippocampal aromatase in AD, we studied its expression in postmortem material from patients with AD and in a mouse model for AD (5xFAD mice. In human hippocampi, aromatase-immunoreactivity was observed in the vast majority of principal neurons and signal quantification revealed higher expression of aromatase protein in AD patients compared to age- and sex-matched controls. The tissue-specific first exons of aromatase I.f, PII, I.3, and I.6 were detected in hippocampi of controls and AD patients by RT-PCR. In contrast, 3-month-old, female 5xFAD mice showed lower expression of aromatase mRNA and protein (measured by qRT-PCR and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry than WT controls; no such differences were observed in male mice. Our findings stress the importance of hippocampal aromatase expression in neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Comparison of split double and triple twists in pair figure skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Deborah L; Smith, Sarah L; Brown, Michele R; McCrory, Jean L; Munkasy, Barry A; Scheirman, Gary I

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we compared the kinematic variables of the split triple twist with those of the split double twist to help coaches and scientists understand these landmark pair skating skills. High-speed video was taken during the pair short and free programmes at the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics and the 2003 International Skating Union Grand Prix Finals. Three-dimensional analyses of 14 split double twists and 15 split triple twists from eleven pairs were completed. In spite of considerable variability in the performance variables among the pairs, the main difference between the split double twists and split triple twists was an increase in rotational rate. While eight of the eleven pairs relied primarily on an increased rotational rate to complete the split triple twist, three pairs employed a combined strategy of increased rotational rate and increased flight time due predominantly to delayed or lower catches. These results were similar to observations of jumps in singles skating for which the extra rotation is typically due to an increase in rotational velocity; increases in flight time come primarily from delayed landings as opposed to additional height during flight. Combining an increase in flight time and rotational rate may be a good strategy for completing the split triple twist in pair skating.

  2. Conical singularities in AdS space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Cristine Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, the study of conformal gauge theories from 10-D has been motivated by the AdS d+1 /CFT d correspondence, first conjectured by J. Maldacena. The aim of this work is to consider the d = 4 case by analysing the configuration of the N coincident D3 branes. In this context, the work shows that there is a duality between type IIB string theory in AdS 5 x S 5 and N = 4 SU(N) Super Yang-Mills Theory in the IR. The AdS 5 /CFT 4 correspondence brought also new approaches to the strong coupling problem in QCD. Nowadays, there is a whole line of works that focus on the low dimensional correspondence AdS 4 /CFT 3 , like the application to graphene and topological insulators, and the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence, related with the entanglement entropy. In this work, we consider the vortex configuration solution to the AdS 4 and AdS 3 space-time. The most important motivation is to discuss the boundary theory resulting from these solutions. We have examined a straightforward approach to a holographic computation of the graphene and entanglement entropy in the presence of the conical singularity. After this analysis, we consider the scalar field in the bulk in the presence of this metrics and work out the compactification modes. Taking the holographic point of view, we study and discuss the resulting Green function. (author)

  3. Split warhead simultaneous impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Singh Dhari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A projectile system is proposed to improve efficiency and effectiveness of damage done by anti-tank weapon system on its target by designing a ballistic projectile that can split into multiple warheads and engage a target at the same time. This idea has been developed in interest of saving time consumed from the process of reloading and additional number of rounds wasted on target during an attack. The proposed system is achieved in three steps: Firstly, a mathematical model is prepared using the basic equations of motion. Second, An Ejection Mechanism of proposed warhead is explained with the help of schematics. Third, a part of numerical simulation which is done using the MATLAB software. The final result shows various ranges and times when split can be effectively achieved. With the new system, impact points are increased and hence it has a better probability of hitting a target.

  4. Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting: From basic principles to advanced devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Y.Alfaifi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting (PEC offers a promising path for sustainable generation of hydrogen fuel. However, improving solar fuel water splitting efficiency facing tremendous challenges, due to the energy loss related to fast recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, electrode degradation, as well as limited light harvesting. This review focuses on the brief introduction of basic fundamental of PEC water splitting and the concept of various types of water splitting approaches. Numerous engineering strategies for the investgating of the higher efficiency of the PEC, including charge separation, light harvesting, and co-catalysts doping, have been discussed. Moreover, recent remarkable progress and developments for PEC water splitting with some promising materials are discussed. Recent advanced applications of PEC are also reviewed. Finally, the review concludes with a summary and future outlook of this hot field.

  5. Candidate enzymes for saffron crocin biosynthesis are localized in multiple cellular compartments

    KAUST Repository

    Demurtas, Olivia Costantina

    2018-05-29

    Saffron is composed of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus and is the most expensive spice on Earth. Its red color is due to the apocarotenoid glycosides, crocins, which accumulate in the vacuole and reach up to 10% of the stigma dry weight. We have previously characterized the first dedicated enzyme in crocin biosynthesis, CsCCD2, which cleaves zeaxanthin to yield crocetin dialdehyde. In this work, we identified six putative aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) transcripts expressed in saffron stigmas. When expressed in E. coli, only one of corresponding proteins (CsALDH3I1), was able to convert crocetin dialdehyde into the crocin precursor, crocetin. CsALDH3I1 carries a C-terminal hydrophobic domain, similar to that of a Neurospora membrane-associated apocarotenoid dehydrogenase, YLO-1. We also characterized a UDP-glycosyltransferase enzyme, CsUGT74AD1, able to convert crocetin to crocins 1 and 2\\'. In vitro assays showed high specificity of CsALDH3I1 for crocetin dialdehyde and long chain apocarotenals, and of CsUGT74AD1 for crocetin. Upon extract fractionation, the CsCCD2, CsALDH3I1 and CsUGT74AD1 enzymes partitioned in the insoluble fraction, suggesting that they are associated to membranes or to large insoluble complexes. Immunogold labeling of saffron stigmas and confocal microscopy of fusions to Green Fluorescent Protein expressed in N. benthamiana leaves revealed that CsCCD2 localizes to plastids, CsALDH3I1 to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and CsUGT74AD1 to the cytoplasm, in association with cytoskeletal-like structures. Based on our and on literature data, we propose that the ER and cytoplasm function as

  6. Candidate enzymes for saffron crocin biosynthesis are localized in multiple cellular compartments

    KAUST Repository

    Demurtas, Olivia Costantina; Frusciante, Sarah; Ferrante, Paola; Diretto, Gianfranco; Azad, Noraddin Hosseinpour; Pietrella, Marco; Aprea, Giuseppe; Taddei, Anna Rita; Romano, Elena; Mi, Jianing; Al-Babili, Salim; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Saffron is composed of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus and is the most expensive spice on Earth. Its red color is due to the apocarotenoid glycosides, crocins, which accumulate in the vacuole and reach up to 10% of the stigma dry weight. We have previously characterized the first dedicated enzyme in crocin biosynthesis, CsCCD2, which cleaves zeaxanthin to yield crocetin dialdehyde. In this work, we identified six putative aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) transcripts expressed in saffron stigmas. When expressed in E. coli, only one of corresponding proteins (CsALDH3I1), was able to convert crocetin dialdehyde into the crocin precursor, crocetin. CsALDH3I1 carries a C-terminal hydrophobic domain, similar to that of a Neurospora membrane-associated apocarotenoid dehydrogenase, YLO-1. We also characterized a UDP-glycosyltransferase enzyme, CsUGT74AD1, able to convert crocetin to crocins 1 and 2'. In vitro assays showed high specificity of CsALDH3I1 for crocetin dialdehyde and long chain apocarotenals, and of CsUGT74AD1 for crocetin. Upon extract fractionation, the CsCCD2, CsALDH3I1 and CsUGT74AD1 enzymes partitioned in the insoluble fraction, suggesting that they are associated to membranes or to large insoluble complexes. Immunogold labeling of saffron stigmas and confocal microscopy of fusions to Green Fluorescent Protein expressed in N. benthamiana leaves revealed that CsCCD2 localizes to plastids, CsALDH3I1 to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and CsUGT74AD1 to the cytoplasm, in association with cytoskeletal-like structures. Based on our and on literature data, we propose that the ER and cytoplasm function as

  7. Point splitting in a curved space-time background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggatt, P.A.J.; Macfarlane, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    A prescription is given for point splitting in a curved space-time background which is a natural generalization of that familiar in quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theory. It is applied (to establish its validity) to the verification of the gravitational anomaly in the divergence of a fermion axial current. Notable features of the prescription are that it defines a point-split current that can be differentiated straightforwardly, and that it involves a natural way of averaging (four-dimensionally) over the directions of point splitting. The method can extend directly from the spin-1/2 fermion case treated to other cases, e.g., to spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fermions. (author)

  8. Enzyme-assisted extraction of stabilized chlorophyll from spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Gülay; Ersus Bilek, Seda

    2015-06-01

    Zinc complex formation with chlorophyll derivatives in spinach pulp was studied by adding 300ppm Zn(2+) for production of stable food colorant, followed by the heating at 110°C for 15min. Zinc complex formation increased at pH values of 7.0 or greater. Pectinex Ultra SP-L was selected for enzyme-assisted release of zinc-chlorophyll derivatives from spinach pulp. Effect of enzyme concentration (1-9%), treatment temperature (30-60°C), and time (30-210min) on total chlorophyll content (TCC) were optimized using response surface methodology. A quadratic regression model (R(2)=0.9486) was obtained from the experimental design. Optimum treatment conditions were 8% enzyme concentration, 45°C, and 30min, which yielded a 50.747mgTCC/100g spinach pulp. Enzymatic treatment was followed by solvent extraction with ethanol at a solvent-to-sample ratio of 2.5:1 at 60°C for 45min for the highest TCC recovery. Pretreatment with enzyme and extraction in ethanol resulted in 39% increase in Zn-chlorophyll derivative yield. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan

    2012-06-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling a user in a multi-user wireless environment in a distributed manner. The opportunistic splitting algorithm is applied to find the best group of users without reporting the channel state information to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We use a score-based approach with the splitting algorithm to introduce time and throughput fairness while exploiting the multi-user diversity of the network. Analytical and simulation results are given to show that the modified score-based splitting algorithm works well as a fair scheduling scheme with good spectral efficiency and reduced feedback. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Split-Framework in Mandibular Implant-Supported Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Omar Mendoza Marin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with an implant-supported prosthesis, mandibular flexure must be considered an important biomechanical factor when planning the metal framework design, especially if implants are installed posterior to the interforaminal region. When an edentulous mandible is restored with a fixed implant-supported prosthesis connected by a fixed full-arch framework, mandibular flexure may cause needless stress in the overall restorative system and lead to screw loosening, poor fit of prosthesis, loss of the posterior implant, and patient’s discomfort due to deformation properties of the mandible during functional movements. The use of a split-framework could decrease the stress with a precise and passive fit on the implants and restore a more natural functional condition of the mandible, helping in the longevity of the prosthesis. Therefore, the present clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient by a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis with a split-framework to compensate for mandibular flexure. Clinical Significance. The present clinical report shows that the use of a split-framework reduced the risk of loss of the posterior implants or screws loosening with acceptable patient comfort over the period of a year. The split-framework might have compensated for the mandibular flexure during functional activities.

  11. Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara

    2017-05-01

    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Globally regular instability of AdS_3

    OpenAIRE

    Bizon, P.; Jałmużna, J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider three-dimensional AdS gravity minimally coupled to a massless scalar field and study numerically the evolution of small smooth circularly symmetric perturbations of the $AdS_3$ spacetime. As in higher dimensions, for a large class of perturbations, we observe a turbulent cascade of energy to high frequencies which entails instability of $AdS_3$. However, in contrast to higher dimensions, the cascade cannot be terminated by black hole formation because small perturbations have ener...

  13. In vitro effects of policosanol (Saccharum officinarum L wax alcohols on the 5-lipooxygenase enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohani Pérez Guerra

    Full Text Available Introduction: policosanol, a mixture of high molecular weight aliphatic alcohols purified from sugarcane with octacosanol as the main component, shows cholesterol-lowering and antiplatelet effects in addition to an inhibitory effect on type I cicloxygenase. Objective: to determine whether policosanol may inhibit 5-LOX enzyme activity in vitro. Methods: effects on 5-LOX enzyme activities were assessed in rat blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Vehicle or Policosanol suspensions (0.6 to 6 000 µg/mL were added to tubes containing the reaction mix and then absorbance changes at 234 nm were measured. Results: added Policosanol inhibited in vitro 5-LOX activity by 30 %, which was not a significant figure but depended on the concentration(r= 0.992; p< 0.05; it was 1 250 µg/mL. Conclusions: policosanol did not significantly inhibit 5-LOX enzyme activity in rat PMNL preparations, so that it does not seem to be a dual inhibitor of COX and-LOX enzymes. This result differs from that found for beeswax alcohols and underlines the different effects of the mixtures of long-chain fatty alcohols purified from the sugarcane and the beeswax.

  14. Effect of enzymes on anaerobic digestion of primary sludge and septic tank performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diak, James; Örmeci, Banu; Kennedy, Kevin J

    2012-11-01

    Enzyme additives are believed to improve septic tank performance by increasing the hydrolysis and digestion rates and maintaining a healthy microbial population. Previous studies reported mixed results on the effectiveness of enzymes on mesophilic and thermophilic digestion, and it is not clear whether enzymes would be effective under septic tank conditions where there is no heating or mixing, quantities of enzymes added are small, and they can be washed out quickly. In this study, batch reactors and continuous-flow reactors designed and operated as septic tanks were used to evaluate whether enzymatic treatment would increase the hydrolysis and digestion rates in primary sludge. Total solids, volatile solids, total suspended solids, total and soluble chemical oxygen demand, concentrations of protein, carbohydrate, ammonia and volatile acids in sludge and effluent samples were measured to determine the differences in digestion rates in the presence and absence of enzymes. Overall, no significant improvement was observed in enzyme-treated reactors compared with the control reactors.

  15. Kondo peak splitting and Kondo dip in single molecular magnet junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Pengbin, E-mail: 120233951@qq.com [Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Shi, Yunlong; Sun, Zhu [Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Nie, Yi-Hang [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Luo, Hong-Gang [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies & Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the MoE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Many factors containing bias, spin–orbit coupling, magnetic fields applied, and so on can strongly influence the Kondo effect, and one of the consequences is Kondo peak splitting (KPS). It is natural that KPS should also appear when another spin degree of freedom is involved. In this work we study the KPS effects of single molecular magnets (SMM) coupled with two metallic leads in low-temperature regime. It is found that the Kondo transport properties are strongly influenced by the exchange coupling and anisotropy of the magnetic core. By employing Green's function method in Hubbard operator representation, we give an analytical expression for local retarded Green's function of SMM and discussed its low-temperature transport properties. We find that the anisotropy term behaves as a magnetic field and the splitting behavior of exchange coupling is quite similar to the spin–orbit coupling. These splitting behaviors are explained by introducing inter-level or intra-level transitions, which account for the seven-peak splitting structure. Moreover, we find a Kondo dip at Fermi level under proper parameters. These Kondo peak splitting behaviors in SMM deepen our understanding to Kondo physics and should be observed in the future experiments. - Highlights: • We study Kondo peak splitting in single molecular magnets. • We study Kondo effect by Hubbard operator Green's function method. • We find Kondo peak splitting structures and a Kondo dip at Fermi level. • The exchange coupling and magnetic anisotropy induce fine splitting structure. • The splitting structures are explained by inter-level or intra-level transitions.

  16. A phylogenetic analysis of normal modes evolution in enzymes and its relationship to enzyme function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jason; Jin, Jing; Kubelka, Jan; Liberles, David A

    2012-09-21

    Since the dynamic nature of protein structures is essential for enzymatic function, it is expected that functional evolution can be inferred from the changes in protein dynamics. However, dynamics can also diverge neutrally with sequence substitution between enzymes without changes of function. In this study, a phylogenetic approach is implemented to explore the relationship between enzyme dynamics and function through evolutionary history. Protein dynamics are described by normal mode analysis based on a simplified harmonic potential force field applied to the reduced C(α) representation of the protein structure while enzymatic function is described by Enzyme Commission numbers. Similarity of the binding pocket dynamics at each branch of the protein family's phylogeny was analyzed in two ways: (1) explicitly by quantifying the normal mode overlap calculated for the reconstructed ancestral proteins at each end and (2) implicitly using a diffusion model to obtain the reconstructed lineage-specific changes in the normal modes. Both explicit and implicit ancestral reconstruction identified generally faster rates of change in dynamics compared with the expected change from neutral evolution at the branches of potential functional divergences for the α-amylase, D-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, and copper-containing amine oxidase protein families. Normal mode analysis added additional information over just comparing the RMSD of static structures. However, the branch-specific changes were not statistically significant compared to background function-independent neutral rates of change of dynamic properties and blind application of the analysis would not enable prediction of changes in enzyme specificity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Water Splitting over Edge-Modified Phosphorene Nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Ruiqi; Yang, Chao; Yang, Jinlong

    2017-11-01

    Two-dimensional phosphorene with desirable optoelectronic properties (ideal band gap, high carrier mobility, and strong visible light absorption) is a promising metal-free photocatalyst for water splitting. However, the band edge positions of the valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band maximum (CBM) of phosphorene are higher than the redox potentials in photocatalytic water splitting reactions. Thus, phosphorene can only be used as the photocathode for hydrogen evolution reaction as a low-efficiency visible-light-driven photocatalyst for hydrogen production in solar water splitting cells. Here, we propose a new mechanism to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) by modifying their edges for full reactions in photocatalytic water splitting. By employing first-principles density functional theory calculations, we find that pseudohalogen (CN and OCN) passivated PNRs not only show desired VBM and CBM band edge positions induced by edge electric dipole layer, but also possess intrinsic optoelectronic properties of phosphorene, for both water oxidation and hydrogen reduction in photocatalytic water splitting without using extra energy. Furthermore, our calculations also predict that the maximum energy conversion efficiency of heterojunction solar cells consisting of different edge-modified PNRs can be as high as 20% for photocatalytic water splitting.

  18. Improving the performance of electrochemical microsensors based on enzymes entrapped in a redox hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitala, J.J.; Michael, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Microsensors based on carbon fiber microelectrodes coated with enzyme-entrapping redox hydrogels facilitate the in vivo detection of substances of interest within the central nervous system, including hydrogen peroxide, glucose, choline and glutamate. The hydrogel, formed by cross-linking a redox polymer, entraps the enzymes and mediates electron transfer between the enzymes and the electrode. It is important that the enzymes are entrapped in their enzymatically active state. Should entrapment cause enzyme denaturation, the sensitivity and the selectivity of the sensor may be compromised. Synthesis of the redox polymer according to published procedures may yield a product that precipitates when added to aqueous enzyme solutions. Casting hydrogels from solutions that contain the precipitate produces microsensors with low sensitivity and selectivity, suggesting that the precipitation disrupts the structure of the enzymes. Herein, we show that a surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), can prevent the precipitation and improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors

  19. Manifestly T-dual formulation of AdS space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuda, Machiko; Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Siegel, Warren

    2017-01-01

    We present a manifestly T-dual formulation of curved spaces such as an AdS space. For group manifolds related by the orthogonal vielbein fields the three form H=dB in the doubled space is universal at least locally. We construct an affine nondegenerate doubled bosonic AdS algebra to define the AdS space with the Ramond-Ramond flux. The non-zero commutator of the left and right momenta leads to that the left momentum is in an AdS space while the right momentum is in a dS space. Dimensional reduction constraints and the physical AdS algebra are shown to preserve all the doubled coordinates.

  20. Manifestly T-dual formulation of AdS space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Machiko [Physics Division, Faculty of Medicine, Juntendo University,Chiba 270-1695 (Japan); KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kamimura, Kiyoshi [Physics Division, Faculty of Medicine, Juntendo University,Chiba 270-1695 (Japan); Siegel, Warren [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States)

    2017-05-12

    We present a manifestly T-dual formulation of curved spaces such as an AdS space. For group manifolds related by the orthogonal vielbein fields the three form H=dB in the doubled space is universal at least locally. We construct an affine nondegenerate doubled bosonic AdS algebra to define the AdS space with the Ramond-Ramond flux. The non-zero commutator of the left and right momenta leads to that the left momentum is in an AdS space while the right momentum is in a dS space. Dimensional reduction constraints and the physical AdS algebra are shown to preserve all the doubled coordinates.

  1. The enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates by the addition of accessory enzymes such as xylanase: is it an additive or synergistic effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddler Jack N

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We and other workers have shown that accessory enzymes, such as β-glucosidase, xylanase, and cellulase cofactors, such as GH61, can considerably enhance the hydrolysis effectiveness of cellulase cocktails when added to pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. It is generally acknowledged that, among the several factors that hamper our current ability to attain efficient lignocellulosic biomass conversion yields at low enzyme loadings, a major problem lies in our incomplete understanding of the cooperative action of the different enzymes acting on pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. Results The reported work assessed the interaction between cellulase and xylanase enzymes and their potential to improve the hydrolysis efficiency of various pretreated lignocellulosic substrates when added at low protein loadings. When xylanases were added to the minimum amount of cellulase enzymes required to achieve 70% cellulose hydrolysis of steam pretreated corn stover (SPCS, or used to partially replace the equivalent cellulase dose, both approaches resulted in enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the xylanase supplementation approach increased the total protein loading required to achieve significant improvements in hydrolysis (an additive effect, whereas the partial replacement of cellulases with xylanase resulted in similar improvements in hydrolysis without increasing enzyme loading (a synergistic effect. The enhancement resulting from xylanase-aided synergism was higher when enzymes were added simultaneously at the beginning of hydrolysis. This co-hydrolysis of the xylan also influenced the gross fiber characteristics (for example, fiber swelling resulting in increased accessibility of the cellulose to the cellulase enzymes. These apparent increases in accessibility enhanced the steam pretreated corn stover digestibility, resulting in three times faster cellulose and xylan hydrolysis, a seven-fold decrease in cellulase loading and

  2. Atomic oxygen fine-structure splittings with tunable far-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Lyndon R.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Matsushima, Fusakazu; Nelis, Thomas; Robinson, Ruth L.

    1991-01-01

    Fine-structure splittings of atomic oxygen (O-16) in the ground state have been accurately measured using a tunable far-infrared spectrometer. The 3P0-3pl splitting is 2,060,069.09 (10) MHz, and the 3Pl-3P2 splitting is 4,744,777.49 (16) MHz. These frequencies are important for measuring atomic oxygen concentration in earth's atmosphere and the interstellar medium.

  3. Iterative group splitting algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2014-05-01

    An efficient feedback algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems based on iterative group splitting is proposed in this paper. Similar to the opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm adjusts (or lowers) the feedback threshold during a guard period if no user sends a feedback. However, when a feedback collision occurs at any point of time, the proposed algorithm no longer updates the threshold but narrows down the user search space by dividing the users into multiple groups iteratively, whereas the opportunistic splitting algorithm keeps adjusting the threshold until a single user is found. Since the threshold is only updated when no user sends a feedback, it is shown that the proposed algorithm significantly alleviates the signaling overhead for the threshold distribution to the users by the scheduler. More importantly, the proposed algorithm requires a less number of mini-slots than the opportunistic splitting algorithm to make a user selection with a given level of scheduling outage probability or provides a higher ergodic capacity given a certain number of mini-slots. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Analysis of main dynamic parameters of split power transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janulevičius

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The review carried out had shown one basic approach of split power transmission to the organization of drive which is applied to stepless transmissions of tractors and parallel hybrid cars. In the split power transmission the power split device uses a planetary gear. Tractor engine power in the split power transmission is transmitted to the drive shaft via a mechanical and hydraulic path. The theoretical analysis of main parameters of the split power transmission of the tractor is presented. The angular velocity of sun and coronary gears of the differential set is estimated by solution of the system of equations in which one equation is made for planetary differential gear, and another – for hydrostatic drive. The analysis of the transmission gear-ratio dependencies on the ratio of hydraulic machines capacities is carried out. Dependence of the variation of angular velocity of the coronary and the sun gears on the ground speed of the tractor is presented. Dependence of sum shaft torque and its constituents, carried by mechanical and hydraulic lines, on sum shaft angular velocity and ground speed of tractor and engine speed is also presented.

  5. Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metsaev, R.R. [Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS field evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of short mixed-symmetry conformal field. We speculate on string theory interpretation of a model which involves short low-spin conformal fields and long higher-spin conformal fields.

  6. Rabi splitting in an acoustic cavity embedded plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Ze-Guo; Zheng, Li-Yang; Xu, Ye-Long; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    We design a structure to realize Rabi splitting and Rabi oscillation in acoustics. We develop rigorous analytical models to analyze the splitting effect from the aspect of phase matching, and from the aspect of mode coupling using a coupled mode model. In this model, we discover that the splitting effect is caused by the coupling of the Fabry–Perot fundamental mode with the resonant mode of an artificial acoustic ‘atom’. We then extract the coupling strength and analyze the impact of structural parameters on it. In addition, we demonstrate Rabi oscillation in the time domain. Such quantum phenomena in the classical regime may have potential applications in the design of novel ultrasonic devices.

  7. Reversible perspective and splitting in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Helen Schoenhals

    2012-01-01

    The element of time--the experience of it and the defensive use of it--is explored in conjunction with the use of reversible perspective as a psychotic defense. Clinical material from a long analysis illustrates how a psychotic patient used the reversible perspective, with its static splitting, to abolish the experience of time. When he improved and the reversible perspective became less effective for him, he replaced it with a more dynamic splitting mechanism using time gaps. With further improvement, the patient began to experience the passage of time, and along with it the excruciating pain of separation, envy, and loss.

  8. Effects of pectolytic enzyme treatment and microfiltration on antioxidant components of elderberry juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furulyás D.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pectolytic enzymes (Pectinex BE XXL, Trenolin Rot, and Fructozym P were investigated for their influence on phenolic, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activities of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. pulps during juice processing. Prior to pressing the berries, three different enzymes were added to pulps in order to evaluate the effect of different pectolytic enzyme treatments on the valuable components of elderberry juice. Control sample was prepared without enzyme. After treatment, squeezing, and clarification steps, microfiltration was carried out with ceramic membrane. The effect of this technology on the antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol content, and total anthocyanin content of the clarified elderberry juices has been evaluated in permeate and retentate samples, and membrane retention was calculated. Significantly lower antioxidant capacity was detected in the case of control sample than that obtained using enzyme-treated juices. Retention of antioxidant content on the microfiltration membrane was greatly reduced by using the enzymes. Higher valuable component yield was obtained using Fructozym P enzyme compared with Pectinex BE XXL used in industry.

  9. Lorentzian AdS, Wormholes and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Raul E; Silva, Guillermo A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the structure of two point functions for the QFT dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian AdS-wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of 5-dimensional second order Einstein Gauss Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS space times. We revisit the GKPW prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual QFT operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values phi_0^\\pm at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions, along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O^\\pm and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom leaving at each boundary. The AdS_(1+1) geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a ...

  10. Nonlinear realization of supersymmetric AdS space isometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T. E.; Love, S. T.

    2006-01-01

    The isometries of AdS 5 space and supersymmetric AdS 5 xS 1 space are nonlinearly realized on four-dimensional Minkowski space. The resultant effective actions in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone modes are constructed. The dilatonic mode governing the motion of the Minkowski space probe brane into the covolume of supersymmetric AdS 5 space is found to be unstable and the bulk of the AdS 5 space is unable to sustain the brane. No such instability appears in the nonsupersymmetric case

  11. Small-bubble transport and splitting dynamics in a symmetric bifurcation

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2017-06-28

    Simulations of small bubbles traveling through symmetric bifurcations are conducted to garner information pertinent to gas embolotherapy, a potential cancer treatment. Gas embolotherapy procedures use intra-arterial bubbles to occlude tumor blood supply. As bubbles pass through bifurcations in the blood stream nonhomogeneous splitting and undesirable bioeffects may occur. To aid development of gas embolotherapy techniques, a volume of fluid method is used to model the splitting process of gas bubbles passing through artery and arteriole bifurcations. The model reproduces the variety of splitting behaviors observed experimentally, including the bubble reversal phenomenon. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Small bubbles, having initial length less than twice the vessel diameter, were found unlikely to split in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease exponentially with increasing Reynolds number. Vortex-induced shearing near the bifurcation is identified as a possible mechanism for endothelial cell damage.

  12. Small-bubble transport and splitting dynamics in a symmetric bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Adnan; Warnez, Matthew; Valassis, Doug T; Guetzko, Megan E; Bull, Joseph L

    2017-08-01

    Simulations of small bubbles traveling through symmetric bifurcations are conducted to garner information pertinent to gas embolotherapy, a potential cancer treatment. Gas embolotherapy procedures use intra-arterial bubbles to occlude tumor blood supply. As bubbles pass through bifurcations in the blood stream nonhomogeneous splitting and undesirable bioeffects may occur. To aid development of gas embolotherapy techniques, a volume of fluid method is used to model the splitting process of gas bubbles passing through artery and arteriole bifurcations. The model reproduces the variety of splitting behaviors observed experimentally, including the bubble reversal phenomenon. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Small bubbles, having initial length less than twice the vessel diameter, were found unlikely to split in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease exponentially with increasing Reynolds number. Vortex-induced shearing near the bifurcation is identified as a possible mechanism for endothelial cell damage.

  13. Small-bubble transport and splitting dynamics in a symmetric bifurcation

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan; Warnez, Matthew; Valassis, Doug T.; Guetzko, Megan E.; Bull, Joseph L.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of small bubbles traveling through symmetric bifurcations are conducted to garner information pertinent to gas embolotherapy, a potential cancer treatment. Gas embolotherapy procedures use intra-arterial bubbles to occlude tumor blood supply. As bubbles pass through bifurcations in the blood stream nonhomogeneous splitting and undesirable bioeffects may occur. To aid development of gas embolotherapy techniques, a volume of fluid method is used to model the splitting process of gas bubbles passing through artery and arteriole bifurcations. The model reproduces the variety of splitting behaviors observed experimentally, including the bubble reversal phenomenon. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Small bubbles, having initial length less than twice the vessel diameter, were found unlikely to split in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease exponentially with increasing Reynolds number. Vortex-induced shearing near the bifurcation is identified as a possible mechanism for endothelial cell damage.

  14. Split-liver transplantation : An underused resource in liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogiers, Xavier; Sieders, Egbert

    2008-01-01

    Split-liver transplantation is an efficient tool to increase the number of liver grafts available for transplantation. More than 15 years after its introduction only the classical splitting technique has reached broad application. Consequently children are benefiting most from this possibility.

  15. Mort Rainey's Split Personality in Secret Window

    OpenAIRE

    Sandjaya, Cynthya; Limanta, Liem Satya

    2013-01-01

    Psychological issue is the main issue discussed in David Koepp's Secret Window through its main character, Mort Rainey. Rainey's psychological struggle will be the main theme in this research. This thesis examines Rainey's split personality. Furthermore, in this study, we want to analyze the process of how Mort Rainey's personality splits into two different personalities. To meet the answer of this study, we will use the theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder with a support from Sigmund Fre...

  16. Modeling habitat split: landscape and life history traits determine amphibian extinction thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Fonseca

    Full Text Available Habitat split is a major force behind the worldwide decline of amphibian populations, causing community change in richness and species composition. In fragmented landscapes, natural remnants, the terrestrial habitat of the adults, are frequently separated from streams, the aquatic habitat of the larvae. An important question is how this landscape configuration affects population levels and if it can drive species to extinction locally. Here, we put forward the first theoretical model on habitat split which is particularly concerned on how split distance - the distance between the two required habitats - affects population size and persistence in isolated fragments. Our diffusive model shows that habitat split alone is able to generate extinction thresholds. Fragments occurring between the aquatic habitat and a given critical split distance are expected to hold viable populations, while fragments located farther away are expected to be unoccupied. Species with higher reproductive success and higher diffusion rate of post-metamorphic youngs are expected to have farther critical split distances. Furthermore, the model indicates that negative effects of habitat split are poorly compensated by positive effects of fragment size. The habitat split model improves our understanding about spatially structured populations and has relevant implications for landscape design for conservation. It puts on a firm theoretical basis the relation between habitat split and the decline of amphibian populations.

  17. Modeling habitat split: landscape and life history traits determine amphibian extinction thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Coutinho, Renato M; Azevedo, Franciane; Berbert, Juliana M; Corso, Gilberto; Kraenkel, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    Habitat split is a major force behind the worldwide decline of amphibian populations, causing community change in richness and species composition. In fragmented landscapes, natural remnants, the terrestrial habitat of the adults, are frequently separated from streams, the aquatic habitat of the larvae. An important question is how this landscape configuration affects population levels and if it can drive species to extinction locally. Here, we put forward the first theoretical model on habitat split which is particularly concerned on how split distance - the distance between the two required habitats - affects population size and persistence in isolated fragments. Our diffusive model shows that habitat split alone is able to generate extinction thresholds. Fragments occurring between the aquatic habitat and a given critical split distance are expected to hold viable populations, while fragments located farther away are expected to be unoccupied. Species with higher reproductive success and higher diffusion rate of post-metamorphic youngs are expected to have farther critical split distances. Furthermore, the model indicates that negative effects of habitat split are poorly compensated by positive effects of fragment size. The habitat split model improves our understanding about spatially structured populations and has relevant implications for landscape design for conservation. It puts on a firm theoretical basis the relation between habitat split and the decline of amphibian populations.

  18. Choice of Sample Split in Out-of-Sample Forecast Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Timmermann, Allan

    , while conversely the power of forecast evaluation tests is strongest with long out-of-sample periods. To deal with size distortions, we propose a test statistic that is robust to the effect of considering multiple sample split points. Empirical applications to predictabil- ity of stock returns......Out-of-sample tests of forecast performance depend on how a given data set is split into estimation and evaluation periods, yet no guidance exists on how to choose the split point. Empirical forecast evaluation results can therefore be difficult to interpret, particularly when several values...... and inflation demonstrate that out-of-sample forecast evaluation results can critically depend on how the sample split is determined....

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an enantioselective halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, René M. de; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J.; Kalk, Kor H.; Tang, Lixia; Janssen, Dick B.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2002-01-01

    Halohydrin dehalogenases are key enzymes in the bacterial degradation of vicinal halopropanols and structurally related nematocides. Crystals of the enantioselective halohydrin dehalogenase HheC from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 have been obtained at room temperature from hanging-drop

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an enantioselective halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, RM; Rozeboom, HJ; Kalk, KH; Tang, Lixia; Janssen, DB; Dijkstra, BW

    Halohydrin dehalogenases are key enzymes in the bacterial degradation of vicinal halopropanols and structurally related nematocides. Crystals of the enantioselective halohydrin dehalogenase HheC from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 have been obtained at room temperature from hanging-drop

  1. Non-relativistic AdS branes and Newton-Hooke superalgebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Makoto; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2006-01-01

    We examine a non-relativistic limit of D-branes in AdS 5 x S 5 and M-branes in AdS 4/7 x S 7/4 . First, Newton-Hooke superalgebras for the AdS branes are derived from AdS x S superalgebras as Inoenue-Wigner contractions. It is shown that the directions along which the AdS-brane worldvolume extends are restricted by requiring that the isometry on the AdS-brane worldvolume and the Lorentz symmetry in the transverse space naturally extend to the super-isometry. We also derive Newton-Hooke superalgebras for pp-wave branes and show that the directions along which a brane worldvolume extends are restricted. Then the Wess-Zumino terms of the AdS branes are derived by using the Chevalley-Eilenberg cohomology on the super-AdS x S algebra, and the non-relativistic limit of the AdS-brane actions is considered. We show that the consistent limit is possible for the following branes: Dp (even,even) for p = 1 mod 4 and Dp (odd,odd) for p = 3 mod 4 in AdS 5 x S 5 , and M2 (0,3), M2 (2,1), M5 (1,5) and M5 (3,3) in AdS 4 x S 7 and S 4 x AdS 7 . We furthermore present non-relativistic actions for the AdS branes

  2. Tablet splitting of narrow therapeutic index drugs: a nationwide survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Lin; Hsu, Chia-Chen; Chou, Chia-Yu; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Li-Fang; Chou, Yueh-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Tablet splitting or pill splitting frequently occurs in daily medical practice. For drugs with special pharmacokinetic characters, such as drugs with narrow therapeutic index (NTI), unequal split tablets might lead to erroneous dose titration and it even cause toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of prescribing split NTI drugs at ambulatory setting in Taiwan. A population-based retrospective study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. All ambulatory visits were analyzed from the longitudinal cohort datasets of the National Health Insurance Research Database. The details of ambulatory prescriptions containing NTI drugs were extracted by using the claims datasets of one million beneficiaries from National Healthcare Insurance Research Database in 2010 in Taiwan. The analyses were stratified by dosage form, patient age and the number of prescribed tablets in a single dose for each NTI drugs. Main outcome measures Number and distinct dosage forms of available NTI drug items in Taiwan, number of prescriptions involved split NTI drugs, and number of patients received split NTI drugs. A total of 148,548 patients had received 512,398 prescriptions of NTI drugs and 41.8 % (n = 62,121) of patients had received 36.3 % (n = 185,936) of NTI drug prescriptions in form of split tablets. The percentage of splitting was highest in digoxin prescriptions (81.0 %), followed by warfarin (72.0 %). In the elderly patients, split tablets were very prevalent with digoxin (82.4 %) and warfarin (84.5 %). NTI drugs were frequently prescribed to be taken in split forms in Taiwan. Interventions may be needed to provide effective and convenient NTI drug use. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical outcome of inappropriate split NTI drugs.

  3. Polarized triple-collinear splitting functions at NLO for processes with photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sborlini, Germán F.R.; Florian, Daniel de; Rodrigo, Germán

    2015-01-01

    We compute the polarized splitting functions in the triple collinear limit at next-to-leading order accuracy (NLO) in the strong coupling α_S, for the splitting processes γ→qq-barγ, γ→qq-barg and g→qq-barγ. The divergent structure of each splitting function was compared to the predicted behaviour according to Catani’s formula. The results obtained in this paper are compatible with the unpolarized splitting functions computed in a previous article. Explicit results for NLO corrections are presented in the context of conventional dimensional regularization (CDR).

  4. Polarized triple-collinear splitting functions at NLO for processes with photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sborlini, Germán F.R. [Departamento de Física and IFIBA, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (1428) Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, Capital Federal (Argentina); Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València,Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Florian, Daniel de [Departamento de Física and IFIBA, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (1428) Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, Capital Federal (Argentina); Rodrigo, Germán [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València,Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2015-03-04

    We compute the polarized splitting functions in the triple collinear limit at next-to-leading order accuracy (NLO) in the strong coupling α{sub S}, for the splitting processes γ→qq-barγ, γ→qq-barg and g→qq-barγ. The divergent structure of each splitting function was compared to the predicted behaviour according to Catani’s formula. The results obtained in this paper are compatible with the unpolarized splitting functions computed in a previous article. Explicit results for NLO corrections are presented in the context of conventional dimensional regularization (CDR).

  5. Influence of different gaps among the split targets with gradient potential to the discharge effects generated by hypervelocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Enling; Zhao, Liangliang; Han, Yafei; Zhang, Qingming; Wang, Ruizhi; He, Liping; Liu, Shuhua

    2018-04-01

    Due to the actual situation of spacecraft surface' charging, such as convex corners, weld line, whalebone and a multiple-interfaces with different materials, all these are main factors leading to uneven charging of spacecraft surface, even creating gradient potential. If the charging spacecraft surface is impacted by debris or micrometeor, discharge effect induced by impacting will pose a serious threat to spacecraft in orbit. So realizing spacecraft charging surface with different potential differences and grasping discharge characteristics are a decisive importance at the different experimental conditions in laboratory. To simulate the spacecraft surface with a gradient potential in laboratory, spacecraft surface is split into different parts, which different gaps reserved in 2 adjacent surface is added resistance to create different potential surfaces, and the high potential surface as a impact target in the split targets. Charging circuit system realizing different gradient potential and discharge test system are built by ourselves, combining with two-stage light gas gun loading system, six sets of experiments have been performed about hypervelocity impact on 2A12 aluminum split targets with gradient potentials. In the experiments, gaps of 2A12 aluminum target are the same among different parts in every experiments, the gaps of the split targets are 2mm, 3mm, 5mm, 7mm and 10mm in the experiments, respectively. And the applied voltage is 300V in all the experiments and high-potential 2A12 aluminum plate as the impact target. The experiments have been performed at the impact velocity of about 3km/s and the incidence angles of 60o and 90o (between projectile flying trajectory and target plane), respectively. Voltage probe and current probes are used for acquiring discharge voltages and currents during the process of the impact. The experimental results showed that the discharge induced by impact plasma were generated among high and low-potential target by forming

  6. Influence of different gaps among the split targets with gradient potential to the discharge effects generated by hypervelocity impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enling Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the actual situation of spacecraft surface’ charging, such as convex corners, weld line, whalebone and a multiple-interfaces with different materials, all these are main factors leading to uneven charging of spacecraft surface, even creating gradient potential. If the charging spacecraft surface is impacted by debris or micrometeor, discharge effect induced by impacting will pose a serious threat to spacecraft in orbit. So realizing spacecraft charging surface with different potential differences and grasping discharge characteristics are a decisive importance at the different experimental conditions in laboratory. To simulate the spacecraft surface with a gradient potential in laboratory, spacecraft surface is split into different parts, which different gaps reserved in 2 adjacent surface is added resistance to create different potential surfaces, and the high potential surface as a impact target in the split targets. Charging circuit system realizing different gradient potential and discharge test system are built by ourselves, combining with two-stage light gas gun loading system, six sets of experiments have been performed about hypervelocity impact on 2A12 aluminum split targets with gradient potentials. In the experiments, gaps of 2A12 aluminum target are the same among different parts in every experiments, the gaps of the split targets are 2mm, 3mm, 5mm, 7mm and 10mm in the experiments, respectively. And the applied voltage is 300V in all the experiments and high-potential 2A12 aluminum plate as the impact target. The experiments have been performed at the impact velocity of about 3km/s and the incidence angles of 60o and 90o (between projectile flying trajectory and target plane, respectively. Voltage probe and current probes are used for acquiring discharge voltages and currents during the process of the impact. The experimental results showed that the discharge induced by impact plasma were generated among high and low

  7. "Split Cast Mounting: Review and New Technique".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundawar, S M; Pande, Neelam A; Jaiswal, Priti; Radke, U M

    2014-12-01

    For the fabrication of a prosthesis, the Prosthodontist meticulously performs all the steps. The laboratory technician then make every effort/strives to perform the remaining lab procedures. However when the processed dentures are remounted on the articulator, some changes are seen. These changes may be divided into two categories: Pre-insertion and post-insertion changes, which deal with the physical properties of the materials involved (Parker, J Prosthet Dent 31:335-342, 1974). Split cast mounting is the method of mounting casts on the articulator. It is essentially a maxillary cast constructed in two parts with a horizontal division. The procedure allows for the verification of the accuracy of the initial mounting and the ease of removal and replacement of the cast. This provides a precise means of correcting the changes in occlusion occurring as a result of the processing technique (Nogueira et al., J Prosthet Dent 91:386-388, 2004). Instability of the split mounting has always been a problem to the Prosthodontist thereby limiting its use. There are various materials mentioned in the literature. The new technique by using Dowel pins and twill thread is very easy, cheaper and simple way to stabilize the split mounting. It is useful and easy in day to day laboratory procedures. The article presents different methods of split cast mounting and the new procedure using easily available materials in prosthetic laboratory.

  8. Three-part head-splitting proximal humerus fracture through a unicameral bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younghein, John A; Eskander, Mark S; DeAngelis, Nicola A; Wixted, John J

    2012-06-01

    Unicameral bone cysts are rare in adults and are most often found incidentally on radiographs. However, they can persist from the adolescent period and may be present in locations that predispose to or exacerbate fractures.This article describes a case of a healthy 40-year-old woman who sustained a proximal humerus trauma that involved a large unicameral bone cyst, resulting in a 3-part head-splitting fracture. The epiphyseal location of the cyst contributed to the severity and extent of the fracture that resulted from a simple fall. Given the age of the patient, open reduction and internal fixation with a locking plate and lag screws was performed. The patient chose open reduction and internal fixation to preserve a hemiarthroplasty procedure in case of future revision. Successful humeral head reconstruction was achieved, and the patient fully recovered. One year postoperatively, the patient underwent arthroscopic debridement to alleviate subjective stiffness and decreased range of motion.Multipart head-splitting fractures require complex repair strategies. The gold standard for the treatment of these injuries is hemiarthroplasty. However, the decision process is difficult in a young patient given the average survival of autoplastic prostheses and the added difficulty of later revision. The current case demonstrates the complexity of decision making resulting from a rare injury in a young, healthy patient and shows that open reduction and internal fixation can provide acceptable reconstruction in such situations. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Dye-sensitized photocatalyst for effective water splitting catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Motonori

    2017-12-01

    Renewable hydrogen production is a sustainable method for the development of next-generation energy technologies. Utilising solar energy and photocatalysts to split water is an ideal method to produce hydrogen. In this review, the fundamental principles and recent progress of hydrogen production by artificial photosynthesis are reviewed, focusing on hydrogen production from photocatalytic water splitting using organic-inorganic composite-based photocatalysts.

  10. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Ken; Shindo, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible

  11. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki, E-mail: tanigaki-toshiaki@riken.jp [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Harada, Ken [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan); Shindo, Daisuke [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible.

  12. The Differences Between Stock Splits and Stock Dividends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Raaballe, Johannes

    It is often asserted that stock splits and stock dividends are purely cosmetic events. However, many studies have documented several stock market effects associated with stock splits and stock dividends. This paper examines the effects of these two types of events for the Danish stock market...... different. Second, the positive stock market reaction is closely related to associated changes in a firm's payout policy, but the relationship varies for the two types of events. Finally, there is only very weak evidence for a change in the liquidity of the stock. On the whole, after controlling...... for the firm's payout policy, the results suggest that a stock split is a cosmetic event and that a stock dividend on its own is considered negative news....

  13. A closer look at two AdS4 branes in an AdS5 bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambyahpillai, Shiyamala

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a scenario with two AdS 4 branes in an AdS 5 bulk. In this scenario there are two gravitons and we investigate the role played by each of them for different positions of the second brane. We show that both gravitons play a significant role only when the turn-around point in the warp factor is approximately equidistant from both branes. We find that the ultralight mode becomes heavy as the second brane approaches the turn-around point, and the physics begins to resemble that of the RS model. Thus we demonstrate the crucial role played by the turn-around in the warp factor in enabling the presence of both gravitons. (author)

  14. The Kunitz-protease inhibitor domain in amyloid precursor protein reduces cellular mitochondrial enzymes expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Li-Min; Lim, Mei-Li; Wong, Boon-Seng

    2013-08-09

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and this can be contributed by aberrant metabolic enzyme function. But, the mechanism causing this enzymatic impairment is unclear. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is known to be alternatively spliced to produce three major isoforms in the brain (APP695, APP751, APP770). Both APP770 and APP751 contain the Kunitz Protease Inhibitory (KPI) domain, but the former also contain an extra OX-2 domain. APP695 on the other hand, lacks both domains. In AD, up-regulation of the KPI-containing APP isoforms has been reported. But the functional contribution of this elevation is unclear. In the present study, we have expressed and compared the effect of the non-KPI containing APP695 and the KPI-containing APP751 on mitochondrial function. We found that the KPI-containing APP751 significantly decreased the expression of three major mitochondrial metabolic enzymes; citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase (COX IV). This reduction lowers the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, COX IV activity and mitochondrial membrane potential. Overall, this study demonstrated that up-regulation of the KPI-containing APP isoforms is likely to contribute to the impairment of metabolic enzymes and mitochondrial function in AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  16. Protein trans-splicing of multiple atypical split inteins engineered from natural inteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lin

    Full Text Available Protein trans-splicing by split inteins has many uses in protein production and research. Splicing proteins with synthetic peptides, which employs atypical split inteins, is particularly useful for site-specific protein modifications and labeling, because the synthetic peptide can be made to contain a variety of unnatural amino acids and chemical modifications. For this purpose, atypical split inteins need to be engineered to have a small N-intein or C-intein fragment that can be more easily included in a synthetic peptide that also contains a small extein to be trans-spliced onto target proteins. Here we have successfully engineered multiple atypical split inteins capable of protein trans-splicing, by modifying and testing more than a dozen natural inteins. These included both S1 split inteins having a very small (11-12 aa N-intein fragment and S11 split inteins having a very small (6 aa C-intein fragment. Four of the new S1 and S11 split inteins showed high efficiencies (85-100% of protein trans-splicing both in E. coli cells and in vitro. Under in vitro conditions, they exhibited reaction rate constants ranging from ~1.7 × 10(-4 s(-1 to ~3.8 × 10(-4 s(-1, which are comparable to or higher than those of previously reported atypical split inteins. These findings should facilitate a more general use of trans-splicing between proteins and synthetic peptides, by expanding the availability of different atypical split inteins. They also have implications on understanding the structure-function relationship of atypical split inteins, particularly in terms of intein fragment complementation.

  17. Isoniazid, pyrazinamide and rifampicin content variation in split fixed-dose combination tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouplin, Thomas; Phuong, Pham Nguyen; Toi, Pham Van; Nguyen Pouplin, Julie; Farrar, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    In most developing countries, paediatric tuberculosis is treated with split tablets leading to potential inaccuracy in the dose delivery and drug exposure. There is no data on the quality of first-line drugs content in split fixed-dose combination tablets. To determine Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide and Rifampicin content uniformity in split FDC tablets used in the treatment of childhood tuberculosis. Drug contents of 15 whole tablets, 30 half tablets and 36 third tablets were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. The content uniformity was assessed by comparing drug content measured in split portions with their expected amounts and the quality of split portions was assessed applying qualitative specifications for whole tablets. All whole tablets measurements fell into the USP proxy for the three drugs. But a significant number of half and third portions was found outside the tolerated variation range and the split formulation failed the requirements for content uniformity. To correct for the inaccuracy of splitting the tablets into equal portions, a weight-adjustment strategy was used but this did not improve the findings. In split tablets the content of the three drugs is non-uniform and exceeded the USP recommendations. There is an absolute need to make child-friendly formulations available for the treatment of childhood tuberculosis.

  18. Evaporation of large black holes in AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Jorge V

    2010-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence offers a new perspective on the long-standing black hole information paradox. However, to be able to use the available gauge/gravity machinery one is forced to consider so-called 'large' black holes in AdS, and these objects are thermodynamically stable - they do not evaporate. We describe a simple toy model that allows large AdS black holes to decay, by coupling the emitted radiation to an external scalar field propagating in an auxiliary space. This effectively changes the properties of the boundary of AdS, making it partly absorbing. We demonstrate that the evaporation process never ceases by explicitly presenting (a) the transmission coefficient for a wave scattering from the bulk into auxiliary space and (b) the greybody factor for a black 3-brane in an AdS background. Therefore, the model provides an interesting framework to address the information paradox using AdS/CFT techniques.

  19. Two-loop QED corrections to the Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florian, Daniel de [International Center for Advanced Studies (ICAS), UNSAM,Campus Miguelete, 25 de Mayo y Francia (1650) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sborlini, Germán F.R.; Rodrigo, Germán [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València,Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2016-10-11

    We compute the two-loop QED corrections to the Altarelli-Parisi (AP) splitting functions by using a deconstructive algorithmic Abelianization of the well-known NLO QCD corrections. We present explicit results for the full set of splitting kernels in a basis that includes the leptonic distribution functions that, starting from this order in the QED coupling, couple to the partonic densities. Finally, we perform a phenomenological analysis of the impact of these corrections in the splitting functions.

  20. An Examination Of Fracture Splitting Parameters Of Crackable Connecting Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Özdemir

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Fracture splitting method is an innovative processing technique in the field of automobile engine connecting rod (con/rod manufacturing. Compared with traditional method, this technique has remarkable advantages. Manufacturing procedures, equipment and tools investment can be decreased and energy consumption reduced remarkably. Furthermore, product quality and bearing capability can also be improved. It provides a high quality, high accuracy and low cost route for producing connecting rods (con/rods. With the many advantages mentioned above, this method has attracted manufacturers attention and has been utilized in many types of con/rod manufacturing. In this article, the method and the advantages it provides, such as materials, notches for fracture splitting, fracture splitting conditions and fracture splitting equipment are discussed in detail. The paper describes an analysis of examination of fracture splitting parameters and optik-SEM fractography of C70S6 crackable connectıng rod. Force and velocity parameters are investigated. That uniform impact force distrubition starting from the starting notch causes brittle and cleavage failure mode is obtained as a result. This induces to decrease the toughness.

  1. Novel Split Chest Tube Improves Post-Surgical Thoracic Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Cherry, Brandon H; Gurji, Hunaid A; White, Daniel W; Newton, J Tyler; Scott, Gary F; Hoxha, Besim; Gourlay, Terence; Mallet, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Objective Conventional, separate mediastinal and pleural tubes are often inefficient at draining thoracic effusions. Description We developed a Y-shaped chest tube with split ends that divide within the thoracic cavity, permitting separate intrathoracic placement and requiring a single exit port. In this study, thoracic drainage by the split drain vs. that of separate drains was tested. Methods After sternotomy, pericardiotomy, and left pleurotomy, pigs were fitted with separate chest drains (n=10) or a split tube prototype (n=9) with internal openings positioned in the mediastinum and in the costo-diaphragmatic recess. Separate series of experiments were conducted to test drainage of D5W or 0.58 M sucrose, an aqueous solution with viscosity approximating that of plasma. One litre of fluid was infused into the thorax, and suction was applied at −20 cm H2O for 30 min. Results When D5W was infused, the split drain left a residual volume of 53 ± 99 ml (mean value ± SD) vs. 148 ± 120 for the separate drain (P=0.007), representing a drainage efficiency (i.e. drained vol/[drained + residual vol]) of 95 ± 10% vs. 86 ± 12% for the separate drains (P = 0.011). In the second series, the split drain evacuated more 0.58 M sucrose in the first minute (967 ± 129 ml) than the separate drains (680 ± 192 ml, Pdrain evacuated a similar volume of sucrose vs. the conventional drain (1089 ± 72 vs. 1056 ± 78 ml; P = 0.5). Residual volume tended to be lower (25 ± 10 vs. 62 ± 72 ml; P = 0.128) and drainage efficiency tended to be higher (98 ± 1 vs. 95 ± 6%; P = 0.111) with the split drain vs. conventional separate drains. Conclusion The split chest tube drained the thoracic cavity at least as effectively as conventional separate tubes. This new device could potentially alleviate postoperative complications. PMID:25478289

  2. Novel Split Chest Tube Improves Post-Surgical Thoracic Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Cherry, Brandon H; Gurji, Hunaid A; White, Daniel W; Newton, J Tyler; Scott, Gary F; Hoxha, Besim; Gourlay, Terence; Mallet, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Conventional, separate mediastinal and pleural tubes are often inefficient at draining thoracic effusions. We developed a Y-shaped chest tube with split ends that divide within the thoracic cavity, permitting separate intrathoracic placement and requiring a single exit port. In this study, thoracic drainage by the split drain vs. that of separate drains was tested. After sternotomy, pericardiotomy, and left pleurotomy, pigs were fitted with separate chest drains (n=10) or a split tube prototype (n=9) with internal openings positioned in the mediastinum and in the costo-diaphragmatic recess. Separate series of experiments were conducted to test drainage of D5W or 0.58 M sucrose, an aqueous solution with viscosity approximating that of plasma. One litre of fluid was infused into the thorax, and suction was applied at -20 cm H2O for 30 min. When D5W was infused, the split drain left a residual volume of 53 ± 99 ml (mean value ± SD) vs. 148 ± 120 for the separate drain (P=0.007), representing a drainage efficiency (i.e. drained vol/[drained + residual vol]) of 95 ± 10% vs. 86 ± 12% for the separate drains (P = 0.011). In the second series, the split drain evacuated more 0.58 M sucrose in the first minute (967 ± 129 ml) than the separate drains (680 ± 192 ml, Pdrain evacuated a similar volume of sucrose vs. the conventional drain (1089 ± 72 vs. 1056 ± 78 ml; P = 0.5). Residual volume tended to be lower (25 ± 10 vs. 62 ± 72 ml; P = 0.128) and drainage efficiency tended to be higher (98 ± 1 vs. 95 ± 6%; P = 0.111) with the split drain vs. conventional separate drains. The split chest tube drained the thoracic cavity at least as effectively as conventional separate tubes. This new device could potentially alleviate postoperative complications.

  3. Gauge invariant frequency splitting of the continuum Yang-Mills field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitter, P.K.; Valent, G.

    1977-01-01

    Frequency splitting plays an important role in Wilson's theory of critical phenomena. Here the authors give a theory of gauge invariant frequency splitting of the Yang-Mills field in 4 dimensions. (Auth.)

  4. The Effect of Adding Different Types of Natural Fibers on Mechanical Properties and Impact Resistance of Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmed Fadhil; Mohanad Yaseen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of natural fibers: sisal and palm fibers on the different properties of concrete have been investigated through a number of tests. The properties investigated include compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and impact resistance of concrete. Sisal fiber has been used at three percentages of total mixture volume (0.6, 1.20 and 1.8%, respectively), while the palm fiber has been added in (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5%, respectiv...

  5. Two-Loop Gluon to Gluon-Gluon Splitting Amplitudes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes are universal functions governing the collinear behavior of scattering amplitudes for massless particles. We compute the two-loop g → gg splitting amplitudes in QCD, N = 1, and N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theories, which describe the limits of two-loop n-point amplitudes where two gluon momenta become parallel. They also represent an ingredient in a direct x-space computation of DGLAP evolution kernels at next-to-next-to-leading order. To obtain the splitting amplitudes, we use the unitarity sewing method. In contrast to the usual light-cone gauge treatment, our calculation does not rely on the principal-value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescriptions, even though the loop integrals contain some of the denominators typically encountered in light-cone gauge. We reduce the integrals to a set of 13 master integrals using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. The master integrals are computed with the aid of differential equations in the splitting momentum fraction z. The ε-poles of the splitting amplitudes are consistent with a formula due to Catani for the infrared singularities of two-loop scattering amplitudes. This consistency essentially provides an inductive proof of Catani's formula, as well as an ansatz for previously-unknown 1/ε pole terms having non-trivial color structure. Finite terms in the splitting amplitudes determine the collinear behavior of finite remainders in this formula

  6. Cortical splitting of the mandible after irradiation. Special reference to osteoradionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Kouji; Ito, Jusuke; Hayashi, Takafumi; Taira, Shuhzou; Nakajima, Syunichi

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discuss the relationship between radiation bone injuries and a splitting of the cortical bone in the radiation field. Between January 1993 and September 1998, 53 patients with head and neck cancer received radiotherapy. The study cohort consisted of 23 patients who were followed with computed tomographic scans more than one year after radiotherapy. We evaluated clinical and computed tomographic features. Computed tomographic scanning was performed with a section thickness of 3 or 4 mm. Bone images were obtained with identical window width (4000 Haunsfield units) and window level (1000 Haunsfield units). Splitting of the cortical bone was defined as disappearance of bone density in the cortical bone, showing a linear shape running parallel to the surface of the cortex. Splitting appeared in 9 sites in 8 patients. All patients fulfilled UICC criteria for classifying oral cancer. Most of the patients received external irradiation with a total radiation dose of 50 or 60 Gy. In all cases, splitting was found in the mandibular cortex at the site of muscle attachment, that was included in the radiation field. Appearance of bone changes in chronological order were periosteal reaction, splitting and bone necrosis. We speculate that splitting results from injuries to bone structure cells caused by blood flow disturbance after surgery and radiotherapy. It is suggested that such splitting can be a predictor of osteoradionecrosis. (author)

  7. Nonlocal Cooper pair splitting in a pSn-junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhorst, M.; Brinkman, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Perfect Cooper pair splitting is proposed, based on crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) in a p-type semiconductor-superconductor-n-type semiconductor (pSn) junction. The ideal splitting is caused by the energy filtering that is enforced by the band structure of the electrodes. The pSn junction is

  8. Split Labor Markets and Black-White Relations, 1865-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Carole

    1981-01-01

    This paper modifies Edna Bonacich's theory of class conflict which cites the split labor market during the period of 1920-30 as the cause of racial antagonisms. The author states that Bonacich neglected the role of employers and technological advance in the creation of the split labor market. (ML)

  9. The toughness of split graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woeginger, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    In this short note we argue that the toughness of split graphs can be computed in polynomial time. This solves an open problem from a recent paper by Kratsch et al. (Discrete Math. 150 (1996) 231–245).

  10. Effect of superconducting electrons on the energy splitting of tunneling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.C.; Granato, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    We consider the effect of superconducting electrons on the magnitude of the energy splitting of a tunneling system. A specific example is a hydrogen atom tunneling in niobium. We find that in this case the splitting is roughly 20% smaller in the normal state than in the superconducting state. This difference in the splitting should be observable in neutron scattering and ultrasonic measurements

  11. Threshold Multi Split-Row algorithm for decoding irregular LDPC codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakir Aqil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a new threshold multi split-row algorithm in order to improve the multi split-row algorithm for LDPC irregular codes decoding. We give a complete description of our algorithm as well as its advantages for the LDPC codes. The simulation results over an additive white gaussian channel show that an improvement in code error performance between 0.4 dB and 0.6 dB compared to the multi split-row algorithm.

  12. AdS Black Hole with Phantom Scalar Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an AdS black hole solution with Ricci flat horizon in Einstein-phantom scalar theory. The phantom scalar fields just depend on the transverse coordinates x and y, which are parameterized by the parameter α. We study the thermodynamics of the AdS phantom black hole. Although its horizon is a Ricci flat Euclidean space, we find that the thermodynamical properties of the black hole solution are qualitatively the same as those of AdS Schwarzschild black hole. Namely, there exists a minimal temperature and the large black hole is thermodynamically stable, while the smaller one is unstable, so there is a so-called Hawking-Page phase transition between the large black hole and the thermal gas solution in the AdS space-time in Poincare coordinates. We also calculate the entanglement entropy for a strip geometry dual to the AdS phantom black holes and find that the behavior of the entanglement entropy is qualitatively the same as that of the black hole thermodynamical entropy.

  13. Universal regularization prescription for Lovelock AdS gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofinas, Georgios; Olea, Rodrigo

    2007-01-01

    A definite form for the boundary term that produces the finiteness of both the conserved quantities and Euclidean action for any Lovelock gravity with AdS asymptotics is presented. This prescription merely tells even from odd bulk dimensions, regardless the particular theory considered, what is valid even for Einstein-Hilbert and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity. The boundary term is a given polynomial of the boundary extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures (also referred to as Kounterterms series). Only the coupling constant of the boundary term changes accordingly, such that it always preserves a well-posed variational principle for boundary conditions suitable for asymptotically AdS spaces. The background-independent conserved charges associated to asymptotic symmetries are found. In odd bulk dimensions, this regularization produces a generalized formula for the vacuum energy in Lovelock AdS gravity. The standard entropy for asymptotically AdS black holes is recovered directly from the regularization of the Euclidean action, and not only from the first law of thermodynamics associated to the conserved quantities

  14. AdS Branes from Partial Breaking of Superconformal Symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown how the static-gauge world-volume superfield actions of diverse superbranes on the AdS d+1 superbackgrounds can be systematically derived from nonlinear realizations of the appropriate AdS supersymmetries. The latter are treated as superconformal symmetries of flat Minkowski superspaces of the bosonic dimension d. Examples include the N = 1 AdS 4 supermembrane, which is associated with the 1/2 partial breaking of the OSp(1|4) supersymmetry down to the N = 1, d = 3 Poincare supersymmetry, and the T-duality related L3-brane on AdS 5 and scalar 3-brane on AdS 5 x S 1 , which are associated with two different patterns of 1/2 breaking of the SU(2, 2|1) supersymmetry. Another (closely related) topic is the AdS/CFT equivalence transformation. It maps the world-volume actions of the codimension-one AdS d+1 (super)branes onto the actions of the appropriate Minkowski (super)conformal field theories in the dimension d

  15. Effects of Enzyme Complex Supplementation to a Paddy-based Diet on Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Meat-type Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paddy rice is rarely used as a feed because of its high fiber content. In this study, two experiments were conducted to study the effects of supplementing an enzyme complex consisting of xylanase, beta-glucanase and cellulase, to paddy-based diets on the performance and nutrient digestibility in meat-type ducks. In the both experiments, meat-type ducks (Cherry Valley were randomly assigned to four treatments. Treatment 1 was a basal diet of corn-soybean; treatment 2 was a basal diet of corn-paddy-soybean; treatment 3, had enzyme complex added to the corn-paddy-soybean basal diet at levels of 0.5 g/kg diet; and treatment 4, had enzyme complex added to the corn-paddy-soybean diet at levels of 1.0 g/kg diet. The results showed that the enzyme complex increased the ADG, and decreased the ADFI and F/G significantly (p0.05. The outcome of this research indicates that the application of enzyme complex made up of xylanase, beta-glucanase, and cellulase, in the corn-paddy-soybean diet, can improve performance and nutrition digestibility in meat-type ducks.

  16. AdS2 models in an embedding superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Sherry, T.N.

    2003-01-01

    An embedding superspace, whose bosonic part is the flat (2+1)-dimensional embedding space for AdS 2 , is introduced. Superfields and several supersymmetric models are examined in the embedded AdS 2 superspace

  17. Chaperone-Like Activity of ß-Casein and Its Effect on Residual in Vitro Activity of Food Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria

    ABSTRACT Activity of endogenous enzymes may cause browning of fruits and vegetables. These enzymes can be inactivated, for example by heat treatment, but the response of enzymes to heat treatment depends on many factors. Foods are very complex systems and the stability of enzymes......-casein on the enzymatic activity of three targets was tested by monitoring enzyme activity after heat treatment and by measuring the intensity of scattered light during and after heat treatment. β-Casein was shown to interact at elevated temperatures with three selected targets:horseradish peroxidase, tyrosinase from......, residual activity of horseradish peroxidase was lower in samples containing BSA than in samples without any addition. Horseradish peroxidase heated with BSA did not regain activity within one hour after treatment. BSA is often added to enzyme solutions to prevent enzyme adhesion to vial surfaces...

  18. Stability of split Stirling refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Liang, W.

    2009-01-01

    In many thermal systems spontaneous mechanical oscillations are generated under the influence of large temperature gradients. Well-known examples are Taconis oscillations in liquid-helium cryostats and oscillations in thermoacoustic systems. In split Stirling refrigerators the compressor and the

  19. Time series evaluation of an intervention to increase statin tablet splitting by general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, Jennifer M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Maclure, Malcolm; Marshall, Blair; Ramsden, Samuel; Dormuth, Colin

    2011-02-01

    Tablet splitting, in which a higher-dose tablet is split to get 2 doses, reduces patients' drug costs. Statins can be split safely. General practitioners (GPs) may not direct their patients to split statins because of safety concerns or unawareness of costs. Medical chart inserts provide cost-effective education to physicians. The aim of this study was to assess whether providing GPs with statin-splitting chart inserts would increase splitting rates, and to identify predictors of splitting. In 2005 and 2006, we faxed a statin chart insert to British Columbia GPs with a request for a telephone interview. Consenting GPs were mailed 3 statin chart inserts and interviewed by phone (the intervention). In an interrupted time series, we compared monthly rates of statin-splitting prescriptions among intervention and nonintervention GPs before, during, and after the intervention. In multivariate logistic regressions accounting for patient clustering, predictors of splitting included physician and patient demographics and the specific statin prescribed. Of 5051 GPs reached, 282 (6%) agreed to the intervention. Before the intervention, GPs' splitting rate was 2.6%; after intervention, GPs' splitting rate was 7.5%. The rate for the nonintervention GPs was 4.4%. Intervention GPs were 1.68 (95% CI, 1.12-2.53) times more likely to prescribe splitting after the intervention than were nonintervention GPs. Other predictors were a patient's female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.18-1.34), lower patient income (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.18-1.34), and a lack of drug insurance (OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.69-2.04). An inexpensive intervention was effective in producing a sustained increase in GPs' splitting rate during 22 months of observed follow-up. Expanding statin-splitting education to all GPs might reduce prescription costs for many patients and payors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of computed tomography assessed kidney length to predict split renal GFR in living kidney donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Francois; Fournier, Catherine; Leon, Carine; Legendre, Christophe [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Renal Transplantation Department, Paris (France); Pavlov, Patrik [Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Tissier, Anne-Marie; Correas, Jean-Michel [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Harache, Benoit; Hignette, Chantal; Weinmann, Pierre [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Nuclear Medicine Department, Paris (France); Eladari, Dominique [Paris Descartes University, and INSERM, Unit 970, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France); Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Urology Department, Paris (France); Friedlander, Gerard; Courbebaisse, Marie [Paris Descartes University, and INSERM, Unit 1151, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France); Houillier, Pascal [Paris Descartes University, INSERM, Unit umrs1138, and CNRS Unit erl8228, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France)

    2017-02-15

    Screening of living kidney donors may require scintigraphy to split glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To determine the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) to split GFR, we compared scintigraphy-split GFR to CT-split GFR. We evaluated CT-split GFR as a screening test to detect scintigraphy-split GFR lower than 40 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney. This was a monocentric retrospective study on 346 potential living donors who had GFR measurement, renal scintigraphy, and CT. We predicted GFR for each kidney by splitting GFR using the following formula: Volume-split GFR for a given kidney = measured GFR*[volume of this kidney/(volume of this kidney + volume of the opposite kidney)]. The same formula was used for length-split GFR. We compared length- and volume-split GFR to scintigraphy-split GFR at donation and with a 4-year follow-up. A better correlation was observed between length-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.92) than between volume-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.89). A length-split GFR threshold of 45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 75 % to detect scintigraphy-split GFR less than 40 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney. Both techniques with their respective thresholds detected living donors with similar eGFR evolution during follow-up. Length-split GFR can be used to detect patients requiring scintigraphy. (orig.)

  1. Use of computed tomography assessed kidney length to predict split renal GFR in living kidney donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, Francois; Fournier, Catherine; Leon, Carine; Legendre, Christophe; Pavlov, Patrik; Tissier, Anne-Marie; Correas, Jean-Michel; Harache, Benoit; Hignette, Chantal; Weinmann, Pierre; Eladari, Dominique; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud; Friedlander, Gerard; Courbebaisse, Marie; Houillier, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Screening of living kidney donors may require scintigraphy to split glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To determine the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) to split GFR, we compared scintigraphy-split GFR to CT-split GFR. We evaluated CT-split GFR as a screening test to detect scintigraphy-split GFR lower than 40 mL/min/1.73 m"2/kidney. This was a monocentric retrospective study on 346 potential living donors who had GFR measurement, renal scintigraphy, and CT. We predicted GFR for each kidney by splitting GFR using the following formula: Volume-split GFR for a given kidney = measured GFR*[volume of this kidney/(volume of this kidney + volume of the opposite kidney)]. The same formula was used for length-split GFR. We compared length- and volume-split GFR to scintigraphy-split GFR at donation and with a 4-year follow-up. A better correlation was observed between length-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.92) than between volume-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.89). A length-split GFR threshold of 45 mL/min/1.73 m"2/kidney had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 75 % to detect scintigraphy-split GFR less than 40 mL/min/1.73 m"2/kidney. Both techniques with their respective thresholds detected living donors with similar eGFR evolution during follow-up. Length-split GFR can be used to detect patients requiring scintigraphy. (orig.)

  2. AdS. Klein-Gordon equation

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, Ll.

    2014-01-01

    I propose a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in the framework of AdS space-time and exhibit a four parameter family of solutions among which there is a two parameter family of time-dependent bound states.

  3. Stock Splits and Liquidity for Two Major Capital Markets from Central–Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Rudnicki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the stock market there occur some events that contradict the efficient market hypothesis therefore they are called anomalies. One of the mysterious corporate events which has attracted the attention of numerous researchers is a stock split. I perform the review of implications of splitting the stock for market liquidity of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange and the Vienna Stock Exchange. I use event study, in particular Market model method and Market adjusted return method, to inspect the behavior of abnormal changes in daily trading volume for stock splits performed between 2000 through 2011 over a short run and assuming a longer time interval. Moreover, I juxtapose the results for both stock exchanges to examine whether the stock split phenomenon for two major capital markets from this part of Europe can be better explained by means of existing theories on stock splits. The research is aimed at analyzing the implications of the split for market liquidity, i.e. whether there occurs an immediate effect following the split as well as whether this corporate event improves the level of market liquidity over long run. Furthermore, the goal of the paper is to investigate whether the investors can cash in on the stock split, more specifically, whether they can profit from lower transaction costs. I document a significant growth in the market liquidity of stock splitting firms over 36 months following the split for both capital markets what is indicative of lower transaction costs for investors. The 1–percent significant results are consistent with the liquidity hypothesis on stock splits.

  4. Splitting Strategy for Simulating Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The splitting approach is developed for the numerical simulation of genetic regulatory networks with a stable steady-state structure. The numerical results of the simulation of a one-gene network, a two-gene network, and a p53-mdm2 network show that the new splitting methods constructed in this paper are remarkably more effective and more suitable for long-term computation with large steps than the traditional general-purpose Runge-Kutta methods. The new methods have no restriction on the choice of stepsize due to their infinitely large stability regions.

  5. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Winyard, Thomas [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy models of holographic QCD) from an n layer to an n+1-layer configuration are observed at topological charges 9 and 27 and further popcorn transitions for higher charges are predicted. Finally, a point-particle approximation for the model is derived and used to successfully predict the ring structures and popcorn transitions for higher charge solitons.

  6. The 2-group of symmetries of a split chain complex

    OpenAIRE

    Elgueta, Josep

    2010-01-01

    We explicitly compute the 2-group of self-equivalences and (homotopy classes of) chain homotopies between them for any {\\it split} chain complex $A_{\\bullet}$ in an arbitrary $\\kb$-linear abelian category ($\\kb$ any commutative ring with unit). In particular, it is shown that it is a {\\it split} 2-group whose equivalence class depends only on the homology of $A_{\\bullet}$, and that it is equivalent to the trivial 2-group when $A_\\bullet$ is a split exact sequence. This provides a description ...

  7. Wess-Zumino terms for AdS D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuda, Machiko; Kamimura, Kiyoshi

    2004-01-01

    We show that Wess-Zumino terms for Dp branes with p>0 in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) space are given in terms of 'left-invariant' currents on the super-AdS group or the 'expanded' super-AdS group. As a result there is no topological extension of the super-AdS algebra. In the flat limit the global Lorentz rotational charges of the AdS space turn out to be brane charges of the supertranslation algebra representing the BPS mass. We also show that a D-instanton is described by the GL(1) degree of freedom in the Roiban-Siegel formalism based on the GL(4 vertical bar 4)/[Sp(4)xGL(1)]2 coset

  8. The Effectiveness of Managing Split Attention among Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliee, Zeinab Shams; Jomhari, Nazean; Rezaei, Reza; Alias, Norlidah

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common problems in autistic children is split attention. Split attention prevents autism children from being able to focus attention on their learning, and tasks. As a result, it is important to identify how to make autistic individuals focus attention on learning. Considering autistic individuals have higher visual abilities in…

  9. April / May 2006. 108 Harvesting split thickness skin in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Background: In the third world countries like Ethiopia the majority of Hospitals have difficulties in harvesting split thickness skin ... The grafts were well taken by the recipient areas and technically there was no danger of deep bite. Conclusion: Split ... to meet the hospital needs. Thus we need to improvise and use appropriate.

  10. The new PV prescription for IR singularities of NLO splitting functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrzypek, M.; Jadach, S.; Kusina, A.

    2014-07-01

    In this note we outline the Monte Carlo project KrkMC. The goal of this project is to construct a QCD Parton Shower accurate to NLO level in both coefficient function and splitting function (shower) parts. We discuss in detail one of its aspects - the evolution kernels. The kernels had to be recalculated in a new regularisation scheme, called NPV. In this scheme all the singularities in the plus component of the integration momenta are regularised by means of principal value prescription. This is in contrast to the standard approach, in which only the spurious axial singularities are regularised by principal value. As a result, the triple poles in the dimensional regularisation parameter ε are replaced by a combination of ε-poles and logarithms of geometrical cut-off δ. The resulting exclusive parton densities are more suitable for stochastic applications in four dimensions. Simultaneously, at the inclusive level, the standard and new prescriptions give the same results provided appropriate real and virtual contributions are added.

  11. Aligning workload control theory and practice : lot splitting and operation overlapping issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, Nuno O.; Land, Martin J.; Carmo-Silva, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of lot splitting in the context of workload control (WLC). Past studies on WLC assumed that jobs released to the shop floor proceed through the different stages of processing without being split. However, in practice, large jobs are often split into smaller transfer

  12. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  13. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Alessandro; Gasparini, Giulio; Foresta, Enrico; Saponaro, Gianmarco; Falchi, Marco; Cardarelli, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Paolo; Forcione, Mario; Garagiola, Umberto; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Pelo, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  14. Grand unification in higher dimensions with split supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Philip C.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate gauge coupling unification in higher dimensional GUT models with split supersymmetry. We focus on 5d and 6d orbifold GUTs, which permit a simple solution to several problems of 4D GUTs as well as control over GUT scale threshold corrections. In orbifold GUTs, calculable threshold corrections can raise or lower the prediction for α s (M Z ) in a way that depends on the location of Higgs fields. On the other hand, split supersymmetry lowers the prediction for α s (M Z ). Consequently, split supersymmetry changes the preferred location of the Higgs fields in orbifold GUTs. In the simplest models, we find that gauge coupling unification favors higgs doublets that live on the orbifold fixed points instead of in the bulk. In addition, relatively high scales of supersymmetry breaking of 10 10±2 GeV are generically favored

  15. Traffic dispersion through a series of signals with irregular split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We study the traffic behavior of a group of vehicles moving through a sequence of signals with irregular splits on a roadway. We present the stochastic model of vehicular traffic controlled by signals. The dynamic behavior of vehicular traffic is clarified by analyzing traffic pattern and travel time numerically. The group of vehicles breaks up more and more by the irregularity of signal's split. The traffic dispersion is induced by the irregular split. We show that the traffic dispersion depends highly on the cycle time and the strength of split's irregularity. Also, we study the traffic behavior through the series of signals at the green-wave strategy. The dependence of the travel time on offset time is derived for various values of cycle time. The region map of the traffic dispersion is shown in (cycle time, offset time)-space.

  16. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Type-I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split ... quantum picture of the Universe. It was then ... where the integers m, n correspond to the respective magnetic and electric charges; m is the ...

  17. Temperature-dependent fine structure splitting in InGaN quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Puchtler, Tim J.; Zhu, Tongtong; Jarman, John C.; Kocher, Claudius C.; Oliver, Rachel A.; Taylor, Robert A.

    2017-07-01

    We report the experimental observation of temperature-dependent fine structure splitting in semiconductor quantum dots using a non-polar (11-20) a-plane InGaN system, up to the on-chip Peltier cooling threshold of 200 K. At 5 K, a statistical average splitting of 443 ± 132 μeV has been found based on 81 quantum dots. The degree of fine structure splitting stays relatively constant for temperatures less than 100 K and only increases above that temperature. At 200 K, we find that the fine structure splitting ranges between 2 and 12 meV, which is an order of magnitude higher than that at low temperatures. Our investigations also show that phonon interactions at high temperatures might have a correlation with the degree of exchange interactions. The large fine structure splitting at 200 K makes it easier to isolate the individual components of the polarized emission spectrally, increasing the effective degree of polarization for potential on-chip applications of polarized single-photon sources.

  18. Checking the Adequacy of Fit of Models from Split-Plot Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almini, A. A.; Kulahci, Murat; Montgomery, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    models. In this article, we propose the computation of two R-2, R-2-adjusted, prediction error sums of squares (PRESS), and R-2-prediction statistics to measure the adequacy of fit for the WP and the SP submodels in a split-plot design. This is complemented with the graphical analysis of the two types......One of the main features that distinguish split-plot experiments from other experiments is that they involve two types of experimental errors: the whole-plot (WP) error and the subplot (SP) error. Taking this into consideration is very important when computing measures of adequacy of fit for split-plot...... of errors to check for any violation of the underlying assumptions and the adequacy of fit of split-plot models. Using examples, we show how computing two measures of model adequacy of fit for each split-plot design model is appropriate and useful as they reveal whether the correct WP and SP effects have...

  19. The group approach to AdS space propagators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, Thorsten; Manvelyan, Ruben; Ruehl, Werner

    2003-01-01

    We show that AdS two-point functions can be obtained by connecting two points in the interior of AdS space with one point on its boundary by a dual pair of Dobrev's boundary-to-bulk intertwiners and integrating over the boundary point

  20. Mode splitting effect in FEMs with oversized Bragg resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskov, N. Yu.; Sergeev, A. S. [Institute of Applied Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kaminsky, A. K.; Perelstein, E. A.; Sedykh, S. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kuzikov, S. V. [Institute of Applied Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhegorodsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    Splitting of the fundamental mode in an oversized Bragg resonator with a step of the corrugation phase, which operates over the feedback loop involving the waveguide waves of different transverse structures, was found to be the result of mutual influence of the neighboring zones of the Bragg scattering. Theoretical description of this effect was developed within the framework of the advanced (four-wave) coupled-wave approach. It is shown that mode splitting reduces the selective properties, restricts the output power, and decreases the stability of the narrow-band operating regime in the free-electron maser (FEM) oscillators based on such resonators. The results of the theoretical analysis were confirmed by 3D simulations and “cold” microwave tests. Experimental data on Bragg resonators with different parameters in a 30-GHz FEM are presented. The possibility of reducing the mode splitting by profiling the corrugation parameters is shown. The use of the mode splitting effect for the output power enhancement by passive compression of the double-frequency pulse generated in the FEM with such a resonator is discussed.

  1. QED corrections to the Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florian, Daniel de [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica and IFIBA, FCEyN, Capital Federal (Argentina); UNSAM, International Center for Advanced Studies (ICAS), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sborlini, German F.R.; Rodrigo, German [Universitat de Valencia - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    We discuss the combined effect of QED and QCD corrections to the evolution of parton distributions. We extend the available knowledge of the Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions to one order higher in QED, and we provide explicit expressions for the splitting kernels up to O(α α{sub S}). The results presented in this article allow one to perform a parton distribution function analysis reaching full NLO QCD-QED combined precision. (orig.)

  2. Split Octonion electrodynamics and unified fields of dyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Split octonion electrodynamics has been developed in terms of Zorn's vector matrix realization by reformulating electromagnetic potential, current, field tensor and other dynamical quantities. Corresponding field equation (Unified Maxwell's equations) and equation of motion have been reformulated by means of split octonion and its Zorn vector realization in unique, simpler and consistent manner. It has been shown that this theory reproduces the dyon field equations in the absence of gravito-dyons and vice versa

  3. Direct Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Thomas O; Ascoli, Carl A

    2017-07-05

    The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (cELISA; also called an inhibition ELISA) is designed so that purified antigen competes with antigen in the test sample for binding to an antibody that has been immobilized in microtiter plate wells. The same concept works if the immobilized molecule is antigen and the competing molecules are purified labeled antibody versus antibody in a test sample. Direct cELISAs incorporate labeled antigen or antibody, whereas indirect assay configurations use reporter-labeled secondary antibodies. The cELISA is very useful for determining the concentration of small-molecule antigens in complex sample mixtures. In the direct cELISA, antigen-specific capture antibody is adsorbed onto the microtiter plate before incubation with either known standards or unknown test samples. Enzyme-linked antigen (i.e., labeled antigen) is also added, which can bind to the capture antibody only when the antibody's binding site is not occupied by either the antigen standard or antigen in the test samples. Unbound labeled and unlabeled antigens are washed away and substrate is added. The amount of antigen in the standard or the test sample determines the amount of reporter-labeled antigen bound to antibody, yielding a signal that is inversely proportional to antigen concentration within the sample. Thus, the higher the antigen concentration in the test sample, the less labeled antigen is bound to the capture antibody, and hence the weaker is the resultant signal. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Meson effective mass in the isospin medium in hard-wall AdS/QCD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, Shahin [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Ankara (Turkey); Baku State University, Institute for Physical Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan); Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2016-02-15

    We study a mass splitting of the light vector, axial-vector, and pseudoscalar mesons in the isospin medium in the framework of the hard-wall model. We write an effective mass definition for the interacting gauge fields and scalar field introduced in gauge field theory in the bulk of AdS space-time. Relying on holographic duality we obtain a formula for the effective mass of a boundary meson in terms of derivative operator over the extra bulk coordinate. The effective mass found in this way coincides with the one obtained from finding of poles of the two-point correlation function. In order to avoid introducing distinguished infrared boundaries in the quantization formula for the different mesons from the same isotriplet we introduce extra action terms at this boundary, which reduces distinguished values of this boundary to the same value. Profile function solutions and effective mass expressions were found for the in-medium ρ, a{sub 1}, an π mesons. (orig.)

  5. 26 CFR 1.61-22 - Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of split-dollar life insurance..., and Taxable Income § 1.61-22 Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. (a) Scope—(1) In general. This section provides rules for the taxation of a split-dollar life insurance arrangement for...

  6. The splitting of giant multipole states of deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Rowe, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A vibrating potential model is applied to deformed nuclei with a deformed harmonic oscillator potential in order to discuss the splitting of isoscalar giant quadrupole states. Eigenfrequencies of the collective states are estimated to be √2ω(1 - delta/3), √2ω(1 - delta/6) and √2ω(1 + delta/3) for K = 0 + ,1 + and 2 + modes, respectively. The splitting of isovector dipole and isovector quadrupole states is also studied according to a schematic model as proposed by Bohr and Mottelson. It is shown that isovector dipole states are split, as in a hydrodynamic model, while isovector quadrupole states with the same scaling factors as those of isocalar quadrupole modes. (Auth.)

  7. PENGARUH STOCK SPLIT TERHADAP LIKUIDITAS DAN RETURN SAHAM DI BURSA EFEK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Sutrisno

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on stock splits has frequently been undertaken. The results vary, but fundamentally can be classified into two groups. First, the stock split is purely "cosmetic". Second, the stock split has a real effect on stocks. The difference between these opinions raises controversy. The purpose of this study is to examine whether stock splits influence stock liquidity and return of an individual stock as well as in a group of stocks as a portfolio. Overall, the results of this study show that stock splits did influence stock price, trading volume and bid-ask spread but did not influence stock risk and abnormal return from the point of view of an individual stock as well as in a group of stocks as a portfolio. The test of a relationship between bid-ask spread and stock price, trading volume and stock risk for each stock shows that all three variable did not significantly affect the bid-ask spread. On the other hand, the test of a relationship in a portfolio reveals that only stock prices significantly affect the bid-ask spread. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian mengenai stock split sudah sering dilakukan. Hasil dari penelitian- penelitian tersebut bermacam - macam, tetapi pada dasarnya dapat dibedakan menjadi dua kelompok. Pertama, stock split dinyatakan murni hanya sebagai "kosmetik". Kedua, stock split dinyatakan mempunyai efek yang nyata terhadap saham. Perbedaan pendapat ini sering menimbulkan kontroversi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji kembali apakah betul stock split dapat mempengaruhi likuiditas dan return saham baik ditinjau secara individual untuk masing - masing saham maupun seluruh saham sebagai sebuah portofolio. Secara keseluruhan, hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa stock split hanya mempengaruhi harga, volume perdagangan dan persentase spread, tetapi tidak mempengaruhi varians dan abnormal return baik ditinjau secara individual maupun sebagai sebuah portofolio. Sedangkan pengujian hubungan antara

  8. Electric arc apparatus for severing split-pin assemblies of guide tubes of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.C.; Kauric, C.E.; Persang, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for use in the replacement of an old split-pin assembly of a guide tube of a nuclear reactor by a new split-pin assembly, the old split-pin assembly including an old split pin and an old nut securing the old split pin to the guide tube, the old split-pin assembly and the guide tube being radioactive. The apparatus includes a metal disintegration machining tool, the tool having an electrode, means for mounting the tool submerged in a pool of water in engagement with the guide tube and with the old split-pin assembly secured to the guide tube, the tool being so mounted with the electrode in position to coact electrically with the last-named old split-pin assembly but not with the guide tube, and means, connected to the tool, for firing a disintegrating arc between the electrode and the assembly to disintegrate the assembly into readily removable fragments

  9. Improved Fast Centralized Retransmission Scheme for High-Layer Functional Split in 5G Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen; Hou, Meng; Fu, Yu; Bian, Honglian; Gao, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In order to satisfy the varied 5G critical requirements and the virtualization of the RAN hardware, a two-level architecture for 5G RAN has been studied in 3GPP 5G SI stage. The performance of the PDCP-RLC split option and intra-RLC split option, two mainly concerned options for high layer functional split, exist an ongoing debate. This paper firstly gives an overview of CU-DU split study work in 3GPP. By the comparison of implementation complexity, the standardization impact and system performance, our evaluation result shows the PDCP-RLC split Option outperforms the intra-RLC split option. Aiming to how to reduce the retransmission delay during the intra-CU inter-DU handover, the mainly drawback of PDCP-RLC split option, this paper proposes an improved fast centralized retransmission solution with a low implementation complexity. Finally, system level simulations show that the PDCP-RLC split option with the proposed scheme can significantly improve the UE’s experience.

  10. Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  11. Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Reaction from Catalytic and Kinetic Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Hisatomi, Takashi

    2014-10-16

    Abstract: Some particulate semiconductors loaded with nanoparticulate catalysts exhibit photocatalytic activity for the water-splitting reaction. The photocatalysis is distinct from the thermal catalysis because photocatalysis involves photophysical processes in particulate semiconductors. This review article presents a brief introduction to photocatalysis, followed by kinetic aspects of the photocatalytic water-splitting reaction.Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Scaling of Airborne Ad-hoc Network Metrics with Link Range and Satellite Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Daniel BÜCHTER

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, large-scale commercial aeronautical ad-hoc networks are evaluated. The investigation is based on a simulation environment with input from 2016 flight schedule and aircraft performance databases for flight movement modelling, along with a defined infrastructure of ground gateways and communication satellites. A cluster-based algorithm is used to build the communication network topology between aircraft. Cloud top pressure data can be considered to estimate cloud height and evaluate the impact of link obscuration on network availability, assuming a free-space optics-based communication network. The effects of communication range, satellite availability, fleet equipage ratio and clouds are discussed. It is shown how network reach and performance can be enhanced by adding taps to the network in the form of high-speed satellite links. The effect of adding these is two-fold: firstly, network reach can be increased by connecting remote aircraft clusters. Secondly, larger clusters can effectively be split into smaller ones in order to increase performance especially with regard to hop count and available overall capacity. In a realistic scenario concerning communication range and with moderate numbers of high-speed satellite terminals, on average, 78% of all widebody aircraft can be reached. With clouds considered (assuming laser links, this number reduces by 10%.

  13. Source splitting via the point source method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthast, Roland; Fazi, Filippo M; Nelson, Philip A

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for source identification and field splitting based on the point source method (Potthast 1998 A point-source method for inverse acoustic and electromagnetic obstacle scattering problems IMA J. Appl. Math. 61 119–40, Potthast R 1996 A fast new method to solve inverse scattering problems Inverse Problems 12 731–42). The task is to separate the sound fields u j , j = 1, ..., n of n element of N sound sources supported in different bounded domains G 1 , ..., G n in R 3 from measurements of the field on some microphone array—mathematically speaking from the knowledge of the sum of the fields u = u 1 + ... + u n on some open subset Λ of a plane. The main idea of the scheme is to calculate filter functions g 1 ,…, g n , n element of N, to construct u l for l = 1, ..., n from u| Λ in the form u l (x) = ∫ Λ g l,x (y)u(y)ds(y), l=1,... n. (1) We will provide the complete mathematical theory for the field splitting via the point source method. In particular, we describe uniqueness, solvability of the problem and convergence and stability of the algorithm. In the second part we describe the practical realization of the splitting for real data measurements carried out at the Institute for Sound and Vibration Research at Southampton, UK. A practical demonstration of the original recording and the splitting results for real data is available online

  14. Holographic description of AdS2 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Alejandra; Larsen, Finn; Grumiller, Daniel; McNees, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We develop the holographic renormalization of AdS 2 gravity systematically. We find that a bulk Maxwell term necessitates a boundary mass term for the gauge field and verify that this unusual term is invariant under gauge transformations that preserve the boundary conditions. We determine the energy-momentum tensor and the central charge, recovering recent results by Hartman and Strominger. We show that our expressions are consistent with dimensional reduction of the AdS 3 energy-momentum tensor and the Brown-Henneaux central charge. As an application of our results we interpret the entropy of AdS 2 black holes as the ground state entropy of a dual CFT.

  15. Splitting up Beta’s change

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we estimated IBM beta from 2000 to 2013, then using differential equation mathematical formula we split up the annual beta’s change attributed to the volatility market effect, the stock volatility effect, the correlation effect and the jointly effect of these variables.

  16. Giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3: Tl

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra; Saeed, Yasir; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    First-principles calculations are employed to demonstrate a giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3:Tl. Biaxial tensile and compressive strain is used to tune the splitting by modifying the potential gradient. The band gap is found to increase under

  17. The Renewables Influence on Market Splitting: the Iberian Spot Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Carvalho Figueiredo; Patrícia Pereira da Silva; Pedro Cerqueira

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the influence of wind power generation on the market splitting behaviour of the Iberian electricity spot markets. We use logit models to express the probability response for market splitting of day-ahead spot electricity prices together with explanatory variables like, wind speed, available transmission capacity and electricity demand. The results show that the probability of market splitting increases with the increase of wind power generation. The European intercon...

  18. Light-cone AdS/CFT-adapted approach to AdS fields/currents, shadows, and conformal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metsaev, R.R. [Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-16

    Light-cone gauge formulation of fields in AdS space and conformal field theory in flat space adapted for the study of AdS/CFT correspondence is developed. Arbitrary spin mixed-symmetry fields in AdS space and arbitrary spin mixed-symmetry currents, shadows, and conformal fields in flat space are considered on an equal footing. For the massless and massive fields in AdS and the conformal fields in flat space, simple light-cone gauge actions leading to decoupled equations of motion are found. For the currents and shadows, simple expressions for all 2-point functions are also found. We demonstrate that representation of conformal algebra generators on space of currents, shadows, and conformal fields can be built in terms of spin operators entering the light-cone gauge formulation of AdS fields. This considerably simplifies the study of AdS/CFT correspondence. Light-cone gauge actions for totally symmetric arbitrary spin long conformal fields in flat space are presented. We apply our approach to the study of totally antisymmetric (one-column) and mixed-symmetry (two-column) fields in AdS space and currents, shadows, and conformal fields in flat space.

  19. Timelike single-logarithm-resummed splitting functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, A.V. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    2011-08-15

    We calculate the single logarithmic contributions to the quark singlet and gluon matrix of timelike splitting functions at all orders in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme. We fix two of the degrees of freedom of this matrix from the analogous results in the massive-gluon regularization scheme by using the relation between that scheme and the MS scheme. We determine this scheme transformation from the double logarithmic contributions to the timelike splitting functions and the coefficient functions of inclusive particle production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation now available in both schemes. The remaining two degrees of freedom are fixed by reasonable physical assumptions. The results agree with the fixed-order results at next-to-next-to-leading order in the literature. (orig.)

  20. Effect of Repeated Food Morsel Splitting on Jaw Muscle Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Kumar; Svensson, Krister G; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Mastication is a complex motor task often initiated by splitting of the food morsel between the anterior teeth. Training of complex motor tasks has consistently been shown to trigger neuroplastic changes in corticomotor control and optimization of muscle function. It is not known if training...... and repeated food morsel splitting lead to changes in jaw muscle function. Objective: To investigate if repeated splitting of food morsels in participants with natural dentition changes the force and jaw muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age = 26.2 ± 3.9 years......) participated in a single one-hour session divided into six series. Each series consisted of ten trials of a standardized behavioral task (total of 60 trials). The behavioral task was to hold and split a food morsel (8 mm, 180 mg placebo tablet) placed on a bite force transducer with the anterior teeth...

  1. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao

    2016-12-07

    Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

  2. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

  3. Central charge for AdS2 quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, Thomas; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional Maxwell-dilaton quantum gravity on AdS 2 with radius l and a constant electric field E is studied. In conformal gauge, this is equivalent to a CFT on a strip. In order to maintain consistent boundary conditions, the usual conformal diffeomorphisms must be accompanied by a certain U(1) gauge transformation. The resulting conformal transformations are generated by a twisted stress tensor, which has a central charge c = 3kE 2 l 4 /4 where k is the level of the U(1) current. This is an AdS 2 analog of the Brown-Henneaux formula c = 3l/2G for the central charge of quantum gravity on AdS 3 .

  4. Experimental determination of the relativistic fine structure splitting in a pionic atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.-C.; Boehm, F.; Hahn, A.A.; Henrikson, H.E.; Miller, J.P.; Powers, R.J.; Vogel, P.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Kunselman, R.

    1978-01-01

    Using a high-resolution crystal spectrometer, the authors have measured the energy splitting of the pionic 5g-4f and 5f-4d transitions in Ti. The observed fine structure splitting agrees, within the experimental error of 3%, with the splitting arising from the calculated relativistic term and other small corrections for spinless particles. (Auth.)

  5. Signature splitting in nuclear rotational bands: Neutron i13/2 systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.F.; Jensen, H.J.; Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Yu, C.; Zhang, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Wyss, R.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental values of signature splitting in νi 13/2 rotational bands in odd-N even-Z nuclei in the Z=62--78 region are collected and presented. A procedure is introduced to calculate signature splitting within the cranked deformed Woods-Saxon model. In the theoretical treatment, deformation parameters are obtained by minimizing the total Routhians of individual νi 13/2 bands, and the procedure accounts for the possibility that the two signatures have different deformations and pairing gaps. Experimental signature splitting data for νi 13/2 bands in Dy, Er, Yb, Hf, W, and Os nuclei are compared with calculated values. The sensitivity of calculated signature splitting to changes in deformation, pairing, and other model parameters is presented

  6. Linear expansion of products out of thermal splitting graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishina, E.A.; Kurnevich, G.I.

    1994-01-01

    Linear expansion of thermally split graphite in the form of foil and pressed items of different density was studied. It is ascertained that the extreme character of temperature dependence of linear expansion factor of pressed samples of thermally split graphite is determined by the formation of closed pores containing air in the course of their production. 3 refs., 2 figs

  7. Electron refrigeration in hybrid structures with spin-split superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouco, M.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Bergeret, F. S.

    2018-01-01

    Electron tunneling between superconductors and normal metals has been used for an efficient refrigeration of electrons in the latter. Such cooling is a nonlinear effect and usually requires a large voltage. Here we study the electron cooling in heterostructures based on superconductors with a spin-splitting field coupled to normal metals via spin-filtering barriers. The cooling power shows a linear term in the applied voltage. This improves the coefficient of performance of electron refrigeration in the normal metal by shifting its optimum cooling to lower voltage, and also allows for cooling the spin-split superconductor by reverting the sign of the voltage. We also show how tunnel coupling spin-split superconductors with regular ones allows for a highly efficient refrigeration of the latter.

  8. AdS5 black holes with fermionic hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrington, Benjamin A.; Liu, James T.; Sabra, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of new Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) objects in AdS 5 has led to a deeper understanding of AdS/CFT. To help complete this picture, and to fully explore the consequences of the supersymmetry algebra, it is also important to obtain new solutions with bulk fermions turned on. In this paper we construct superpartners of the 1/2 BPS black hole in AdS 5 using a natural set of fermion zero modes. We demonstrate that these superpartners, carrying fermionic hair, have conserved charges differing from the original bosonic counterpart. To do so, we find the R-charge and dipole moment of the new system, as well as the mass and angular momentum, defined through the boundary stress tensor. The complete set of superpartners fits nicely into a chiral representation of AdS 5 supersymmetry, and the spinning solutions have the expected gyromagnetic ratio, g=1

  9. Acoustic beam splitting in a sonic crystal around a directional band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek Ahmet; Kaya Olgun Adem; Ulug Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Beam splitting upon refraction in a triangular sonic crystal composed of aluminum cylinders in air is experimentally and numerically demonstrated to occur due to finite source size, which facilitates circumvention of a directional band gap. Experiments reveal that two distinct beams emerge at crystal output, in agreement with the numerical results obtained through the finite-element method. Beam splitting occurs at sufficiently-small source sizes comparable to lattice periodicity determined by the spatial gap width in reciprocal space. Split beams propagate in equal amplitude, whereas beam splitting is destructed for oblique incidence above a critical incidence angle

  10. Phases of global AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P.N. Bala

    2016-01-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime (AdS_4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  11. Plume Splitting in a Two-layer Stratified Ambient Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongxing; Flynn, Morris; Sutherland, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    A line-source plume descending into a two-layer stratified ambient fluid in a finite sized tank is studied experimentally. Although the total volume of ambient fluid is fixed, lower- and upper-layer fluids are respectively removed and added at a constant rate mimicking marine outfall through diffusers and natural and hybrid ventilated buildings. The influence of the plume on the ambient depends on the value of λ, defined as the ratio of the plume buoyancy to the buoyancy loss of the plume as it crosses the ambient interface. Similar to classical filling-box experiments, the plume can always reach the bottom of the tank if λ > 1 . By contrast, if λ < 1 , an intermediate layer eventually forms as a result of plume splitting. Eventually all of the plume fluid spreads within the intermediate layer. The starting time, tv, and the ending time, tt, of the transition process measured from experiments correlate with the value of λ. A three-layer ambient fluid is observed after transition, and the mean value of the measured densities of the intermediate layer fluid is well predicted using plume theory. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was provided by NSERC.

  12. Extensions of pseudo-Perron-Frobenius splitting related to generalized inverse AT,S(2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shaowu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We in this paper define the outer-Perron-Frobenius splitting, which is an extension of the pseudo- Perron-Frobenius splitting defined in [A.N. Sushama, K. Premakumari, K.C. Sivakumar, Extensions of Perron-Frobenius splittings and relationships with nonnegative Moore-Penrose inverse, Linear and Multilinear Algebra 63 (2015 1-11]. We present some criteria for the convergence of the outer-Perron-Frobenius splitting. The findings of this paper generalize some known results in the literatures.

  13. A second order splitting algorithm for thermally-driven flow problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minev, P.D.; Vosse, van de F.N.; Timmermans, L.J.P.; Steenhoven, van A.A.

    1995-01-01

    A splitting technique for solutions of the Navier—Stokes and the energy equations, in Boussinesq approximately, is presented. The equations are first integrated in time using a splitting procedure and then discretized spatially by means of a high-order spectral element method. The whole technique is

  14. New Massive Gravity and AdS4 Counterterms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatkar, Dileep P.; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-01-01

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS 4 ). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS 4 Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS 3 gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory.

  15. Split, Croatia - Educational, Adventurous and Sustainable Tourism Destination

    OpenAIRE

    Chabik, Szymon; Imran, Md. Azim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis is to create an audio-visual documentation about an educational trip to Split, Croatia. The trip took place in April, 2014. The educational tour was organized by Laurea University of Applied Sciences. The destination, Split, were chosen by participants’ vote. The tour was arranged and planned by a group of students and the theme of the tour was Educational Tourism. The entire trip was taken into consideration from sustainable, Adventure and educational po...

  16. Preparation of immobilized glucose oxidase wafer enzyme on calcium-bentonite modified by surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widi, R. K.; Trisulo, D. C.; Budhyantoro, A.; Chrisnasari, R.

    2017-07-01

    Wafer glucose oxidase (GOx) enzymes was produced by addition of PAH (Poly-Allyamine Hydrochloride) polymer into immobilized GOx enzyme on modified-Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide (TMAH) 5%-calsium-bentonite. The use of surfactant molecul (TMAH) is to modify the surface properties and pore size distribution of the Ca-bentonite. These properties are very important to ensure GOx molecules can be bound on the Ca-bentonit surface to be immobilized. The addition of the polymer (PAH) is expected to lead the substrates to be adsorbed onto the enzyme. In this study, wafer enzymes were made in various concentration ratio (Ca-bentonite : PAH) which are 1:0, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. The effect of PAH (Poly-Allyamine Hydrochloride) polymer added with various ratios of concentrations can be shown from the capacitance value on LCR meter and enzyme activity using DNS method. The addition of the polymer (PAH) showed effect on the activity of GOx, it can be shown from the decreasing of capacitance value by increasing of PAH concentration.

  17. Measurement of $k_T$ splitting scales in $W \\to l\

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dressnandt, Nandor; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Göpfert, Thomas; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koenig, Sebastian; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madar, Romain; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Möser, Nicolas; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Müller, Thomas; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Michele; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-05-15

    A measurement of splitting scales, as defined by the $k_T$ clustering algorithm, is presented for final states containing a W boson produced in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The measurement is based on the full 2010 data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb$^{-1}$ which was collected using the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Cluster splitting scales are measured in events containing W bosons decaying to electrons or muons. The measurement comprises the four hardest splitting scales in a $k_T$ cluster sequence of the hadronic activity accompanying the W boson, and ratios of these splitting scales. Backgrounds such as multi-jet and top-quark-pair production are subtracted and the results are corrected for detector effects. Predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators at particle level are compared to the data. Overall, reasonable agreement is found with all generators, but larger deviations between the predictions and the data are ...

  18. Recent Advances in Bismuth-Based Nanomaterials for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Swetha S M; Jang, Ho Won

    2017-08-10

    In recent years, bismuth-based nanomaterials have drawn considerable interest as potential candidates for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting owing to their narrow band gaps, nontoxicity, and low costs. The unique electronic structure of bismuth-based materials with a well-dispersed valence band comprising Bi 6s and O 2p orbitals offers a suitable band gap to harvest visible light. This Review presents significant advancements in exploiting bismuth-based nanomaterials for solar water splitting. An overview of the different strategies employed and the new ideas adopted to improve the PEC performance of bismuth-based nanomaterials are discussed. Morphology control, the construction of heterojunctions, doping, and co-catalyst loading are several approaches that are implemented to improve the efficiency of solar water splitting. Key issues are identified and guidelines are suggested to rationalize the design of efficient bismuth-based materials for sunlight-driven water splitting. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A special correcting winding for the l = 2 torsatron with split-type helical coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotenko, V.G.

    2012-01-01

    A split-type special correcting winding (split-type SCW) for the l = 2 torsatron toroidal magnetic system with split-type helical coils is considered. The split-type SCW gives the possibility of controlling the position of the magnetic surface configuration in the direction perpendicular to the torus equatorial plane. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of the split-type SCW magnetic field on centered and distant relative to the torus surface magnetic surface configuration with a plane magnetic axis, being promising for the fusion reactor. The configuration is realized in the l = 2 torsatron with split-type helical coils and with the coils of an additional toroidal magnetic field. The calculations show that the split-type SCW magnetic field influence on the initial magnetic surface configuration leads mainly to the magnetic surface configuration displacement along the straight z axis of torus rotation. The displacement of ∼0.1a, a is the minor radius of the torus, has no critical effect on the magnetic surface parameters. An idea on the split-type SCW magnetic field structure is obtained by numerical simulations of the effect of this field as a minority magnetic field imposed on the magnetic field of a well-known configuration. The split-type SCW magnetic field is directed, predominantly along the major radius of the torus within its volume. The displacement range of the closed magnetic surface configuration depends on the split-type SCW magnetic field value.

  20. Antismoking Ads at the Point of Sale: The Influence of Ad Type and Context on Ad Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice; Nonnemaker, James; Guillory, Jamie; Shafer, Paul; Parvanta, Sarah; Holloway, John; Farrelly, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Efforts are underway to educate consumers about the dangers of smoking at the point of sale (POS). Research is limited about the efficacy of POS antismoking ads to guide campaign development. This study experimentally tests whether the type of antismoking ad and the context in which ads are viewed influence people's reactions to the ads. A national convenience sample of 7,812 adult current smokers and recent quitters was randomized to 1 of 39 conditions. Participants viewed one of the four types of antismoking ads (negative health consequences-graphic, negative social consequences-intended emotive, benefits of quitting-informational, benefits of quitting-graphic) in one of the three contexts (alone, next to a cigarette ad, POS tobacco display). We assessed participants' reactions to the ads, including perceived effectiveness, negative emotion, affective dissonance, and motivational reaction. Graphic ads elicited more negative emotion and affective dissonance than benefits of quitting ads. Graphic ads elicited higher perceived effectiveness and more affective dissonance than intended emotive ads. Antismoking ads fared best when viewed alone, and graphic ads were least influenced by the context in which they were viewed. These results suggest that in developing POS campaigns, it is important to consider the competitive pro-tobacco context in which antismoking ads will be viewed.

  1. Surgery for Retrocalcaneal Bursitis: A Tendon-splitting versus a Lateral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John A.; Suero, Eduardo; O’Loughlin, Padhraig F.

    2008-01-01

    For patients with refractory retrocalcaneal bursitis (Haglund’s syndrome), the most effective surgical approach has not been defined. We asked whether patients undergoing the tendon-splitting approach and the lateral approach would have comparably effective relief of pain for both types of calcaneal ostectomies. We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients (31 feet) who underwent the tendon-splitting approach and compared their results with 32 previous patients (35 feet) who had a lateral incision. Minimum followup was 12 months (mean, 16 months; range, 12–23 months) for the tendon-splitting group and 15 months (mean, 51 months; range, 15–109 months) for the lateral group. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved from 43 points preoperatively to 81 points (range, 8–100 points) postoperatively in the tendon-splitting group and from 54 points to 86 points (range, 55–100 points) in the lateral group. The mean physical component score of the Short Form-36, version 2, at followup was 52 (range, 22–61) in the tendon-splitting group and 49 (range, 34–63) in the lateral group. The median return to normal function was 4.1 months (range, 3–13 months) in the tendon-splitting group and 6.4 months (range, 4–20 months) in the lateral group. Both approaches to calcaneal ostectomy provided symptomatic pain relief. However, patients in the tendon-splitting group returned to normal function quicker than patients in the lateral group. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18465183

  2. Improving the methane yield of maize straw: Focus on the effects of pretreatment with fungi and their secreted enzymes combined with sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Yue; Zheng, Zehui; Cai, Yafan; Wen, Boting; Cui, Zongjun; Wang, Xiaofen

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve the methane yield, the alkaline and biological pretreatments on anaerobic digestion (AD) were investigated. Three treatments were tested: NaOH, biological (enzyme and fungi), and combined NaOH with biological. The maximum reducing sugar concentrations were obtained using Enzyme T (2.20 mg/mL) on the 6th day. The methane yield of NaOH + Enzyme A was 300.85 mL/g TS, 20.24% higher than the control. Methane yield obtained from Enzyme (T + A) and Enzyme T pretreatments were 277.03 and 273.75 mL/g TS, respectively, which were as effective as 1% NaOH (276.16 mL/g TS) in boosting methane production, and are environmentally friendly and inexpensive biological substitutes. Fungal pretreatment inhibited methane fermentation of maize straw, 15.68% was reduced by T + A compared with the control. The simultaneous reduction of DM, cellulose and hemicellulose achieved high methane yields. This study provides important guidance for the application of enzymes to AD from lignocellulosic agricultural waste. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Guidelines to Develop Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.

    2016-04-03

    Photocatalytic overall water splitting is the only viable solar-to-fuel conversion technology. The research discloses an investigation process wherein by dissecting the photocatalytic water splitting device, electrocatalysts, and semiconductor photocatalysts can be independently studied, developed and optimized. The assumption of perfect catalysts leads to the realization that semiconductors are the limiting factor in photocatalysis. This dissertation presents a guideline for efficient photocatalysis using semiconductor particles developed from idealized theoretical simulations. No perfect catalysts exist; then the discussion focus on the development of efficient non-noble metal electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution from water reduction. Tungsten carbide (WC) is selective for the catalysis of hydrogen without the introduction of the reverse reaction of water formation, which is critical to achieving photocatalytic overall water splitting as demonstrated in this work. Finally, photoelectrochemistry is used to characterize thoroughly Cu-based p-type semiconductors with potential for large-scale manufacture. Artificial photosynthesis may be achieved by following the recommendations herein presented.

  4. Depth of the graft bed influences split-skin graft contraction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensik, I.; Lamme, E.N.; Brychta, P.

    2003-01-01

    Contraction of a split-thickness skin graft used for coverage of large defects remains a great problem in plastic, burn and reconstructive surgery. In this study we evaluated healing of split-thickness skin grafts transplanted in wounds on the subcutaneous fat and muscle fascia in pigs. Four young

  5. Dual-Band Split-Ring Antenna Design for WLAN Applications

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞARAN, S. Cumhur; ERDEMLİ, Yunus E.

    2014-01-01

    A dual-band microstrip antenna based on split-ring elements is introduced for WLAN (2.4/5.2 GHz) applications. The proposed split-ring antenna (SRA) has a compact novel design which provides about 2% impedance-bandwidth without a need for additional matching network. Analysis and design of the proposed microstrip antenna is carried out by means of full-wave simulators based on the finite-element method.

  6. Temporal self-splitting of optical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chaoliang; Koivurova, Matias; Turunen, Jari; Pan, Liuzhan

    2018-05-01

    We present mathematical models for temporally and spectrally partially coherent pulse trains with Laguerre-Gaussian and Hermite-Gaussian Schell-model statistics as extensions of the standard Gaussian Schell model for pulse trains. We derive propagation formulas of both classes of pulsed fields in linearly dispersive media and in temporal optical systems. It is found that, in general, both types of fields exhibit time-domain self-splitting upon propagation. The Laguerre-Gaussian model leads to multiply peaked pulses, while the Hermite-Gaussian model leads to doubly peaked pulses, in the temporal far field (in dispersive media) or at the Fourier plane of a temporal system. In both model fields the character of the self-splitting phenomenon depends both on the degree of temporal and spectral coherence and on the power spectrum of the field.

  7. Evaluating the market splitting determinants: evidence from the Iberian spot electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Nuno Carvalho; Silva, Patrícia Pereira da; Cerqueira, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the main determinants on the market splitting behaviour of the Iberian electricity spot markets. Iberia stands as an ideal case-study, where the high level deployment of wind power is observed, together with the implementation of the market splitting arrangement between the Portuguese and the Spanish spot electricity markets. Logit and non-parametric models are used to express the probability response for market splitting of day-ahead spot electricity prices as a function of the explanatory variables representing the main technologies in the generation mix: wind, hydro, thermal and nuclear power, together with the available transfer capacity and electricity demand. Logit models give preliminary indications about market splitting behaviour, and then, notwithstanding the demanding computational challenge, a non-parametric model is applied in order to overcome the limitations of the former models. Results show an increase of market splitting probability with higher wind power generation or, more generally, with higher availability of low marginal cost electricity such as nuclear power generation. The European interconnection capacity target of 10% of the peak demand of the smallest interconnected market might be insufficient to maintain electricity market integration. Therefore, pro-active coordination policies, governing both interconnections and renewables deployment, should be further developed. -- Highlights: •Assess determinants on market splitting behaviour of Iberian electricity markets. •Logit and non-parametric models to express market splitting probability response. •Explanatory variables: wind, hydro, thermal and nuclear power; ATC and demand. •Results: increase of market splitting probability with higher availability of low marginal cost electricity. •Coordination policies governing both interconnections and renewables deployment

  8. On geometrical splitting in nonanalog Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, I.

    1985-01-01

    A very general geometrical procedure is considered, and it is shown how the free flights, the statistical weights and the contribution of particles participating in splitting are to be chosen in order to reach unbiased estimates in games where the transition kernels are nonanalog. Equations governing the second moment of the score and the number of flights to be stimulated are derived. It is shown that the post-splitting weights of the fragments are to be chosen equal to reach maximum gain in variance. Conditions are derived under which the expected number of flights remains finite. Simplified example illustrate the optimization of the procedure (author)

  9. Refrigerant lines in split-type air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettenberger, P

    1979-01-01

    Condensator and evaporating units of split-type air conditioners are evaluated and filled with the refrigerant by the producer. The line systems are hermetically closed and prevent the loss of refrigerant and the penetration of moisture or dirt. The best installation method is the 'bendable lines'. They combine flexibility and easy installation with the advantages of the copper pipe. Several ducting systems and their connecting elements like couplings and valves are described, their installation is explained. These flexible systems are especially suitable for small air-condition plants of the split-type the evaporating unit of which is portable and can put where it is desired.

  10. Chromatographic separation and continuously referenced, on-line monitoring of creatine kinase isoenzymes by use of an immobilized-enzyme microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, M.S.; Bostick, W.D.; Dinsmore, S.R.; Mrochek, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    We describe a new concept in continuously referenced monitoring of the isoenzyme activities of creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) after liquid-chromatographic separation. After separation on a diethylaminoethyl-Sephacel column, the three isoenzymes of creatine kinase undergo a series of upled enzyme reactions, ultimately resulting in the formation of ultraviolet-detectable NADPH. A major advantage of this detection system is the immobilized-enzyme microreactor (2 x 17 mm), which may be removed and stored refrigerated when not in use. A split-stream configuration allows self-blanking of endogenous ultraviolet-absorbing constituents in authentic sera samples, which would otherwise make definitive diagnosis and quantitation difficult or impossible. This detection system is applicable to the automated analysis of creatine kinase isoenzymes in the clinical laboratory. 5 figures; 42 references

  11. Molecular imprinting of enzymes with water-insoluble ligands for nonaqueous biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Joseph O; Mozhaev, Vadim V; Dordick, Jonathan S; Clark, Douglas S; Khmelnitsky, Yuri L

    2002-05-15

    Attaining higher levels of catalytic activity of enzymes in organic solvents is one of the major challenges in nonaqueous enzymology. One of the most successful strategies for enhancing enzyme activity in organic solvents involves tuning the enzyme active site by molecular imprinting with substrates or their analogues. Unfortunately, numerous imprinters of potential importance are poorly soluble in water, which significantly limits the utility of this method. In the present study, we have developed strategies that overcome this limitation of the molecular-imprinting technique and that thus expand its applicability beyond water-soluble ligands. The solubility problem can be addressed either by converting the ligands into a water-soluble form or by adding relatively high concentrations of organic cosolvents, such as tert-butyl alcohol and 1,4-dioxane, to increase their solubility in the lyophilization medium. We have succeeded in applying both of these strategies to produce imprinted thermolysin, subtilisin, and lipase TL possessing up to 26-fold higher catalytic activity in the acylation of paclitaxel and 17beta-estradiol compared to nonimprinted enzymes. Furthermore, we have demonstrated for the first time that molecular imprinting and salt activation, applied in combination, produce a strong additive activation effect (up to 110-fold), suggesting different mechanisms of action involved in these enzyme activation techniques.

  12. Clonal differences in log end splitting in Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the juvenile–mature correlation of log end splitting among Eucalyptus grandis clones from two trials and how differences in splitting relate to differences in wood density, pith-to-bark gradient and growth rate. Two approximately 20-year-old Eucalyptus grandis clonal trials at Bergvliet plantation were ...

  13. Current status of AdS instability

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    arXiv:1403.6471 and thoroughly developed in arXiv:1407.6273. On the other hand the negative cosmological constant allows for the existence of stable, time-periodic, asymptotically AdS solutions of Einstein equations [arXiv:1303.3186].

  14. Isospin splittings of baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Kalman; Genovese, Marco; Richard, Jean-Marc; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the isospin-breaking mass differences among baryons, with particular attention in the charm sector to the Σ c + -Σ c 0 , Σ c ++ -Σ c 0 , and Ξ c + -Ξ c 0 splittings. Simple potential models cannot accommodate the trend of the available data on charm baryons. More precise measurements would offer the possibility of testing how well potential models describe the non-perturbative limit of QCD

  15. Loops in AdS from conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Ofer; Alday, Luis F.; Bissi, Agnese; Perlmutter, Eric

    2017-07-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new use for conformal field theory (CFT) crossing equations in the context of AdS/CFT: the computation of loop amplitudes in AdS, dual to non-planar correlators in holographic CFTs. Loops in AdS are largely unexplored, mostly due to technical difficulties in direct calculations. We revisit this problem, and the dual 1 /N expansion of CFTs, in two independent ways. The first is to show how to explicitly solve the crossing equations to the first subleading order in 1 /N 2, given a leading order solution. This is done as a systematic expansion in inverse powers of the spin, to all orders. These expansions can be resummed, leading to the CFT data for finite values of the spin. Our second approach involves Mellin space. We show how the polar part of the four-point, loop-level Mellin amplitudes can be fully reconstructed from the leading-order data. The anomalous dimensions computed with both methods agree. In the case of ϕ 4 theory in AdS, our crossing solution reproduces a previous computation of the one-loop bubble diagram. We can go further, deriving the four-point scalar triangle diagram in AdS, which had never been computed. In the process, we show how to analytically derive anomalous dimensions from Mellin amplitudes with an infinite series of poles, and discuss applications to more complicated cases such as the N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  16. Supersymmetric warped AdS in extended topologically massive supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deger, N.S.; Kaya, A.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.

    2014-01-01

    We determine the most general form of off-shell N=(1,1) supergravity field configurations in three dimensions by requiring that at least one off-shell Killing spinor exists. We then impose the field equations of the topologically massive off-shell supergravity and find a class of solutions whose properties crucially depend on the norm of the auxiliary vector field. These are spacelike-squashed and timelike-stretched AdS 3 for the spacelike and timelike norms, respectively. At the transition point where the norm vanishes, the solution is null warped AdS 3 . This occurs when the coefficient of the Lorentz–Chern–Simons term is related to the AdS radius by μℓ=2. We find that the spacelike-squashed AdS 3 can be modded out by a suitable discrete subgroup of the isometry group, yielding an extremal black hole solution which avoids closed timelike curves

  17. New supersymmetric AdS4 type II vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsimpis, D.

    2010-01-01

    We review the supersymmetric AdS 4 x w M 6 backgrounds of type IIA/IIB supergravity constructed in[1]. In type IIA the supersymmetry is N=2, and the six-dimensional internal space is locally an S 2 bundle over a four-dimensional Kaehler-Einstein base; in IIB the internal space is the direct product of a circle and a five-dimensional squashed Sasaki-Einstein manifold. These backgrounds do not contain any sources, all fluxes (including the Romans mass in IIA) are generally non-zero, and the dilaton and warp factor are non-constant. The IIA solutions include the massive deformations of the IIA reduction of the eleven-dimensional AdS 4 x Y p,q solutions, and had been predicted to exist on the basis of the AdS 4 /CFT 3 correspondence. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Instantons from geodesics in AdS moduli spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Daniele; Trigiante, Mario; Van Riet, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    We investigate supergravity instantons in Euclidean AdS5 × S5/ℤk. These solutions are expected to be dual to instantons of N = 2 quiver gauge theories. On the supergravity side the (extremal) instanton solutions are neatly described by the (lightlike) geodesics on the AdS moduli space for which we find the explicit expression and compute the on-shell actions in terms of the quantised charges. The lightlike geodesics fall into two categories depending on the degree of nilpotency of the Noether charge matrix carried by the geodesic: for degree 2 the instantons preserve 8 supercharges and for degree 3 they are non-SUSY. We expect that these findings should apply to more general situations in the sense that there is a map between geodesics on moduli-spaces of Euclidean AdS vacua and instantons with holographic counterparts.

  19. New Splitting Criteria for Decision Trees in Stationary Data Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Maciej; Duda, Piotr; Rutkowski, Leszek; Jaworski, Maciej; Duda, Piotr; Rutkowski, Leszek; Rutkowski, Leszek; Duda, Piotr; Jaworski, Maciej

    2018-06-01

    The most popular tools for stream data mining are based on decision trees. In previous 15 years, all designed methods, headed by the very fast decision tree algorithm, relayed on Hoeffding's inequality and hundreds of researchers followed this scheme. Recently, we have demonstrated that although the Hoeffding decision trees are an effective tool for dealing with stream data, they are a purely heuristic procedure; for example, classical decision trees such as ID3 or CART cannot be adopted to data stream mining using Hoeffding's inequality. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new algorithms, which are both mathematically justified and characterized by good performance. In this paper, we address this problem by developing a family of new splitting criteria for classification in stationary data streams and investigating their probabilistic properties. The new criteria, derived using appropriate statistical tools, are based on the misclassification error and the Gini index impurity measures. The general division of splitting criteria into two types is proposed. Attributes chosen based on type- splitting criteria guarantee, with high probability, the highest expected value of split measure. Type- criteria ensure that the chosen attribute is the same, with high probability, as it would be chosen based on the whole infinite data stream. Moreover, in this paper, two hybrid splitting criteria are proposed, which are the combinations of single criteria based on the misclassification error and Gini index.

  20. A split hand-split foot (SHFM3) gene is located at 10q24{yields}25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurrieri, F.; Genuardi, M.; Nanni, L.; Sangiorgi, E.; Garofalo, G. [Catholic Univ. of Rome (Italy)] [and others

    1996-04-24

    The split hand-split foot (SHSF) malformation affects the central rays of the upper and lower limbs. It presents either as an isolated defect or in association with other skeletal or non-skeletal abnormalities. An autosomal SHSF locus (SHFM1) was previously mapped to 7q22.1. We report the mapping of a second autosomal SHSF locus to 10q24{yields}25 region. Maximum lod scores of 3.73, 4.33 and 4.33 at a recombination fraction of zero were obtained for the loci D10S198, PAX2 and D10S1239, respectively. An 19 cM critical region could be defined by haplotype analysis and several genes with a potential role in limb morphogenesis are located in this region. Heterogeneity testing indicates the existence of at least one additional autosomal SHSF locus. 36 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Questioning Conventional Wisdom Regarding the Most Suitable Sequence of Enzyme Usage in Pulp Bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdhesh Kumar Gangwar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased public scrutiny and governmental legislation towards the pulp and paper industries have motivated industrialists and researchers to seek improved bleaching sequences having the potential to minimize pollutants in bleach effluent generated during manufacturing of paper. Discovery of toxic chlorinated organics and their components in bleach effluents has focused people’s attention towards finding alternative ways of bleaching pulp. Use of enzymes at industrial scale has become well known, but still it is not clear whether the sequence of enzymatic treatment most often employed in industrial applications represents the best overall practice. The point of enzyme addition is critically important to maximize benefits. Many publications describe the use of an enzyme treatment stage before the use of chemicals in a bleaching process. Insufficient attention has been paid to the alternatives of adding an enzyme in between chemical bleaching agents (intermediate or at the end of the bleaching process.

  2. The practice and clinical implications of tablet splitting in international health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Ivo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Yeuichaixong, Sengchanh; Lee, Sue J; Newton, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tablet splitting is frequently performed to facilitate correct dosing, but the practice and implications in low-income settings have rarely been discussed. Methods We selected eight drugs, with narrow therapeutic indices or critical dosages, frequently divided in the Lao PDR (Laos). These were split, by common techniques used in Laos, by four nurses and four laypersons. The mean percentage deviation from the theoretical expected weight and weight loss of divided tablets/capsules were recorded. Results Five of eight study drugs failed, on splitting, to meet European Pharmacopoeia recommendations for tablet weight deviation from the expected weight of tablet/capsule halves with 10% deviating by more than 25%. There was a significant difference in splitting accuracy between nurses and laypersons (P = 0.027). Coated and unscored tablets were less accurately split than uncoated (P = 0.03 and 0.0019 for each half) and scored (0.0001 for both halves) tablets. Conclusion These findings have potential clinical implications on treatment outcome and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Investment by drug companies in a wider range of dosage units, particularly for narrow therapeutic index and critical dosage medicines, is strongly recommended. PMID:24702766

  3. Constrained supermanifolds for AdS M-theory backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fre, Pietro; Grassi, Pietro Antonio

    2008-01-01

    A long standing problem is the supergauge completion of AdS 4 x ({G/H}) 7 or AdS 5 x ({G/H}) 5 backgrounds which preserve less then maximal supersymmetry. In parallel with the supersolvable realization of the AdS 4 x S 7 background based on κ-symmetry, we develop a technique which amounts to solving the above-mentioned problem in a way useful for pure spinor quantization for supermembranes and superstrings. Instead of gauge fixing some of the superspace coordinates using κ-symmetry, we impose an additional constraint on them reproducing the simplifications of the supersolvable representations. The constraints are quadratic, homogeneous, Sp(4,R)-covariant, and consistent from the quantum point of view in the pure spinor approach. Here we provide the geometrical solution which, in a subsequent work, will be applied to the membrane and the superstring sigma models

  4. Isospin Mass Splittings and the $\\ms$ Corrections in the Semibosonized SU(3)-NJL-Model

    OpenAIRE

    Blotz, Andree; Goeke, K.; Praszalowicz, M.

    1994-01-01

    The mass splittings of hyperons including the isospin splittings are calculated with $O(\\ms^2)$ and $O(\\ms \\dm)$ accuracy respectively within the semibosonized SU(3)-NJL model. The pattern of the isospin splittings is not spoiled by the terms of the order $O(\\ms \\dm)$, and both splittings between the different isospin multiplets and within the same multiplet are well reproduced for acceptable values of $\\ms$ and $\\dm$.

  5. Microbial chemical factories: recent advances in pathway engineering for synthesis of value added chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamankar, Himanshu; Prather, Kristala L J

    2011-08-01

    The dwindling nature of petroleum and other fossil reserves has provided impetus towards microbial synthesis of fuels and value added chemicals from biomass-derived sugars as a renewable resource. Microbes have naturally evolved enzymes and pathways that can convert biomass into hundreds of unique chemical structures, a property that can be effectively exploited for their engineering into Microbial Chemical Factories (MCFs). De novo pathway engineering facilitates expansion of the repertoire of microbially synthesized compounds beyond natural products. In this review, we visit some recent successes in such novel pathway engineering and optimization, with particular emphasis on the selection and engineering of pathway enzymes and balancing of their accessory cofactors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Degraded Communication on Interdependent Power Systems: The Application of Grid Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-An Tian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Communication is increasingly present for managing and controlling critical infrastructures strengthening their cyber interdependencies. In electric power systems, grid splitting is a topical communication-critical application. It amounts to separating a power system into islands in response to an impending instability, e.g., loss of generator synchronism due to a component fault, by appropriately disconnecting transmission lines and grouping synchronous generators. The successful application of grid splitting depends on the communication infrastructure to collect system-wide synchronized measurements and to relay the command to open line switches. Grid splitting may be ineffective if communication is degraded and its outcome may also depend on the system loading conditions. This paper investigates the effects of degraded communication and load variability on grid splitting. To this aim, a communication delay model is coupled with a transient electrical model and applied to the IEEE 39-Bus and the IEEE 118-Bus Test System. Case studies show that the loss of generator synchronism following a fault is mitigated by timely splitting the network into islands. On the other hand, the results show that communication delays and increased network flows can degrade the performance of grid splitting. The developed framework enables the identification of the requirements of the dedicated communication infrastructure for a successful grid-splitting procedure.

  7. Visualizing multiple inter-organelle contact sites using the organelle-targeted split-GFP system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Yuriko; Tashiro, Shinya; Kojima, Rieko; Morozumi, Yuki; Endo, Toshiya; Tamura, Yasushi

    2018-04-18

    Functional integrity of eukaryotic organelles relies on direct physical contacts between distinct organelles. However, the entity of organelle-tethering factors is not well understood due to lack of means to analyze inter-organelle interactions in living cells. Here we evaluate the split-GFP system for visualizing organelle contact sites in vivo and show its advantages and disadvantages. We observed punctate GFP signals from the split-GFP fragments targeted to any pairs of organelles among the ER, mitochondria, peroxisomes, vacuole and lipid droplets in yeast cells, which suggests that these organelles form contact sites with multiple organelles simultaneously although it is difficult to rule out the possibilities that these organelle contacts sites are artificially formed by the irreversible associations of the split-GFP probes. Importantly, split-GFP signals in the overlapped regions of the ER and mitochondria were mainly co-localized with ERMES, an authentic ER-mitochondria tethering structure, suggesting that split-GFP assembly depends on the preexisting inter-organelle contact sites. We also confirmed that the split-GFP system can be applied to detection of the ER-mitochondria contact sites in HeLa cells. We thus propose that the split-GFP system is a potential tool to observe and analyze inter-organelle contact sites in living yeast and mammalian cells.

  8. TiO2/Cu2O composite based on TiO2 NTPC photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Le

    2015-05-01

    Water splitting through photoelectrochemical reaction is widely regarded as a major method to generate H2 , a promising source of renewable energy to deal with the energy crisis faced up to human being. Efficient exploitation of visible light in practice of water splitting with pure TiO2 material, one of the most popular semiconductor material used for photoelectrochemical water splitting, is still challenging. One dimensional TiO2 nanotubes is highly desired with its less recombination with the short distance for charge carrier diffusion and light-scattering properties. This work is based on TiO2 NTPC electrode by the optimized two-step anodization method from our group. A highly crystalized p-type Cu2O layer was deposited by optimized pulse potentiostatic electrochemical deposition onto TiO2 nanotubes to enhance the visible light absorption of a pure p-type TiO2 substrate and to build a p-n junction at the interface to improve the PEC performance. However, because of the real photocurrent of Cu2O is far away from its theoretical limit and also poor stability in the aqueous environment, a design of rGO medium layer was added between TiO2 nanotube and Cu2O layer to enhance the photogenerated electrons and holes separation, extend charge carrier diffusion length (in comparison with those of conventional pure TiO2 or Cu2O materials) which could significantly increase photocurrent to 0.65 mA/cm2 under visible light illumination (>420 nm) and also largely improve the stability of Cu2O layer, finally lead to an enhancement of water splitting performance.

  9. Development of a Portable Blood Sugar Apparatus and GOD Enzyme Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen-Cheng, Chen; Yu-Qian, Zhao; Jing-Tian, Tang; Ling-Yun, Li

    2005-01-01

    A pocket blood sugar apparatus tested by enzyme electrode, which was designed using carbon and silver plasma as conducting materials. Both the work and reference electrodes are applied to the parts of enzyme electrode. The glucose oxidase is taken as the medium of blood sugar measuring. And the range of measuring glucose is about 50mg/dL - 500mgl/dL. It has better linear for the results and fit coefficient arrives at 0.985. Its sensitivity of measurement is higher than current glucose biosensor obviously. A single chip microcomputer, AD mu C812, is used for central control processor of the instrument parts. It measures the output of microampere level currency, which is conduced by blood sugar reacting with the glucose oxidase on the enzyme electrode. And at the same time, the microampere level currency is amplified, processed. Then the results are displayed on LCD. The apparatus are better for measuring blood sugar, and the results are consistent with what the large biochemical instruments get.

  10. Enzyme Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Rosanna G.; Ferrari, Luna De; Mavridis, Lazaros; McDonagh, James L.; Mitchell, John B. O.; Nath, Neetika

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, sequencing, structural biology and bioinformatics have completely revolutionised biomolecular science, with millions of sequences and tens of thousands of three dimensional structures becoming available. The bioinformatics of enzymes is well served by, mostly free, online databases. BRENDA describes the chemistry, substrate specificity, kinetics, preparation and biological sources of enzymes, while KEGG is valuable for understanding enzymes and metabolic pathways. EzCatDB, SFLD and MACiE are key repositories for data on the chemical mechanisms by which enzymes operate. At the current rate of genome sequencing and manual annotation, human curation will never finish the functional annotation of the ever-expanding list of known enzymes. Hence there is an increasing need for automated annotation, though it is not yet widespread for enzyme data. In contrast, functional ontologies such as the Gene Ontology already profit from automation. Despite our growing understanding of enzyme structure and dynamics, we are only beginning to be able to design novel enzymes. One can now begin to trace the functional evolution of enzymes using phylogenetics. The ability of enzymes to perform secondary functions, albeit relatively inefficiently, gives clues as to how enzyme function evolves. Substrate promiscuity in enzymes is one example of imperfect specificity in protein-ligand interactions. Similarly, most drugs bind to more than one protein target. This may sometimes result in helpful polypharmacology as a drug modulates plural targets, but also often leads to adverse side-effects. Many cheminformatics approaches can be used to model the interactions between druglike molecules and proteins in silico. We can even use quantum chemical techniques like DFT and QM/MM to compute the structural and energetic course of enzyme catalysed chemical reaction mechanisms, including a full description of bond making and breaking. PMID:23116471

  11. Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela

    2016-10-12

    Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.

  12. Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela; Ziani, Ahmed; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.

  13. Gap solitons in a chain of split-ring resonator dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Wei-na, E-mail: cuiweinaa@163.com [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Li, Hong-xia, E-mail: hxli@njust.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Sun, Min [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Bu, Ling-bing [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)

    2017-06-21

    Dynamics of a chain of split-ring resonator dimers with Kerr nonlinear interaction are investigated. A dimer is built as a pair of coupled split-ring resonators with different size. It is shown that the gap solitons with frequency lying in the gap exist due to the interaction of the discreteness and nonlinearity. Such localized structures are studied in the phase plane and analytical and numerical expressions are also obtained. - Highlights: • The coupling of the two modes is studied in the chain of split-ring resonator dimers with Kerr nonlinear interaction. • The evolution of the localized structures is studied in the phase plane. • This system supports gap solitons with the frequencies lying in the gap.

  14. Isospin breaking in octet baryon mass splittings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Najjar, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Juelich Supercomputer Centre; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics

    2012-06-15

    Using an SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in the quark mass, we determine the QCD component of the nucleon, Sigma and Xi mass splittings of the baryon octet due to up-down (and strange) quark mass differences in terms of the kaon mass splitting. Provided the average quark mass is kept constant, the expansion coefficients in our procedure can be determined from computationally cheaper simulations with mass degenerate sea quarks and partially quenched valence quarks. Both the linear and quadratic terms in the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion are considered; it is found that the quadratic terms only change the result by a few percent, indicating that the expansion is highly convergent.

  15. Noncommutative D-branes from covariant AdS superstring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Makoto; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2008-01-01

    We study noncommutative (NC) D-branes on AdS 5 xS 5 from κ-invariance of covariant Green-Schwarz action of an open string with a non-trivial world-volume flux. Finding boundary conditions to ensure the κ-invariance, we can see possible configurations of the NC D-branes. With this method 1/4 BPS NC D-branes are discussed. The resulting NC Dp-branes are 1/4 BPS at arbitrary position other than the p=1 case. The exceptional D-string is 1/2 BPS at the origin and 1/4 BPS outside the origin. Those are reduced to possible 1/4 BPS or 1/2 BPS AdS D-branes in the commutative limit. The same analysis is applied to an open superstring in a pp-wave and leads to 1/4 BPS configurations of NC D-branes. These D-branes are consistently obtained from AdS D-branes via the Penrose limit

  16. Pulse splitting of self-focusing-beams in normally dispersive media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of the normal group-velocity dispersion on anisotropic self-focusing beams in nonlinear Kerr media is studied analytically. It is shown that a light pulse self-focusing in the presence of normal dispersion is split up into several small-scale cells preventing a catastrophic collapse....... The theoretical explanation of this splitting process is revealed....

  17. Application of Zeeman spatial beam-splitting in polarized neutron reflectometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kozhevnikov, S. V.; Ignatovich, V. K.; Radu, F.

    2017-01-01

    Neutron Zeeman spatial beam-splitting is considered at reflection from magnetically noncollinear films. Two applications of Zeeman beam-splitting phenomenon in polarized neutron reflectometry are discussed. One is the construction of polarizing devices with high polarizing efficiency. Another one is the investigations of magnetically noncollinear films with low spin-flip probability. Experimental results are presented for illustration.

  18. Transonymization as Revitalization: Old Toponyms of Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lozić Knezović

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with ancient toponyms of Split, a city in the centre of the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Along with numerous monuments of spiritual and material culture, toponyms are part of the two-thousand-year-old city’s historical heritage. Split in particular abounds with sources that provide valuable information concerning ancient toponyms. In terms of the study and preservation of toponymy, three basic sources are crucial: the living oral tradition, written records, and old charts — mostly cadastral plans. In addition to researching, recording, documenting, and publishing Split’s ancient place names through toponomastic, geographical, and town planning studies, toponymic heritage preservation is also implemented through the direct use of the names in everyday life. One of the ways of such revitalization of Split’s ancient place names is their transonymization into the category of chrematonyms, i.e. their secondary use as names of institutions, shops, restaurants, schools, sports associations and facilities, bars and coffee shops, cemeteries, and so on. The present paper provides a classification and etymological analysis of detoponymic chrematonyms of Split. The authors propose measures to raise public awareness of the historical information conveyed by the names and raise some issues for consideration regarding further study of transonymization as a means of revitalizing local toponymic tradition.

  19. Splitting of beams caused by multiple connections along the beam span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, A.J.M.; Salenikovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    : In the past splitting of beams caused by connection perpendicular to grain has drawn attention. Models have mainly being developed considering one mid span connection. Some semi-empirical models assume the splitting capacity to be proportional with the number of connections when sufficiently

  20. Automatic feathering of split fields for step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, Nesrin; Leybovich, Leonid B; Sethi, Anil; Emami, Bahman

    2003-01-01

    Due to leaf travel range limitations of the Varian Dynamic Multileaf Collimator (DMLC) system, an IMRT field width exceeding 14.5 cm is split into two or more adjacent abutting sub-fields. The abutting sub-fields are then delivered as separate treatment fields. The accuracy of the delivery is very sensitive to multileaf positioning accuracy. The uncertainties in leaf and carriage positions cause errors in the delivered dose (e.g., hot or cold spots) along the match line of abutting sub-fields. The dose errors are proportional to the penumbra slope at the edge of each sub-field. To alleviate this problem, we developed techniques that feather the split line of IMRT fields. Feathering of the split line was achieved by dividing IMRT fields into several sub-groups with different split line positions. A Varian 21EX accelerator with an 80-leaf DLMC was used for IMRT delivery. Cylindrical targets with varying widths (>14.5 cm) were created to study the split line positions. Seven coplanar 6 MV fields were selected for planning using the NOMOS-CORVUS TM system. The isocentre of the fields was positioned at the centre of the target volume. Verification was done in a 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 polystyrene phantom using film dosimetry. We investigated two techniques to move the split line from its original position or cause feathering of them: (1) varying the isocentre position along the target width and (2) introduction of a 'pseudo target' outside of the patient (phantom). The position of the 'pseudo target' was determined by analysing the divergence of IMRT fields. For target widths of 14-28 cm, IMRT fields were automatically split into two sub-fields, and the split line was positioned along the centre of the target by CORVUS. Measured dose distributions demonstrated that the dose to the critical structure was 10% higher than planned when the split line crossed through the centre of the target. Both methods of modifying the split line positions resulted in maximum shifts of ∼1 cm

  1. Twistor description of spinning particles in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitakis, Alex S.; Barns-Graham, Alec E.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2018-01-01

    The two-twistor formulation of particle mechanics in D-dimensional anti-de Sitter space for D = 4 , 5 , 7, which linearises invariance under the AdS isometry group Sp(4; K ) for K=R,C,H, is generalized to the massless N -extended "spinning particle". The twistor variables are gauge invariant with respect to the initial N local worldline supersymmetries; this simplifies aspects of the quantum theory such as implications of global gauge anomalies. We also give details of the two-supertwistor form of the superparticle, in particular the massive superparticle on AdS5.

  2. Holography in Lovelock Chern-Simons AdS gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Branislav; Miskovic, Olivera; Simić, Dejan

    2017-08-01

    We analyze holographic field theory dual to Lovelock Chern-Simons anti-de Sitter (AdS) gravity in higher dimensions using first order formalism. We first find asymptotic symmetries in the AdS sector showing that they consist of local translations, local Lorentz rotations, dilatations and non-Abelian gauge transformations. Then, we compute 1-point functions of energy-momentum and spin currents in a dual conformal field theory and write Ward identities. We find that the holographic theory possesses Weyl anomaly and also breaks non-Abelian gauge symmetry at the quantum level.

  3. Predicting novel substrates for enzymes with minimal experimental effort with active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertusi, Dante A; Moura, Matthew E; Jeffryes, James G; Prabhu, Siddhant; Walters Biggs, Bradley; Tyo, Keith E J

    2017-11-01

    Enzymatic substrate promiscuity is more ubiquitous than previously thought, with significant consequences for understanding metabolism and its application to biocatalysis. This realization has given rise to the need for efficient characterization of enzyme promiscuity. Enzyme promiscuity is currently characterized with a limited number of human-selected compounds that may not be representative of the enzyme's versatility. While testing large numbers of compounds may be impractical, computational approaches can exploit existing data to determine the most informative substrates to test next, thereby more thoroughly exploring an enzyme's versatility. To demonstrate this, we used existing studies and tested compounds for four different enzymes, developed support vector machine (SVM) models using these datasets, and selected additional compounds for experiments using an active learning approach. SVMs trained on a chemically diverse set of compounds were discovered to achieve maximum accuracies of ~80% using ~33% fewer compounds than datasets based on all compounds tested in existing studies. Active learning-selected compounds for testing resolved apparent conflicts in the existing training data, while adding diversity to the dataset. The application of these algorithms to wide arrays of metabolic enzymes would result in a library of SVMs that can predict high-probability promiscuous enzymatic reactions and could prove a valuable resource for the design of novel metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting novel substrates for enzymes with minimal experimental effort with active learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertusi, Dante A.; Moura, Matthew E.; Jeffryes, James G.; Prabhu, Siddhant; Walters Biggs, Bradley; Tyo, Keith E. J.

    2017-11-01

    Enzymatic substrate promiscuity is more ubiquitous than previously thought, with significant consequences for understanding metabolism and its application to biocatalysis. This realization has given rise to the need for efficient characterization of enzyme promiscuity. Enzyme promiscuity is currently characterized with a limited number of human-selected compounds that may not be representative of the enzyme's versatility. While testing large numbers of compounds may be impractical, computational approaches can exploit existing data to determine the most informative substrates to test next, thereby more thoroughly exploring an enzyme's versatility. To demonstrate this, we used existing studies and tested compounds for four different enzymes, developed support vector machine (SVM) models using these datasets, and selected additional compounds for experiments using an active learning approach. SVMs trained on a chemically diverse set of compounds were discovered to achieve maximum accuracies of similar to 80% using similar to 33% fewer compounds than datasets based on all compounds tested in existing studies. Active learning-selected compounds for testing resolved apparent conflicts in the existing training data, while adding diversity to the dataset. The application of these algorithms to wide arrays of metabolic enzymes would result in a library of SVMs that can predict high-probability promiscuous enzymatic reactions and could prove a valuable resource for the design of novel metabolic pathways.

  5. Divergent Pathways Involving 1,3-Dipolar Addition and N-N Bond Splitting of an Organic Azide across a Zirconium Methylidene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurogi, Takashi; Mane, Manoj V; Zheng, Shuai; Carroll, Patrick J; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Mindiola, Daniel J

    2018-02-12

    The zirconium methylidene (PNP)Zr=CH 2 (OAr) (1) reacts with N 3 Ad to give two products (PNP)Zr=NAd(OAr) (2) and (PNP)Zr(η 2 -N=NAd)(N=CH 2 )(OAr) (3), both resulting from a common cycloaddition intermediate (PNP)Zr(CH 2 N 3 Ad)(OAr) (A). Using a series of control experiments in combination with DFT calculations, it was found that 2 results from a nitrene by a carbene metathesis reaction in which N 2 acts as a delivery vehicle and forms N 2 CH 2 as a side product. In the case of 3, N-N bond splitting of the azide at the α-position allowed the isolation of a rare example of a parent ketimide complex of zirconium. Isotopic labeling studies and solid-state X-ray analysis are presented for 2 and 3, in addition to an independent synthesis for the former. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Use of Plackett-Burman Designs to Construct Split Plot Designs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulahci, M.; Bisgaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract When some factors are hard to change and others are relatively easier, split-plot experiments are often an economic alternative to fully randomized designs. Split-plot experiments, with their structure of subplot arrays imbedded within whole-plot arrays, have a tendency to become large,

  7. Towards three-loop QCD corrections to the time-like splitting functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gituliar, O.; Moch, S.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the status of a direct computation of the time-like splitting functions at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD. Time-like splitting functions govern the collinear kinematics of inclusive hadron production and the evolution of the parton fragmentation distributions. Current knowledge about them at three loops has been inferred by means of crossing symmetry from their related space-like counterparts, which has left certain parts of the off-diagonal quark-gluon splitting function undetermined. This motivates an independent calculation from first principles. We review the tools and methods which are applied to attack the problem.

  8. Exploring AdS waves via nonminimal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayon-Beato, Eloy; Hassaiene, Mokhtar

    2006-01-01

    We consider nonminimally coupled scalar fields to explore the Siklos spacetimes in three dimensions. Their interpretation as exact gravitational waves propagating on AdS space restrict the source to behave as a pure radiation field. We show that the related pure radiation constraints single out a unique self-interaction potential depending on one coupling constant. For a vanishing coupling constant, this potential reduces to a mass term with a mass fixed in terms of the nonminimal-coupling parameter. This mass dependence allows the existence of several free cases including massless and tachyonic sources. There even exists a particular value of the nonminimal-coupling parameter for which the corresponding mass exactly compensates the contribution generated by the negative scalar curvature, producing a genuinely massless field in this curved background. The self-interacting case is studied in detail for the conformal coupling. The resulting gravitational wave is formed by the superposition of the free and the self-interaction contributions, except for a critical value of the coupling constant where a nonperturbative effect relating the strong and weak regimes of the source appears. We establish a correspondence between the scalar source supporting an AdS wave and a pp wave by showing that their respective pure radiation constraints are conformally related, while their involved backgrounds are not. Finally, we consider the AdS waves for topologically massive gravity and its limit to conformal gravity

  9. Persistence of bacterial proteolytic enzymes in lake ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiersztyn, Bartosz; Siuda, Waldemar; Chróst, Ryszard J

    2012-04-01

    This study analyzes proteolytic enzyme persistence and the role of dead (or metabolically inactive) aquatic bacteria in organic matter cycling. Samples from four lakes of different trophic status were used. Irrespective of the trophic status of the examined lakes, bacterial aminopeptidases remained active even 72 h after the death of the bacteria that produced them. The total pool of proteolytic enzymes in natural lake water samples was also stable. We found that the rates of amino acid enzymatic release from proteinaceous matter added to preserved lake water sample were constant for at least 96 h (r(2)  = 0.99, n = 17, P ≤ 0.0001, V(max)  = 84.6 nM h(-1) ). We also observed that proteases built into bacterial cell debris fragments remained active for a long time, even after the total destruction of cells. Moreover, during 24 h of incubation time, about 20% of these enzymatically active fragments adsorbed onto natural seston particles, becoming a part of the 'attached enzymes system' that is regarded as the 'hot-spot' of protein degradation in aquatic ecosystems. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acoustic Split-Beam Echosounder Data (EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories collects data using Simrad EK60 scientific split-beam acoustic echosounders during resource...

  11. Forced splitting of fractions in CE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewski, D.R.; Schlautmann, Stefan; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2008-01-01

    In order to increase the electrophoretic separation between fractions of analytes on a microfluidic chip, without the need for a longer separation channel, we propose and demonstrate a preparative electrokinetic procedure by which overlapping or closely spaced fractions are automatically split. The

  12. Modelling of uranium/plutonium splitting in purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.; Baron, P.

    1987-06-01

    A mathematical model simulating the highly complex uranium/plutonium splitting operation in PUREX process has been achieved by the french ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique''. The development of such a model, which includes transfer and redox reactions kinetics for all the species involved, required an important experimental work in the field of basis chemical data acquisition. The model has been successfully validated by comparison of its results with those of specific trials achieved (at laboratory scale), and with the available results of the french reprocessing units operation. It has then been used for the design of french new plants splitting operations

  13. Rabi-like splitting from large area plasmonic microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hosseini Alast

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabi-like splitting was observed from a hybrid plasmonic microcavity. The splitting comes from the coupling of cavity mode with the surface plasmon polariton mode; anti-crossing was observed alongside the modal conversional channel on the reflection light measurement. The hybrid device consists of a 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating integrated onto the Fabry-Perot microcavity. The 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating fabricated from laser interference and the area is sufficiently large to be used in the practical optical device. The larger area hybrid plasmonic microcavity can be employed in polariton lasers and biosensors.

  14. A Proposal on the Geometry Splitting Strategy to Enhance the Calculation Efficiency in Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Gi Yeong; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, how the geometry splitting strategy affects the calculation efficiency was analyzed. In this study, a geometry splitting method was proposed to increase the calculation efficiency in Monte Carlo simulation. First, the analysis of the neutron distribution characteristics in a deep penetration problem was performed. Then, considering the neutron population distribution, a geometry splitting method was devised. Using the proposed method, the FOMs with benchmark problems were estimated and compared with the conventional geometry splitting strategy. The results show that the proposed method can considerably increase the calculation efficiency in using geometry splitting method. It is expected that the proposed method will contribute to optimizing the computational cost as well as reducing the human errors in Monte Carlo simulation. Geometry splitting in Monte Carlo (MC) calculation is one of the most popular variance reduction techniques due to its simplicity, reliability and efficiency. For the use of the geometry splitting, the user should determine locations of geometry splitting and assign the relative importance of each region. Generally, the splitting parameters are decided by the user's experience. However, in this process, the splitting parameters can ineffectively or erroneously be selected. In order to prevent it, there is a recommendation to help the user eliminate guesswork, which is to split the geometry evenly. And then, the importance is estimated by a few iterations for preserving population of particle penetrating each region. However, evenly geometry splitting method can make the calculation inefficient due to the change in mean free path (MFP) of particles.

  15. A Proposal on the Geometry Splitting Strategy to Enhance the Calculation Efficiency in Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Gi Yeong; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2014-01-01

    In this study, how the geometry splitting strategy affects the calculation efficiency was analyzed. In this study, a geometry splitting method was proposed to increase the calculation efficiency in Monte Carlo simulation. First, the analysis of the neutron distribution characteristics in a deep penetration problem was performed. Then, considering the neutron population distribution, a geometry splitting method was devised. Using the proposed method, the FOMs with benchmark problems were estimated and compared with the conventional geometry splitting strategy. The results show that the proposed method can considerably increase the calculation efficiency in using geometry splitting method. It is expected that the proposed method will contribute to optimizing the computational cost as well as reducing the human errors in Monte Carlo simulation. Geometry splitting in Monte Carlo (MC) calculation is one of the most popular variance reduction techniques due to its simplicity, reliability and efficiency. For the use of the geometry splitting, the user should determine locations of geometry splitting and assign the relative importance of each region. Generally, the splitting parameters are decided by the user's experience. However, in this process, the splitting parameters can ineffectively or erroneously be selected. In order to prevent it, there is a recommendation to help the user eliminate guesswork, which is to split the geometry evenly. And then, the importance is estimated by a few iterations for preserving population of particle penetrating each region. However, evenly geometry splitting method can make the calculation inefficient due to the change in mean free path (MFP) of particles

  16. Efficient Overall Water-Splitting Electrocatalysis Using Lepidocrocite VOOH Hollow Nanospheres

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Huanhuan

    2016-11-29

    Herein we report the control synthesis of lepidocrocite VOOH hollow nanospheres and further their applications in electrocatalytic water splitting for the first time. By tuning the surface area of the nanospheres, the optimal performance can be achieved with low overpotentials of 270 mV for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and 164 mV for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at 10 mA cm-2 in 1 m KOH, respectively. Furthermore, when used as both the anode and cathode for overall water splitting, a low cell voltage of 1.62 V is required to reach the current density of 10 mA cm-2 , making the VOOH hollow nanospheres an efficient alternative to water splitting.

  17. Substitutional Doping for Aluminosilicate Mineral and Superior Water Splitting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Fu, Liangjie; Shu, Zhan; Yang, Huaming; Tang, Aidong; Jiang, Tao

    2017-07-01

    Substitutional doping is a strategy in which atomic impurities are optionally added to a host material to promote its properties, while the geometric and electronic structure evolution of natural nanoclay mineral upon substitutional metal doping is still ambiguous. This paper first designed an efficient lanthanum (La) doping strategy for nanotubular clay (halloysite nanotube, HNT) through the dynamic equilibrium of a substitutional atom in the presence of saturated AlCl3 solution, and systematic characterization of the samples was performed. Further density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to reveal the geometric and electronic structure evolution upon metal doping, as well as to verify the atom-level effect of the La doping. The CdS loading and its corresponding water splitting performance could demonstrate the effect of La doping. CdS nanoparticles (11 wt.%) were uniformly deposited on the surface of La-doped halloysite nanotube (La-HNT) with the average size of 5 nm, and the notable photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate of CdS/La-HNT reached up to 47.5 μmol/h. The results could provide a new strategy for metal ion doping and constructive insight into the substitutional doping mechanism.

  18. Strongly anisotropic spin-orbit splitting in a two-dimensional electron gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michiardi, Matteo; Bianchi, Marco; Dendzik, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Near-surface two-dimensional electron gases on the topological insulator Bi$_2$Te$_2$Se are induced by electron doping and studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. A pronounced spin-orbit splitting is observed for these states. The $k$-dependent splitting is strongly anisotropic to a...

  19. Elementary and advanced modelling of the splitting strength of timber connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, J.C.M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The load-bearing capacity of a timber member loaded perpendicular-to-grain by a connection is governed by either the embedment strength, the bending yield strength of the steel fasteners, or the splitting strength of the timber. Only coarse models for predicting the splitting strength are

  20. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jie [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-07-21

    Exact solutions to Einstein’s equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution’s appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  1. Neutrino mass hierarchy and three-flavor spectral splits of supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Tomas, Ricard; Tamborra, Irene

    2010-01-01

    It was recently realized that three-flavor effects could peculiarly modify the development of spectral splits induced by collective oscillations, for supernova neutrinos emitted during the cooling phase of a protoneutron star. We systematically explore this case, explaining how the impact of these three-flavor effects depends on the ordering of the neutrino masses. In inverted mass hierarchy, the solar mass splitting gives rise to instabilities in regions of the (anti)neutrino energy spectra that were otherwise stable under the leading two-flavor evolution governed by the atmospheric mass splitting and by the 1-3 mixing angle. As a consequence, the high-energy spectral splits found in the electron (anti)neutrino spectra disappear, and are transferred to other flavors. Imperfect adiabaticity leads to smearing of spectral swap features. In normal mass hierarchy, the three-flavor and the two-flavor instabilities act in the same region of the neutrino energy spectrum, leading to only minor departures from the two-flavor treatment.

  2. Entropy Analysis of Solar Two-Step Thermochemical Cycles for Water and Carbon Dioxide Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Lange

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a thermodynamic analysis of solar thermochemical cycles for splitting of H2O or CO2. Such cycles, powered by concentrated solar energy, have the potential to produce fuels in a sustainable way. We extend a previous study on the thermodynamics of water splitting by also taking into account CO2 splitting and the influence of the solar absorption efficiency. Based on this purely thermodynamic approach, efficiency trends are discussed. The comprehensive and vivid representation in T-S diagrams provides researchers in this field with the required theoretical background to improve process development. Furthermore, results about the required entropy change in the used redox materials can be used as a guideline for material developers. The results show that CO2 splitting is advantageous at higher temperature levels, while water splitting is more feasible at lower temperature levels, as it benefits from a great entropy change during the splitting step.

  3. Split-disk micro-lasers: Tunable whispering gallery mode cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Siegle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical micro-cavities of various types have emerged as promising photonic structures, for both the investigation of fundamental science in cavity quantum electrodynamics and simultaneously for various applications, e.g., lasers, filters, or modulators. In either branch a demand for adjustable and tunable photonic devices becomes apparent, which has been mainly based on the modification of the refractive index of the micro-resonators so far. In this paper, we report on a novel type of whispering gallery mode resonator where resonance tuning is achieved by modification of the configuration. This is realized by polymeric split-disks consisting of opposing half-disks with an intermediate air gap. Functionality of the split-disk concept and its figures of merit like low-threshold lasing are demonstrated for laser dye-doped split-disks fabricated by electron beam lithography on Si substrates. Reversible resonance tuning is achieved for split-disks structured onto elastomeric substrates by direct laser writing. The gap width and hence the resonance wavelength can be well-controlled by mechanically stretching the elastomer and exploiting the lateral shrinkage of the substrate. We demonstrate a broad spectral tunability of laser modes by more than three times the free spectral range. These cavities have the potential to form a key element of flexible and tunable photonic circuits based on polymers.

  4. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  5. CAPRRESI: Chimera Assembly by Plasmid Recovery and Restriction Enzyme Site Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, Orlando; Ramírez-Romero, Miguel A; Dávila, Guillermo

    2017-06-25

    Here, we present chimera assembly by plasmid recovery and restriction enzyme site insertion (CAPRRESI). CAPRRESI benefits from many strengths of the original plasmid recovery method and introduces restriction enzyme digestion to ease DNA ligation reactions (required for chimera assembly). For this protocol, users clone wildtype genes into the same plasmid (pUC18 or pUC19). After the in silico selection of amino acid sequence regions where chimeras should be assembled, users obtain all the synonym DNA sequences that encode them. Ad hoc Perl scripts enable users to determine all synonym DNA sequences. After this step, another Perl script searches for restriction enzyme sites on all synonym DNA sequences. This in silico analysis is also performed using the ampicillin resistance gene (ampR) found on pUC18/19 plasmids. Users design oligonucleotides inside synonym regions to disrupt wildtype and ampR genes by PCR. After obtaining and purifying complementary DNA fragments, restriction enzyme digestion is accomplished. Chimera assembly is achieved by ligating appropriate complementary DNA fragments. pUC18/19 vectors are selected for CAPRRESI because they offer technical advantages, such as small size (2,686 base pairs), high copy number, advantageous sequencing reaction features, and commercial availability. The usage of restriction enzymes for chimera assembly eliminates the need for DNA polymerases yielding blunt-ended products. CAPRRESI is a fast and low-cost method for fusing protein-coding genes.

  6. Confinement, glueballs and strings from deformed AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apreda, Riccardo; Crooks, David E.; Evans, Nick; Petrini, Michela

    2004-01-01

    We study aspects of confinement in two deformed versions of the AdS/CFT correspondence - the GPPZ dual of N = 1* Yang Mills, and the Yang Mills* N 0 dual. Both geometries describe discrete glueball spectra which we calculate numerically. The results agree at the 10% level with previous AdS/CFT computations in the Klebanov Strassler background and AdS Schwarzchild respectively. We also calculate the spectra of bound states of the massive fermions in these geometries and show that they are light, so not decoupled from the dynamics. We then study the behaviour of Wilson loops in the 10d lifts of these geometries. We find a transition from AdS-like strings in the UV to strings that interact with the unknown physics of the central singularity of the space in the IR. (author)

  7. Inhibition of RecBCD enzyme by antineoplastic DNA alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziegielewska, Barbara; Beerman, Terry A; Bianco, Piero R

    2006-09-01

    To understand how bulky adducts might perturb DNA helicase function, three distinct DNA-binding agents were used to determine the effects of DNA alkylation on a DNA helicase. Adozelesin, ecteinascidin 743 (Et743) and hedamycin each possess unique structures and sequence selectivity. They bind to double-stranded DNA and alkylate one strand of the duplex in cis, adding adducts that alter the structure of DNA significantly. The results show that Et743 was the most potent inhibitor of DNA unwinding, followed by adozelesin and hedamycin. Et743 significantly inhibited unwinding, enhanced degradation of DNA, and completely eliminated the ability of the translocating RecBCD enzyme to recognize and respond to the recombination hotspot chi. Unwinding of adozelesin-modified DNA was accompanied by the appearance of unwinding intermediates, consistent with enzyme entrapment or stalling. Further, adozelesin also induced "apparent" chi fragment formation. The combination of enzyme sequestering and pseudo-chi modification of RecBCD, results in biphasic time-courses of DNA unwinding. Hedamycin also reduced RecBCD activity, albeit at increased concentrations of drug relative to either adozelesin or Et743. Remarkably, the hedamycin modification resulted in constitutive activation of the bottom-strand nuclease activity of the enzyme, while leaving the ability of the translocating enzyme to recognize and respond to chi largely intact. Finally, the results show that DNA alkylation does not significantly perturb the allosteric interaction that activates the enzyme for ATP hydrolysis, as the efficiency of ATP utilization for DNA unwinding is affected only marginally. These results taken together present a unique response of RecBCD enzyme to bulky DNA adducts. We correlate these effects with the recently determined crystal structure of the RecBCD holoenzyme bound to DNA.

  8. Shear-Wave Splitting Within the Southeastern Carpathian Arc, Transylvanian Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, A. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Munteanu, L.

    2012-12-01

    We present 75 new measurements of shear wave splitting at 4 temporary broadband seismic stations that we deployed in the Transylvanian Basin within the Carpathian Arc, Romania. The Tisza-Dacia terranes, which form the basement of this basin, were accommodated in the space between the thick, old, rigid and cold East European Platform and the Moesian Platform during the Miocene. This movement was driven by the subduction of a part of the Tethys Ocean, which led to the formation of Carpathian orogen system. In Romania, the mountains are divided into the Eastern Carpathians, at the limit of Transylvanian Basin and the East European Platform along the Tornquist-Teisseyre Suture Zone, and the Southern Carpathians, at the limit with Moesian Platform. They connect to the West of the Carpathian Bend Zone where a very active high velocity seismic body generates intermediate depth earthquakes between 70 and 200 km beneath the Vrancea seismogenic zone. We analyzed splitting of SKS and SKKS phases recorded at epicentral distances between 87 and 150 degrees using the method of Silver and Chan (1991). We estimated splitting parameters, fast shear polarization azimuth and delay time, using both weighted averages of individual splitting measurements (Helffrich et al., 1994) and simultaneous linearization of all clearly recorded SK(K)S waves (Wolfe and Silver, 1998). For COMD, located at the contact of the Carpathian Bend Zone and Transylvanian Basin, we obtained a fast shear polarization azimuth trending NE-SW, parallel to the contact and to the strike of the Vrancea seismic body. For 10 suitable events recorded at IACB, at the contact of the Neogene Volcanic zone with the Eastern Carpathians, we did not observe any splitting; we consider the station splitting to be null. The fast shear polarization azimuth for PMAR, at the limit between Tisza-Dacia block and Southern Carpathians thrust belt, and at CHDM, within the Transylvanian Basin, is NW-SE similar to a regional splitting

  9. Split-shift work in relation to stress, health and psychosocial work factors among bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlström, Jonas; Kecklund, Göran; Anund, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Shift work has been associated with poor health, sleep and fatigue problems and low satisfaction with working hours. However, one type of shift working, namely split shifts, have received little attention. This study examined stress, health and psychosocial aspects of split-shift schedules among bus drivers in urban transport. A questionnaire was distributed to drivers working more than 70% of full time which 235 drivers in total answered. In general, drivers working split-shift schedules (n = 146) did not differ from drivers not working such shifts (n = 83) as regards any of the outcome variables that were studied. However, when individual perceptions towards split-shift schedules were taken into account, a different picture appeared. Bus drivers who reported problems working split shifts (36%) reported poorer health, higher perceived stress, working hours interfering with social life, lower sleep quality, more persistent fatigue and lower general work satisfaction than those who did not view split shifts as a problem. Moreover, drivers who reported problems with split shifts also perceived lower possibilities to influence working hours, indicating lower work time control. This study indicates that split shifts were not associated with increased stress, poorer health and adverse psychosocial work factors for the entire study sample. However, the results showed that individual differences were important and approximately one third of the drivers reported problems with split shifts, which in turn was associated with stress, poor health and negative psychosocial work conditions. More research is needed to understand the individual and organizational determinants of tolerance to split shifts.

  10. Asymmetric transmission in planar chiral split-ring metamaterials: Microscopic Lorentz-theory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Galynsky, Vladimir M.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    The electronic Lorentz theory is employed to explain the optical properties of planar split-ring metamaterials. Starting from the dynamics of individual free carriers, the electromagnetic response of an individual split-ring meta-atom is determined, and the effective permittivity tensor...... of the metamaterial is calculated for normal incidence of light. Whenever the split ring lacks in-plane mirror symmetry, the corresponding permittivity tensor has a crystallographic structure of an elliptically dichroic medium, and the metamaterial exhibits optical properties of planar chiral structures. Its...... transmission spectra are different for right-handed versus left-handed circular polarization of the incident wave, so the structure changes its transmittance when the direction of incidence is reversed. The magnitude of this change is shown to be related to the geometric parameters of the split ring...

  11. The role of Ad-36 as a risk factor in males with gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocazeybek, Bekir; Saribas, Suat; Ergin, Sevgi

    2015-12-01

    Gynecomastia is highly prevalent worldwide and Adenovirus-36 (Ad-36), recently implicated in increased adipose tissue deposition due to its affinity for adipose tissue, is a potential etiological agent in the development of obesity and therefore we hypothesized that Ad-36 may also play a role in the development of gynecomastia by possibly accompanying increased regional adiposity. To support our hypothesis, we conducted a study that included 33 adult males with gynecomastia (PG) and 15 adult males as the patient control group (HCG). Leptin and adiponectin levels were monitored using ELISA. A significant difference in Ad-36 antibody positivity was found between the groups (pgynecomastia may develop following an increase in aromatase enzyme activity, by which more oestrogen is produced and the estrogen-androgen balance disrupted. Also, regional adipose tissue enlargements may cause the excessive production of estrogens leading to gynecomastia. Adipose tissue has been recognized as a major endocrine organ in recent years. Another plausible explanation is excessive aromatization of androgens to estrogens by peripheral adipose tissue may promote gynecomastia in males. Moreover, our results suggest that there might be a relationship between Ad-36 and gynecomastia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On thermodynamics of AdS black holes in M-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhaj, A.; Chabab, M.; Masmar, K.; El Moumni, H.; Sedra, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent work on asymptotically AdS 4 black holes in M-theory, we investigate the thermodynamics and thermodynamical geometry of AdS black holes from M2- and M5-branes. Concretely, we consider AdS black holes in AdS p+2 x S 11-p-2 , where p = 2,5 by interpreting the number of M2- (and M5-branes) as a thermodynamical variable. More precisely, we study the corresponding phase transition to examine their stabilities by calculating and discussing various thermodynamical quantities including the chemical potential. Then we compute the thermodynamical curvatures from the Quevedo metric for M2- and M5-branes geometries to reconsider the stability of such black holes. The Quevedo metric singularities recover similar stability results provided by the phase-transition program. It has been shown that similar behaviors are also present in the limit of large N. (orig.)

  13. A Grassmann path from AdS3 to flat space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash; Roy, Shubho

    2014-01-01

    We show that interpreting the inverse AdS 3 radius 1/l as a Grassmann variable results in a formal map from gravity in AdS 3 to gravity in flat space. The underlying reason for this is the fact that ISO(2,1) is the Inonu-Wigner contraction of SO(2,2). We show how this works for the Chern-Simons actions, demonstrate how the general (Banados) solution in AdS 3 maps to the general flat space solution, and how the Killing vectors, charges and the Virasoro algebra in the Brown-Henneaux case map to the corresponding quantities in the BMS 3 case. Our results straightforwardly generalize to the higher spin case: the recently constructed flat space higher spin theories emerge automatically in this approach from their AdS counterparts. We conclude with a discussion of singularity resolution in the BMS gauge as an application

  14. VBSCan Split 2017 Workshop Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Christoph Falk; et al.

    2018-01-12

    This document summarises the talks and discussions happened during the VBSCan Split17 workshop, the first general meeting of the VBSCan COST Action network. This collaboration is aiming at a consistent and coordinated study of vector-boson scattering from the phenomenological and experimental point of view, for the best exploitation of the data that will be delivered by existing and future particle colliders.

  15. Interpolating from Bianchi attractors to Lifshitz and AdS spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachru, Shamit; Kundu, Nilay; Saha, Arpan; Samanta, Rickmoy; Trivedi, Sandip P.

    2014-01-01

    We construct classes of smooth metrics which interpolate from Bianchi attractor geometries of Types II, III, VI and IX in the IR to Lifshitz or AdS 2 ×S 3 geometries in the UV. While we do not obtain these metrics as solutions of Einstein gravity coupled to a simple matter field theory, we show that the matter sector stress-energy required to support these geometries (via the Einstein equations) does satisfy the weak, and therefore also the null, energy condition. Since Lifshitz or AdS 2 ×S 3 geometries can in turn be connected to AdS 5 spacetime, our results show that there is no barrier, at least at the level of the energy conditions, for solutions to arise connecting these Bianchi attractor geometries to AdS 5 spacetime. The asymptotic AdS 5 spacetime has no non-normalizable metric deformation turned on, which suggests that furthermore, the Bianchi attractor geometries can be the IR geometries dual to field theories living in flat space, with the breaking of symmetries being either spontaneous or due to sources for other fields. Finally, we show that for a large class of flows which connect two Bianchi attractors, a C-function can be defined which is monotonically decreasing from the UV to the IR as long as the null energy condition is satisfied. However, except for special examples of Bianchi attractors (including AdS space), this function does not attain a finite and non-vanishing constant value at the end points

  16. Electrochemical Water-Splitting Based on Hypochlorite Oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minhová Macounová, Kateřina; Simic, N.; Ahlberg, E.; Krtil, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 23 (2015), s. 7262-7265 ISSN 0002-7863 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * hypochlorite oxidation * water-splitting Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 13.038, year: 2015

  17. Pancreatic Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us DONATE NOW GENERAL DONATION PURPLESTRIDE Pancreatic enzymes Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Living with Pancreatic Cancer ... and see a registered dietitian. What are pancreatic enzymes? Pancreatic enzymes help break down fats, proteins and ...

  18. The added value of hepatitis E diagnostics in determining causes of hepatitis in routine diagnostic settings in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doting, M. H. E.; Weel, J.; Niesters, H. G. M.; Riezebos-Brilman, A.; Brandenburg, A.

    OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 is endemic in Europe and an underdiagnosed and emerging (public) health issue. In recent years commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) that detect antibodies to HEV more adequately, became available. We investigated the added value of this HEV serology in

  19. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-18 - Split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... life insurance arrangements. See §§ 1.61-22 and 1.7872-15 for rules relating to the treatment of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. [T.D. 9092, 68 FR 54352, Sept. 17, 2003] ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Split-dollar life insurance arrangements. 1...

  20. Release of lysosomal enzymes in Candida albicans phagocytosis by rat peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; Sirena, A

    1984-02-15

    The present paper reports the in vitro release of lysosomal enzymes in the supernatant of cultures of rat peritoneal macrophages, with the addition of Candida albicans cells. Macrophages were taken from the rat peritoneal cavity 72 hr after non-specific activation with Brain-Heart-Infusion (B.H.I.) broth containing 10% proteose-peptone No. 3. They were then cultured in Parker medium No. 199 (TC 199). After 24 hr a suspension of Candida albicans cells, in a determined concentration, was added to the peritoneal macrophage cultures. At that time, and during pre-determined periods, the following enzymes in the culture supernatants were studied using colorimetric methods: beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase and acid phosphatase. It is concluded that, under identical conditions, the release of beta-galactosidase and acid phosphatase is higher than for beta-glucuronidase. The release rate of all three enzymes is the highest at a 6 hr incubation period, after which, a gradual decrease leads to the rate down to 50% at 24 hr.

  1. Photocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting by Inorganic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Xiaohui

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen has been identified as a potential energy carrier due to its high energy capacity and environmental harmlessness. Compared with hydrogen production from hydrocarbons such as methane and naphtha in a conventional hydrogen energy system, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water splitting offers a more economic approach since it utilizes the abundant solar irradiation as energy source and water as initial reactant. Powder photocatalyst, which generates electrons and holes under illumination, is the origin where the overall reaction happens. High solar energy conversion efficiency especially from visible range is commonly the target. Besides, cocatalyst for hydrogen and oxygen evolution is also playing an essential role in facilitating the charge separation and enhancing the kinetics. In this thesis, the objective is to achieve high energy conversion efficiency towards water splitting from diverse aspects. The third chapter focuses on a controllable method to fabricate metal pattern, which is candidate for hydrogen evolution cocatalyst while chapter 4 is on the combination of strontium titanium oxide (SrTiO3) with graphene oxide (GO) for a better photocatalytic performance. In the last chapter, photoelectrochemical water splitting by Ta3N5 photoanode and FeOOH as a novel oxygen evolution cocatalyst has been investigated.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis and system design of a novel split cycle engine concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Guangyu; Morgan, Robert E.; Heikal, Morgan R.

    2016-01-01

    The split cycle engine is a new reciprocating internal combustion engine with a potential of a radical efficiency improvement. In this engine, the compression and combustion–expansion processes occur in different cylinders. In the compression cylinder, the charge air is compressed through a quasi-isothermal process by direct cooling of the air. The high pressure air is then heated in a recuperator using the waste heat of exhaust gas before induction to the combustion cylinder. The combustion process occurs during the expansion stroke, in a quasi-isobaric process. In this paper, a fundamental theoretical cycle analysis and one-dimensional engine simulation of the split cycle engine was undertaken. The results show that the thermal efficiency (η) is mainly decided by the CR (compression ratio) and ER (expansion ratio), the regeneration effectiveness (σ), and the temperature rising ratio (N). Based on the above analysis, a system optimization of the engine was conducted. The results showed that by increasing CR from 23 to 25, the combustion and recuperation processes could be improved. By increasing the expansion ratio to 26, the heat losses during the gas exchange stroke were further reduced. Furthermore, the coolant temperatures of the compression and expansion chambers can be controlled separately to reduce the wall heat transfer losses. Compared to a conventional engine, a 21% total efficiency improvement was achieved when the split cycle was applied. It was concluded that through the system optimization, a total thermal efficiency of 53% can be achieved on split cycle engine. - Highlights: • Fundamental mechanism of the split cycle engine is investigated. • The key affecting factors of the thermodynamic cycle efficiency are identified. • The practical efficiency of split cycle applying on diesel engine is analysed. • The design optimization on the split cycle engine concept is conducted.

  3. Vacuum degeneracy and Conformal Mass in Lovelock AdS gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Henriquez, Gabriel; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2017-11-01

    It is shown that the notion of Conformal Mass can be defined within a given anti-de Sitter (AdS) branch of a Lovelock gravity theory as long as the corresponding vacuum is not degenerate. Indeed, conserved charges obtained by the addition of Kounterterms to the bulk action turn out to be proportional to the electric part of the Weyl tensor, when the fall-off of a generic solution in that AdS branch is considered. The factor of proportionality is the degeneracy condition for the vacua in the particular Lovelock AdS theory under study. This last feature explains the obstruction to define Conformal Mass in the degenerate case.

  4. Endoleak detection using single-acquisition split-bolus dual-energy computer tomography (DECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javor, D.; Wressnegger, A.; Unterhumer, S.; Kollndorfer, K.; Nolz, R.; Beitzke, D.; Loewe, C. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    To assess a single-phase, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with a split-bolus technique and reconstruction of virtual non-enhanced images for the detection of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Fifty patients referred for routine follow-up post-EVAR CT and a history of at least one post-EVAR follow-up CT examination using our standard biphasic (arterial and venous phase) routine protocol (which was used as the reference standard) were included in this prospective trial. An in-patient comparison and an analysis of the split-bolus protocol and the previously used double-phase protocol were performed with regard to differences in diagnostic accuracy, radiation dose, and image quality. The analysis showed a significant reduction of radiation dose of up to 42 %, using the single-acquisition split-bolus protocol, while maintaining a comparable diagnostic accuracy (primary endoleak detection rate of 96 %). Image quality between the two protocols was comparable and only slightly inferior for the split-bolus scan (2.5 vs. 2.4). Using the single-acquisition, split-bolus approach allows for a significant dose reduction while maintaining high image quality, resulting in effective endoleak identification. (orig.)

  5. The Efficiency of Split Panel Designs in an Analysis of Variance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Guo; Liu, Hai-Jun

    2016-01-01

    We consider split panel design efficiency in analysis of variance models, that is, the determination of the cross-sections series optimal proportion in all samples, to minimize parametric best linear unbiased estimators of linear combination variances. An orthogonal matrix is constructed to obtain manageable expression of variances. On this basis, we derive a theorem for analyzing split panel design efficiency irrespective of interest and budget parameters. Additionally, relative estimator efficiency based on the split panel to an estimator based on a pure panel or a pure cross-section is present. The analysis shows that the gains from split panel can be quite substantial. We further consider the efficiency of split panel design, given a budget, and transform it to a constrained nonlinear integer programming. Specifically, an efficient algorithm is designed to solve the constrained nonlinear integer programming. Moreover, we combine one at time designs and factorial designs to illustrate the algorithm’s efficiency with an empirical example concerning monthly consumer expenditure on food in 1985, in the Netherlands, and the efficient ranges of the algorithm parameters are given to ensure a good solution. PMID:27163447

  6. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    output. The double pulse test shows the devices' current during commutation process and the reduced switching losses of SiC MOSFETs compared to that of the traditional half bridge. The efficiency comparison is presented with experimental results of half bridge power inverter with split output...... and traditional half bridge inverter, from switching frequency 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The experimental results comparison shows that the half bridge with split output has an efficiency improvement of more than 0.5% at 100 kHz switching frequency....

  7. Electrostatic interaction between an enzyme and electrodes in the electric double layer examined in a view of direct electron transfer-type bioelectrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Yu; Kitazumi, Yuki; Tsujimura, Seiya; Shirai, Osamu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kano, Kenji

    2015-01-15

    Effects of the electrode poential on the activity of an adsorbed enzyme has been examined by using copper efflux oxidase (CueO) as a model enzyme and by monitoring direct electron transfer (DET)-type bioelectrocatalysis of oxygen reduction. CueO adsorbed on bare Au electrodes at around the point of zero charge (E(pzc)) shows the highest DET activity, and the activity decreases as the adsorption potential (E(ad); at which the enzyme adsorbs) is far from E(pzc). We propose a model to explain the phenomena in which the electrostatic interaction between the enzyme and electrodes in the electric double layer affects the orientation and the stability of the adsorbed enzyme. The self-assembled monolayer of butanethiol on Au electrodes decreases the electric field in the outside of the inner Helmholtz plane and drastically diminishes the E(ad) dependence of the DET activity of CueO. When CueO is adsorbed on bare Au electrodes under open circuit potential and then is held at hold potentials (E(ho)) more positive than E(pzc), the DET activity of the CueO rapidly decreases with the hold time. The strong electric field with positive surface charge density on the metallic electrode (σ(M)) leads to fatal denaturation of the adsorbed CueO. Such denaturation effect is not so serious at E(ho)ad)

  8. Rashba split surface states in BiTeBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, S V; Rusinov, I P; Nechaev, I A; Chulkov, E V

    2013-01-01

    Within density functional theory, we study the bulk band structure and surface states of BiTeBr. We consider both ordered and disordered phases, which differ in atomic order in the Te–Br sublattice. On the basis of relativistic ab initio calculations, we show that the ordered BiTeBr is energetically preferable as compared with the disordered one. We demonstrate that both Te- and Br-terminated surfaces of the ordered BiTeBr hold surface states with a giant spin–orbit splitting. The Te-terminated surface-state spin splitting has Rashba-type behavior with the coupling parameter α R ∼ 2 eVÅ. (paper)

  9. Baryons electromagnetic mass splittings in potential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovese, M.; Richard, J.-M.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Varga, K.

    1998-01-01

    We study electromagnetic mass splittings of charmed baryons. We point out discrepancies among theoretical predictions in non-relativistic potential models; none of these predictions seems supported by experimental data. A new calculation is presented

  10. Flux-split algorithms for flows with non-equilibrium chemistry and vibrational relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, B.; Cinnella, P.

    1990-01-01

    The present consideration of numerical computation methods for gas flows with nonequilibrium chemistry thermodynamics gives attention to an equilibrium model, a general nonequilibrium model, and a simplified model based on vibrational relaxation. Flux-splitting procedures are developed for the fully-coupled inviscid equations encompassing fluid dynamics and both chemical and internal energy-relaxation processes. A fully coupled and implicit large-block structure is presented which embodies novel forms of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms valid for nonequilibrium flow; illustrative high-temperature shock tube and nozzle flow examples are given.

  11. Torsionally mediated spin-rotation hyperfine splittings at moderate to high J values in methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, S. P.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Lapinov, A. V.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Mescheryakov, A. A.; Hougen, J. T.; Xu, Li-Hong

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an explanation based on torsionally mediated proton-spin-overall-rotation interaction for the observation of doublet hyperfine splittings in some Lamb-dip sub-millimeter-wave transitions between ground-state torsion-rotation states of E symmetry in methanol. These unexpected doublet splittings, some as large as 70 kHz, were observed for rotational quantum numbers in the range of J = 13 to 34, and K = - 2 to +3. Because they increase nearly linearly with J for a given branch, we confined our search for an explanation to hyperfine operators containing one nuclear-spin angular momentum factor I and one overall-rotation angular momentum factor J (i.e., to spin-rotation operators) and ignored both spin-spin and spin-torsion operators, since they contain no rotational angular momentum operator. Furthermore, since traditional spin-rotation operators did not seem capable of explaining the observed splittings, we constructed totally symmetric "torsionally mediated spin-rotation operators" by multiplying the E-species spin-rotation operator by an E-species torsional-coordinate factor of the form e±niα. The resulting operator is capable of connecting the two components of a degenerate torsion-rotation E state. This has the effect of turning the hyperfine splitting pattern upside down for some nuclear-spin states, which leads to bottom-to-top and top-to-bottom hyperfine selection rules for some transitions, and thus to an explanation for the unexpectedly large observed hyperfine splittings. The constructed operator cannot contribute to hyperfine splittings in the A-species manifold because its matrix elements within the set of torsion-rotation A1 and A2 states are all zero. The theory developed here fits the observed large doublet splittings to a root-mean-square residual of less than 1 kHz and predicts unresolvable splittings for a number of transitions in which no doublet splitting was detected.

  12. Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: renormalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rohit; Singh, Harvendra

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that ‘boosted’ AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. But the thermodynamic quantities have to be appropriately ‘renormalized’ at the second order due to the corrections. We work in the perturbative regime where T thermal ≪T E .

  13. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Facco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H^{-} beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kW of proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fraction of the main H^{-} beam, magnetic splitting of H^{-} and H^{0}, and stripping of H^{0} to H^{+}. The method allows slow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  14. Developing new understanding of photoelectrochemical water splitting via in-situ techniques: A review on recent progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Cen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical (PEC water splitting is a promising technology for solar hydrogen production to build a sustainable, renewable and clean energy economy. Given the complexity of the PEC water splitting processes, it is important to note that developing in-situ techniques for studying PEC water splitting presents a formidable challenge. This review is aimed at highlighting advantages and disadvantages of each technique, while offering a pathway of potentially combining several techniques to address different aspects of interfacial processes in PEC water splitting. We reviewed recent progress in various techniques and approaches utilized to study PEC water splitting, focusing on spectroscopic and scanning-probe methods. Keywords: In-situ, Water splitting, IMPS, TAS, SPM

  15. Influence of the reaction conditions on the enzyme catalyzed transesterification of castor oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Thalles Allan; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2017-01-01

    The identification of the influence of the reaction parameters is of paramount importance when defining a process design. In this work, non-edible castor oil was reacted with methanol to produce a possible component for biodiesel blends, using liquid enzymes as the catalyst. Temperature, alcohol......-to-oil molar ratio, enzyme and added water contents were the reaction parameters evaluated in the transesterification reactions. The optimal conditions, giving the optimal final FAME yield and FFA content in the methyl ester-phase was identified. At 35 °C, 6.0 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 5 wt% of enzyme and 5...... wt% of water contents, 94 % of FAME yield and 6.1 % of FFA in the final composition were obtained. The investigation was completed with the analysis of the component profiles, showing that at least 8 hours are necessary to reach a satisfactory FAME yield together with a minor FFA content....

  16. Heavy ion collisions in AdS5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.

    2011-01-01

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling using AdS/CFT correspondence. Heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS 5 . We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS 5 , which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.

  17. Supersymmetric giant graviton solutions in AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Raju, Suvrat; Smedbaeck, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    We parametrize all classical probe brane configurations that preserve four supersymmetries in (a) the extremal D1-D5 geometry, (b) the extremal D1-D5-P geometry, (c) the smooth D1-D5 solutions proposed by Lunin and Mathur, and (d) global AdS 3 xS 3 xT 4 /K3. These configurations consist of D1 branes, D5 branes, and bound states of D5 and D1 branes with the property that a particular Killing vector is tangent to the brane world volume at each point. We show that the supersymmetric sector of the D5-brane world volume theory may be analyzed in an effective 1+1 dimensional framework that places it on the same footing as D1 branes. In global AdS and the corresponding Lunin-Mathur solution, the solutions we describe are ''bound'' to the center of AdS for generic parameters and cannot escape to infinity. We show that these probes only exist on the submanifold of moduli space where the background B NS field and theta angle vanish. We quantize these probes in the near-horizon region of the extremal D1-D5 geometry and obtain the theory of long strings discussed by Seiberg and Witten

  18. Bio-processing of Agro-industrial Wastes for Production of Food-grade Enzymes: Progress and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmjit S Panesar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In the era of global industrialization, enzymes are being used extensively in the various sectors including food processing. Owing to the high price of enzymes, various initiatives have been undertaken by the R&D sector for the development of new processes or improvement in the existing processes for production of cost effective enzymes. With the advancement in the field of biotechnology, different bioprocesses are being used for utilization of different agro-industrial residues for the production of various enzymes. This review focuses on different types of agro-industrial wastes and their utilization in the production of enzymes. The present scenario as well as the future scope of utilization of enzymes in the food industry has also been discussed.Results and Conclusion: The regulations from the various governmental as well as environmental agencies for the demand of cleaner environment have led to the advancement in various technologies for utilization of the wastes for the production of value-added products such as enzymes. Among the different types of fermentation, maximum work has been carried under solid state conditions by batch fermentation. The research has indicated the significant potential of agro-industrial wastes for production of food-grade enzymes in order to improve the economics of the process.Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  19. Analytical study on holographic superfluid in AdS soliton background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Chuyu; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang; Wang, Yongjiu

    2016-01-01

    We analytically study the holographic superfluid phase transition in the AdS soliton background by using the variational method for the Sturm–Liouville eigenvalue problem. By investigating the holographic s-wave and p-wave superfluid models in the probe limit, we observe that the spatial component of the gauge field will hinder the phase transition. Moreover, we note that, different from the AdS black hole spacetime, in the AdS soliton background the holographic superfluid phase transition always belongs to the second order and the critical exponent of the system takes the mean-field value in both s-wave and p-wave models. Our analytical results are found to be in good agreement with the numerical findings.

  20. Geometrical tuning of nanoscale split-ring resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Kristensen, Anders; Xiao, Sanshui

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the capacitance tuning of nanoscale split-ring resonators. An LC-model predicts a simple dependence of resonance frequency on slit aspect ratio. Experimental and numerical data follow the predictions of the LC-model....

  1. A Decade of Shear-Wave Splitting Observations in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesiles, A. K.; Christensen, D. H.; Abers, G. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Pavlis, G. L.; Song, X.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decade four PASSCAL experiments have been conducted in different regions of Alaska. ARCTIC, BEAAR and MOOS form a north-south transect across the state, from the Arctic Ocean to Price Williams Sound, while the STEEP experiment is currently deployed to the east of that line in the St Elias Mountains of Southeastern Alaska. Shear-wave splitting observations from these networks in addition to several permanent stations of the Alaska Earthquake Information Center were determined in an attempt to understand mantle flow under Alaska in a variety of different geologic settings. Results show two dominant splitting patterns in Alaska, separated by the subducted Pacific Plate. North of the subducted Pacific Plate fast directions are parallel to the trench (along strike of the subducted Pacific Plate) indicating large scale mantle flow in the northeast-southwest direction with higher anisotropy (splitting times) within the mantle wedge. Within or below the Pacific Plate fast directions are normal to the trench in the direction of Pacific Plate convergence. In addition to these two prominent splitting patterns there are several regions that do not match either of these trends. These more complex regions which include the results from STEEP could be due to several factors including effects from the edge of the Pacific Plate. The increase of station coverage that Earthscope will bring to Alaska will aid in developing a more complete model for anisotropy and mantle flow in Alaska.

  2. Fermentation characteristics in hay from Cynodon and crop stubble treated with exogenous enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yânez André Gomes Santana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of treatment with xylanase and β-glucanase was evaluated for gas production and the ruminal degradation of nutrients from the hay of Tifton 85 grass and the stubble of maize, sorghum, peanut, sunflower and sesame crops. Two commercial fibrolytic enzymes were used (Dyadic xylanase PLUS - Xylanase; BrewZyme LP-β-glucanase, added to the hay at doses of 7.5 units of endoglucanase and 0.46 units of xylanase per 500 mg/gDM, for the cellulase and xylanase products respectively. The chemical composition of the hay was determined for no enzyme application and 24 hours after enzyme treatment, and the in vitro gas production and in situ microbial degradation was estimated for dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and truly-degradable organic matter after 24 hours of incubation in the rumen. Enzyme treatment of the hay from Tifton 85 grass and the stubble of maize, sorghum, sunflower, peanut and sesame crops with the exogenous fibrolytic enzymes β-glucanase and xylanase influences in vitro gas production, and the in situ degradation of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and truly-degradable organic matter in the rumen. This variation can be attributed to differences in the chemical composition of the hay from the grass and the crop stubble, and to the different ways the enzymes act upon the cell wall.

  3. Stress distribution and pressure-bearing capacity of a high-pressure split-cylinder die with prism cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Li, Mingzhe; Wang, Liyan; Qu, Erhu; Yi, Zhuo

    2018-03-01

    A novel high-pressure belt-type die with a split-type cylinder is investigated with respect to extending its lifetime and improving its pressure bearing capacity. Specifically, a tungsten carbide cylinder is split into several parts along the radial direction with a prism-type cavity. In this paper, the cylinders with different split numbers are chosen to study the stress distribution and compare them with the traditional belt-type die. The simulation results indicate that the split cylinder has much smaller stress than those in the belt-type cylinder, and the statistical analysis reveals that the split-pressure cylinder is able to bear higher pressure. Experimental tests also show that the high-pressure die with a split cylinder and prism cavity has a stronger pressure-bearing capacity than a belt-type die. The split cylinder has advantages of easy manufacturing, high pressure bearing capacity, and replaceable performance.

  4. Joule-Thomson expansion of the charged AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oekcue, Oezguer; Aydiner, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson effects for charged AdS black holes. We obtain inversion temperatures and curves. We investigate similarities and differences between van der Waals fluids and charged AdS black holes for the expansion. We obtain isenthalpic curves for both systems in the T-P plane and determine the cooling-heating regions. (orig.)

  5. Joule-Thomson expansion of the charged AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oekcue, Oezguer; Aydiner, Ekrem [Istanbul University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson effects for charged AdS black holes. We obtain inversion temperatures and curves. We investigate similarities and differences between van der Waals fluids and charged AdS black holes for the expansion. We obtain isenthalpic curves for both systems in the T-P plane and determine the cooling-heating regions. (orig.)

  6. Critical gravity on AdS2 spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2011-01-01

    We study the critical gravity in two-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS 2 ) spacetimes, which was obtained from the cosmological topologically massive gravity (TMG Λ ) in three dimensions by using the Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction. We perform the perturbation analysis around AdS 2 , which may correspond to the near-horizon geometry of the extremal Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ) black hole obtained from the TMG Λ with identification upon uplifting three dimensions. A massive propagating scalar mode δF satisfies the second-order differential equation away from the critical point of K=l, whose solution is given by the Bessel functions. On the other hand, δF satisfies the fourth-order equation at the critical point. We exactly solve the fourth-order equation, and compare it with the log gravity in two dimensions. Consequently, the critical gravity in two dimensions could not be described by a massless scalar δF ml and its logarithmic partner δF log 4th .

  7. Tumescent Anethesia : A Useful Technique For Harvesting Split- Thickness Skin Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraf Sanjay

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumescent anesthesia is a now an established technique for regional anesthesia of the skin and the subcutaneous fatty tissue. The unsurpassed simplicity and safely of this procedure have opened up the gates for newer indications. We have employed this technique for harvesting split-thickness grafts in various conditions. We have found that this technique is extremely simple in which large areas can be anesthetized for harvesting split-thickness skin grafts safely. The good passive resistance achieved facilitates easy harvesting of split-thickness grafts along with minimal bleeding and long lasting pain relief. We found this to be an inexpensive, safe and simple technique with elimination of risks and expenses of general anesthesia.

  8. Measuring the Enzyme Activity of Arabidopsis Deubiquitylating Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska, Kamila; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Isono, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Deubiquitylating enzymes, or DUBs, are important regulators of ubiquitin homeostasis and substrate stability, though the molecular mechanisms of most of the DUBs in plants are not yet understood. As different ubiquitin chain types are implicated in different biological pathways, it is important to analyze the enzyme characteristic for studying a DUB. Quantitative analysis of DUB activity is also important to determine enzyme kinetics and the influence of DUB binding proteins on the enzyme activity. Here, we show methods to analyze DUB activity using immunodetection, Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining, and fluorescence measurement that can be useful for understanding the basic characteristic of DUBs.

  9. Splitting method for the combined formulation of fluid-particle problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyung Gwon; Yoo, Jung Yul; Joseph, D. D.

    2000-01-01

    A splitting method for the direct numerical simulation of solid-liquid mixtures is presented, where a symmetric pressure equation is newly proposed. Through numerical experiment, it is found that the newly proposed splitting method works well with a matrix-free formulation for some bench mark problems avoiding an erroneous pressure field which appears when using the conventional pressure equation of a splitting method. When deriving a typical pressure equation of a splitting method, the motion of a solid particle has to be approximated by the 'intermediate velocity' instead of treating it as unknowns since it is necessary as a boundary condition. Therefore, the motion of a solid particle is treated in such an explicit way that a particle moves by the known form drag(pressure drag) that is calculated from the pressure equation in the previous step. From the numerical experiment, it was shown that this method gives an erroneous pressure field even for the very small time step size as a particle velocity increases. In this paper, coupling the unknowns of particle velocities in the pressure equation is proposed, where the resulting matrix is reduced to the symmetric one by applying the projector of the combined formulation. It has been tested over some bench mark problems and gives reasonable pressure fields

  10. Ad gist : Ad communication in a single eye fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R.; Wedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Most ads in practice receive no more than a single eye fixation. This study investigates the limits of what ads can communicate under such adverse exposure conditions. We find that consumers already know at maximum levels of accuracy and with high degree of certainty whether something is an ad or is

  11. Double collinear splitting amplitudes at next-to-leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sborlini, Germán F.R. [Departamento de Física and IFIBA, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (1428) Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, Capital Federal (Argentina); Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València -Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Florian, Daniel de [Departamento de Física and IFIBA, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (1428) Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, Capital Federal (Argentina); Rodrigo, Germán [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València -Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain)

    2014-01-07

    We compute the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections to the 1→2 splitting amplitudes in different dimensional regularization (DREG) schemes. Besides recovering previously known results, we explore new DREG schemes and analyze their consistency by comparing the divergent structure with the expected behavior predicted by Catani’s formula. Through the introduction of scalar-gluons, we show the relation among splittings matrices computed using different schemes. Also, we extended this analysis to cover the double collinear limit of scattering amplitudes in the context of QCD+QED.

  12. Normal-Mode Splitting in a Weakly Coupled Optomechanical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Kralj, Nenad; Zippilli, Stefano; Natali, Riccardo; Borrielli, Antonio; Pandraud, Gregory; Serra, Enrico; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Vitali, David

    2018-02-01

    Normal-mode splitting is the most evident signature of strong coupling between two interacting subsystems. It occurs when two subsystems exchange energy between themselves faster than they dissipate it to the environment. Here we experimentally show that a weakly coupled optomechanical system at room temperature can manifest normal-mode splitting when the pump field fluctuations are antisquashed by a phase-sensitive feedback loop operating close to its instability threshold. Under these conditions the optical cavity exhibits an effectively reduced decay rate, so that the system is effectively promoted to the strong coupling regime.

  13. Sunspot splitting triggering an eruptive flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Rohan E.; Puschmann, Klaus G.; Kliem, Bernhard; Balthasar, Horst; Denker, Carsten

    2014-02-01

    Aims: We investigate how the splitting of the leading sunspot and associated flux emergence and cancellation in active region NOAA 11515 caused an eruptive M5.6 flare on 2012 July 2. Methods: Continuum intensity, line-of-sight magnetogram, and dopplergram data of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were employed to analyse the photospheric evolution. Filtergrams in Hα and He I 10830 Å of the Chromospheric Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, track the evolution of the flare. The corresponding coronal conditions were derived from 171 Å and 304 Å images of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. Local correlation tracking was utilized to determine shear flows. Results: Emerging flux formed a neutral line ahead of the leading sunspot and new satellite spots. The sunspot splitting caused a long-lasting flow towards this neutral line, where a filament formed. Further flux emergence, partly of mixed polarity, as well as episodes of flux cancellation occurred repeatedly at the neutral line. Following a nearby C-class precursor flare with signs of interaction with the filament, the filament erupted nearly simultaneously with the onset of the M5.6 flare and evolved into a coronal mass ejection. The sunspot stretched without forming a light bridge, splitting unusually fast (within about a day, complete ≈6 h after the eruption) in two nearly equal parts. The front part separated strongly from the active region to approach the neighbouring active region where all its coronal magnetic connections were rooted. It also rotated rapidly (by 4.9° h-1) and caused significant shear flows at its edge. Conclusions: The eruption resulted from a complex sequence of processes in the (sub-)photosphere and corona. The persistent flows towards the neutral line likely caused the formation of a flux rope that held the filament. These flows, their associated flux cancellation, the emerging flux, and the precursor flare all contributed to the destabilization of the flux rope. We

  14. Factorized tree-level scattering in AdS4 x CP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalousios, Chrysostomos; Vergu, C.; Volovich, Anastasia

    2009-01-01

    AdS 4 /CFT 3 duality relating IIA string theory on AdS 4 x CP 3 to N = 6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory provides an arena for studying aspects of integrability in a new potentially exactly solvable system. In this paper we explore the tree-level worldsheet scattering for strings on AdS 4 x CP 3 . We compute all bosonic four-, five- and six-point amplitudes in the gauge-fixed action and demonstrate the absence of particle production.

  15. Giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3: Tl

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2014-07-25

    First-principles calculations are employed to demonstrate a giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3:Tl. Biaxial tensile and compressive strain is used to tune the splitting by modifying the potential gradient. The band gap is found to increase under compression and decreases under tension, whereas the dependence of the Rashba spin splitting on the strain is the opposite. Large values of αR = 1.57 eV Å at the bottom of the conduction band (electrons) and αR = 3.34 eV Å at the top of the valence band (holes) are obtained without strain. These values can be further enhanced to αR = 1.83 eV Å and αR = 3.64 eV Å, respectively, by 2% tensile strain. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics and Plasticity of the Split Cylinder Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, John Forbes; Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    properties. This implies that the linear elastic interpretation of the ultimate splitting force in term of the uniaxial tensile strength of the material is only valid for special situations, e.g. for very large cylinders. Furthermore, the numerical analysis suggests that the split cylinder test is not well...... models are presented, a simple semi-analytical model based on analytical solutions for the crack propagation in a rectangular prismatic body, and a finite element model including plasticity in bulk material as well as crack propagation in interface elements. A numerical study applying these models...... demonstrates the influence of varying geometry or constitutive properties. For a split cylinder test in load control it is shown how the ultimate load is either plasticity dominated or fracture mechanics dominated. The transition between the two modes is related to changes in geometry or constitutive...

  17. Basic dynamics of split Stirling refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Liang, W.

    2008-01-01

    The basic features of the split Stirling refrigerator, driven by a linear compressor, are described. Friction of the compressor piston and of the regenerator, and the viscous losses due to the gas flow through the regenerator matrix are taken into account. The temp. at the cold end is an input

  18. Spin-splitting calculation for zincblende semiconductors using an atomic bond-orbital model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Hsiu-Fen; Lo, Ikai; Chiang, Jih-Chen; Wang, Wan-Tsang; Hsu, Yu-Chi; Wu, Chieh-Lung; Gau, Ming-Hong; Chen, Chun-Nan; Ren, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Meng-En

    2012-01-01

    We develop a 16-band atomic bond-orbital model (16ABOM) to compute the spin splitting induced by bulk inversion asymmetry in zincblende materials. This model is derived from the linear combination of atomic-orbital (LCAO) scheme such that the characteristics of the real atomic orbitals can be preserved to calculate the spin splitting. The Hamiltonian of 16ABOM is based on a similarity transformation performed on the nearest-neighbor LCAO Hamiltonian with a second-order Taylor expansion over k-vector at the Γ point. The spin-splitting energies in bulk zincblende semiconductors, GaAs and InSb, are calculated, and the results agree with the LCAO and first-principles calculations. However, we find that the spin-orbit coupling between bonding and antibonding p-like states, evaluated by the 16ABOM, dominates the spin splitting of the lowest conduction bands in the zincblende materials.

  19. Hybrid bio-photo-electro-chemical cells for solar water splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Pinhassi, Roy I.; Kallmann, Dan; Saper, Gadiel; Dotan, Hen; Linkov, Artyom; Kay, Asaf; Liveanu, Varda; Schuster, Gadi; Adir, Noam; Rothschild, Avner

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting uses solar power to decompose water to hydrogen and oxygen. Here we show how the photocatalytic activity of thylakoid membranes leads to overall water splitting in a bio-photo-electro-chemical (BPEC) cell via a simple process. Thylakoids extracted from spinach are introduced into a BPEC cell containing buffer solution with ferricyanide. Upon solar-simulated illumination, water oxidation takes place and electrons are shuttled by the ferri/ferrocyanide redox...

  20. Wilson lines for AdS5 black strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristov, Kiril; Katmadas, Stefanos

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple method of extending AdS 5 black string solutions of 5d gauged supergravity in a supersymmetric way by addition of Wilson lines along a circular direction in space. When this direction is chosen along the string, and due to the specific form of 5d supergravity that features Chern-Simons terms, the existence of magnetic charges automatically generates conserved electric charges in a 5d analogue of the Witten effect. Therefore we find a rather generic, model-independent way of adding electric charges to already existing solutions with no backreaction from the geometry or breaking of any symmetry. We use this method to explicitly write down more general versions of the Benini-Bobev black strings (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.061601, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP06(2013)005) and comment on the implications for the dual field theory and the similarities with generalizations of the Cacciatori-Klemm black holes (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2010)085) in AdS 4 .

  1. Study of flow behaviors of droplet merging and splitting in microchannels using Micro-PIV measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Liu, Zhaomiao

    2017-01-01

    Droplet merging and splitting are important droplet manipulations in droplet-based microfluidics. However, the fundamental flow behaviors of droplets were not systematically studied. Hence, we designed two different microstructures to achieve droplet merging and splitting respectively, and quantitatively compared different flow dynamics in different microstructures for droplet merging and splitting via micro-particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) experiments. Some flow phenomena of droplets different from previous studies were observed during merging and splitting using a high-speed microscope. It was also found the obtained instantaneous velocity vector fields of droplets have significant influence on the droplets merging and splitting. For droplet merging, the probability of droplets coalescence (η) in a microgroove is higher (50% T-junction microchannel (15% < η < 50%), and the highest coalescence efficiency (η = 92%) comes at the two-phase flow ratio e of 0.42 in the microgroove. Moreover, compared with a cylinder obstacle, Y-junction bifurcation can split droplets more effectively and the droplet flow during splitting is steadier. The results can provide better understanding of droplet behaviors and are useful for the design and applications of droplet-based microfluidics. PMID:28890680

  2. Study of flow behaviors of droplet merging and splitting in microchannels using Micro-PIV measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feng; Li, Yi; Liu, Zhaomiao; Li, XiuJun

    2017-04-01

    Droplet merging and splitting are important droplet manipulations in droplet-based microfluidics. However, the fundamental flow behaviors of droplets were not systematically studied. Hence, we designed two different microstructures to achieve droplet merging and splitting respectively, and quantitatively compared different flow dynamics in different microstructures for droplet merging and splitting via micro-particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) experiments. Some flow phenomena of droplets different from previous studies were observed during merging and splitting using a high-speed microscope. It was also found the obtained instantaneous velocity vector fields of droplets have significant influence on the droplets merging and splitting. For droplet merging, the probability of droplets coalescence ( η ) in a microgroove is higher (50% < η < 92%) than that in a T-junction microchannel (15% < η < 50%), and the highest coalescence efficiency ( η = 92%) comes at the two-phase flow ratio e of 0.42 in the microgroove. Moreover, compared with a cylinder obstacle, Y-junction bifurcation can split droplets more effectively and the droplet flow during splitting is steadier. The results can provide better understanding of droplet behaviors and are useful for the design and applications of droplet-based microfluidics.

  3. Financial and health literacy predict incident AD dementia and AD pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.; Boyle, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Domain specific literacy is a multidimensional construct that requires multiple resources including cognitive and non-cognitive factors. Objective We test the hypothesis that domain specific literacy is associated with AD dementia and AD pathology after controlling for cognition. Methods Participants were community based older persons who completed a baseline literacy assessment, underwent annual clinical evaluations for up to 8 years and agreed to organ donation after death. Financial and health literacy was measured using 32 questions and cognition was measured using 19 tests. Annual diagnosis of AD dementia followed standard criteria. AD pathology was examined post-mortem by quantifying plaques and tangles. Cox models examined the association of literacy with incident AD dementia. Performance of model prediction for incident AD dementia was assessed using indices for integrated discrimination improvement and continuous net reclassification improvement. Linear regression models examined the independent association of literacy with AD pathology in autopsied participants. Results All 805 participants were free of dementia at baseline and 102 (12.7%) developed AD dementia during the follow-up. Lower literacy was associated with higher risk for incident AD dementia (pliteracy measure had better predictive performance than the one with demographics and cognition only. Lower literacy also was associated with higher burden of AD pathology after controlling for cognition (β=0.07, p=0.035). Conclusion Literacy predicts incident AD dementia and AD pathology in community-dwelling older persons, and the association is independent of traditional measures of cognition. PMID:28157101

  4. Enthalpy and the mechanics of AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie; Ray, Sourya

    2009-01-01

    We present geometric derivations of the Smarr formula for static AdS black holes and an expanded first law that includes variations in the cosmological constant. These two results are further related by a scaling argument based on Euler's theorem. The key new ingredient in the constructions is a two-form potential for the static Killing field. Surface integrals of the Killing potential determine the coefficient of the variation of Λ in the first law. This coefficient is proportional to a finite, effective volume for the region outside the AdS black hole horizon, which can also be interpreted as minus the volume excluded from a spatial slice by the black hole horizon. This effective volume also contributes to the Smarr formula. Since Λ is naturally thought of as a pressure, the new term in the first law has the form of effective volume times change in pressure that arises in the variation of the enthalpy in classical thermodynamics. This and related arguments suggest that the mass of an AdS black hole should be interpreted as the enthalpy of the spacetime.

  5. The Presence of Amorpha-4, 11-Diene Synthase, a Key Enzyme in Artemisinin Production in Ten Artemisia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GA. Garoosi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Artemisinin is one of the most effective medicine against malaria, which is produced naturally by Artemisia annua in low yield. It is produced in a metabolic pathway, in which several genes and gene products are involved. One of the key genes in this pathway is am1, which encodes amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS, a key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthesis pathway. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of this gene in ten Artemisia species in order to increase the yield of production of Artemisinin. Methods : The experiments were carried out using PCR. Specific primers were designed based on the published am1 gene sequence obtained from A. annua (NCBI, accession number AF327527. Results: The amplification of this gene by the specific primers was considered as a positive sign for the potentiality of artemisinin production. Since the entire am1 gene was not amplified in any of the 10 species used, four parts of the gene, essential in ADS enzyme function, corresponding to a pair site of Arg10-Pro12 in the first 100 amino acids, b aspartate rich motif (DDXXD, c active site final lid and d active site including farnesyl diphosphate (FDP ionization sites and catalytic site in the ADS enzyme, were investigated. Major conclusion: The sequence corresponding to ADS active site was amplified only in A. annua, A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia. The negative results obtained with other species could be due to some sequence alteration, such as point mutations or INDELs. We propose A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia as two potential candidate species for further characterization, breeding and transferring am1 gene for artemisinin overproduction.

  6. Analysis and experimental results of frequency splitting of underwater wireless power transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangqiang Niu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Underwater wireless power transfer (UWPT is an important technique to power underwater devices while its frequency splitting phenomena are not fully elucidated. In this study, frequency splitting phenomena of a symmetrical planar two-coil wireless power transfer (WPT system resonated at 90 kHz are investigated in seawater and freshwater. A concise frequency splitting analysis of this WPT system in air based on circuit model is given first and then experimental data are reported to show there is little difference between power transfer in air, freshwater and seawater in the range of 40–140 kHz of this WPT system. Consequently, the frequency splitting analysis and observations in air are also applicable in freshwater and seawater. It is found a V-type frequency splitting pattern exists in this WPT system under seawater and freshwater. Frequency shift is observed in this UWPT system in overcoupled region, and no frequency shift is observed in undercoupled region. In undercoupled region, in the low frequency zone of 40–90 kHz the load voltage characteristics in three media are identical; in the high-frequency zone of 90–140 kHz, the load voltage in air is slightly larger than those in freshwater and seawater.

  7. Nanomaterials with enzyme-like characteristics (nanozymes): next-generation artificial enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Wang, Erkang

    2013-07-21

    Over the past few decades, researchers have established artificial enzymes as highly stable and low-cost alternatives to natural enzymes in a wide range of applications. A variety of materials including cyclodextrins, metal complexes, porphyrins, polymers, dendrimers and biomolecules have been extensively explored to mimic the structures and functions of naturally occurring enzymes. Recently, some nanomaterials have been found to exhibit unexpected enzyme-like activities, and great advances have been made in this area due to the tremendous progress in nano-research and the unique characteristics of nanomaterials. To highlight the progress in the field of nanomaterial-based artificial enzymes (nanozymes), this review discusses various nanomaterials that have been explored to mimic different kinds of enzymes. We cover their kinetics, mechanisms and applications in numerous fields, from biosensing and immunoassays, to stem cell growth and pollutant removal. We also summarize several approaches to tune the activities of nanozymes. Finally, we make comparisons between nanozymes and other catalytic materials (other artificial enzymes, natural enzymes, organic catalysts and nanomaterial-based catalysts) and address the current challenges and future directions (302 references).

  8. Spin-valley splitting of electron beam in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We study spatial separation of the four degenerate spin-valley components of an electron beam in a EuO-induced and top-gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We show that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all beam components, the formation of standing waves can lead sudden phase jumps ∼−π and giant lateral Goos-Hänchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the spin and valley imaginary wave vectors in the modulated regions can lead differences of resonant angles for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting a spin-valley beam splitting effect. The splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  9. Split heat pipe heat recovery system

    OpenAIRE

    E. Azad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a split heat pipe heat recovery system. The analysis is based on an Effectiveness-NTU approach to deduce its heat transfer characteristics. In this study the variation of overall effectiveness of heat recovery with the number of transfer units are presented. Copyright , Manchester University Press.

  10. Investigation of dynamic characteristics of shells with holes and added mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seregin Sergey Valer’evich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thin cylindrical shells are widely used in construction, engineering and other industries. In case of designing a reservoir for the isothermal storage of liquefied gases such cases are inevitable, when housing requires various technical holes. A point wise added mass can appear into practice in the form of suspended spotlights, radar, architectural inclusions in buildings and structures of various purposes. It is known, that the dynamic asymmetry as an initial irregular geometric shape, including holes, and the added mass leads to specific effects in shells. In the paper the impact of a cut on the frequency and form of its own vibrations of thin circular cylindrical shells is theoretically examined with the help of the equations of linear shallow shell theory. For modal equations with Nav’e boundary conditions, we used the Bubnov - Galerkin method. The authors have expressed a formula for finding the lowest of the split-frequency vibrations of a shell with a cutout. It is stated, that in case of an appropriate choice of added mass value the lower frequencies are comparable with the case of vibrations of a shell with a hole. By numerical and experimental modeling and finite element method in the environment of MSC "Nastran" oscillation frequencies a shell supporting a concentrated mass and a shell with a cutout were compared. It is shown, that the results of the dynamic analysis of shells with holes with a suitable choice of the attached mass values are comparable with the results of the analysis of shells carrying a point mass. It was concluded that the edges in the holes, significantly affect the reduction in the lowest frequency, and need to be strengthened.

  11. Large Bandgap Semiconductors for Solar Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting represents an eco-friendly technology that could enable the production of hydrogen using water as reactant and solar energy as primary energy source. The exploitation of solar energy for the production of hydrogen would help modern society to reduce the reliance...... on fossil fuels as primary feedstock for hydrogen production and diminish the emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, weakening the global warming phenomenon.The dissertation reports the development of GaP (gallium phosphide) photocathodes as a large bandgap semiconductor for photoelectrochemical...... water splitting devices having tandem design. The increase of the photovoltage produced by GaP under illumination was the main goal of this work. GaP has a bandgap of 2.25 eV and could in theory produce a photovoltage of approximately 1.7 V. Instead, the photovoltage produced by the semiconductor...

  12. Thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon

    2014-01-01

    We study thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. These include the BTZ black hole in new massive gravity, Schwarzschild-AdS black hole, and higher-dimensional AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. All thermodynamic quantities which are computed using the Abbot-Deser-Tekin method are used to study thermodynamic instability of AdS black holes. On the other hand, we investigate the s-mode Gregory-Laflamme instability of the massive graviton propagating around the AdS black holes. We establish the connection between the thermodynamic instability and the GL instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. This shows that the Gubser-Mitra conjecture holds for AdS black holes found from fourth-order gravity

  13. Winding strings and AdS3 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troost, Jan

    2002-01-01

    We start a systematic study of string theory in AdS 3 black hole backgrounds. Firstly, we analyse in detail the geodesic structure of the BTZ black hole, including spacelike geodesics. Secondly, we study the spectrum for massive and massless scalar fields, paying particular attention to the connection between Sl(2,R) subgroups, the theory of special functions and global properties of the BTZ black holes. We construct classical strings that wind the black holes. Finally, we apply the general formalism to the vacuum black hole background, and formulate the boundary spacetime Virasoro algebra in terms of worldsheet operators. We moreover establish the link between a proposal for a ghost free spectrum for Sl(2,R) string propagation and the massless black hole background, thereby claryfing aspects of the AdS 3 /CFT correspondence. (author)

  14. AdS strings with torsion: Noncomplex heterotic compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, Andrew R.; Lippert, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Combining the effects of fluxes and gaugino condensation in heterotic supergravity, we use a ten-dimensional approach to find a new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric AdS 4 compactifications on almost-Hermitian manifolds of SU(3) structure. Computation of the torsion allows a classification of the internal geometry, which for a particular combination of fluxes and condensate, is nearly Kaehler. We argue that all moduli are fixed, and we show that the Kaehler potential and superpotential proposed in the literature yield the correct AdS 4 radius. In the nearly Kaehler case, we are able to solve the H Bianchi identity using a nonstandard embedding. Finally, we point out subtleties in deriving the effective superpotential and understanding the heterotic supergravity in the presence of a gaugino condensate

  15. Contextual advertising using Google AdWords and Google AdSense

    OpenAIRE

    Mihok, Radovan

    2008-01-01

    The thesis introduces contextual advertising on internet using Google AdWords. The paper describes individual steps of an ad campaign (product choosing, ad types, keywords), its management and success evaluation (calculation of ROI and modified ROI).

  16. Single lipid vesicle assay for characterizing single-enzyme kinetics of phospholipid hydrolysis in a complex biological fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaei, Seyed R; Rabe, Michael; Zetterberg, Henrik; Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Höök, Fredrik

    2013-09-25

    Imaging of individual lipid vesicles is used to track single-enzyme kinetics of phospholipid hydrolysis. The method is employed to quantify the catalytic activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in both pure and complex biological fluids. The measurements are demonstrated to offer a subpicomolar limit of detection (LOD) of human secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) in up to 1000-fold-diluted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). An additional new feature provided by the single-enzyme sensitivity is that information about both relative concentration variations of active sPLA2 in CSF and the specific enzymatic activity can be simultaneously obtained. When CSF samples from healthy controls and individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are analyzed, the specific enzymatic activity is found to be preserved within 7% in the different CSF samples whereas the enzyme concentration differs by up to 56%. This suggests that the previously reported difference in PLA2 activity in CSF samples from healthy and AD individuals originates from differences in the PLA2 expression level rather than from the enzyme activity. Conventional ensemble averaging methods used to probe sPLA2 activity do not allow one to obtain such information. Together with an improvement in the LOD of at least 1 order of magnitude compared to that of conventional assays, this suggests that the method will become useful in furthering our understanding of the role of PLA2 in health and disease and in detecting the pharmacodynamic effects of PLA2-targeting drug candidates.

  17. Nanoscale strontium titanate photocatalysts for overall water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Troy K; Browning, Nigel D; Osterloh, Frank E

    2012-08-28

    SrTiO(3) (STO) is a large band gap (3.2 eV) semiconductor that catalyzes the overall water splitting reaction under UV light irradiation in the presence of a NiO cocatalyst. As we show here, the reactivity persists in nanoscale particles of the material, although the process is less effective at the nanoscale. To reach these conclusions, Bulk STO, 30 ± 5 nm STO, and 6.5 ± 1 nm STO were synthesized by three different methods, their crystal structures verified with XRD and their morphology observed with HRTEM before and after NiO deposition. In connection with NiO, all samples split water into stoichiometric mixtures of H(2) and O(2), but the activity is decreasing from 28 μmol H(2) g(-1) h(-1) (bulk STO), to 19.4 μmol H(2) g(-1) h(-1) (30 nm STO), and 3.0 μmol H(2) g(-1) h(-1) (6.5 nm STO). The reasons for this decrease are an increase of the water oxidation overpotential for the smaller particles and reduced light absorption due to a quantum size effect. Overall, these findings establish the first nanoscale titanate photocatalyst for overall water splitting.

  18. Beyond the Interconnections: Split Manufacturing in RF Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the globalization of the integrated circuit (IC design flow of chip fabrication, intellectual property (IP piracy is becoming the main security threat. While most of the protection methods are dedicated for digital circuits, we are trying to protect radio-frequency (RF designs. For the first time, we applied the split manufacturing method in RF circuit protection. Three different implementation cases are introduced for security and design overhead tradeoffs, i.e., the removal of the top metal layer, the removal of the top two metal layers and the design obfuscation dedicated to RF circuits. We also developed a quantitative security evaluation method to measure the protection level of RF designs under split manufacturing. Finally, a simple Class AB power amplifier and a more sophisticated Class E power amplifier are used for the demonstration through which we prove that: (1 the removal of top metal layer or the top two metal layers can provide high-level protection for RF circuits with a lower request to domestic foundries; (2 the design obfuscation method provides the highest level of circuit protection, though at the cost of design overhead; and (3 split manufacturing may be more suitable for RF designs than for digital circuits, and it can effectively reduce IP piracy in untrusted off-shore foundries.

  19. Supersymmetric black holes in AdS4 from very special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnecchi, Alessandra; Halmagyi, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes in AdS spacetime are inherently interesting for the AdS/CFT correspondence. Within a four dimensional gauged supergravity theory coupled to vector multiplets, the only analytic solutions for regular, supersymmetric, static black holes in AdS 4 are those in the STU-model due to Cacciatori and Klemm. We study a class of U(1)-gauged supergravity theories coupled to vector multiplets which have a cubic prepotential, the scalar manifold is then a very special Kähler manifold. When the resulting very special Kähler manifold is a homogeneous space, we find analytic solutions for static, supersymmetric AdS 4 black holes with vanishing axions. The horizon geometries of our solutions are constant curvature Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus

  20. [Advances on enzymes and enzyme inhibitors research based on microfluidic devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Feng-Hua; Ye, Jian-Qing; Chen, Zuan-Guang; Cheng, Zhi-Yi

    2010-06-01

    With the continuous development in microfluidic fabrication technology, microfluidic analysis has evolved from a concept to one of research frontiers in last twenty years. The research of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors based on microfluidic devices has also made great progress. Microfluidic technology improved greatly the analytical performance of the research of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors by reducing the consumption of reagents, decreasing the analysis time, and developing automation. This review focuses on the development and classification of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors research based on microfluidic devices.