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Sample records for splitting dye complex

  1. Photocatalytic water splitting with acridine dyes: Guidelines from computational chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaojun [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Munich, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Karsili, Tolga N.V. [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Munich, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Sobolewski, Andrzej L. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Domcke, Wolfgang, E-mail: domcke@ch.tum.de [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Munich, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-13

    Highlights: • Photoexcited acridine dyes are able to abstract a hydrogen atom from water. • Photodetachment of the hydrogen atom from the radicals regenerates the catalyzer. • The reaction mechanisms were characterized with ab initio electronic-structure calculations. • The chromophores and radicals absorb within the range of the solar spectrum. - Abstract: The photocatalytic splitting of water into H{sup ·} and OH{sup ·} radicals in hydrogen-bonded chromophore-water complexes has been explored with computational methods for the chromophores acridine orange (AO) and benzacridine (BA). These dyes are strong absorbers within the range of the solar spectrum. It is shown that low-lying charge-transfer excited states exist in the hydrogen-bonded AO−H{sub 2}O and BA−H{sub 2}O complexes which drive the transfer of a proton from water to the chromophore, which results in AOH{sup ·}−OH{sup ·} or BAH{sup ·}−OH{sup ·} biradicals. The AOH{sup ·} and BAH{sup ·} radicals possess bright ππ{sup ∗} excited states with vertical excitation energies near 3.0 eV which are predissociated by a low-lying repulsive πσ{sup ∗} state. The conical intersections of the πσ{sup ∗} state with the ππ{sup ∗} excited states and the ground state provide a mechanism for the photodetachment of the H-atom by a second photon. Our results indicate that AO and BA are promising chromophores for water splitting with visible light.

  2. Dye-sensitized photocatalyst for effective water splitting catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Motonori

    2017-12-01

    Renewable hydrogen production is a sustainable method for the development of next-generation energy technologies. Utilising solar energy and photocatalysts to split water is an ideal method to produce hydrogen. In this review, the fundamental principles and recent progress of hydrogen production by artificial photosynthesis are reviewed, focusing on hydrogen production from photocatalytic water splitting using organic-inorganic composite-based photocatalysts.

  3. Dye-Sensitized Photocatalytic Water Splitting and Sacrificial Hydrogen Generation: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chowdhury

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, global warming and green energy are important topics of discussion for every intellectual gathering all over the world. The only sustainable solution to these problems is the use of solar energy and storing it as hydrogen fuel. Photocatalytic and photo-electrochemical water splitting and sacrificial hydrogen generation show a promise for future energy generation from renewable water and sunlight. This article mainly reviews the current research progress on photocatalytic and photo-electrochemical systems focusing on dye-sensitized overall water splitting and sacrificial hydrogen generation. An overview of significant parameters including dyes, sacrificial agents, modified photocatalysts and co-catalysts are provided. Also, the significance of statistical analysis as an effective tool for a systematic investigation of the effects of different factors and their interactions are explained. Finally, different photocatalytic reactor configurations that are currently in use for water splitting application in laboratory and large scale are discussed.

  4. Laser-assisted indocyanine green dye angiography accurately predicts the split-thickness graft timing of integra artificial dermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourman, Mitchell S; Phillips, Brett T; Fritz, Jason R; Conkling, Nicole; McClain, Steve A; Simon, Marcia; Dagum, Alexander B

    2014-08-01

    The use of an artificial dermal substitute such as Integra-a bilaminate combination of thin silicone and cross-linked bovine tendon collagen and chondroitin-6-sulfate-has become a popular method to address large surface area wounds or smaller, complex wounds devoid of a vascular bed. The incorporation of Integra depends on a vascular wound bed or periphery and can take 4 weeks or longer to occur. If the Integra has not fully incorporated at the time of placement of the split-thickness graft, complete graft loss may result. The availability of a minimally invasive method to assess the incorporation of Integra would be of great value. Two 5 × 10-cm paraspinal full-thickness wounds were created on 3 female swine. Wounds were randomly assigned full-thickness skin graft or Integra (Plainsboro, NJ) treatment. Both types of grafts were placed after the application of fibrin glue (Tisseel, Deerfield, Ill) to the wound bed. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) (Moor), indocyanine green dye (ICG) angiography (LifeCell SPY), and clinical scoring were performed weekly for a period of 8 weeks after grafting. At 4 weeks, the silicone layer of the Integra was removed, and a culture of autologous keratinocytes was applied. A 4-mm punch biopsy sample of each graft was taken 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 weeks postoperatively for histologic analysis. Both ICG angiography and LDI perfusion measurements noted an increase in perfusion at the Integra graft site that peaked 3 weeks after grafting, corresponding with the start of neovascularization and the optimal time for the application of a split-thickness skin graft. indocyanine green dye angiography measurements exhibit greater reproducibility between animals at late time points as compared with LDI. This decrease in LDI precision is directly related to increases in scar tissue thickness of greater than 5 mm as determined via histologic analysis and corresponds with the accepted maximum penetration depth of the LDI laser. Indocyanine green dye

  5. The 2-group of symmetries of a split chain complex

    OpenAIRE

    Elgueta, Josep

    2010-01-01

    We explicitly compute the 2-group of self-equivalences and (homotopy classes of) chain homotopies between them for any {\\it split} chain complex $A_{\\bullet}$ in an arbitrary $\\kb$-linear abelian category ($\\kb$ any commutative ring with unit). In particular, it is shown that it is a {\\it split} 2-group whose equivalence class depends only on the homology of $A_{\\bullet}$, and that it is equivalent to the trivial 2-group when $A_\\bullet$ is a split exact sequence. This provides a description ...

  6. Experimental and Computational Studies on the Design of Dyes for Water-splitting Dye-sensitized Photoelectrochemical Tandem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Hernandez, Dalvin D.

    Solar energy is a promising alternative for addressing the world's current and future energy requirements in a sustainable way. Because solar irradiation is intermittent, it is necessary to store this energy in the form of a fuel so it can be used when required. The light-driven splitting of water into oxygen and hydrogen (a useful chemical fuel) is a fascinating theoretical and experimental challenge that is worth pursuing because the advance of the knowledge that it implies and the availability of water and sunlight. Inspired by natural photosynthesis and building on previous work from our laboratory, this dissertation focuses on the development of water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical tandem cells (WSDSPETCs). The design, synthesis, and characterization of high-potential porphyrins and metal-free phthalocyanines with phosphonic anchoring groups are reported. Photocurrents measured for WSDSPETCs made with some of these dyes co-adsorbed with molecular or colloidal catalysts on TiO2 electrodes are reported as well. To guide in the design of new molecules we have used computational quantum chemistry extensively. Linear correlations between calculated frontier molecular orbital energies and redox potentials were built and tested at multiple levels of theory (from semi-empirical methods to density functional theory). Strong correlations (with r2 values > 0.99) with very good predictive abilities (rmsd mV) were found when using density functional theory (DFT) combined with a continuum solvent model. DFT was also used to aid in the elucidation of the mechanism of the thermal relaxation observed for the charge-separated state of a molecular triad that mimics the photo-induced proton coupled electron transfer of the tyrosine-histidine redox relay in the reaction center of Photosystem II. It was found that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules, hydrogen bonded to specific sites within the molecular triad, was essential to explain the observed thermal

  7. Compact complex surfaces with geometric structures related to split quaternions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidov, Johann; Grantcharov, Gueo; Mushkarov, Oleg; Yotov, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of existence of geometric structures on compact complex surfaces that are related to split quaternions. These structures, called para-hypercomplex, para-hyperhermitian and para-hyperkähler, are analogs of the hypercomplex, hyperhermitian and hyperkähler structures in the definite case. We show that a compact 4-manifold carries a para-hyperkähler structure iff it has a metric of split signature together with two parallel, null, orthogonal, pointwise linearly independent vector fields. Every compact complex surface admitting a para-hyperhermitian structure has vanishing first Chern class and we show that, unlike the definite case, many of these surfaces carry infinite-dimensional families of such structures. We provide also compact examples of complex surfaces with para-hyperhermitian structures which are not locally conformally para-hyperkähler. Finally, we discuss the problem of non-existence of para-hyperhermitian structures on Inoue surfaces of type S 0 and provide a list of compact complex surfaces which could carry para-hypercomplex structures.

  8. Boron complexing with H-resorcinol and acidic hydroxyxanthene dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, V.A.; Flyantikova, G.V.; Chekirda, T.N.

    1984-01-01

    Complex formation of boron with H-resorcinol (hr; 2,4-dihydroxybenzene-azo -8-hydroxynaphtalene-3,6-disulfonic acid) and acidic hydroxyxanthene dyes (hxd: fluorescein, eosine, erathrosine). Mixed-ligand complexes with a ratio of r:hr:hxd=1:1:1 are formed at pH=5-6. The chemism of the complex formation of boron with H-resorcinol and fluorescein has been studied. The stability consta nt of the complex is 1.12x10 21 , the conditional molar absorptivitis 1.80x10 0 . This complex formation reaction was used for photometric determination of boron in natural water

  9. Influence of the large-small split effect on strategy choice in complex subtraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yan Hui; Wu, Hao; Shang, Rui Hong; Chao, Xiaomei; Ren, Ting Ting; Zheng, Li Ling; Mo, Lei

    2018-04-01

    Two main theories have been used to explain the arithmetic split effect: decision-making process theory and strategy choice theory. Using the inequality paradigm, previous studies have confirmed that individuals tend to adopt a plausibility-checking strategy and a whole-calculation strategy to solve large and small split problems in complex addition arithmetic, respectively. This supports strategy choice theory, but it is unknown whether this theory also explains performance in solving different split problems in complex subtraction arithmetic. This study used small, intermediate and large split sizes, with each split condition being further divided into problems requiring and not requiring borrowing. The reaction times (RTs) for large and intermediate splits were significantly shorter than those for small splits, while accuracy was significantly higher for large and middle splits than for small splits, reflecting no speed-accuracy trade-off. Further, RTs and accuracy differed significantly between the borrow and no-borrow conditions only for small splits. This study indicates that strategy choice theory is suitable to explain the split effect in complex subtraction arithmetic. That is, individuals tend to choose the plausibility-checking strategy or the whole-calculation strategy according to the split size. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Convergence of Batch Split-Complex Backpropagation Algorithm for Complex-Valued Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisheng Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The batch split-complex backpropagation (BSCBP algorithm for training complex-valued neural networks is considered. For constant learning rate, it is proved that the error function of BSCBP algorithm is monotone during the training iteration process, and the gradient of the error function tends to zero. By adding a moderate condition, the weights sequence itself is also proved to be convergent. A numerical example is given to support the theoretical analysis.

  11. Novel D–π–A dye sensitizers of polymeric metal complexes with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 2. Novel D––A dye sensitizers of polymeric metal complexes with triphenylamine derivatives as donor for dye-sensitized solar cells: synthesis, characterization and application. Guipeng Tang Jun Zhou Wei Zhang Jiaomei Hu Dahai Peng Qiufang Xie ...

  12. Ultrafast Dynamics of Dansylated POPAM Dendrimers and Energy Transfer in their Dye Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumanen, J.; Kesti, T.; Sundström, V.; Vögtle, F.; Korppi-Tommola, J.

    We have studied internal dynamics of dansylated poly(propyleneamine) dendrimers of different generations in solution and excitation energy transfer from dansyl chromophores to xanthene dyes that form van der Waals complexes with the dendrimers

  13. Studies on the complexes of some triphenylmethane dyes with chromium, molybdenum and tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, W U; Bembi, Ramesh; Bhargava, P P; Singh, R [Roorkee Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1978-01-01

    Crystal violet, malachite green and fuchsine react with potassium chromate, sodium molybdate and sodium tungstate in 1N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ give 1:1 metal ligand complexes. However, in the case of chromate only an addition product with these cationic dyes is obtained. Infrared spectra of the isolated complexes show that the dyes are bound to the metal through the nitrogen atom.

  14. Riemann surfaces of complex classical trajectories and tunnelling splitting in one-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hiromitsu; Mouchet, Amaury; Shudo, Akira

    2017-10-01

    The topology of complex classical paths is investigated to discuss quantum tunnelling splittings in one-dimensional systems. Here the Hamiltonian is assumed to be given as polynomial functions, so the fundamental group for the Riemann surface provides complete information on the topology of complex paths, which allows us to enumerate all the possible candidates contributing to the semiclassical sum formula for tunnelling splittings. This naturally leads to action relations among classically disjoined regions, revealing entirely non-local nature in the quantization condition. The importance of the proper treatment of Stokes phenomena is also discussed in Hamiltonians in the normal form.

  15. Long-pulsed dye laser versus intense pulsed light for photodamaged skin: A randomized split-face trial with blinded response evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, G.F.; Hedelund, L.; Haedersdal, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In a randomized controlled split-face trial to evaluate efficacy and adverse effects from rejuvenation with long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL) versus intense pulsed light (IPL). Materials and Methods: Twenty female volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin types I-III, classes I-II rhytids......, and symmetrical split-face photodamage were included in the study. Subjects received a series of three treatments at 3-week intervals with half-face LPDL (V-beam Perfecta, 595 nm, Candela Laser Corporation) and half-face IPL (Ellipse Flex, Danish Dermatologic Development); the interventions being randomly...... assigned to left and right sides. Primary end-points were telangiectasias, irregular pigmentation and preferred treatment. Secondary end-points were skin texture, rhytids, pain, and adverse effects. Efficacy was evaluated by patient self-assessments and by blinded clinical on-site and photographic...

  16. Splitting deformations of degenerations of complex curves towards the classification of atoms of degenerations

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The author develops a deformation theory for degenerations of complex curves; specifically, he treats deformations which induce splittings of the singular fiber of a degeneration. He constructs a deformation of the degeneration in such a way that a subdivisor is "barked" (peeled) off from the singular fiber. These "barking deformations" are related to deformations of surface singularities (in particular, cyclic quotient singularities) as well as the mapping class groups of Riemann surfaces (complex curves) via monodromies. Important applications, such as the classification of atomic degenerations, are also explained.

  17. Improved efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes based on a europium complex by fluorescent dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You Han [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Fang Junfeng [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Gao Jia [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Ma Dongge [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)]. E-mail: mdg1014@ciac.jl.cn

    2007-01-15

    Improved efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on europium complexes have been realized by using a fluorescent dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6 (1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl))-4H-pyran (DCJTB) doping .The luminous efficiency of the devices with a fluorescent dye in the emissive layer was found to improve two times of that in devices without fluorescent dye. The devices showed pure red light, which is the characteristic emission of trivalent europium ion with a full-width at half-maximum of 3 nm.The maximum brightness and luminous efficiency reached 1200 cd/m{sup 2} at 23 V and 7.3 cd/A (2.0 lm/w), respectively, at a current density of 0.35 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  18. Copper Complexes with Tetradentate Ligands for Enhanced Charge Transport in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Michaels

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, the redox mediator is responsible for the regeneration of the oxidized dye and for the hole transport towards the cathode. Here, we introduce new copper complexes with tetradentate 6,6′-bis(4-(S-isopropyl-2-oxazolinyl-2,2′-bipyridine ligands, Cu(oxabpy, as redox mediators. Copper coordination complexes with a square-planar geometry show low reorganization energies and thus introduce smaller losses in photovoltage. Slow recombination kinetics of excited electrons between the TiO2 and CuII(oxabpy species lead to an exceptionally long electron lifetime, a high Fermi level in the TiO2, and a high photovoltage of 920 mV with photocurrents of 10 mA∙cm−2 and 6.2% power conversion efficiency. Meanwhile, a large driving force remains for the dye regeneration of the Y123 dye with high efficiencies. The square-planar Cu(oxabpy complexes yield viscous gel-like solutions. The unique charge transport characteristics are attributed to a superposition of diffusion and electronic conduction. An enhancement in charge transport performance of 70% despite the higher viscosity is observed upon comparison of Cu(oxabpy to the previously reported Cu(tmby2 redox electrolyte.

  19. Computational Molecular Nanoscience Study of the Properties of Copper Complexes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldenebro-López, Jesús; Castorena-González, José; Flores-Holguín, Norma; Almaral-Sánchez, Jorge; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we studied a copper complex-based dye, which is proposed for potential photovoltaic applications and is named Cu (I) biquinoline dye. Results of electron affinities and ionization potentials have been used for the correlation between different levels of calculation used in this study, which are based on The Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD) DFT. Further, the maximum absorption wavelengths of our theoretical calculations were compared with the experimental data. It was found that the M06/LANL2DZ + DZVP level of calculation provides the best approximation. This level of calculation was used to find the optimized molecular structure and to predict the main molecular vibrations, the molecular orbitals energies, dipole moment, isotropic polarizability and the chemical reactivity parameters that arise from Conceptual DFT. PMID:23443107

  20. Simple nonempirical calculations of the zero-field splitting in transition metal systems: I. The Ni(II)-water complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribbing, C.; Odelius, M.; Laaksonen, A.; Kowalewski, J.; Roos, B.

    1990-01-01

    A simple nonempirical scheme is presented for calculating the splittings of ground state multiplets (the zero-field splitting) is transition metal complexes. The method employs single reference, single excitation CI calculations based on open-shell RHF. The spin-orbit coupling is described using an effective one-electron, one-center operators. The method is applied to the triplet state Ni(II) complexes with one to six water molecules. the validity of the second-order perturbation theory approach and of the spin-Hamiltonian formalism is found to be limited to slightly distorted octahedral systems. Generally, small changes in the geometries of the complexes are found to cause substantial variations of the splitting pattern

  1. Synthesis of new low band gap dyes with BF{sub 2}-azopyrrole complex and their use for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikroyannidis, John A. [Chemical Technology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece); Roy, M.S. [Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (Raj.) (India); Sharma, G.D. [Physics Department, Molecular Electronic and Optoelectronic Device Laboratory, JNV University, Jodhpur (Raj.) 342005 (India); Jaipur Engineering College, Kukas, Jaipur (Raj.) (India)

    2010-08-15

    The diazonium salt derived from 4-aminobenzoic acid, 4-aminophenol or 2-aminophenol reacted with half equivalent of pyrrole to afford symmetrical 2,5-bisazopyrroles. They reacted subsequently with boron trifluoride in the presence of triethylamine to afford the corresponding BF{sub 2}-azopyrrole complexes D1, D2 and D3 respectively. They were soluble and stable in nonprotic solvents such as chloroform, dichloromethane and tetrahydrofuran but unstable in protic solvents such as ethanol. Their absorption spectra were broad with optical band gap of 1.49-1.70 eV. Among these dyes D2 displayed the broader absorption spectrum with low band gap E{sub g}{sup opt} of 1.49 eV. We have utilized these complexes as photosensitizers for quasi solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and achieved power conversion efficiency in the range of 4.0-6.0%. We have also found that the co-adsorption of citric acid hindered the formation of dye aggregates and might improve the electron injection efficiency leading to an enhancement in short circuit photocurrent. This work suggests that metal-free dyes based on BF{sub 2}-azopyrrole complex are promising candidates for improvement of the DSSC performance. (author)

  2. Randomized, controlled trial split-faced study of 595-nm pulsed dye laser in the treatment of acne vulgaris and acne erythema in adolescents and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekwuttikarn, Ramrada; Tempark, Therdpong; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Wananukul, Siriwan

    2017-08-01

    The high prevalence of acne vulgaris in teenagers has increased comorbidities. Lasers offer alternative options for acne treatment because they have rapid action, low systemic adverse effects, and do not require everyday treatment. To study the efficacy and patients' satisfaction of 595-nm pulse dye laser (PDL) treatment of acne vulgaris and acne erythema in adolescents and early adulthood, we designed a blocked-randomized, split-faced 595-nm PDL (fluence 8 J/cm 3 pulse duration 10 ms, spot size 7 mm, 2 session every 2 weeks) study in patients with mild to moderate acne by comparing the laser-treated and non-treated side. The acne lesion counts, acne erythema grading, and acne severity grading were evaluated at baseline and 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Thirty patients were recruited. The results showed no statistically significant difference except the papule count at week 4 which was -1.828 on the treated side and 0.103 on the non-treated side of the face, P-value 0.0018. There was no statistically significant difference of acne severity grading and acne erythema grading between both sides of the face. The mean scores of patients' satisfaction on the laser-treated side were 75, 81, and 81%, respectively. The PDL treatment in this study reveals no significant improvement in acne therapy; however, the patients were satisfied with this laser treatment. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Exploring complex miRNA-mRNA interactions with Bayesian networks by splitting-averaging strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs regulate target gene expression by controlling their mRNAs post-transcriptionally. Increasing evidence demonstrates that miRNAs play important roles in various biological processes. However, the functions and precise regulatory mechanisms of most miRNAs remain elusive. Current research suggests that miRNA regulatory modules are complicated, including up-, down-, and mix-regulation for different physiological conditions. Previous computational approaches for discovering miRNA-mRNA interactions focus only on down-regulatory modules. In this work, we present a method to capture complex miRNA-mRNA interactions including all regulatory types between miRNAs and mRNAs. Results We present a method to capture complex miRNA-mRNA interactions using Bayesian network structure learning with splitting-averaging strategy. It is designed to explore all possible miRNA-mRNA interactions by integrating miRNA-targeting information, expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs, and sample categories. We also present an analysis of data sets for epithelial and mesenchymal transition (EMT. Our results show that the proposed method identified all possible types of miRNA-mRNA interactions from the data. Many interactions are of tremendous biological significance. Some discoveries have been validated by previous research, for example, the miR-200 family negatively regulates ZEB1 and ZEB2 for EMT. Some are consistent with the literature, such as LOX has wide interactions with the miR-200 family members for EMT. Furthermore, many novel interactions are statistically significant and worthy of validation in the near future. Conclusions This paper presents a new method to explore the complex miRNA-mRNA interactions for different physiological conditions using Bayesian network structure learning with splitting-averaging strategy. The method makes use of heterogeneous data including miRNA-targeting information, expression profiles of miRNAs and

  4. New compositions of cadmium selenium nanoparticles and dye molecules with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asimov, M.M.; Anufrik, S.S.; Tarkovsky, V.V.; Sazonko, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of new heterogeneous multicolor compositions based on cadmium selenium (CdSe/ZnS) nano crystal and inclusion complexes of dye molecule with cyclodextrin are presented. Spectral fluorescence of proposed compositions investigated in thin films. Signals from multicolor fluorescence of proposing compositions may be combined to definite spectral codes that could be used for tracking or verification of different objects. Calibration bar of signal within spectral codes guarantee high reliability in practical application of proposed multicolor compositions. Express analysis the size of nanoparticles during their synthesis and purification by spectroscopic methods is suggested. Application of Cyclodextrin molecules as target delivery systems is considered. (authors)

  5. Dye-sensitized solar cells and complexes between pyridines and iodines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet; Krake, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between triiodide (I3–) and 4-tert-butylpyridine (4TBP) as postulated in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are investigated by means of 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy supported by DFT calculations. The charge transfer (CT) complex 4TBP∙I2 and potential salts such as (4TBP)2I+, I3– were...... synthesized and characterized by IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. However, mixing (butyl)4N+, I3– and 4TBP at concentrations comparable to those of the DSC solar cell did not lead to any reaction. Neither CT complexes nor cationic species like (4TBP)2I+ were observed, judging from the 13C NMR spectroscopic...

  6. Diiridium Bimetallic Complexes Function as a Redox Switch To Directly Split Carbonate into Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsun-Ren; Wu, Fang-Siou; Lee, Hsiu-Pen; Chen, Kelvin H-C

    2016-03-23

    A pair of diiridium bimetallic complexes exhibit a special type of oxidation-reduction reaction that could directly split carbonate into carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen via a low-energy pathway needing no sacrificial reagent. One of the bimetallic complexes, Ir(III)(μ-Cl)2Ir(III), can catch carbonato group from carbonate and reduce it to CO. The second complex, the rare bimetallic complex Ir(IV)(μ-oxo)2Ir(IV), can react with chlorine to release O2 by the oxidation of oxygen ions with synergistic oxidative effect of iridium ions and chlorine atoms. The activation energy needed for the key reaction is quite low (∼20 kJ/mol), which is far less than the dissociation energy of the C═O bond in CO2 (∼750 kJ/mol). These diiridium bimetallic complexes could be applied as a redox switch to split carbonate or combined with well-known processes in the chemical industry to build up a catalytic system to directly split CO2 into CO and O2.

  7. Transition Metal Polypyridine Complexes: Studies of Mediation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Charge Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. Michael [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Prieto, Amy L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-02-08

    The Elliott group has long been supported by DOE for studies of cobalt(II/III) trisbypiridine (DTB) mediator complexes in dye sensitized solar cells. Previous work demonstrated that Co(II/III) chemistry is sensitive to the environment, showing unprecedented electrode-surface and electrolyte dependant voltammetry. In electrolytes that have large lipophilic cations, voltammetry of the [Co(DTB)3]2+/3+ couple is nearly Nernstian in appearance on nominally oxide-free metal surfaces. In contrast, on semiconductor electrodes in electrolytes with small, hard cations such as Li+, the electron transfer rates are so slow that it is difficult to measure any Faradaic current even at overpotentials of ±1 V. These studies are of direct relevance to the operation of cobalt-based mediators in solar cells. The research has also shown that these mediators are compatible with copper phenantroline based dyes, in contrast to I- due to the insolubility of CuI.

  8. Degradation chemistry of RuLL´(NCS)2 complexes in the Dye-sensitized solar cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben

    will present and overview of our degradation investigations of the ruthenium dyes N719, Z907 and C106 with the general structure RuLL´(NCS)2 and show how detailed degradation mechanistic knowledge is important in the developing of DSC cells with improved thermal dye stability. The various ruthenium dye...

  9. Bioremediation of the heavy metal complex dye Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 by white rot fungus Irpex lacteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalpana, Duraisamy [Department of Forest Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae Hong; Oh, Byung-Taek [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Senthil, Kalaiselvi [Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam University for Women, Tamil Nadu (India); Lee, Yang Soo, E-mail: ysoolee@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Forest Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of the White rot fungus Irpex lacteus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metal (Cr) conjugated dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Economic, easy, and rapid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non toxic nature of the degraded products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decolorization and degradation at higher concentrations. - Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the decolorization and degradation of the chromium metal complex dye Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 by Irpex lacteus, a white rot lignolytic fungus. I. lacteus effectively decolorized the sulphonated reactive dye at a high concentration of 250 mg/l over a wide range of pH values of 5-9 and temperatures between 20 and 35 Degree-Sign C. Complete (100%) decolorization occurred within 96 h, and I. lacteus demonstrated resistance to the metallic dye. UV-vis spectroscopy, HPLC, GC-MS, and FT-IR analyses of the extracted metabolites confirmed that the decolorization process occurred due to degradation of the dye and not merely by adsorption. GC-MS analysis indicated the formation of 1(2H)-naphthalenone, 3,4-dihydro- and 2-naphthalenol as the main metabolite. ICP analysis demonstrated the removal of 13.49% chromium, and phytotoxicity studies using germinated seeds of Vigna radiata and Brassica juncea demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed during the degradation of Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 dye.

  10. Thermodynamic Study of the Ion-Pair Complexation Equilibria of Dye and Surfactant by Spectral Titration and Chemometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Abbasi Awal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant-dye interactions are very important in chemical and dyeing processes. The dyes interact strongly with surfactant and show new spectrophotometric properties, so the UV-vis absorption spectrophotometric method has been used to study this process and extract some thermodynamic parameters. In this work, the association equilibrium between ionic dyes and ionic surfactant were studied by analyzing spectrophotometric data using chemometric methods. Methyl orange and crystal violet were selected as a model of cationic and anionic dyes respectively. Also sodium dodecyl sulphate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were selected as anionic and cationic surfactant, respectively. Hard model methods such as target transform fitting (TTF classical multi-wavelength fitting and soft model method such as multivariate curve resolution (MCR were used to analyze data that were recorded as a function of surfactant concentration in premicellar and postmicellar regions. Hard model methods were used to resolve data using ion-pair model in premicellar region in order to extract the concentration and spectral profiles of individual components and also related thermodynamic parameters. The equilibrium constants and other thermodynamic parameters of interaction of dyes with surfactants were determined by studying the dependence of their absorption spectra on the temperature in the range 293–308 K at concentrations of 5 × 10−6 M and 8 × 10−6 M for dye crystal violet and methyl orange, respectively. In postmicellar region, the MCR-ALS method was applied for resolving data and getting the spectra and concentration profiles in complex mixtures of dyes and surfactants.

  11. Health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds exposure near Daegu dyeing industrial complex in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Jianfei; Kim, Sunshin; Ryu, Hyeonsu; Park, Jinhyeon; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kim, Geun-Bae; Ultra, Venecio U; Yang, Wonho

    2018-04-20

    Studying human health in areas with industrial contamination is a serious and complex issue. In recent years, attention has increasingly focused on the health implications of large industrial complexes. A variety of potential toxic chemicals have been produced during manufacturing processes and activities in industrial complexes in South Korea. A large number of dyeing industries gathered together in Daegu dyeing industrial complex. The residents near the industrial complex could be often exposed to volatile organic compounds. This study aimed to evaluate VOCs levels in the ambient air of DDIC, to assess the impact on human health risks, and to find more convincing evidences to prove these VOCs emitted from DDIC. According to deterministic risk assessment, inhalation was the most important route. Residential indoor, outdoor and personal exposure air VOCs were measured by passive samplers in exposed area and controlled area in different seasons. Satisfaction with ambient environments and self-reported diseases were also obtained by questionnaire survey. The VOCs concentrations in exposed area and controlled area was compared by t-test. The relationships among every VOC were tested by correlation. The values of hazard quotient (HQ) and life cancer risk were estimated. The concentrations of measured VOCs were presented, moreover, the variety of concentrations according the distances from the residential settings to the industrial complex site in exposed area. The residential indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure concentrations of toluene, DMF and chloroform in exposed area were significantly higher than the corresponding concentrations in controlled area both in summer and autumn. Toluene, DMF, chloroform and MEK had significantly positive correlations with each other in indoor and outdoor, and even in personal exposure. The HQ for DMF exceeded 1, and the life cancer risk of chloroform was greater than 10 - 4 in exposed area. The prevalence of respiratory diseases

  12. Resonant tunneling via a Ru–dye complex using a nanoparticle bridge junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Satoshi; Otsuka, Yoichi; Ohoyama, Hiroshi; Kajimoto, Kentaro; Araki, Kento; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2018-06-01

    Nonlinear current–voltage (I–V) characteristics is an important property for the realization of information processing in molecular electronics. We studied the electrical conduction through a Ru–dye complex (N-719) on a 2-aminoethanethiol (2-AET) monolayer in a nanoparticle bridge junction system. The nonlinear I–V characteristics exhibited a threshold voltage at around 1.2 V and little temperature dependence. From the calculation of the molecular states using density functional theory and the energy alignment between the electrodes and molecules, the conduction mechanism in this system was considered to be resonant tunneling via the HOMO level of N-719. Our results indicate that the weak electronic coupling of electrodes and molecules is essential for obtaining nonlinear I–V characteristics with a clear threshold voltage that reflect the intrinsic molecular state.

  13. Two-Photon Rabi Splitting in a Coupled System of a Nanocavity and Exciton Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chenjiang; Wu, Shiyao; Song, Feilong; Peng, Kai; Xie, Xin; Yang, Jingnan; Xiao, Shan; Steer, Matthew J.; Thayne, Iain G.; Tang, Chengchun; Zuo, Zhanchun; Jin, Kuijuan; Gu, Changzhi; Xu, Xiulai

    2018-05-01

    Two-photon Rabi splitting in a cavity-dot system provides a basis for multiqubit coherent control in a quantum photonic network. Here we report on two-photon Rabi splitting in a strongly coupled cavity-dot system. The quantum dot was grown intentionally large in size for a large oscillation strength and small biexciton binding energy. Both exciton and biexciton transitions couple to a high-quality-factor photonic crystal cavity with large coupling strengths over 130 μ eV . Furthermore, the small binding energy enables the cavity to simultaneously couple with two exciton states. Thereby, two-photon Rabi splitting between the biexciton and cavity is achieved, which can be well reproduced by theoretical calculations with quantum master equations.

  14. Heterogeneous fenton degradation of azo dyes catalyzed by modified polyacrylonitrile fiber fe complexes: QSPR (quantitative structure peorperty relationship) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Dong, Yongchun; Ding, Zhizhong

    2013-07-01

    The amidoximated polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber Fe complexes were prepared and used as the heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the degradation of 28 anionic water soluble azo dyes in water under visible irradiation. The multiple linear regression (MLR) method was employed to develop the quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) model equations for the decoloration and mineralization of azo dyes. Moreover, the predictive ability of the QSPR model equations was assessed using Leave-one-out (LOO) and cross-validation (CV) methods. Additionally, the effect of Fe content of catalyst and the sodium chloride in water on QSPR model equations were also investigated. The results indicated that the heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of the azo dyes with different structures was conducted in the presence of the amidoximated PAN fiber Fe complex. The QSPR model equations for the dye decoloration and mineralization were successfully developed using MLR technique. MW/S (molecular weight divided by the number of sulphonate groups) and NN=N (the number of azo linkage) are considered as the most important determining factor for the dye degradation and mineralization, and there is a significant negative correlation between MW/S or NN=N and degradation percentage or total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Moreover, LOO and CV analysis suggested that the obtained QSPR model equations have the better prediction ability. The variation in Fe content of catalyst and the addition of sodium chloride did not alter the nature of the QSPR model equations.

  15. Fe-tannic acid complex dye as photo sensitizer for different morphological ZnO based DSSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakar, Soner; Özacar, Mahmut

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we have synthesized different morphological ZnO nanostructures via microwave hydrothermal methods at low temperature within a short time. We described different morphologies of ZnO at different Zn(NO3)2/KOH mole ratio. The ZnO nanostructures were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. All ZnO structures have hexagonal wurtzite type structures. The FESEM images showed various morphologies of ZnO such as plate, rod and nanoparticles. Dye sensitized solar cells have been assembled by these different morphological structures photo electrode and tannic acid or Fe-tannic acid complex dye as sensitizer. We have achieved at maximum efficiencies of photovoltaic cells prepared with ZnO plate in all dye systems. The conversion efficiencies of dye sensitized solar cells are 0.37% and 1.00% with tannic acid and Fe-tannic acid complex dye, respectively.

  16. High Molar Extinction Coefficient Ru(II-Mixed Ligand Polypyridyl Complexes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new ruthenium(II mixed ligand terpyridine complexes, “Ru(Htcterpy(NCS(L1 (N(C4H94, mLBD1” and Ru(Htcterpy(NCS(L2(N(C4H94, mLBD2 were synthesized and fully characterized by UV-Vis, emission, cyclic voltammogram, and other spectroscopic means, and the structures of the compounds are confirmed by 1H-NMR, ESI-MASS, and FT-IR spectroscopes. The influence of the substitution of L1 and L2 on solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency (η of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was evaluated relative to reference black dye. The dyes showed molar extinction coefficients of 17600 M−1 cm−1 for mLBD1 and 21300 M−1 cm−1 for mLBD2 both at λ maximum of 512 nm, while black dye has shown 8660 M−1 cm−1 at λ maximum of 615 nm. The monochromatic incident photon-to-collected electron conversion efficiencies of 60.71% and 75.89% were obtained for mLBD1 and mLBD2 dyes, respectively. The energy conversion efficiencies of mLBD1 and mLBD2 dyes are 3.15% (SC=11.86 mA/cm2, OC=613 mV, ff=0.4337 and 3.36% (SC=12.71 mA/cm2, OC=655 mV, ff=0.4042, respectively, measured at the AM1.5G conditions, the reference black dye-sensitized solar cell, fabricated and evaluated under identical conditions exhibited η-value of 2.69% (SC=10.95 mA/cm2, OC=655 mV, ff=0.3750.

  17. Effect of carbazole-oxadiazole excited-state complexes on the efficiency of dye-doped light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuezhong; Register, Richard A.; Killeen, Kelly A.; Thompson, Mark E.; Pschenitzka, Florian; Hebner, Thomas R.; Sturm, James C.

    2002-05-01

    Interactions between hole-transporting carbazole groups and electron-transporting 1,3,4-oxadiazole groups were studied by photoluminescence and electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopy, in blends of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) with 2-tert-butylphenyl-5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PVK:PBD) and in random copolymers with carbazole and oxadiazole groups attached as side chains. Different excited-state complexes form in the blends, which exhibit exciplexes, and in the copolymers, which manifest electroplexes, due to topological constraints on the position of carbazole and oxadiazole units in the polymer. Both types of complex red-shift the EL spectra of the matrices compared with pure PVK homopolymer, although the shift is significantly greater for the electroplex. The presence of these complexes has a profound effect on the external quantum efficiency of dye-doped organic light-emitting diodes employing the blends or copolymers as matrices, as it strongly affects the efficiency of Förster energy transfer from the matrix to the dye. Single-layer devices doped with either coumarin 47 (C47), coumarin 6 (C6), or nile red (NR) were compared. Among the three dye-doped PVK:PBD devices, C6 doping yields the highest efficiency, while NR doping produced the most efficient copolymer devices, consistent with the degree of overlap between the EL spectrum of the matrix material and the absorption spectrum of the dye.

  18. Regulation of the Drosophila Enhancer of split and invected-engrailed gene complexes by sister chromatid cohesion proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheri A Schaaf

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The cohesin protein complex was first recognized for holding sister chromatids together and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. Cohesin also regulates gene expression, but the mechanisms are unknown. Cohesin associates preferentially with active genes, and is generally absent from regions in which histone H3 is methylated by the Enhancer of zeste [E(z] Polycomb group silencing protein. Here we show that transcription is hypersensitive to cohesin levels in two exceptional cases where cohesin and the E(z-mediated histone methylation simultaneously coat the entire Enhancer of split and invected-engrailed gene complexes in cells derived from Drosophila central nervous system. These gene complexes are modestly transcribed, and produce seven of the twelve transcripts that increase the most with cohesin knockdown genome-wide. Cohesin mutations alter eye development in the same manner as increased Enhancer of split activity, suggesting that similar regulation occurs in vivo. We propose that cohesin helps restrain transcription of these gene complexes, and that deregulation of similarly cohesin-hypersensitive genes may underlie developmental deficits in Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

  19. DFT and TD-DFT calculations of metallotetraphenylporphyrin and metallotetraphenylporphyrin fullerene complexes as potential dye sensitizers for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mahdy, A. M.; Halim, Shimaa Abdel; Taha, H. O.

    2018-05-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations have been employed to model metallotetraphenylporphyrin dyes and metallotetraphenylporphyrin -fullerene complexes in order to investigate the geometries, electronic structures, the density of states, non-linear optical properties (NLO), IR-vis spectra, molecular electrostatic potential contours, and electrophilicity. To calculate the excited states of the tetraphenyl porphyrin analogs, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) are used. Their UV-vis spectra were also obtained and a comparison with available experimental and theoretical results is included. The results reveal that the metal and the tertiary butyl groups of the dyes are electron donors, and the tetraphenylporphyrin rings are electron acceptors. The HOMOs of the dyes fall within the (TiO2)60 and Ti38O76 band gaps and support the issue of typical interfacial electron transfer reaction. The resulting potential drop of Mn-TPP-C60 increased by ca. 3.50% under the effect of the tertiary butyl groups. The increase in the potential drop indicates that the tertiary butyl complexes could be a better choice for the strong operation of the molecular rectifiers. The introduction of metal atom and tertiary butyl groups to the tetraphenyl porphyrin moiety leads to a stronger response to the external electric field and induces higher photo-to-current conversion efficiency. This also shifts the absorption in the dyes and makes them potential candidates for harvesting light in the entire visible and near IR region for photovoltaic applications.

  20. Direct Observation of Very Large Zero-Field Splitting in a Tetrahedral Ni(II)Se4 Coordination Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shang-Da; Maganas, Dimitrios; Levesanos, Nikolaos; Ferentinos, Eleftherios; Haas, Sabrina; Thirunavukkuarasu, Komalavalli; Krzystek, J; Dressel, Martin; Bogani, Lapo; Neese, Frank; Kyritsis, Panayotis

    2015-10-14

    The high-spin (S = 1) tetrahedral Ni(II) complex [Ni{(i)Pr2P(Se)NP(Se)(i)Pr2}2] was investigated by magnetometry, spectroscopic, and quantum chemical methods. Angle-resolved magnetometry studies revealed the orientation of the magnetization principal axes. The very large zero-field splitting (zfs), D = 45.40(2) cm(-1), E = 1.91(2) cm(-1), of the complex was accurately determined by far-infrared magnetic spectroscopy, directly observing transitions between the spin sublevels of the triplet ground state. These are the largest zfs values ever determined--directly--for a high-spin Ni(II) complex. Ab initio calculations further probed the electronic structure of the system, elucidating the factors controlling the sign and magnitude of D. The latter is dominated by spin-orbit coupling contributions of the Ni ions, whereas the corresponding effects of the Se atoms are remarkably smaller.

  1. Complex sleep apnea after full-night and split-night polysomnography: the Greek experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baou, Katerina; Mermigkis, Charalampos; Minaritzoglou, Aliki; Vagiakis, Emmanouil

    2017-12-08

    Treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (TE-CSA) is defined as the emergence or persistence of central respiratory events during the initiation of positive airway pressure (PAP) without a back-up rate in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and after significant resolution of obstructive events. Previous studies have estimated a prevalence from 0.56 to 20.3%. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of TE-CSA in a Greek adult population. One thousand fifty nine patients with newly diagnosed OSA, who were referred to the Sleep Disorders Center of Evangelismos Hospital of Athens over an 18-month period, were included in this study. A split-night polysomnography (PSG), or two formal overnight PSGs (diagnostic and continuous PAP (CPAP) titration study), were performed. Patients with OSA were divided in two groups; the first group included 277 patients, who underwent two separate studies (diagnostic and CPAP titration study), and the second group 782 patients, who underwent split-night studies. The prevalence of TE-CSA in the first group was 2.53% (7 patients), and in the second group was 5.63% (44 patients). The prevalence of TE-CSA in Greece was lower compared to most previous reported studies. The significant variation in the prevalence of TE-CSA between different centers throughout the world is mainly associated with the used diagnostic criteria as well as methodological and technical aspects.

  2. The origin of the split B800 absorption peak in the LH2 complexes from Allochromatium vinosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhner, Alexander; Carey, Anne-Marie; Hacking, Kirsty; Picken, Nichola; Kelly, Sharon; Cogdell, Richard; Köhler, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of the high-light peripheral light-harvesting (LH) complex from the photosynthetic purple bacterium Allochromatium vinosum features two strong absorptions around 800 and 850 nm. For the LH2 complexes from the species Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and Rhodospirillum molischianum, where high-resolution X-ray structures are available, similar bands have been observed and were assigned to two pigment pools of BChl a molecules that are arranged in two concentric rings (B800 and B850) with nine (acidophila) or eight (molischianum) repeat units, respectively. However, for the high-light peripheral LH complex from Alc. vinosum, the intruiging feature is that the B800 band is split into two components. We have studied this pigment-protein complex by ensemble CD spectroscopy and polarisation-resolved single-molecule spectroscopy. Assuming that the high-light peripheral LH complex in Alc. vinosum is constructed on the same modular principle as described for LH2 from Rps. acidophila and Rsp. molischianum, we used those repeat units as a starting point for simulating the spectra. We find the best agreement between simulation and experiment for a ring-like oligomer of 12 repeat units, where the mutual arrangement of the B800 and B850 rings resembles those from Rsp. molischianum. The splitting of the B800 band can be reproduced if both an excitonic coupling between dimers of B800 molecules and their interaction with the B850 manifold are taken into account. Such dimers predict an interesting apoprotein organisation as discussed below.

  3. Novel D–π–A dye sensitizers of polymeric metal complexes with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    triphenylamine derivatives as donor for dye-sensitized solar cells: synthesis .... a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) were used as work- ing electrode, auxiliary ..... mechanisms, materials and devices (Boca Raton, FL: CRC). 35. Li X Z, Zeng ...

  4. Combinatorial Development of Water Splitting Catalysts Based on the Oxygen Evolving Complex of Photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodbury, Neal [Arizona State University

    2010-03-31

    The use of methods to create large arrays of potential catalysts for the reaction H2O ½ O2 + 2H+ on the anode of an electrolysis system were investigated. This reaction is half of the overall reaction involved in the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. This method consisted of starting with an array of electrodes and developing patterned electrochemical approaches for creating a different, defined peptide at each position in the array. Methods were also developed for measuring the rate of reaction at each point in the array. In this way, the goal was to create and then tests many thousands of possible catalysts simultaneously. This type of approach should lead to an ability to optimize catalytic activity systematically, by iteratively designing and testing new libraries of catalysts. Optimization is important to decrease energy losses (over-potentials) associated with the water splitting reaction and thus for the generation of hydrogen. Most of the efforts in this grant period were focused on developing the chemistry and analytical methods required to create pattern peptide formation either using a photolithography approach or an electrochemical approach for dictating the positions of peptide bond formation. This involved testing a large number of different reactions and conditions. We have been able to find conditions that have allowed us to pattern peptide bond formation on both glass slides using photolithographic methods and on electrode arrays made by the company Combimatrix. Part of this effort involved generating novel approaches for performing mass spectroscopy directly from the patterned arrays. We have also been able to demonstrate the ability to measure current at each electrode due to electrolysis of water. This was performed with customized instrumentation created in collaboration with Combimatrix. In addition, several different molecular designs for peptides that bound metals (primarily Mn) were developed and synthesized and metal

  5. Embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Illmensee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.

  6. Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells from covalent-bonded polyaniline-multiwalled carbon nanotube complex counter electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huihui; He, Benlin; Tang, Qunwei; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-02-01

    Exploration of cost-effective counter electrodes (CEs) and enhancement of power conversion efficiency have been two persistent objectives for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the current work, polyaniline-multiwalled carbon nanotube (PANi-MWCNT) complexes are synthesized by a reflux method and employed as CE materials for bifacial DSSCs. Owing to the high optical transparency of PANi-MWCNT complex CE, the incident light from rear side can compensate for the incident light from TiO2 anode. The charge-transfer ability and electrochemical behaviors demonstrate the potential utilization of PANi-MWCNT complex CEs in robust bifacial DSSCs. The electrochemical properties as well as photovoltaic performances are optimized by adjusting MWCNT dosages. A maximum power conversion efficiency of 9.24% is recorded from the bifacial DSSC employing PANi-8 wt‰ MWCNT complex CE for both irradiation, which is better than 8.08% from pure PANi CE.

  7. Intense pulsed light vs. long-pulsed dye laser treatment of telangiectasia after radiotherapy for breast cancer: a randomized split-lesion trial of two different treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymann, P.; Hedelund, L.; Hædersdal, Merete

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic radiodermatitis is a common sequela of treatment for breast cancer and potentially a psychologically distressing factor for the affected women. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of treatments with a long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL) vs. intense pulsed light (IPL......); the interventions were randomly assigned to left/right or upper/lower halves. Primary end-points were reduction in telangiectasia, patient satisfaction and preferred treatment. Secondary end-points were pain and adverse effects. Efficacy was registered by blinded photographic evaluations 3 months after the final...

  8. Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: Wave function and density functional approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shehryar, E-mail: sherkhan@fysik.su.se; Odelius, Michael, E-mail: odelius@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kruk, Danuta [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Sloneczna 54, Olsztyn PL-10710 (Poland); Kowalewski, Jozef [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-01-21

    The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an impact on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field wave functions and of density functional theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H{sub 2}O){sup −}, Gd(III)DTPA(H{sub 2}O){sup 2−}, and Gd(III)(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}{sup 3+} in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density functional theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.

  9. Preparation and properties of chitosan-metal complex: Some factors influencing the adsorption capacity for dyes in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sadia; Shen, Chensi; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jianshe; Li, Jing

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan-metal complexes have been widely studied in wastewater treatment, but there are still various factors in complex preparation which are collectively responsible for improving the adsorption capacity need to be further studied. Thus, this study investigates the factors affecting the adsorption ability of chitosan-metal complex adsorbents, including various kinds of metal centers, different metal salts and crosslinking degree. The results show that the chitosan-Fe(III) complex prepared by sulfate salts exhibited the best adsorption efficiency (100%) for various dyes in very short time duration (10min), and its maximum adsorption capacity achieved 349.22mg/g. The anion of the metal salt which was used in preparation played an important role to enhance the adsorption ability of chitosan-metal complex. SO 4 2- ions not only had the effect of crosslinking through electrostatic interaction with amine group of chitosan polymer, but also could facilitate the chelation of metal ions with chitosan polymer during the synthesis process. Additionally, the pH sensitivity and the sensitivity of ionic environment for chitosan-metal complex were analyzed. We hope that these factors affecting the adsorption of the chitosan-metal complex can help not only in optimizing its use but also in designing new chitosan-metal based complexes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Hair dye-incorporated poly-γ-glutamic acid/glycol chitosan nanoparticles based on ion-complex formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HY

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hye-Young Lee1,*, Young-IL Jeong2,*, Ki-Choon Choi31Anyang Science University, Anyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 2Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Jeonnam, South Korea; 3Grassland and Forages Research Center, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Chungnam, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this work.Background: p-Phenylenediamine (PDA or its related chemicals are used more extensively than oxidative hair dyes. However, permanent hair dyes such as PDA are known to have potent contact allergy reactions in humans, and severe allergic reactions are problematic.Methods: PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared based on ion-complex formation between the cationic groups of PDA and the anionic groups of poly(γ-glutamic acid (PGA. To reinforce PDA/PGA ion complexes, glycol chitosan (GC was added. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD.Results: Nanoparticles were formed by ion-complex formation between the amine groups of PDA and the carboxyl groups of PGA. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles are small in size (<100 nm, and morphological observations showed spherical shapes. FT-IR spectra results showed that the carboxylic acid peak of PGA decreased with increasing PDA content, indicating that the ion complexes were formed between the carboxyl groups of PGA and the amine groups of PDA. Furthermore, the intrinsic peak of the carboxyl groups of PGA was also decreased by the addition of GC. Intrinsic crystalline peaks of PDA were observed by XRD. This crystalline peak of PDA was completely nonexistent when nanoparticles were formed by ion complex between PDA, PGA, and GC, indicating that PDA was complexed with PGA and no free drug existed in the formulation. During the drug-release experiment, an initial burst release of PDA was

  11. Effects of early combinatorial treatment of autologous split-thickness skin grafts in red duroc pig model using pulsed dye laser and fractional CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J Kevin; Blackstone, Britani N; DeBruler, Danielle M; Kim, Jayne Y; Baumann, Molly E; McFarland, Kevin L; Imeokparia, Folasade O; Supp, Dorothy M; Powell, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    The use of pulsed dye laser (PDL) and fractional CO 2 (FX CO 2 ) laser therapy to treat and/or prevent scarring following burn injury is becoming more widespread with a number of studies reporting reduction in scar erythema and pruritus following treatment with lasers. While the majority of studies report positive outcomes following PDL or FX CO 2 therapy, a number of studies have reported no benefit or worsening of the scar following treatment. The objective of this study was to directly compare the efficacy of PDL, FX CO 2 , and PDL + FX CO 2 laser therapy in reducing scarring post burn injury and autografting in a standardized animal model. Eight female red Duroc pigs (FRDP) received 4 standardized, 1 in. x 1 in. third degree burns that were excised and autografted. Wound sites were treated with PDL, FX CO 2 , or both at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post grafting. Grafts receiving no laser therapy served as controls. Scar appearance, morphology, size, and erythema were assessed and punch biopsies collected at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. At week 16, additional tissue was collected for biomechanical analyses and markers for inflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, re-epithelialization, pigmentation, and angiogenesis were quantified at all time points using qRT-PCR. Treatment with PDL, FX CO 2 , or PDL + FX CO 2 resulted in significantly less contraction versus skin graft only controls with no statistically significant difference among laser therapy groups. Scars treated with both PDL and FX CO 2 were visually more erythematous than other groups with a significant increase in redness between two and three standard deviations above normal skin redness. Scars treated with FX CO 2 were visually smoother and contained significantly fewer wrinkles. In addition, hyperpigmentation was significantly reduced in scars treated with FX CO 2 . The use of fractional carbon dioxide or pulsed dye laser therapy within 1 month of autografting significantly reduced scar

  12. Biosorption of the metal-complex dye Acid Black 172 by live and heat-treated biomass of Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1: Kinetics and sorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Lin-Na; Wang, Bing [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, 310058, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Li, Gang [Department of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Wenzhou Vocational College of Science and Technology, 325006 Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Sheng [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, 310058, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Crowley, David E., E-mail: crowley@ucr.edu [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Zhao, Yu-Hua, E-mail: yhzhao225@zju.edu.cn [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, 310058, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum amount of Acid Black 172 sorption was about 2.98 mmol/g biomass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amine groups played a major role in the biosorption of Acid Black 172. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reasons of increased dye sorption by heat-treated biomass were proposed. - Abstract: The ability of Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 to adsorb Acid Black 172 was studied to determine the kinetics and mechanisms involved in biosorption of the dye. Kinetic data for adsorption fit a pseudo-second-order model. Increased initial dye concentration could significantly enhance the amount of dye adsorbed by heat-treated biomass in which the maximum amount of dye adsorbed was as high as 2.98 mmol/g biomass, whereas it had no significant influence on dye sorption by live biomass. As treated temperature increased, the biomass showed gradual increase of dye sorption ability. Experiments using potentiometric titration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that amine groups (NH{sub 2}) played a prominent role in biosorption of Acid Black 172. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that heat treatment of the biomass increased the permeability of the cell walls and denatured the intracellular proteins. The results of biosorption experiments by different cell components confirmed that intracellular proteins contributed to the increased biosorption of Acid Black 172 by heat-treated biomass. The data suggest that biomass produced by this strain may have application for removal of metal-complex dyes from wastewater streams generated from the dye products industry.

  13. Split photosystem protein, linear-mapping topology, and growth of structural complexity in the plastid genome of chromera velia

    KAUST Repository

    Janouškovec, Jan

    2013-08-22

    The canonical photosynthetic plastid genomes consist of a single circular-mapping chromosome that encodes a highly conserved protein core, involved in photosynthesis and ATP generation. Here, we demonstrate that the plastid genome of the photosynthetic relative of apicomplexans, Chromera velia, departs from this view in several unique ways. Core photosynthesis proteins PsaA and AtpB have been broken into two fragments, which we show are independently transcribed, oligoU-tailed, translated, and assembled into functional photosystem I and ATP synthase complexes. Genome-wide transcription profiles support expression of many other highly modified proteins, including several that contain extensions amounting to hundreds of amino acids in length. Canonical gene clusters and operons have been fragmented and reshuffled into novel putative transcriptional units. Massive genomic coverage by paired-end reads, coupled with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction, consistently indicate that the C. velia plastid genome is linear-mapping, a unique state among all plastids. Abundant intragenomic duplication probably mediated by recombination can explain protein splits, extensions, and genome linearization and is perhaps the key driving force behind the many features that defy the conventional ways of plastid genome architecture and function. © The Author 2013.

  14. Size-dependent binding energies and fine-structure splitting of excitonic complexes in single InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodt, S.; Seguin, R.; Schliwa, A.; Guffarth, F.; Poetschke, K.; Pohl, U.W.; Bimberg, D.

    2007-01-01

    A systematic study of excitonic complexes confined in single InAs/GaAs quantum dots is presented. Emphasis is placed on the recombination energies of the excitonic complexes and on the fine-structure splitting of the bright exciton ground state. The values depend in a characteristic way on the size of the respective quantum dot which controls the number of bound hole states and the piezoelectric potential

  15. for aqueous dye lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... inclusion complex of RhB with the container molecule cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]). Keywords. Temperature-dependent fluorescence; Rhodamine B; cucurbit[7]uril; host–guest complex; dye laser. PACS Nos 36.20.kd; 83.60.pq; 87.64.kv. 1. Introduction. Rhodamine B (RhB) is an efficient and photostable laser dye ...

  16. Nanostructured KTaTeO6 and Ag-doped KTaTeO6 Defect Pyrochlores: Promising Photocatalysts for Dye Degradation and Water Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataswamy, Perala; Sudhakar Reddy, CH.; Gundeboina, Ravi; Sadanandam, Gullapelli; Veldurthi, Naveen Kumar; Vithal, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the nanostructured parent KTaTeO6 (KTTO) and Ag-doped KTaTeO6 (ATTO) catalysts with defect pyrochlore structure were prepared by solid-state and ion-exchange methods, respectively. The synthesized materials were characterized by various techniques to determine their chemical composition, morphology and microstructural features. The XRD studies show that both KTTO and ATTO have cubic structure (space group Fd3m) with high crystallinity. The doping of Ag altered the BET surface area of parent KTTO. The nano nature of the samples was studied by TEM images. A considerable red-shift in the absorption edge is observed for ATTO compared to KTTO. Incorporation of Ag+ in the KTTO lattice is clearly identified from EDX, elemental mapping and XPS results. Degradation of methyl violet and solar water splitting reactions were used to access the photocatalytic activity of KTTO and ATTO. The results obtained suggest that compared to KTTO, the ATTO showed higher photocatalytic activity in both cases. The favourable properties such as high surface area, more surface hydroxyl groups, stronger light absorption in visible region and narrower band gap energy were supposed to be the reasons for the high activity observed in ATTO.

  17. Rapid and efficient visible light photocatalytic dye degradation using AFe2O4 (A = Ba, Ca and Sr) complex oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, T.; Suriyaraj, S.P.; Selvakumar, R.; Venkateswaran, R.; Ashok, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline earth ferrites AFe 2 O 4 (A = Ba, Ca and Sr) were synthesized by sol–gel method. • Visible light photocatalytic activity of these ferrites were studied using congo red dye degradation. • BaFe 2 O 4 exhibited the best photocatalytic activity under visible light (xenon lamp) irradiation; CaFe 2 O 4 was the best photocatalyst under natural sun light irradiation. - Abstract: Photocatalytic activity of spinel type complex oxides has been investigated in this study. Alkaline earth ferrites AFe 2 O 4 (A = Ba, Ca, Sr) were synthesized by sol–gel method. Structural characterizations reveal that the synthesized ferrites have orthorhombic crystal structures with different space groups and cell dimensions when they have different alkaline earth metals in their A site. All the synthesized ferrites exhibited their bandgap in the range 2.14–2.19 eV. Their photocatalytic activities were studied using congo red dye under sunlight and xenon lamp radiation. The substitution of Ba, Ca and Sr at A site of these ferrites had varying impact on dye degradation process. Under xenon lamp irradiation, BaFe 2 O 4 exhibited the highest percentage of dye degradation (92% after 75 min). However, CaFe 2 O 4 showed the fastest degradation of the dye (70% within 15 min). In the absence of irradiation, SrFe 2 O 4 showed the highest dye adsorption (44% after 75 min).

  18. Tetrapeptide-coumarin conjugate 3D networks based on hydrogen-bonded charge transfer complexes: gel formation and dye release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zongxia; Gong, Ruiying; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Xiaobo

    2015-08-14

    Oligopeptide-based derivatives are important synthons for bio-based functional materials. In this article, a Gly-(L-Val)-Gly-(L-Val)-coumarin (GVGV-Cou) conjugate was synthesized, which forms 3D networks in ethanol. The gel nanostructures were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM and TEM. It is suggested that the formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes between the coumarin moieties is the main driving force for the gel formation. The capability of the gel to encapsulate and release dyes was explored. Both Congo Red (CR) and Methylene Blue (MB) can be trapped in the CT gel matrix and released over time. The present gel might be used as a functional soft material for guest encapsulation and release.

  19. The Effect of UV-Irradiation (under Short-Circuit Condition) on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Sensitized with a Ru-Complex Dye Functionalized with a (diphenylamino)Styryl-Thio phen Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonomura, K.; Xu, Y.; Marinado, T.; Hagberg, D.P.; Sun, L.; Boschloo, G.; Hagfeldt, A.; Rong Zhang, R.; Boschloo, G.; Hagfeldt, A.

    2009-01-01

    A new ruthenium complex, cis-di(thiocyanato)(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)(4,4'-bis (2-(5-(2-(4-diphenylaminophenyl)ethenyl) -thiophen-2-yl)ethenyl)-2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (named E322) has been synthesized for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Higher extinction coefficient and a broader absorption compared to the standard Ru-dye, N719, were aimed. DSCs were fabricated with E322, and the efficiency was 0.12% initially. (4.06% for N719, as reference). The efficiency was enhanced to 1.83% by exposing the cell under simulated sunlight containing UV-irradiation at short-circuit condition. The reasons of this enhancement are (1) enhanceing electron injection from sensitizer to TiO 2 following a shift toward positive potentials of the conduction band of TiO 2 by the adsorption of protons or cations from the sensitizer, or from the redox electrolyte and (2) improving the regeneration reaction of the oxidized dye by the redox electrolyte by the dissolution of aggregated dye from the surface of TiO 2 following the treatment.

  20. A highly effective in vivo photothermal nanoplatform with dual imaging-guided therapy of cancer based on the charge reversal complex of dye and iron oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Y.; Li, X.; Kong, X.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Tu, L.; Xue, B.; Wu, F.; Cao, D.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the treatment efficiency of photothermal therapy (PTT) with very little light-associated side effect, we have constructed a highly effective PTT nanoplatform for fluorescence and MRI dual imaging-guided PTT of cancer, based on IR806 dye and iron oxide complex functionalized with

  1. Preparation and photocatalytic performance of Fe (III)-amidoximated PAN fiber complex for oxidative degradation of azo dye under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yongchun, E-mail: dye@tjpu.edu.cn [Division of Textile Chemistry and Ecology, School of Textile Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, 350002 (China); Han, Zhenbang [Division of Textile Chemistry and Ecology, School of Textile Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); Liu, Chunyan [Division of Textile Chemistry and Ecology, School of Textile Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, 350002 (China); Du, Fang [Division of Textile Chemistry and Ecology, School of Textile Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber was modified with hydroxylamine hydrochloride to introduce amidoxime groups onto the fiber surface. These amidoxime groups were used to react with Fe (III) ions to prepare Fe (III)-amidoximated PAN fiber complex, which was characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, XPS, DMA, and DRS respectively. Then the photocatalytic activity of Fe-AO-PAN was evaluated in the degradation of a typical azo dye, C. I. Reactive Red 195 in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the effect of the Fe content of Fe-AO-PAN on dye degradation was also investigated. The results indicated that Fe (III) ions can crosslink between the modified PAN fiber chains by the coordination of Fe (III) ions with the amino nitrogen atoms and hydroxyl oxygen atoms of the amidoximation groups to form Fe (III)-amidoximated PAN fiber complex, and the Fe content of which is mainly determined by Fe (III) ions and amidoximation groups. Fe (III)-amidoximated PAN fiber complex is found to be activated in the visible light region. Moreover, Fe (III)-amidoximated PAN fiber complex shows the catalytic activity for dye degradation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at pH = 6.0 in the dark, and can be significantly enhanced by increasing light irradiation and Fe content, therefore, it can be used as a new heterogeneous Fenton photocatalyst for the effective decomposition of the dye in water. In addition, ESR spectra confirm that Fe (III)-amidoximated PAN fiber complex can generate more {center_dot}OH radicals from H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under visible light irradiation, leading to dye degradation. A possible mechanism of photocatalysis is proposed.

  2. Experience with esthetic reconstruction of complex facial soft tissue trauma: application of the pulsed dye laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kazemi, Hossein Mohammad; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin

    2014-08-01

    Facial soft tissue injury can be one of the most challenging cases presenting to the plastic surgeon. The life quality and self-esteem of the patients with facial injury may be compromised temporarily or permanently. Immediate reconstruction of most defects leads to better restoration of form and function as well as early rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to present our experience in management of facial soft tissue injuries from different causes. We prospectively studied patients treated by plastic surgeons from 2010 to 2012 suffering from different types of blunt or sharp (penetrating) facial soft tissue injuries to the different areas of the face. All soft tissue injuries were treated primarily. Photography from all patients before, during, and after surgical reconstruction was performed and the results were collected. We used early pulsed dye laser (PDL) post-operatively. In our study, 63 patients including 18 (28.5%) women and 45 (71.5%) men aged 8-70 years (mean 47 years) underwent facial reconstruction due to soft tissue trauma in different parts of the face. Sharp wounds were seen in 15 (23%) patients and blunt trauma lacerations were seen in 52 (77%) patients. Overall, 65% of facial injuries were repaired primary and the remainder were reconstructed with local flaps or skin graft from adjacent tissues. Postoperative PDL therapy done two weeks following surgery for all scars yielded good results in our cases. Analysis of the injury including location, size, and depth of penetration as well as presence of associated injuries can aid in the formulation of a proper surgical plan. We recommend PDL in the early post operation period (two weeks) after suture removal for better aesthetic results.

  3. Electronic optimization of heteroleptic Ru(II) bipyridine complexes by remote substituents: synthesis, characterization, and application to dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Won-Sik; Han, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Young; Choi, Mi Jin; Kang, Yong-Soo; Pac, Chyongjin; Kang, Sang Ook

    2011-04-18

    We prepared a series of new heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complexes, Ru(NCS)(2)LL' (3a-3e), where L is 4,4'-di(hydroxycarbonyl)-2,2'-bipyridine and L' is 4,4'-di(p-X-phenyl)-2,2'-pyridine (X = CN (a), F (b), H (c), OMe (d), and NMe(2) (e)), in an attempt to explore the structure-activity relationships in their photophysical and electrochemical behavior and in their performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). When substituent X is changed from electron-donating NMe(2) to electron-withdrawing CN, the absorption and emission maxima reveal systematic bathochromic shifts. The redox potentials of these dyes are also significantly influenced by X. The electronic properties of the dyes were theoretically analyzed using density functional theory calculations; the results show good correlations with the experimental results. The solar-cell performance of DSSCs based on dye-grafted nanocrystalline TiO(2) using 3a-3e and standard N3 (bis[(4,4'-carboxy-2,2'-bipyridine)(thiocyanato)]ruthenium(II)) were compared, revealing substantial dependences on the dye structures, particularly on the remote substituent X. The 3d-based device showed the best performance: η = 8.30%, J(SC) = 16.0 mA·cm(-2), V(OC) = 717 mV, and ff = 0.72. These values are better than N3-based device.

  4. Spectroscopic, thermal, catalytic and biological studies of Cu(II) azo dye complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Diab, M. A.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Shoair, A. F.; Hussein, M. A.; El-Boz, R. A.

    2017-08-01

    New complexes of copper(II) with azo compounds of 5-amino-2-(aryl diazenyl)phenol (HLn) are prepared and investigated by elemental analyses, molar conductance, IR, 1H NMR, UV-Visible, mass, ESR spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermal analyses. The complexes have a square planar structure and general formula [Cu(Ln)(OAc)]H2O. Study the catalytic activities of Cu(II) complexes toward oxidation of benzyl alcohol derivatives to carbonyl compounds were tested using H2O2 as the oxidant. The intrinsic binding constants (Kb) of the ligands (HLn) and Cu(II) complexes (1-4) with CT-DNA are determined. The formed compounds have been tested for biological activity of antioxidants, antibacterial against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and yeast Candida albicans. Antibiotic (Ampicillin) and antifungal against (Colitrimazole) and cytotoxic compounds HL1, HL2, HL3 and complex (1) showed moderate to good activity against S. aureus, E. coli and Candida albicans, and also to be moderate on antioxidants and toxic substances. Molecular docking is used to predict the binding between the ligands with the receptor of breast cancer (2a91).

  5. Effect of co-adsorption dye on the electrode interface (Ru complex/TiO2 of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Honda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The co-adsorption interface structure of isothiocyanate (R-N=C=S in N719 dye was investigated using a system of N719 alone and an N719 + D131 co-adsorption system. The sulfur core level (S 1s and sulfur K absorption edge (S K-edge were examined in detail using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS, respectively. The S 1s XPS spectra revealed that the binding energies were shifted approximately 9 eV higher in N719 alone because of interactions between the R-N=C=S of N719 and nanocrystalline TiO2. However, this strong interaction disappeared in the N719 + D131 co-adsorption system. Comparing the S K-edge NEXAFS spectra against the case of N719 alone revealed that the resonance adsorption peak at 2483 eV, which was attributed to an interaction between sulfur and the substrate, did not appear in the N719 + D131 co-adsorption system. This peak was observed under oblique incidence, but was almost indiscernible under normal incidence. These results indicate that the interface structure of sulfur atoms that strongly interacts with nanocrystalline TiO2 substrate changes to become non-interacting in the N719 + D131 co-adsorption system. We conclude that the co-adsorption dye has the unique property of inhibiting strong interactions between the S atom in the R-N=C=S group of the N719 dye and the nanocrystalline TiO2 surface.

  6. Two photon absorption energy transfer in the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) modified with organic boron dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Cheng; Hu, Rui; Feng, Jiao; Wang, Shuangqing; Li, Shayu; Yang, Chunhong; Yang, Guoqiang

    2014-07-01

    The plant light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHC-II) play important roles in collecting solar energy and transferring the energy to the reaction centers of photosystems I and II. A two photon absorption compound, 4-(bromomethyl)-N-(4-(dimesitylboryl)phenyl)-N-phenylaniline (DMDP-CH2Br), was synthesized and covalently linked to the LHC-II in formation of a LHC-II-dye complex, which still maintained the biological activity of LHC-II system. Under irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses at 754 nm, the LHC-II-dye complex can absorb two photons of the laser light effectively compared with the wild type LHC-II. The absorbed excitation energy is then transferred to chlorophyll a with an obvious fluorescence enhancement. The results may be interesting and give potentials for developing hybrid photosystems.

  7. Dye-Sensitized Molecular Charge Transfer Complexes: Magnetic and Conduction Properties in the Photoexcited States of Ni(dmit2 Salts Containing Photosensitive Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoma Yamamoto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitive dyes often induce charge transfer (CT between adjacent chemical species and themselves under irradiation of appropriate wavelengths. Because of the reversibility and selectivity of such CT, it is considered to be interesting to utilize such dyes as optically controllable trigger components for conduction and magnetism in the photoexcited states of organic materials. Based on this idea, such a type of new salts, i.e., γ- and δ-DiCC[Ni(dmit2] in addition to DiCC2[Ni(dmit2]3 have been prepared, characterized and their physical and structural properties have been examined both under dark and irradiated conditions (dmit2− = 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate, DiCC+ = 3,3′-Dihexyloxacarbocyanine monocation. Among them, under UV (254–450 nm irradiation, δ-DiCC[Ni(dmit2] exhibited photoconductivity being six times as high as its dark conductivity at room temperature. The electron spin resonance (ESR spectra have demonstrated that there are photoexcited spins on both DiCC and [Ni(dmit2] species as a result of the CT transition between them, serving as localized spins (DiCC and carriers ([Ni(dmit2], respectively. The results obtained in this work have indicated that the strategy mentioned above is effective in developing organic photoresponsive semiconductors with paramagnetism.

  8. Rapid and efficient visible light photocatalytic dye degradation using AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Ba, Ca and Sr) complex oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraghavan, T. [PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Suriyaraj, S.P.; Selvakumar, R. [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Venkateswaran, R. [PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Ashok, Anuradha, E-mail: anu@psgias.ac.in [PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641004 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Alkaline earth ferrites AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Ba, Ca and Sr) were synthesized by sol–gel method. • Visible light photocatalytic activity of these ferrites were studied using congo red dye degradation. • BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibited the best photocatalytic activity under visible light (xenon lamp) irradiation; CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was the best photocatalyst under natural sun light irradiation. - Abstract: Photocatalytic activity of spinel type complex oxides has been investigated in this study. Alkaline earth ferrites AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Ba, Ca, Sr) were synthesized by sol–gel method. Structural characterizations reveal that the synthesized ferrites have orthorhombic crystal structures with different space groups and cell dimensions when they have different alkaline earth metals in their A site. All the synthesized ferrites exhibited their bandgap in the range 2.14–2.19 eV. Their photocatalytic activities were studied using congo red dye under sunlight and xenon lamp radiation. The substitution of Ba, Ca and Sr at A site of these ferrites had varying impact on dye degradation process. Under xenon lamp irradiation, BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibited the highest percentage of dye degradation (92% after 75 min). However, CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed the fastest degradation of the dye (70% within 15 min). In the absence of irradiation, SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed the highest dye adsorption (44% after 75 min).

  9. Highly efficient and stable cyclometalated ruthenium(II) complexes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Liu, Jun-Min; Su, Pei-Yang; Chen, Yi-Fan; Shen, Yong; Xiao, Li-Min; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four novel thiocyanate-free cyclometalated ruthenium sensitizer were conveniently synthesized. • The D-CF 3 -sensitized DSSCs show higher efficiency compared to N719 based cells. • The DSSCs based on D-CF 3 and D-bisCF 3 sensitizers exhibit excellent long-term stability. • The diverse cyclometalated Ru complexes can be developed as high-performance sensitizers for use in DSSC. - Abstract: Four novel thiocyanate-free cyclometallted Ru(II) complexes, D-bisCF 3 , D-CF 3 , D-OMe, and D-DPA, with two 4,4′-dicarboxylic acid-2,2′-bipyridine together with a functionalized phenylpyridine ancillary ligand, have been designed and synthesized. The effect of different substituents (R = bisCF 3 , CF 3 , OMe, and DPA) on the ancillary C^N ligand on the photophysical properties and photovoltaic performance is investigated. Under standard global AM 1.5 solar conditions, the device based on D-CF 3 sensitizer gives a higher conversion efficiency of 8.74% than those based on D-bisCF 3 , D-OMe, and D-DPA, which can be ascribed to its broad range of visible light absorption, appropriate localization of the frontier orbitals, weak hydrogen bonds between -CF 3 and -OH groups at the TiO 2 surface, moderate dye loading on TiO 2 , and high charge collection efficiency. Moreover, the D-bisCF 3 and D-CF 3 based DSSCs exhibit good stability under 100 mW cm −2 light soaking at 60 °C for 400 h

  10. Elastic tunneling identification through crossings, anti-crossings and splitting of states in the complex electronic current of systems based on mesoscopic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Luis I. A.; Mendoza, Michel; Ujevic, Sebastian

    2013-09-01

    We have systematically studied the conductance σ( E,B) and the electronic current line shapes J( V ex ) through complex mesoscopic molecules in an elastic resonant tunneling regime. The studied systems are based on GaAs/AlGaAs hetero-structures, with several discrete states in each coupled mesoscopic molecule. The molecules were formed using different wells and barrier widths. These systems allow effective couplings and uncouplings that lead to elastic processes as a function of the electronic potential V ex and magnetic field B. In this situation, the J( V ex ) and σ( E, B) curves exhibit a sequence of peaks of difficult interpretation, in which crossings and anti-crossings (a splitting if it is generated in the resonance condition) of states contribute in a way that they cannot be easily identified. Performing a systematic analysis of the evolution of these states (before the resonance condition), we were able to determine the origin of these current peaks. We have found that the coupling of states (anti-crossing) around the resonance region can be identified as a broad mirrored- D line shape in the J( V ex ) curves. The mirrored- D line shape peaks can be clearly differentiated from the neighboring peaks because the last ones follow a very defined increasing sequence in their intensities and widths. Also, this behavior (fingerprint) can be used to identify possible splitting of states in the J( V ex ). The splittings that are generated between states with different quantum numbers (quantum numbers associated to the individual well) follow an unexpected opposite behavior when compared with those generated between states with the same quantum numbers (quasi-miniband). All these results are also observed in the conductance σ( E, B) associated with complex mesoscopic molecules based on a two-dimensional electron gas.

  11. Laser Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amplification or generation of coherent light waves in the UV,. VIS, and near IR region. .... ciency in most flashlamp pumped dye lasers. It is used as reference dye .... have led to superior laser dyes with increased photostabilities. For instance ...

  12. Characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Shoji, E-mail: furukawa@cse.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan); Iino, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Tomohisa; Kukita, Koudai; Yamauchi, Shoji [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are expected to be used for future clean energy. Recently, most of the researchers in this field use Ruthenium complex as dye in the dye-sensitized solar cells. However, Ruthenium is a rare metal, so the cost of the Ruthenium complex is very high. In this paper, various dye-sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using natural dye, such as the dye of red-cabbage, curcumin, and red-perilla. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the solar cell fabricated using the mixture of red-cabbage and curcumin was about 0.6% (light source: halogen lamp), which was larger than that of the solar cells using one kind of dye. It was also found that the conversion efficiency was about 1.0% for the solar cell with the oxide semiconductor film fabricated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) whose molecular weight was 2,000,000 and red-cabbage dye. This indicates that the cost performance (defined by [conversion efficiency]/[cost of dye]) of the latter solar cell (dye: red-cabbage) is larger by more than 50 times than that of the solar cell using Ruthenium complex, even if the effect of the difference between the halogen lamp and the standard light source is taken into account.

  13. Thermal degradation chemistry of ruthenium complexes in the dye-sensitized solar cell and strategies for reducing the dark current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben

    on the surface of a semiconductor anode (TiO2). In my lecture, I will present and overview of our degradation investigations of the ruthenium dyes N719, Z907 and C106 with the general structure RuLL´(NCS)2 and show how detailed degradation mechanistic knowledge is important in the developing of DSC cells...... transfer from the photo anode to the mediator R+ and the oxidized dye S+ we have applied electrochemical grafting strategies to attach an electrical isolation layer of mono and multilayers of organic molecules on the TiO2 photo anode [3]....

  14. Splitting Descartes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Kognition og Pædagogik vol. 48:10-18. 2003 Short description : The cognitivistic paradigm and Descartes' view of embodied knowledge. Abstract: That the philosopher Descartes separated the mind from the body is hardly news: He did it so effectively that his name is forever tied to that division....... But what exactly is Descartes' point? How does the Kartesian split hold up to recent biologically based learning theories?...

  15. Crystal structure and optical properties of a Lanthanum(III) complex of the solvatochromic dye “Nile Red”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Anders Rørbæk; Schau-Magnussen, Magnus; Frey, Anne Mette

    2006-01-01

    The benzo[a]phenoxazine compound Nile Red (nr) is a widely used fluorescent laser dye (Figure 1). The intense absorption band (¿ max ˜ 35000 cm –1 M –1 ), located in the VIS range,1 displays some charge transfer character in which electron density is moved from the diethylamino ...

  16. Our Expedition in Linear Neutral Platinum-Acetylide Complexes: The Preparation of Micro/nanostructure Materials, Complicated Topologies, and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Yang, Hai-Bo

    2016-06-01

    During the past few decades, the construction of various kinds of platinum-acetylide complexes has attracted considerable attention, because of their wide applications in photovoltaic cells, non-linear optics, and bio-imaging materials. Among these platinum-acetylide complexes, the linear neutral platinum-acetylide complexes, due to their attractive properties, such as well-defined linear geometry, synthetic accessibility, and intriguing photoproperties, have emerged as a rising star in this field. In this personal account, we will discuss how we entered the field of linear neutral platinum-acetylide chemistry and what we found in this field. The preparation of various types of linear neutral platinum-acetylide complexes and their applications in the areas of micro/nanostructure materials, complicated topologies, and dye-sensitized solar cells will be summarized in this account. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Direct thermal dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Edward

    1990-07-01

    Direct thermal dyes are members of a class of compounds referred to in the imaging industry as color formers or leuco dyes. The oldest members of that class have simple triarylmethane structures, and have been employed for years in various dyeing applications. More complex triarylmethane compounds, such as phthalides and fluorans, are now used in various imaging systems to produce color. Color is derived from all of these compounds via the same mechanism, on a molecular level. That is, an event of activation produces a highly resonating cationic system whose interaction with incident light produces reflected light of a specific color. The activation event in the case of a direct thermal system is the creation of a melt on the paper involving dye and an acidic developer. The three major performance parameters in a thermal system are background color, image density, and image stability. The three major dye physical parameters affecting thermal performance are chemical constituency, purity, and particle size. Those dyes having the best combination of characteristics which can also be manufactured economically dominate the marketplace. Manufacturing high performance dyes for the thermal market involves multi-step, convergent reaction sequences performed on large scale. Intermediates must be manufactured at the right time, and at the right quality to be useful.

  18. Dyes for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, U.

    1984-01-01

    The improvement of contrast and visibility of LCD by two different means was undertaken. The two methods are: (1) development of fluorescent dyes to increase the visibility of fluorescent activated displays (FLAD); and (2) development of dichroic dyes to increase the contrast of displays. This work was done in close cooperation with the electronic industry, where the newly synthesized dyes were tested. The targets for the chemical synthesis were selected with the help of computer model calculations. A marketable range of dyes was developed. Since the interest of the electronic industries concerning FLAD was low, the investigations were stopped. Dichroic dyes, especially black mixtures with good light fastness, order parameter, and solubility in nematic phases were developed. The application of these dyes is restricted to indoor use because of an increase of viscosity below -10 C. Applications on a technical scale, e.g., for the automotive industry, will be possible if the displays work at temperatures down to -40 C. This problem requires a complex optimization of the dye/nematic phase system.

  19. Zero-field splitting in the isoelectronic aqueous Gd(III) and Eu(II) complexes from a first principles analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S.; Peters, V.; Kowalewski, J.; Odelius, M.

    2018-03-01

    The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the ground state octet in aqueous Eu(II) and Gd(III) solutions was investigated through multi- configurational quantum chemical calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. Investigation of the ZFS of the lanthanide ions is essential to understand the electron spin dynamics and nuclear spin relaxation around paramagnetic ions and consequently the mechanisms underlying applications like magnetic resonance imaging. We found by comparing clusters at identical geometries but different metallic centres that there is not a simple relationship for their ZFS, in spite of the complexes being isoelectronic - each containing 7 unpaired f electrons. Through sampling it was established that inclusion of the first hydration shell has a dominant (over 90 %) influence on the ZFS. Extended sampling of aqueous Gd(III) showed that the 2 nd order spin Hamiltonian formalism is valid and that the rhombic ZFS component is decisive.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Azo dye intermediates/Substituted diazonium salts + coupling compounds Vat dyes Acid dyes Azo dyes, metallized/Azo dye + metal acetate Acid dyes, Azo...

  1. First Principle Modelling of Materials and Processes in Dye-Sensitized Photoanodes for Solar Energy and Solar Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariachiara Pastore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of solar energy exploitation, dye-sensitized solar cells and dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthetic cells offer the promise of low-cost sunlight conversion and storage, respectively. In this perspective we discuss the main successes and limitations of modern computational methodologies, ranging from hybrid and long-range corrected density functionals, GW approaches and multi-reference perturbation theories, in describing the electronic and optical properties of isolated components and complex interfaces relevant to these devices. While computational modelling has had a crucial role in the development of the dye-sensitized solar cells technology, the theoretical characterization of the interface structure and interfacial processes in water splitting devices is still at its infancy, especially concerning the electron and hole transfer phenomena. Quantitative analysis of interfacial charge separation and recombination reactions in multiple metal-oxide/dye/catalyst heterointerfaces, thus, undoubtedly represents the compelling challenge in the field of modern computational material science.

  2. Structures of an Apo and a Binary Complex of an Evolved Archeal B Family DNA Polymerase Capable of Synthesising Highly Cy-Dye Labelled DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Samantha A.; Pinheiro, Vitor B.; Holliger, Philipp; Leslie, Andrew G. W.

    2013-01-01

    Thermophilic DNA polymerases of the polB family are of great importance in biotechnological applications including high-fidelity PCR. Of particular interest is the relative promiscuity of engineered versions of the exo- form of polymerases from the Thermo- and Pyrococcales families towards non-canonical substrates, which enables key advances in Next-generation sequencing. Despite this there is a paucity of structural information to guide further engineering of this group of polymerases. Here we report two structures, of the apo form and of a binary complex of a previously described variant (E10) of Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) polymerase with an ability to fully replace dCTP with Cyanine dye-labeled dCTP (Cy3-dCTP or Cy5-dCTP) in PCR and synthesise highly fluorescent “CyDNA” densely decorated with cyanine dye heterocycles. The apo form of Pfu-E10 closely matches reported apo form structures of wild-type Pfu. In contrast, the binary complex (in the replicative state with a duplex DNA oligonucleotide) reveals a closing movement of the thumb domain, increasing the contact surface with the nascent DNA duplex strand. Modelling based on the binary complex suggests how bulky fluorophores may be accommodated during processive synthesis and has aided the identification of residues important for the synthesis of unnatural nucleic acid polymers. PMID:23940661

  3. Dye sensitized solar cell applications of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite thin films deposited from single molecular complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali [Nanotechnology and Catalysis Centre (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Khaledi, Hamid [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Huang, Nay Ming [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Arifin, Zainudin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mazhar, Muhammad, E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-10-15

    A heterobimetallic complex [Cd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}(μ-O){sub 6}(TFA){sub 8}(THF){sub 6}]·1.5THF (1) (TFA=trifluoroacetato, THF=tetrahydrofuran) comprising of Cd:Ti (1:2) ratio was synthesized by a chemical reaction of cadmium (II) acetate with titanium (IV) isopropoxide and triflouroacetic acid in THF. The stoichiometry of (1) was recognized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and elemental analyses. Thermal studies revealed that (1) neatly decomposes at 450 °C to furnish 1:1 ratio of cadmium titanate:titania composite oxides material. The thin films of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite oxides were deposited at 550 °C on fluorine doped tin oxide coated conducting glass substrate in air ambient. The micro-structure, crystallinity, phase identification and chemical composition of microspherical architectured CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite thin film have been determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The scope of composite thin film having band gap of 3.1 eV was explored as photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell application. - Graphical abstarct: Microspherical designed CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite oxides photoanode film has been fabricated from single source precursor [Cd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}(μ-O){sub 6}(TFA){sub 8}(THF){sub 6}]·1.5THF via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique for dye sensitized solar cell application. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of a heterobimetallic Cd–Ti complex. • Fabrication of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} thin film photoelectrode. • Application as dye sensitized photoanode for solar application.

  4. Synthesis, Spectral, Thermogravimetric, XRD, Molecular Modelling and Potential Antibacterial Studies of Dimeric Complexes with Bis Bidentate ON–NO Donor Azo Dye Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Bihari Mahapatra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimeric complexes of Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II, and Hg(II with two new symmetrical ON–NO donor bis bidentate (tetradentate azo dye ligands, LH2 = 4,4′-bis(4′-hydroxyquinolinolinylazodiphenylsulphone, and L′H2 = 4,4′-bis(acetoacetanilideazodiphenylsulphone have been synthesized. The metal complexes have been characterised by elemental analytical, conductance, magnetic susceptibility, IR, electronic spectra, ESR, NMR, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction (powder pattern spectra, and molecular modelling studies. The Co(II and Ni(II complexes are found to be octahedral, Cu(II complexes are distorted octahedral, and a tetrahedral stereochemistry has been assigned to Zn(II, Cd(II, and Hg(II complexes. The thermogravimetric study indicates that compounds are quite stable. The energy optimized structures are proposed using the semiempirical ZINDO/1 quantum mechanical calculations. The potential antibacterial study of the ligands and some metal complexes has been made with one gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and one gram negative bacteria E. coli which gives encouraging results. Both the Co(II complexes are found to possess monoclinic crystal system.

  5. Towards the Development of Functionalized PolypyridineLigands for Ru(II Complexes as Photosensitizers inDye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale O. Adeloye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of novel ruthenium(II polypyridine complexes have been designedand synthesized for use as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs due totheir rich photophysical properties such as intense absorption, long-lived lifetimes, highemission quantum yields and unique redox characteristics. Many of these complexesexhibit photophysical behavior that can be readily controlled through a careful choice ofligands and/or substituents. With this perspective, we review the design and general syntheticmethods of some polypyridine ligands based on bipyridine, phenanthroline, terpyridine andquaterpyridine with/without anchoring groups with a view to correlate functionality ofligand structures with the observed photophysical, electroredox and power conversionefficiency of some examples of Ru(II polypyridyl complexes that have been reported andparticularly used in the DSSCs applications. The main interest, however, is focused onshowing the development of new polypyridine ligand materials containing long-rangeelectron transfer motifs such as the alkenyl, alkynyl and polyaromatic donor functionalities.

  6. Superposition model analysis of nickel(II) ions in trigonal bipyramidal complexes exhibiting huge zero field splitting (aka ‘giant magnetic anisotropy’)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudowicz, Czesław, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland); Açıkgöz, Muhammed [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States); Gnutek, Paweł [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Using crystal structure data for [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) as well as taking into account the Jahn-Teller distortions of five-fold coordinated Ni-complexes revealed by DFT geometry optimization, the ZFSPs are predicted for several structural models and wide ranges of model parameters. - Highlights: • Semiempirical study of potential SMM [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br). • Superposition model analysis of zero field splitting (ZFS) parameters carried out. • Jahn-Teller distortions revealed by DFT geometry optimization considered. • SPM predicts D(ZFS) of observed magnitudes with positive or negative signs. • Results corroborate giant ZFS, which shall not be equated with magnetic anisotropy. - Abstract: Potential single-ion magnet Ni{sup 2+} systems: [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) reveal unusually high zero field splitting (ZFS). The ZFS parameter (ZFSP) D{sub expt} = −120 to −180 cm{sup −1} was determined indirectly by high-magnetic field, high-frequency electron magnetic resonance (HMF-EMR). Modeling ZFSPs using the density functional theory (DFT) codes predicts D values: −100 to −200 cm{sup −1}. Such ZFSP values may seem controversial in view of the D values usually not exceeding several tens of cm{sup −1} for Ni{sup 2+} ions. To corroborate or otherwise these results and elucidate the origin of the huge ZFS (named inappropriately as ‘giant uniaxial magnetic anisotropy’) and respective wavefunctions, we have undertaken semiempirical modeling based on the crystal field (CF) and spin Hamiltonians (SH) theory. In this paper, a feasibility study is carried out to ascertain if superposition model (SPM) calculations may yield such huge D values for these Ni{sup 2+} systems. Using crystal structure data for [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) as well as taking into account the Jahn

  7. Theoretical insight into electronic structure and optoelectronic properties of heteroleptic Cu(I)-based complexes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shuxian; Li, Ke; Lu, Xiaoqing, E-mail: luxq@upc.edu.cn; Zhao, Zigang; Shao, Yang; Dang, Yong; Li, Shaoren; Guo, Wenyue, E-mail: wyguo@upc.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    A series of heteroleptic Cu(I)-based dyes were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Results showed that Cu(I)-based dyes were inclined to form distorted pseudo-trigonal pyramidal configurations with four-coordinated geometry index τ{sub 4} ranging from 0.905 to 0.914. The absorption spectra of Cu(I)-based dyes covered ∼300.0–600.0 nm region, and the lowest excitation states were crucial for efficient electron excitation and separation. Suitable energy levels of Cu(I)-based dyes rendered them thermodynamically favorable for efficient electron injection into semiconductor and regeneration from electrolyte. Relative to π-conjugation, heteroaromatic groups introduced into ancillary ligands could significantly improve the property of Cu(I)-based dyes by decreasing HOMO-LUMO gaps, red-shifting spectral range, strengthening absorption intensity, boosting light-harvesting efficiency, and promoting interfacial electron injection. Specifically, Cu(I)-based dye with dithiole-functionalized group exhibited outstanding optoelectronic property. - Highlights: • Assessment of heteroleptic Cu(I) dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells. • Suitable energy levels render Cu(I) dyes ideal candidates for electron injection. • Heteroaromatic groups efficiently improve Cu(I) dyes light-harvesting properties. • Dye with dithiole group exhibits ideal photoelectronic property.

  8. Tuning luminescence intensity of RHO6G dye using silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Wang and Kerker (1982) found that due to interaction of metal and dye in core shell particles splitting of extinction bands occurs. En- hancement also has been reported due to such interaction. Quenching of the luminescence of dye molecules ad- sorbed on a smooth Ag surface was observed by Ritchie and Burstein (1981).

  9. Electronic, magnetic structure and water splitting reactivity of the iron-sulfur dimers and their hexacarbonyl complexes: A density functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzunova, Ellie L., E-mail: ellie@svr.igic.bas.bg [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Mikosch, Hans [Institute for Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/E164-EC, 1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-28

    The iron sulfide dimers (FeS){sub 2} and their persulfide isomers with S–S bonds are studied with the B3LYP density functional as bare clusters and as hexacarbonyls. The disulfides are more stable than the persulfides as bare clusters and the persulfide ground state lies at 3.2 eV above the global minimum, while in the hexacarbonyl complexes this order is reversed: persulfides are more stable, but the energy gap between disulfides and persulfides becomes much smaller and the activation barrier for the transition persulfide → disulfide is 1.11 eV. Carbonylation also favors a non-planar Fe{sub 2}S{sub 2} ring for both the disulfides and the persulfides and high electron density in the Fe{sub 2}S{sub 2} core is induced. The diamagnetic ordering is preferred in the hexacarbonyls, unlike the bare clusters. The hexacarbonyls possess low-lying triplet excited states. In the persulfide, the lowest singlet-to-triplet state excitation occurs by electron transition from the iron centers to an orbital located predominantly at S{sub 2} via metal-to-ligand charge transfer. In the disulfide this excitation corresponds to ligand-to-metal charge transfer from the sulfur atoms to an orbital located at the iron centers and the Fe–Fe bond. Water splitting occurs on the hexacarbonyls, but not on the bare clusters. The singlet and triplet state reaction paths were examined and activation barriers were determined: 50 kJ mol{sup −1} for HO–H bond dissociation and 210 kJ mol{sup −1} for hydrogen evolution from the intermediate sulfoxyl-hydroxyl complexes Fe{sub 2}S(OH)(SH)(CO){sub 6} formed. The lowest singlet-singlet excitations in the hexacarbonyls, the water adsorption complexes and in the reaction intermediates, formed prior to dihydrogen release, fall in the visible light region. The energy barrier of 210 kJ mol{sup −1} for the release of one hydrogen molecule corresponds to one visible photon of 570 nm. The dissociation of a second water molecule, followed by H{sub 2

  10. Fabrication of reduced graphene oxide/macrocyclic cobalt complex nanocomposites as counter electrodes for Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chih-Hung; Shih, Chun-Jyun; Wang, Wun-Shiuan; Chi, Wen-Feng; Huang, Wei-Chih; Hu, Yu-Chung; Yu, Yuan-Hsiang

    2018-03-01

    In this study, macrocyclic Co complexes were successfully grafted onto graphene oxide (GO) to produce GO/Co nanocomposites with a large surface area, high electrical conductivity, and excellent catalytic properties. The novel GO/Co nanocomposites were applied as counter electrodes for Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Various ratios of macrocyclic Co complexes were used as the reductant to react with the GO, with which the surface functional groups of the GO were reduced and the macrocyclic ligand of the Co complexes underwent oxidative dehydrogenation, after which the conjugated macrocyclic Co systems were grafted onto the surface of the reduced GO to form GO/Co nanocomposites. The surface morphology, material structure, and composition of the GO/Co composites and their influences on the power-conversion efficiency of DSSC devices were comprehensively investigated. The results showed that the GO/Co (1:10) counter electrode (CE) exhibited an optimal power conversion efficiency of 7.48%, which was higher than that of the Pt CE. The GO/Co (1:10) CE exhibited superior electric conductivity, catalytic capacity, and redox capacity. Because GO/Co (1:10) CEs are more efficient and cheaper than Pt CEs, they could potentially be used as a replacement for Pt electrodes.

  11. Blue copper model complexes with distorted tetragonal geometry acting as effective electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shigeki; Wada, Yuji; Yanagida, Shozo; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2005-07-06

    The electron self-exchange rate constants of blue copper model complexes, [(-)-sparteine-N,N'](maleonitriledithiolato-S,S')copper ([Cu(SP)(mmt)])(0/)(-), bis(2,9-dimethy-1,10-phenanthroline)copper ([Cu(dmp)(2)](2+/+)), and bis(1,10-phenanthroline)copper ([Cu(phen)(2)](2+/+)) have been determined from the rate constants of electron transfer from a homologous series of ferrocene derivatives to the copper(II) complexes in light of the Marcus theory of electron transfer. The resulting electron self-exchange rate constant increases in the order: [Cu(phen)(2)](2+/+) geometry. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were constructed using the copper complexes as redox couples to compare the photoelectrochemical responses with those using the conventional I(3)(-)/I(-) couple. The light energy conversion efficiency (eta) values under illumination of simulated solar light irradiation (100 mW/cm(2)) of DSSCs using [Cu(phen)(2)](2+/+), [Cu(dmp)(2)](2+/+), and [Cu(SP)(mmt)](0/)(-) were recorded as 0.1%, 1.4%, and 1.3%, respectively. The maximum eta value (2.2%) was obtained for a DSSC using the [Cu(dmp)(2)](2+/+) redox couple under the light irradiation of 20 mW/cm(2) intensity, where a higher open-circuit voltage of the cell was attained as compared to that of the conventional I(3)(-)/I(-) couple.

  12. Characterisation and application of new carboxylic acid-functionalised ruthenium complexes as dye-sensitisers for solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprez, Virginie; Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    A series of ruthenium complexes with and without TiO2, anchoring carboxylic acid groups have been synthesised and characterised using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), UV-vis and luminescence. These complexes were adsorbed on thin films of the wide band-gap semiconductor anatase and were tested a...

  13. Triadic split-merge sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rossum, Anne C.; Lin, Hai Xiang; Dubbeldam, Johan; van der Herik, H. Jaap

    2018-04-01

    In machine vision typical heuristic methods to extract parameterized objects out of raw data points are the Hough transform and RANSAC. Bayesian models carry the promise to optimally extract such parameterized objects given a correct definition of the model and the type of noise at hand. A category of solvers for Bayesian models are Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Naive implementations of MCMC methods suffer from slow convergence in machine vision due to the complexity of the parameter space. Towards this blocked Gibbs and split-merge samplers have been developed that assign multiple data points to clusters at once. In this paper we introduce a new split-merge sampler, the triadic split-merge sampler, that perform steps between two and three randomly chosen clusters. This has two advantages. First, it reduces the asymmetry between the split and merge steps. Second, it is able to propose a new cluster that is composed out of data points from two different clusters. Both advantages speed up convergence which we demonstrate on a line extraction problem. We show that the triadic split-merge sampler outperforms the conventional split-merge sampler. Although this new MCMC sampler is demonstrated in this machine vision context, its application extend to the very general domain of statistical inference.

  14. Treatment of dye house effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Ashraf, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental considerations play an increasingly important role in processing of textiles. For textile, limits on particular substances have been and are being laid down either by law or as a result of the demands of clothing manufactures. One of the most complex areas in textile processing is textile printing and dyeing. Here, virtually all dye classes are used. In some printing processes such as reactive printing, many of products used end up in the wastewater. A study of the optimisation of wastewater treatment systems and the systematic management of water and the problems of dyeing are reviewed in this article. (author)

  15. Caprolactone-based bipyridine macroligands for novel ruthenium polypyridyl complexes for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, V.N.; Holder, E.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce electrolyte loss in solar cells, the use of sold or quasi-solid state electrolytes is advantageous. The authors synthesized a metal contg. polymer via two synthetic pathways. In the first, a bipyridine-bisphenanthroline ruthenium metal complex with a hydroxy functionality was

  16. Cationic dyes as extraction and spectrophotometric reagents: extraction of thiocyanate complex of mercury (II) in association with malachite green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, N V; Murthy, T K.S.

    1975-01-01

    An extraction spectrophotometric method for the determination of Hg(II) is described. This is based on the extraction of Hg(CNS)/sub 3//sup -/ complex in association with the cation of malachite green into benzene. The benzene extract has lambda max at 640 mm. Maximal extraction takes place from an aqueous solution of pH 4.5. Although four extractions are needed for quantitative recovery of Hg(II), a single extraction with aqueous organic = 2.5 : 1 is recommended for analysis and the apparent molar absorptivity is 65,000. The interference from a number of anions and cations has also been studied. (auth)

  17. Nano-dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cui-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing nanofibers is a frontier of both modern textile engineering and nanotechnology. This paper suggest a feasible method for dyeing nanofibers with a natural red (Roselle Calyx by bubble electrospinning. Reactive dye (Red S3B and acid dye (Red 2B were also used in the experiment for comparison. The dyeing process was finished during the spinning process.

  18. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  19. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  20. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Ting

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD-dye

  1. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ting

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD-dye

  2. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dye...

  3. The crystal structure of the Split End protein SHARP adds a new layer of complexity to proteins containing RNA recognition motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieti, Fabiana; Gabus, Caroline; Tambalo, Margherita; Huet, Tiphaine; Round, Adam; Thore, Stéphane

    2014-06-01

    The Split Ends (SPEN) protein was originally discovered in Drosophila in the late 1990s. Since then, homologous proteins have been identified in eukaryotic species ranging from plants to humans. Every family member contains three predicted RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) in the N-terminal region of the protein. We have determined the crystal structure of the region of the human SPEN homolog that contains these RRMs-the SMRT/HDAC1 Associated Repressor Protein (SHARP), at 2.0 Å resolution. SHARP is a co-regulator of the nuclear receptors. We demonstrate that two of the three RRMs, namely RRM3 and RRM4, interact via a highly conserved interface. Furthermore, we show that the RRM3-RRM4 block is the main platform mediating the stable association with the H12-H13 substructure found in the steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA), a long, non-coding RNA previously shown to play a crucial role in nuclear receptor transcriptional regulation. We determine that SHARP association with SRA relies on both single- and double-stranded RNA sequences. The crystal structure of the SHARP-RRM fragment, together with the associated RNA-binding studies, extend the repertoire of nucleic acid binding properties of RRM domains suggesting a new hypothesis for a better understanding of SPEN protein functions. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  5. Market Structure and Stock Splits

    OpenAIRE

    David Michayluk; Paul Kofman

    2001-01-01

    Enhanced liquidity is one possible motivation for stock splits but empirical research frequently documents declines in liquidity following stock splits. Despite almost thirty years of inquiry, little is known about all the changes in a stock's trading activity following a stock split. We examine how liquidity measures change around more than 2,500 stock splits and find a pervasive decline in most measures. Large stock splits exhibit a more severe liquidity decline than small stock splits, esp...

  6. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  7. Split Malcev algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    project of the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia MTM2007-60333. References. [1] Calderón A J, On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 118(2008) 351–356. [2] Calderón A J, On split Lie triple systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 119(2009). 165–177.

  8. Stochastic split determinant algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvatha, Ivan

    2000-01-01

    I propose a large class of stochastic Markov processes associated with probability distributions analogous to that of lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermions. The construction incorporates the idea of approximate spectral split of the determinant through local loop action, and the idea of treating the infrared part of the split through explicit diagonalizations. I suggest that exact algorithms of practical relevance might be based on Markov processes so constructed

  9. The Ferredoxin-Like Proteins HydN and YsaA Enhance Redox Dye-Linked Activity of the Formate Dehydrogenase H Component of the Formate Hydrogenlyase Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinske, Constanze

    2018-01-01

    Formate dehydrogenase H (FDH-H) and [NiFe]-hydrogenase 3 (Hyd-3) form the catalytic components of the hydrogen-producing formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which disproportionates formate to H 2 and CO 2 during mixed acid fermentation in enterobacteria. FHL comprises minimally seven proteins and little is understood about how this complex is assembled. Early studies identified a ferredoxin-like protein, HydN, as being involved in FDH-H assembly into the FHL complex. In order to understand how FDH-H and its small subunit HycB, which is also a ferredoxin-like protein, attach to the FHL complex, the possible roles of HydN and its paralogue, YsaA, in FHL complex stability and assembly were investigated. Deletion of the hycB gene reduced redox dye-mediated FDH-H activity to approximately 10%, abolished FHL-dependent H 2 -production, and reduced Hyd-3 activity. These data are consistent with HycB being an essential electron transfer component of the FHL complex. The FDH-H activity of the hydN and the ysaA deletion strains was reduced to 59 and 57% of the parental, while the double deletion reduced activity of FDH-H to 28% and the triple deletion with hycB to 1%. Remarkably, and in contrast to the hycB deletion, the absence of HydN and YsaA was without significant effect on FHL-dependent H 2 -production or total Hyd-3 activity; FDH-H protein levels were also unaltered. This is the first description of a phenotype for the E. coli ysaA deletion strain and identifies it as a novel factor required for optimal redox dye-linked FDH-H activity. A ysaA deletion strain could be complemented for FDH-H activity by hydN and ysaA , but the hydN deletion strain could not be complemented. Introduction of these plasmids did not affect H 2 production. Bacterial two-hybrid interactions showed that YsaA, HydN, and HycB interact with each other and with the FDH-H protein. Further novel anaerobic cross-interactions of 10 ferredoxin-like proteins in E. coli were also discovered and described

  10. Chemistry of Natural Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scientific principles, and the interaction between the dye and the dyed material is ... Dyes are classified based on their structure, source, method of application .... the right source that gives not only beautiful tones, but colourfast shades as well.

  11. uv dye lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumov, G.A.; Fadeev, V.V.; Khokhlov, R.V.; Simonov, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    The most important property of visible dye lasers, that is, continuous wavelength tuning, stimulated the search for dyes capable to lase in uv. They were found in 1968. Now the need for tunable uv lasers for applications in spectroscopy, photochemistry, isotope separation, remote air and sea probing, etc. is clearly seen. A review of some recent advances in uv dye lasers is reviewed

  12. Photochemistry of triarylmethane dyes bound to proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indig, Guilherme L.

    1996-04-01

    Triarylmethanes represent a class of cationic dyes whose potential as photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy of neoplastic diseases has never been comprehensively evaluated. Here, the laser-induced photodecomposition of three triarylmethane dyes, crystal violet, ethyl violet, and malachite green, non-covalently bound to bovine serum albumin (a model biological target) was investigated. Upon laser excitation at 532 nm, the bleaching of the corresponding dye-protein molecular complexes follows spectroscopic patterns that suggest the formation of reduced forms of the dyes as major reaction photoproducts. That implies that an electron or hydrogen atom transfer from the protein to the dye's moiety within the guest-host complex is the first step of the photobleaching process. Since the availability of dissolved molecular oxygen was not identified as a limiting factor for the phototransformations to occur, these dyes can be seen as potential phototherapeutic agents for use in hypoxic areas of tumors. These triarylmethane dyes strongly absorb at relatively long wavelengths (absorption maximum around 600 nm; (epsilon) max approximately equals 105 M-1 cm-1), and only minor changes in their absorption characteristics are observed upon binding to the protein. However the binding event leads to a remarkable increase in their fluorescence quantum yield and photoreactivity.

  13. Studies on the use of power ultrasound in leather dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar

    2003-03-01

    Uses of power ultrasound for acceleration/performing the chemical as well as physical processes are gaining importance. In conventional leather processing, the diffusion of chemicals through the pores of the skin/hide is achieved by the mechanical agitation caused by the paddle or drumming action. In this work, the use of power ultrasound in the dyeing of leather has been studied with the aim to improve the exhaustion of dye for a given processing time, to reduce the dyeing time and to improve the quality of dyed leather. The effect of power ultrasound in the dyeing of full chrome cow crust leather in a stationary condition is compared with dyeing in the absence of ultrasound as a control experiment both in a stationary as well as conventional drumming condition. An ultrasonic cleaner (150 W and 33 kHz) was used for the experiments. Actual power dissipated into the system was calculated from the calorimetric measurement. Experiments were carried out with variation in type of dye, amount of dye offer, temperature and time. The results show that there is a significant improvement in the percentage exhaustion of dye due to the presence of ultrasound, when compared to dyeing in absence of ultrasound. Experiments on equilibrium dye uptake carried out with or without ultrasound suggest that ultrasound help to improve the kinetics of leather dyeing. The results indicate that leathers dyed in presence of ultrasound have higher colour values, better dye penetration and fastness properties compared to control leathers. The physical testing results show that strength properties of the dyed leathers are not affected due to the application of ultrasound under the given process conditions. Apparent diffusion coefficient during the initial stage of dyeing process, both in presence and in absence of ultrasound was calculated. The values show that ultrasound helps in improving the apparent diffusion coefficient more for the difficult dyeing conditions such as in the case of metal-complex

  14. Splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.

    2017-11-01

    Recent study (Wu et al., PNAS, 1509451112, 2015) demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of direct computation of the Osborne Reynolds' pipe transition problem without the unphysical, axially periodic boundary condition. Here we use this approach to study the splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow, a feature first discovered by E.R. Lindgren (Arkiv Fysik 15, 1959). It has been widely believed that spot splitting is a mysterious stochastic process that has general implications on the lifetime and sustainability of wall turbulence. We address the following two questions: (1) What is the dynamics of turbulent spot splitting in pipe transition? Specifically, we look into any possible connection between the instantaneous strain rate field and the spot splitting. (2) How does the passive scalar field behave during the process of pipe spot splitting. In this study, the turbulent spot is introduced at the inlet plane through a sixty degree wide numerical wedge within which fully-developed turbulent profiles are assigned over a short time interval; and the simulation Reynolds numbers are 2400 for a 500 radii long pipe, and 2300 for a 1000 radii long pipe, respectively. Numerical dye is tagged on the imposed turbulent spot at the inlet. Splitting of the imposed turbulent spot is detected very easily. Preliminary analysis of the DNS results seems to suggest that turbulent spot slitting can be easily understood based on instantaneous strain rate field, and such spot splitting may not be relevant in external flows such as the flat-plate boundary layer.

  15. Enhanced bimolecular exchange reaction through programmed coordination of a five-coordinate oxovanadium complex for efficient redox mediation in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaizu, Kenichi; Hayo, Noriko; Sasada, Yoshito; Kato, Fumiaki; Nishide, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-07

    Electrochemical reversibility and fast bimolecular exchange reaction found for VO(salen) gave rise to a highly efficient redox mediation to enhance the photocurrent of a dye-sensitized solar cell, leading to an excellent photovoltaic performance with a conversion efficiency of 5.4%. A heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant at an electrode (k0) and a second-order rate constant for an electron self-exchange reaction (k(ex)) were proposed as key parameters that dominate the charge transport property, which afforded a novel design concept for the mediators based on their kinetic aspects.

  16. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  17. Broad band exciplex dye lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, A.; Shank, C.V.; Trozzolo, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    The disclosure is concerned with exciplex dye lasers, i.e., lasers in which the emitting species is a complex formed only from a constituent in an electronically excited state. Noting that an exciplex laser, favorable from the standpoint of broad tunability, results from a broad shift in the peak emission wavelength for the exciplex relative to the unreacted species, a desirable class resulting in such broad shift is described. Preferred classes of laser media utilizing specified resonant molecules are set forth. (auth)

  18. Splitting Ward identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Mahmoud [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Splitting Ward identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safari, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Circadian and diurnal variation of circulating immune complexes, complement-mediated solubilization, and the complement split product C3d in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ivan; Baatrup, Gunnar; Brandslund, I

    1986-01-01

    Nine patients with active classical rheumatoid arthritis (ARA criteria) were studied with reference to circadian variation of immunological and clinical parameters. Complement-mediated solubilization (CMS) of immune complexes (IC) and the level of circulating IC were found to be inversely related...... with low CMS and increased IC levels in the morning, and vice versa in the afternoon. Bed rest and exercise did not influence these fluctuations. The C3d concentration in plasma was increased but showed no diurnal or circadian periodic fluctuations when the levels were corrected for fluctuations in plasma...... albumin concentration. Clinical assessment by means of pain score exhibited marked variations, with high scores in the morning, and lower in the daytime, whereas measurements of Ritchie's joint index showed no consistent pattern. The circadian variations in CMS, serum IC and clinical parameters indicate...

  1. A new signal-on method for the detection of protein based on binding-induced strategy and photoinduced electron transfer between Ag nanoclusters and split G-quadruplex-hemin complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai, E-mail: zhangkai@jsinm.org; Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Xie, Minhao

    2015-08-05

    Proteins play important roles in biological and cellular processes. The levels of proteins can be useful biomarkers for cellular events or disease diagnosis, thus the method for sensitive and selective detection of proteins is imperative to proteins express, study, and clinical diagnosis. Herein, we report a “signal-on” platform for the assay of protein based on binding-induced strategy and photoinduced electron transfer between Ag nanoclusters and split G-quadruplex-hemin complexes. By using biotin as the affinity ligand, this simple protocol could sensitively detect streptavidin with a detection limit down to 10 pM. With the use of an antibody as the affinity ligand, a method for homogeneous fluorescence detection of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) was also proposed with a detection limit of 10 pM. The one-step and wash-free assay showed good selectivity. Its high sensitivity, acceptable accuracy, and satisfactory versatility of analytes led to various applications in bioanalysis. - Highlights: • AgNCs have great potential for application in biomedicine. • Binding of two affinity ligands can result in binding-induced DNA assemblies. • PET can be happened between DNA/AgNCs and G-quadruplex/hemin complexes. • A platform for the detection of proteins was proposed by using PET and binding-induced strategy.

  2. The Splitting Loope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Teaching experiments have generated several hypotheses concerning the construction of fraction schemes and operations and relationships among them. In particular, researchers have hypothesized that children's construction of splitting operations is crucial to their construction of more advanced fractions concepts (Steffe, 2002). The authors…

  3. The Splitting Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Piagetian theory describes mathematical development as the construction and organization of mental operations within psychological structures. Research on student learning has identified the vital roles of two particular operations--splitting and units coordination--play in students' development of advanced fractions knowledge. Whereas Steffe and…

  4. Chlorine disinfection of dye wastewater: Implications for a commercial azo dye mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacchi, Francine Inforcato; Albuquerque, Anjaina Fernandes; Vendemiatti, Josiane Aparecida; Morales, Daniel Alexandre [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP, 13484-332 (Brazil); Ormond, Alexandra B.; Freeman, Harold S. [Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry, and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 (United States); Zocolo, Guilherme Juliao; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Umbuzeiro, Gisela, E-mail: giselau@ft.unicamp.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP, 13484-332 (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    Azo dyes, the most widely used family of synthetic dyes, are often employed as colorants in areas such as textiles, plastics, foods/drugs/cosmetics, and electronics. Following their use in industrial applications, azo dyes have been found in effluents and various receiving waters. Chemical treatment of effluents containing azo dyes includes disinfection using chlorine, which can generate compounds of varying eco/genotoxicity. Among the widely known commercial azo dyes for synthetic fibers is C.I. Disperse Red 1. While this dye is known to exist as a complex mixture, reports of eco/genotoxicity involve the purified form. Bearing in mind the potential for adverse synergistic effects arising from exposures to chemical mixtures, the aim of the present study was to characterize the components of commercial Disperse Red 1 and its chlorine-mediated decoloration products and to evaluate their ecotoxicity and mutagenicity. In conducting the present study, Disperse Red 1 was treated with chlorine gas, and the solution obtained was analyzed with the aid of LC-ESI-MS/MS to identify the components present, and then evaluated for ecotoxicity and mutagenicity, using Daphnia similis and Salmonella/microsome assays, respectively. The results of this study indicated that chlorination of Disperse Red 1 produced four chlorinated aromatic compounds as the main products and that the degradation products were more ecotoxic than the parent dye. These results suggest that a disinfection process using chlorine should be avoided for effluents containing hydrophobic azo dyes such commercial Disperse Red 1. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aqueous solutions of Disperse Red 1 were treated with chlorine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chlorination products of Disperse Red 1 were identified using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daphnia and Salmonella/microsome were employed for eco/genotoxicity testing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chlorinated dye was more mutagenic

  5. Chlorine disinfection of dye wastewater: Implications for a commercial azo dye mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacchi, Francine Inforçato; Albuquerque, Anjaina Fernandes; Vendemiatti, Josiane Aparecida; Morales, Daniel Alexandre; Ormond, Alexandra B.; Freeman, Harold S.; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    Azo dyes, the most widely used family of synthetic dyes, are often employed as colorants in areas such as textiles, plastics, foods/drugs/cosmetics, and electronics. Following their use in industrial applications, azo dyes have been found in effluents and various receiving waters. Chemical treatment of effluents containing azo dyes includes disinfection using chlorine, which can generate compounds of varying eco/genotoxicity. Among the widely known commercial azo dyes for synthetic fibers is C.I. Disperse Red 1. While this dye is known to exist as a complex mixture, reports of eco/genotoxicity involve the purified form. Bearing in mind the potential for adverse synergistic effects arising from exposures to chemical mixtures, the aim of the present study was to characterize the components of commercial Disperse Red 1 and its chlorine-mediated decoloration products and to evaluate their ecotoxicity and mutagenicity. In conducting the present study, Disperse Red 1 was treated with chlorine gas, and the solution obtained was analyzed with the aid of LC–ESI-MS/MS to identify the components present, and then evaluated for ecotoxicity and mutagenicity, using Daphnia similis and Salmonella/microsome assays, respectively. The results of this study indicated that chlorination of Disperse Red 1 produced four chlorinated aromatic compounds as the main products and that the degradation products were more ecotoxic than the parent dye. These results suggest that a disinfection process using chlorine should be avoided for effluents containing hydrophobic azo dyes such commercial Disperse Red 1. -- Highlights: ► Aqueous solutions of Disperse Red 1 were treated with chlorine. ► The chlorination products of Disperse Red 1 were identified using LC–ESI-MS/MS. ► Daphnia and Salmonella/microsome were employed for eco/genotoxicity testing. ► The chlorinated dye was more mutagenic than the dye itself. ► Chlorination should be avoided in effluents containing azo-dyes.

  6. Environmental impact analysis of batik natural dyes using life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinawati, Dyah Ika; Sari, Diana Puspita; Purwanggono, Bambang; Hermawan, Andy Tri

    2017-11-01

    The use of natural dyes for batik dyeing is fewer than synthetic dyes because of its limitations in the application such complexity in manufacture and usage. For ease of use, natural dyes need to be processed into instant products. Extract of natural dyes are generally produced in liquid form that are less practical in long-term use. Dye powder obtained by drying the liquid extract using spray dryer. Production process of liquid natural dye is simpler and require less energy but need more energy for transporting. It is important to know which type of natural dyes should be produced based on their environmental impact. This research aim to compare environmental impact between liquid and powder natural dyes and also to find relative contribution of different stage in life cycle to total environmental impact. The appropriate method to analyze and compare the environmental impacts of powder and liquid natural dyes is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The "cradle to grave" approach used to assess environmental impact of powder and liquid natural dyes of Jalawe rind throughout production process of natural dyes, distribution and use of natural dyes for coloring batik. Results of this research show that powder natural dyes has lower environmental impacts than liquid natural dyes. It was found that distribution, mordanting and packaging of liquid dyes have big contribution to environmental impact.

  7. X-Band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Comparison of Mononuclear Mn(IV)-oxo and Mn(IV)-hydroxo Complexes and Quantum Chemical Investigation of Mn(IV) Zero-Field Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leto, Domenick F; Massie, Allyssa A; Colmer, Hannah E; Jackson, Timothy A

    2016-04-04

    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to probe the ground-state electronic structures of mononuclear Mn(IV) complexes [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) and [Mn(IV)(O)(OH)(Me2EBC)](+). These compounds are known to effect C-H bond oxidation reactions by a hydrogen-atom transfer mechanism. They provide an ideal system for comparing Mn(IV)-hydroxo versus Mn(IV)-oxo motifs, as they differ by only a proton. Simulations of 5 K EPR data, along with analysis of variable-temperature EPR signal intensities, allowed for the estimation of ground-state zero-field splitting (ZFS) and (55)Mn hyperfine parameters for both complexes. From this analysis, it was concluded that the Mn(IV)-oxo complex [Mn(IV)(O)(OH)(Me2EBC)](+) has an axial ZFS parameter D (D = +1.2(0.4) cm(-1)) and rhombicity (E/D = 0.22(1)) perturbed relative to the Mn(IV)-hydroxo analogue [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) (|D| = 0.75(0.25) cm(-1); E/D = 0.15(2)), although the complexes have similar (55)Mn values (a = 7.7 and 7.5 mT, respectively). The ZFS parameters for [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) were compared with values obtained previously through variable-temperature, variable-field magnetic circular dichroism (VTVH MCD) experiments. While the VTVH MCD analysis can provide a reasonable estimate of the magnitude of D, the E/D values were poorly defined. Using the ZFS parameters reported for these complexes and five other mononuclear Mn(IV) complexes, we employed coupled-perturbed density functional theory (CP-DFT) and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations with second-order n-electron valence-state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) correction, to compare the ability of these two quantum chemical methods for reproducing experimental ZFS parameters for Mn(IV) centers. The CP-DFT approach was found to provide reasonably acceptable values for D, whereas the CASSCF/NEVPT2 method fared worse, considerably overestimating the magnitude of D in several cases. Both methods were poor in

  8. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  9. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsatorn Amornpitoksuk

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell is a new type of solar cell. The operating system of this solar cell type is similar to plant’s photosynthesis process. The sensitizer is available for absorption light and transfer electrons to nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor. The ruthenium(II complexes with polypyridyl ligands are usually used as the sensitizers in solar cell. At the present time, the complex of [Ru(2,2',2'’-(COOH3- terpy(NCS3] is the most efficient sensitizer. The total photon to current conversion efficiency was approximately 10% at AM = 1.5.

  10. WATERLESS DYEING [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEVRENT Nalan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is believed to be one of the biggest consumers of water. Water consumption and exhaustion in dyeing textile materials in conventional methods is an important environmental problem. The cost of waste water treatment will cause a prominent problem in the future as it does today. Increasing consideration of ecologic consequences of industrial processes as well as legislation enforcing the avoidance of environmental problems have caused a reorientation of thinking and promoted projects for replacement of conventional technologies. One of these new technologies is dyeing in supercritical fluids. Dyeing with supercritical carbon dioxide is a favourable concept considering the value of water as a natural resource and the cost of waste water treatment. This dyeing method offers many advantages over conventional aqueous dyeing: During this dyeing process no water is used, therefore there is no waste water problem, no other chemicals are required; the carbon dioxide can be recycled; the dystuff which is not adsorbed on the substrate can be collected and reused; The necessary energy consumption in this process is relatively lower than is needed to heat water in conventional methods of dyeing. Due to unnecessary of drying process, it helps to save both energy and time; and dyeing cycle is shorter compared with traditional methods. In addition carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-flammable. Supercritical fluid, supercritical dyeing, disperse dyestuffs, solid-fluid equilibrium

  11. Plasmonic properties and enhanced fluorescence of gold and dye-doped silica nanoparticle aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nathaniel Scott

    The development of metal-enhanced fluorescence has prompted a great interest in augmenting the photophysical properties of fluorescent molecules with noble metal nanostructures. Our research efforts, outlined in this dissertation, focus on augmenting properties of fluorophores by conjugation with gold nanostructures. The project goals are split into two separate efforts; the enhancement in brightness of fluorophores and long distance non-radiative energy transfer between fluorophores. We believe that interacting dye-doped silica nanoparticles with gold nanoparticles can facilitate both of these phenomena. Our primary research interest is focused on optimizing brightness, as this goal should open a path to studying the second goal of non-radiative energy transfer. The two major challenges to this are constructing suitable nanomaterials and functionalizing them to promote plasmonically active complexes. The synthesis of dye-doped layered silica nanoparticles allows for control over the discrete location of the dye and a substrate that can be surface functionalized. Controlling the exact location of the dye is important to create a silica spacer, which promotes productive interactions with metal nanostructures. Furthermore, the synthesis of silica nanoparticles allows for various fluorophores to be studied in similar environments (removing solvent and other chemo-sensitive issues). Functionalizing the surface of silica nanoparticles allows control over the degree of silica and gold nanoparticle aggregation in solution. Heteroaggregation in solution is useful for producing well-aggregated clusters of many gold around a single silica nanoparticle. The dye-doped surface functionalized silica nanoparticles can than be mixed efficiently with gold nanomaterials. Aggregating multiple gold nanospheres around a single dye-doped silica nanoparticle can dramatically increase the fluorescent brightness of the sample via metal-enhanced fluorescence due to increase plasmonic

  12. Split warhead simultaneous impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Singh Dhari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A projectile system is proposed to improve efficiency and effectiveness of damage done by anti-tank weapon system on its target by designing a ballistic projectile that can split into multiple warheads and engage a target at the same time. This idea has been developed in interest of saving time consumed from the process of reloading and additional number of rounds wasted on target during an attack. The proposed system is achieved in three steps: Firstly, a mathematical model is prepared using the basic equations of motion. Second, An Ejection Mechanism of proposed warhead is explained with the help of schematics. Third, a part of numerical simulation which is done using the MATLAB software. The final result shows various ranges and times when split can be effectively achieved. With the new system, impact points are increased and hence it has a better probability of hitting a target.

  13. Isospin splittings of baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Kalman; Genovese, Marco; Richard, Jean-Marc; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the isospin-breaking mass differences among baryons, with particular attention in the charm sector to the Σ c + -Σ c 0 , Σ c ++ -Σ c 0 , and Ξ c + -Ξ c 0 splittings. Simple potential models cannot accommodate the trend of the available data on charm baryons. More precise measurements would offer the possibility of testing how well potential models describe the non-perturbative limit of QCD

  14. (O)Mega split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benakli, Karim; Darmé, Luc; Goodsell, Mark D. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589,LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589,LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France)

    2015-11-16

    We study two realisations of the Fake Split Supersymmetry Model (FSSM), the simplest model that can easily reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass for an arbitrarily high supersymmetry scale M{sub S}, as a consequence of swapping higgsinos for equivalent states, fake higgsinos, with suppressed Yukawa couplings. If the LSP is identified as the main Dark matter component, then a standard thermal history of the Universe implies upper bounds on M{sub S}, which we derive. On the other hand, we show that renormalisation group running of soft masses aboveM{sub S} barely constrains the model — in stark contrast to Split Supersymmetry — and hence we can have a “Mega Split” spectrum even with all of these assumptions and constraints, which include the requirements of a correct relic abundance, a gluino life-time compatible with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and absence of signals in present direct detection experiments of inelastic dark matter. In an appendix we describe a related scenario, Fake Split Extended Supersymmetry, which enjoys similar properties.

  15. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures

  16. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also

  17. Extraction of dye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyes of natural origins are great for color appreciation as any variation in the concentration of dye, mordant, type of water, soil and climate give variations in ... Grey scale and blue dyed silk were used for color fastness rating. ..... Down to Earth.

  18. Organic and Inorganic Dyes in Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer films are a versatile functionalization method of surfaces and rely on the alternated adsorption of oppositely charged species. Among such species, charged dyes can also be alternated with oppositely charged polymers, which is challenging from a fundamental point of view, because polyelectrolytes require a minimal number of charges, whereas even monovalent dyes can be incorporated during the alternated adsorption process. We will not only focus on organic dyes but also on their inorganic counterparts and on metal complexes. Such films offer plenty of possible applications in dye sensitized solar cells. In addition, dyes are massively used in the textile industry and in histology to stain textile fibers or tissues. However, the excess of non bound dyes poses serious environmental problems. It is hence of the highest interest to design materials able to adsorb such dyes in an almost irreversible manner. Polyelectrolyte multilayer films, owing to their ion exchange behavior can be useful for such a task allowing for impressive overconcentration of dyes with respect to the dye in solution. The actual state of knowledge of the interactions between charged dyes and adsorbed polyelectrolytes is the focus of this review article.

  19. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  20. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  1. Metal Complex Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Recent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interests are in coding theory, error-correction in networks and wireless communication.“ Ruthenium ..... Calculate power conversion efficiency by using the formula: 100 ... Molar Extinction Coefficient Charge-Transfer Sensitizers for Solar Cell.

  2. Carbonyl Activation by Borane Lewis Acid Complexation: Transition States of H2 Splitting at the Activated Carbonyl Carbon Atom in a Lewis Basic Solvent and the Proton-Transfer Dynamics of the Boroalkoxide Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Mojgan; Privalov, Timofei

    2017-07-06

    By using transition-state (TS) calculations, we examined how Lewis acid (LA) complexation activates carbonyl compounds in the context of hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds by H 2 in Lewis basic (ethereal) solvents containing borane LAs of the type (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B. According to our calculations, LA complexation does not activate a ketone sufficiently enough for the direct addition of H 2 to the O=C unsaturated bond; but, calculations indicate a possibly facile heterolytic cleavage of H 2 at the activated and thus sufficiently Lewis acidic carbonyl carbon atom with the assistance of the Lewis basic solvent (i.e., 1,4-dioxane or THF). For the solvent-assisted H 2 splitting at the carbonyl carbon atom of (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B adducts with different ketones, a number of TSs are computed and the obtained results are related to insights from experiment. By using the Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics with the DFT for electronic structure calculations, the evolution of the (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B-alkoxide ionic intermediate and the proton transfer to the alkoxide oxygen atom were investigated. The results indicate a plausible hydrogenation mechanism with a LA, that is, (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B, as a catalyst, namely, 1) the step of H 2 cleavage that involves a Lewis basic solvent molecule plus the carbonyl carbon atom of thermodynamically stable and experimentally identifiable (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B-ketone adducts in which (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B is the "Lewis acid promoter", 2) the transfer of the solvent-bound proton to the oxygen atom of the (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B-alkoxide intermediate giving the (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B-alcohol adduct, and 3) the S N 2-style displacement of the alcohol by a ketone or a Lewis basic solvent molecule. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Study of color parameters of light exposed and light exposed wool fabrics dyed with 1:1 chromium (III) based complex dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, N.; Ahmad, M.A.; Wahab, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives of a-amino benzoic acid (anthranilic acid) were synthesized using 1-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid, 1-Naphthol-8 amino-3, 6-di-sulfonic acid; 1-naphthol-3-sulfonic acid, 6-methylamino-1-naphthol-3-sulfonic acid or 1-naphthol-3-sulfonic acid, 6-phenylamino-l-naphthol-3-sulfonic acid as a coupling component. These derivatives were used to synthesize chromium (Ill) complexes. After isolation, these complexes were applied on pure wool fabric by exhaust process to evaluate hue, wash fastness and light fastness properties. The complexes delivered a change in color equivalent to gray scale step 3/5 to 4/5 for wash fastness test. During the study of light fastness, it was monitored that the hue of dyed fabrics enhanced after exposing them to Light. (author)

  4. M-Split: A Graphical User Interface to Analyze Multilayered Anisotropy from Shear Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgarmi, Bizhan; Ozacar, A. Arda

    2017-04-01

    Shear wave splitting analysis are commonly used to infer deep anisotropic structure. For simple cases, obtained delay times and fast-axis orientations are averaged from reliable results to define anisotropy beneath recording seismic stations. However, splitting parameters show systematic variations with back azimuth in the presence of complex anisotropy and cannot be represented by average time delay and fast axis orientation. Previous researchers had identified anisotropic complexities at different tectonic settings and applied various approaches to model them. Most commonly, such complexities are modeled by using multiple anisotropic layers with priori constraints from geologic data. In this study, a graphical user interface called M-Split is developed to easily process and model multilayered anisotropy with capabilities to properly address the inherited non-uniqueness. M-Split program runs user defined grid searches through the model parameter space for two-layer anisotropy using formulation of Silver and Savage (1994) and creates sensitivity contour plots to locate local maximas and analyze all possible models with parameter tradeoffs. In order to minimize model ambiguity and identify the robust model parameters, various misfit calculation procedures are also developed and embedded to M-Split which can be used depending on the quality of the observations and their back-azimuthal coverage. Case studies carried out to evaluate the reliability of the program using real noisy data and for this purpose stations from two different networks are utilized. First seismic network is the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake research institute (KOERI) which includes long term running permanent stations and second network comprises seismic stations deployed temporary as part of the "Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolian Tectonics (CD-CAT)" project funded by NSF. It is also worth to note that M-Split is designed as open source program which can be modified by users for

  5. Geometrical splitting in Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubi, A.; Elperin, T.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical model is presented by which a direct statistical approach yielded an analytic expression for the second moment, the variance ratio, and the benefit function in a model of an n surface-splitting Monte Carlo game. In addition to the insight into the dependence of the second moment on the splitting parameters the main importance of the expressions developed lies in their potential to become a basis for in-code optimization of splitting through a general algorithm. Refs

  6. Splitting Parabolic Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Kalka, Morris; Patrizio, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    We study the geometric properties of complex manifolds possessing a pair of plurisubharmonic functions satisfying Monge-Amp\\`ere type of condition. The results are applied to characterize complex manifolds biholomorphic to $\\C^{N}$ viewed as a product of lower dimensional complex euclidean spaces.

  7. Synthesis, Spectroscopy, Thermal Analysis, Magnetic Properties and Biological Activity Studies of Cu(II and Co(II Complexes with Schiff Base Dye Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Amani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Three azo group-containing Schiff base ligands, namely 1-{3-[(3-hydroxy-propyliminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-4-nitrobenzene (2a, 1-{3-[(3-hydroxypropyl-iminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-2-chloro-4-nitrobenzene (2b and 1-{3-[(3-hydroxy-propyliminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-4-chloro-3-nitrobenzene (2c were prepared. The ligands were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, 13C- and 1H-NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Next the corresponding copper(II and cobalt(II metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by the physicochemical and spectroscopic methods of elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, magnetic moment measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and (DSC. The room temperature effective magnetic moments of complexes are 1.45, 1.56, 1.62, 2.16, 2.26 and 2.80 B.M. for complexes 3a, 3b, 3c, 4a 4b, and 4c, respectively, indicating that the complexes are paramagnetic with considerable electronic communication between the two metal centers.

  8. Density functional study of the electronic structure of dye-functionalized fullerenes and their model donor-acceptor complexes containing P3HT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruah, Tunna; Garnica, Amanda; Paggen, Marina; Basurto, Luis; Zope, Rajendra R.

    2016-01-01

    We study the electronic structure of C 60 fullerenes functionalized with a thiophene-diketo-pyrrolopyrrole-thiophene based chromophore using density functional theory combined with large polarized basis sets. As the attached chromophore has electron donor character, the functionalization of the fullerene leads to a donor-acceptor (DA) system. We examine in detail the effect of the linker and the addition site on the electronic structure of the functionalized fullerenes. We further study the electronic structure of these DA complexes with a focus on the charge transfer excitations. Finally, we examine the interface of the functionalized fullerenes with the widely used poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) donor. Our results show that all functionalized fullerenes with an exception of the C 60 -pyrrolidine [6,6], where the pyrrolidine is attached at a [6,6] site, have larger electron affinities relative to the pristine C 60 fullerene. We also estimate the quasi-particle gap, lowest charge transfer excitation energy, and the exciton binding energies of the functionalized fullerene-P3MT model systems. Results show that the exciton binding energies in these model complexes are slightly smaller compared to a similarly prepared phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-P3MT complex.

  9. Effect of composition of chlorophyll and ruthenium dyes mixture (hybrid) on the dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Kusumandari; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2018-03-01

    The fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has been conducted by varying the composition of natural dye from moss chlorophyll (Bryophyte) and synthesis dye from ruthenium complex N719. The sandwich structure of DSSC consists of the working electrode using TiO2, dye, electrolyte, and counter electrode using carbon. The composition of chlorophyll and synthesis dyes mixture were 100% and 0%, 80% and 20%, 60% and 40%, 40% and 60%, and 20% and 80%. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of moss chlorophyll showed the first peak in the wavelength range of 450-500 nm and the second peak at wavelength of 650-700 nm. The peak value of absorbance at wavelengths of 450-500 nm was 6.1004 and at wavelengths of 650-700 nm was 3.5835. The IPCE characteristic curves showed the absorption peak of photon for DSSCs occurred at wavelength of 550-650 nm. It considered that photon in this wavelength can contribute dominantly to produce the optimum electrons. The I-V characteristics of DSSCs with composition of chlorophyll and synthesis dyes mixture of 100% and 0%, 80% and 20%, 60% and 40%, 40% and 60%, and 20% and 80% resulted the efficiency of 0.0022; 0.0194; 0.0239; 0.0342; and 0.0414, respectively. It suggested that the addition of a little composition of the ruthenium complex dye into moss chlorophyll dye can increase the efficiency significantly.

  10. Effect of Repeated Food Morsel Splitting on Jaw Muscle Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Kumar; Svensson, Krister G; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Mastication is a complex motor task often initiated by splitting of the food morsel between the anterior teeth. Training of complex motor tasks has consistently been shown to trigger neuroplastic changes in corticomotor control and optimization of muscle function. It is not known if training...... and repeated food morsel splitting lead to changes in jaw muscle function. Objective: To investigate if repeated splitting of food morsels in participants with natural dentition changes the force and jaw muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age = 26.2 ± 3.9 years......) participated in a single one-hour session divided into six series. Each series consisted of ten trials of a standardized behavioral task (total of 60 trials). The behavioral task was to hold and split a food morsel (8 mm, 180 mg placebo tablet) placed on a bite force transducer with the anterior teeth...

  11. FRET structure with non-radiative acceptor provided by dye-linker-glass surface complex and single-molecule photodynamics by TIRFM-polarized imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Toshiro; Mashimo, Kei; Suzuki, Tetsu; Horiuchi, Hiromi; Oda, Masaru

    2008-01-01

    We present our recent study of microscopic single-molecule imaging on the artificial complex of tetramethylrhodamine linked with a propyl chain onto silica glass surface, i.e. an asymmetric fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) structure with non-radiative acceptor. In the synthesis of the complex, we used a mixture of two kinds of isomers to introduce rather small photodynamic difference among them. This isomeric structure change will provide more or less a distinctive photophysical change in e.g. non-radiative relaxation rate. Our recent observation at room temperatures, so far, shows that such contributions can be discriminated in the histograms of the fluorescent spot intensities; broad but distinctive multi-components appear. To identify the isomeric difference as a cause of structures, some configurational assumptions are necessary. One such basic prerequisite is that the transition dipoles of the chromophores should be oriented almost parallel to the glass surface. In order to make clear the modeling, we also provide preliminary experiments on the polarization dependence of the imaging under rotating polarization in epi-illumination

  12. Treatment of dyeing wastewater including reactive dyes (Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal growth was not observed at pH 2. Maximum fungal decolourisation ocurred at pH 3 for anionic reactive dyes (RR, RBB, RB) and pH 6 for cationic MB dye. The fungal dye bioremoval was associated with the surface charge of the fungus due to electrostatic interactions. Growing R. arrhizus strain decolourised 100% of ...

  13. Vibrational spectroscopy of photosensitizer dyes for organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Leon, C.

    2005-11-18

    Ruthenium(II) complexes containing polypyridyl ligands are intensely investigated as potential photosensitizers in organic solar cells. Of particular interest is their use in dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanocrystalline films of TiO{sub 2}. Functional groups of the dye allow for efficient anchoring on the semiconductor surface and promote the electronic communication between the donor orbital of the dye and the conduction band of the semiconductor. In the present work a new dye, [Ru(dcbpyH{sub 2}){sub 2}(bpy-TPA{sub 2})](PF6{sub )2}, and the well known (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}[Ru(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] complex were spectroscopically characterized. The electronic transitions of both dyes showed solvatochromic shifts due to specific interactions of the ligands with the solvent molecules. The surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra of the dyes dissolved in water, ethanol, and acetonitrile were measured in silver and gold colloidal solutions. The results demonstrate that the dyes were adsorbed on the metallic nanoparticles in different ways for different solvents. It was also found that in the gold colloid, the aqueous solutions of both dyes did not produce any SERS signal, whereas in ethanolic solution the SERS effect was very weak. Deprotonation, H-bonding, and donor-acceptor interactions seem to determine these different behaviors. Our results indicate the important role of the charge transfer mechanism in SERS. The adsorption of the dye on two different TiO{sub 2} substrates, anatase paste films and anatase nanopowder, was also studied to clarify the role of the carboxylate groups in the anchoring process of the dyes on the semiconductor surface. The recorded spectra indicate a strong dependence of the anchoring configuration on the morphology of the semiconductor. (orig.)

  14. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  15. A new inorganic-organic nanohybrid based on a copper(II) semicarbazone complex and the PMo.sub.12./sub.O.sup.3-./sup..sub.40./sub. polyanion: synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and photocatalytic activity for degradation of cationic dyes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farhadi, S.; Mahmoudi, F.; Dušek, Michal; Eigner, Václav; Kučeráková, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, Jan (2017), s. 247-256 ISSN 0277-5387 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S; GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : inorganic-organic hybrid * semicarbazone complex * nanohybrid * photodegradation * cationic dyes Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2016

  16. Two new Ni(II) supramolecular complexes based on ethyl isonicotinate and ethyl nicotinate for removal of acid blue 92 dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Marie, Hassan

    2018-03-01

    Two new luminescent supramolecular complexes (SC); [Ni(EIN)4(NCS)2] SC1 and [Ni2(EN)8(NCS)4] SC2, (EIN = ethyl isonicotinate, EN = ethyl nicotinate), have been synthesized by self-assembly method and structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra, PXRD, elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Both SC1 and SC2 are monoclinic crystals however, they have different asymmetric units. Ni(II) atoms in both SC are isostructural and have similar hexa-coordinate environment. The structures of SC1 and SC2 consist of parallel polymeric 1D-chains, extended in two and three dimensional supramolecular frameworks by intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. SC1 and SC2 are luminescent materials which can be used in applications as molecular sensing systems. SC1 and SC2 were used as heterogeneous catalysts for degradation of acid blue 92 (AB-92) under sun light irradiation. The fluorescence measurements of terephthalic acid technique as a probe molecule were used to determine the •OH radicals. Also the radicals trapping experiments using isopropanol alcohol (IPA) as radical scavenger were discussed. In addition a mechanism of degradation was proposed and discussed.

  17. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  18. Implementation of a biotechnological process for vat dyeing with woad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, Andrea; Aquilanti, Lucia; Baldini, Gessica; Silvestri, Gloria; Butta, Alessandro; Clementi, Francesca

    2012-09-01

    The traditional process for vat dyeing with woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) basically relies on microbial reduction of indigo to its soluble form, leucoindigo, through a complex fermentative process. In the 19th century, cultivation of woad went into decline and use of synthetic indigo dye and chemical reduction agents was established, with a consequent negative impact on the environment due to the release of polluting wastewaters by the synthetic dyeing industry. Recently, the ever-growing demand for environmentally friendly dyeing technologies has led to renewed interest in ecological textile traditions. In this context, this study aims at developing an environmentally friendly biotechnological process for vat dyeing with woad to replace use of polluting chemical reduction agents. Two simple broth media, containing yeast extract or corn steep liquor (CSL), were comparatively evaluated for their capacity to sustain the growth and reducing activity of the strain Clostridium isatidis DSM 15098(T). Subsequently, the dyeing capacity of the CSL medium added with 140 g L⁻¹ of woad powder, providing 2.4 g L⁻¹ of indigo dye, was evaluated after fermentation in laboratory bioreactors under anaerobic or microaerophilic conditions. In all fermentations, a sufficiently negative oxidation/reduction potential for reduction of indigo was reached as early as 24 h and maintained up to the end of the monitoring period. However, clearly faster indigo dye reduction was seen in the broth cultures fermented under strict anaerobiosis, thus suggesting the suitability of the N₂ flushing strategy for enhancement of bacterial-driven indigo reduction.

  19. Dye filled security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  20. Split-illumination electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Inada, Yoshikatsu [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Taniyama, Akira [Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); Shindo, Daisuke [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Tonomura, Akira [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate University, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan)

    2012-07-23

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  1. Split-illumination electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  2. Two-Loop Splitting Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes

  3. Two-loop splitting amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Kosower, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes

  4. The toughness of split graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woeginger, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    In this short note we argue that the toughness of split graphs can be computed in polynomial time. This solves an open problem from a recent paper by Kratsch et al. (Discrete Math. 150 (1996) 231–245).

  5. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF DYEING PARAMETERS TO DYE COTTON WITH CARROT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRALLES Verónica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes derived from flora and fauna are believed to be safe because of non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and biodegradable nature. Furthermore, natural dyes do not cause pollution and waste water problems. Natural dyes as well as synthetic dyes need the optimum parameters to get a good dyeing. On some occasions, It is necessary the use of mordants to increase the affinity between cellulose fiber and natural dye, but there are other conditions to optimize in the dyeing process, like time, temperature, auxiliary porducts, etc. In addition, the optimum conditions are different depends on the type of dye and the fiber nature. The aim of this work is the use of carrot extract to dye cotton fabric by exhaustion at diverse dyeing conditions. Diffferent dyeing processes were carried out to study the effect of pH condition and the temperature, using 7, 6 and 4 pH values and 95 ºC and 130ºC for an hour. As a result some images of dyed samples are shown. Moreover, to evaluate the colour of each sample CIELAB parameters are analysed obtained by reflexion spectrophotometre. The results showed that the temperature used has an important influence on the colour of the dyed sample.

  7. Density-functional study of photoinduced water splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez Mesa, Aliezer; Rodríguez Hernández, Fermín; Seifert, Gotthard; Tranca, Diana

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of water splitting on dye-sensitized metal (Ti, Cu) oxide surfaces, induced by direct sunlight excitation. In this study, we will consider the typical photoexcitation-followed-by-injection scheme, treating electron-injection and water splitting dynamics as independent events. The simultaneous modeling of the molecular motion and the quantum nonadiabatic transitions is achieved via the computation of the low-lying electronic states along several alternative reaction paths. Electronic structure calculations are based on a B3LYP-DFT Hamiltonian. The proposed approach combines an atomistic description of the reactants and of the immediate region of the surface, while the vibrational dynamics of the substrate is modeled as an effective bath leading to dissipation effects. The use of density-functional theory to solve the many- body electronic problem allows investigating the atomic motion of the water molecules and of a representative part of the substrate, thereby providing a theoretical and computational model capable to account simultaneously for the molecular character of the dye molecule and for the bulk properties of the surface. Furthermore, the insight emerging from this fundamental modeling can be used to optimize the chemical composition of the system to attain high incident-photon-flux-to-hydrogen-yield ratios. (full text)

  8. Kinetics of leather dyeing pretreated with enzymes: role of acid protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, Swarna Vinodh; Venba, Rajangam; Jayakumar, Gladstone Christopher; Chandrababu, Narasimhan Kannan

    2009-04-01

    In the present investigation, kinetics of dyeing involving pretreatment with acid protease has been presented. Application of acid protease in dyeing process resulted in increased absorption and diffusion of dye into the leather matrix. Enzyme treatment at 1% concentration, 60 min duration and 50 degrees C resulted in maximum of 98% dye exhaustion and increased absorption rate constants. The final exhaustion (C(infinity)) for the best fit of CI Acid Black 194 dye has been 98.5% with K and r2 values from the modified Cegarra-Puente isotherm as 0.1033 and 0.0631. CI Acid Black 194 being a 2:1 metal complex acid dye exhibited higher absorption rate than the acid dye CI Acid Black 210. A reduction in 50% activation energy calculated from Arrhenius equation has been observed in enzyme assisted dyeing process of both the dyes that substantiates enhanced dye absorption. The absorption rate constant calculated with modified Cegarra-Puente equation confirm higher rate constants and faster kinetics for enzyme assisted dyeing process. Enzyme treated leather exhibited richness of color and shade when compared with control. The present study substantiates the essential role of enzyme pretreatment as an eco-friendly leather dyeing process.

  9. A comparative study of polymer-dye interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini R.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between an anionic dye Methyl Orange and two poly cations namely, Poly (N-vinyl-4-methylpyridiniumiodide, (PC1 & Poly (vinylbenzyltriphenylphosphoniumchloride, (PC2 has been investigated by spectrophotometric method. The polymers are observed to induce metachromasy in the dye as evidenced from the considerable blue shift in the absorption maximum of the dye. The interaction constant and thermodynamic parameters of interaction have been determined by absorbance measurements at the metachromatic band. The effect of additives such as ionic salts, alcohols, urea and polyelectrolytes on the reversal of metachromasy has been studied and used to determine the stability of the metachromatic complex and to understand the nature of binding.

  10. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  11. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  12. Levitated droplet dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, H.; Alkafadiji, L.; Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating...

  13. Dye laser principles with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Frank J; Liao, Peter F; Kelley, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A tutorial introduction to the field of dye lasers, Dye Laser Principles also serves as an up-to-date overview for those using dye lasers as research and industrial tools. A number of the issues discussed in this book are pertinent not only to dye lasers but also to lasers in general. Most of the chapters in the book contain problem sets that expand on the material covered in the chapter.Key Features* Dye lasers are among the most versatile and successful laser sources currently available in use Offering both pulsed and continuous-wave operation and tunable from the near ultraviole

  14. Point-splitting regularization of composite operators and anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.; Schnabl, M.

    2000-01-01

    The point-splitting regularization technique for composite operators is discussed in connection with anomaly calculation. We present a pedagogical and self-contained review of the topic with an emphasis on the technical details. We also develop simple algebraic tools to handle the path ordered exponential insertions used within the covariant and non-covariant version of the point-splitting method. The method is then applied to the calculation of the chiral, vector, trace, translation and Lorentz anomalies within diverse versions of the point-splitting regularization and a connection between the results is described. As an alternative to the standard approach we use the idea of deformed point-split transformation and corresponding Ward-Takahashi identities rather than an application of the equation of motion, which seems to reduce the complexity of the calculations. (orig.)

  15. Splitting: The Development of a Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Mary-Joan

    1984-01-01

    Described the development of a scale that measures splitting as a psychological structure. The construct validity of the splitting scale is suggested by the positive relationship between splitting scores and a diagnostic measure of the narcissistic personality disorder, as well as a negative relationship between splitting scores and levels of…

  16. Pharmaceutical counselling about different types of tablet-splitting methods based on the results of weighing tests and mechanical development of splitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, O; Meskó, A; Csorba, L; Szabó, P; Zelkó, R

    2017-08-30

    The division of tablets and adequate methods of splitting them are a complex problem in all sectors of health care. Although tablet-splitting is often required, this procedure can be difficult for patients. Four tablets were investigated with different external features (shape, score-line, film-coat and size). The influencing effect of these features and the splitting methods was investigated according to the precision and "weight loss" of splitting techniques. All four types of tablets were halved by four methods: by hand, with a kitchen knife, with an original manufactured splitting device and with a modified tablet splitter based on a self-developed mechanical model. The mechanical parameters (harness and friability) of the products were measured during the study. The "weight loss" and precision of splitting methods were determined and compared by statistical analysis. On the basis of the results, the external features (geometry), the mechanical parameters of tablets and the mechanical structure of splitting devices can influence the "weight loss" and precision of tablet-splitting. Accordingly, a new decision-making scheme was developed for the selection of splitting methods. In addition, the skills of patients and the specialties of therapy should be considered so that pharmaceutical counselling can be more effective regarding tablet-splitting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were used rapidly since 1970 in inks for the heat-transfer printing of polyester. The main synthetic route for the preparation of azo dyes is coupling reaction between an aromatic diazo compound and a coupling component. Of all dyes manufactured, about 60% are produced by this reaction. Arylazo pyridone dyes can be prepared from pyridone moiety as a coupling component, where substituent can be on nitrogen, and diazonim salts which can be derived from different substituted anilines or other heterocyclic derivatives. In addition, arylazo dyes containing pyridone ring can be prepared from arylazo diketones or arylazo ketoesters (obtained by coupling β-diketones or β-ketoesters with diazonim salts by condensation with cyanoacetamide. Disazo dyes can be prepared by tetrazotizing a dianiline and coupling it with a pyridone or by diazotizing aniline and coupling it with a dipyridone. Trisazo dyes can be also prepared by diazotizing of aniline and coupling it with a tripyridone or by hexazotizing a trianiline and coupling it with a pyridone. The main goal of this paper is to give a brief review on the synthesis of arylazo pyridone dyes due to the lack of such reviews. In addition, some properties of arylazo pyridone dyes as light fastness and azo-hydrazon tautomerism are disccused.

  18. Split NMSSM with electroweak baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, S.V.; Gorbunov, D.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutsky per. 9, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation); Kirpichnikov, D.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-24

    In light of the Higgs boson discovery and other results of the LHC we reconsider generation of the baryon asymmetry in the split Supersymmetry model with an additional singlet superfield in the Higgs sector (non-minimal split SUSY). We find that successful baryogenesis during the first order electroweak phase transition is possible within a phenomenologically viable part of the model parameter space. We discuss several phenomenological consequences of this scenario, namely, predictions for the electric dipole moments of electron and neutron and collider signatures of light charginos and neutralinos.

  19. Split ring containment attachment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammel, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device is described for operatively connecting a glovebag to plastic sheeting covering hazardous material. The device includes an inner split ring member connected on one end to a middle ring member wherein the free end of the split ring member is inserted through a slit in the plastic sheeting to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting. A collar potion having an outer ring portion is provided with fastening means for securing the device together wherein the glovebag is operatively connected to the collar portion. 5 figs

  20. Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicedo, Benoit

    2011-05-15

    We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S{sup 3}. Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet {sigma}-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL{sub 2}(C). (orig.)

  1. Mass splitting induced by gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    1982-08-01

    The exact combination of internal and geometrical symmetries and the associated mass splitting problem is discussed. A 10-parameter geometrical symmetry is defined in a curved space-time in such a way that it is a combination of de Sitter groups. In the flat limit it reproduces the Poincare-group and its Lie algebra has a nilpotent action on the combined symmetry only in that limit. An explicit mass splitting expression is derived and an estimation of the order of magnitude for spin-zero mesons is made. (author)

  2. Electronic spectral study of interaction of electron donor – acceptor dyes in the ground and excited state with a metal ion. Effect of molecular structure of the dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardar, Sanjib Kr; Mandal, Prasun K.; Bagchi, Sanjib

    2014-01-01

    Interaction of manganese (II) ion with electron donor (D)–acceptor (A) dyes having symmetric D–A–D configuration of chromophores (ketocyanine dye) and the corresponding parent merocyanines (D–A configuration) in acetonitrile has been compared by monitoring the electronic absorption, and steady state and time resolved fluorescence characteristics of the dyes. Absorption spectral studies point to the formation of a 1:1 metal ion–dye (S 0 -state) complex. Equilibrium constant (K 0 ) and other thermodynamic parameters for complex formation have been determined for all the systems. Symmetric ketocyanine dyes (D–A–D) form stronger complex than the corresponding dye with D–A configuration. Quenching of fluorescence is caused due to complex formation with the cation. However, for very low concentration of salts, where complex formation is insignificant, an enhancement of fluorescence intensity takes place due to addition of salt. The absorption band of the dye undergoes a slight blue shift in the same concentration range of the metal ion. Fluorescence life time of the excited state also increases with an increase in salt concentration in that concentration range. Results have been explained in terms of formation of a weak association complex where one or more cations replace equivalent solvent molecules in the cybotatic region around the dye. The binding constant of the association complex involving cation and the dye (S 1 -state) has been determined. While the value of the binding constant is higher for a symmetric D–A–D dye relative to that for the corresponding dye with D–A configuration, the extent of fluorescence enhancement for the latter is larger. Values of decay constant for the different photophysical processes have been calculated. Formation of association complex in the S 1 -state is characterised by a slower nonradiative decay of S 1 -state of the dyes. -- Highlights: • A ketocyanine dye forms 1:1 complex with metal ions. • Slight

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on the degradation of dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinini, N.; Ferrero, F.

    1975-01-01

    To investigate the degradation kinetics of aqueous solutions of dyes of several classes, we studied the effects of gamma irradiation versus the dose (up to 80 krad), the dye concentration, the pH and the oxygen content of these solutions. To study the influence of some of the above-mentioned parameters, anthraquinonic dyes have been irradiated in a wide range of doses (up to 5 Mrad). Furthermore these dyes were acted upon in order to investigate the complex reactions of molecular alteration through chromatographic separations and spectrophotometric analyses. Experimental results agreed with a first order kinetics for dye concentrations lower than 0.04 g/1, and with a zero order one for higher concentrations. The pH was found to have a different influence according to the type of dye; for example we found that the degradation efficiency for anthraquinonic dyes has higher values for basic ranges. The dissolved oxygen supports the degradation in comparison with de-aerated solutions, though its influence varies according to the dye type and the pH. The oxygen action is particularly evident with high doses; in fact, tests on anthraquinonic dyes with doses up to 5 Mrad showed a marked decrease in the kinetic constants caused by the oxygen disappearance. Radiochemical degradation yields (Gd), never greater than a few units, show that the radical reactions responsible for the decolorization effect, are limited to a few transfer sequences. COD decrease, on the other hand, confirms the presence of oxidation phenomena which correspond to computed radiochemical yields (Gsub(ox)) markedly higher than those spectrophotometrically measured; such a difference is enhanced in the case of irradiation with aeration of solutions. The theoretical considerations are also described that were developed for outlining a general scheme involving the experimental results of both the kinetics and the radiochemical yield. (author)

  4. A spectroscopic study of interaction of cationic dyes with heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of two cationic dyes namely, acridine orange and pinacyanol chloride with an anionic polyelectrolyte, heparin, has been investigated by spectrophotometric method.The polymer induced metachromasy in the dyes resulting in the shift of the absorption maxima of the dyes towards shorter wavelengths. The stability of the complexes formed between acridine orange and heparin was found to be lesser than that formed between pinacyanol chloride and heparin. This fact was further confirmed by reversal studies using alcohols, urea and surfactants. The interaction of acridine orange with heparin has also been investigated fluorimetrically.The interaction parameters revealed that binding between acridine orange and heparin arises due to electrostatic interaction while that between pinacyanol chloride and heparin is found to involve both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. The effect of the structure of the dye in inducing metachromasy has also been discussed.

  5. Dye lasers in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Luther, J.; Steudel, A.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of dye lasers which are relevant to atomic spectroscopy are discussed. Several experiments made possible by tunable dye lasers are discussed. Applications of high spectral density dye lasers are covered in areas such as absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, photoionization and photodetachment, and two- and multi-photon processes. Applications which take advantage of the narrow bandwidth of tunable dye lasers are discussed, including saturation spectroscopy, fluorescence line narrowing, classic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, nonoptical detection of optical resonances, heterodyne spectroscopy, and nonlinear coherent resonant phenomena. (26 figures, 180 references) (U.S.)

  6. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Type-I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split ... quantum picture of the Universe. It was then ... where the integers m, n correspond to the respective magnetic and electric charges; m is the ...

  7. VBSCan Split 2017 Workshop Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Christoph Falk; et al.

    2018-01-12

    This document summarises the talks and discussions happened during the VBSCan Split17 workshop, the first general meeting of the VBSCan COST Action network. This collaboration is aiming at a consistent and coordinated study of vector-boson scattering from the phenomenological and experimental point of view, for the best exploitation of the data that will be delivered by existing and future particle colliders.

  8. Stability of split Stirling refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Liang, W.

    2009-01-01

    In many thermal systems spontaneous mechanical oscillations are generated under the influence of large temperature gradients. Well-known examples are Taconis oscillations in liquid-helium cryostats and oscillations in thermoacoustic systems. In split Stirling refrigerators the compressor and the

  9. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  10. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2... rightCollaborations and Links © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za head2rightAcknowledgements BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average of 860 mm head2rightOn upside, we have some...

  11. CW organic dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuccio, S.A.; Peterson, O.G.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing continuous emission from a lasing medium comprising organic dye molecules in solution are described. Continuous emission is accomplished by flowing the medium through a focused optical cavity while simultaneously producing a population inversion in that portion of the medium flowing in close proximity to the focal point of the cavity. The population inversion is produced by pumping the medium longitudinally, along the optical axis of the cavity, preferably by the focused output of a continuous-wave argon laser. Sufficient thermal energy is continuously dissipated from the medium to maintain the optical homogeneity thereof at or above the quality required for continuous emission

  12. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid, Spain and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Buljan, Marina [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  13. Hybrid Discrete Differential Evolution Algorithm for Lot Splitting with Capacity Constraints in Flexible Job Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-level batch chromosome coding scheme is proposed to solve the lot splitting problem with equipment capacity constraints in flexible job shop scheduling, which includes a lot splitting chromosome and a lot scheduling chromosome. To balance global search and local exploration of the differential evolution algorithm, a hybrid discrete differential evolution algorithm (HDDE is presented, in which the local strategy with dynamic random searching based on the critical path and a random mutation operator is developed. The performance of HDDE was experimented with 14 benchmark problems and the practical dye vat scheduling problem. The simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm has the strong global search capability and can effectively solve the practical lot splitting problems with equipment capacity constraints.

  14. Energy transfer to xanthene dyes in dansylated POPAM dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumanen, Jukka; Korppi-Tommola, Jouko

    2011-12-01

    Excitation energy transfer (EET) in host-guest complexes of dansylated POPAM dendrimers and xanthene dyes have been studied by transient absorption spectroscopy. EET from dansyl periphery to guests: rose bengal, eosin, or fluorescein, showed non-exponential behaviour as a result of distribution of donor-acceptor distances. Time constants range from 100 fs to 8 ps, independent of the dye and the dendrimer generation. Experiments suggested that in dendrimers binding more than one guest, EET among the guests becomes effective. Guest-host and guest-guest interactions induce non-radiative relaxation channels making excitation decays of the guests clearly faster in complexes than in solution.

  15. Modelling of uranium/plutonium splitting in purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.; Baron, P.

    1987-06-01

    A mathematical model simulating the highly complex uranium/plutonium splitting operation in PUREX process has been achieved by the french ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique''. The development of such a model, which includes transfer and redox reactions kinetics for all the species involved, required an important experimental work in the field of basis chemical data acquisition. The model has been successfully validated by comparison of its results with those of specific trials achieved (at laboratory scale), and with the available results of the french reprocessing units operation. It has then been used for the design of french new plants splitting operations

  16. Use of dyes in cariology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Rijke, J W

    1991-04-01

    The property of dyes to enhance contrast by their colour can be used in clinical dentistry and in investigations in vitro or in vivo. They have been used for indication of affected dental tissues, improvement of diagnostic methods, enhancement of patient awareness and information about specific processes. The development of particular dye systems, aimed at clinical application, is often laborious because of toxic effects, lack of specificity, irreversible staining or difficulties with removal of the dye. Clinically used dyes are often visually observed, which means a qualitative assessment of the staining, while quantification of the staining, if performed at all, is confined mostly to laboratory experiments. In this paper the application of dyes, arranged according to their specific purpose in cariology, is discussed, and a brief historical overview is given of the development of two particular dye applications for which commercial dye systems are now available. If certain requirements are met, dyes can be of great help in detection and quantification when used with several diagnostic methods.

  17. Vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays in Rose Bengal-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Basudev; Batabyal, Sudip K.; Pal, Amlan J. [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Solid State Physics, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2007-05-23

    We fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using vertically oriented, high density, and crystalline array of ZnO nanowires, which can be a suitable alternative to titanium dioxide nanoparticle films. The vertical nanowires provide fast routes or channels for electron transport to the substrate electrode. As an alternative to conventional ruthenium complex, we introduce Rose Bengal dye, which acts as a photosensitizer in the dye-sensitized solar cells. The dye energetically matches the ZnO with usual KI-I{sub 2} redox couple for dye-sensitized solar cell applications. (author)

  18. PicoGreen dye as an active medium for plastic lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, C.; Vallabhan, C. P. G.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2015-08-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid lipid complex thin films are used as a host material for laser dyes. We tested PicoGreen dye, which is commonly used for the quantification of single and double stranded DNA, for its applicability as lasing medium. PicoGreen dye exhibits enhanced fluorescence on intercalation with DNA. This enormous fluorescence emission is amplified in a planar microcavity to achieve yellow lasing. Here the role of DNA is not only a host medium, but also as a fluorescence dequencher. With the obtained results we have ample reasons to propose PicoGreen dye as a lasing medium, which can lead to the development of DNA based bio-lasers.

  19. Sunspot splitting triggering an eruptive flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Rohan E.; Puschmann, Klaus G.; Kliem, Bernhard; Balthasar, Horst; Denker, Carsten

    2014-02-01

    Aims: We investigate how the splitting of the leading sunspot and associated flux emergence and cancellation in active region NOAA 11515 caused an eruptive M5.6 flare on 2012 July 2. Methods: Continuum intensity, line-of-sight magnetogram, and dopplergram data of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were employed to analyse the photospheric evolution. Filtergrams in Hα and He I 10830 Å of the Chromospheric Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, track the evolution of the flare. The corresponding coronal conditions were derived from 171 Å and 304 Å images of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. Local correlation tracking was utilized to determine shear flows. Results: Emerging flux formed a neutral line ahead of the leading sunspot and new satellite spots. The sunspot splitting caused a long-lasting flow towards this neutral line, where a filament formed. Further flux emergence, partly of mixed polarity, as well as episodes of flux cancellation occurred repeatedly at the neutral line. Following a nearby C-class precursor flare with signs of interaction with the filament, the filament erupted nearly simultaneously with the onset of the M5.6 flare and evolved into a coronal mass ejection. The sunspot stretched without forming a light bridge, splitting unusually fast (within about a day, complete ≈6 h after the eruption) in two nearly equal parts. The front part separated strongly from the active region to approach the neighbouring active region where all its coronal magnetic connections were rooted. It also rotated rapidly (by 4.9° h-1) and caused significant shear flows at its edge. Conclusions: The eruption resulted from a complex sequence of processes in the (sub-)photosphere and corona. The persistent flows towards the neutral line likely caused the formation of a flux rope that held the filament. These flows, their associated flux cancellation, the emerging flux, and the precursor flare all contributed to the destabilization of the flux rope. We

  20. Interaction of anthraquinone dyes with lysozyme: Evidences from spectroscopic and docking studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramaguru, G.; Kathiravan, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Venuvanalingam, P. [School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Renganathan, R., E-mail: rrengas@gmail.com [School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-03-15

    The interaction between lysozyme and anthraquinone dyes such as Alizarin Red S, Acid blue 129 and Uniblue was studied using steady state, time resolved fluorescence measurements and docking studies. Addition of anthraquinone dyes effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme. Fluorescence quenching of lysozyme by dyes has revealed the formation of complex. The number of binding sites (n) and binding constant (K) for all the three dyes was calculated by relevant fluorescence quenching data. Based on Foerster's non-radiative energy transfer theory, distance (r{sub 0}) between the donor (lysozyme) and acceptor (dyes) as well as the critical energy transfer distance (R{sub 0}) has also been calculated. The interaction between dyes and lysozyme occurs through static quenching mechanism as confirmed by time resolved spectroscopy. The conformational change of lysozyme has been analyzed using synchronous fluorescence measurement. Finally, docking studies revealed that specific interactions were observed with the residue of Trp 62.

  1. Interaction of anthraquinone dyes with lysozyme: Evidences from spectroscopic and docking studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramaguru, G.; Kathiravan, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Venuvanalingam, P.; Renganathan, R.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between lysozyme and anthraquinone dyes such as Alizarin Red S, Acid blue 129 and Uniblue was studied using steady state, time resolved fluorescence measurements and docking studies. Addition of anthraquinone dyes effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme. Fluorescence quenching of lysozyme by dyes has revealed the formation of complex. The number of binding sites (n) and binding constant (K) for all the three dyes was calculated by relevant fluorescence quenching data. Based on Foerster's non-radiative energy transfer theory, distance (r 0 ) between the donor (lysozyme) and acceptor (dyes) as well as the critical energy transfer distance (R 0 ) has also been calculated. The interaction between dyes and lysozyme occurs through static quenching mechanism as confirmed by time resolved spectroscopy. The conformational change of lysozyme has been analyzed using synchronous fluorescence measurement. Finally, docking studies revealed that specific interactions were observed with the residue of Trp 62.

  2. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao

    2016-12-07

    Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

  3. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

  4. Geometrical Applications of Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merab Gogberashvili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that physical signals and space-time intervals modeled on split-octonion geometry naturally exhibit properties from conventional (3 + 1-theory (e.g., number of dimensions, existence of maximal velocities, Heisenberg uncertainty, and particle generations. This paper demonstrates these properties using an explicit representation of the automorphisms on split-octonions, the noncompact form of the exceptional Lie group G2. This group generates specific rotations of (3 + 4-vector parts of split octonions with three extra time-like coordinates and in infinitesimal limit imitates standard Poincare transformations. In this picture translations are represented by noncompact Lorentz-type rotations towards the extra time-like coordinates. It is shown how the G2 algebra’s chirality yields an intrinsic left-right asymmetry of a certain 3-vector (spin, as well as a parity violating effect on light emitted by a moving quantum system. Elementary particles are connected with the special elements of the algebra which nullify octonionic intervals. Then the zero-norm conditions lead to free particle Lagrangians, which allow virtual trajectories also and exhibit the appearance of spatial horizons governing by mass parameters.

  5. Dyes assay for measuring physicochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczko, Ewa; Meglinski, Igor V; Bessant, Conrad; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-03-15

    A combination of selective fluorescent dyes has been developed for simultaneous quantitative measurements of several physicochemical parameters. The operating principle of the assay is similar to electronic nose and tongue systems, which combine nonspecific or semispecific elements for the determination of diverse analytes and chemometric techniques for multivariate data analysis. The analytical capability of the proposed mixture is engendered by changes in fluorescence signal in response to changes in environment such as pH, temperature, ionic strength, and presence of oxygen. The signal is detected by a three-dimensional spectrofluorimeter, and the acquired data are processed using an artificial neural network (ANN) for multivariate calibration. The fluorescence spectrum of a solution of selected dyes allows discreet reading of emission maxima of all dyes composing the mixture. The variations in peaks intensities caused by environmental changes provide distinctive fluorescence patterns which can be handled in the same way as the signals collected from nose/tongue electrochemical or piezoelectric devices. This optical system opens possibilities for rapid, inexpensive, real-time detection of a multitude of physicochemical parameters and analytes of complex samples.

  6. 2-Photon tandem device for water splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2014-01-01

    Within the field Of photocatalytic water splitting there are several strategies to achieve the goal of efficient and cheap photocatalytic water splitting. This work examines one particular strategy by focusing on monolithically stacked, two-photon photoelectrochemical cells. The overall aim...... for photocatalytic water splitting by using a large bandgap photocathode and a low bandgap photoanode with attached protection layers....

  7. DFT Study of the Structure, Reactivity, Natural Bond Orbital and Hyperpolarizability of Thiazole Azo Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman I. Osman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure, reactivity, natural bond orbital (NBO, linear and nonlinear optical (NLO properties of three thiazole azo dyes (A, B and C were monitored by applying B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and ωB97XD functionals with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The geometrical parameters,dipolemoments,HOMO-LUMO(highest occupied molecular orbital,lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy gaps, absorption wavelengths and total hyperpolarizabilities were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 chloroform (CHCl3, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2 and dimethlysulphoxide (DMSO. The donor methoxyphenyl group deviates from planarity with the thiazole azo moiety by ca. 38◦; while the acceptor dicyanovinyl, indandione and dicyanovinylindanone groups diverge by ca. 6◦. The HOMOs for the three dyes are identical. They spread over the methoxyphenyl donor moiety, the thiazole and benzene rings as π-bonding orbitals. The LUMOs are shaped up by the nature of the acceptor moieties. The LUMOs of the A, B and C dyes extend over the indandione, malononitrile and dicyanovinylindanone acceptor moieties, respectively, as π-antibonding orbitals. The HOMO-LUMO splittings showed that Dye C is much more reactive than dyes A and B. Compared to dyes A and B, Dye C yielded a longer maximum absorption wavelength because of the stabilization of its LUMOs relative to those of the other two. The three dyes show solvatochromism accompanied by significant increases in hyperpolarizability. The enhancement of the total hyperpolarizability of C compared to those of A and B is due to the cumulative action of the long π-conjugation of the indanone ring and the stronger electron-withdrawing ability of the dicyanovinyl moiety that form the dicyanovinylindanone acceptor group. These findings are facilitated by a natural bond orbital (NBO technique. The very high total hyperpolarizabilities of the three dyes define their potent nonlinear optical (NLO behaviour.

  8. Development of AVLIS dye laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Masaaki; Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    CVL pumped single mode dye laser was performed. It was found that pressure tuning has some excellent feature in comparison to mechanical tuning in dye laser frequency control. For evaluation of dye laser amplifier, two-dimensional rate equation was proposed. Calculated data by this equation agreed with experimental data in large diameter input dye laser beam condition. (author)

  9. Innovative wedge axe in making split firewood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutikainen, A.

    1998-01-01

    Interteam Oy, a company located in Espoo, has developed a new method for making split firewood. The tools on which the patented System Logmatic are based are wedge axe and cylindrical splitting-carrying frame. The equipment costs about 495 FIM. The block of wood to be split is placed inside the upright carrying frame and split in a series of splitting actions using the innovative wedge axe. The finished split firewood remains in the carrying frame, which (as its name indicates) also serves as the means for carrying the firewood. This innovative wedge-axe method was compared with the conventional splitting of wood using an axe (Fiskars -handy 1400 splitting axe costing about 200 FIM) in a study conducted at TTS-Institute. There were eight test subjects involved in the study. In the case of the wedge-axe method, handling of the blocks to be split and of the finished firewood was a little quicker, but in actual splitting it was a little slower than the conventional axe method. The average productivity of splitting the wood and of the work stages related to it was about 0.4 m 3 per effective hour in both methods. The methods were also equivalent of one another in terms of the load imposed by the work when measured in terms of the heart rate. As regards work safety, the wedge-axe method was superior to the conventional method, but the continuous striking action and jolting transmitted to the arms were unpleasant (orig.)

  10. Survery on Actual Conditions of Food Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, ひろみ

    1981-01-01

    Many food dyes are widely used as food additives in Japan, and many investigations have been pointed the problems of safety of these food dyes used in Japanese food. There are two types of commercial food dyes, one is synthetic dyes and the other is natural dyes.Recently Japanese food is not stained so colourfully, but it is stained faintly in colour near to natural food by using of mixed synthetic dyes. On their hand, many consumers have a tendency to prefer natural food dyes because they ha...

  11. Analysis of solvent dyes in refined petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Solvent dyes are used to color refined petroleum products to enable differentiation between gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. Analysis for these dyes in the hydrocarbon product is difficult due to their very low concentrations in such a complex matrix. Flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry in both negative and positive mode was used to optimize ionization of ten typical solvent dyes. Samples of hydrocarbon product were analyzed under similar conditions. Positive electrospray ionization produced very complex spectra, which were not suitably specific for targeting only the dyes. Negative electrospray ionization produced simple spectra because aliphatic and aromatic moieties were not ionized. This enabled screening for a target dye in samples of hydrocarbon product from a spill.

  12. A new nanohybrid material constructed from Keggin-type polyoxometalate and Cd(II) semicarbazone Schiff base complex with excellent adsorption properties for the removal of cationic dye pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farhadi, S.; Amini, M.M.; Dušek, Michal; Kučeráková, Monika; Mahmoudi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1130, Oct (2017), s. 592-602 ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12653S; GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanohybrid material * polyoxometalate * single crystal * adsorption activity * cationic dye pollutants Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2016

  13. First organic–inorganic hybrid nanomaterial constructed from a Keggin-type polyoxometallate and a copper-dithiocarbamate complex: sonochemical synthesis, crystal structure and its adsorption performance for organic dye pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farhadi, S.; Dušek, Michal; Siadatnasab, F.; Eigner, Václav; Mokhtari Andani, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 126, Apr (2017), s. 227-238 ISSN 0277-5387 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12653S; GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : organic–inorganic hybrid * polyoxometallate * dithiocarbamate * adsorption * organic dye pollutants Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2016

  14. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Yen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP, and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  15. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Chih-Ping [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yu, Pin-Feng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jyhpyng [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jiunn-Yuan [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Mu [SuperbIN Co., Ltd., Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Chen, Szu-yuan, E-mail: sychen@ltl.iams.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP), and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  16. A typology of split conjunction

    OpenAIRE

    Palancar , Enrique L.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, I study instances of noun phrase conjunction where the conjoined noun phrase is subject and the referents of the conjuncts are human, of the type ‘John and Mary are having lunch’. More specifically, I study different, possible splits that occur in such structures, which involve the disruption of the phrasal continuity of the conjuncts, resulting in structures roughly equivalent to ‘they are having lunch with Mary’ and ‘John are having lunch with Mary’. I...

  17. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.fda.gov/aboutfda/centersoffices/officeoffoods/cfsan/default.htm . Selected References Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis. ...

  18. Improved Fast Centralized Retransmission Scheme for High-Layer Functional Split in 5G Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen; Hou, Meng; Fu, Yu; Bian, Honglian; Gao, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In order to satisfy the varied 5G critical requirements and the virtualization of the RAN hardware, a two-level architecture for 5G RAN has been studied in 3GPP 5G SI stage. The performance of the PDCP-RLC split option and intra-RLC split option, two mainly concerned options for high layer functional split, exist an ongoing debate. This paper firstly gives an overview of CU-DU split study work in 3GPP. By the comparison of implementation complexity, the standardization impact and system performance, our evaluation result shows the PDCP-RLC split Option outperforms the intra-RLC split option. Aiming to how to reduce the retransmission delay during the intra-CU inter-DU handover, the mainly drawback of PDCP-RLC split option, this paper proposes an improved fast centralized retransmission solution with a low implementation complexity. Finally, system level simulations show that the PDCP-RLC split option with the proposed scheme can significantly improve the UE’s experience.

  19. Physicochemical aspects of the liposome-wool interaction in wool dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Meritxell; Barsukov, Leonid I; Fonollosa, Jordi; Parra, José Luis; Sukhanov, Stanislav V; Coderch, Luisa

    2004-04-13

    Despite the promising application of liposomes in wool dyeing, little is known about the mechanism of liposome interactions with the wool fiber and dyestuffs. The kinetics of wool dyeing by two dyes, Acid Green 27 (hydrophobic) and Acid Green 25 (hydrophilic), were compared in three experimental protocols: (1) without liposomes, (2) in the presence of phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes, and (3) with wool previously treated with PC liposomes. Physicochemical interactions of liposomes with wool fibers were studied under experimental dyeing conditions with particular interest in the liposome affinity to the fiber surface and changes in the lipid composition of the wool fibers. The results obtained indicate that the presence of liposomes favors the retention of these two dyes in the dyeing bath, this effect being more pronounced in case of the hydrophobic dye. Furthermore, the liposome treatment is accompanied by substantial absorption of PC by wool fibers with simultaneous partial solubilization of their polar lipids (more evident at higher temperatures). This may result in structural modification of the cell membrane complex of wool fibers, which could account for a high level of the dye exhaustion observed at the end of the liposome dyeing process.

  20. Ultrasound for low temperature dyeing of wool with acid dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2012-05-01

    The possibility of reducing the temperature of conventional wool dyeing with an acid levelling dye using ultrasound was studied in order to reach exhaustion values comparable to those obtained with the standard procedure at 98 °C, obtaining dyed samples of good quality. The aim was to develop a laboratory method that could be transferred at industrial level, reducing both the energy consumption and fiber damage caused by the prolonged exposure to high temperature without the use of polluting auxiliary agents. Dyeings of wool fabrics were carried out in the temperature range between 60 °C and 80 °C using either mechanical or ultrasound agitation of the bath and coupling the two methods to compare the results. For each dyeing, the exhaustion curves of the dye bath were determined and the better results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical stirring. Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasonic efficiency were calculated in comparison with mechanical stirring alone. In the presence of ultrasound the absorption rate constants increased by at least 50%, at each temperature, confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound was ascribed to the pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation. It was also shown that the effect of ultrasound at 60 °C was just on the dye bath, practically unaffecting the wool fiber surface, as confirmed by the results of SEM analysis. Finally, fastness tests to rubbing and domestic laundering yielded good values for samples dyed in ultrasound assisted process even at the lower temperature. These results suggest the possibility, thanks to the use of ultrasound, to obtain a well equalized dyeing on wool working yet at 60°C, a temperature process strongly lower than 98°C, currently used in industry

  1. Voltage-sensitive dye recording from networks of cultured neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chi-Bin

    This thesis describes the development and testing of a sensitive apparatus for recording electrical activity from microcultures of rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons by using voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.The apparatus comprises a feedback-regulated mercury arc light source, an inverted epifluorescence microscope, a novel fiber-optic camera with discrete photodiode detectors, and low-noise preamplifiers. Using an NA 0.75 objective and illuminating at 10 W/cm2 with the 546 nm mercury line, a typical SCG neuron stained with the styryl dye RH423 gives a detected photocurrent of 1 nA; the light source and optical detectors are quiet enough that the shot noise in this photocurrent--about.03% rms--dominates. The design, theory, and performance of this dye-recording apparatus are discussed in detail.Styryl dyes such as RH423 typically give signals of 1%/100 mV on these cells; the signals are linear in membrane potential, but do not appear to arise from a purely electrochromic mechanism. Given this voltage sensitivity and the noise level of the apparatus, it should be possible to detect both action potentials and subthreshold synaptic potentials from SCG cell bodies. In practice, dye recording can easily detect action potentials from every neuron in an SCG microculture, but small synaptic potentials are obscured by dye signals from the dense network of axons.In another microculture system that does not have such long and complex axons, this dye-recording apparatus should be able to detect synaptic potentials, making it possible to noninvasively map the synaptic connections in a microculture, and thus to study long-term synaptic plasticity.

  2. Molecular concepts of water splitting. Nature's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Nicholas; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Based on studies of natural systems, much has also been learned concerning the design principles required for biomimetic catalysis of water splitting and hydrogen evolution. In summary, these include use of abundant and inexpensive metals, the effective protection of the active sites in functional environments, repair/replacement of active components in case of damage, and the optimization of reaction rates. Biomimetic chemistry aims to mimic all these features; many labs are working toward this goal by developing new approaches in the design and synthesis of such systems, encompassing not only the catalytic center, but also smart matrices and assembly via self-organization. More stable catalysts that do not require self-repair may be obtained from fully artificial (inorganic) catalytic systems that are totally different from the biological ones and only apply some basic principles learned from nature. Metals other than Mn/Ca, Fe, and Ni could be used (e.g. Co) in new ligand spheres and other matrices. For light harvesting, charge separation/stabilization, and the effective coupling of the oxidizing/reducing equivalents to the redox catalysts, different methods have been proposed - for example, covalently linked molecular donor-acceptor systems, photo-voltaic devices, semiconductor-based systems, and photoactive metal complexes. The aim of all these approaches is to develop catalytic systems that split water with sunlight into hydrogen and oxygen while displaying high efficiency and long-term stability. Such a system - either biological, biomimetic, or bioinspired - has the potential to be used on a large scale to produce 'solar fuels' (e.g. hydrogen or secondary products thereof). (orig.)

  3. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tongsong; Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong

    2015-01-01

    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells: a successful combination of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, DSSC, are a promising alternative for the development of a new generation of photovoltaic devices. DSSC are a successful combination of materials, consisting of a transparent electrode coated with a dye-sensitized mesoporous film of nanocrystalline particles of TiO2, an electrolyte containing a suitable redox-couple and a Pt coated counter-electrode. In general, Ru bipyridyl complexes are used as the dye sensitizers. The light-to-energy conversion performance of the cell depends on the relative energy levels of the semiconductor and dye and on the kinetics of the electron-transfer processes at the sensitized semiconductor | electrolyte interface. The rate of these processes depends on the properties of its components. This contribution presents a discussion on the influence of each of the materials which constitute the DSSC of the overall process for energy conversion. An overview of the results obtained for solid-state dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells assembled with polymer electrolytes is also presented.

  5. Observation of microwave conductivity in copper iodide films and relay effect in the dye molecules attached to CuI photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirimanne, Prasad M.; Soga, Tetsuo; Kunst, Marinus

    2005-01-01

    Microwave conductivity and two channels of recombination process were observed in the CuI films. Spin orbital splitting resulted in split in the valence band of CuI. The dye molecules attached to the CuI film act as an electron mediator in addition to the sensitization process under back wall-mode illumination. - Graphical abstract: Transient microwave-photoconductivity of CuI film

  6. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  7. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  8. Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations explains how to solve evolution equations via novel iterative-based splitting methods that efficiently use computational and memory resources. It focuses on systems of parabolic and hyperbolic equations, including convection-diffusion-reaction equations, heat equations, and wave equations. In the theoretical part of the book, the author discusses the main theorems and results of the stability and consistency analysis for ordinary differential equations. He then presents extensions of the iterative splitting methods to partial differential

  9. Dark matter from split seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2010-01-01

    The seesaw mechanism in models with extra dimensions is shown to be generically consistent with a broad range of Majorana masses. The resulting democracy of scales implies that the seesaw mechanism can naturally explain the smallness of neutrino masses for an arbitrarily small right-handed neutrino mass. If the scales of the seesaw parameters are split, with two right-handed neutrinos at a high scale and one at a keV scale, one can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, as well as dark matter. The dark matter candidate, a sterile right-handed neutrino with mass of several keV, can account for the observed pulsar velocities and for the recent data from Chandra X-ray Observatory, which suggest the existence of a 5 keV sterile right-handed neutrino.

  10. Photon-splitting cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannessen, A.M.; Mork, K.J.; Overbo, I.

    1980-01-01

    The differential cross section for photon splitting (scattering of one photon into two photons) in a Coulomb field, obtained earlier by Shima, has been integrated numerically to yield various differential cross sections. Energy spectra differential with respect to the energy of one of the outgoing photons are presented for several values of the primary photon energy. Selected examples of recoil momentum distributions and some interesting doubly or multiply differential cross sections are also given. Values for the total cross section are obtained essentially for all energies. The screening effect caused by atomic electrons is also taken into account, and is found to be important for high energies, as in e + e - pair production. Comparisons with various approximate results obtained by previous authors mostly show fair agreement. We also discuss the possibilities for experimental detection and find the most promising candidate to be a measurement of both photons, and their energies, at a moderately high energy

  11. Gauge mediated mini-split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Craig, Nathaniel [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Knapen, Simon [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ−b{sub μ} problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 8} GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  12. Splitting tests on rock specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J D; Stagg, K G

    1970-01-01

    Splitting tests are described for a square-section sandstone specimens line loaded through steel or timber packings on the top face and supported on the bottom face either on similar packings (type A specimen) or directly on the lower platen plate of the testing machine (type B specimens). The stress distribution across the vertical central plane and the horizontal central plane were determined from a linear elastic finite element analysis for both types. Two solutions were obtained for the type B specimen: one assuming no friction between the base of the specimen and the platen plate and the other assuming no relative slip between the surfaces. Vertical and horizontal strains were measured at the center of the specimens for all loads up to failure.

  13. Split supersymmetry in unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2005-01-01

    In the context of split supersymmetry, the gaugino mass spectrum seems to be very important to satisfy the dark matter content of the universe and the gauge coupling unification. In this Letter, we have considered various sources of gaugino masses in the context of unified models. We show that the gaugino mass spectrum varies in different unification pictures. In the context of SU(5), we have found that the bino/wino mass ratio can be close to one at the weak scale which is helpful to satisfy the WMAP data. The gluino/wino mass ratio is also different from the usual scenario of unified gaugino masses. The gaugino masses can be around one TeV and m SUSY is chosen so that the gluino mass does not create any cosmological problem. In the context of the Pati-Salam model, we show that the gluino mass can be made very heavy even after maintaining the unification of the gauge couplings

  14. Spin Splitting in Different Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yafei

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the spin splitting in four undoped asymmetric quantum wells in the absence of external electric field and magnetic field. The quantum well geometry dependence of spin splitting is studied with the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling included. The results show that the structure of quantum well plays an important role in spin splitting. The Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin splitting in four asymmetric quantum wells are quite different. The origin of the distinction is discussed in this work. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  15. A Decade of Shear-Wave Splitting Observations in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesiles, A. K.; Christensen, D. H.; Abers, G. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Pavlis, G. L.; Song, X.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decade four PASSCAL experiments have been conducted in different regions of Alaska. ARCTIC, BEAAR and MOOS form a north-south transect across the state, from the Arctic Ocean to Price Williams Sound, while the STEEP experiment is currently deployed to the east of that line in the St Elias Mountains of Southeastern Alaska. Shear-wave splitting observations from these networks in addition to several permanent stations of the Alaska Earthquake Information Center were determined in an attempt to understand mantle flow under Alaska in a variety of different geologic settings. Results show two dominant splitting patterns in Alaska, separated by the subducted Pacific Plate. North of the subducted Pacific Plate fast directions are parallel to the trench (along strike of the subducted Pacific Plate) indicating large scale mantle flow in the northeast-southwest direction with higher anisotropy (splitting times) within the mantle wedge. Within or below the Pacific Plate fast directions are normal to the trench in the direction of Pacific Plate convergence. In addition to these two prominent splitting patterns there are several regions that do not match either of these trends. These more complex regions which include the results from STEEP could be due to several factors including effects from the edge of the Pacific Plate. The increase of station coverage that Earthscope will bring to Alaska will aid in developing a more complete model for anisotropy and mantle flow in Alaska.

  16. Dye-Sensitized Approaches to Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2008-03-01

    preferred dye system is inspired by the natural processes involving chlorophyll, the coloring material in plants on which all earthly life depends. Chlorophyll is an organometallic dye, with a metal ion, Mg, within a porphyrin cage of nitrogen atoms. The synthetic chemist of course can select any convenient metal within the periodic table, and experience shows that ruthenium has the optimal properties expected. A ruthenium-pyridyl complex provides the chromophore of the dye, with the HOMO-LUMO gap, and thence the absorption spectrum bring modified by substitution with thiocyanide groups. Chemisorptive attachment of the dye to the metal oxide surface is obtained by carboxyl groups attached to the pyridyl components. The energetics of the dye is such that the LUMO level is just above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor, enabling relaxation by electron injection as required. A satisfactory electroactive dye structure, with good attachment properties and a wide optical absorption spectrum is therefore a sophisticated molecular engineering product. The electrolyte is also an optimized electrochemical system. The basic redox behavior is provided by the iodine/iodide system, with the advantage that the ions, both oxidized and reduced are relatively small, and therefore mobile in the supporting electrolyte. Energy losses due to slow diffusion are minimized. Early experiments used aqueous electrolytes, though with limited cell lifetime due to hydrolysis of the chemisorptive dye---semiconductor bond. A wide range of organic systems were therefore investigated, with the present favored formulation being based on imidazole salts. These have the additional advantage of low vapor pressure, very necessary as the photoactive sites under mid---day sun illumination may reach 80 C or higher. Low losses at the cathode counterelectrode are also a requirement for cell efficiency. The cathode is not necessarily transparent, and prototype cells on thin metal foils have been produced

  17. Simulation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments: effect of the dyes on protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Lucy R; Paci, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer is a powerful technique which is often used to probe the properties of proteins and complex macromolecules. The technique relies on relatively large fluorescent dyes which are engineered into the molecule of interest. In the case of small proteins, these dyes may affect the stability of the protein, and modify the folding kinetics and the folding mechanisms which are being probed. Here we use atomistic simulation to investigate the effect that commonly used fluorescent dyes have on the folding of a four-helix bundle protein. We show that, depending on where the dyes are attached, their effect on the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the protein may be significant. We find that, while the overall folding mechanism is not affected by the dyes, they can destabilize, or even stabilize, intermediate states.

  18. Dye stability and performances of dye-sensitized solar cells with different nitrogen additives at elevated temperatures - Can sterically hindered pyridines prevent dye degradation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyet Nguyen, Phuong; Lund, Torben [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Rand Andersen, Anders [University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Sensors, Signals and Electrotechnics (SENSE), Niels Bohrs Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark); Danish Technological Institute, Plastics Technology, Gregersensvej 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Morten Skou, Eivind [University of Southern Denmark, Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Enviromental Technology, Niels Bohrs Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2010-10-15

    The homogeneous kinetics of the nucleophilic substitution reactions between the ruthenium dye N719 and eight pyridines and 1-methylbenzimidazole have been investigated in 3-methoxypropionitrile at 100 C. The half lives of N719 with the additives 4-tert-butylpyridine (0.5 M) and 1-methylbenzimidazole (0.5 M) were 57 and 160 h, respectively. Sterically hindered pyridines like 2,6-lutidine did not react with N719. The efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC, area=8.0 cm{sup 2}) prepared with 1-methylbenzimidazole (MBI), 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP), 2,6-lutidine and without any additive were 7.1%, 6.2%, 6.0% and 4.8%, respectively. The cells were stored in dark at 85 C and their I-V curves and impedance spectra were measured at regular time intervals. The N719 dye degradation in the cells were monitored by a new dye extraction protocol combined with analysis of the dye extract by HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. After 300 h storage in dark at 85 C 40% of the initial amount of N719 dye was degraded in DSC cells prepared with MBI and the efficiency was decreased to 40% of its initial value. DSC cells prepared with 2,6-lutidine or no additives showed smaller thermal dye and efficiency stability at elevated temperatures than DSC cells prepared with the none sterically hindered additives MBI and 4-TBP. In the cells prepared with 2,6-lutidine or no additive higher contents of the iodo products [RuL{sub 2}(NCS)(iodide)]{sup +} and [RuL{sub 2}(3-MPN)(iodide)]{sup +} were found than in cells prepared with 4-TBP and MBI. It is suggested that sterically hindered pyridines have smaller complexation constants with I{sub 3}{sup -} than unsterically hindered additives. This may explain the observed faster nucleophilic substitution rates of uncomplexed I{sub 3}{sup -} with N719 in DSC cells prepared with sterically hindered pyridines. The EIS analysis showed that the lifetime of the injected electrons in the TiO{sub 2}{tau}{sub eff} is reduced by a thermally induced change

  19. SplitDist—Calculating Split-Distances for Sets of Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2004-01-01

    We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other.......We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other....

  20. A Generalized Approach to Forensic Dye Identification: Development and Utility of Reference Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Ethan; Palenik, Skip; Palenik, Christopher S

    2018-04-18

    While color is arguably the most important optical property of evidential fibers, the actual dyestuffs responsible for its expression in them are, in forensic trace evidence examinations, rarely analyzed and still less often identified. This is due, primarily, to the exceedingly small quantities of dye present in a single fiber as well as to the fact that dye identification is a challenging analytical problem, even when large quantities are available for analysis. Among the practical reasons for this are the wide range of dyestuffs available (and the even larger number of trade names), the low total concentration of dyes in the finished product, the limited amount of sample typically available for analysis in forensic cases, and the complexity of the dye mixtures that may exist within a single fiber. Literature on the topic of dye analysis is often limited to a specific method, subset of dyestuffs, or an approach that is not applicable given the constraints of a forensic analysis. Here, we present a generalized approach to dye identification that ( 1 ) combines several robust analytical methods, ( 2 ) is broadly applicable to a wide range of dye chemistries, application classes, and fiber types, and ( 3 ) can be scaled down to forensic casework-sized samples. The approach is based on the development of a reference collection of 300 commercially relevant textile dyes that have been characterized by a variety of microanalytical methods (HPTLC, Raman microspectroscopy, infrared microspectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and visible microspectrophotometry). Although there is no single approach that is applicable to all dyes on every type of fiber, a combination of these analytical methods has been applied using a reproducible approach that permits the use of reference libraries to constrain the identity of and, in many cases, identify the dye (or dyes) present in a textile fiber sample.

  1. Particularities of surface plasmon-exciton strong coupling with large Rabi splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds, C; Bonnand, C; Plenet, J C; Brehier, A; Parashkov, R; Lauret, J S; Deleporte, E; Bellessa, J

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the particularities of the strong coupling regime occurring between surface plasmon (SP) modes and excitons. Two different active materials were deposited on a silver film: a cyanine dye J-aggregate, and a two-dimensional layered perovskite-type semiconductor. The dispersion relations, which are deduced from angular resolved reflectometry spectra, present an anticrossing characteristic of the strong coupling regime. The wavevector is a good parameter to determine the Rabi splitting. Due to the large interaction energies (several hundreds of milli-electron-volts), the calculations at constant angle can induce an overestimation of the Rabi splitting of more than a factor of two. Another property of polaritons based on SP is their nonradiative character. In order to observe the polaritonic emission, it is thus necessary to use particular extraction setups, such as gratings or prisms. Otherwise only the incoherent emission can be detected, very similar to the bare exciton emission

  2. Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogberashvili M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors. It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.

  3. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  4. Split Scheduling with Uniform Setup Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, F.; Sitters, R.A.; van der Ster, S.L.; Stougie, L.; Verdugo, V.; van Zuylen, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a machine cannot process or

  5. Split scheduling with uniform setup times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a

  6. The use of supramolecular chemistry in dye delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merckel, Daniel Andrew Sturton

    2002-01-01

    This thesis reports an investigation into supramolecular recognition of the sulfate/ sulfonate oxoanionic group, a moiety present in the majority of reactive dyes. In the first section the problems associated with the use of reactive dyes in dyeing cotton fabrics together with a literature review of supramolecular approaches to anion recognition are discussed. Drawing on the current literature concerning anion recognition (in particular the recognition of phosphates), the main body of the thesis concerns the design and synthesis of several series ofC-shaped (tweezer) and tripodal potential sulfate/ sulfonate receptors. These receptors incorporate the H-bond donor groups guanidine and thiourea and to a lesser extent urea and amide functionalities. In addition the behaviour of potential tweezer-like receptor molecules based on s-triazine (derived from cyanuric chloride) has also been investigated. The sulfate/ sulfonate and related phosphonate association properties of these potential receptors have been studied. Particular emphasis has been placed on the solid-state supramolecular structures formed by these complexes as determined by single crystal X-ray structural studies, and several novel and revealing examples have been analysed in detail. NMR titration binding studies have also been undertaken in order to investigate the complexation behaviour of several receptors with ''model dye'' phosphonates and sulfonates in solution. In addition a number of single crystal X-ray crystallographic studies were undertaken for other members of the Grossel research group during the course of this work, and the results of these structural studies are also reported. (author)

  7. Optimal decolorization and kinetic modeling of synthetic dyes by Pseudomonas strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Wang, X; Yue, P L

    2001-10-01

    Pseudomonas spp were isolated from an anaerobic-aerobic dyeing house wastewater treatment facility as the most active azo-dye degraders. Decolorization of azo dyes and non-azo dyes including anthraquinone, metal complex and indigo was compared with individual strains and a bacterial consortium consisting of the individual strain and municipal sludge (50 50wt). The consortium showed a significant improvement on decolorization of two recalcitrant non-azo dyes, but little effect on the dyes that the individual strains could degrade to a great or moderate extent. Decolorization of Acid violet 7 (monoazo) by a Pseudomonas strain GM3 was studied in detail under various conditions. The optimum decolorization activity was observed in a narrow pH range (7-8), a narrow temperature range (35-40 degrees C), and at the presence of organic and ammonium nitrogen. Nitrate had a severe inhibitory effect on azo dye decolorization: 10 mg/L led to 50% drop in decolorization activity and 1000 mg/L to complete activity depression. A kinetic model is established giving the dependence of decolorization rate on cell mass concentration (first-order) and dye concentration (half order). The rate increased with temperature from 10 to 35 C, which can be predicted by Arrhenius equation with the activation energy of 16.87 kcal/mol and the frequency factor of 1.49 x 10(11) (mg L)1/2/g DCM min.

  8. Full-field dye concentration measurement within saturated/unsaturated thin slabs of porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, D.L.; Glass, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a full-field dye concentration measurement technique that extends our experimental capabilities to the measurement of transient dye concentration fields within steady state flow fields under unsaturated or saturated conditions. Simple light absorption theory provides a basis for translating images into high resolution dye concentration fields. A series of dye pulse experiments that demonstrate the combined use of the full-field saturation and dye concentration techniques was conducted at four different degrees of saturation. Each of these experimental sequences was evaluated with respect to mass balance, the results being within 5% of the known dye mass input. An image windowing technique allowed us to see increased dispersion due to decreasing moisture content, tailing of concentration at the rear of the dye pulse and slight velocity changes of the dispersive front due to changes in moisture content. The exceptional resolution of dye concentration in space and time provided by this laboratory technique allows systematic experimentation for examining basic processes affecting solute transport within saturated/unsaturated porous media. Future challenges for this work will be to use these techniques to analyze more complex systems involving heterogeneities, scaling laws, and detailed investigations of the relationship between transverse and longitudinal dispersion in unsaturated media

  9. Particulate photocatalysts for overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-10-01

    The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a promising way of generating renewable energy. Hydrogen production by means of water splitting over semiconductor photocatalysts is a simple, cost-effective approach to large-scale solar hydrogen synthesis. Since the discovery of the Honda-Fujishima effect, considerable progress has been made in this field, and numerous photocatalytic materials and water-splitting systems have been developed. In this Review, we summarize existing water-splitting systems based on particulate photocatalysts, focusing on the main components: light-harvesting semiconductors and co-catalysts. The essential design principles of the materials employed for overall water-splitting systems based on one-step and two-step photoexcitation are also discussed, concentrating on three elementary processes: photoabsorption, charge transfer and surface catalytic reactions. Finally, we outline challenges and potential advances associated with solar water splitting by particulate photocatalysts for future commercial applications.

  10. Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1987-01-01

    Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

  11. Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Brave, V R; Khanna, Shally

    2010-01-01

    Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women) and indigo dye (fabric whitener) are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+), fair (+), and poor (-) and statistically evaluated. The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints.

  12. Effect of dye structure and redox mediators on anaerobic azo and anthraquinone dye reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Carantino Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biological decolourisation of dyes with different molecular structures. The kinetic constant values (k1 achieved with azo dye Reactive Red 120 were 7.6 and 10.1 times higher in the presence of RM (redox mediators AQDS and riboflavin, respectively, than the assays lacking RM. The kinetic constant achieved with the azo dye Congo Red was 42 times higher than that obtained with the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 4. The effect of RM on dye reduction was more evident for azo dyes resistant to reductive processes, and ineffective for anthraquinone dyes because of the structural stability of the latter.

  13. "DNA Origami Traffic Lights" with a Split Aptamer Sensor for a Bicolor Fluorescence Readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Heidi-Kristin; Bauer, Jens; Steinmeyer, Jeannine; Kuzuya, Akinori; Niemeyer, Christof M; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2017-04-12

    A split aptamer for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was embedded as a recognition unit into two levers of a nanomechanical DNA origami construct by extension and modification of selected staple strands. An additional optical module in the stem of the split aptamer comprised two different cyanine-styryl dyes that underwent an energy transfer from green (donor) to red (acceptor) emission if two ATP molecules were bound as target molecule to the recognition module and thereby brought the dyes in close proximity. As a result, the ATP as a target triggered the DNA origami shape transition and yielded a fluorescence color change from green to red as readout. Conventional atomic force microscopy (AFM) images confirmed the topology change from the open form of the DNA origami in the absence of ATP into the closed form in the presence of the target molecule. The obtained closed/open ratios in the absence and presence of target molecules tracked well with the fluorescence color ratios and thereby validated the bicolor fluorescence readout. The correct positioning of the split aptamer as the functional unit farthest away from the fulcrum of the DNA origami was crucial for the aptasensing by fluorescence readout. The fluorescence color change allowed additionally to follow the topology change of the DNA origami aptasensor in real time in solution. The concepts of fluorescence energy transfer for bicolor readout in a split aptamer in solution, and AFM on surfaces, were successfully combined in a single DNA origami construct to obtain a bimodal readout. These results are important for future custom DNA devices for chemical-biological and bioanalytical purposes because they are not only working as simple aptamers but are also visible by AFM on the single-molecule level.

  14. Control of Redox Events by Dye Encapsulation Applied to Light-Driven Splitting of Hydrogen Sulfide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, X.; Yang, Y.; He, C.; Chang, Z.; Reek, J.N.H.; Duan, C.

    2017-01-01

    Solar production of hydrogen by consuming low-value waste products is an attractive pathway that has both economic and environmental benefits. Inspired by the reactive pocket of enzymes, a synthetic platform to combine photocatalytic hydrogen evolution with sulfide oxidation in a one-pot process via

  15. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name.

  16. MODELLING AND CONTROL OF POWER-SPLIT HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE USING FUZZY LOGIC METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Khajavi, Mehrdad Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, automotive manufactures increasingly have lead to development of hybrid vehicles due to energy consumption growing and increased emissions. the power-split hybrids due to the simultaneous using of speed and torque couplings has integrated advantage of series and parallel hybrid systems and minimize their disadvantages , however the power-split hybrids control strategy is far more complex than other types. Generally the control strategy tries to use the optimize operating point of HE...

  17. Split-disk micro-lasers: Tunable whispering gallery mode cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Siegle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical micro-cavities of various types have emerged as promising photonic structures, for both the investigation of fundamental science in cavity quantum electrodynamics and simultaneously for various applications, e.g., lasers, filters, or modulators. In either branch a demand for adjustable and tunable photonic devices becomes apparent, which has been mainly based on the modification of the refractive index of the micro-resonators so far. In this paper, we report on a novel type of whispering gallery mode resonator where resonance tuning is achieved by modification of the configuration. This is realized by polymeric split-disks consisting of opposing half-disks with an intermediate air gap. Functionality of the split-disk concept and its figures of merit like low-threshold lasing are demonstrated for laser dye-doped split-disks fabricated by electron beam lithography on Si substrates. Reversible resonance tuning is achieved for split-disks structured onto elastomeric substrates by direct laser writing. The gap width and hence the resonance wavelength can be well-controlled by mechanically stretching the elastomer and exploiting the lateral shrinkage of the substrate. We demonstrate a broad spectral tunability of laser modes by more than three times the free spectral range. These cavities have the potential to form a key element of flexible and tunable photonic circuits based on polymers.

  18. Decolorization of complex dyes and textile effluent by extracellular enzymes of Cyathus bulleri cultivated on agro-residues/domestic wastes and proposed pathway of degradation of Kiton blue A and reactive orange 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Arpita; Mishra, Saroj

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the white-rot fungus Cyathus bulleri was cultivated on low-cost agro-residues, namely wheat bran (WB), wheat straw (WS), and domestic waste orange peel (OP) for production of ligninolytic enzymes. Of the three substrates, WB and OP served as good materials for the production of laccase with no requirement of additional carbon or nitrogen source. Specific laccase activity of 94.4 U mg -1 extracellular protein and 21.01 U mg -1 protein was obtained on WB and OP, respectively. Maximum decolorization rate of 13.6 μmol h -1  U -1 laccase for reactive black 5 and 22.68 μmol h -1  U -1 laccase for reactive orange 16 (RO) was obtained with the WB culture filtrate, and 11.7 μmol h -1  U -1 laccase for reactive violet 5 was observed with OP culture filtrate. Importantly, Kiton blue A (KB), reported not to be amenable to enzymatic degradation, was degraded by culture filtrate borne activities. Products of degradation of KB and RO were identified by mass spectrometry, and a pathway of degradation proposed. WB-grown culture filtrate decolorized and detoxified real and simulated textile effluents by about 40%. The study highlights the use of inexpensive materials for the production of enzymes effective on dyes and effluents.

  19. Study of decolorisation of binary dye mixture by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamparia, Shraddha; Jaspal, Dipika

    2017-10-01

    Decolorisation of a complex mixture of two different classes of textile dyes Direct Red 81 (DR81) and Rhodamine B (RHB), simulating one of the most important condition in real textile effluent was investigated onto deoiled Argemone Mexicana seeds (A. Mexicana). The adsorption behaviour of DR81 and RHB dyes was simultaneously analyzed in the mixture using derivative spectrophotometric method. Central composite design (CCD) was employed for designing the experiments for this complex binary mixture where significance of important parameters and possible interactions were analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). Maximum adsorption of DR81 and RHB by A. Mexicana was obtained at 53 °C after 63.33 min with 0.1 g of adsorbent and 8 × 10 -6  M DR81, 12 × 10 -6  M RHB with composite desirability of 0.99. The predicted values for percentage removal of dyes from the mixture were in good agreement with the experimental values with R 2 > 96% for both the dyes. CCD superimposed RSM confirmed that presence of different dyes in a solution created a competition for the adsorbent sites and hence interaction of dyes was one of the most important factor to be studied to simulate the real effluent. The adsorbent showed remarkable adsorption capacities for both the dyes in the mixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Studi Eksperimental Pengaruh Intensitas Cahaya terhadap Performa DSSC (Dye Sensitized Solar Cell dengan Ekstrak Buah dan Sayur Sebagai Dye Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiruz Zadit Taqwa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sel surya adalah peralatan yang dapat mengubah energi matahari menjadi energi listrik dengan menggunakan efek photovoltaic. Desain dan konstruksi dari solar cell mengalami perkembangan seiring dengan berkembangnya teknologi saat ini, hingga pada tahun 1991 ditemukan DSSC (Dye Sensitized Solar Cell. Sampai saat ini bahan yang umum digunakan sebagai dye pada pembuatan DSSC adalah ruthenium complex yang berharga mahal dan sulit untuk disintesa. Karena itu perlu dilakukannya penelitian tentang penggunaan bahan lain yang murah dan mudah untuk disintesa sebagai bahan dye, karena itu perlu diadakan pengujian terhadap performa yang dihasilkan dari DSSC dengan bahan dye tersebut dan apa saja variabel yang mempengaruhinya. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi eksperimental terhadap prototype DSSC dengan variasi bahan dye sensitizer dari ekstrak kulit manggis (Garcinia mangostana, ekstrak daun bayam (Amaranthus hybridus l. ekstrak buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus. Pengujian prototype DSSC dilakukan dengan cara menyinarinya menggunakan cahaya lampu halogen yang diatur tegangannya menggunakan sebuah dimmer untuk mengendalikan temperatur dari lampu, sehingga lampu tersebut menghasilkan variasi tintensitas cahaya sebesar 29 W/m2, 36 W/m2 dan 49 W/m2. Selanjutnya pengujian dilakukian dengan cara yang sama, tetapi dengan ditambahkan pendingin berupa air yang mengalir dibawah permukaan prototype DSSC. Penilitian ini menghasilkan kesimpulan bahwa semakin tinggi intensitas cahaya, maka semakin tinggi Pmax yang dihasilkan oleh prototype. Semakin bertambah temperatur pencahayaan maka semakin berkurang performa dari prototype DSSC. Efisiensi yang paling besar dihasilkan oleh prototype dengan bahan dye dari ekstrak kulit manggis pada intensitas 29 W/m2 sebesar 0,73%,Pendinginan yang diberikan kepada prototype mampu memperbaiki efisiensi dari prototype DSSC yang dibuat akan tetapi tidak signifikan.

  1. Developing new understanding of photoelectrochemical water splitting via in-situ techniques: A review on recent progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Cen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical (PEC water splitting is a promising technology for solar hydrogen production to build a sustainable, renewable and clean energy economy. Given the complexity of the PEC water splitting processes, it is important to note that developing in-situ techniques for studying PEC water splitting presents a formidable challenge. This review is aimed at highlighting advantages and disadvantages of each technique, while offering a pathway of potentially combining several techniques to address different aspects of interfacial processes in PEC water splitting. We reviewed recent progress in various techniques and approaches utilized to study PEC water splitting, focusing on spectroscopic and scanning-probe methods. Keywords: In-situ, Water splitting, IMPS, TAS, SPM

  2. Studies on Dyeing Performance of Novel Acid Azo Dyes and Mordent Acid Azo Dyes Based on 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat C. Dixit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel acid azo and mordent acid azo dyes have been prepared by the coupling of diazo solution of different aminonaphthol sulphonic acids and aromatic amino acids with 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone. The resultant dyes were characterized by elemental analysis as well as IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The UV-visible spectral data have also been discussed in terms of structure property relationship. The dyeing assessments of all the dyes were evaluated on wool and silk textile fibers. The dyeing of chrome pretreated wool and silk have also been monitored. The result shows that better hue was obtained on mordented fiber. Results of bactericidal studies of chrome pretreated fibers revealed that the toxicity of mordented dyes against bacteria is fairly good. Dyeing on wool and silk fibers resulted in yellowish pink to reddish brown colourations having excellent light fastness and washing fastness.

  3. Split-coil-system SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.

    1992-08-01

    The high field superconductor test facility SULTAN started operation successfully in May 1992. Originally designed for testing full scale conductors for the large magnets of the next generation fusion reactors, the SULTAN facility installed at PSI (Switzerland) was designed as a common venture of three European Laboratories: ENEA (Italy), ECN (Netherlands) and PSI, and built by ENEA and PSI in the framework of the Euratom Fusion Technology Program. Presently the largest facility in the world, with its superconducting split coil system generating 11 Tesla in a 0.6 m bore, it is ready now for testing superconductor samples with currents up to 50 kA at variable cooling conditions. Similar tests can be arranged also for other applications. SULTAN is offered by the European Community as a contribution to the worldwide cooperation for the next step of fusion reactor development ITER. First measurements on conductor developed by CEA (Cadarache) are now in progress. Others like those of ENEA and CERN will follow. For 1993, a test of an Italian 12 TZ model coil for fusion application is planned. SULTAN is a worldwide unique facility marking the competitive presence of Swiss technology in the field of applied superconductivity research. Based on development and design of PSI, the high field Nb 3 Sn superconductors and coils were fabricated at the works of Kabelwerke Brugg and ABB, numerous Swiss companies contributed to the success of this international effort. Financing of the Swiss contribution of SULTAN was made available by NEFF, BEW, BBW, PSI and EURATOM. (author) figs., tabs., 20 refs

  4. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N.

    2016-09-01

    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν2 bending mode starting with 4ν2.

  5. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-07

    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν{sub 2} bending mode starting with 4ν{sub 2}.

  6. Tensor products of higher almost split sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquali, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how the higher almost split sequences over a tensor product of algebras are related to those over each factor. Herschend and Iyama gave a precise criterion for when the tensor product of an $n$-representation finite algebra and an $m$-representation finite algebra is $(n+m)$-representation finite. In this case we give a complete description of the higher almost split sequences over the tensor product by expressing every higher almost split sequence as the mapping cone of a suit...

  7. Semi-strong split domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alwardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.

  8. Splitting Functions at High Transverse Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Moutafis, Rhea Penelope; CERN. Geneva. TH Department

    2017-01-01

    Among the production channels of the Higgs boson one contribution could become significant at high transverse momentum which is the radiation of a Higgs boson from another particle. This note focuses on the calculation of splitting functions and cross sections of such processes. The calculation is first carried out on the example $e\\rightarrow e\\gamma$ to illustrate the way splitting functions are calculated. Then the splitting function of $e\\rightarrow eh$ is calculated in similar fashion. This procedure can easily be generalized to processes such as $q\\rightarrow qh$ or $g\\rightarrow gh$.

  9. Photoelectrochemical studies of dye-sensitized solar cells using organic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinado, Tannia

    2009-10-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) is a promising efficient low-cost molecular photovoltaic device. One of the key components in DSCs is the dye, as it is responsible for the capture of sunlight. State-of-the-art DSC devices, based on ruthenium dyes, show record efficiencies of 10-12 %. During the last decade, metal-free organic dyes have been extensively explored as sensitizers for DSC application. The use of organic dyes is particularly attractive as it enables easy structural modifications, due to fairly short synthetic routes and reduced material cost. Novel dye should in addition to the light-harvesting properties also be compatible with the DSC components. In this thesis, a series of new organic dyes are investigated, both when integrated in the DSC device and as individual components. The evaluation methods consisted of different electrochemical and photoelectrochemical techniques. Whereas the light-harvesting properties of the dyes were fairly easily improved, the behavior of the dye integrated in the DSC showed less predictable photovoltaic results. The dye series studied in Papers II and IV revealed that their dye energetics limited vital electron-transfer processes, the dye regeneration (Paper II) and injection quantum yield (Paper IV). Further, in Papers III-VI, it was observed that different dye structures seemed to alter the interfacial electron recombination with the electrolyte. In addition to the dye structure sterics, some organic dyes appear to enhance the interfacial recombination, possibly due to specific dye-redox acceptor interaction (Paper V). The impact of dye sterical modifications versus the use of coadsorbent was explored in Paper VI. The dye layer properties in the presence and absence of various coadsorbents were further investigated in Paper VII. The core of this thesis is the identification of the processes and properties limiting the performance of the DSC device, aiming at an overall understanding of the compatibility between the

  10. The Syntactic Derivations of Split Antecedent Relative Clause Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Ning Zhang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a syntactic derivation for Split Antecedent Relative Clause Constructions such as Mary met a man and John met a woman who knew each other well. I claim that the two antecedents of such a construction are originally two conjuncts of a coordinate nominal. Then each has undergone a sideward movement, landed in a new working site, and been selected by a verb. After that, a coordinate clausal complex is constructed. In the old working site, a complex nominal is also constructed, in which the relative clause takes the remnant coordinate nominal as its antecedent. Finally, the complex nominal adjoins to the coordinate clausal complex. This analysis shows how the freedom in the selection of the landing site gained from sideward movement makes the syntactic derivations of this special type of relative clause construction possible, while at the same time avoiding the problems of the alternative three-dimensional analysis.

  11. A High Molar Extinction Coefficient Ru(II Complex Functionalized with cis-Dithiocyanato-bis-(9-anthracenyl-10-(2-methyl-2-butenoic acid-1,10-phenanthroline: Potential Sensitizer for Stable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale O. Adeloye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New heteroleptic ruthenium(II complex was formulated as [Ru(L12(NCS2], where L1 = 9-anthracenyl-10-(2-methyl-2-butenoic acid-1,10-phenanthroline was synthesized and its photophysical properties were studied and compared to previously reported analogue complex containing no anthracene moiety [Ru(L22(NCS2], L2 = (2-methyl-2-butenoic acid-1,10-phenanthroline. The two complexes though exhibit very strong molar extinction coefficient values; however, [Ru(L12(NCS2] shows better characteristic broad and intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT absorption band and higher molar absorptivity coefficient at (λmax=522 nm, ε=6.60×104 M−1 cm−1 than that of [Ru(L22(NCS2] complex, (λmax=446 nm, ε=4.82×104 M−1 cm−1. At room temperature, long wavelength emissions with strong intensity ratio centered at 660 nm were recorded for [Ru(L12(NCS2] complex with a bathochromic shift (λem=700 nm for [Ru(L22(NCS2] complex. It was shown that the luminescence wavelength characteristic of the complexes may be a function relating to the increasing length of π-conjugation and/or molecular weight. A preliminary cyclic voltammetry of [Ru(L12(NCS2] complex also exhibits good electroredox activity with oxidation potential of about 1.04 V, significantly better than other Ru(II polypyridine complexes containing bidentate ligands.

  12. Radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Uichi; Ishiguro, Takahide

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes the radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser. It is compared YAG-SH (530 nm) with CVL (511, 578 nm) and CVL (511 nm) for pumping source. Influence of solvent in dye laser power was examined. The present experimental results show that efficiency of CVL (511 nm) pumped dye laser was most high. When the dye solution is at a standstill, the efficiency of dye laser with water and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (S.L.S., 2 %wt.) was most high among the four kinds of solvent. In the condition of dye solution flow, the water and S.L.S. or ethylene glycol was useful solvent for dye laser.

  13. Radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Uichi; Ishiguro, Takahide.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser. It is compared YAG-SH (530 nm) with CVL (511, 578 nm) and CVL (511 nm) for pumping source. Influence of solvent in dye laser power was examined. The present experimental results show that efficiency of CVL (511 nm) pumped dye laser was most high. When the dye solution is at a standstill, the efficiency of dye laser with water and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (S.L.S., 2 %wt.) was most high among the four kinds of solvent. In the condition of dye solution flow, the water and S.L.S. or Ethylene Glycol was useful solvent for dye laser. (author)

  14. BODIPYs for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klfout, Hafsah; Stewart, Adam; Elkhalifa, Mahmoud; He, Hongshan

    2017-11-22

    BODIPY, abbreviation of boron-dipyrromethene, is one class of robust organic molecules that has been used widely in bioimaging, sensing, and logic gate design. Recently, BODIPY dyes have been explored for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Studies demonstrate their potential as light absorbers for the conversion of solar energy to electricity. However, their photovoltaic performance is inferior to many other dyes, including porphyrin dyes. In this review, several synthetic strategies of BODIPY dyes for DSCs and their further functionalization are described. The photophysical properties of dye molecules and their photovoltaic performances in DSCs are summarized. We aim to provide readers a clear picture of the field and expect to shed light on the next generation of BODIPY dyes for their applications in solar energy conversion.

  15. Influence of styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizomov, Negmat; Barakaeva, Mubaro; Kurtaliev, Eldar N.; Rahimov, Sherzod I.; Khakimova, Dilorom P.; Khodjayev, Gayrat; Yashchuk, Valeriy N.

    2008-08-01

    It was studied the influence of F, Sbt, Sil, Sbo monomer and homodimer Dst-5, Dst-10, Dbt-5, Dbt-10, Dil-10, Dbo-10 styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes of white rats. It was shown that the homodimer styryl dyes Dst-5, Dbt-5 and Dbo-10 decrease the erythrocytes quantity by 1.5-2 times more as compared with monomer dyes Sbt and Sbo. The main cause of dyes different action is the different oxidation degree of intracellular hemoglobin evoked by these dyes. It was established that the observed effects was connected with different penetration of these dyes through membrane of erythrocytes and with interaction of these dyes with albumin localized in membranes of cells.

  16. Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

  17. Octane-Assisted Reverse Micellar Dyeing of Cotton with Reactive Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Yiu-lun Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the computer colour matching (CCM of cotton fabrics dyed with reactive dye using the octane-assisted reverse micellar approach. The aim of this study is to evaluate the colour quality and compare the accuracy between CCM forecasting and simulated dyeing produced by conventional water-based dyeing and octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing. First, the calibration of dyeing databases for both dyeing methods was established. Standard samples were dyed with known dye concentrations. Computer colour matching was conducted by using the colour difference formula of International Commission on Illumination (CIE L*a*b*. Experimental results revealed that the predicted concentrations were nearly the same as the expected known concentrations for both dyeing methods. This indicates that octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing system can achieve colour matching as good as the conventional water-based dyeing system. In addition, when comparing the colour produced by the conventional water-based dyeing system and the octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing system, the colour difference (ΔE is ≤1, which indicates that the reverse micellar dyeing system could be applied for industrial dyeing with CCM.

  18. Synthesis, spectral characterization, thermal and photoluminescence properties of Zn(II) and Cd(II)-azido/thiocyanato complexes with thiazolylazo dye and 1,2-bis(diphenylphoshino)ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamgar, B A; Sawant, V A; Bharate, B G; Chavan, S S

    2011-01-01

    A series of complexes of the type [M(L)(dppe)X2]; where M=Zn(II) or Cd(II); L=4-(2'-thiazolylazo)chlorobenzene (L1), 4-(2'-thiazolylazo)bromobenzene (L2) and 4-(2'-thiazolylazo) iodobenzene (L3); dppe=1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane; X=N3- or NCS- have been prepared and characterized on the basis of their microanalysis, molar conductance, thermal, IR, UV-vis and 1H NMR spectral studies. IR spectra show that the ligand L is coordinated to the metal atom in bidentate manner via azo nitrogen and thiazole nitrogen. An octahedral structure is proposed for all the complexes. The thermal behavior of the complexes revealed that the thiocyanato complexes are thermally more stable than the azido complexes. All the complexes exhibit blue-green emission with high quantum yield as the result of the fluorescence from the intraligand emission excited state. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Splitting Strip Detector Clusters in Dense Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Tracking in high density environments, particularly in high energy jets, plays an important role in many physics analyses at the LHC. In such environments, there is significant degradation of track reconstruction performance. Between runs 1 and 2, ATLAS implemented an algorithm that splits pixel clusters originating from multiple charged particles, using charge information, resulting in the recovery of much of the lost efficiency. However, no attempt was made in prior work to split merged clusters in the Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), which does not measure charge information. In spite of the lack of charge information in SCT, a cluster-splitting algorithm has been developed in this work. It is based primarily on the difference between the observed cluster width and the expected cluster width, which is derived from track incidence angle. The performance of this algorithm is found to be competitive with the existing pixel cluster splitting based on track information.

  20. Baryons electromagnetic mass splittings in potential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovese, M.; Richard, J.-M.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Varga, K.

    1998-01-01

    We study electromagnetic mass splittings of charmed baryons. We point out discrepancies among theoretical predictions in non-relativistic potential models; none of these predictions seems supported by experimental data. A new calculation is presented

  1. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  2. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  3. Splitting automorphisms of free Burnside groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabekyan, Varuzhan S

    2013-01-01

    It is proved that, if the order of a splitting automorphism of odd period n≥1003 of a free Burnside group B(m,n) is a prime, then the automorphism is inner. This implies, for every prime n≥1009, an affirmative answer to the question on the coincidence of the splitting automorphisms of period n of the group B(m,n) with the inner automorphisms (this question was posed in the 'Kourovka Notebook' in 1990). Bibliography: 17 titles.

  4. Are Ducted Mini-Splits Worth It?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zhang, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2018-02-01

    Ducted mini-split heat pumps are gaining popularity in some regions of the country due to their energy-efficient specifications and their ability to be hidden from sight. Although product and install costs are typically higher than the ductless mini-split heat pumps, this technology is well worth the premium for some homeowners who do not like to see an indoor unit in their living area. Due to the interest in this technology by local utilities and homeowners, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop capabilities within the Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) tool to model ducted mini-split heat pumps. After the fundamental capabilities were added, energy-use results could be compared to other technologies that were already in BEopt, such as zonal electric resistance heat, central air source heat pumps, and ductless mini-split heat pumps. Each of these technologies was then compared using five prototype configurations in three different BPA heating zones to determine how the ducted mini-split technology would perform under different scenarios. The result of this project was a set of EnergyPlus models representing the various prototype configurations in each climate zone. Overall, the ducted mini-split heat pumps saved about 33-60% compared to zonal electric resistance heat (with window AC systems modeled in the summer). The results also showed that the ducted mini-split systems used about 4% more energy than the ductless mini-split systems, which saved about 37-64% compared to electric zonal heat (depending on the prototype and climate).

  5. Mort Rainey's Split Personality in Secret Window

    OpenAIRE

    Sandjaya, Cynthya; Limanta, Liem Satya

    2013-01-01

    Psychological issue is the main issue discussed in David Koepp's Secret Window through its main character, Mort Rainey. Rainey's psychological struggle will be the main theme in this research. This thesis examines Rainey's split personality. Furthermore, in this study, we want to analyze the process of how Mort Rainey's personality splits into two different personalities. To meet the answer of this study, we will use the theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder with a support from Sigmund Fre...

  6. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-11-07

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO DYEING METHODS USING REACTIVE DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HINOJOSA Belén

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environment preservation is a common worry not only for people but for companies as well. Industry is more and more concern about the necessity of developing new and more respectful processes. Dye is one of the most important processes in the textile industry but it is also considered as no too safe regarding environment issues. This process uses large amounts of water and generates big volumes of wastewater. Following this issue, new regulations and laws emerge to control the waste generated. This leads to the companies and increased costs in terms of wastewater treatments and high water consumption. In this research we compare two systems on garment finishing application, the conventional bath process and the new Ecofinish system that is able to save water and product. To compare these processes, we carried out a reactive dyeing using both systems in order to determine the quality differences in the final product. For this purpose, the samples have been tested to washing and rubbing fastness, according to UNE EN ISO 105 C10 and UNE- EN ISO 105 X12 standards, respectively. This study confirms that this system achieves water savings and reduces the wastewater produced, getting a good dyeing. This process can be considered as an alternative to the conventional one.

  8. Polarization Insensitivity in Double-Split Ring and Triple-Split Ring Terahertz Resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qian-Nan; Lan Feng; Tang Xiao-Pin; Yang Zi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A modified double-split ring resonator and a modified triple-split ring resonator, which offer polarization-insensitive performance, are investigated, designed and fabricated. By displacing the two gaps of the conventional double-split ring resonator away from the center, the second resonant frequency for the 0° polarized wave and the resonant frequency for the 90° polarized wave become increasingly close to each other until they are finally identical. Theoretical and experimental results show that the modified double-split ring resonator and the modified triple-split ring resonator are insensitive to different polarized waves and show strong resonant frequency dips near 433 and 444 GHz, respectively. The results of this work suggest new opportunities for the investigation and design of polarization-dependent terahertz devices based on split ring resonators. (paper)

  9. Thermostability promotes the cooperative function of split adenylate kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Peter Q; Liu, Shirley; Thompson, Jeremy C; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2008-05-01

    Proteins can often be cleaved to create inactive polypeptides that associate into functional complexes through non-covalent interactions, but little is known about what influences the cooperative function of the ensuing protein fragments. Here, we examine whether protein thermostability affects protein fragment complementation by characterizing the function of split adenylate kinases from the mesophile Bacillus subtilis (AKBs) and the hyperthermophile Thermotoga neapolitana (AKTn). Complementation studies revealed that the split AKTn supported the growth of Escherichia coli with a temperature-sensitive AK, but not the fragmented AKBs. However, weak complementation occurred when the AKBs fragments were fused to polypeptides that strongly associate, and this was enhanced by a Q16L mutation that thermostabilizes the full-length protein. To examine how the split AK homologs differ in structure and function, their catalytic activity, zinc content, and circular dichroism spectra were characterized. The reconstituted AKTn had higher levels of zinc, greater secondary structure, and >10(3)-fold more activity than the AKBs pair, albeit 17-fold less active than full-length AKTn. These findings provide evidence that the design of protein fragments that cooperatively function can be improved by choosing proteins with the greatest thermostability for bisection, and they suggest that this arises because hyperthermophilic protein fragments exhibit greater residual structure compared to their mesophilic counterparts.

  10. Biochemical study of some environmental pollutants dyes Part II: disperse dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakra, S.; Ahmed, F.A.; Fetyan, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    This work was aimed to develop a method for removal of the dyes color from the textile wastewater that is well be much less costly than the other chemical or physical methods used. It therefore included: 1. Preparation of three disperses dyes. 2. Isolation of dyes degradable microorganisms from wastewater effluents and soil after adding 200 ppm of each dye individually. 3. Decolorisation and biodegradation of the dyes in liquid culture of the isolated bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis). 4. Identification of the probable byproducts by different instruments. 5. Toxicity assessment of the dyes and their biodegraded products

  11. Enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells performances by improving electron density in conduction band of nanostructure TiO2 electrode with using a metalloporphyrin as additional dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojiri-Foroushani, M.; Dehghani, H.; Salehi-Vanani, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► N719 and ZnTCPP dyes were used in a sequential adsorption process. ► By using two dyes, improved the performance of the cell. ► Density of electrons in the conduction band of TiO 2 electrodes improved. -- Abstract: A zinc(II)-porphyrin dye with four carboxyphenyl moiety of ancillary (ZnTCPP) was studied as a sensitizer in combination with a ruthenium complex (N719) in co-sensitized solar cells. The high molar extinction coefficient (ε) of porphyrin dyes leads to high light absorption in the dye-sensitized TiO 2 electrode. In spite of the high ε of porphyrin dyes, they usually have a narrow absorption band and also to suffer from dye aggregation due to their planar structural nature. This causes lower efficiencies of the DSSCs for the porphyrins than the ruthenium complexes. Co-sensitization of two or more dyes with complementary absorption spectra on TiO 2 film is an important method to further enhance the IPCE response and energy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Interestingly, when the ZnTCPP electrode was used to assemble a co-sensitized solar cell by additional adsorption of N719 dye, the efficiency improved to 6.35% (in comparison to N719 that the efficiency was 4.74%). The results indicated that the co-sensitized device shows enhancements of photovoltaic performance not only in short-circuit current density (J SC ) but also in open-circuit voltage (V OC ). In the present study we have been shown that co-sensitization of a zinc(II)-porphyrin with N719 dye changes the energy levels of the TiO 2 electrode and in result produces further improvement for its device performance

  12. k-asymmetric spin splitting at the interface between transition metal ferromagnets and heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Grytsiuk, Sergii

    2016-05-23

    We systematically investigate the spin-orbit coupling-induced band splitting originating from inversion symmetry breaking at the interface between a Co monolayer and 4d (Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag) or 5d (Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au) transition metals. In spite of the complex band structure of these systems, the odd-in-k spin splitting of the bands displays striking similarities with the much simpler Rashba spin-orbit coupling picture. We establish a clear connection between the overall strength of the odd-in-k spin splitting of the bands and the charge transfer between the d orbitals at the interface. Furthermore, we show that the spin splitting of the Fermi surface scales with the induced orbital moment, weighted by the spin-orbit coupling.

  13. k-asymmetric spin splitting at the interface between transition metal ferromagnets and heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Grytsyuk, Sergiy; Belabbes, Abderrezak; Haney, Paul M.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Stiles, M. D.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Manchon, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    We systematically investigate the spin-orbit coupling-induced band splitting originating from inversion symmetry breaking at the interface between a Co monolayer and 4d (Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag) or 5d (Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au) transition metals. In spite of the complex band structure of these systems, the odd-in-k spin splitting of the bands displays striking similarities with the much simpler Rashba spin-orbit coupling picture. We establish a clear connection between the overall strength of the odd-in-k spin splitting of the bands and the charge transfer between the d orbitals at the interface. Furthermore, we show that the spin splitting of the Fermi surface scales with the induced orbital moment, weighted by the spin-orbit coupling.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and dyeing behavior of heterocyclic acid dyes and mordent acid dyes on wool and silk fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hitendra M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel heterocyclic acid and mordent acid dyes were synthesized by the coupling of diazonium salt solution of different aromatic amines with 2- butyl-3-(4-hydroxybenzoylbenzofuran. The resulting heterocyclic acid dyes were characterized by spectral techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR, 13C-NMR spectral studies and UV- visible spectroscopy. The dyeing performance of all the heterocyclic acid dyes was evaluated on wool and silk fabrics. The dyeing of chrome pre treated wool and silk fabrics showed better hues on mordented fabrics. Dyeing of wool and silk fabrics resulted in pinkish blue to red shades with very good depth and levelness. The dyed fabrics showed excellent to very good light, washing, perspiration, sublimation and rubbing fastness.

  15. Fate of Colored Smoke Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    4.13] have been applied to their estimation. This approach has the advantages of sensitivity and of not requiring high purity and known structures...Chrom absorbance detector, and an Alltech Econosil C-18 (10 micrometer) column (4.6 mm X 25 cm with guard column). The mobile phase, HPLC-grade methanol...water partition coefficient or vice versa. The HPLC method is of similar precision and has the advantage that known structure and purity of the dye are

  16. Dye-sensitized PS-b-P2VP-templated nickel oxide films for photoelectrochemical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Massin, Julien; Bräutigam, Maximilian; Kaeffer, Nicolas; Queyriaux, Nicolas; Field, Martin J.; Schacher, Felix H.; Popp, Jürgen; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Dietzek, Benjamin; Artero, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Moving from homogeneous water-splitting photocatalytic systems to photoelectrochemical devices requires the preparation and evaluation of novel p-type transparent conductive photoelectrode substrates. We report here on the sensitization of polystyrene-block-poly-(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock copolymer-templated NiO films with an organic push–pull dye. The potential of these new templated NiO film preparations for photoelectrochemical applications is compared with NiO material template...

  17. Dataset on analysis of dyeing property of natural dye from Thespesia populnea bark on different fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchekar Mohini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The natural dyes separated from plants are of gaining interest as substitutes for synthetic dyes in food and cosmetics. Thespesia populnea (T. populnea is widely grown plant and used in the treatment of various diseases. This study was aimed to separate natural dye from T. populnea bark and analysis of its dyeing property on different fabrics. In this investigation pharmacognostic study was carried out. The pharmacognostic study includes morphological study, microscopical examination, proximate analysis along with the phytochemical study. The dyeing of different fabric was done with a natural dye extracted from T. populnea bark. The fabrics like cotton, butter crep, polymer, chiken, lone, ulene and tarakasa were dye with plant extract. The various evaluation parameters were studied. It includes effect of washing with water, effect of soap, effect of sunlight, effect of alum, effect of Cupric sulphate, microscopical study of fabrics and visual analysis of dyeing by common people were studied. In results, natural dye isolated from T. populnea bark could be used for dyeing fabrics with good fastness properties. The studies reveals that, the dyeing property of fabrics after washing with water and soap, exposed to sunlight does not get affected. It was observed that cotton and tarakasa stains better as compared with other fabrics. It was concluded that the ethanolic extract having good dyeing property. Keywords: Plant, Thespesia populnea, Bark, Natural dye, Fabrics

  18. Photoactive curcumin-derived dyes with surface anchoring moieties used in ZnO nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, T.; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Seog Joon; Kil, Byung-Ho; Maldar, N.N.; Han, Jin Wook; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Photoactive, eco-friendly and high molar extinction coefficient, curcumin-derived dyes (BCMoxo and BCtCM) have been explored in ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The boron complex curcumin dyes modified with di-carboxylic anchor groups (BCtCM) provided surface attachment with a strong UV-vis region absorption than the dye molecule without anchor groups (BCMoxo). Photoanodes primed with poly-dispersive ZnO NPs (∼80-50 nm) specifically devised for these dyes and optimized for the critical thickness, sensitization time and concentration using a solvent-free ionic electrolyte so as to get current density as high as 1.66 mA/cm 2 under 80 mW/cm 2 irradiation. Therefore, a successful conversion of visible light into electricity by using these curcumin-derived dyes (natural derived photoactive molecules) as photosensitizer in DSSCs would be a great interest in future studies for enhancing further conversion efficiencies.

  19. Photoactive curcumin-derived dyes with surface anchoring moieties used in ZnO nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, T.; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Seog Joon; Kil, Byung-Ho; Maldar, N.N. [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jin Wook, E-mail: jwhan@hanyang.ac.kr [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sung-Hwan, E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    Photoactive, eco-friendly and high molar extinction coefficient, curcumin-derived dyes (BCMoxo and BCtCM) have been explored in ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The boron complex curcumin dyes modified with di-carboxylic anchor groups (BCtCM) provided surface attachment with a strong UV-vis region absorption than the dye molecule without anchor groups (BCMoxo). Photoanodes primed with poly-dispersive ZnO NPs ({approx}80-50 nm) specifically devised for these dyes and optimized for the critical thickness, sensitization time and concentration using a solvent-free ionic electrolyte so as to get current density as high as 1.66 mA/cm{sup 2} under 80 mW/cm{sup 2} irradiation. Therefore, a successful conversion of visible light into electricity by using these curcumin-derived dyes (natural derived photoactive molecules) as photosensitizer in DSSCs would be a great interest in future studies for enhancing further conversion efficiencies.

  20. Tuning the Electron-Transport and Electron-Accepting Abilities of Dyes through Introduction of Different π-Conjugated Bridges and Acceptors for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanzuo; Sun, Chaofan; Song, Peng; Ma, Fengcai; Yang, Yanhui

    2017-02-17

    A series of dyes, containing thiophene and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene as π-conjugated bridging units and six kinds of groups as electron acceptors, were designed for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The ground- and excited-state properties of the designed dyes were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT, respectively. Moreover, the parameters affecting the short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage were calculated to predict the photoelectrical performance of each dye. In addition, the charge difference density was presented through a three-dimensional (3D) real-space analysis method to investigate the electron-injection mechanism in the complexes. Our results show that the longer conjugated bridge would inhibit the intramolecular charge transfer, thereby affecting the photoelectrical properties of DSSCs. Similarly, owing to the lowest chemical hardness, largest electron-accepting ability, dipole moment (μnormal ) and the change in the energy of the TiO 2 conduction band (ΔECB ), the dye with a (E)-3-(4-(benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)phenyl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid (TCA) acceptor group would exhibit the most significant photoelectrical properties among the designed dyes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of reactive dye-cassava mesocarp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synthesis of triazine based reactive dyes was carried out. The resultant dyes were characterized by thin layers chromatography, molecular weight, infrared and ultra- violet spectroscopy, and used in dyeing cassava mesocarp to produce dye modified cellulosic substrates. The dyed substrates were tested for dye fixation, ...

  2. Dye removal from textile wastewater using bioadsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardazi, S.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Textile industries throughout the world produce huge quantities of dyes and pigments annually. Effluents from textile industries are dye wastewater, and disposal of these wastes to freshwater bodies causes damage to the environment. Among the treatment technologies, adsorption is an attractive and viable option, provided that the sorbent is inexpensive and readily available for use. In this study, a typical basic dye, methylene blue, in wastewater was treated using Melia azedarach sawdust. The effects of contact time, adsorbent amount and particle size were investigated on the removal efficiency of adsorbent for methylene blue. Complete removal of the dye were attained at higher adsorbent dose of 3 g/L with 50 mg/L initial dye concentration. The maximum adsorption was at 240 minutes, whereas more than 90% removal with 105 meu m particle size of 1 g/L adsorbent for same initial dye concentration. The experimental data best fits with 2 Langmuir adsorption isotherm (R= 0.991). (author)

  3. Biological wastewater treatment of azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1988-09-01

    EPA Water Engineering Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, undertook a study to determine the fate of specific water soluble azo dye compounds in the activated sludge process (ASP). The study was approached by dosing the feed to the pilot ASP systems with various water soluble azo dyes and by monitoring each dye compound through the system, analyzing both liquid and sludge samples. The fate of the parent dye compound was assessed via mass balance calculations. These data could determine if the compound was removed by adsorption, apparent biodegradation, or not removed at all. The paper presents results for 18 dye compounds tested from June 1985 through August 1987. The study was conducted at EPAs Test and Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio. The objective of this study was to determine the partitioning of water soluble azo dyes in the ASP.

  4. Panchromatic Response in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Containing Phosphorescent Energy Relay Dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho; Hardin, Brianâ E.; Moon, Soo-Jin; Baranoff, Etienne; Nà ¼ esch, Frank; McGehee, Michaelâ D.; Grà ¤ tzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammadâ K.

    2009-01-01

    Running relay: Incorporating an energyrelay dye (ERD) into the hole transporter of a dye-sensitized solar cell increased power-conversion efficiency by 29% by extending light harvesting into the blue region. In the operating mechanism (see picture

  5. Time dependent – density functional theory characterization of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hilal, Rifaat; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Osman, Osman I.; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    We aim at providing better insight into the parameters that govern the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-injection processes in dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD

  6. Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho; Hardin, Brian E.; Hoke, Eric T.; Baranoff, Etienne; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K.; Torres, Tomas; McGehee, Michael D.; Grä tzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse

  7. Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.; Hoke, Eric T.; Armstrong, Paul B.; Yum, Jun-Ho; Comte, Pascal; Torres, Tomá s; Fré chet, Jean M. J.; Nazeeruddin, Md Khaja; Grä tzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near

  8. Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2009-06-21

    Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near-infrared domain and consequently have lower short-circuit photocurrent densities than inorganic photovoltaic devices. Here, we present a new design where high-energy photons are absorbed by highly photoluminescent chromophores unattached to the titania and undergo Förster resonant energy transfer to the sensitizing dye. This novel architecture allows for broader spectral absorption, an increase in dye loading, and relaxes the design requirements for the sensitizing dye. We demonstrate a 26% increase in power conversion efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate the average excitation transfer efficiency in this system to be at least 47%. This system offers a viable pathway to develop more efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  9. Simultaneous adsorption of dyes and heavy metals from multicomponent solutions using fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visa, Maria; Bogatu, Cristina; Duta, Anca

    2010-01-01

    In wastewaters originating from dye industry there are amounts of dyes (very common methyl orange, methylene blue-MB) and heavy metals (cadmium, copper, nickel mainly from the organo-metallic dyes). They tend to adsorb in a competitive process and modify the substrate. Advanced removal is usually proposed via adsorption and the use of modified fly ash as a substrate is sustainable solution. The main constituents of fly ash (silica, alumina, iron oxide and un-burned carbon), are the priority compounds which favour the heavy metal adsorption and are active sites in dyes' adsorption processes. The paper studies the effect of MB adsorbed on the fly ash surface on the removal efficiency of cadmium, copper and nickel ionic species from complex, multi-cationic dye solutions. The adsorption efficiency and kinetics are evaluated from the complex, multicomponent systems and possible influences are discussed. High efficiencies are obtained at low heavy metal concentrations (as it is the real case for the dyes industry) whereas at medium values, competitive processes lower the individual efficiencies of copper, nickel or cadmium from mixtures.

  10. Synthesis of phosphonic acid derivatized bipyridine ligands and their ruthenium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Michael R; Concepcion, Javier J; Glasson, Christopher R K; Fang, Zhen; Lapides, Alexander M; Ashford, Dennis L; Templeton, Joseph L; Meyer, Thomas J

    2013-11-04

    Water-stable, surface-bound chromophores, catalysts, and assemblies are an essential element in dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells for the generation of solar fuels by water splitting and CO2 reduction to CO, other oxygenates, or hydrocarbons. Phosphonic acid derivatives provide a basis for stable chemical binding on metal oxide surfaces. We report here the efficient synthesis of 4,4'-bis(diethylphosphonomethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine and 4,4'-bis(diethylphosphonate)-2,2'-bipyridine, as well as the mono-, bis-, and tris-substituted ruthenium complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(Pbpy)](2+), [Ru(bpy)(Pbpy)2](2+), [Ru(Pbpy)3](2+), [Ru(bpy)2(CPbpy)](2+), [Ru(bpy)(CPbpy)2](2+), and [Ru(CPbpy)3](2+) [bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; Pbpy = 4,4'-bis(phosphonic acid)-2,2'-bipyridine; CPbpy = 4,4'-bis(methylphosphonic acid)-2,2'-bipyridine].

  11. Effective biotransformation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 by using aerobic bacterial granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ashvini U; Paul, Dhiraj; Dhotre, Dhiraj; Kodam, Kisan M

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of textile wastewater containing anthraquinone dye is quite a huge challenge due to its complex aromatic structure and toxicity. Present study deals with the degradation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 using aerobic bacterial granules. Bacterial granules effectively decolorized reactive blue 4 at wide range of pH (4.0-11.0) and temperature (20-55 °C) as well as decolorized and tolerated high concentration of reactive blue 4 dye upto 1000 mg l -1 with V max 6.16 ± 0.82 mg l -1 h -1 and K m 227 ± 41 mg l -1 . Metagenomics study evaluates important role of Clostridia, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacterial members in biotransformation and tolerance of high concentrations of reactive blue 4 dye. Up-regulation of xenobiotic degradation and environmental information processing pathways during dye exposure signifies their noteworthy role in dye degradation. Biotransformation of dye was confirmed by significant decrease in the values of total suspended solids, biological and chemical oxygen demand. The metabolites formed after biotransformation was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The reactive blue 4 dye was found to be phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic whereas its biotransformed product were non-toxic. This study comprehensively illustrates that, bacterial aerobic granules can be used for eco-friendly remediation and detoxification of wastewater containing high organic load of anthraquinone dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrafast electron and energy transfer in dye-sensitized iron oxide and oxyhydroxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Katz, Jordan E.; Huse, Nils

    2013-01-01

    photo-initiated interfacial electron transfer. This approach enables time-resolved study of the fate and mobility of electrons within the solid phase. However, complete analysis of the ultrafast processes following dye photoexcitation of the sensitized iron(iii) oxide nanoparticles has not been reported....... We addressed this topic by performing femtosecond transient absorption (TA) measurements of aqueous suspensions of uncoated and DCF-sensitized iron oxide and oxyhydroxide nanoparticles, and an aqueous iron(iii)–dye complex. Following light absorption, excited state relaxation times of the dye of 115...... a four-state model of the dye-sensitized system, finding electron and energy transfer to occur on the same ultrafast timescale. The interfacial electron transfer rates for iron oxides are very close to those previously reported for DCF-sensitized titanium dioxide (for which dye–oxide energy transfer...

  13. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  14. Evaluation of Mandibular Anatomy Associated With Bad Splits in Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy of Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongyue; Han, Jeong Joon; Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Jung, Seunggon; Park, Yeong-Joon; Kook, Min-Suk

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with bad splits during sagittal split ramus osteotomy by using three-dimensional computed tomography. This study included 8 bad splits and 47 normal patients without bad splits. Mandibular anatomic parameters related to osteotomy line were measured. These included anteroposterior width of the ramus at level of lingula, distance between external oblique ridge and lingula, distance between sigmoid notch and inferior border of mandible, mandibular angle, distance between inferior outer surface of mandibular canal and inferior border of mandible under distal root of second molar (MCEM), buccolingual thickness of the ramus at level of lingula, and buccolingual thickness of the area just distal to first molar (BTM1) and second molar (BTM2). The incidence of bad splits in 625 sagittal split osteotomies was 1.28%. Compared with normal group, bad split group exhibited significantly thinner BTM2 and shorter sigmoid notch and inferior border of mandible (P bad splits. These anatomic data may help surgeons to choose the safest surgical techniques and best osteotomy sites.

  15. An algorithm for the split-feasibility problems with application to the split-equality problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chih-Sheng; Chen, Chi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the split-feasibility problem in Hilbert spaces by using the projected reflected gradient algorithm. As applications, we study the convex linear inverse problem and the split-equality problem in Hilbert spaces, and we give new algorithms for these problems. Finally, numerical results are given for our main results.

  16. Fluorescence dye tagging scheme for mercury quantification and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hong; Catterall, Hannah

    2015-09-22

    A fluorescent dye or fluorophore capable of forming complexes with mercury comprises 6,8-difluoro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxylate amide, wherein the amide is formed by reacting the succinimidyl ester (Pacific Blue.TM.) with an amino acid containing a thiol group, such as cysteine or glutathione. Mercury complexes of the fluorophore fluoresce when excited by a UV or violet laser diode, and the detected intensity can be calibrated to quantify the concentration of mercury in a sample reacted with the fluorophore.

  17. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  18. Micro-Cavity Fluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Bjarne; Kristensen, Anders; Menon, Aric Kumaran

    2003-01-01

    We have successfully designed, fabricated and characterized a micro-cavity fluidic dye laser with metallic mirrors, which can be integrated with polymer based lab-on-a-chip microsystems without further processing steps. A simple rate-equation model is used to predict the average pumping power...... threshold for lasing as function of cavity-mirror reflectance, laser dye concentration and cavity length. The laser device is characterized using the laser dye Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol. Lasing is observed, and the influence of dye concentration is investigated....

  19. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang; Wang, Jun; Vouga, Etienne; Wonka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  20. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-11-06

    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  1. Ultrasonic assisted dyeing: dyeing of acrylic fabrics C.I. Astrazon Basic Red 5BL 200%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, M M; Helmy, H M; Mashaly, H M; Kafafy, H H

    2010-01-01

    The dyeing of acrylic fabrics using C.I. Astrazon Basic Red 5BL 200% has been studied with both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. The effect of dye concentration, dye bath pH, ultrasonic power, dyeing time and temperature were studied and the resulting shades obtained by dyeing with both techniques were compared. Colour strength values obtained were found to be higher with ultrasonic than with conventional heating. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were studied. X-ray and Scanning Electron Microscope SEM were carried out on dyed samples using both methods of dyeing to find out an explanation for the better dyeability of acrylic fabrics with (US) method. Dyeing kinetics of acrylic fabrics using C.I. Astrazon Basic Red 5BL 200% using conventional and ultrasonic conditions were compared. The time/dye-uptake isotherms are revealing the enhanced dye-uptake in the second phase of dyeing. The values of dyeing rate constant, half-time of dyeing and standard affinity and ultrasonic efficiency have been calculated and discussed.

  2. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.; Yum, Jun-Ho; Hoke, Eric T.; Jun, Young Chul; Péchy, Peter; Torres, Tomás; Brongersma, Mark L.; Nazeeruddin, Md. Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3

  3. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, E. M.; Hafez, H. S.; Bakir, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k = 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 × 10-3 min-1 for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100 mW cm-2, reveals highly stable DSSCs.

  4. Acid-base indicator properties of dyes from local plants I: Dyes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    Acid-base indicator properties of dyes from local plants I: Dyes from Basella alba. (Indian spinach) and ... solution, which change colour immediately after the equivalence point has .... The pH ranges over which the dyes change colour were ...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulyanto, Subur, E-mail: subur.mulyanto@poltekba.ac.id [Graduate Program of Mechanical Engineering, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Balikpapan, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km.8 Balikpapan (Indonesia); Suyitno,, E-mail: suyitno@uns.ac.id; Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi, E-mail: rendy.ar@gmail.com; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda, E-mail: lulus-l@yahoo.com; Hadi, Syamsul, E-mail: syamsulhadi@ft.uns.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Wibowo, Atmanto Heru, E-mail: aheruwibowo@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyanto, Subur; Suyitno,; Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda; Hadi, Syamsul; Wibowo, Atmanto Heru

    2016-01-01

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  7. Electron Beam Treatment Plant for Textile Dyeing Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Yuri; Choi, Jangseung; Ahn, Sangjun

    2006-01-01

    High positive effect of electron-beam treatment involved into the process of wastewater purification is now well established. The most effective for the purpose seem to be combine methods including both electron beam and any conventional treatment stages, i.e., under conditions when some synergistic effects can take place. Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) includes about hundred factories occupying the area of 600,000m 2 with 13,000 employees in total. The production requires high consumption of water (90,000m 3 /day), steam, and electric power, being characterized by large amount of highly colored industrial wastewater. Because of increase in productivity and increased assortment of dyes and other chemicals, substantial necessity appears in re-equipment of purification facilities by application of efficient methods of wastewater treatment

  8. Symmetric splitting of very light systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotowski, K.; Majka, Z.; Planeta, R.

    1985-01-01

    Fission reactions that produce fragments close to one half the mass of the composite system are traditionally observed in heavy nuclei. In light systems, symmetric splitting is rarely observed and poorly understood. It would be interesting to verify the existence of the symmetric splitting of compound nuclei with A 12 C + 40 Ca, 141 MeV 9 Be + 40 Ca and 153 MeV 6 Li + 40 Ca. The out-of-plane correlation of symmetric products was also measured for the reaction 186 MeV 12 C + 40 Ca. The coincidence measurements of the 12 C + 40 Ca system demonstrated that essentially all of the inclusive yield of symmetric products around 40 0 results from a binary decay. To characterize the dependence of the symmetric splitting process on the excitation energy of the 12 C + 40 C system, inclusive measurements were made at bombarding energies of 74, 132, 162, and 185 MeV

  9. High efficiency beam splitting for H- accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H - accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H - beam to H 0 which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10 -3 to 10 -2 splitting of a 50 MeV H - beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction

  10. Aerobic decolourization of two reactive azo dyes under varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... Azo dyes generally resist aerobic microbial degra- dation, only organisms with specialized azo dye reducing enzymes were found to degrade azo dyes under fully aerobic ... textile mill, in sterile plastic bottles. Isolation of ...

  11. Versatile ruthenium(II) dye towards blue-light emitter and dye-sensitizer for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Kassio P. S.; Amaral, Ronaldo C.; Murakami Iha, Neyde Y.; Abreu, Felipe D.; de Carvalho, Idalina M. M.

    2018-06-01

    A versatile Ru(II) complex bearing an anthracene moiety was synthesized in our search for suitable compounds towards efficient molecular devices. The new engineered dye, cis‑[Ru(dcbH2)(NCS)2(mbpy‑anth)] (dcbH2 = 2,2‧‑bipyridyl‑4,4‧‑dicarboxylic acid, mbpy‑anth = 4‑[N‑(2‑anthryl)carbamoyl]‑4‧‑methyl‑2,2‧‑bipyridine), exhibits a blueish emission in a vibronically structured spectrum ascribed to the fluorescence of a 1LCAnth (ligand centered) excited state in the anthracene and has a potential to be exploited in the fields of smart lighting and displays. This complex was also employed in dye-sensitized solar cells with fairly efficient solar energy conversion with the use of self-assembled TiO2 compact layers beneath the TiO2 mesoporous film to prevent meso‑TiO2/dye back reactions. Further photoelectrochemical investigations through incident photon-to-current efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the all-nano-TiO2 compact layer acts as contact layers that increase the electron harvesting in the external circuit, enhancing efficiencies up to 50%.

  12. Electroweak splitting functions and high energy showering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junmou; Han, Tao; Tweedie, Brock

    2017-11-01

    We derive the electroweak (EW) collinear splitting functions for the Standard Model, including the massive fermions, gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. We first present the splitting functions in the limit of unbroken SU(2) L × U(1) Y and discuss their general features in the collinear and soft-collinear regimes. These are the leading contributions at a splitting scale ( k T ) far above the EW scale ( v). We then systematically incorporate EW symmetry breaking (EWSB), which leads to the emergence of additional "ultra-collinear" splitting phenomena and naive violations of the Goldstone-boson Equivalence Theorem. We suggest a particularly convenient choice of non-covariant gauge (dubbed "Goldstone Equivalence Gauge") that disentangles the effects of Goldstone bosons and gauge fields in the presence of EWSB, and allows trivial book-keeping of leading power corrections in v/ k T . We implement a comprehensive, practical EW showering scheme based on these splitting functions using a Sudakov evolution formalism. Novel features in the implementation include a complete accounting of ultra-collinear effects, matching between shower and decay, kinematic back-reaction corrections in multi-stage showers, and mixed-state evolution of neutral bosons ( γ/ Z/ h) using density-matrices. We employ the EW showering formalism to study a number of important physical processes at O (1-10 TeV) energies. They include (a) electroweak partons in the initial state as the basis for vector-boson-fusion; (b) the emergence of "weak jets" such as those initiated by transverse gauge bosons, with individual splitting probabilities as large as O (35%); (c) EW showers initiated by top quarks, including Higgs bosons in the final state; (d) the occurrence of O (1) interference effects within EW showers involving the neutral bosons; and (e) EW corrections to new physics processes, as illustrated by production of a heavy vector boson ( W ') and the subsequent showering of its decay products.

  13. Binding affinities of cationic dyes in the presence of activated charcoal and anionic surfactant in the premicellar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farman; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Fawad; Bibi, Iram; Shah, Syed W. H.

    2018-03-01

    Binding preferences of cationic dyes malachite green and methylene blue in a mixed charcoal-sodium dodecyl sulfate system have been investigated using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The dye adsorption shows surfactant-dependent patterns, indicating diverse modes of interactions. At low surfactant concentration, a direct binding to charcoal is preferred. Comparatively greater quantities of surfactant lead to attachment of dye-surfactant complex to charcoal through hydrophobic interactions. A simple model was employed for determination of equilibrium constant K eq and concentration of dye-surfactant ion pair N DS for both dyes. The values of binding parameters revealed that malachite green was directly adsorbed onto charcoal, whereas methylene blue was bound through surfactant monomers. The model is valid for low surfactant concentrations in the premicellar region. These findings have significance for material and environmental sciences.

  14. Some considerations in the splitting of interstitial frank loops formed by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshan, K.; Grilhe, J.; Washburn, J.

    1975-05-01

    The splitting of interstitial loops formed by irradiation is considered in detail. It is shown that they may split to form obtuse--angled single shear faults on the intersecting (111) planes. A detailed description of the splitting is given in which the interstitial Frank loop is viewed as being made up of perfect dislocation loop and two shears. The detailed description is then considered in the context of the formation of complex loops as are observed in quenching and irradiation studies. Experimentally observed geometries are explained viz, triangular loops within hexagonal ones etc. The nucleation of a DC' loop in complex interstitial loop formation is shown to be feasible. DC' has the magnitude of a perfect dislocation loop and encloses an intrinsic shear

  15. Splitting Strategy for Simulating Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The splitting approach is developed for the numerical simulation of genetic regulatory networks with a stable steady-state structure. The numerical results of the simulation of a one-gene network, a two-gene network, and a p53-mdm2 network show that the new splitting methods constructed in this paper are remarkably more effective and more suitable for long-term computation with large steps than the traditional general-purpose Runge-Kutta methods. The new methods have no restriction on the choice of stepsize due to their infinitely large stability regions.

  16. On geometrical splitting in nonanalog Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, I.

    1985-01-01

    A very general geometrical procedure is considered, and it is shown how the free flights, the statistical weights and the contribution of particles participating in splitting are to be chosen in order to reach unbiased estimates in games where the transition kernels are nonanalog. Equations governing the second moment of the score and the number of flights to be stimulated are derived. It is shown that the post-splitting weights of the fragments are to be chosen equal to reach maximum gain in variance. Conditions are derived under which the expected number of flights remains finite. Simplified example illustrate the optimization of the procedure (author)

  17. Reversible perspective and splitting in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Helen Schoenhals

    2012-01-01

    The element of time--the experience of it and the defensive use of it--is explored in conjunction with the use of reversible perspective as a psychotic defense. Clinical material from a long analysis illustrates how a psychotic patient used the reversible perspective, with its static splitting, to abolish the experience of time. When he improved and the reversible perspective became less effective for him, he replaced it with a more dynamic splitting mechanism using time gaps. With further improvement, the patient began to experience the passage of time, and along with it the excruciating pain of separation, envy, and loss.

  18. Phytoremediation of textile dyes and effluents: Current scenario and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation has emerged as a green, passive, solar energy driven and cost effective approach for environmental cleanup when compared to physico-chemical and even other biological methods. Textile dyes and effluents are condemned as one of the worst polluters of our precious water bodies and soils. They are well known mutagenic, carcinogenic, allergic and cytotoxic agents posing threats to all life forms. Plant based treatment of textile dyes is relatively new and hitherto has remained an unexplored area of research. Use of macrophytes like Phragmites australis and Rheum rhabarbarum have shown efficient removal of Acid Orange 7 and sulfonated anthraquinones, respectively. Common garden and ornamental plants namely Aster amellus, Portulaca grandiflora, Zinnia angustifolia, Petunia grandiflora, Glandularia pulchella, many ferns and aquatic plants have also been advocated for their dye degradation potential. Plant tissue cultures like suspension cells of Blumea malcolmii and Nopalea cochenillifera, hairy roots of Brassica juncea and Tagetes patula and whole plants of several other species have confirmed their role in dye degradation. Plants' oxidoreductases such as lignin peroxidase, laccase, tyrosinase, azo reductase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, riboflavin reductase and dichlorophenolindophenol reductase are known as key biodegrading enzymes which break the complex structures of dyes. Schematic metabolic pathways of degradation of different dyes and their environmental fates have also been proposed. Degradation products of dyes and their fates of metabolism have been reported to be validated by UV-vis spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, gas chromatograph-mass spectroscopy and several other analytical tools. Constructed wetlands and various pilots scale reactors were developed independently using the plants of P. australis, Portulaca grandiflora, G. pulchella

  19. Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2011-01-05

    Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse from 400-590 nm matching the optical window of the zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer was observed due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the two energy relay dyes to the sensitizing dye. The complementary absorption spectra of the energy relay dyes and high excitation transfer efficiencies result in a 35% increase in photovoltaic performance. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA.

  20. The DNA relaxation activity and covalent complex accumulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis topoisomerase I can be assayed in Escherichia coli: application for identification of potential FRET-dye labeling sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrenica Maria V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis topoisomerase I (MtTOP1 and Escherichia coli topoisomerase I have highly homologous transesterification domains, but the two enzymes have distinctly different C-terminal domains. To investigate the structure-function of MtTOP1 and to target its activity for development of new TB therapy, it is desirable to have a rapid genetic assay for its catalytic activity, and potential bactericidal consequence from accumulation of its covalent complex. Results We show that plasmid-encoded recombinant MtTOP1 can complement the temperature sensitive topA function of E. coli strain AS17. Moreover, expression of MtTOP1-G116 S enzyme with the TOPRIM mutation that inhibits DNA religation results in SOS induction and loss of viability in E. coli. The absence of cysteine residues in the MtTOP1 enzyme makes it an attractive system for introduction of potentially informative chemical or spectroscopic probes at specific positions via cysteine mutagenesis. Such probes could be useful for development of high throughput screening (HTS assays. We employed the AS17 complementation system to screen for sites in MtTOP1 that can tolerate cysteine substitution without loss of complementation function. These cysteine substitution mutants were confirmed to have retained the relaxation activity. One such mutant of MtTOP1 was utilized for fluorescence probe incorporation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurement with fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotide substrate. Conclusions The DNA relaxation and cleavage complex accumulation of M. tuberculosis topoisomerase I can be measured with genetic assays in E. coli, facilitating rapid analysis of its activities, and discovery of new TB therapy targeting this essential enzyme.

  1. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review of fracture patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenen, S A; Becking, A G

    2016-07-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the mandibular sagittal split osteotomy is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Few restorative techniques to manage the situation have been described. In this article, a classification of reported bad split pattern types is proposed and appropriate salvage procedures to manage the different types of undesired fracture are presented. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 33 studies published between 1971 and 2015. These reported a total of 458 cases of bad splits among 19,527 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 10,271 patients. The total reported incidence of bad split was 2.3% of sagittal splits. The most frequently encountered were buccal plate fractures of the proximal segment (types 1A-F) and lingual fractures of the distal segment (types 2A and 2B). Coronoid fractures (type 3) and condylar neck fractures (type 4) have seldom been reported. The various types of bad split may require different salvage approaches. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of dye Rhoeo spathacea in dye sensitizer solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardiasih, Sri; Obina, Wilfrida M.; Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Septiawan, Trio Y.; Khairuddin

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a device that converts solar energy into electrical energy. The magnitude of the efficiency of DSSC is mainly based on the amount of dye absorbed by the surface of TiO2. In this work, used natural dye extracted from leaves Rhoeo spathacea. The dye partially used to immerse of TiO2 as working electrodes, and the rest are directly mixed TiO2 paste to obtain dye titanium dioxide.The paste TiO2 and dye titanium dioxide coated onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate by spin coating method. The absorbance spectra of the dye, dye titanium dioxide and TiO2 were obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The conductivity of the dye, dye titanium dioxide, and TiO2 was measured by two point probe El-Kahfi 100. The DSSC based on dye titanium dioxide that stirring for 5 hours the highest efficiency of 0,0520 % whereas those based on TiO2 immersed for 36 hours showed achieved 0,0501 % obtained from I-V characterization.

  3. Characteristics of dye Rhoeo spathacea in dye sensitizer solar cell (DSSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumardiasih, Sri; Obina, Wilfrida M.; Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Septiawan, Trio Y.; Khairuddin

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a device that converts solar energy into electrical energy. The magnitude of the efficiency of DSSC is mainly based on the amount of dye absorbed by the surface of TiO 2 . In this work, used natural dye extracted from leaves Rhoeo spathacea. The dye partially used to immerse of TiO 2 as working electrodes, and the rest are directly mixed TiO 2 paste to obtain dye titanium dioxide.The paste TiO 2 and dye titanium dioxide coated onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate by spin coating method. The absorbance spectra of the dye, dye titanium dioxide and TiO 2 were obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The conductivity of the dye, dye titanium dioxide, and TiO 2 was measured by two point probe El-Kahfi 100. The DSSC based on dye titanium dioxide that stirring for 5 hours the highest efficiency of 0,0520 % whereas those based on TiO 2 immersed for 36 hours showed achieved 0,0501 % obtained from I-V characterization. (paper)

  4. Theoretical study of indoline dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Ho Wan; Kim, Young Sik

    2010-01-01

    Indoline dye sensitizers were designed and studied theoretically to increase molar extinction coefficients in the visible to near infrared region for solar-cell devices. To gain insight into dye sensitizers' structural, electronic, and optical properties, DFT/TDDFT calculations were performed on a series of dye sensitizers derived from the D149. The good agreement between the experimental and TDDFT calculated absorption spectra of the D149 sensitizer allowed us to provide a detailed assessment of the main spectral features of a series of dye sensitizers. Increase in the conjugation length resulted in a more red-shifted spectral response and less positive oxidation potential than that of the D149. The dye with the dimethylfluorene group showed stronger absorption bands due to a large dipole moment. The calculated dipoles for the dye series correlate well with the observed strong absorption bands of the electronic spectra. These results provided useful clues for the molecular engineering of efficient organic dye sensitizers.

  5. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2010-08-11

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (EÌ?TE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO2 films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossmann, Tobias; Schleede, Simone; Hauser, Mario

    2010-01-01

    element simulations confirm that lasing occurs in whispering gallery modes which corresponds well to the measured multimode laser-emission. The effect of dye concentration on lasing threshold and lasing wavelength is investigated and can be explained using a standard dye laser model....

  7. DETECTION OF FLUX EMERGENCE, SPLITTING, MERGING, AND CANCELLATION OF NETWORK FIELD. I. SPLITTING AND MERGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hagenaar, H. J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Org. ADBS, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    Frequencies of magnetic patch processes on the supergranule boundary, namely, flux emergence, splitting, merging, and cancellation, are investigated through automatic detection. We use a set of line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite. We found 1636 positive patches and 1637 negative patches in the data set, whose time duration is 3.5 hr and field of view is 112'' Multiplication-Sign 112''. The total numbers of magnetic processes are as follows: 493 positive and 482 negative splittings, 536 positive and 535 negative mergings, 86 cancellations, and 3 emergences. The total numbers of emergence and cancellation are significantly smaller than those of splitting and merging. Further, the frequency dependence of the merging and splitting processes on the flux content are investigated. Merging has a weak dependence on the flux content with a power-law index of only 0.28. The timescale for splitting is found to be independent of the parent flux content before splitting, which corresponds to {approx}33 minutes. It is also found that patches split into any flux contents with the same probability. This splitting has a power-law distribution of the flux content with an index of -2 as a time-independent solution. These results support that the frequency distribution of the flux content in the analyzed flux range is rapidly maintained by merging and splitting, namely, surface processes. We suggest a model for frequency distributions of cancellation and emergence based on this idea.

  8. Dye Sensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold S. Freeman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Photofrin® was first approved in the 1990s as a sensitizer for use in treating cancer via photodynamic therapy (PDT. Since then a wide variety of dye sensitizers have been developed and a few have been approved for PDT treatment of skin and organ cancers and skin diseases such as acne vulgaris. Porphyrinoid derivatives and precursors have been the most successful in producing requisite singlet oxygen, with Photofrin® still remaining the most efficient sensitizer (quantum yield = 0.89 and having broad food and drug administration (FDA approval for treatment of multiple cancer types. Other porphyrinoid compounds that have received approval from US FDA and regulatory authorities in other countries include benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA, meta-tetra(hydroxyphenylchlorin (m-THPC, N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6, and precursors to endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX: 1,5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, methyl aminolevulinate (MAL, hexaminolevulinate (HAL. Although no non-porphyrin sensitizer has been approved for PDT applications, a small number of anthraquinone, phenothiazine, xanthene, cyanine, and curcuminoid sensitizers are under consideration and some are being evaluated in clinical trials. This review focuses on the nature of PDT, dye sensitizers that have been approved for use in PDT, and compounds that have entered or completed clinical trials as PDT sensitizers.

  9. The split delivery capacitated team orienteering problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archetti, C.; Bianchessi, N.; Speranza, M. G.; Hertz, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we study the capacitated team orienteering problem where split deliveries are allowed. A set of potential customers is given, each associated with a demand and a profit. The set of customers to be served by a fleet of capacitated vehicles has to be identified in such a way that the

  10. Basic dynamics of split Stirling refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Liang, W.

    2008-01-01

    The basic features of the split Stirling refrigerator, driven by a linear compressor, are described. Friction of the compressor piston and of the regenerator, and the viscous losses due to the gas flow through the regenerator matrix are taken into account. The temp. at the cold end is an input

  11. "Split Cast Mounting: Review and New Technique".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundawar, S M; Pande, Neelam A; Jaiswal, Priti; Radke, U M

    2014-12-01

    For the fabrication of a prosthesis, the Prosthodontist meticulously performs all the steps. The laboratory technician then make every effort/strives to perform the remaining lab procedures. However when the processed dentures are remounted on the articulator, some changes are seen. These changes may be divided into two categories: Pre-insertion and post-insertion changes, which deal with the physical properties of the materials involved (Parker, J Prosthet Dent 31:335-342, 1974). Split cast mounting is the method of mounting casts on the articulator. It is essentially a maxillary cast constructed in two parts with a horizontal division. The procedure allows for the verification of the accuracy of the initial mounting and the ease of removal and replacement of the cast. This provides a precise means of correcting the changes in occlusion occurring as a result of the processing technique (Nogueira et al., J Prosthet Dent 91:386-388, 2004). Instability of the split mounting has always been a problem to the Prosthodontist thereby limiting its use. There are various materials mentioned in the literature. The new technique by using Dowel pins and twill thread is very easy, cheaper and simple way to stabilize the split mounting. It is useful and easy in day to day laboratory procedures. The article presents different methods of split cast mounting and the new procedure using easily available materials in prosthetic laboratory.

  12. Splitting up Beta’s change

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we estimated IBM beta from 2000 to 2013, then using differential equation mathematical formula we split up the annual beta’s change attributed to the volatility market effect, the stock volatility effect, the correlation effect and the jointly effect of these variables.

  13. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  14. Forced splitting of fractions in CE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewski, D.R.; Schlautmann, Stefan; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2008-01-01

    In order to increase the electrophoretic separation between fractions of analytes on a microfluidic chip, without the need for a longer separation channel, we propose and demonstrate a preparative electrokinetic procedure by which overlapping or closely spaced fractions are automatically split. The

  15. The Split sudâmja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Šimunović

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The name of the Split feast Sudamja!Sudajma ("festa sancti Domnii" has not yet been adequately explained. The author believes that the name originated from the Old Dalmatian adjective san(ctu + Domnĭu. In the adjective santu the cluster /an/ in front of·a consonant gave in Croatian the back nasal /q/ pronounced until the end of the 10th century and giving /u/ after that. In this way the forms *Sudumja and similar originated. The short stressed /u/ in the closed syllable was percieved by the Croatian folk as their semivowel which later gave /a/ = Sudamja. The author connects this feature with that in the toponimes Makar ( /jm/ is well known in Croatian dialectology (sumja > sujma, and it resembles the metatheses which occurs in the Split toponimes: Sukošjân > Sukojšãn ( < *santu Cassianu, Pojišân/Pojšiin (< *pasianu < Pansianu. The author finds the same feature in the toponime Dumjača (: *Dumi- + -ača. He considers these features as Croatian popular adaptations which have not occured in the personal name Dujam, the toponime Dujmovača "terrae s. Domnii" and in the adjective sandujamski, because of the link with the saint's name Domnio!Duymo etc., which has been well liked and is frequent as name of Split Romas as well as Croats from the foundation of Split, has never been broken.

  16. Hyperfine splitting in ordinary and muonic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    We provide an accurate evaluation of the two-photon exchange correction to the hyperfine splitting of S energy levels in muonic hydrogen exploiting the corresponding measurements in electronic hydrogen. The proton structure uncertainty in the calculation of α{sup 5} contribution is sizably reduced. (orig.)

  17. Source splitting via the point source method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthast, Roland; Fazi, Filippo M; Nelson, Philip A

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for source identification and field splitting based on the point source method (Potthast 1998 A point-source method for inverse acoustic and electromagnetic obstacle scattering problems IMA J. Appl. Math. 61 119–40, Potthast R 1996 A fast new method to solve inverse scattering problems Inverse Problems 12 731–42). The task is to separate the sound fields u j , j = 1, ..., n of n element of N sound sources supported in different bounded domains G 1 , ..., G n in R 3 from measurements of the field on some microphone array—mathematically speaking from the knowledge of the sum of the fields u = u 1 + ... + u n on some open subset Λ of a plane. The main idea of the scheme is to calculate filter functions g 1 ,…, g n , n element of N, to construct u l for l = 1, ..., n from u| Λ in the form u l (x) = ∫ Λ g l,x (y)u(y)ds(y), l=1,... n. (1) We will provide the complete mathematical theory for the field splitting via the point source method. In particular, we describe uniqueness, solvability of the problem and convergence and stability of the algorithm. In the second part we describe the practical realization of the splitting for real data measurements carried out at the Institute for Sound and Vibration Research at Southampton, UK. A practical demonstration of the original recording and the splitting results for real data is available online

  18. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  19. Split heat pipe heat recovery system

    OpenAIRE

    E. Azad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a split heat pipe heat recovery system. The analysis is based on an Effectiveness-NTU approach to deduce its heat transfer characteristics. In this study the variation of overall effectiveness of heat recovery with the number of transfer units are presented. Copyright , Manchester University Press.

  20. Split brain : Divided perception but undivided consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, Y.; Neville, D.A.; Otten, M.; Corballis, P.M.; Lamme, V.A.F.; de Haan, E.H.F.; Foschi, N.; Fabri, M.

    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a

  1. Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara

    2017-05-01

    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change signi- ficantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal varia- tions in the rotation rate near the solar ...

  3. Tunability of optofluidic distributed feedback dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the tunability of optofluidic distributed feedback (DFB) dye lasers. The lasers rely on light-confinement in a nano-structured polymer film where an array of nanofluidic channels constitutes a third order Bragg grating DFB laser resonator with a central phase-shift. The lasers...... are operated by filling the DFB laser resonator with a dye solution by capillary action and optical pumping with a frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser. The low reflection order of the DFB laser resonator yields low out-of-plane scattering losses as well as a large free spectral range (FSR), and low threshold...... fluences down to similar to 7 mu J/mm2 are observed. The large FSR facilitates wavelength tuning over the full gain spectrum of the chosen laser dye and we demonstrate 45 nm tunability using a single laser dye by changing the grating period and dye solution refractive index. The lasers are straight...

  4. Monodispersed Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle-Dye Dyads and Triads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladfelter, Wayne L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Blank, David A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Mann, Kent R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-06-22

    The overall energy conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells depends on the combined efficiencies of light absorption, charge separation and charge transport. Dye-sensitized solar cells are photovoltaic devices in which a molecular dye absorbs light and uses this energy to initiate charge separation. The most efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) use nanocrystal titanium dioxide films to which are attached ruthenium complexes. Numerous studies have provided valuable insight into the dynamics of these and analogous photosystems, but the lack of site homogeneity in binding dye molecules to metal oxide films and nanocrystals (NCs) is a significant impediment to extracting fundamental details about the electron transfer across the interface. Although zinc oxide is emerging as a potential semiconducting component in DSSCs, there is less known about the factors controlling charge separation across the dye/ZnO interface. Zinc oxide crystallizes in the wurtzite lattice and has a band gap of 3.37 eV. One of the features that makes ZnO especially attractive is the remarkable ability to control the morphology of the films. Using solution deposition processes, one can prepare NCs, nanorods and nanowires having a variety of shapes and dimensions. This project solved problems associated with film heterogeneity through the use of dispersible sensitizer/ZnO NC ensembles. The overarching goal of this research was to study the relationship between structure, energetics and dynamics in a set of synthetically controlled donor-acceptor dyads and triads. These studies provided access to unprecedented understanding of the light absorption and charge transfer steps that lie at the heart of DSSCs, thus enabling significant future advances in cell efficiencies. The approach began with the construction of well-defined dye-NC dyads that were sufficiently dispersible to allow the use of state of the art pulsed laser spectroscopic and kinetic methods to understand the charge transfer

  5. Efficient photosensitized splitting of the thymine dimer/oxetane unit on its modifying beta-cyclodextrin by a binding electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen-Jian; Song, Qin-Hua; Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Jing-Yu; Guo, Qing-Xiang

    2006-07-07

    Two modified beta-cyclodextrins (beta-CDs) with a thymine dimer and a thymine oxetane adduct respectively, TD-CD and Ox-CD, have been prepared, and utilized to bind an electron-rich chromophore, indole or N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA), to form a supramolecular complex. We have examined the photosensitized splitting of the dimer/oxetane unit in TD-CD/Ox-CD by indole or DMA via an electron-transfer pathway, and observed high splitting efficiencies of the dimer/oxetane unit. On the basis of measurements of fluorescence spectra and splitting quantum yields, it is suggested that the splitting reaction occurs in a supramolecular complex by an inclusion interaction between the modified beta-CDs and DMA or indole. The back electron transfer, which leads low splitting efficiencies for the covalently-linked chromophore-dimer/oxetane compounds, is suppressed in the non-covalently-bound complex, and the mechanism has been discussed.

  6. An Improved Method for Removal of Azo Dye Orange II from Textile Effluent Using Albumin as Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Ohashi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are generally resistant to biodegradation due to their complex structures. Acid orange II is one of the most widely used dyes in the textile industry. The influence of bovine serum albumin (BSA in different concentrations, pH, and time of contact on Orange II was investigated using kinetics and adsorption-isotherm experiments. The results showed that the maximum colour removed from dye/albumin was 99.50% and that a stable dye-protein complex had been formed at pH 3.5 and in a proportion of 1:3 (v/v, respectively. The synthetic effluent did not show toxicity to the microcrustacean Artemia salina, and showed a CL50 equal to 97 µg/mL to azo dye orange II. Additionally, the methodology was effective in removing the maximum of orange II using BSA by adsorption at pH 3.5 which mainly attracted ions to the azo dye during the adsorption process. This suggests that this form of treatment is economical and easy to use which potentially could lead to bovine serum albumin being used as a sorbent for azo dyes.

  7. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Ž. Šekuljica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C. The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes.

  8. Adsorption of Reactive Red Dye from Wastewater Using Modified Citrulluscolosynthis Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Rezaei Kahkha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dye-bearing wastes pose serious risks to and leave harmful effects on the environment. Increasing wastewater color intensity leads to reduced light reaching the aquatic environment, which adversely affects the life and growth of aquatic plants and invertebrates. Among the many methods available for dye removal from wastewater, membrane separation, oxidation, coagulation, and anaerobic treatment are more common but they are all costly and involve complex processes. Biosorption, in contrast, enjoys both ease of application and simple design so that it is widely used for removing dyes, heavy metals, and phenolic compounds from both water and wastewater. In this paper, the ability of citrulluscolosynthis ash as a bioadsorbent for the removal of reactive red dye is investigated for the first time. Sodium hydroxide is also used to modify the plant ash surface which expectedly enhances its dye removal efficiency. Measurements and removal levels are determined using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. Finally, the effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, and reaction time on dye removal efficiency are also explored. Results show that the optimum conditions to achieve maximum dye removal are as follows: A pH level of 2, an adsorbant dosage of 1.75 g l-1, an initial concentration equal to 90 mg L-1, and A reaction time of 70 min. Adsorption isotherm is found to obey the Ferundlich isotherm. Also, an adsorption capacity of 36 mg g‒1 is achieved under the best conditions. It may thus be concluded that modified citrulluscolosynthis ash can be used as an effective adsorbent to treat colored wastewaters.

  9. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž.; Prlainović, Nevena Ž.; Stefanović, Andrea B.; Žuža, Milena G.; Čičkarić, Dragana Z.; Mijin, Dušan Ž.; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D.

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes. PMID:25685837

  10. A volumetric three-dimensional digital light photoactivatable dye display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreya K.; Cao, Jian; Lippert, Alexander R.

    2017-07-01

    Volumetric three-dimensional displays offer spatially accurate representations of images with a 360° view, but have been difficult to implement due to complex fabrication requirements. Herein, a chemically enabled volumetric 3D digital light photoactivatable dye display (3D Light PAD) is reported. The operating principle relies on photoactivatable dyes that become reversibly fluorescent upon illumination with ultraviolet light. Proper tuning of kinetics and emission wavelengths enables the generation of a spatial pattern of fluorescent emission at the intersection of two structured light beams. A first-generation 3D Light PAD was fabricated using the photoactivatable dye N-phenyl spirolactam rhodamine B, a commercial picoprojector, an ultraviolet projector and a custom quartz imaging chamber. The system displays a minimum voxel size of 0.68 mm3, 200 μm resolution and good stability over repeated `on-off' cycles. A range of high-resolution 3D images and animations can be projected, setting the foundation for widely accessible volumetric 3D displays.

  11. Improved Dye Stability in Single-Molecule Fluorescence Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    EcheverrÍa Aitken, Colin; Marshall, R. Andrew; Pugi, Joseph D.

    Complex biological systems challenge existing single-molecule methods. In particular, dye stability limits observation time in singlemolecule fluorescence applications. Current approaches to improving dye performance involve the addition of enzymatic oxygen scavenging systems and small molecule additives. We present an enzymatic oxygen scavenging system that improves dye stability in single-molecule experiments. Compared to the currently-employed glucose-oxidase/catalase system, the protocatechuate-3,4-dioxygenase system achieves lower dissolved oxygen concentration and stabilizes single Cy3, Cy5, and Alexa488 fluorophores. Moreover, this system possesses none of the limitations associated with the glucose oxidase/catalase system. We also tested the effects of small molecule additives in this system. Biological reducing agents significantly destabilize the Cy5 fluorophore as a function of reducing potential. In contrast, anti-oxidants stabilize the Cy3 and Alexa488 fluorophores. We recommend use of the protocatechuate-3,4,-dioxygenase system with antioxidant additives, and in the absence of biological reducing agents. This system should have wide application to single-molecule fluorescence experiments.

  12. The Split-Brain Phenomenon Revisited: A Single Conscious Agent with Split Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; de Haan, Edward H F; Lamme, Victor A F

    2017-11-01

    The split-brain phenomenon is caused by the surgical severing of the corpus callosum, the main route of communication between the cerebral hemispheres. The classical view of this syndrome asserts that conscious unity is abolished. The left hemisphere consciously experiences and functions independently of the right hemisphere. This view is a cornerstone of current consciousness research. In this review, we first discuss the evidence for the classical view. We then propose an alternative, the 'conscious unity, split perception' model. This model asserts that a split brain produces one conscious agent who experiences two parallel, unintegrated streams of information. In addition to changing our view of the split-brain phenomenon, this new model also poses a serious challenge for current dominant theories of consciousness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Versatile SALSAC Approach to Heteroleptic Copper(I Dye Assembly in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik J. Malzner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface-bound heteroleptic copper(I dyes [Cu(Lanchor(Lancillary]+ are assembled using the “surfaces-as-ligands, surfaces as complexes” (SALSAC approach by three different procedures. The anchoring and ancillary ligands chosen are ((6,6′-dimethyl-[2,2′-bipyridine]-4,4′-diyl-bis(4,1-phenylenebis(phosphonic acid (3 and 4,4′-bis(4-iodophenyl-6,6′-diphenyl-2,2′-bipyridine (4, respectively. In the first SALSAC procedure, the FTO/TiO2 electrode is functionalized with 3 in the first dye bath, and then undergoes ligand exchange with the homoleptic complex [Cu(42][PF6] to give surface-bound [Cu(3(4]+. In the second method, the FTO/TiO2 electrode functionalized with 3 is immersed in a solution containing a 1:1 mixture of [Cu(MeCN4][PF6] and 4 to give surface-anchored [Cu(3(4]+. In the third procedure, the anchor 3, copper(I ion and ancillary ligand 4 are introduced in a sequential manner. The performances of the DSSCs show a dependence on the dye assembly procedure. The sequential method leads to the best-performing DSSCs with the highest values of JSC (7.85 and 7.73 mA cm−2 for fully masked cells and overall efficiencies (η = 2.81 and 2.71%, representing 41.1 and 39.6% relative to an N719 reference DSSC. Use of the 1:1 mixture of [Cu(MeCN4][PF6] and 4 yields DSSCs with higher VOC values but lower JSC values compared to those assembled using the sequential approach; values of η are 2.27 and 2.29% versus 6.84% for the N719 reference DSSC. The ligand exchange procedure leads to DSSCs that perform relatively poorly. The investigation demonstrates the versatile and powerful nature of SALSAC in preparing dyes for copper-based DSSCs, allowing the photoconversion efficiency of dye to be optimized for a given dye. The SALSAC strategy provides alternative hierarchical strategies where the isolation of the homoleptic [Cu(Lancillary2]+ is difficult or time-consuming; stepwise strategies are more atom-economic than ligand exchange involving the

  14. Control of interfacial charge-transfer interaction of dye and p-CuI in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Shinya; Kato, Naohiko; Higuchi, Kazuo; Mizumoto, Katsuyoshi; Toyoda, Tatsuo

    2017-04-01

    We systematically investigated the photovoltaic and absorption characteristics of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with CuI to elucidate the impact of the interaction between the dye and CuI. For the ruthenium complex N719, the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) on the longer-wavelength side decreased owing to the change of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (CT) of N719 due to the interaction between the thiocyanate groups of N719 and CuI. In contrast, when D149 — which included rhodanine groups — was used, the interaction with CuI and the resultant CT increased the IPCE. The results provide a new strategy for improving the photovoltaic performance by controlling the interfacial CT between the dye and CuI.

  15. Study of the Direct Red 81 Dye/Copper(II-Phenanthroline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Walger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovered papers contain several chromophores, such as wood lignin and dyes. These have to be eliminated during paper recycling in order to produce white paper. Hydrogen peroxide under alkaline conditions is generally used to decolorize lignin, but its effect on dyes is limited. Copper(II-phenanthroline (Cu-Phen complexes can activate the oxidation of lignin by hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide may also be activated during recycled fiber bleaching, thus enhancing its color-stripping efficiency towards unoxidizable azo dyes. The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of Cu-Phen complexes on a model azo dye, Direct Red 81 (DR81, in aqueous solution. Different Cu-Phen solutions (with different initial Cu:Phen molar ratios were prepared and mixed with the dye at different pHs. The geochemical computer program PHREEQC allowed precise calculation of the theoretical distribution between different possible coordinates (CuPhenOH+, Cu(Phen22+, CuPhen(OH2, Cu(Phen32+, etc. depending on pH and initial concentrations. UV-vis spectroscopic measurements were correlated with the major species theoretically present in each condition. The UV absorbance of the system was mainly attributed to the Cu-Phen complex and the visible absorbance was only due to the dye. Cu-Phen appeared to reduce the color intensity of the DR81 dye aqueous solution under specific conditions (more effective at pH 10.7 with Cu:Phen = 1:1, probably owing to the occurrence of a coordination phenomenon between DR81 and Cu-Phen. Hence, the ligand competition between phenanthroline and hydroxide ions would be disturbed by a third competitor, which is the dye molecule. Further investigation proved that the DR81 dye is able to form a complex with copper-phenanthroline, leading to partial color-stripping. This new “color-stripping effect” may be a new opportunity in paper and textile industries for wastewater treatment.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of mixed dye: Natural and synthetic organic dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richhariya, Geetam; Kumar, Anil

    2018-05-01

    Mixed dye from hibiscus sabdariffa and eosin Y was employed in the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Nanostructured mesoporous film was prepared from the titanium dioxide (TiO2). The energy conversion efficiency of hibiscus, eosin Y and mixed dye was obtained as 0.41%, 1.53% and 2.02% respectively. Mixed DSSC has shown improvement in the performance of the cell as compared to hibiscus and eosin Y dye due to addition of synthetic organic dye. This illustrates the effect of synthetic organic dyes in performance enhancement of natural dyes. It has been credited to the improved absorption of light mainly in higher energy state (λ = 440-560 nm) when two dyes were employed simultaneously as was obvious from the absorption spectra of dyes adsorbed onto TiO2 electrode. The cell with TiO2 electrode sensitized by mixed dye gives short circuit current density (Jsc) = 4.01 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) = 0.67 V, fill factor (FF) = 0.60 and energy conversion efficiency (η) of 2.02%.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Colloidal nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadiyar, Chethana; Loiudice, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella

    2017-02-01

    Colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) are among the most modular and versatile nanomaterial platforms for studying emerging phenomena in different fields thanks to their superb compositional and morphological tunability. A promising, yet challenging, application involves the use of colloidal NCs as light absorbers and electrocatalysts for water splitting. In this review we discuss how the tunability of these materials is ideal to understand the complex phenomena behind storing energy in chemical bonds and to optimize performance through structural and compositional modification. First, we describe the colloidal synthesis method as a means to achieve a high degree of control over single material NCs and NC heterostructures, including examples of the role of the ligands in modulating size and shape. Next, we focus on the use of NCs as light absorbers and catalysts to drive both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), together with some of the challenges related to the use of colloidal NCs as model systems and/or technological solution in water splitting. We conclude with a broader prospective on the use of colloidal chemistry for new material discovery.

  19. Potential of human twin embryos generated by embryo splitting in assisted reproduction and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Laila; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2017-03-01

    Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans. A number of countries have formulated bans either through laws, decrees or official statements. However, in general, these laws specifically define cloning as an embryo that is generated via nuclear transfer (NT) and do not mention embryo splitting. Only the UK includes under cloning both embryo splitting and NT in the same legislation. On the contrary, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine does not have a major ethical objection to transferring two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome with the aim of producing a single pregnancy, stating that 'since embryo splitting has the potential to improve the efficacy of IVF treatments for infertility, research to investigate the technique is ethically acceptable'. Embryo splitting has been introduced successfully to the veterinary medicine several decades ago and today is a part of standard practice. We present here an overview of embryo splitting experiments in humans and non-human primates and discuss the potential of this technology in assisted reproduction and research. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify studies on embryo splitting in humans and non-human primates. 'Embryo splitting' and 'embryo twinning' were used as the keywords, alone or in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topics of biology of preimplantation embryos. A very limited number of studies have been conducted in humans and non

  20. Mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles delivering enhanced dye-loading and charge transport for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jian; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing’ao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photoelectrodes of DSSCs consisted of mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles. The interconnected nanoparticles enhance dye-loading capacity and charge transport. - Highlights: • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres were synthesized by a template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process. • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles have the advantages of large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer. • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanostructures meet both large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer as ideal nano/micromaterials for application in solar cells, energy storage, catalysis, water splitting and gas sensing. In this work, mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres consisting of interconnected nanoparticles were synthesized by template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process, where urea was used as capping agent to control phase and promote oriented growth. The morphology was assembled by nucleation-growth-assembly-mechanism. The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which were beneficial to capacity of dye loading and charge transfer. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) based on the optimized thickness of TiO_2 photoelectrodes was up to 7.13% under standard AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW/cm"2).

  1. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  2. Photoelectrochemical water splitting: optimizing interfaces and light absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis several photoelectrochemical water splitting devices based on semiconductor materials were investigated. The aim was the design, characterization, and fabrication of solar-to-fuel devices which can absorb solar light and split water to produce hydrogen.

  3. Iterative group splitting algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    An efficient feedback algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems based on iterative group splitting is proposed in this paper. Similar to the opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm adjusts (or lowers) the feedback threshold

  4. Guidelines to Develop Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic overall water splitting is the only viable solar-to-fuel conversion technology. The research discloses an investigation process wherein by dissecting the photocatalytic water splitting device, electrocatalysts, and semiconductor

  5. Bleaching and diffusion dynamics in optofluidic dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Asger

    2007-01-01

    The authors have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in optofluidic dye lasers where the liquid laser dye in a microfluidic channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. They find that for microfluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules...

  6. Supramolecular hair dyes: a new application of cocrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delori, Amit; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the first report of hair dyes of various colors formed by cocrystallization. Unlike the most popular oxidative hair dye (OHD) products, these dyes are NH3 free and do not require H2O2 as a color developer. The importance of these new hair dyes products is further enhanced...

  7. Contact allergy to common ingredients in hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed.......p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed....

  8. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 5. Rhodamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, C J

    2016-01-01

    Rhodamines were first produced in the late 19(th) century, when they constituted a new class of synthetic dyes. These compounds since have been used to color many things including cosmetics, inks, textiles, and in some countries, food products. Certain rhodamine dyes also have been used to stain biological specimens and currently are widely used as fluorescent probes for mitochondria in living cells. The early history and current biological applications are sketched briefly and an account of the ambiguities, complications and confusions concerning dye identification and nomenclature are discussed.

  9. Simulations of longitudinally pumped dye laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, Kiwamu; Takemori, Satoshi

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of a copper laser pumped dye laser amplifier and new designs of the longitudinally pumped dye laser amplifier are presented. The simulations take the consideration of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The new designs utilize a center-hole reflector instead of a dichroic mirror. The simulation results indicate that the poor spatial overlap between the pump beam and the dye beam in the transverse pumping not only reduces the laser output power, but also generates ASE strongly. The results also indicate that the longitudinal pumping is as efficient as the transverse pumping. (author)

  10. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparing Electrochemical and Biological Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Dimitrievski, Kristian; Siegbahn, P.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system and on the......On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system...... and on the inorganic catalyst surface of an acidic electrolysis cell, the thermochemical features of the catalysts can be directly compared. We suggest a simple test for a thermochemically optimal catalyst. We show that, although both the RuO2 surface and the Mn cluster in photo system II are quite close to optimal...

  12. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Facco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H^{-} beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kW of proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fraction of the main H^{-} beam, magnetic splitting of H^{-} and H^{0}, and stripping of H^{0} to H^{+}. The method allows slow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  13. Temporal self-splitting of optical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chaoliang; Koivurova, Matias; Turunen, Jari; Pan, Liuzhan

    2018-05-01

    We present mathematical models for temporally and spectrally partially coherent pulse trains with Laguerre-Gaussian and Hermite-Gaussian Schell-model statistics as extensions of the standard Gaussian Schell model for pulse trains. We derive propagation formulas of both classes of pulsed fields in linearly dispersive media and in temporal optical systems. It is found that, in general, both types of fields exhibit time-domain self-splitting upon propagation. The Laguerre-Gaussian model leads to multiply peaked pulses, while the Hermite-Gaussian model leads to doubly peaked pulses, in the temporal far field (in dispersive media) or at the Fourier plane of a temporal system. In both model fields the character of the self-splitting phenomenon depends both on the degree of temporal and spectral coherence and on the power spectrum of the field.

  14. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  15. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  16. Timelike single-logarithm-resummed splitting functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, A.V. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    2011-08-15

    We calculate the single logarithmic contributions to the quark singlet and gluon matrix of timelike splitting functions at all orders in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme. We fix two of the degrees of freedom of this matrix from the analogous results in the massive-gluon regularization scheme by using the relation between that scheme and the MS scheme. We determine this scheme transformation from the double logarithmic contributions to the timelike splitting functions and the coefficient functions of inclusive particle production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation now available in both schemes. The remaining two degrees of freedom are fixed by reasonable physical assumptions. The results agree with the fixed-order results at next-to-next-to-leading order in the literature. (orig.)

  17. Large Bandgap Semiconductors for Solar Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting represents an eco-friendly technology that could enable the production of hydrogen using water as reactant and solar energy as primary energy source. The exploitation of solar energy for the production of hydrogen would help modern society to reduce the reliance...... on fossil fuels as primary feedstock for hydrogen production and diminish the emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, weakening the global warming phenomenon.The dissertation reports the development of GaP (gallium phosphide) photocathodes as a large bandgap semiconductor for photoelectrochemical...... water splitting devices having tandem design. The increase of the photovoltage produced by GaP under illumination was the main goal of this work. GaP has a bandgap of 2.25 eV and could in theory produce a photovoltage of approximately 1.7 V. Instead, the photovoltage produced by the semiconductor...

  18. Isospin breaking in octet baryon mass splittings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Najjar, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Juelich Supercomputer Centre; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics

    2012-06-15

    Using an SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in the quark mass, we determine the QCD component of the nucleon, Sigma and Xi mass splittings of the baryon octet due to up-down (and strange) quark mass differences in terms of the kaon mass splitting. Provided the average quark mass is kept constant, the expansion coefficients in our procedure can be determined from computationally cheaper simulations with mass degenerate sea quarks and partially quenched valence quarks. Both the linear and quadratic terms in the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion are considered; it is found that the quadratic terms only change the result by a few percent, indicating that the expansion is highly convergent.

  19. Atom beams split by gentle persuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.

    1994-01-01

    Two different research teams have taken a big step toward atom interferometry. They have succeeded in splitting atomic beams by using atoms in spin states that neither absorb nor reemit laser light. By proper adjustment of experimental conditions, atoms are changed from one spin state to another, without passing through the intermediary excited state. The atoms in essence absorb momentum from the laser photons, without absorption or emission of photons. The change in momentum deflects atoms in the proper spin state

  20. Splitting of inviscid fluxes for real gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram; Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1990-01-01

    Flux-vector and flux-difference splittings for the inviscid terms of the compressible flow equations are derived under the assumption of a general equation of state for a real gas in equilibrium. No necessary assumptions, approximations for auxiliary quantities are introduced. The formulas derived include several particular cases known for ideal gases and readily apply to curvilinear coordinates. Applications of the formulas in a TVD algorithm to one-dimensional shock-tube and nozzle problems show their quality and robustness.

  1. BILATERAL SAGITAL SPLIT OSTEOTOMY PADA MANDIBULA PROGNATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradono Pradono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A young girl 20 years old with mandibular prognathism, has been treated with orthodontics and surgical treatment in between. Mandibular set back was done intra orally 5 mm length and bilateral sagital split ramus osteotomy method. And rigid fixation was done by inserting three 2 mm bicortical screws for stabilizing the fragment. This method allowed the bony segments to heal properly and allowed the patients to function sooner.

  2. GD 358 - the demise of rotational splitting?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of GD 358 were obtained at the McDonald Observatory in 1982 and 1985 in order to determine its periods, stability, and rates of period change. The period structure could not be resolved, and the results indicate that GD 358 does not fit the rotational splitting model. It is suggested that if the changes in the amplitude spectra of GD 358 are due to beating of stable modes, then the number of modes must be large. 7 references

  3. Multiplet mass splitting in a gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    An expression for the mass splitting of particles belonging to the same spin multiplet defined in a space-time of general relativity is derived. The geometrical symmetry is a subgroup of SO(r,s), 9 >=r > 3, 5 >=s >=1, the mass operator being proportional to the second order Casimir operator of that subgroup. A brief analysis of the calculated values as compared to the experimental data is included. (Author) [pt

  4. Cost of splitting in Monte Carlo transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, C.J.; Cashwell, E.D.

    1978-03-01

    In a simple transport problem designed to estimate transmission through a plane slab of x free paths by Monte Carlo methods, it is shown that m-splitting (m > or = 2) does not pay unless exp(x) > m(m + 3)/(m - 1). In such a case, the minimum total cost in terms of machine time is obtained as a function of m, and the optimal value of m is determined

  5. Transonymization as Revitalization: Old Toponyms of Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lozić Knezović

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with ancient toponyms of Split, a city in the centre of the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Along with numerous monuments of spiritual and material culture, toponyms are part of the two-thousand-year-old city’s historical heritage. Split in particular abounds with sources that provide valuable information concerning ancient toponyms. In terms of the study and preservation of toponymy, three basic sources are crucial: the living oral tradition, written records, and old charts — mostly cadastral plans. In addition to researching, recording, documenting, and publishing Split’s ancient place names through toponomastic, geographical, and town planning studies, toponymic heritage preservation is also implemented through the direct use of the names in everyday life. One of the ways of such revitalization of Split’s ancient place names is their transonymization into the category of chrematonyms, i.e. their secondary use as names of institutions, shops, restaurants, schools, sports associations and facilities, bars and coffee shops, cemeteries, and so on. The present paper provides a classification and etymological analysis of detoponymic chrematonyms of Split. The authors propose measures to raise public awareness of the historical information conveyed by the names and raise some issues for consideration regarding further study of transonymization as a means of revitalizing local toponymic tradition.

  6. On the additive splitting procedures and their computer realization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farago, I.; Thomsen, Per Grove; Zlatev, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Two additive splitting procedures are defined and studied in this paper. It is shown that these splitting procedures have good stability properties. Some other splitting procedures, which are traditionally used in mathematical models used in many scientific and engineering fields, are sketched. All...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  8. 26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...'s death benefit proceeds, the policy's cash surrender value, or both. (ii) Payments that are only... regarding certain split-dollar term loans payable on the death of an individual, certain split-dollar term... insurance arrangement make a representation—(i) Requirement. An otherwise noncontingent payment on a split...

  9. Effect of Isotopic Substitution on Elementary Processes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Deuterated Amino-Phenyl Acid Dyes on TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Manzhos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the first computational study of the effects of isotopic substitution on the operation of dye-sensitized solar cells. Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the effect of deuteration on light absorption, dye adsorption dynamics, the averaged over vibrations driving force to injection (∆Gi and regeneration (∆Gr, as well as on promotion of electron back-donation in dyes NK1 (2E,4E-2-cyano-5-(4-dimethylaminophenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid and NK7 (2E,4E-2-cyano-5-(4-diphenylaminophenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid adsorbed in monodentate molecular and bidentate bridging dissociative configurations on the anatase (101 surface of TiO2. Deuteration causes a red shift of the absorption spectrum of the dye/TiO2 complex by about 5% (dozens of nm, which can noticeably affect the overlap with the solar spectrum in real cells. The dynamics effect on the driving force to injection and recombination (the difference between the averaged <∆Gi,r> and ∆Gi,requil at the equilibrium configuration is strong, yet there is surprisingly little isotopic effect: the average driving force to injection <∆Gi> and to regeneration <∆Gr> changes by only about 10 meV upon deuteration. The nuclear dynamics enhance recombination to the dye ground state due to the approach of the electron-donating group to TiO2, yet this effect is similar for deuterated and non-deuterated dyes. We conclude that the nuclear dynamics of the C-H(D bonds, mostly affected by deuteration, might not be important for the operation of photoelectrochemical cells based on organic dyes. As the expectation value of the ground state energy is higher than its optimum geometry value (by up to 0.1 eV in the present case, nuclear motions will affect dye regeneration by recently proposed redox shuttle-dye combinations operating at low driving forces.

  10. Split2 Protein-Ligation Generates Active IL-6-Type Hyper-Cytokines from Inactive Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Jens M; Wehmöller, Melanie; Frank, Nils C; Homey, Lisa; Baran, Paul; Garbers, Christoph; Lamertz, Larissa; Axelrod, Jonathan H; Galun, Eithan; Mootz, Henning D; Scheller, Jürgen

    2017-12-15

    Trans-signaling of the major pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11 has the unique feature to virtually activate all cells of the body and is critically involved in chronic inflammation and regeneration. Hyper-IL-6 and Hyper-IL-11 are single chain designer trans-signaling cytokines, in which the cytokine and soluble receptor units are trapped in one complex via a flexible peptide linker. Albeit, Hyper-cytokines are essential tools to study trans-signaling in vitro and in vivo, the superior potency of these designer cytokines are accompanied by undesirable stress responses. To enable tailor-made generation of Hyper-cytokines, we developed inactive split-cytokine-precursors adapted for posttranslational reassembly by split-intein mediated protein trans-splicing (PTS). We identified cutting sites within IL-6 (E 134 /S 135 ) and IL-11 (G 116 /S 117 ) and obtained inactive split-Hyper-IL-6 and split-Hyper-IL-11 cytokine precursors. After fusion with split-inteins, PTS resulted in reconstitution of active Hyper-cytokines, which were efficiently secreted from transfected cells. Our strategy comprises the development of a background-free cytokine signaling system from reversibly inactivated precursor cytokines.

  11. SKS Splitting and the Scale of Vertical Coherence of the Taiwan Mountain Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Lin, Shu-Chuan; Lin, Yi-Wei

    2018-02-01

    Many continental orogens feature a pattern of SKS shear wave splitting with fast polarization directions parallel to the mountain fabrics and delay times of 1-2 s, implying that the crust and lithosphere deform consistently. In the Taiwan arc-continent collision zone, similar pattern of SKS splitting exists, and thereby lithospheric scale deformation due to collision has been assumed. However, recent dynamic modeling demonstrated that the SKS splitting in Taiwan can be generated by the toroidal flow in the asthenosphere induced by the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian plate. To further evaluate this hypothesis, we analyzed a new data set using a quantitative approach. The results show that models with slab geometries constrained by seismicity explain the observed fast splitting direction to within 25°, whereas the misfit grows to 50-60° if the toroidal flow is disrupted by the presence of a sizable aseismic slab beneath central Taiwan as often suggested by tomographic imaging. However, small sized aseismic slab or detached slab fragment can potentially reconcile the splitting observations. We estimated the scale of vertical coherence to be 10-40 km in the lithosphere and 100-150 km in the asthenosphere, making the former unfavorable for accumulating large delay times. The low coherence is caused by the subduction of the Eurasian plate that creates complex deformation different from what characterizes the compressional tectonics above the plate. This suggests that the mountain building in Taiwan is a shallow process, rather than lithospheric in scale.

  12. Electrochemical Properties of Cu(II/I)-Based Redox Mediators for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Saygili, Y.; Freitag, M.; Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Hagfeldt, A.; Grätzel, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 227, FEB 2017 (2017), s. 194-202 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Graphene * Dye sensitized solar cell * Cu-complexes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  13. Evidence for laser emission from the TICT exciplex of coumarin dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masilamani, V.

    1987-06-01

    This paper gives confirming evidence for the possibility of super radiant laser emission from the Twisted Internal Charge Transfer (TICT) conformation in exicted state complexation with the solvent, of coumarin family of laser dyes. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. DFT Studies on the electronic structures of indoline dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIE XU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of indoline dyes with promising efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were studied using the density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31g (d level. The ground-state geometries, electronic structures and absorption spectra of these dyes are reported. The calculated results indicate that the energy levels of the HOMOs and LUMOs of these dyes are advantageous for electron injection. Their intense and broad absorption bands as well as favorable excited-state energy levels are key factor for their outstanding efficiencies in DSSCs.

  15. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash –SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties. - Highlights: ► The optimum absorbed dose obtained for surface modification of cotton (RC) is 8 kGy. ► Irradiation has enhanced antioxidant, anti bacterial and hemolytic activities. ► Optimum dyeing conditions are 60 min dyeing time and 8 g/L salt concentration. ► At optimum conditions, color strength and fastness properties are enhanced.

  16. Industrial scale salt-free reactive dyeing of cationized cotton fabric with different reactive dye chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallathambi, Arivithamani; Venkateshwarapuram Rengaswami, Giri Dev

    2017-10-15

    Dyeing of knitted cotton goods in the industry has been mostly with reactive dyes. Handling of salt laden coloured effluent arising out of dyeing process is one of the prime concerns of the industry. Cationization of cotton is one of the effective alternative to overcome the above problem. But for cationization to be successful at industrial scale it has to be carried out by exhaust process and should be adoptable for the various dye chemistries currently practiced in the industry. Hence, in the present work, industrial level exhaust method of cationization process was carried out with concentration of 40g/L and 80g/L. The fabrics were dyed with dyes of three different dye chemistry and assessed for its dyeing performance without the addition of salt. Dye shades ranging from medium to extra dark shades were produced without the addition of salt. This study will provide industries the recipe that can be adopted for cationized cotton fabric for the widely used reactive dyes at industrial level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dyes as sensitizers from Malaysia local fruit `Buah Mertajam'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Roshidah, N.; Hashim, M. Norhafiz; Mohamad, I. S.; Saad, N. Hidayah; Norizan, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the high conversion efficiency, low cost, green technology and easy to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using natural anthocyanin dyes as sensitizers. The DSSCs was fabricated by using natural anthocyanin dyes which were extracted from different parts of the plants inclusive `Buah Mertajam', `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. The natural anthocyanin dyes that found in flower, leaves and fruits were extracted by the simple procedures. This anthocyanin dye is used to replace the expensive chemical synthetic dyes due to its ability to effectively attach into the surface of Titanium dioxide (TiO2). A natural anthocyanin dyes molecule adsorbs to each particle of the TiO2 and acts as the absorber of the visible light. A natural anthocyanin dye from Buah Mertajam shows the best performance with the conversion efficiency of 5.948% and fill factor of 0.708 followed by natural anthocyanin dyes from `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. Buah Mertajam or scientifically known as eriglossum rubiginosum is a local Malaysia fruit.

  18. Merging and Splitting of Plasma Spheroids in a Dusty Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikikian, Maxime; Tawidian, Hagop; Lecas, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Dust particle growth in a plasma is a strongly disturbing phenomenon for the plasma equilibrium. It can induce many different types of low-frequency instabilities that can be experimentally observed, especially using high-speed imaging. A spectacular case has been observed in a krypton plasma where a huge density of dust particles is grown by material sputtering. The instability consists of well-defined regions of enhanced optical emission that emerge from the electrode vicinity and propagate towards the discharge center. These plasma spheroids have complex motions resulting from their mutual interaction that can also lead to the merging of two plasma spheroids into a single one. The reverse situation is also observed with the splitting of a plasma spheroid into two parts. These results are presented for the first time and reveal new behaviors in dusty plasmas.

  19. Split-Bregman-based sparse-view CT reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandeghinste, Bert; Vandenberghe, Stefaan [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP); Goossens, Bart; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Image Processing and Interpretation Research Group (IPI); Beenhouwer, Jan de [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP); Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium). The Vision Lab; Staelens, Steven [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP); Antwerp Univ., Edegem (Belgium). Molecular Imaging Centre Antwerp

    2011-07-01

    Total variation minimization has been extensively researched for image denoising and sparse view reconstruction. These methods show superior denoising performance for simple images with little texture, but result in texture information loss when applied to more complex images. It could thus be beneficial to use other regularizers within medical imaging. We propose a general regularization method, based on a split-Bregman approach. We show results for this framework combined with a total variation denoising operator, in comparison to ASD-POCS. We show that sparse-view reconstruction and noise regularization is possible. This general method will allow us to investigate other regularizers in the context of regularized CT reconstruction, and decrease the acquisition times in {mu}CT. (orig.)

  20. Polymerization of novel methacrylated anthraquinone dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dollendorf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new series of polymerizable methacrylated anthraquinone dyes has been synthesized by nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions and subsequent methacrylation. Thereby, green 5,8-bis(4-(2-methacryloxyethylphenylamino-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (2, blue 1,4-bis(4-((2-methacryloxyethyloxyphenylaminoanthraquinone (6 and red 1-((2-methacryloxy-1,1-dimethylethylaminoanthraquinone (12, as well as 1-((1,3-dimethacryloxy-2-methylpropan-2-ylaminoanthraquinone (15 were obtained. By mixing of these brilliant dyes in different ratios and concentrations, a broad color spectrum can be generated. After methacrylation, the monomeric dyes can be covalently emplaced into several copolymers. Due to two polymerizable functionalities, they can act as cross-linking agents. Thus, diffusion out of the polymer can be avoided, which increases the physiological compatibility and makes the dyes promising compounds for medical applications, such as iris implants.

  1. Computer control of pulsed tunable dye lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thattey, S.S.; Dongare, A.S.; Suri, B.M.; Nair, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    Pulsed tunable dye lasers are being used extensively for spectroscopic and photo-chemical experiments, and a system for acquisition and spectral analysis of a volume of data generated will be quite useful. The development of a system for wavelength tuning and control of tunable dye lasers and an acquisition system for spectral data generated in experiments with these lasers are described. With this system, it is possible to control the tuning of three lasers, and acquire data in four channels, simultaneously. It is possible to arrive at the desired dye laser wavelength with a reproducibility of ± 0.012 cm -1 , which is within the absorption width (atomic interaction) caused by pulsed dye lasers of linewidth 0.08 cm -1 . The spectroscopic data generated can be analyzed for spectral identification within absolute accuracy ± 0.012 cm -1 . (author). 6 refs., 11 figs

  2. Green dyeing process of modified cotton fibres using natural dyes extracted from Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaka, Noureddine; Mahfoudhi, Adel; Haddar, Wafa; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk; Mighri, Zine

    2017-01-01

    This research work involves an eco-friendly dyeing process of modified cotton with the aqueous extract of Tamarix aphylla leaves. During this process, the dyeing step was carried out on modified cotton by several cationising agents in order to improve its dyeability. The influence of the main dyeing conditions (dye bath pH, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, salt addition) on the performances of this dyeing process were studied. The dyeing performances of this process were appreciated by measuring the colour yield (K/S) and the fastness properties of the dyed samples. The effect of mordant type with different mordanting methods on dyeing quality was also studied. The results showed that mordanting gave deeper shades and enhanced fastness properties. In addition, environmental indicators (BOD 5 , COD and COD/BOD 5 ) were used to describe potential improvements in the biodegradability of the dyebath wastewater. Further, HPLC was used to identify the major phenolic compounds in the extracted dye.

  3. Modeling the efficiency of Förster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2010-02-11

    Förster resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons and transfer the excitation to sensitizing dye molecules by Förster resonant energy transfer. We use an analytic theory to calculate the excitation transfer efficiency from the relay dye to the sensitizing dye accounting for dynamic quenching and relay dye diffusion. We present calculations for pores of cylindrical and spherical geometry and examine the effects of the Förster radius, the pore size, sensitizing dye surface concentration, collisional quenching rate, and relay dye lifetime. We find that the excitation transfer efficiency can easily exceed 90% for appropriately chosen dyes and propose two different strategies for selecting dyes to achieve record power conversion efficiencies. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

  4. Splitting methods for split feasibility problems with application to Dantzig selectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hongjin; Xu, Hong-Kun

    2017-01-01

    The split feasibility problem (SFP), which refers to the task of finding a point that belongs to a given nonempty, closed and convex set, and whose image under a bounded linear operator belongs to another given nonempty, closed and convex set, has promising applicability in modeling a wide range of inverse problems. Motivated by the increasingly data-driven regularization in the areas of signal/image processing and statistical learning, in this paper, we study the regularized split feasibility problem (RSFP), which provides a unified model for treating many real-world problems. By exploiting the split nature of the RSFP, we shall gainfully employ several efficient splitting methods to solve the model under consideration. A remarkable advantage of our methods lies in their easier subproblems in the sense that the resulting subproblems have closed-form representations or can be efficiently solved up to a high precision. As an interesting application, we apply the proposed algorithms for finding Dantzig selectors, in addition to demonstrating the effectiveness of the splitting methods through some computational results on synthetic and real medical data sets. (paper)

  5. Phytoremediation in education: textile dye teaching experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbini, Jwan H; Davis, Lawrence C; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-07-01

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up contaminated soil and water, has a wide range of applications and advantages, and can be extended to scientific education. Phytoremediation of textile dyes can be used as a scientific experiment or demonstration in teaching laboratories of middle school, high school and college students. In the experiments that we developed, students were involved in a hands-on activity where they were able to learn about phytoremediation concepts. Experiments were set up with 20-40 mg L(-1) dye solutions of different colors. Students can be involved in the set up process and may be involved in the experimental design. In its simplest forms, they use two-week-old sunflower seedlings and place them into a test tube of known volume of dye solution. Color change and/or dye disappearance can be monitored by visual comparison or with a spectrophotometer. Intensity and extent of the lab work depends on student's educational level, and time constraints. Among the many dyes tested, Evan's Blue proved to be the most readily decolorized azo dye. Results could be observed within 1-2 hours. From our experience, dye phytoremediation experiments are suitable and easy to understand by both college and middle school students. These experiments help visual learners, as students compare the color of the dye solution before and after the plant application. In general, simple phytoremediation experiments of this kind can be introduced in many classes including biology, biochemistry and ecological engineering. This paper presents success stories of teaching phytoremediation to middle school and college students.

  6. Stability of the elderberry dye in vodkas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizlo, A.; Jankowska, D.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of light, pH, strength of vodkas and by-products on Sambucus nigra pigments stability was tested in this paper. The elderberry dye was unstable in vodkas during light action in general. It was stated that low strength of vodkas and high pH effected an increase of the vodkas colour stability. The presence of vitamin C caused discolouring effect on elderberry dye but chockeberry distillate effected an increase of the vodkas colour stability

  7. Decolorization of six synthetic dyes by fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hartikainen, E. Samuel; Miettinen, Otto; Hatakka, Annele; Kähkönen, Mika A.

    2016-01-01

    To find out ability of fourteen basidiomycetes and four ascomycetes strains to grow in the presence of synthetic colour dyes and to degrade them, fungi were cultivated on the malt agar plates containing 0.5 g kg-1 dye, either Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Remazol Brilliant Yellow GL, Remazol Brilliant Orange 3 R, Reactive Blue 4, Remazol Brilliant Red F3B or Reactive Black 5. Fungi representing basidiomycetes were Phlebia radiata (FBCC 43), Tremella encephala (FBCC 1145), Dichomitus squalens (FBC...

  8. Radiolysis of anthraquinone dyes in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskaya, N.A.; Bortun, L.N.; Ogurtsov, N.A.; Migdalovich, E.A.; Revina, A.A.; Volodko, V.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehlektrokhimii)

    1986-01-01

    The commercial anthraquinone dyes (Dark Blue, Light Blue, Green) in aqueous solutions were shown to be decoloured and degrade under the action of ionizing radiation. The degree of decolouration and degradation of aromatic rings was found to increase in presence of oxygen. Hydroxyl radicals were shown to play the key role in the degradation of the dyes under irradiation. The radiolysis intermediate products were studied using the pulse radiolysis technique. (author)

  9. Treatment of dyeing drainage by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Toshinari; Sawai, Takeshi

    1985-01-01

    Decolorization of artificial dyeing drainage and sewage by radiation treatment. Artifical dyeing drainage was prepared from water, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, urea and several kinds of inorganic salts, and artificial sewage, from water, peptone, broth, urea and several kinds of inorganic salts. The above mentioned sample liquors of artificial dyeing drainage and sewage were exposed to γ-radiation of 5 kCi of 60 Co source by aerating through a ball filter. Absorption spectra, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were determined after irradiation to evaluate radiation treatment effect. With the experimental data obtained, it was clarified that absorbance, COD and TOC was decreased with the increase of absorbed dose. Decoloring was made effectively and about 95 % of bleaching ratio was obtained at 5 kGy of radiation. COD was decreased also by irradiation rather slower decreasing rate than that of decolorization, and TOC decrease was very slow at the initial stage of radiation but 40 % of TOC was decomposed by 10 kGy radiation. Dye of chemically stable structure was found more resistant to radiation decolorization. Decomposition efficiency was found less for dyes in the artificial sewage but secondary treated sewage showed no adverse effect. With the obtained understandings, a tentative scheme was planned for the radiation decolorization of dyeing drainage after aeration treatment. (Takagi, S.)

  10. Degradation of textile dyes by cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellamatrice, Priscila Maria; Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de; Fiore, Marli Fátima; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    Dyes are recalcitrant compounds that resist conventional biological treatments. The degradation of three textile dyes (Indigo, RBBR and Sulphur Black), and the dye-containing liquid effluent and solid waste from the Municipal Treatment Station, Americana, São Paulo, Brazil, by the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae UTCC64, Phormidium autumnale UTEX1580 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was evaluated. The dye degradation efficiency of the cyanobacteria was compared with anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic systems in terms of discolouration and toxicity evaluations. The discoloration was evaluated by absorption spectroscopy. Toxicity was measured using the organisms Hydra attenuata, the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and lettuce seeds. The three cyanobacteria showed the potential to remediate textile effluent by removing the colour and reducing the toxicity. However, the growth of cyanobacteria on sludge was slow and discoloration was not efficient. The cyanobacteria P. autumnale UTEX1580 was the only strain that completely degraded the indigo dye. An evaluation of the mutagenicity potential was performed by use of the micronucleus assay using Allium sp. No mutagenicity was observed after the treatment. Two metabolites were produced during the degradation, anthranilic acid and isatin, but toxicity did not increase after the treatment. The cyanobacteria showed the ability to degrade the dyes present in a textile effluent; therefore, they can be used in a tertiary treatment of effluents with recalcitrant compounds. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. complexes as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compared to N719, H112 sensitizer showed enhanced molar extinction coefficient and relatively better monochromatic incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) across the spectral range of 400 to 800 nm with solar energy-to-electrical conversion efficiency () of 2.43% [open circuit photovoltage (VOC) ...

  12. (II) complexes as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimethyl-3-propyl-1 H-imidazol-3-ium iodide (DMPII),. 4-tert-butyl-pyridine (TBP) and ... cymene) ruthenium(II) dimer was synthesized according to the reported ... saturated ammonium chloride (200 ml) solution was added to decompose the ...

  13. A review of the chrome mordant dyeing of wool with special reference to the afterchrome process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maasdorp, APB

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available a -~min*o'- Hydroxyaw Dycs Salicylic Acid Dyes Azo dyes oxidkd to Quinone form when complexed (C.I. Mordant Black 3) e Chrome Fast Brow TV (C.I. Mordant Brow 33) Flavine A (C.I. Mordant Yellow 5) e Solochrome Rcd (C.I. Mordant..., it was decided that they should bedescribed in more detail. In 1858, Peter Greiss, a chemist at a Burton-on-Trent brewery produced the first diizonium salts by treating primary aromatic amines with nitrous acid produced from hydrochloric acid and sodium...

  14. Redox Kinetics and Nonstoichiometry of Ce0.5Zr0.5O2−δ for Water Splitting and Hydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Tsvetkov, Nikolai; Yildiz, Bilge; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2017-01-01

    Water splitting and chemical fuel production as a promising carbon-neutral energy solution relies critically on an efficient electrochemical process over catalyst surfaces. The fundamentals within the surface redox pathways, including the complex

  15. Optical properties of natural dyes on the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study reported several natural dyes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). This study aims was to determine the effect of optical absorption properties of natural dyes on efficiency of DSSC. The sandwich structure of DSSC consist of TiO 2 as working electrode, carbon layer as counter electrode, natural dyes as photosensitizer, and electrolyte as electron transfer media. The natural dyes used in this experiment were extracted from dragon fruit anthocyanin, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and red cabbage anthocyanin. The absorbance of dyes solutions and the adsorption of the dye on the surface of TiO 2 were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the quantum efficiency versus wavelength was characterized using incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) measurement system, and the efficiency of DSSC was calculated using I-V meter. UV-Vis characteristic curves showed that wavelength absorption of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 - 580 nm, anthocyanin of mangosteen peels was 400 - 480 nm, and anthocyanin of dragon fruit was 400 - 650 nm. Absorption spectra of the dye adsorption on the surface of TiO 2 which was resulted in the highest absorbance of red cabbage anthocyanin. IPCE characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted quantum efficiency of 0.058%; 0.047%; and 0.043%, respectively at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. I-V characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted efficiency of 0.054%; 0.042%; and 0.024%, respectively. (paper)

  16. Zero-Magnetic-Field Spin Splitting of Polaron's Ground State Energy Induced by Rashba Spin-Orbit Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jia; Xiao Jingling

    2006-01-01

    We study theoretically the ground state energy of a polaron near the interface of a polar-polar semiconductor by considering the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling with the Lee-Low-Pines intermediate coupling method. Our numerical results show that the Rashba SO interaction originating from the inversion asymmetry in the heterostructure splits the ground state energy of the polaron. The electron areal density and vector dependence of the ratio of the SO interaction to the total ground state energy or other energy composition are obvious. One can see that even without any external magnetic field, the ground state energy can be split by the Rashba SO interaction, and this split is not a single but a complex one. Since the presents of the phonons, whose energy gives negative contribution to the polaron's, the spin-splitting states of the polaron are more stable than electron's.

  17. Rehydrating dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hellert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs are silicon free, simply producible solar cells. Longevity, however, is a longstanding problem for DSSCs. Due to liquid electrolytes being commonly used, evaporation of the electrolyte causes a dramatic drop in electric output as cells continue to be used unmaintained. Stopping evaporation has been tried in different ways in the past, albeit with differing degrees of success. In a recent project, a different route was chosen, exploring ways of revitalizing DSSCs after varying periods of usage. For this, we focused on rehydration of the cells using distilled water as well as the electrolyte contained in the cells. The results show a significant influence of these rehydration procedures on the solar cell efficiency. In possible applications of DSSCs in tents etc., morning dew may thus be used for rehydration of solar cells. Refillable DSSCs can also be used in tropical climates or specific types of farms and greenhouses where high humidity serves the purpose of rehydrating DSSCs.

  18. A note on the Lie symmetries of complex partial differential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Folklore suggests that the split Lie-like operators of a complex partial differential equation are symmetries of the split system of real partial differential equations. However, this is not the case generally. We illustrate this by using the complex heat equation, wave equation with dissipation, the nonlinear Burgers equation and ...

  19. Relationship between mandibular anatomy and the occurrence of a bad split upon sagittal split osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarabi, Mohammadali; Tabrizi, Reza; Hekmat, Mina; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Puzesh, Ayatollah

    2014-12-01

    A bad split is a troublesome complication of the sagittal split osteotomy (SSO). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the occurrence of a bad split and mandibular anatomy in SSO using cone-beam computed tomography. The authors designed a cohort retrospective study. Forty-eight patients (96 SSO sites) were studied. The buccolingual thickness of the retromandibular area (BLR), the buccolingual thickness of the ramus at the level of the lingula (BLTR), the height of the mandible from the alveolar crest to the inferior border of the mandible, (ACIB), the distance between the sigmoid notch and the inferior border of the mandible (SIBM), and the anteroposterior width of the ramus (APWR) were measured. The independent t test was applied to compare anatomic measurements between the group with and the group without bad splits. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test was used to find a cutoff point in anatomic size for various parts of the mandible related to the occurrence of bad splits. The mean SIBM was 47.05±6.33 mm in group 1 (with bad splits) versus 40.66±2.44 mm in group 2 (without bad splits; P=.01). The mean BLTR was 5.74±1.11 mm in group 1 versus 3.19±0.55 mm in group 2 (P=.04). The mean BLR was 14.98±2.78 mm in group 1 versus 11.21±1.29 mm in group 2 (P=.001). No statistically significant difference was found for APWR and ACIB between the 2 groups. The ROC test showed cutoff points of 10.17 mm for BLR, 36.69 mm for SIBM, and 4.06 mm for BLTR. This study showed that certain mandibular anatomic differences can increase the risk of a bad split during SSO surgery. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian; Liu, Xintong

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet the aviation's and machinery manufacturing's pose measurement need of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range, and to resolve the contradiction between measurement range and resolution of vision sensor, this paper proposes an orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement method. This paper designs and realizes an orthogonally splitting imaging vision sensor and establishes a pose measurement system. The vision sensor consists of one imaging lens, a beam splitter prism, cylindrical lenses and dual linear CCD. Dual linear CCD respectively acquire one dimensional image coordinate data of the target point, and two data can restore the two dimensional image coordinates of the target point. According to the characteristics of imaging system, this paper establishes the nonlinear distortion model to correct distortion. Based on cross ratio invariability, polynomial equation is established and solved by the least square fitting method. After completing distortion correction, this paper establishes the measurement mathematical model of vision sensor, and determines intrinsic parameters to calibrate. An array of feature points for calibration is built by placing a planar target in any different positions for a few times. An terative optimization method is presented to solve the parameters of model. The experimental results show that the field angle is 52 °, the focus distance is 27.40 mm, image resolution is 5185×5117 pixels, displacement measurement error is less than 0.1mm, and rotation angle measurement error is less than 0.15°. The method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement can satisfy the pose measurement requirement of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range.

  1. Brown seaweed pigment as a dye source for photoelectrochemical solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Di Marco, Gaetano; Armeli Minicante, Simona; Morabito, Marina; Genovese, Giuseppa

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophylls based-dyes obtained from seaweeds represent attractive alternatives to the expensive and polluting pyridil based Ru complexes because of their abundance in nature. Another important characteristic is that the algae do not subtract either cropland or agricultural water, therefore do not conflict with agro-food sector. This pigment shows a typical intense absorption in the UV/blue (Soret band) and a less intense band in the red/near IR (Q band) spectral regions and for these reasons appear very promising as sensitizer dyes for DSSC. In the present study, we utilized chlorophylls from samples of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida as sensitizer in DSSCs. The dye, extracted by frozen seaweeds and used without any chemical purification, showed a very good fill factor (0.69). Even the photelectrochemical parameters if compared with the existent literature are very interesting.

  2. Anthocyanines as light harvesters in the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolsky, M.; Kaiser, M.; Cirak, J.; Kusko, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper anthocyanine extracted from blackberry was used instead of widely used dyes based on Ru and N3 complexes such as N3, N719 or 'black dye', on which one of the highest efficiencies where measured (10.0 % to 11 %). DSSC were successfully fabricated using anthocyanine dye extracted from blackberries. The open circuit voltage of 419.0 mV, short circuit current of 380.40 μA, fill factor of 41.2 % and efficiency of 0.0164 % were evaluated. The cell shows degradation in performance over time of the exponential type with a drop in the open circuit voltage to 406 mV in 15 minutes. (authors)

  3. Heat transfer with a split water channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.

    1978-01-01

    The heat transfer problem associated with the incidence of synchrotron radiation upon a vacuum chamber wall cooled by a single water channel was previously studied, and a numerical solution to the potential problem was found using the two-dimensional magnet program POISSON. Calculations were extended to consider the case of a split water channel using POISSON to solve the potential problem for a given choice of parameters. By optimizing the dimensions, boiling of the water can be avoided. A copper chamber is a viable solution to the heat transfer problem at a beam port

  4. Joining-Splitting Interaction of Noncritical String

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew

    The joining-splitting interaction of noncritical bosonic string is analyzed in the light-cone formulation. The Mandelstam method of constructing tree string amplitudes is extended to the bosonic massive string models of the discrete series. The general properties of the Liouville longitudinal excitations which are necessary and sufficient for the Lorentz covariance of the light-cone amplitudes are derived. The results suggest that the covariant and the light-cone approach are equivalent also in the noncritical dimensions. Some aspects of unitarity of interacting noncritical massive string theory are discussed.

  5. Permutation 2-groups I: structure and splitness

    OpenAIRE

    Elgueta, Josep

    2013-01-01

    By a 2-group we mean a groupoid equipped with a weakened group structure. It is called split when it is equivalent to the semidirect product of a discrete 2-group and a one-object 2-group. By a permutation 2-group we mean the 2-group $\\mathbb{S}ym(\\mathcal{G})$ of self-equivalences of a groupoid $\\mathcal{G}$ and natural isomorphisms between them, with the product given by composition of self-equivalences. These generalize the symmetric groups $\\mathsf{S}_n$, $n\\geq 1$, obtained when $\\mathca...

  6. Random tree growth by vertex splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, F; Dukes, W M B; Jonsson, T; Stefánsson, S Ö

    2009-01-01

    We study a model of growing planar tree graphs where in each time step we separate the tree into two components by splitting a vertex and then connect the two pieces by inserting a new link between the daughter vertices. This model generalizes the preferential attachment model and Ford's α-model for phylogenetic trees. We develop a mean field theory for the vertex degree distribution, prove that the mean field theory is exact in some special cases and check that it agrees with numerical simulations in general. We calculate various correlation functions and show that the intrinsic Hausdorff dimension can vary from 1 to ∞, depending on the parameters of the model

  7. Split coaxial RFQ structure with modulated vanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, S.

    1983-10-01

    A new split coaxial RFO structure with modulated vanes is proposed. The structure is designed to accelerate 238 U 4+ from 1.68 keV/u to 45.1 keV/u at frequency of 12.5 MHz. The cavity is 1.6 m in diameter and 8 m in length. The cavity consists of four cavity modules divided by three stems which support horizontal and vertical vanes periodically and alternatively. At the same time, problems on the beam dynamics and design procedures are described and discussed. (orig.)

  8. Injuries caused by firewood splitting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrand, P H

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the types of injury caused by firewood splitting machines and also to elucidate the accident mechanism. The study is based on 15 cases. The machine has a rotating spiral cone, and usually the victims' gloved fingertips were caught by the point of the cone. This led to either amputations, usually of radial fingers and/or penetrating wounds through the middle of the hand. In most cases the accidents could not be blamed on bad working techniques. The study of the mechanisms of injury points to insufficient protective devices in a machine construction which has a potentially dangerous working principle.

  9. Electric Dipole Moments in Split Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian Francesco

    2006-01-01

    We perform a quantitative study of the neutron and electron electric dipole moments (EDM) in Supersymmetry, in the limit of heavy scalars. The leading contributions arise at two loops. We give the complete analytic result, including a new contribution associated with Z-Higgs exchange, which plays an important and often leading role in the neutron EDM. The predictions for the EDM are typically within the sensitivities of the next generation experiments. We also analyse the correlation between the electron and neutron EDM, which provides a robust test of Split Supersymmetry.

  10. Multiparty hierarchical quantum-information splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinwen; Zhang Dengyu; Tang Shiqing; Xie Lijun

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for multiparty hierarchical quantum-information splitting (QIS) with a multipartite entangled state, where a boss distributes a secret quantum state to two grades of agents asymmetrically. The agents who belong to different grades have different authorities for recovering the boss's secret. Except for the boss's Bell-state measurement, no nonlocal operation is involved. The presented scheme is also shown to be secure against eavesdropping. Such a hierarchical QIS is expected to find useful applications in the field of modern multipartite quantum cryptography.

  11. Minimal classical communication and measurement complexity for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minimal classical communication and measurement complexity for quantum ... Entanglement; teleportation; secret sharing; information splitting. ... Ahmedabad 380 009, India; Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani 333 031, India ...

  12. Extension lifetime for dye-sensitized solar cells through multiple dye adsorption/desorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Fang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Shen, Po-Shen; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we propose a novel concept of extending the lifetime of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and reducing the costs of re-conditioning DSCs by recycling the FTO/TiO2 substrates. The photovoltaic performances of DSCs using substrates with various cycles of dye uptake and rinse off history are tested. The results show that dye adsorption and Voc are significantly increased under multiple dye adsorption/desorption process and resulted in the improvement of power conversion efficiency. Moreover, the dyeing kinetics is faster after multiple recycling processes, which is favorable for the industrial application. With surface analysis and charge transport characteristics, we also demonstrate the optimal functionality of TiO2/dye interface for the improved Voc and efficiency. The results confirm that the improved performances are due to increased dye loading and dense packing of dye molecules. Our results are beneficial for the understanding on the extension of DSCs lifetime after long-term operation in the application of DSC modules. This approach may also be applied in the replacement of newly synthesized photosensitizes to the active cells.

  13. DYEING COTTON WITH EISENIA BICYCLIS AS NATURAL DYE USING DIFFERENT BIOMORDANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONET Mª Ángeles

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes are known for their use in coloring of food substrate, leather as well as natural protein fibers like wool, silk and cotton as major areas of application since pre-historic times. Nowadays, there has been revival of the growing interest on the application of natural dyes on natural fibers due to worldwide environmental consciousness. Some researchers focus their studies on the improvement of these dyes using mordants. Most works use metallic mordants like aluminum or iron are used, but some of them are hazardous. In this work we used a biomordant to solve environmental problems caused by metallic mordants. The effects of chitosan weight molecular in mordanting on the dyeing characteristics and the UV protection property were examined in this study. Chitosan mordanted Eisenia Bicyclis dyed cotton showed better dyeing characteristic and higher UV protection property compared with undyed cotton fabric. To analyze the differences of the dyeing, reflection spectrophotometer was used, evaluating the results of CIELAB color difference values and the strength color (in terms of K/S value. We conclude that the type of chitosan used affect the dyeing efficiency and the UV protection, showing different behavior between dye sample using chitosan with low or medium molecular weight.

  14. Organic dye for highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Mende, L.; Bach, U.; Humphry-Baker, R.; Ito, S.; Graetzel, M. [Institut des Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques (ISIC), Laboratoire de Photonique et Interfaces (LPI), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Horiuchi, T.; Miura, H. [Technology Research Laboratory, Corporate Research Center, Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited, 46, Wadai, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan); Uchida, S. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1-1 Katahira 2-chome, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2005-04-04

    The feasibility of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells as a low-cost alternative to amorphous silicon cells is demonstrated. Such a cell with a record efficiency of over 4 % under simulated sunlight is reported, made possible by using a new organic metal-free indoline dye as the sensitizer with high absorption coefficient. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Isolation and screening of azo dye decolorizing bacterial isolates from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Mahmood

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are released into wastewater streams without any pretreatment and pollute water and soilenvironments. To prevent contamination of our vulnerable resources, removal of these dye pollutants is of greatimportance. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected from dye-contaminated sites of Faisalabad. About200 bacterial isolates were isolated through enrichment and then tested for their potential to remove RemazolBlack-B azo dye in liquid medium. Five bacterial isolates capable of degrading Remazol Black-B azo dye efficientlywere screened through experimentation on modified mineral salt medium. Isolate SS1 (collected from wastewater ofSupreme Textile Industry was able to completely remove the Remazol Black-B dye from the liquid medium in 18 h.Further, the isolate showed the best performance at the dye concentration of 100 mg L-1 medium (pH 7 and attemperature 35oC. Similarly, yeast extract proved to be the best carbon source for decolorization purpose. Theresults imply that the isolate SS1 could be used for the removal of the reactive dyes from textile effluents.

  16. STATISTICAL INVESTIGATION OF ADSORPTION OF TWO REACTIVE TEXTILE DYES BY VARIOUS ADSORBENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmühan DANIŞ

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry, in which uses the dyestuffs containing coloured and complex chemical compounds, is both water consumer and water pollutant. The removal of these compounds from the wastewaters is one of the most important problems in the textile industry. In this study, the adsorption of two reactive dyes (Red Px and Yellow P onto Aşkale and Balkaya lignites, Bensan clay and powdered active carbon (PAC from aqueous solution was statistically investigated. The adsorption time, dye concentration, solid/liquid ratio and mixing rate were chosen as parameters. The effects of these parameters on the amount of dye adsorbed by the adsorbents were determined. The results obtained have been statistically evaluated by using the stepwise method and SPSS Sortware version (9.1. The experimental observations and statistical evaluations shown that the effective parameters on the adsorption are equilibrium dye concentration and solid/liquid ratio. It was found that the adsorptive behaviours of both lignites and clay are similar to each other, but powdered active carbon displays different adsorptive behaviour. Finally, the empirical equations showing the relation between amount of dye adsorbed and the effective parameters were developed.

  17. Bioremediation of coractive blue dye by using Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the textile dye wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunar, N. M.; Mon, Z. K.; Rahim, N. A.; Leman, A. M.; Airish, N. A. M.; Khalid, A.; Ali, R.; Zaidi, E.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater released from the textile industry contains variety substances, mainly dyes that contains a high concentration of color and organic. In this study the potential for bacterial decolorization of coractive blue dye was examined that isolated from textile wastewater. The optimum conditions were determined for pH, temperature and initial concentration of the dye. The bacteria isolated was Pseudomonas spp. The selected bacterium shows high decolorization in static condition at an optimum of pH 7.0. The Pseudomonas spp. could decolorize coractive blue dye by 70% within 24 h under static condition, with the optimum of pH 7.0. Decolorization was confirmed by using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. This present study suggests the potential of Pseudomonas spp. as an approach in sustainable bioremediation that provide an efficient method for decolorizing coractive blue dye.

  18. Dye-sensitized PS-b-P2VP-templated nickel oxide films for photoelectrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, Julien; Bräutigam, Maximilian; Kaeffer, Nicolas; Queyriaux, Nicolas; Field, Martin J; Schacher, Felix H; Popp, Jürgen; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Dietzek, Benjamin; Artero, Vincent

    2015-06-06

    Moving from homogeneous water-splitting photocatalytic systems to photoelectrochemical devices requires the preparation and evaluation of novel p-type transparent conductive photoelectrode substrates. We report here on the sensitization of polystyrene-block-poly-(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock copolymer-templated NiO films with an organic push-pull dye. The potential of these new templated NiO film preparations for photoelectrochemical applications is compared with NiO material templated by F108 triblock copolymers. We conclude that NiO films are promising materials for the construction of dye-sensitized photocathodes to be inserted into photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells. However, a combined effort at the interface between materials science and molecular chemistry, ideally funded within a Global Artificial Photosynthesis Project, is still needed to improve the overall performance of the photoelectrodes and progress towards economically viable PEC devices.

  19. Chromed Leather Dyeing Peculiarities when Deliming with Peracetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Kęstutis BELEŠKA; Virgilijus VALEIKA; Justa ŠIRVAITYTĖ; Violeta VALEIKIENĖ

    2013-01-01

    The research was aimed to investigate the influence of deliming with peracetic acid on leather dyeing kinetics. Hydrophobic C.I. Acid Red 213 and hydrophilic C.I. Acid Red 423 dyes were used. Sorption of dye depends on hydrophobicity/hydrophility of dye and dyeing temperature. Equilibrium of process is reached faster using hydrophobic C.I. Acid Red 213 at 45 ºC. However, both control and experimental leather fibres adsorb more hydrophilic dye C.I. Acid Red 423 and this fact does not depend on...

  20. The effect of dendrimer on cotton dyeability with direct dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakzar Bafrooei F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of cotton fabric with poly(propylene imine dendrimer enhanced its colour strength using C.I. Direct Red 81 and C.I. Direct Blue 78. Application of this dendrimer and the direct dye simultaneously on cotton fabric by the exhaust and the continuous dyeing method were studied; slight improvements in the dyeing results were obtained. Pretreatment of the cotton fabric with dendrimer in an emulsion form using the pad-dry method followed by continuous dyeing markedly increased the colour strength. In addition, level dyeing was obtained, and no negative effects on the fastness properties of the dyes used were observed.

  1. Diffusion dynamics in micro-fluidic dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in opto-fluidic dye lasers, where the liquid laser dye in a channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. Our studies suggest that for micro-fluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules alone....... By relying on diffusion rather than convection to generate the necessary dye replenishment, our observation potentially allows for a significant simplification of opto-fluidic dye laser device layouts, omitting the need for cumbersome and costly external fluidic handling or on-chip micro-fluidic pumping...

  2. Splitting of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, J.; Zilges, A.; Butler, P.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Scheck, M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Lagoyannis, A.; Kruecken, R.; Ring, P.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Sonnabend, K.; Popescu, L.; Savran, D.; Stoica, V. I.; Woertche, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years investigations have been made to study the electric Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) systematically, mainly in semi-magic nuclei. For this purpose the well understood high resolution (γ,γ') photon scattering method is used. In complementary (α,α'γ) coincidence experiments at E α = 136 MeV a similar γ-energy resolution and a high selectivity to E1 transitions can be obtained at the Big-Bite Spectrometer (BBS) at KVI, Groningen. In comparison to the (γ,γ') method a structural splitting of the PDR is observed in the N = 82 nuclei 138 Ba and 140 Ce and in the Z = 50 nucleus 124 Sn. The low energy part is excited in (γ,γ') as well as in (α,α'γ) while the high energy part is observed in (γ,γ') only. The experimental results together with theoretical QPM and RQTBA calculations on 124 Sn which are able to reproduce the splitting of the PDR qualitatively are presented. The low-lying group of J π = 1 - states seem to represent the more isoscalar neutron-skin oscillation of the PDR while the energetically higher-lying states seemingly belong to the transitional region between the PDR and the isovector Giant Dipole Resonance (IVGDR).

  3. Splitting of the weak hypercharge quantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H. B.; Brene, N.

    1991-08-01

    The ratio between the weak hypercharge quantum for particles having no coupling to the gauge bosons corresponding to the semi-simple component of the gauge group and the smallest hypercharge quantum for particles that do have such couplings is exceptionally large for the standard model, considering its rank. To compare groups with respect to this property we propose a quantity χ which depends on the rank of the group and the splitting ratio of the hypercharge(s) to be found in the group. The quantity χ has maximal value for the gauge group of the standard model. This suggests that the hypercharge splitting may play an important rôle either in the origin of the gauge symmetry at a fundamental scale or in some kind of selection mechanism at a scale perhaps nearer to the experimental scale. Such a selection mechanism might be what we have called confusion which removes groups with many (so-called generalized) automorphisms. The quantity χ tends to be large for groups with few generalized automorphisms.

  4. Splitting of the weak hypercharge quantum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N. (Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1991-08-05

    The ratio between the weak hypercharge quantum for particles having no coupling to the gauge bosons corresponding to the semi-simple component of the gauge group and the smallest hypercharge quantum for particles that do have such couplings is exceptionally large for the standard model, considering its rank. To compare groups with respect to this property we propose a quantity {chi} which depends on the rank of the group and the splitting ratio of the hypercharge(s) to be found in the group. The quantity {chi} has maximal value for the gauge group of the standard model. This suggests that the hypercharge splitting may play an important role either in the origin of the gauge symmetry at a fundamental scale or in some kind of selection mechanism at a scale perhaps nearer to the experimental scale. Such a selection mechanism might be what we have called confusion which removes groups with many (so-called generalized) automorphisms. The quantity {chi} tends to be large for groups with few generalized automorphisms. (orig.).

  5. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    1994-06-01

    Split torque designs, proposed as alternatives to traditional planetary designs for helicopter main rotor transmissions, can save weight and be more reliable than traditional designs. This report presents the results of an analytical study of the system dynamics and performance of a split torque gearbox that uses a balance beam mechanism for load sharing. The Lagrange method was applied to develop a system of equations of motion. The mathematical model includes time-varying gear mesh stiffness, friction, and manufacturing errors. Cornell's method for calculating the stiffness of spur gear teeth was extended and applied to helical gears. The phenomenon of sidebands spaced at shaft frequencies about gear mesh fundamental frequencies was simulated by modeling total composite gear errors as sinusoid functions. Although the gearbox has symmetric geometry, the loads and motions of the two power paths differ. Friction must be considered to properly evaluate the balance beam mechanism. For the design studied, the balance beam is not an effective device for load sharing unless the coefficient of friction is less than 0.003. The complete system stiffness as represented by the stiffness matrix used in this analysis must be considered to precisely determine the optimal tooth indexing position.

  6. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  7. Zeeman splitting of surface-scattered neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.; Adenwalla, S.; De Haan, V.O.; Van Well, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    If a beam of slow neutrons impinges on a solid at grazing incidence, the neutrons reflected can be used to probe the composition and magnetization of the solid near its surface. In this process, the incident and reflected neutrons generally have identical kinetic energies. Here we report the results of an experiment in which subtle inelastic scattering processes are revealed as relatively large deviations in scattering angle. The neutrons are scattered from a ferromagnetic surface in the presence of a strong ambient magnetic field, and exhibit a small but significant variation in kinetic energy as a function of the reflection angle. This effect is attributable to the Zeeman splitting of the energies of the neutron spin states due to the ambient magnetic field: some neutrons flip their spins upon reflection from the magnetized surface, thereby exchanging kinetic energy for magnetic potential energy. The subtle effects of Zeeman splitting are amplified by the extreme sensitivity of grazing-angle neutron scattering, and might also provide a useful spectroscopic tool if significant practical obstacles (such as low interaction cross-sections) can be overcome. (author)

  8. Alteration of split renal function during Captopril treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio; Takayama, Teruhiko; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi; Yasuhara, Shuichirou; Miyamori, Isamu; Takeda, Ryoyu

    1987-01-01

    Two different methods to evaluate the alteration of split renal function following continued Captopril treatment were studied in a total of 21 patients with hypertension. Eight patients with renovascular hypertension (five with unilateral renal artery stenosis and three with bilateral renal artery stenoses), three patients with diabetic nephropathy, one patient with primary aldosteronism, and nine patients with essential hypertension were included. The studies were performed the day prior to receiving Captopril (baseline), and 6th or 7th day following continued Captopril treatment (37.5 mg or 75 mg/day). Split effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after injections of I-131 hippuran and Tc-99m DTPA were measured using kidney counting corrected for depth and dose, described by Schlegel and Gates. In the patients with renovascular hypertension, split GFR in the stenotic kidney was significantly decreased 6th or 7th day following continued Captopril treatment compared to a baseline value. And split ERPF in the stenotic kidney was slightly increased although significant increase of split ERPF was not shown. In the patients with diabetic nephropathy, primary aldosteronism or essential hypertension, on the other hand, split GFR was not changed and split ERPF was slightly increased. These findings suggest that the Captopril induced alterations of split renal function may be of importance for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. For this purpose, split GFR determination is more useful than split ERPF determination. (author)

  9. Solar photoassisted advanced oxidation process of azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato-Garcia, D; Buitrón, G

    2009-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes assisted with natural solar radiation in CPC type reactors (parabolic collector compound), was applied for the degradation of three azo dyes: acid orange (AO7), acid red 151 (AR151) and acid blue 113 (AB113). Fenton, Fenton like and ferrioxalate-type complexes showed to be effective for degrade the azo linkage and moieties in different extensions. Initially, the best dose of reagents (Fe(3 + )-H(2)O(2)) was determined through a factorial experimental design, next, using response surface methodologies, the reagent consumption was reduced up to 40%, maintaining in all cases high decolourisation percentages (>98%) after 60 min. of phototreatment. In this work, it was also studied the effect of concentration changes of the influent between 100-300 mg/L and the operation of the photocatalytic process near neutral conditions (pH 6.0-6.5) by using ferrioxalate type complex (FeOx).

  10. Molecular concepts of water splitting. Nature's approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Nicholas; Lubitz, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Energiekonversion, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Based on studies of natural systems, much has also been learned concerning the design principles required for biomimetic catalysis of water splitting and hydrogen evolution. In summary, these include use of abundant and inexpensive metals, the effective protection of the active sites in functional environments, repair/replacement of active components in case of damage, and the optimization of reaction rates. Biomimetic chemistry aims to mimic all these features; many labs are working toward this goal by developing new approaches in the design and synthesis of such systems, encompassing not only the catalytic center, but also smart matrices and assembly via self-organization. More stable catalysts that do not require self-repair may be obtained from fully artificial (inorganic) catalytic systems that are totally different from the biological ones and only apply some basic principles learned from nature. Metals other than Mn/Ca, Fe, and Ni could be used (e.g. Co) in new ligand spheres and other matrices. For light harvesting, charge separation/stabilization, and the effective coupling of the oxidizing/reducing equivalents to the redox catalysts, different methods have been proposed - for example, covalently linked molecular donor-acceptor systems, photo-voltaic devices, semiconductor-based systems, and photoactive metal complexes. The aim of all these approaches is to develop catalytic systems that split water with sunlight into hydrogen and oxygen while displaying high efficiency and long-term stability. Such a system - either biological, biomimetic, or bioinspired - has the potential to be used on a large scale to produce 'solar fuels' (e.g. hydrogen or secondary products thereof). (orig.)

  11. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  12. In-situ investigation of adsorption of dye and coadsorbates on TiO 2 films using QCM-D, fluorescence and AFM techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Harms, Hauke A.

    2013-09-11

    Simultaneous adsorption of dye molecules and coadsorbates is important for the fabrication of high-efficiency dyesensitized solar cells, but its mechanism is not well understood. Herein, we use a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D) to study dynamically and quantitatively the sensitization of TiO2 in situ. We investigate dye loading for a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex (Z907), of a triphenylamine-based D-π-A dye (Y123), and of a ullazine sensitizer (JD21), as well as the simultaneous adsorption of the latter two with the coadsorbate chenodeoxycholic acid. By combining the QCM-D technique with fluorescence measurements, we quantify molar ratios between the dye and coadsorbate. Furthermore, we will present first studies using liquid-phase AFM on the adsorbed dye monolayer, thus obtaining complementary microscopic information that may lead to understanding of the adsorption mechanism on the molecular scale. © 2013 SPIE.

  13. Hydrogen evolution catalyzed by cobalt diimine-dioxime complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeffer, Nicolas; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Artero, Vincent

    2015-05-19

    bulk. It led us to evidence that these cobalt complexes, as cobaloximes and other cobalt salts do, decompose under turnover conditions where they are free in solution. Of note, this process generates in aqueous phosphate buffer a nanoparticulate film consisting of metallic cobalt coated with a cobalt-oxo/hydroxo-phosphate layer in contact with the electrolyte. This novel material, H2-CoCat, mediates H2 evolution from neutral aqueous buffer at low overpotentials. Finally, the potential of diimine-dioxime cobalt complexes for light-driven H2 generation has been attested both in water/acetonitrile mixtures and in fully aqueous solutions. All together, these studies hold promise for the construction of molecular-based photoelectrodes for H2 evolution and further integration in dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DS-PECs) able to achieve overall water splitting.

  14. Chromed Leather Dyeing Peculiarities when Deliming with Peracetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis BELEŠKA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to investigate the influence of deliming with peracetic acid on leather dyeing kinetics. Hydrophobic C.I. Acid Red 213 and hydrophilic C.I. Acid Red 423 dyes were used. Sorption of dye depends on hydrophobicity/hydrophility of dye and dyeing temperature. Equilibrium of process is reached faster using hydrophobic C.I. Acid Red 213 at 45 ºC. However, both control and experimental leather fibres adsorb more hydrophilic dye C.I. Acid Red 423 and this fact does not depend on temperature. The diffusion coefficient of dye C.I. Acid Red 423 calculated according to Weisz model is higher when dyeing conventional leather. The change of deliming method has influence on chromed leather dyeing but this influence is not significant. The adsorption ability of control leather fibres at 30 ºC and 45 ºC is higher using both dyes as compared to the dyeing the experimental one. The increase of dyeing temperature increases the adsorption ability independently on the sort of leather fibres. Such dependence of the adsorption ability on the temperature shows that hydrophobic action and van der Waals forces prevail between dye and fibres during dyeing process. The Gibbs energy changes show that adsorption of both dyes by leather fibres independently on their sort is a spontaneous process. The affinity of both dyes to conventional leather fibres is higher comparing with experimental one. The change of enthalpy is positive in all cases, and it means that the driving force of the dyeing is the change of entropy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.4431

  15. Radiation Degradation of some Commercial Dyes in Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.; Abdel-Aal, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation Kinetic due to irradiation of aqueous solutions of some commercial dyes, (Reactive Blue Brilliant, Reactive Yellow and Basic Blue 9 Dye (Methylene Blue 2 B), was studied. Factors affecting radiolysis of the dye such as dye concentration, irradiation dose, dose rate and ph of the solutions were studied. The effects of different additives such as nitrogen oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite on the degradation process were investigated. The effect of irradiation dose on the different dye solutions at various concentrations, showed that the Reactive Yellow G. was very sensitive to gamma radiation. The effect of the ph of the dye solutions proved to very according type of the dye. Synergistic treatment of the dye solutions by irradiation and conventional method showed that saturation of the dye solutions with nitrogen did not enhance the radiation degradation of the dyes, while addition of oxygen resulted in a remarkable enhancement of the degradation of the dyes. Also, the addition of sodium hypochlorite (5%) and the oxidation by hydrogen peroxide resulted in more radiation degradation, Also, adsorption of the dyes onto Ga and some ion exchangers showed that Ga has the highest adsorption capacity. Radiation degradation of the toxic dye pollutants and their removal from wastewater down to concentrations not exceeding the maximum permissible concentration (Mpc) according to international standards, proved to be better than conventional methods of purification alone

  16. Effect of Mixing Dyes and Solvent in Electrolyte Toward Characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Using Natural Dyes as The Sensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Nurrisma; Nurul Amalia, Silviyanti S.; Yudoyono, Gatut; Endarko

    2017-07-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) using natural dyes (chlorophyll, curcumin from turmeric extract, and anthocyanin from mangosteen extract) have been successfully fabricated for determining the effect of variation natural dyes, mixing dyes and acetonitrile in electrolyte toward characterization of DSSC. DSSC consists of five parts namely ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) as a substrate; TiO2 as semiconductor materials; natural dyes as an electron donor; electrolyte as electron transfer; and carbon as a catalyst that can convert light energy into electric energy. Two types of gel electrolyte based on PEG that mixed with liquid electrolyte have utilized for analyzing the lifetime of DSSC. Type I used distilled water as a solvent whilst type II used acetonitrile as a solvent with addition of concentration of KI and iodine. The main purpose of study was to investigate influence of solvent in electrolyte, variation of natural dyes and mixing dyes toward an efficiency that resulted by DSSC. The result showed that electrolyte type II is generally better than type I with efficiency 0,0556 and 0,0456 %, respectively. An efficiency values which resulted from a variation of mixed three natural dyes showed the greatest efficiency compared to mixed two natural dyes and one dye, with an efficiency value can be achieved at 0,0194 % for chlorophyll; 0,111 % for turmeric; 0,0105 % for mangosteen; 0,0244% (mangosteen and chlorophyll); 0,0117 % (turmeric and mangosteen); 0,0158 % (turmeric and chlorophyll); and 0.0566 % (mixed three natural dyes).

  17. Numerical simulation and experiment on multilayer stagger-split die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Li, Mingzhe; Han, Qigang; Yang, Yunfei; Wang, Bolong; Sui, Zhou

    2013-05-01

    A novel ultra-high pressure device, multilayer stagger-split die, has been constructed based on the principle of "dividing dies before cracking." Multilayer stagger-split die includes an encircling ring and multilayer assemblages, and the mating surfaces of the multilayer assemblages are mutually staggered between adjacent layers. In this paper, we investigated the stressing features of this structure through finite element techniques, and the results were compared with those of the belt type die and single split die. The contrast experiments were also carried out to test the bearing pressure performance of multilayer stagger-split die. It is concluded that the stress distributions are reasonable and the materials are utilized effectively for multilayer stagger-split die. And experiments indicate that the multilayer stagger-split die can bear the greatest pressure.

  18. Quantitative analysis on electric dipole energy in Rashba band splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jisook; Rhim, Jun-Won; Kim, Changyoung; Ryong Park, Seung; Hoon Shim, Ji

    2015-09-01

    We report on quantitative comparison between the electric dipole energy and the Rashba band splitting in model systems of Bi and Sb triangular monolayers under a perpendicular electric field. We used both first-principles and tight binding calculations on p-orbitals with spin-orbit coupling. First-principles calculation shows Rashba band splitting in both systems. It also shows asymmetric charge distributions in the Rashba split bands which are induced by the orbital angular momentum. We calculated the electric dipole energies from coupling of the asymmetric charge distribution and external electric field, and compared it to the Rashba splitting. Remarkably, the total split energy is found to come mostly from the difference in the electric dipole energy for both Bi and Sb systems. A perturbative approach for long wave length limit starting from tight binding calculation also supports that the Rashba band splitting originates mostly from the electric dipole energy difference in the strong atomic spin-orbit coupling regime.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and dyeing assessment of novel acid azo dyes and mordent acid azo dyes based on 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone on wool and silk fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIRUBHAI J. DESAI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel acid mono azo and mordent acid mono azo dyes were synthesised by the coupling of diazonium salt solution of different aromatic amines with 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone. The resulting dyes were characterized by spectral techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR and UV–visible spectroscopy. The dyeing performance of all the dyes was evaluated on wool and silk fabrics. The dyeing of chrome pre-treated wool and silk fabrics showed better hues on mordented fabrics. Dyeing of wool and silk fabrics resulted in pinkish blue to red shades with very good depth and levelness. The dyed fabrics showed excellent to very good light, washing, perspiration, sublimation and rubbing fastness. The results of antibacterial studies of chrome pre-treated fabrics revealed that the toxicity of mordented dyes against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis bacteria was fairly good.

  20. Plasma dye coating as straightforward and widely applicable procedure for dye immobilization on polymeric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Lieselot; Vancoillie, Gertjan; Minshall, Peter; Lava, Kathleen; Steyaert, Iline; Schoolaert, Ella; Van De Walle, Elke; Dubruel, Peter; De Clerck, Karen; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2018-03-16

    Here, we introduce a novel concept for the fabrication of colored materials with significantly reduced dye leaching through covalent immobilization of the desired dye using plasma-generated surface radicals. This plasma dye coating (PDC) procedure immobilizes a pre-adsorbed layer of a dye functionalized with a radical sensitive group on the surface through radical addition caused by a short plasma treatment. The non-specific nature of the plasma-generated surface radicals allows for a wide variety of dyes including azobenzenes and sulfonphthaleins, functionalized with radical sensitive groups to avoid significant dye degradation, to be combined with various materials including PP, PE, PA6, cellulose, and PTFE. The wide applicability, low consumption of dye, relatively short procedure time, and the possibility of continuous PDC using an atmospheric plasma reactor make this procedure economically interesting for various applications ranging from simple coloring of a material to the fabrication of chromic sensor fabrics as demonstrated by preparing a range of halochromic materials.

  1. In-situ Decolorization of Residual Dye Effluent in Textile Jet Dyeing Machine by Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmed Shaikh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new idea of decolourization was investigated in which residual dyeing effluent from textile dyeing process was treated using O3 in the same machine where it was generated. The novelty comes from the idea of doing dyeing and treatment simultaneously. At the completion of dyeing process, O3 gas was injected directly into the machine to remove colour and COD from the wastewater. To evaluate the effectiveness of new method, pilot-scale studies were performed, and decolourization of residual dyeing effluents containing C.I. Reactive Orange 7, C.I. Reactive Blue 19, and C.I. Reactive Black 5 was carried out in specially built textile jet dyeing machine. The results showed that almost 100% colour removal and 90% COD reduction were achieved when process conditions such as pH, dye concentration (mg/L, ozone production rate (g/hr, and temperature were optimized. The study concludes that new method has a great potential to eliminate the need of a separate end-of-the-pipe wastewater treatment system, thus offering an on-site and cost-effective solution.

  2. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 6. Malachite green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, C J

    2016-08-01

    Malachite green was discovered independently by two researchers in Germany in the 19(th) century and found immediate employment as a dye and a pigment. Subsequently, other uses, such as staining biological specimens, emerged. A much later application was the control of fungal and protozoan infections in fish, for which the dye remains popular, although illegal in many countries owing to a variety of toxicity problems. In solution, malachite green can exist as five different species depending on the pH. The location of the positive charge of the colored cation on a carbon atom or a nitrogen atom is still debated. The original names of this dye, and their origins, are briefly surveyed.

  3. Splitting methods in communication, imaging, science, and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Osher, Stanley; Yin, Wotao

    2016-01-01

    This book is about computational methods based on operator splitting. It consists of twenty-three chapters written by recognized splitting method contributors and practitioners, and covers a vast spectrum of topics and application areas, including computational mechanics, computational physics, image processing, wireless communication, nonlinear optics, and finance. Therefore, the book presents very versatile aspects of splitting methods and their applications, motivating the cross-fertilization of ideas. .

  4. Generalized field-splitting algorithms for optimal IMRT delivery efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, Srijit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sahni, Sartaj [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ranka, Sanjay [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2007-09-21

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) uses radiation beams of varying intensities to deliver varying doses of radiation to different areas of the tissue. The use of IMRT has allowed the delivery of higher doses of radiation to the tumor and lower doses to the surrounding healthy tissue. It is not uncommon for head and neck tumors, for example, to have large treatment widths that are not deliverable using a single field. In such cases, the intensity matrix generated by the optimizer needs to be split into two or three matrices, each of which may be delivered using a single field. Existing field-splitting algorithms used the pre-specified arbitrary split line or region where the intensity matrix is split along a column, i.e., all rows of the matrix are split along the same column (with or without the overlapping of split fields, i.e., feathering). If three fields result, then the two splits are along the same two columns for all rows. In this paper we study the problem of splitting a large field into two or three subfields with the field width as the only constraint, allowing for an arbitrary overlap of the split fields, so that the total MU efficiency of delivering the split fields is maximized. Proof of optimality is provided for the proposed algorithm. An average decrease of 18.8% is found in the total MUs when compared to the split generated by a commercial treatment planning system and that of 10% is found in the total MUs when compared to the split generated by our previously published algorithm. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org.

  5. One-loop triple collinear splitting amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Simon; Buciuni, Francesco; Peraro, Tiziano [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-28

    We study the factorisation properties of one-loop scattering amplitudes in the triple collinear limit and extract the universal splitting amplitudes for processes initiated by a gluon. The splitting amplitudes are derived from the analytic Higgs plus four partons amplitudes. We present compact results for primitive helicity splitting amplitudes making use of super-symmetric decompositions. The universality of the collinear factorisation is checked numerically against the full colour six parton squared matrix elements.

  6. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: ahmadzsahmer@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO{sub 2} film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO{sub 2} coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m{sup 2} with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO{sub 2} paste gives a uniform TiO{sub 2} film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the V{sub OC} decrement is less significant compared to the latter.

  7. [1,10]Phenanthroline based cyanine dyes as fluorescent probes for ribonucleic acids in live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalska, Vladyslava; Kuperman, Marina; Varzatskii, Oleg; Kryvorotenko, Dmytro; Kinski, Elisa; Schikora, Margot; Janko, Christina; Alexiou, Christoph; Yarmoluk, Sergiy; Mokhir, Andriy

    2017-12-01

    A series of monomethine, trimethine- and styrylcyanine dyes based on a [1,10]phenanthroline moiety was synthesized, characterized and investigated as potential fluorescent probes for nucleic acids in cell free settings and in cells. The dyes were found to be weakly fluorescent in the unbound state, whereas upon the binding to dsDNA or RNA their emission intensity raised up to 50 times (for monomethine benzothiazole derivative FT1 complexed with RNA). The strongest fluorescence intensity in assemblies with dsDNA and RNA was observed for the trimethine benzothiazole derivative FT4. The quantum yield of FT4 fluorescence in its complex with dsDNA was found to be 1.5% and the binding constant (K b) was estimated to be 7.9 × 104 M-1 that is a typical value for intercalating molecules. The FT4 dye was found to be cell membrane permeable. It stains RNA rich components—the nucleoli and most probably the cytoplasmic RNA. FT4 bound to RNAs delivers a very strong fluorescence signal, which makes this easily accessible dye a potentially useful alternative to known RNA stains, e.g. expensive SYTO® 83. The advantage of FT4 is its easy synthetic access including no chromatographic purification steps, which will be reflected in its substantially lower price.

  8. Two-photon fluorescence and fluorescence imaging of two styryl heterocyclic dyes combined with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Liu, Shu-yao; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Ying-kai; Qiao, Cong-de; Liu, Zhao-e

    2016-03-05

    Two new styryl heterocyclic two-photon (TP) materials, 4-[4-(N-methyl)styrene]-imidazo [4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline-benzene iodated salt (probe-1) and 4,4-[4-(N-methyl)styrene]-benzene iodated salt (probe-2) were successfully synthesized and studied as potential fluorescent probes of DNA detection. The linear and nonlinear photophysical properties of two compounds in different solvents were investigated. The absorption, one- and two-photon fluorescent spectra of the free dye and dye-DNA complex were also examined to evaluate their photophysical properties. The binding constants of dye-DNA were obtained according to Scatchard equation with good values. The results showed that two probes could be used as fluorescent DNA probes by two-photon excitation, and TP fluorescent properties of probe-1 are superior to that of probe-2. The fluorescent method date indicated that the mechanisms of dye-DNA complex interaction may be groove binding for probe-1 and electrostatic interaction for probe-2, respectively. The MTT assay experiments showed two probes are low toxicity. Moreover, the TP fluorescence imaging of DNA detection in living cells at 800 nm indicated that the ability to locate in cell nuclei of probe-1 is better than that of probe-2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Excimer Pumped Pulsed Tunable Dye Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Michael G.

    1988-06-01

    It has been recently shown and reported for the first time at this meeting, that Excimer pumping of a single-mode, short-cavity, grazing-incidence, longitudinally-pumped pulsed dye laser is feasible. In this paper the key concepts upon which this latest development is based are presented and are in a somewhat unusual form. This manuscript describes five specific dye laser examples. The five examples represent a progression from the simplest type of dye laser to the single-mode version mentioned above. The examples thus serve as a tutorial introduction to potential users of dye lasers. The article is organized into five sections or STEPS, each of which describes a different pulsed dye laser. Since the subtle points about dye lasers are best appreciated only after one actually attempts to build a working model, a PROCEDURES category is included in which details about the construction of the particular form of laser are given. As one reads through this category, think of it as looking over the shoulder of the laser builder. The NOTES category which follows is a brief but essential discussion explaining why various components and procedures are used, as well as how laser performance specifications are obtained. This subsection can he viewed as a discussion with the laser builder concerning the reasons for specific actions and choices made in the assembly of the example laser. The last category contains COMMENTS which provide additional related information pertaining to the example laser that goes beyond the earlier annotated discussion. If you like, these are the narrator's comments. At the end of the article, after the five sequential forms of the laser have been presented, there is a brief summation.

  10. Photophysical and laser characteristics of pyrromethene 567 dye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Narrow-band laser performance of alcohol solutions of pyrromethene 567 ... curves of each dye solution were obtained by scanning the wavelength of the dye ... solutions, using ethanol and methanol solvents, are summarized in table 1.

  11. Novel Tunable Dye Laser for Lidar Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A tunable dye laser for Lidar detection will be fabricated based on the innovative dye-doped Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (HPDLC) technology. The...

  12. Determination of 8 Synthetic Food Dyes by Solid Phase Extraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Synthetic colors, Food, Fruit flavored drinks, Solid phase extraction, RP-HPLC. Tropical Journal of ..... food dyes by thin-layer chromatography-fast atom bombardment ... food dyes in soft drinks containing natural pigments by.

  13. Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene......-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative...... hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus...

  14. Precise identification and manipulation of adsorption geometry of donor-π-acceptor dye on nanocrystalline TiO₂ films for improved photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Ma, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Jingchuan; Shan, Xinyan; Li, Hui; Lu, Xinghua; Meng, Sheng

    2014-12-24

    Adsorption geometry of dye molecules on nanocrystalline TiO2 plays a central role in dye-sensitized solar cells, enabling effective sunlight absorption, fast electron injection, optimized interface band offsets, and stable photovoltaic performance. However, precise determination of dye binding geometry and proportion has been challenging due to complexity and sensitivity at interfaces. Here employing combined vibrational spectrometry and density functional calculations, we identify typical adsorption configurations of widely adopted cyanoacrylic donor-π bridge-acceptor dyes on nanocrystalline TiO2. Binding mode switching from bidentate bridging to hydrogen-bonded monodentate configuration with Ti-N bonding has been observed when dye-sensitizing solution becomes more basic. Raman and infrared spectroscopy measurements confirm this configuration switch and determine quantitatively the proportion of competing binding geometries, with vibration peaks assigned using density functional theory calculations. We further found that the proportion of dye-binding configurations can be manipulated by adjusting pH value of dye-sensitizing solutions. Controlling molecular adsorption density and configurations led to enhanced energy conversion efficiency from 2.4% to 6.1% for the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells, providing a simple method to improve photovoltaic performance by suppressing unfavorable binding configurations in solar cell applications.

  15. A Frequency Splitting Method For CFM Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    The performance of conventional CFM imaging will often be degraded due to the relatively low number of pulses (4-10) used for each velocity estimate. To circumvent this problem we propose a new method using frequency splitting (FS). The FS method uses broad band chirps as excitation pulses instead...... of narrow band pulses as in conventional CFM imaging. By appropriate filtration, the returned signals are divided into a number of narrow band signals which are approximately disjoint. After clutter filtering the velocities are found from each frequency band using a conventional autocorrelation estimator......, a 5 MHz linear array transducer was used to scan a vessel situated at 30 mm depth with a maximum flow velocity of 0.1 m/s. The pulse repetition frequency was 1.8 kHz and the angle between the flow and the beam was 60 deg. A 15 mus chirp was used as excitation pulse and 40 independent velocity...

  16. Gray divorce: Explaining midlife marital splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Jocelyn Elise

    2017-12-06

    Recent research suggests that one out of every four divorces in the United States is now "gray," meaning that at least one half of the couple has reached the age of 50 when the marriage breaks down. To understand why this age group-the Baby Boomer generation-is splitting up, this study conducted 40 in-depth, semistructured interviews with men and 40 with women who have experienced a gray divorce in their lifetimes. Respondents' beliefs in an expressive individualistic model of marriage, where partnerships are only valuable if they help individuals achieve personal growth, were compared against their potential adherence to what I call a commitment-based model of marriage, where binding, romantic love holds couples together unless there is severe relationship strain. The results demonstrated that the commitment-based model most strongly governs marriage and the decision to divorce among Baby Boomers for both sexes, although some specific reasons for divorce differ for men and women.

  17. Noncommutative instantons via dressing and splitting approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Zalan; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Wolf, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Almost all known instanton solutions in noncommutative Yang-Mills theory have been obtained in the modified ADHM scheme. In this paper we employ two alternative methods for the construction of the self-dual U(2) BPST instanton on a noncommutative euclidean four-dimensional space with self-dual noncommutativity tensor. Firstly, we use the method of dressing transformations, an iterative procedure for generating solutions from a given seed solution, and thereby generalize Belavin's and Zakharov's work to the noncommutative setup. Secondly, we relate the dressing approach with Ward's splitting method based on the twistor construction and rederive the solution in this context. It seems feasible to produce nonsingular noncommutative multi-instantons with these techniques. (author)

  18. Split green fluorescent protein as a modular binding partner for protein crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Hau B.; Hung, Li-Wei; Yeates, Todd O.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    A strategy using a new split green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a modular binding partner to form stable protein complexes with a target protein is presented. The modular split GFP may open the way to rapidly creating crystallization variants. A modular strategy for protein crystallization using split green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a crystallization partner is demonstrated. Insertion of a hairpin containing GFP β-strands 10 and 11 into a surface loop of a target protein provides two chain crossings between the target and the reconstituted GFP compared with the single connection afforded by terminal GFP fusions. This strategy was tested by inserting this hairpin into a loop of another fluorescent protein, sfCherry. The crystal structure of the sfCherry-GFP(10–11) hairpin in complex with GFP(1–9) was determined at a resolution of 2.6 Å. Analysis of the complex shows that the reconstituted GFP is attached to the target protein (sfCherry) in a structurally ordered way. This work opens the way to rapidly creating crystallization variants by reconstituting a target protein bearing the GFP(10–11) hairpin with a variety of GFP(1–9) mutants engineered for favorable crystallization

  19. Optofluidic third order distributed feedback dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    which has a refractive index lower than that of the polymer. In combination with a third order DFB grating, formed by the array of nanofluidic channels, this yields a low threshold for lasing. The laser is straightforward to integrate on lab-on-a-chip microsystems where coherent, tunable light......This letter describes the design and operation of a polymer-based third order distributed feedback (DFB) microfluidic dye laser. The device relies on light confinement in a nanostructured polymer film where an array of nanofluidic channels is filled by capillary action with a liquid dye solution...

  20. Energy efficiency investments in the context of split incentives among French households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    The residential sector offers considerable potential for reducing energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly through energy-efficient renovations. The objective of this study is twofold. First, I aim to provide initial empirical evidence of the extent to which split incentives between landlords and tenants may lead to underinvestment. Second, I investigate the influence of tax credits and energy burdens on energy efficiency expenditures. Given the complexity of studying the decision to invest in energy-saving renovations, I use a bivariate Tobit model to compare decisions about energy-efficient works and repair works, even when the renovation expenditures seem quite similar. The analysis shows that tenants are doubly penalized: they have high energy expenditures due to energy-inefficient building characteristics, and because they are poorer than homeowners, they are unable to invest in energy-saving systems. The results also confirm that tax credits are ineffective in the split incentives context. In terms of public policy, the government should focus on low-income tenants, and mandatory measures such as minimum standards seem appropriate. Financial support from a third-party financer also might be a solution. - Highlights: • I provide empirical evidence of underinvestment due to split incentives. • I investigate the influence of tax credit and energy burden on EE expenditures. • Results show that tax credits are ineffective in a context of split incentives. • Mandatory measures such as minimum standards seem to be appropriate. • Financial support from a third party financer can be also a solution.