Sample records for splitting approach osa

  1. Personalized Management Approach for OSA. (United States)

    Carberry, Jayne C; Amatoury, Jason; Eckert, Danny J


    OSA is a heterogeneous disorder. If left untreated, it has major health, safety, and economic consequences. In addition to varying levels of impairment in pharyngeal anatomy (narrow/collapsible airway), nonanatomical "phenotypic traits" are also important contributors to OSA for most patients. However, the majority of existing therapies (eg, CPAP, oral appliances, weight loss, positional therapy, upper airway surgery) target only the anatomical cause. These are typically administered as monotherapy according to a trial and error management approach in which the majority of patients are first prescribed CPAP. Despite its high efficacy, CPAP adherence remains unacceptably low, and second-line therapies have variable and unpredictable efficacies. Recent advances in knowledge regarding the multiple causes of OSA using respiratory phenotyping techniques have identified new targets or "treatable traits" to direct therapy. Identification of the traits and development of therapies that selectively target one or more of the treatable traits has the potential to personalize the management of this chronic health condition to optimize patient outcomes according to precision medicine principles. This brief review highlights the latest developments and emerging therapies for personalized management approaches for OSA. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular concepts of water splitting. Nature's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Nicholas; Lubitz, Wolfgang


    Based on studies of natural systems, much has also been learned concerning the design principles required for biomimetic catalysis of water splitting and hydrogen evolution. In summary, these include use of abundant and inexpensive metals, the effective protection of the active sites in functional environments, repair/replacement of active components in case of damage, and the optimization of reaction rates. Biomimetic chemistry aims to mimic all these features; many labs are working toward this goal by developing new approaches in the design and synthesis of such systems, encompassing not only the catalytic center, but also smart matrices and assembly via self-organization. More stable catalysts that do not require self-repair may be obtained from fully artificial (inorganic) catalytic systems that are totally different from the biological ones and only apply some basic principles learned from nature. Metals other than Mn/Ca, Fe, and Ni could be used (e.g. Co) in new ligand spheres and other matrices. For light harvesting, charge separation/stabilization, and the effective coupling of the oxidizing/reducing equivalents to the redox catalysts, different methods have been proposed - for example, covalently linked molecular donor-acceptor systems, photo-voltaic devices, semiconductor-based systems, and photoactive metal complexes. The aim of all these approaches is to develop catalytic systems that split water with sunlight into hydrogen and oxygen while displaying high efficiency and long-term stability. Such a system - either biological, biomimetic, or bioinspired - has the potential to be used on a large scale to produce 'solar fuels' (e.g. hydrogen or secondary products thereof). (orig.)

  3. Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan


    We consider the problem of scheduling a user in a multi-user wireless environment in a distributed manner. The opportunistic splitting algorithm is applied to find the best group of users without reporting the channel state information to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We use a score-based approach with the splitting algorithm to introduce time and throughput fairness while exploiting the multi-user diversity of the network. Analytical and simulation results are given to show that the modified score-based splitting algorithm works well as a fair scheduling scheme with good spectral efficiency and reduced feedback. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Predicting uptake of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA): a belief-based theoretical approach. (United States)

    Skinner, Timothy; McNeil, Lindsay; Olaithe, Michelle; Eastwood, Peter; Hillman, David; Phang, Janet; de Regt, Tamara; Bucks, Romola S


    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder, for which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is a standard treatment. Despite its well-established efficacy, many patients choose not to initiate CPAP treatment. The present study investigated the degree to which biological measures (e.g. Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index [AHI]), symptom experiences (e.g. fatigue) and illness representations (e.g. perceived consequences) predict the decision of individuals newly diagnosed with OSA to undergo a trial of CPAP therapy. Four hundred forty-nine individuals (316 males) newly diagnosed with OSA. Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) were administered at time of sleep study. These, patient demographics and sleep study variables were used to determine factors predicting patient decision to proceed with a trial of CPAP. The participants were most likely to attribute their OSA to unchangeable and psychological factors. For those with moderate OSA (AHI, 15 to 30) IPQ-R illness consequence was predictive of decision to initiate CPAP (p = 0.002). For severe OSA (AHI >30) age, ESS and IPQ illness causal beliefs were predictive of decision to initiate CPAP (p < 0.001). Illness beliefs are important determinants of the choice of recently diagnosed OSA patients whether or not to undertake a trial of CPAP therapy. Concerns about illness consequences were important in those with moderate OSA. In severe OSA, sleepiness symptoms are more prominent and a more significant determinant of CPAP uptake along with age and causal beliefs.

  5. Photocatalytic water splitting: Quantitative approaches toward photocatalysis by design

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro


    A widely used term, “photocatalysis”, generally addresses photocatalytic (energetically down-hill) and photosynthetic (energetically up-hill) reactions and refers to the use of photonic energy as a driving force for chemical transformations, i.e., electron reorganization to form/break chemical bonds. Although there are many such important reactions, this contribution focuses on the fundamental aspects of photocatalytic water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen by using light from the solar spectrum, which is one of the most investigated photosynthetic reactions. Photocatalytic water splitting using solar energy is considered to be artificial photosynthesis that produces a solar fuel because the reaction mimics nature’s photosynthesis not only in its redox reaction type but also in its thermodynamics (water splitting: 1.23 eV vs. glucose formation: 1.24 eV). To achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting, all of the parameters, though involved at different timescales and spatial resolutions, should be optimized because the overall efficiency is obtained as the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. The purpose of this review article is to provide the guidelines of a concept, “photocatalysis by design”, which is the opposite of “black box screening”; this concept refers to making quantitative descriptions of the associated physical and chemical properties to determine which events/parameters have the most impact on improving the overall photocatalytic performance, in contrast to arbitrarily ranking different photocatalyst materials. First, the properties that can be quantitatively measured or calculated are identified. Second, the quantities of these identified properties are determined by performing adequate measurements and/or calculations. Third, the obtained values of these properties are integrated into equations so that the kinetic/energetic bottlenecks of specific properties/processes can be determined, and the properties can

  6. Cognitive MAC designs for OSA networks

    CERN Document Server

    Derakhshani, Mahsa


    This SpringerBrief presents recent advances in the cognitive MAC designs for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) networks. It covers the basic MAC functionalities and MAC enhancements of IEEE 802.11. Later chapters discuss the existing MAC protocols for OSA and classify them based on characteristic features. The authors provide new research in adaptive carrier sensing-based MAC designs tailored for OSA, which optimize spectrum utilization and ensure a peaceful coexistence of licensed and unlicensed systems. Analytically devised via optimization and game-theoretic approaches, these adaptive M

  7. Depression and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hara Ruth


    Full Text Available Abstract For over two decades clinical studies have been conducted which suggest the existence of a relationship between depression and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA. Recently, Ohayon underscored the evidence for a link between these two disorders in the general population, showing that 800 out of 100,000 individuals had both, a breathing-related sleep disorder and a major depressive disorder, with up to 20% of the subjects presenting with one of these disorders also having the other. In some populations, depending on age, gender and other demographic and health characteristics, the prevalence of both disorders may be even higher: OSA may affect more than 50% of individuals over the age of 65, and significant depressive symptoms may be present in as many as 26% of a community-dwelling population of older adults. In clinical practice, the presence of depressive symptomatology is often considered in patients with OSA, and may be accounted for and followed-up when considering treatment approaches and response to treatment. On the other hand, sleep problems and specifically OSA are rarely assessed on a regular basis in patients with a depressive disorder. However, OSA might not only be associated with a depressive syndrome, but its presence may also be responsible for failure to respond to appropriate pharmacological treatment. Furthermore, an undiagnosed OSA might be exacerbated by adjunct treatments to antidepressant medications, such as benzodiazepines. Increased awareness of the relationship between depression and OSA might significantly improve diagnostic accuracy as well as treatment outcome for both disorders. In this review, we will summarize important findings in the current literature regarding the association between depression and OSA, and the possible mechanisms by which both disorders interact. Implications for clinical practice will be discussed.

  8. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization. (United States)

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y


    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces.

  9. A Different Clinical Type of OSAS: REM-Related OSAS

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    Handan İnönü Köseoğlu


    Full Text Available Objective: Rapid eye movement (REM is an entity in which the collapsibility of upper respiratory tract increases. Different opinions have been proposed with regard to the definition of REM-related obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Some authors consider REM-related OSAS as the first presentation, and others consider it as a different clinical type of OSAS. We aimed to compare the clinical and polysomnographic findings of REM-related and non-REM-related OSAS patients to test whether REM-related OSAS is a different clinical type OSAS or the manifestation of early stage or the onset of OSAS. Methods: The study had a retrospective design. Patients with an initial diagnosis of sleep-related breathing disorders were later diagnosed to have OSAS based on an apnea–hypopnea index (AHI of ≥5 and were divided into the following two groups: patients with AHINREM of 2 whose REM recordings were obtained for at least 30 min were defined as having “REM-related OSAS,” and those who did not meet this description were defined as having “non-REM-related OSAS.” Results: A total of 329 patients with a mean age of 51±10 years were included in the study. Thirty-five (10.6% patients with OSAS were REM-related and 294 (89.4% were non-REM-related. Age, body mass index, smoking status, and concomitant diseases were comparable between groups (p>0.05. In REM-related patients, AHI was lower, REM duration was longer, and mean oxygen saturations were comparatively higher (p<0.05. Conclusion: Similarities between groups in age, body mass index, and concomitant disease suggest that REM-related OSAS is a different clinical type of OSAS, rather than the early phase of OSAS.

  10. The Split-Ballot Multitrait-Multimethod Approach: Implementation and Problems (United States)

    Revilla, Melanie; Saris, Willem E.


    Saris, Satorra, and Coenders (2004) proposed a new approach to estimate the quality of survey questions, combining the advantages of 2 existing approaches: the multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) and the split-ballot (SB) ones. Implemented in practice, this new approach led to frequent problems of nonconvergence and improper solutions. This article uses…

  11. Surgery for Retrocalcaneal Bursitis: A Tendon-splitting versus a Lateral Approach (United States)

    Anderson, John A.; Suero, Eduardo; O’Loughlin, Padhraig F.


    For patients with refractory retrocalcaneal bursitis (Haglund’s syndrome), the most effective surgical approach has not been defined. We asked whether patients undergoing the tendon-splitting approach and the lateral approach would have comparably effective relief of pain for both types of calcaneal ostectomies. We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients (31 feet) who underwent the tendon-splitting approach and compared their results with 32 previous patients (35 feet) who had a lateral incision. Minimum followup was 12 months (mean, 16 months; range, 12–23 months) for the tendon-splitting group and 15 months (mean, 51 months; range, 15–109 months) for the lateral group. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved from 43 points preoperatively to 81 points (range, 8–100 points) postoperatively in the tendon-splitting group and from 54 points to 86 points (range, 55–100 points) in the lateral group. The mean physical component score of the Short Form-36, version 2, at followup was 52 (range, 22–61) in the tendon-splitting group and 49 (range, 34–63) in the lateral group. The median return to normal function was 4.1 months (range, 3–13 months) in the tendon-splitting group and 6.4 months (range, 4–20 months) in the lateral group. Both approaches to calcaneal ostectomy provided symptomatic pain relief. However, patients in the tendon-splitting group returned to normal function quicker than patients in the lateral group. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18465183

  12. Evaluation of the Split-H approach to modeling non-buoyant releases from vent stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.


    Position C.2.b of Regulatory Guide 1.111 describes an approach to modeling the diffusion of effluents from roof top vents and short stacks using an elevated plume model under some conditions and using a ground-level source building wake model under other conditions. The approach is sometimes called a Split-H model. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the technical basis for and utility of the concept behind the Split-H model, outlines the devlopment of an upgraded model with those estimated using the Regulatory Guide Split-H model and a ground-level building wake model, and discusses alternatives to the Regulatory Guide position that the NRC may wish to consider. Concentration comparisons are made using model results for meteorological data from 18 nuclear power plant sites

  13. The impact of pasture conversion on nutrient cycles of tropical streams on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: a paired catchment approach (United States)

    Bringhurst, K.; Jordan, P.


    Changes in nutrient and hydrologic cycles caused by land disturbance typically lead to detrimental changes to ecosystems. This study utilized a paired, small-catchment approach to examine the effect of deforestation on nutrient transfer and hydrological discharge and the resulting impact on soils and streams of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. Two first order streams were chosen, the first catchment had been cleared for pasture and the second consisted of undisturbed tropical wet forest. Soil concentrations of organic matter, total and soil available P were higher in the forested catchment with decreases of >33% of each in the deforested catchment. The effect of deforestation on stream discharge was a 59% increase in flow during the wet season and an increase in the Q5:Q95 ratio showing that the deforested stream was flashier. The deforested catchment loss of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) increased 95% over the forested catchment. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) showed an increase in load of 43% in the deforested catchment compared to the forested catchment. The molar N:P ratios were lower than the Redfield ratio and both streams were well below the level at which N-limitation of lotic algal growth has been reported, therefore it is hypothesized that N is the limiting nutrient in streams in the study area. Soil nutrient depletion in the deforested catchment, accelerated by a changed hydrologic regime, is the likely trajectory of soil-water interactions in this tropical ecosystem. This will likely be among the secondary impacts should deforestation become widespread along this stretch of the Pacific coastline, with associated eutrophication of receiving transitional and coastal waters.

  14. An acoustic-convective splitting-based approach for the Kapila two-phase flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikelder, M.F.P. ten, E-mail: [EDF R& D, AMA, 7 boulevard Gaspard Monge, 91120 Palaiseau (France); Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Daude, F. [EDF R& D, AMA, 7 boulevard Gaspard Monge, 91120 Palaiseau (France); IMSIA, UMR EDF-CNRS-CEA-ENSTA 9219, Université Paris Saclay, 828 Boulevard des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau (France); Koren, B.; Tijsseling, A.S. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    In this paper we propose a new acoustic-convective splitting-based numerical scheme for the Kapila five-equation two-phase flow model. The splitting operator decouples the acoustic waves and convective waves. The resulting two submodels are alternately numerically solved to approximate the solution of the entire model. The Lagrangian form of the acoustic submodel is numerically solved using an HLLC-type Riemann solver whereas the convective part is approximated with an upwind scheme. The result is a simple method which allows for a general equation of state. Numerical computations are performed for standard two-phase shock tube problems. A comparison is made with a non-splitting approach. The results are in good agreement with reference results and exact solutions.

  15. Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management Based on Improved Logic Threshold Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhumu Fu


    Full Text Available We design an improved logic threshold approach of energy management for a power-split HEV assisted by an integrated starter generator (ISG. By combining the efficiency map and the optimum torque curve of internal combustion engine (ICE with the state of charge (SOC of batteries, the improved logic threshold controller manages the ICE within its peak efficiency region at first. Then the electrical power demand is established based on the ICE energy output. On that premise, a variable logic threshold value K is defined to achieve the power distribution between the ISG and the electric motor/generator (EMG. Finally, simulation models for the power-split HEV with improved logic threshold controller are established in ADVISOR. Compared to the equally power-split HEV with the logic threshold controller, when using the improved logic threshold controller, the battery power consumption, the ICE efficiency, the fuel consumption, and the motor driving system efficiency are improved.

  16. A modified deltoid splitting approach with axillary nerve bundle mobilization for proximal humeral fracture fixation. (United States)

    Shin, Young Ho; Lee, Young Ho; Choi, Ho Sung; Kim, Min Bom; Pyo, Sung Hee; Baek, Goo Hyun


    The deltopectoral and the deltoid splitting approach are commonly used for the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. While the deltopectoral approach requires massive soft tissue devascularization, the deltoid splitting approach needs an additional skipped incision to avoid axillary nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to describe a modified anterolateral deltoid splitting approach with axillary nerve bundle mobilization in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures and to assess its radiologic and clinical outcomes. Twenty-two consecutive patients with proximal humeral fractures were treated with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis by using a modified anterolateral deltoid splitting approach with axillary nerve bundle mobilization. The patients were divided into two groups: 10 patients of Neer type 2 or 3 fractures vs. 12 patients of Neer type 4 fractures. The mean age of the study population was 63.5 years (range: 30-80 years). Six patients had valgus impacted fractures, and nine had fractures with medial comminution. Fracture union was achieved in all cases. The mean time to union was 8.6 weeks (range: 6-12 weeks). Major complications, such as avascular necrosis of the humeral head and varus collapse at the fracture site, were not observed. No patients had clinically detectable sensory deficits in the axillary nerve distribution or paralysis of the anterior deltoid muscle. The mean neck-shaft angle at the final follow-up was 136.9° (range, 115°-159°). The mean visual analog score for patient satisfaction was 9.1 (range, 6-10), and the mean Neer scores were 93.5 (range, 84-100). There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to radiologic and clinical outcomes except Neer scores: 95.8 (range: 86-100) in Neer type 2 or 3 fractures and 91.7 (range: 84-99) in Neer type 4 fractures. The use of a modified anterolateral deltoid splitting approach with axillary nerve bundle mobilization in the treatment of proximal humeral

  17. Is the Axillary Nerve at Risk During a Deltoid-Splitting Approach for Proximal Humerus Fractures? (United States)

    Traver, Jessica L; Guzman, Miguel A; Cannada, Lisa K; Kaar, Scott G


    The strain placed across the axillary nerve during the deltoid-splitting approach could correlate with microtrauma and place the patient at risk of a neuropraxia or more permanent injury. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the change in length and strain exhibited by the axillary nerve during the deltoid-splitting approach and to determine the presence of any microscopic structural damage. The axillary nerve was identified through a lateral deltoid-splitting approach in 10 fresh-frozen cadaver specimens. Two suture tags were placed near the lateral margins of the incision. The initial distance between the 2 tags was measured and the distance at each retractor click of a Kölbel retractor until full expansion (6 clicks). The retractor was then released for a 1-minute break at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. The strain at each interval was calculated as change in length divided by the initial distance. The section of nerve in the field of exposure was excised for histologic analysis. The location of the axillary nerve was 6.32 cm (range, 5.20-7.6 cm) from the anterolateral aspect of the acromion. The mean final increase in length was 8.42 mm (range, 6.43-12.26 mm). The strain increased to a final mean of 51% (range, 28%-99%). Histologic analysis confirmed disruption of the myelin sheaths and axonal retraction. This study demonstrated a progressive, irreversible increase in axillary nerve length and strain, resulting in microscopic damage to the neuronal structure during a deltoid-splitting approach. Prolonged soft tissue retraction can place the axillary nerve at substantial risk for injury.

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) and Cardiovascular System. (United States)

    Lombardi, Carolina; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Montano, Nicola; Losurdo, Anna; Parati, Gianfranco


    There is increasing evidence of a relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular diseases. The strong association between OSA and arterial hypertension, in particular in patients with resistant hypertension and/or a non-dipping profile, has been extensively reported. The relationship between OSA and high blood pressure (BP) has been found independent from a number of confounders, but several factors may affect this relationship, including age and sex. It is thus important to better assess pathophysiologic and clinical interactions between OSA and arterial hypertension, also aimed at optimizing treatment approaches in OSA and hypertensive patients with co-morbidities. Among possible mechanisms, cardiovascular autonomic control alterations, altered mechanics of ventilation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system should be considered with particular attention. Additionally, available studies also support the occurrence of a bidirectional association between OSA and cardiovascular alterations, in particular heart failure, stroke and cardiac arrhythmias, emphasizing that greater attention is needed to both identify and treat sleep apneas in patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, a number of aspects of such a relationship are still to be clarified, in particular with regard to gender differences, effect of sleep-related breathing disorders in childhood, and influence of OSA treatment on cardiovascular risk, and they may represent important targets for future studies.

  19. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: Surgery first approach for correction of skeletal Class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Peddu


    Full Text Available Most of the skeletal malocclusions which require orthognathic surgeries are treated by traditional approach which requires time-consuming and unesthetic presurgical orthodontic phase. Surgery first approach (SFA avoids these disadvantages of the traditional approach. A 24-year-old female patient with skeletal and dental class II malocclusion due to retrognathic mandible was treated with SFA. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy with mandibular advancement was done immediately after initial alignment and closure of the existing spaces in the maxillary arch. Angle's class I molar and canine relation was achieved after surgery. Bonding of the mandibular arch was done after 1 month of orthognathic surgery and treatment was completed within 13 months. A wrap-around retainer was placed in upper arch, and bonded lingual retainer was given in the lower arch.

  20. Anatomic cadaveric study of the extensile extensor digitorum communis splitting approach for exposing the ulnar coronoid process. (United States)

    Sukegawa, Koji; Suzuki, Takane; Ogawa, Yasufumi; Ueno, Keisuke; Kiuchi, Hitoshi; Kanazuka, Aya; Matsuura, Yusuke; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki


    The extensile extensor digitorum communis (EDC) splitting approach can access the ulnar coronoid process (UCP), which can be used to treat terrible triad injuries. The present study anatomically examined the extensile EDC splitting approach for exposing the UCP. Twenty fresh frozen cadaveric upper limbs were dissected. The splitting length of the EDC and detachment length of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB)-extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL)-brachioradialis (BR) origin were measured to expose the UCP. The distance between the most distal site of the EDC splitting and the point at which the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) crosses the anterior aspect of the radial shaft, and the distance between the most proximal site of the ECRB-ECRL-BR origin detachment and the point at which the radial nerve crosses the anterior aspect of the humeral shaft were measured. The splitting length of the EDC was 45.4 ± 4.8 mm, the detachment length of the ECRB-ECRL-BR origin was 30.2 ± 4.7 mm, the distance between the distal site of the EDC splitting and PIN was 10.6 ± 6.1 mm (minimum distance, 1.1 mm), and the distance between the proximal site of the ECRB-ECRL-BR origin detachment and the radial nerve was 49.5 ± 9.7 mm (minimum distance, 31.7 mm). The extensile EDC splitting approach can sufficiently expose the UCP. However, splitting must be performed carefully because the most distal site of the EDC splitting is close to the point at which the PIN crosses the anterior aspect of the radial shaft (average distance, 10 mm; minimum distance, 1 mm). Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficient and Effective Total Variation Image Super-Resolution: A Preconditioned Operator Splitting Approach

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    Li-Li Huang


    Full Text Available Super-resolution is a fusion process for reconstructing a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution images. This paper proposes a novel approach to image super-resolution based on total variation (TV regularization. We applied the Douglas-Rachford splitting technique to the constrained TV-based variational SR model which is separated into three subproblems that are easy to solve. Then, we derive an efficient and effective iterative scheme, which includes a fast iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithm for denoising problem, a very simple noniterative algorithm for fusion part, and linear equation systems for deblurring process. Moreover, to speed up convergence, we provide an accelerated scheme based on precondition design of initial guess and forward-backward splitting technique which yields linear systems of equations with a nice structure. The proposed algorithm shares a remarkable simplicity together with a proven global rate of convergence which is significantly better than currently known lagged diffusivity fixed point iteration algorithm and fast decoupling algorithm by exploiting the alternating minimizing approach. Experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  2. General approach for engineering small-molecule-binding DNA split aptamers. (United States)

    Kent, Alexandra D; Spiropulos, Nicholas G; Heemstra, Jennifer M


    Here we report a general method for engineering three-way junction DNA aptamers into split aptamers. Split aptamers show significant potential for use as recognition elements in biosensing applications, but reliable methods for generating these sequences are currently lacking. We hypothesize that the three-way junction is a "privileged architecture" for the elaboration of aptamers into split aptamers, as it provides two potential splitting sites that are distal from the target binding pocket. We propose a general method for split aptamer engineering that involves removing one loop region, then systematically modifying the number of base pairs in the remaining stem regions in order to achieve selective assembly only in the presence of the target small molecule. We screen putative split aptamer sequence pairs using split aptamer proximity ligation (StAPL) technology developed by our laboratory, but we validate that the results obtained using StAPL translate directly to systems in which the aptamer fragments are assembling noncovalently. We introduce four new split aptamer sequences, which triples the number of small-molecule-binding DNA split aptamers reported to date, and the methods described herein provide a reliable route for the engineering of additional split aptamers, dramatically advancing the potential substrate scope of DNA assembly based biosensors.

  3. Fast Geodesic Active Fields for Image Registration Based on Splitting and Augmented Lagrangian Approaches. (United States)

    Zosso, Dominique; Bresson, Xavier; Thiran, Jean-Philippe


    In this paper, we present an efficient numerical scheme for the recently introduced geodesic active fields (GAF) framework for geometric image registration. This framework considers the registration task as a weighted minimal surface problem. Hence, the data-term and the regularization-term are combined through multiplication in a single, parametrization invariant and geometric cost functional. The multiplicative coupling provides an intrinsic, spatially varying and data-dependent tuning of the regularization strength, and the parametrization invariance allows working with images of nonflat geometry, generally defined on any smoothly parametrizable manifold. The resulting energy-minimizing flow, however, has poor numerical properties. Here, we provide an efficient numerical scheme that uses a splitting approach; data and regularity terms are optimized over two distinct deformation fields that are constrained to be equal via an augmented Lagrangian approach. Our approach is more flexible than standard Gaussian regularization, since one can interpolate freely between isotropic Gaussian and anisotropic TV-like smoothing. In this paper, we compare the geodesic active fields method with the popular Demons method and three more recent state-of-the-art algorithms: NL-optical flow, MRF image registration, and landmark-enhanced large displacement optical flow. Thus, we can show the advantages of the proposed FastGAF method. It compares favorably against Demons, both in terms of registration speed and quality. Over the range of example applications, it also consistently produces results not far from more dedicated state-of-the-art methods, illustrating the flexibility of the proposed framework.

  4. Passenger transport modal split based on budgets and implication for energy consumption: Approach and application in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuwei; Liu, Deshun; Jiang, Kejun


    Transport will be the strongest growing energy demand sector in the future, especially in developing countries like China, and it needs more attention. The evolution of transport structure is very important in the dynamic of transport development, and therefore worth emphasis. In this study, a modal split model maximizing spatial welfare and constrained by travel money budget and time budget is developed. This approach differs from the general econometric-based approach used in most existing macro transport studies and deals with the cost and speed of transport modes as important variables explicitly. The model is then applied to China's transport sector together with sensitivity test despite many data problems. The decomposition of energy consumption generated from bottom-up model based on this modal split identified the importance of modal split and turnover expansion in the next 30 years, which should be a stronger area of focus in transportation studies. (author)

  5. Passenger transport modal split based on budgets and implication for energy consumption: Approach and application in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuwei; Liu, Deshun [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM) and Institute of Energy, Environment, and Economy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang, Kejun [Energy Research Institute, National Development and Reform Commission, Beijing 100084 (China)


    Transport will be the strongest growing energy demand sector in the future, especially in developing countries like China, and it needs more attention. The evolution of transport structure is very important in the dynamic of transport development, and therefore worth emphasis. In this study, a modal split model maximizing spatial welfare and constrained by travel money budget and time budget is developed. This approach differs from the general econometric-based approach used in most existing macro transport studies and deals with the cost and speed of transport modes as important variables explicitly. The model is then applied to China's transport sector together with sensitivity test despite many data problems. The decomposition of energy consumption generated from bottom-up model based on this modal split identified the importance of modal split and turnover expansion in the next 30 years, which should be a stronger area of focus in transportation studies. (author)

  6. Latarjet procedure using subscapularis split approach offers better rotational endurance than partial tenotomy for anterior shoulder instability. (United States)

    Ersen, Ali; Birisik, Fevzi; Ozben, Hakan; Atalar, Ata Can; Sahinkaya, Turker; Seyahi, Aksel; Demirhan, Mehmet


    Latarjet, which is a coracoid bone block procedure, is an effective treatment for anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss. During this reconstructive procedure the subscapularis may be tenotomized or be split to expose the glenoid neck. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of subscapularis management on functional outcomes and internal and external rotation durability and strength. Hypothesis is that the subscapularis split approach will result in better functional results and superior internal rotation strength and endurance. The study included 48 patients [median age 30 (range 16-69); 42 males, 6 females], who underwent a modified Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder instability. There were 20 patients in the subscapularis tenotomy group and 28 patients in the subscapularis split group. The groups were compared isokinetically using a computerized dynamometer for internal and external rotation durability and strength. At the latest follow-up, the patients were evaluated with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and ROWE scores for functional outcomes. At a median follow-up period of 25 (range 12-73) months after the Latarjet procedure, the internal rotation durability was significantly higher in the split group (p = 0.045). However, a statistically significant difference could not be found for internal and external rotational strengths (n.s.). There was also no significant difference between the final ASES and ROWE scores (n.s.). Although both approaches offer promising results, the subscapularis split approach appears to provide better internal rotation durability compared to subscapularis tenotomy. Therefore, the subscapularis split approach may be more preferable for the management of the subscapularis muscle during Latarjet procedure. Retrospective cohort study, Level III.

  7. Asymmetric transmission in planar chiral split-ring metamaterials: Microscopic Lorentz-theory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Galynsky, Vladimir M.; Zhukovsky, Sergei


    The electronic Lorentz theory is employed to explain the optical properties of planar split-ring metamaterials. Starting from the dynamics of individual free carriers, the electromagnetic response of an individual split-ring meta-atom is determined, and the effective permittivity tensor of the me......The electronic Lorentz theory is employed to explain the optical properties of planar split-ring metamaterials. Starting from the dynamics of individual free carriers, the electromagnetic response of an individual split-ring meta-atom is determined, and the effective permittivity tensor...... of the metamaterial is calculated for normal incidence of light. Whenever the split ring lacks in-plane mirror symmetry, the corresponding permittivity tensor has a crystallographic structure of an elliptically dichroic medium, and the metamaterial exhibits optical properties of planar chiral structures. Its...

  8. Mathematical Objects through the Lens of Two Different Theoretical Perspectives: APOS and OSA (United States)

    Font Moll, Vicenç; Trigueros, María; Badillo, Edelmira; Rubio, Norma


    This paper presents a networking of two theories, the APOS Theory and the ontosemiotic approach (OSA), to compare and contrast how they conceptualize the notion of a mathematical object. As context of reflection, we designed an APOS genetic decomposition for the derivative and analyzed it from the point of view of OSA. Results of this study show…

  9. Distal biceps tendon rupture reconstruction using muscle-splitting double-incision approach. (United States)

    Tarallo, Luigi; Mugnai, Raffaele; Zambianchi, Francesco; Adani, Roberto; Catani, Fabio


    To evaluate the clinical and functional results after repair of distal biceps tendon tears, following the Morrey's modified double-incision approach. We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients with distal rupture of biceps brachii treated between 2003 and 2012 in our Orthopedic Department with muscle-splitting double-incision technique. Outcome measures included the Mayo elbow performance, the DASH questionnaire, patient's satisfaction, elbow and forearm motion, grip strength and complications occurrence. At an average 18 mo follow-up (range, 7 mo-10 years) the average Mayo elbow performance and DASH score were respectively 97.2 and 4.8. The elbow flexion range was 94%, extension was -2°, supination was 93% and pronation 96% compared with the uninjured limb. The mean grip strength, expressed as percentage of respective contralateral limb, was 83%. The average patient satisfaction rating on a Likert scale (from 0 to 10) was 9.4. The following complications were observed: 3 cases of heterotopic ossification (6.4%), one (2.1%) re-rupture of the tendon at the site of reattachment and 2 cases (4.3%) of posterior interosseous nerve palsy. No complication required further surgical treatment. This technique allows an anatomic reattachment of distal biceps tendon at the radial tuberosity providing full functional recovery with low complication rate.

  10. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach. (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Jak, Suzanne


    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists-and probably the most crucial one-is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  11. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Jak, Suzanne


    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists—and probably the most crucial one—is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study. PMID:27242639

  12. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike W.-L. Cheung


    Full Text Available Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists – and probably the most crucial one – is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  13. Security Analysis of Parlay/OSA Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Di Caprio, G.; Etalle, Sandro; Gnesi, S.; Lenzini, Gabriele; Moiso, C.

    This paper analyzes the security of the Trust and Security Management (TSM) protocol, an authentication protocol which is part of the Parlay/OSA Application Program Interfaces (APIs). Architectures based on Parlay/OSA APIs allow third party service providers to develop new services that can access,

  14. Security Analysis of Parlay/OSA Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Di Caprio, G.; Etalle, Sandro; Gnesi, S.; Lenzini, Gabriele; Moiso, C.; Villain, B.


    This paper analyzes the security of the Trust and Security Management (TSM) protocol, an authentication protocol which is part of the Parlay/OSA Application Program Interfaces (APIs). Architectures based on Parlay/OSA APIs allow third party service providers to develop new services that can access,

  15. Grid refinement for aeroacoustics in the lattice Boltzmann method: A directional splitting approach (United States)

    Gendre, Félix; Ricot, Denis; Fritz, Guillaume; Sagaut, Pierre


    This study focuses on grid refinement techniques for the direct simulation of aeroacoustics, when using weakly compressible lattice Boltzmann models, such as the D3Q19 athermal velocity set. When it comes to direct noise computation, very small errors on the density or pressure field may have great negative consequences. Even strong acoustic density fluctuations have indeed a clearly lower amplitude than the hydrodynamic ones. This work deals with such very weak spurious fluctuations that emerge when a vortical structure crosses a refinement interface, which may contaminate the resulting aeroacoustic field. We show through an extensive literature review that, within the framework described above, this issue has never been addressed before. To tackle this problem, we develop an alternative algorithm and compare its behavior to a classical one, which fits our in-house vertex-centered data structure. Our main idea relies on a directional splitting of the continuous discrete velocity Boltzmann equation, followed by an integration over specific characteristics. This method can be seen as a specific coupling between finite difference and lattice Boltzmann, locally on the interface between the two grids. The method is assessed considering two cases: an acoustic pulse and a convected vortex. We show how very small errors on the density field arise and propagate throughout the domain when a vortical flow crosses the refinement interface. We also show that an increased free stream Mach number (but still within the weakly compressible regime) strongly deteriorates the situation, although the magnitude of the errors may remain negligible for purely aerodynamic studies. A drastically reduced level of error for the near-field spurious noise is obtained with our approach, especially for under-resolved simulations, a situation that is crucial for industrial applications. Thus, the vortex case is proved useful for aeroacoustic validations of any grid refinement algorithm.

  16. A Modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Approach for Mimicking Dynamic Oscillatory Stress Fluctuations During Earthquake Rupture (United States)

    Braunagel, M. J.; Griffith, W. A.


    Past experimental work has demonstrated that rock failure at high strain rates occurs by fragmentation rather than discrete fracture and is accompanied by a dramatic increase in rock strength. However, these observations are difficult to reconcile with the assertion that pulverized rocks in fault zones are the product of impulsive stresses during the passage of earthquake ruptures, as the distance from the principal slip zones of some pulverized rock is too great to exceed fragmentation transition. One potential explanation to this paradox that has been suggested is that repeated loading over the course of multiple earthquake ruptures may gradually reduce the pulverization threshold, in terms of both strain rate and strength. We propose that oscillatory loading during a single earthquake rupture may further lower these pulverization thresholds, and that traditional dynamic experimental approaches, such as the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) wherein load is applied as a single, smooth, sinusoidal compressive wave, may not reflect natural loading conditions. To investigate the effects of oscillatory compressive loading expected during earthquake rupture propagation, we develop a controlled cyclic loading model on a SHPB apparatus utilizing two striker bars connected by an elastic spring. Unlike traditional SHPB experiments that utilize a gas gun to fire a projectile bar and generate a single compressive wave on impact with the incident bar, our modified striker bar assembly oscillates while moving down the gun barrel and generates two separate compressive pulses separated by a lag time. By modeling the modified assembly as a mass-spring-mass assembly accelerating due to the force of the released gas, we can predict the compression time of the spring upon impact and therefore the time delay between the generation of the first and second compressive waves. This allows us to predictably control load cycles with durations of only a few hundred microseconds. Initial

  17. Embryo splitting


    Karl Illmensee; Mike Levanduski


    Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board appr...

  18. Embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Illmensee


    Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.

  19. Converting a manned LCU into an unmanned surface vehicle (USV): an open systems architecture (OSA) case study


    Smith, Montrell F.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis demonstrates the process by which the concepts of open systems architecture (OSA) might be applied within the context of an existing systems engineering methodology to result in a flexible system. This is accomplished by combining an existing systems engineering process model with OSA management and business principles to execute a successful asset-repurposing program. To demonstrate utility of this OSA approach to systems ...

  20. Molecule-binding dependent assembly of split aptamer and γ-cyclodextrin: A sensitive excimer signaling approach for aptamer biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Fen [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Mine Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation, Environmental Science and Engineering College, Hubei Polytechnic University, Huangshi 435003 (China); Lian, Yan; Li, Jishan; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Yaping; Liu, Jinhua; Huang, Jin [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Yang, Ronghua, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)


    Graphical abstract: Adenosine-binding aptamer was splitted into two fragments P2 and P3 which labeled pyrene molecules, mainly produce monomer signal. γ-CD cavity brings P2 and P3 in close proximity, allowing for weak excimer emission. In the presence of target, P2 and P3 are expected to bind ATP and form an aptamer/target complex, leads to large increase of the pyrene excimer fluorescence. -- Highlights: •We assembled split aptamer and γ-cyclodextrin fluorescence biosensors for ATP detection. •The biosensor increased quantum yield and emission lifetime of the excimer. •Time-resolved fluorescence is effective for ATP assay in complicated environment. -- Abstract: A highly sensitive and selective fluorescence aptamer biosensors for the determination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was developed. Binding of a target with splitting aptamers labeled with pyrene molecules form stable pyrene dimer in the γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) cavity, yielding a strong excimer emission. We have found that inclusion of pyrene dimer in γ-cyclodextrin cavity not only exhibits additive increases in quantum yield and emission lifetime of the excimer, but also facilitates target-induced fusion of the splitting aptamers to form the aptamer/target complex. As proof-of-principle, the approach was applied to fluorescence detection of adenosine triphosphate. With an anti-ATP aptamer, the approach exhibits excimer fluorescence response toward ATP with a maximum signal-to-background ratio of 32.1 and remarkably low detection limit of 80 nM ATP in buffer solution. Moreover, due to the additive fluorescence lifetime of excimer induced by γ-cyclodextrin, time-resolved measurements could be conveniently used to detect as low as 0.5 μM ATP in blood serum quantitatively.

  1. Two different approaches to the affective profiles model: median splits (variable-oriented) and cluster analysis (person-oriented) (United States)

    MacDonald, Shane; Archer, Trevor


    Background. The notion of the affective system as being composed of two dimensions led Archer and colleagues to the development of the affective profiles model. The model consists of four different profiles based on combinations of individuals’ experience of high/low positive and negative affect: self-fulfilling, low affective, high affective, and self-destructive. During the past 10 years, an increasing number of studies have used this person-centered model as the backdrop for the investigation of between and within individual differences in ill-being and well-being. The most common approach to this profiling is by dividing individuals’ scores of self-reported affect using the median of the population as reference for high/low splits. However, scores just-above and just-below the median might become high and low by arbitrariness, not by reality. Thus, it is plausible to criticize the validity of this variable-oriented approach. Our aim was to compare the median splits approach with a person-oriented approach, namely, cluster analysis. Method. The participants (N = 2, 225) were recruited through Amazons’ Mechanical Turk and asked to self-report affect using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. We compared the profiles’ homogeneity and Silhouette coefficients to discern differences in homogeneity and heterogeneity between approaches. We also conducted exact cell-wise analyses matching the profiles from both approaches and matching profiles and gender to investigate profiling agreement with respect to affectivity levels and affectivity and gender. All analyses were conducted using the ROPstat software. Results. The cluster approach (weighted average of cluster homogeneity coefficients = 0.62, Silhouette coefficients = 0.68) generated profiles with greater homogeneity and more distinctive from each other compared to the median splits approach (weighted average of cluster homogeneity coefficients = 0.75, Silhouette coefficients = 0.59). Most of the

  2. Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Goswami


    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated spells of apnea.Collapsibility of hypopharynx due to multiple factors involving pharyngeal dilatormuscles and deposition of fat or fluid in the surrounding soft tissues are importantcontributing factors in its pathogenesis. OSA commonly affects obese individuals.Males are more commonly affected than the females probably due to the disturbingeffect of testosterone on sleep.The impact of OSA on human health include disturbances in endocrine and metabolicsystem affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adrenocorticotrophic-cortisolaxis, growth hormone, antidiuretic hormones and insulin resistance. There is atendency for predisposition of the metabolic syndrome or its components includingglycemic dysregulation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and physical parameters relatedto adiposity. On the other hand, several endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism,growth hormone excess, polycystic ovarian disease and testosterone replacement areassociated with increased prevalence of OSA.There is limited information on the effect of treatment of OSA by continuous positiveairway pressure (CPAP on the endocrine and metabolic disturbances. There is a needto conduct randomized controlled trials using CPAP therapy in patients with OSA andto study its cause and effect relationship with endocrine and metabolic disturbances.

  3. Chronic Cough and OSA: A New Association? (United States)

    Sundar, Krishna M.; Daly, Sarah E.


    Chronic cough is defined as cough lasting more than 2 months. Common causes for chronic cough in nonsmokers with normal chest radiographs and pulmonary functions include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), cough-variant asthma (CVA), and upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Current guidelines recommend diagnosing the etiology of chronic cough based upon the results of therapy for suspected GERD, CVA, and UACS. Despite following current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment, the cause for a significant proportion of chronic cough remains unexplained. Recent reports indicate the resolution of chronic cough following treatment of concomitantly diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Whether this represents a co-occurrence of two commonly prevalent disorders or a pathophysiologic relationship between OSA and cough remains unknown. This review offers insights into a pathophysiologic link between OSA and the commonly purported etiologies for cough, namely, GERD, UACS, and CVA. In addition, evidence for a relationship between airway inflammation that can trigger or perpetuate cough and OSA is discussed. This review explores mechanisms by which nocturnal continuous positive airway therapy resolves cough by improving underlying airway inflammation secondary to OSA and impacts upon GERD, CVA, and UACS. Citation: Sundar KM; Daly SE. Chronic cough and OSA: a new association? J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):669-677. PMID:22171209

  4. Split and Splice Approach for Highly Selective Targeting of Human NSCLC Tumors (United States)


    for Stx2A-specific intracellular delivery mechanism by replacing four lysine residues in its C-terminal part with arginines and confirming that the...Fig. 3. Substitution of all 4 lysines in the C-terminal intein part by arginines preserves its trans-splicing activity in vivo as revealed by using...not directly applicable for in vivo trans-splicing of Stx2A split toxin due to the presence of four lysines in the C-terminal part of the intein

  5. Can you die from obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS)?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, G


    Studies suggest an independent association between Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS) and cardiovascular death. The purpose of our study is to examine doctors\\' awareness of this association and to determine whether this correlates with recording of OSAS on death certificates. We contacted the Central Statistics Office (CSO) and obtained relevant mention of OSAS on death certificates. We surveyed doctors on their view of OSAS-related deaths, CSO data from 2008-2011 reveal two deaths with OSAS documented as a direct cause and 52 deaths with OSAS as a contributory cause. Seventy-five doctors\\' surveyed (41%) believe OSAS can be a direct cause of death and 177 (96%) believe OSAS can be an indirect cause of death. Only 22 (12%) had putdown OSAS as a cause of death. OSAS is seldom recorded on death certificates. This is at odds with epidemiological forecasts and contrary to an opinion poll from a selection of doctors.

  6. Effective one-band approach for the spin splittings in quantum wells (United States)

    Alekseev, P. S.; Nestoklon, M. O.


    The spin-orbit interaction of two-dimensional electrons in quantum wells grown from the III-V semiconductors consists of two parts with different symmetry: the Bychkov-Rashba and the Dresselhaus terms. The last term is usually attributed to the bulk spin-orbit Hamiltonian which reflects the Td symmetry of the zincblende lattice. While it is known that the quantum well interfaces may also contribute to the Dresselhaus term, the exact structure and relative importance of the interface and bulk contributions are not well understood. To deal with this problem, we perform tight-binding calculations of the spin splittings of the electron levels in [100] GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. We show that the obtained spin splittings can be adequately described within the one-band electron Hamiltonian containing, together with the bulk contribution, the two interface contributions to the Dresselhaus term. The magnitude of the interface contribution to the spin-orbit interaction for sufficiently narrow quantum wells is of the same order as the bulk contribution.

  7. Split-increment technique: an alternative approach for large cervical composite resin restorations. (United States)

    Hassan, Khamis A; Khier, Salwa E


    This article proposes and describes the split-increment technique as an alternative for placement of composite resin in large cervical carious lesions which extend onto the root surface. Two flat 1.5 mm thick composite resin increments were used to restore these cervical carious lesions. Prior to light-curing, two diagonal cuts were made in each increment in order to split it into four triangular-shaped flat portions. The first increment was applied to cover the entire axial wall and portions of the four surrounding walls. The second increment was applied to fill the cavity completely covering the first one and the rest of the four surrounding walls as well as sealing all cavity margins. This technique results in the reduction of the C-factor and the generated shrinkage stresses by directing the shrinking composite resin during curing towards the free, unbonded areas created by the two diagonal cuts. The proposed technique would also produce a more naturally looking restoration by inserting flat dentin and enamel increments of composite resin of a uniform thickness which closely resembles the arrangement of natural tooth structure.

  8. A systematic design approach for two planetary gear split hybrid vehicles (United States)

    Liu, Jinming; Peng, Huei


    Multiple power sources in a hybrid vehicle allow for flexible vehicle power-train operations, but also impose kinematic constraints due to component characteristics. This paper presents a design process that enables systematic search and screening through all three major dimensions of hybrid vehicle designs - system configuration, component sizing and control, to achieve optimal performance while satisfying the imposed constraints. An automated dynamic modelling method is first developed which enables the construction of hybrid vehicle model efficiently. A screening process then narrows down to configurations that satisfy drivability and operation constraints. Finally, a design and control optimisation strategy is carried out to obtain the best execution of each configuration. A case study for the design of a power-split hybrid vehicle with optimal fuel economy is used to demonstrate this overall hybrid vehicle design process.

  9. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar


    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  10. Influence of the perceived infidelity of online sexual activities (OSA) on OSA experiences among Chinese heterosexual individuals in committed relationships? (United States)

    Li, Diandian; Zheng, Lijun


    Previous studies have revealed that many individuals in settled relationships engage in online sexual activities (OSAs). Considering this, this study examined the influence the perceived infidelity of OSA has on the OSA experiences of individuals in such committed relationships. OSAs involve viewing sexually explicit material, seeking sexual partners, cybersex, and flirting. Taking these specific activities, we measured perceived infidelity concerning OSAs by asking our participants (N = 301) to select either "yes" or "no" in regard to whether they believed each constituted an infidelity. Further, the participants also mentioned if they had engaged in an OSA within the past 12 months and whether they considered engaging in OSA in general as an infidelity. Our results indicated that men are less likely to perceive OSAs as infidelities, and also that they engage more frequently than women in all subtypes of OSA. More specifically, individuals who did not perceive OSAs to be infidelities engaged in more sexual-partner seeking, cybersex, and flirting than their counterparts. Furthermore, perceived infidelity was found to mediate the relationship between gender and OSA experiences. The findings indicate that perceived infidelity for OSA shapes OSA experiences and contributes to gender differences in terms of opinions on and engagement with OSAs.

  11. online-osa festivalil / Tiia Johannson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johannson, Tiia, 1965-2002


    Prantsusmaa, Balti ja Põhjamaade video ja uue meedia festival "offline@online" Eesti Kunstiakadeemias. Ka eesti netikunstist, festivali korralduslikust küljest, tulevikuplaanidest. Erilist äramärkimist leidis sloveenia kunstniku Vuk Cosici töö "ascii history of moving images", online-presentatsioonide osas Lev Manovichi teoreetiline loeng "Uue meedia keel". Aadress festivali netikunsti vaatamiseks

  12. CPAP increases bronchial reactivity in OSAS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Korczyski


    Full Text Available Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP is a well known and safe method of treatment patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS. The effects of CPAP administration on the upper respiratory tract are known. However its effects on the lower respiratory tract still needs to be determined. Studies on bronchial hyperreactivity in patients treated by CPAP are contradictory. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of a 3-week CPAP treatment in patients with OSAS and to evaluate associations between changes in bronchial reactivity and clinical features of OSAS and lung function tests (LFT. Patients with newly diagnosed OSAS and lack of infection or chronic illness of the respiratory tract or other conditions which could influence bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR were included. Investigations were performed in 101 patients. There were 88 males and 13 females, mean age 51.5±11.2 years and BMI 32.6±5.4 kg·m–2. Qualified patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 76 patients to CPAP treatment group, 25 control group. Both groups did not differ in anthropometrics features, severity of OSAS and LFT. Metacholine challenge test (MchCT was performed at baseline and repeated after 3 weeks. Analysis of the individual results showed that in 11 patients the MchCT was positive (6 in the CPAP and 5 in the control groups. After 3 weeks in the group of CPAP treated patients an increase of BHR was noted. Log PC20M decreased from 1.38±0.3 to 1.26±0.5 (p<0.05. The number of patients with a positive result in the MchCT increased from 6 to 16 patients. There was no significant change in BHR in the control group. It was found that CPAP treated patients with BHR were older, had less severe OSAS and lower FEV1 (p<0.05. In none of the patients positive result of BHR did no affect compliance to CPAP treatment. Conclusions: CPAP therapy increases bronchial reactivity, but does not affect compliance to treatment.

  13. Difference between radiological and functional outcome with deltoid-splitting approach versus deltopectoral approach for the management of proximal humeral fractures with philos plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Waliullah


    Full Text Available Background: Proximal humeral fractures are one of the common fractures of upper extremity. Good results by various studies have been reported for proximal humeral locking plate (PHILOS fixation in proximal humeral fractures. We want to evaluate whether it is only the implant which has given good results or different surgical approach utilized for fixation of plate also affects result. Materials and Methods: A total of 57 patients with proximal humeral fractures were divided in two groups, in Group A, patient′s classical deltopectoral approach utilized, while in Group B deltoid-splitting approach was used. All patients were managed by PHILOS plate fixation. Cases were followed up clinically as well as radiologically at 4-6 weeks after operation and thereafter at 10-12 weeks and then at 6 monthly for long-term complications. Functional outcomes of patient were accessed in terms Constant Scoring System, while radiological evaluation was done by taking x-rays to access quality of reduction and union of fracture. Results: All patients were followed for a minimum of 18 months. In Group B, reduction of tuberosities was better in 3 part and 4 part fractures. Mean Constant score in Group A at the end of 3 months was 56, while in Group B it was 62 and statistically significant (P = 0.02. At the end of 18 months, mean Constant score in Group A was 79, while in Group B it was 81 and statistically insignificant (P = 0.72. One patient in Group B showed axillary nerve paresis in postoperative period and recovered at the end of 3 months. Conclusion: We recommend that deltoid-splitting approach can be used in 3 part and 4 part complex proximal humeral fractures and in posterior fracture dislocation shoulder, which are difficult to approach with deltopectoral approach; however, care should be taken while inserting calcar screw in PHILOS plate fixation to avoid iatrogenic axillary nerve injury.

  14. Advantages of the paraspinal muscle splitting approach in comparison with conventional midline approach for s1 pedicle screw placement. (United States)

    Ota, Masato; Neo, Masashi; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Takashi


    A retrospective comparative study of the S1 pedicle screw (S1PS) position obtained using 2 surgical approaches. To determine whether the paraspinal approach leads to more medially oriented placement of the S1PS compared with the midline approach. To obtain a stronger as well as safer fixation of the S1PS, medially oriented screw placement is very important. However, no study has recommended a surgical approach to achieve this object. The positions of 32 screws placed by the midline approach and 34 screws placed by the paraspinal approach were compared using postoperative computed tomography. The location of the bilateral common iliac veins (CIV) in relation to the S1PS tips was also analyzed to evaluate their safety. There was no statistical difference in screw insertion point regardless of the approach employed. However, in the paraspinal group the S1PS were placed with significantly greater medial direction and with longer screws. In addition, they pierced the anterior sacral cortex closer to the midline compared with the midline approach. Four left screws in the midline approach group made contact with the left CIV, whereas no screw in the paraspinal approach group lay adjacent to the CIV. Our results demonstrate that the paraspinal approach for S1PS placement may be superior to the midline approach in terms of the medially oriented screw placement that is biomechanically stronger and less risky for the CIV.

  15. Effects of shoulder position on axillary nerve positions during the split lateral deltoid approach. (United States)

    Cheung, Sunny; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Lee, Thay Q


    The axillary nerve may be injured during percutaneous fixation of proximal humerus fractures. This study investigated the kinematic behavior of the superior and inferior borders of the axillary nerve under varying shoulder positions. This information may reduce iatrogenic neurologic injury during fracture reduction and hardware placement. The lateral deltoid approach was performed on 7 fresh frozen shoulders. The inferior and superior borders of the axillary nerve were tagged. Screws were placed in the anterior, middle, and posterior acromion as landmarks. Three-dimensional distances of the inferior and superior border of the nerve were measured to the mid-acromion while the shoulder was placed in combinations of forward flexion, vertical abduction, and humeral rotation. The distances were compared by repeated measures ANOVA statistical analysis. The distance from the mid-acromion to the superior border of the axillary nerve was 66.6 mm (+/-5.7), and to the inferior axillary nerve was 75.7 mm (+/-5.8) with the shoulder in neutral position. Vertical abduction to 60 degrees significantly moved the superior and inferior borders of the axillary nerve to a distance of 53.9 (+/-7.7) and 61.6 mm (+/-8.1), respectively (P axillary nerve (P > 0.5). The longest distance from the mid-acromion to the inferior border of the axillary nerve was 86 mm with the arm forward flexed. The main determinant of axillary nerve position with respect to the acromion is vertical abduction. Axillary nerve position is essentially unaffected by varying degrees of humeral rotation and forward flexion. Vertical glenohumeral abduction to 60 degrees is required to move the nerve significantly closer to the acromion.

  16. Genetic transformation of the tomato pathogen Pyrenochaeta lycopersici allowed gene knockout using a split-marker approach. (United States)

    Aragona, Maria; Valente, Maria Teresa


    Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, as other soil-transmitted fungal pathogens, generally received little attention compared to the pathogens affecting the aerial parts of the plants, although causing stunt and important fruit yield reduction of agronomic relevant crops. The scope of this study was to develop a system allowing to investigate the functional role of P. lycopersici genes putatively involved in the corky root rot of tomato. A genetic transformation system based on a split-marker approach was developed and tested to knock out a P. lycopersici gene encoding for a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (Plegl1) induced during the disease development. The regions flanking Plegl1 gene were fused with the overlapping parts of hygromycin marker gene, to favour homologous recombination. We were able to obtain four mutants not expressing the Plegl1 gene though, when tested on a susceptible tomato cultivar, Plegl1 mutants showed unaltered virulence, compared with the wild-type strain. The strategy illustrated in the present work demonstrated for the first time that homologous recombination occurs in P. lycopersici. Moreover, a transformation system mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens was established and stable genetic transformants have been obtained. The transformation systems developed represent important tools for investigating both the role of genes putatively involved in P. lycopersici interaction with host plant and the function of other physiological traits which emerged to be genetically expanded from the recent genome sequencing of this fungus.

  17. Ligand-Assisted Co-Assembly Approach toward Mesoporous Hybrid Catalysts of Transition-Metal Oxides and Noble Metals: Photochemical Water Splitting. (United States)

    Liu, Ben; Kuo, Chung-Hao; Chen, Jiejie; Luo, Zhu; Thanneeru, Srinivas; Li, Weikun; Song, Wenqiao; Biswas, Sourav; Suib, Steven L; He, Jie


    A bottom-up synthetic approach was developed for the preparation of mesoporous transition-metal-oxide/noble-metal hybrid catalysts through ligand-assisted co-assembly of amphiphilic block-copolymer micelles and polymer-tethered noble-metal nanoparticles (NPs). The synthetic approach offers a general and straightforward method to precisely tune the sizes and loadings of noble-metal NPs in metal oxides. This system thus provides a solid platform to clearly understand the role of noble-metal NPs in photochemical water splitting. The presence of trace amounts of metal NPs (≈0.1 wt %) can enhance the photocatalytic activity for water splitting up to a factor of four. The findings can conceivably be applied to other semiconductors/noble-metal catalysts, which may stand out as a new methodology to build highly efficient solar energy conversion systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A contemporary approach for treatment planning of horizontally resorbed alveolar ridge: Ridge split technique with simultaneous implant placement using platelet rich fibrin membrane application in mandibular anterior region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathahini S Parthiban


    Full Text Available Treatment of edentulous sites with horizontal atrophy represents a clinical situation in which the positioning of endosseous implants might be complex or sometimes impossible without a staged regenerative approach. This case report presents management of horizontally deficient mandibular anterior ridge with a contemporary approach to treatment planning and application of platelet-rich fibrin membrane for ridge split technique and simultaneous implant placement. Implants in anterior mandibular area are considered to be most predictable, stable, with high success rate and patients' satisfaction with implant esthetics. In contrast to traditional ridge augmentation techniques, ridge splitting allows for immediate implant placement following surgery and eradicates the possible morbidity from a second surgical site.

  19. Genetic analysis of candidate SNPs for metabolic syndrome in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (United States)

    Grilo, Antonio; Ruiz-Granados, Elena S.; Moreno-Rey, Concha; Rivera, Jose M.; Ruiz, Agustin; Real, Luis M.; Sáez, Maria E.


    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by the reduction or complete cessation in airflow resulting from an obstruction of the upper airway. Several studies have observed an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among OSA patients. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors characterized by the presence of insulin resistance, is often found in patients with OSA, but the complex interplay between these two syndromes is not well understood. In this study, we present the results of a genetic association analysis of 373 candidate SNPs for MetS selected in a previous genome wide association analysis (GWAS). The 384 selected SNPs were genotyped using the Illumina VeraCode Technology in 387 subjects retrospectively assessed at the Internal Medicine Unit of the “Virgen de Valme” University Hospital (Seville, Spain). In order to increase the power of this study and to validate our findings in an independent population, we used data from the Framingham Sleep study which comprises 368 individuals. Only the rs11211631 polymorphism was associated with OSA in both populations, with an estimated OR=0.57 (0.42-0.79) in the joint analysis (p=7.21 × 10-4). This SNP was selected in the previous GWAS for MetS components using a digenic approach, but was not significant in the monogenic study. We have also identified two SNPs (rs2687855 and rs4299396) with a protective effect from OSA only in the abdominal obese subpopulation. As a whole, our study does not support that OSA and MetS share major genetic determinants, although both syndromes share common epidemiological and clinical features. PMID:23524009

  20. Splitting Descartes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa


    Kognition og Pædagogik vol. 48:10-18. 2003 Short description : The cognitivistic paradigm and Descartes' view of embodied knowledge. Abstract: That the philosopher Descartes separated the mind from the body is hardly news: He did it so effectively that his name is forever tied to that division....... But what exactly is Descartes' point? How does the Kartesian split hold up to recent biologically based learning theories?...

  1. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation on the condylar displacement following sagittal split ramus osteotomy in asymmetric setback patients: Comparison between conventional approach and surgery-first approach. (United States)

    Oh, Min-Hee; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Lee, Kyung-Min; Cho, Jin-Hyoung


    To compare the condylar displacement following sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) in asymmetric setback patients between the conventional approach and surgery-first approach and to determine whether the condylar displacement is affected by asymmetric setback in SSRO patients. This was a retrospective study. The subjects consisted of patients with facial asymmetry who underwent SSRO and had cone-beam computed tomography taken before and 1 month after surgery. They were allocated into the conventional (n = 18) and surgery-first (SF) groups (n = 20). Descriptive, independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis were computed. The amount of condylar displacement in x-, y-, and z-directions and Euclidean distance showed no statistically significant differences between the conventional and SF groups. Comparing the postoperative condylar position with the preoperative position, the condylar displacement occurred in posterior (P groups except on the deviated side in the conventional group. The condylar displacement occurred in a posterior (P group. However, the condylar displacement in three dimensions showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. In the correlation analysis, the condylar displacement in both the deviated and contralateral sides showed no significant correlation with asymmetric setback in either group. The condylar displacement in three dimensions and the distance of condylar displacement in SSRO patients with facial asymmetry showed no significant difference between conventional and SF groups. Condylar displacement was not associated with asymmetric setback.

  2. Overlap syndrome of COPD and OSA in Koreans. (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Mee; Thomas, Robert J; Kim, Jinkwan; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Shin, Chol


    Overlap syndrome of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to increased morbidity and mortality. There have been no reports available on the overlap syndrome for Koreans. Our primary aim was to identify prevalence and predictors of the overlap syndrome in Koreans.This is a cross-sectional study with a community-based sample of 1298 participants (mean age, 59.7 ± 6.7) from the cohort of Korean Genomic and Epidemiologic Study during 2013 to 2014. OSA and COPD were assessed by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC syndrome. The prevalence of COPD remained the same as 10.8% regardless of the presence of OSA. The mean ratio of FEV1/FVC for those with COPD was 0.77, regardless of OSA. The OR increased for age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1) and smokers (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.0-6.4), but decreased for body mass index (BMI) (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.8-0.9) and overweight state (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.7). Risk factors of the overlap syndrome differed by OSA severity, that is, BMI in those with moderate-to-severe OSA, whereas sex (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.1-10.6) and age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1) in those with mild OSA.In a population study from Korea, 10.8% of OSA patients had an overlap syndrome with COPD. Although BMI is a well-known risk factor of OSA, it is likely that being overweight may be protective for moderate-to-severe OSA patients from the risk of COPD (i.e., overlap syndrome).

  3. Defining a safe zone of dissection during the extensor digitorum communis splitting approach to the proximal radius and forearm: an anatomic study. (United States)

    Schimizzi, Aimee; MacLennan, Allison; Meier, Kristen M; Chia, Benjamin; Catalano, Louis W; Glickel, Steven Z


    The extensor digitorum communis (EDC) splitting approach is a direct lateral approach that can provide greater visualization of the proximal radius than the posterolateral approach to the elbow. The purposes of this study were to identify the anatomic relationships of the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) during the EDC splitting approach to the proximal radius and to determine its safe zone. A fellowship-trained attending hand surgeon performed the EDC splitting approach on 15 cadaveric arms, exposing the EDC origin from the lateral epicondyle and dissecting distally to expose the supinator muscle. Calipers were used to measure the distance from the PIN to the radiocapitellar joint and to the lateral epicondyle in neutral position, full supination, and full pronation. The depth of the nerve from the most superficial aspect of the EDC was recorded for each cadaver. The average distances from the radiocapitellar joint to the PIN in neutral, supination, and pronation were 44.5 +/- 7.9, 40.8 +/- 8.1, and 48.2 +/- 7.9 mm, respectively. The average distances from the lateral epicondyle to the PIN in neutral, supination, and pronation were 61.7 +/- 10.9, 57.6 +/- 9.1, and 64.7 +/- 11.5 mm, respectively. The shortest distance measured from the radiocapitellar joint to the PIN in pronation was 29 mm; the shortest distance measured from the lateral epicondyle to the nerve was 42 mm. The average depth of the nerve from the most superficial aspect of the EDC was 10.2 +/- 2.4 mm. The PIN is generally safe when dissecting up to 29 mm from the radiocapitellar joint and up to 42 mm from the lateral epicondyle with the forearm in pronation.

  4. Hip resurfacing using a modified lateral approach with limited splitting of the gluteus medius muscle results in significant impairment of hip abductor strength. (United States)

    Moussazadeh, A J; Kohlhof, H; Wirtz, D C; Wimmer, M D; Randau, T M; Wölk, T; Gravius, S


    A lateral, transgluteal approach for hip resurfacing carries the risk of approach-related weakening of the hip abductors due to unsuccessful re-adaptation of the gluteal muscles to the greater trochanter or to injury to the inferior nerve branch of the superior gluteal nerve. We investigated whether hip resurfacing using a soft tissue-sparing, modified transgluteal approach with limited cranial splitting of the gluteus medius muscle reduces hip abductor strength and the risk of approach-related injury to the superior gluteal nerve. Thirty-one patients (14 female, 17 male; mean age 53.5 ± 5.2 years) underwent hip resurfacing using a modified transgluteal approach with limited cranial splitting of the gluteus medius muscle. Nerve conduction signals were measured by surface electromyography (EMG), hip abductor strength by isokinetic testing a mean 36.2 months (± 11 mos) after surgery. The unoperated side was used as control. Surface EMG disclosed no neural lesions of the inferior branch of the superior gluteal nerve. Isokinetics revealed a significant reduction in muscle strength on the operated versus the contralateral side. Even a limited incision of the gluteus medius muscle resulted in significant impairment of hip abductor strength 2.5 years after surgery.

  5. Hearing loss in mild OSAS and simple snoring patients. (United States)

    Spinosi, Maria Carla; D'Amico, Francesca; Passali, Giulio; Cingi, Cemal; Rodriguez, Hugo; Passali, Desiderio


    Introduction Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by recurrent episodes of prolonged partial or complete obstruction of the upper airways. Several study groups studied the effect of snoring and OSAS on auditory function, showing an increase in the incidence of hearing loss in apneic patients, an earlier onset and/or a degree of hearing loss deeper than in peers. The aim of our study is to evaluate the audiological performance of a population of simple-snoring patients and patients suffering from mild OSAS, and the impact that such pathological condition can have on the auditory function, considering the significant levels of chronic noise. Materials and Methods Data was collected by analyzing audiometric exams on snoring patients and a control group of non-snoring patients. Our study included simple snoring patients without OSAS (AHI < 5) or with low level of OSAS (5< AHI < 15). Possible hearing loss was classified in a crescent scale (A-B-C-D-E), from greater to minor auditory performance, according to the indications of the national protocol of occupational medicine for evaluation of hearing loss in patients exposed to chronic noise. Results We have found independence between simple snorers, mild-OSAS snorers and non-snoring patients compared to the scale of hearing performance classification. Conclusions Our results show a distribution of hearing loss in the different groups that appear independent of the presence or absence of snoring, complicated or uncomplicated by mild OSAS.

  6. Assessment of axillary nerve function and functional outcome after fixation of complex proximal humeral fractures using the extended deltoid-splitting approach. (United States)

    Khan, Lukman A K; Robinson, C Michael; Will, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Roger


    The extended deltoid-splitting approach was developed as an alternative to the deltopectoral approach in the treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures. The aim of our prospective study was to determine whether this approach was associated with evidence of nerve injury, functional deficits or other complications in these cases, during the first year following reconstruction. Over a 1-year-period, we treated 14 people (median age 59 years) with open reduction and plate fixation using the extended deltoid-splitting approach. All were prospectively reviewed clinically and radiologically during the first year after surgery. Functional testing involved three scoring systems, spring balance testing of deltoid power, dynamic muscle function testing and, at 1 year, electrophysiological assessment of axillary nerve function. Of the 14 fractures, 13 united without complications and with comparatively minor residual functional deficits. Of these 13 cases, 1 showed slight neurogenic change in the anterior deltoid but no evidence of anterior deltoid paralysis. In the remaining case, osteonecrosis of the humeral head developed 9 months after surgery and functional scores were poor, but without evidence of nerve injury on electrophysiological testing. This technique is a useful alternative in the treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures, providing good access for reduction and implant placement without adverse effects.

  7. Transverse Sternal Split: a Safe Mini-invasive Approach for Perventricular Device Closure of Ventricular Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Garg

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Perventricular device closure of ventricular septal defect through midline sternotomy avoids the cardiopulmonary bypass, however, lacks the cosmetic advantage. Perventricular device closure of ventricular septal defect with transverse split sternotomy was performed to add the cosmetic advantage of mini-invasive technique. Methods: Thirty-six pediatric patients with mean age 7.14±3.24 months and weight 5.00±0.88 kg were operated for perventricular device closure of ventricular septal defect through transverse split sternotomy in 4th intercostal space under transesophageal echocardiography guidance. In case of failure or complication, surgical closure of ventricular septal defect was performed through the same incision with cervical cannulation of common carotid artery and internal jugular vein for commencement of cardiopulmonary bypass. All the patients were postoperatively followed, and then discharged from hospital due to their surgical outcome, morbidity and mortality. Results: Procedure was successful in 35 patients. Two patients developed transient heart block. Surgical closure of ventricular septal defect was required in one patient. Mean duration of ventilation was 11.83±3.63 hours. Mean intensive care unit and hospital stay were 1.88±0.74 days and 6.58±1.38 days, respectively. There was no in-hospital mortality. A patient died one day after hospital discharge due to arrhythmia. No patients developed wound related, vascular or neurological complication. In a mean follow-up period of 23.3±18.45 months, all 35 patients were doing well without residual defect with regression of pulmonary artery hypertension as seen on transthoracic echocardiography. Conclusion: Transverse split sternotomy incision is a safe and effective alternative to a median sternotomy for perventricular device closure of ventricular septal defect with combined advantage of better cosmetic outcomes and avoidance of cardiopulmonary bypass.

  8. Global Locator, Local Locator, and Identifier Split (GLI-Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Menth


    Full Text Available The locator/identifier split is an approach for a new addressing and routing architecture to make routing in the core of the Internet more scalable. Based on this principle, we developed the GLI-Split framework, which separates the functionality of current IP addresses into a stable identifier and two independent locators, one for routing in the Internet core and one for edge networks. This makes routing in the Internet more stable and provides more flexibility for edge networks. GLI-Split can be incrementally deployed and it is backward-compatible with the IPv6 Internet. We describe its architecture, compare it to other approaches, present its benefits, and finally present a proof-of-concept implementation of GLI-Split.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Greek OSA-18 questionnaire in children undergoing polysomnography. (United States)

    Mousailidis, George K; Lachanas, Vasileios A; Skoulakis, Charalampos E; Sakellariou, Achilles; Exarchos, Sotirios T; Kaditis, Athanasios G; Bizakis, John G


    Translations of validated questionnaires help to compare different countries/cultures populations and establish protocols for global health. OSA-18 is a validated disease-specific questionnaire for pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Our aim was to validate OSA-18 in Greek and correlate it with polysomnography results and OSA severity. Prospective instrument validation study. OSA-18 was translated in Greek and back into English. Children undergoing polysomnography due to snoring were recruited prospectively. OSA-18 was completed by parents during the initial clinic visit (test), in the evening prior to the sleep study (retest), and 3 months postoperatively for subjects who underwent adenotonsillectomy. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Validity was assessed by exploring correlations between OSA-18 and AHI, by comparing OSA-18 of OSA and non-OSA groups, and by calculating questionnaire's sensitivity and specificity for detecting OSA. Total scores of non-OSA, mild, moderate and severe OSA subgroups were compared. In OSA children who underwent adenotonsillectomy, preoperative and postoperative total scores were compared to assess responsiveness. Test-retest questionnaires were fully completed for 141 children. OSA-18 in Greek had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.951 for test and 0.947 for retest) and test-retest reliability (Pearson's correlation coefficients between test and retest scores: 0.850-0.946; PGreek OSA-18 is an instrument with satisfactory internal consistency, reliability, and responsiveness, but it is a poor predictor of OSA severity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Mono- and Split-Window Approaches for Time Series Processing of LST from AVHRR—A TIMELINE Round Robin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Myrtha Frey


    Full Text Available Processing of land surface temperature from long time series of AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer requires stable algorithms, which are well characterized in terms of accuracy, precision and sensitivity. This assessment presents a comparison of four mono-window (Price 1983, Qin et al., 2001, Jiménez-Muñoz and Sobrino 2003, linear approach and six split-window algorithms (Price 1984, Becker and Li 1990, Ulivieri et al., 1994, Wan and Dozier 1996, Yu 2008, Jiménez-Muñoz and Sobrino 2008 to estimate LST from top of atmosphere brightness temperatures, emissivity and columnar water vapour. Where possible, new coefficients were estimated matching the spectral response curves of the different AVHRR sensors of the past and present. The consideration of unique spectral response curves is necessary to avoid artificial anomalies and wrong trends when processing time series data. Using simulated data on the base of a large atmospheric profile database covering many different states of the atmosphere, biomes and geographical regions, it was assessed (a to what accuracy and precision LST can be estimated using before mentioned algorithms and (b how sensitive the algorithms are to errors in their input variables. It was found, that the split-window algorithms performed almost equally well, differences were found mainly in their sensitivity to input bands, resulting in the Becker and Li 1990 and Price 1984 split-window algorithm to perform best. Amongst the mono-window algorithms, larger deviations occurred in terms of accuracy, precision and sensitivity. The Qin et al., 2001 algorithm was found to be the best performing mono-window algorithm. A short comparison of the application of the Becker and Li 1990 coefficients to AVHRR with the MODIS LST product confirmed the approach to be physically sound.

  11. Kuninglikus õukonnateatris. I-IV osa / Jaanus Rohumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rohumaa, Jaanus, 1969-


    Jaanus Rohumaa Londonis Royal Court Theatre' poolt korraldatud residentuuris, mis on mõeldud tänapäeva näitekirjanikele ja lavastajatele. Muljeid kokkutulnud eri maade näitekirjanikest ja lavastajatest. Jaanus Rohumaa lavastab Londonis Royal Shakespeare Company teatris Jaan Tätte näidendit "Ristumine peateega"(II osa) Inglise näitekirjaniku Sarah Kane'i loomingust, Robert Lepage'i lavastusest "Imede geomeetria" (III osa)

  12. Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: Wave function and density functional approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shehryar, E-mail:; Odelius, Michael, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kruk, Danuta [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Sloneczna 54, Olsztyn PL-10710 (Poland); Kowalewski, Jozef [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)


    The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an impact on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field wave functions and of density functional theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H{sub 2}O){sup −}, Gd(III)DTPA(H{sub 2}O){sup 2−}, and Gd(III)(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}{sup 3+} in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density functional theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.

  13. Charisma: an integrated approach to automatic H&E-stained skeletal muscle cell segmentation using supervised learning and novel robust clump splitting. (United States)

    Janssens, Thomas; Antanas, Laura; Derde, Sarah; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Van den Berghe, Greet; Güiza Grandas, Fabian


    Histological image analysis plays a key role in understanding the effects of disease and treatment responses at the cellular level. However, evaluating histology images by hand is time-consuming and subjective. While semi-automatic and automatic approaches for image segmentation give acceptable results in some branches of histological image analysis, until now this has not been the case when applied to skeletal muscle histology images. We introduce Charisma, a new top-down cell segmentation framework for histology images which combines image processing techniques, a supervised trained classifier and a novel robust clump splitting algorithm. We evaluate our framework on real-world data from intensive care unit patients. Considering both segmentation and cell property distributions, the results obtained by our method correspond well to the ground truth, outperforming other examined methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The USC-OSA-EPS section activities in optics (United States)

    Aymerich, María.; Cambronero-López, Ferran; Aragón, Ángel L.; Delgado, Tamara; Blanco, Manuel; Gómez Varela, Ana I.; Gargallo, Ana; Williamson, Sandra; Amorín, Adán.; Sánchez-García, Ángel; Bao-Varela, Carmen; Flores-Arias, M. Teresa


    The USC-OSA Student Chapter and USC-EPS Young Minds Section is a group financed by The Optical Society (OSA) and the European Physical Society (EPS). It is formed by PhD and degree students from the Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC) and one supervisor of the Faculty of Physics. Its main goal is to promote and diffuse Optics in the society. For this purpose, the group carries out several activities in the academic and non-academic community. The group is also committed to the professional development of our members and motivates the exposition of our work into the scientific community.

  15. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang


    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  16. WBFSH aastakoosolek Varssavis. I-II osa / Raigo Kollom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollom, Raigo, 1936-


    Poolas 7.-9. oktoobrini Maailma Sporthobuste Kasvatajate Föderatsiooni peaassambleel toimunust ning loengutest ja aruteludest: Hobuste "genoomilisest aretusest", Jõudluskontrolli ja terviseandmete kasutamisest Rootsi aretuses, Hobuste lineaarse kirjeldamise meetodist, tõuraamatute tulevikust. Teises osas: Hobusekasvatuse seisust Poolas, Janow Podlaski hobusekasvatusest ja üldisest eluolust

  17. Omal jalal maailma : 1.-5.osa / Paul Salopek ; fotografeerinud John Stanmeyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salopek, Paul


    Artikli 2. osa räägib autori rännakust läbi Saudi Araabias asuva Al-Hijāzi kõrbe, 3. osa rännakust piki Jordaania piiri ja Iisraelis, 4. osa rännakust Ida-Türgis ning kohtumistest Süüria sõjapõgenikega, 5. osa Armeeniast ja Türgist

  18. Predicting Surgical Response Using Tensiometry in OSA Patients after Genioglossus Advancement with Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. (United States)

    Barrera, José E; Dion, Gregory R


    To evaluate the role of tension on the genioglossus muscle in the performance of genioglossus advancement on sleep-disordered breathing in patients undergoing multilevel obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) surgery. Prospective study. Academic practice. Twenty-three subjects underwent genioglossus advancement with uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for OSA. Subjects underwent pre- and postoperative polysomnography, cephalometry, and subjective assessment questionnaires. Eighteen subjects completed the study. The tension force of the mandible and the bicortical width of the genial tubercle were measured and surgical response determined. Improvement in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was seen in 15 of 18 subjects (83.3%). Eleven subjects were classified as responders and 7 as nonresponders (61.1% success), with responders exhibiting a statistically significant reduction in mean delta AHI as compared with nonresponders: 28.3 ± 26.2 versus 2.0 ± 22.0 events per hour (95% confidence interval, 1.8-50.8; P = .037). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale improved from 13.2 ± 4.5 to 7.6 ± 3.4 (P = .002). There was no significant difference in body mass index, neck circumference, overall tension, or mandibular width between responders and nonresponders. However, there was a significant difference in the tension:width ratio between responders (53.9 ± 6.38 g/mm) and nonresponders (65.4 ± 11.2 g/mm; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-22.1; P = .036). This article describes a novel approach to determine the force applied to the genioglossus during advancement and its correlation to postoperative outcomes. The tension:width ratio may be an indicator for postoperative success and delta AHI improvement in OSA patients. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  19. Recognition of upper airway and surrounding structures at MRI in pediatric PCOS and OSAS (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, J. K.; Odhner, D.; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan


    Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is common in obese children with risk being 4.5 fold compared to normal control subjects. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) has recently been shown to be associated with OSAS that may further lead to significant cardiovascular and neuro-cognitive deficits. We are investigating image-based biomarkers to understand the architectural and dynamic changes in the upper airway and the surrounding hard and soft tissue structures via MRI in obese teenage children to study OSAS. At the previous SPIE conferences, we presented methods underlying Fuzzy Object Models (FOMs) for Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) based on CT images of the thorax and the abdomen. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the AAR approach is applicable to a different body region and image modality combination, namely in the study of upper airway structures via MRI. FOMs were built hierarchically, the smaller sub-objects forming the offspring of larger parent objects. FOMs encode the uncertainty and variability present in the form and relationships among the objects over a study population. Totally 11 basic objects (17 including composite) were modeled. Automatic recognition for the best pose of FOMs in a given image was implemented by using four methods - a one-shot method that does not require search, another three searching methods that include Fisher Linear Discriminate (FLD), a b-scale energy optimization strategy, and optimum threshold recognition method. In all, 30 multi-fold cross validation experiments based on 15 patient MRI data sets were carried out to assess the accuracy of recognition. The results indicate that the objects can be recognized with an average location error of less than 5 mm or 2-3 voxels. Then the iterative relative fuzzy connectedness (IRFC) algorithm was adopted for delineation of the target organs based on the recognized results. The delineation results showed an overall FP and TP volume fraction of 0.02 and 0.93.

  20. Axillary nerve lesions after open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures through an extended lateral deltoid-split approach: electrophysiological findings. (United States)

    Westphal, Thomas; Woischnik, Stephan; Adolf, Daniela; Feistner, Helmut; Piatek, Stefan


    Axillary nerve injuries after shoulder surgery are rare. In most studies, the frequency of injury is usually determined using clinical examinations, but results from intraoperative neuromonitoring studies have revealed higher than expected rates. Few studies have investigated this topic. Our aim was to determine the frequency of axillary nerve lesions after open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures by using electrophysiological assessments and to provide a review of the relevant literature. This was a retrospective cohort study of 76 consecutive patients who received open reduction and internal fixation of a proximal humeral fracture using a locking plate through a deltoid-splitting approach. We performed a clinical and electrophysiological examination at a minimum follow-up time of 12 months. Functional results were assessed according to the Constant-Murley and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores. Electrophysiological examinations comprised electromyography, electroneurography, and motor and somatosensory evoked potentials. The main outcome was the frequency of axillary nerve lesions. Forty patients were monitored for an average of 28 months. The mean raw Constant-Murley score was 61 points, the age- and gender-adjusted score was 71%, and the mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score was 33 points. Neurapraxia occurred in 1 patient, axonotmesis with incomplete reinnervation occurred in 3, and complete reinnervation occurred in 3. The latter group was classified as having a temporary axillary nerve lesion. The 10% rate of permanent axillary nerve lesions in our cohort is higher than expected based on the clinical examination. Electrophysiological assessment is therefore more appropriate to detect axillary nerve injuries. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Particulate photocatalysts for overall water splitting (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari


    The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a promising way of generating renewable energy. Hydrogen production by means of water splitting over semiconductor photocatalysts is a simple, cost-effective approach to large-scale solar hydrogen synthesis. Since the discovery of the Honda-Fujishima effect, considerable progress has been made in this field, and numerous photocatalytic materials and water-splitting systems have been developed. In this Review, we summarize existing water-splitting systems based on particulate photocatalysts, focusing on the main components: light-harvesting semiconductors and co-catalysts. The essential design principles of the materials employed for overall water-splitting systems based on one-step and two-step photoexcitation are also discussed, concentrating on three elementary processes: photoabsorption, charge transfer and surface catalytic reactions. Finally, we outline challenges and potential advances associated with solar water splitting by particulate photocatalysts for future commercial applications.

  2. Split Cord Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdal Gezercan


    Full Text Available Split cord malformations are rare form of occult spinal dysraphism in children. Split cord malformations are characterized by septum that cleaves the spinal canal in sagittal plane within the single or duplicated thecal sac. Although their precise incidence is unknown, split cord malformations are exceedingly rare and represent %3.8-5 of all congenital spinal anomalies. Characteristic neurological, urological, orthopedic clinical manifestations are variable and asymptomatic course is possible. Earlier diagnosis and surgical intervention for split cord malformations is associated with better long-term fuctional outcome. For this reason, diagnostic imaging is indicated for children with associated cutaneous and orthopedic signs. Additional congenital anomalies usually to accompany the split cord malformations. Earlier diagnosis, meticuolus surgical therapy and interdisciplinary careful evaluation and follow-up should be made for good prognosis. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 199-207

  3. Fuzzy split and merge for shadow detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remya K. Sasi


    Full Text Available Presence of shadow in an image often causes problems in computer vision applications such as object recognition and image segmentation. This paper proposes a method to detect the shadow from a single image using fuzzy split and merge approach. Split and merge is a classical algorithm used in image segmentation. Predicate function in the classical approach is replaced by a Fuzzy predicate in the proposed approach. The method follows a top down approach of recursively splitting an image into homogeneous quadtree blocks, followed by a bottom up approach by merging adjacent unique regions. The method has been compared with previous approaches and found to be better in performance in terms of accuracy.

  4. Low morning serum cortisol levels in children with tonsillar hypertrophy and moderate-to-severe OSA. (United States)

    Malakasioti, Georgia; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Varlami, Vasiliki; Chaidas, Konstantinos; Liakos, Nikolaos; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Kaditis, Athanasios G


    Hypertrophic tonsillar tissue in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has enhanced expression of glucocorticoid receptors, which may reflect low endogenous cortisol levels. We have evaluated the effect of the interaction between tonsillar hypertrophy and OSA severity on morning serum cortisol levels. Children with and without snoring underwent polysomnography, tonsillar size grading, and measurement of morning serum cortisol. Seventy children (2-13 years old) were recruited: 30 with moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 5 episodes/h), 26 with mild OSA (AHI > 1 and ≤ 5), and 14 controls (no snoring; AHI ≤ 1). Tonsillar hypertrophy was present in 56.7%, 53.8%, and 42.9% of participants in each group, respectively. Application of a general linear model demonstrated a significant effect of the interaction between severity of OSA and tonsillar hypertrophy on cortisol levels (P = 0.04), after adjustment for obesity, gender, and age. Among children with tonsillar hypertrophy, subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA (n = 17; AHI 14.7 ± 10.6), mild OSA (n = 14; AHI 2.3 ± 1.2), and control participants (n = 6; AHI 0.7 ± 0.2) were significantly different regarding cortisol levels (P = 0.02). Subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA had lower cortisol (16.9 ± 8.7 mcg/dL) than those with mild OSA (23.3 ± 4.2; P = 0.01) and those without OSA (controls) (23.6 ± 5.3 mcg/dL; P = 0.04). In contrast, children with normal-size tonsils and moderate-to-severe OSA, mild OSA, and controls did not differ in cortisol levels. Children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and the phenotype of hypertrophic tonsils have reduced morning serum cortisol levels and potentially decreased glucocorticoid inhibitory effects on tonsillar growth.

  5. Characterization of a tooth microphone coupled to an oral appliance device: A new system for monitoring OSA patients. (United States)

    Castillo, Yolanda; Blanco-Almazan, Dolores; Whitney, James; Mersky, Barry; Jane, Raimon


    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent chronic disease, especially in elderly and obese populations. Despite constituting a serious health, social and economic problem, most patients remain undiagnosed and untreated due to limitations in current equipment. In this work, we propose a novel method to diagnose OSA and monitor therapy adherence and effectiveness at home in a non-invasive and inexpensive way: combining acoustic analysis of breathing and snoring sounds with oral appliance therapy (OA). Audiodontics has introduced a new sensor, a tooth microphone coupled to an OA device, which is the main pillar of this system. The objective of this work is to characterize the response of this sensor, comparing it with a commercial tracheal microphone (Biopac transducer). Signals containing OSA-related sounds were acquired simultaneously with the two microphones for that purpose. They were processed and analyzed in time, frequency and time-frequency domains, in a custom MATLAB interface. We carried out a single-event approach focused on breaths, snores and apnea episodes. We found that the quality of the signals obtained by both microphones was quite similar, although the tooth microphone spectrum concentrated more energy at the high-frequency band. This opens a new field of study about high-frequency components of snores and breathing sounds. These characteristics, together with its intraoral position, wireless option and combination with customizable OAs, give the tooth microphone a great potential to reduce the impact of sleep disorders, by enabling prompt detection and continuous monitoring of patients at home.

  6. Split Malcev algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    project of the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia MTM2007-60333. References. [1] Calderón A J, On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 118(2008) 351–356. [2] Calderón A J, On split Lie triple systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 119(2009). 165–177.

  7. A Rate-Splitting Based Bound-Approaching Transmission Scheme for the Two-User Symmetric Gaussian Interference Channel with Common Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ZHANG


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a rate-splitting based transmission strategy for the two-user symmetric Gaussian interference channel that contains common messages only. Each transmitter encodes its common message into multiple layers by multiple codebooks that drawn from one separate code book, and transmits the superposition of the messages corresponding to these layers; each receiver decodes the messages from all layers of the two users successively. Two schemes are proposed for decoding order and optimal power allocation among layers respectively. With the proposed decoding order scheme, the sum-rate can be increased by rate-splitting, especially at the optimal number of rate-splitting, using average power allocation in moderate and weak interference regime. With the two proposed schemes at the receiver and the transmitter respectively, the sum-rate achieves the inner bound of HK without time-sharing. Numerical results show that the proposed optimal power allocation scheme with the proposed decoding order can achieve significant improvement of the performance over equal power allocation, and achieve the sum-rate within two bits per channel use (bits/channel use of the sum capacity.

  8. Evaluation of degree of lacunar infarction and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with different severity of OSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Du


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the degree of lacunar infarction and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with different severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Methods: A total of 198 patients with OSAS were retrospectively studied from case information and test results, and were divided into mild group 84 cases, medium group 70 cases and severe group 44 cases according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, and 176 cases of non-OSAS people who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as healthy control group. Differences in the values of serum lacunar infarction-related indexes, blood viscosity and hemocyte-related indexes, carotid structure and function parameters, serum arteriosclerosis-related indexes and so on were compared among groups. Results: t-PA value of healthy control group was higher than those of OSAS group while vWF, PAI-1 and Fg values were lower than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the increase of OSAS severity, t-PA value decreased while vWF, PAI-1 and Fg values increased (P<0.05; blood viscosity, Hct, PDW, RDW and EFR values of healthy control group were lower than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the increase of OSAS severity, blood viscosity, Hct, PDW, RDW and EFR values increased (P<0.05; FMD, NID and DC values of healthy control group were higher than those of OSAS group while Dis, CC and PWV values were lower than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the increase of OSAS severity, FMD, NID and DC values decreased while Dis, CC and PWV values increased (P<0.05; blood uric acid and EF-1 values of healthy control group were lower than those of OSAS group while CGRP and fetuin A levels were higher than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the aggravation of OSAS, blood uric acid and EF-1 levels increased while CGRP and fetuin A levels decreased, and differences among groups were significant (P<0.05. Conclusions: With the aggravation of OSAS, patients’ microcirculation

  9. Using an OSAE to Learn about Life in Two New Delhi Hutments (United States)

    Weller, Kay E.


    This manuscript is a description of personal observations of two hutments in New Delhi, India. Data was gathered from my hotel window using the OSAE method of landscape observation. The OSAE is the method I use to understand processes that can be seen when studying a landscape. It is the most useful tool I have ever used when teaching geography.…

  10. Aspects of Split Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, N; Giudice, Gian Francesco; Romanino, A


    We explore some fundamental differences in the phenomenology, cosmology and model building of Split Supersymmetry compared with traditional low-scale supersymmetry. We show how the mass spectrum of Split Supersymmetry naturally emerges from theories where the dominant source of supersymmetry breaking preserves an $R$ symmetry, characterize the class of theories where the unavoidable $R$-breaking by gravity can be neglected, and point out a new possibility, where supersymmetry breaking is directly communicated at tree level to the visible sector via renormalizable interactions. Next, we discuss possible low-energy signals for Split Supersymmetry. The absence of new light scalars removes all the phenomenological difficulties of low-energy supersymmetry, associated with one-loop flavor and CP violating effects. However, the electric dipole moments of leptons and quarks do arise at two loops, and are automatically at the level of present limits with no need for small phases, making them accessible to several ongo...

  11. Use of a hypogastric flap and split-thickness skin grafting for a degloving injury of the penis and scrotum: A different approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvan S


    Full Text Available Penile and scrotal skin avulsions are not common events and are caused usually by accidents with industrial machines or agricultural machines. We report a case of a 27-year-old newly married thin-built patient with avulsion and traumatic degloving of the penile and scrotal skin, with exposure of the corpora cavernosa and copus spongiosum of penis and testes as his loose clothes got entangled in a paddy harvesting machine accidently. Reconstruction was performed using a hypogastric flap and split skin graft, achieving a satisfactory aesthetic result and sexual functions.

  12. Landscape-Scale Controls on Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Taylor

    Full Text Available Tropical forests store large amounts of carbon in tree biomass, although the environmental controls on forest carbon stocks remain poorly resolved. Emerging airborne remote sensing techniques offer a powerful approach to understand how aboveground carbon density (ACD varies across tropical landscapes. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR system to detect top-of-canopy tree height (TCH and ACD across the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. LiDAR and field-estimated TCH and ACD were highly correlated across a wide range of forest ages and types. Top-of-canopy height (TCH reached 67 m, and ACD surpassed 225 Mg C ha-1, indicating both that airborne CAO LiDAR-based estimates of ACD are accurate in tall, high-biomass forests and that the Osa Peninsula harbors some of the most carbon-rich forests in the Neotropics. We also examined the relative influence of lithologic, topoedaphic and climatic factors on regional patterns in ACD, which are known to influence ACD by regulating forest productivity and turnover. Analyses revealed a spatially nested set of factors controlling ACD patterns, with geologic variation explaining up to 16% of the mapped ACD variation at the regional scale, while local variation in topographic slope explained an additional 18%. Lithologic and topoedaphic factors also explained more ACD variation at 30-m than at 100-m spatial resolution, suggesting that environmental filtering depends on the spatial scale of terrain variation. Our result indicate that patterns in ACD are partially controlled by spatial variation in geologic history and geomorphic processes underpinning topographic diversity across landscapes. ACD also exhibited spatial autocorrelation, which may reflect biological processes that influence ACD, such as the assembly of species or phenotypes across the landscape, but additional research is needed to resolve how abiotic and biotic factors

  13. Early markers of renal damage in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS patients with or without diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Farghaly


    Conclusion: Renal impairment is common in OSAS patients but more frequent if associated with diabetes mellitus. RDW% can be used as simple screening test for early detection of renal injury in OSAS patients with or without diabetes mellitus.

  14. Split Malcev algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the structure of split Malcev algebras of arbitrary dimension over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. We show that any such algebras is of the form M = U + ∑ j I j with U a subspace of the abelian Malcev subalgebra and any I j a well described ideal of satisfying [ I j , I k ] = 0 if ≠ .

  15. Splitting of Comets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Splitting of Comets. Utpal Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 11-22. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords. Cometary ...

  16. Comparative Emulsifying Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA-Modified Starch: Granular Form vs Dissolved State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matos

    Full Text Available The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability. Pickering emulsions kept their droplet size constant after one month while emulsions formulated with OSA-modified starch dissolved exhibited coalescence. All emulsions stabilized combining OSA-modified starch in granular form and in solution showed larger mean droplet sizes with no significant differences with respect to the order of addition. These emulsions were unstable due to coalescence regarding presence of free oil. Similar results were obtained when emulsions were prepared by combining OSA-modified granules with native starch in solution. The degree of surface coverage of starch granules was much lower in presence of starch in solution which indicates that OSA-starch is more surface active in the dissolved state than in granular form, although it led to unstable systems compared to starch granule stabilized Pickering emulsions, which demonstrated to be extremely stable.

  17. Network science meets respiratory medicine for OSAS phenotyping and severity prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mihaicuta


    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common clinical condition. The way that OSAS risk factors associate and converge is not a random process. As such, defining OSAS phenotypes fosters personalized patient management and population screening. In this paper, we present a network-based observational, retrospective study on a cohort of 1,371 consecutive OSAS patients and 611 non-OSAS control patients in order to explore the risk factor associations and their correlation with OSAS comorbidities. To this end, we construct the Apnea Patients Network (APN using patient compatibility relationships according to six objective parameters: age, gender, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure (BP, neck circumference (NC and the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS. By running targeted network clustering algorithms, we identify eight patient phenotypes and corroborate them with the co-morbidity types. Also, by employing machine learning on the uncovered phenotypes, we derive a classification tree and introduce a computational framework which render the Sleep Apnea Syndrome Score (SASScore; our OSAS score is implemented as an easy-to-use, web-based computer program which requires less than one minute for processing one individual. Our evaluation, performed on a distinct validation database with 231 consecutive patients, reveals that OSAS prediction with SASScore has a significant specificity improvement (an increase of 234% for only 8.2% sensitivity decrease in comparison with the state-of-the-art score STOP-BANG. The fact that SASScore has bigger specificity makes it appropriate for OSAS screening and risk prediction in big, general populations.

  18. Complex sleep apnea after full-night and split-night polysomnography: the Greek experience. (United States)

    Baou, Katerina; Mermigkis, Charalampos; Minaritzoglou, Aliki; Vagiakis, Emmanouil


    Treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (TE-CSA) is defined as the emergence or persistence of central respiratory events during the initiation of positive airway pressure (PAP) without a back-up rate in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and after significant resolution of obstructive events. Previous studies have estimated a prevalence from 0.56 to 20.3%. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of TE-CSA in a Greek adult population. One thousand fifty nine patients with newly diagnosed OSA, who were referred to the Sleep Disorders Center of Evangelismos Hospital of Athens over an 18-month period, were included in this study. A split-night polysomnography (PSG), or two formal overnight PSGs (diagnostic and continuous PAP (CPAP) titration study), were performed. Patients with OSA were divided in two groups; the first group included 277 patients, who underwent two separate studies (diagnostic and CPAP titration study), and the second group 782 patients, who underwent split-night studies. The prevalence of TE-CSA in the first group was 2.53% (7 patients), and in the second group was 5.63% (44 patients). The prevalence of TE-CSA in Greece was lower compared to most previous reported studies. The significant variation in the prevalence of TE-CSA between different centers throughout the world is mainly associated with the used diagnostic criteria as well as methodological and technical aspects.

  19. Split warhead simultaneous impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Singh Dhari


    Full Text Available A projectile system is proposed to improve efficiency and effectiveness of damage done by anti-tank weapon system on its target by designing a ballistic projectile that can split into multiple warheads and engage a target at the same time. This idea has been developed in interest of saving time consumed from the process of reloading and additional number of rounds wasted on target during an attack. The proposed system is achieved in three steps: Firstly, a mathematical model is prepared using the basic equations of motion. Second, An Ejection Mechanism of proposed warhead is explained with the help of schematics. Third, a part of numerical simulation which is done using the MATLAB software. The final result shows various ranges and times when split can be effectively achieved. With the new system, impact points are increased and hence it has a better probability of hitting a target.

  20. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We also introduced in [1] techniques of connection of roots in the framework of split Lie algebras. In the present paper we extend these techniques to the framework of split Lie triple systems so as to obtain a generalization of the results in [1]. We consider the wide class of split Lie triple systems (which contains the class of.

  1. Determinants of Unintentional Leaks During CPAP Treatment in OSA. (United States)

    Lebret, Marius; Arnol, Nathalie; Martinot, Jean-Benoît; Lambert, Loïc; Tamisier, Renaud; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Borel, Jean-Christian


    Unintentional leakage from the mouth or around the mask may lead to cessation of CPAP treatment; however, the causes of unintentional leaks are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were (1) to identify determining factors of unintentional leakage and (2) to determine the effect of the type of mask (nasal/oronasal) used on unintentional leakage. Seventy-four polysomnograms from patients with OSA syndrome treated with auto-CPAP were analyzed (23 women; 56 ± 13 years; BMI, 32.9 kg/m 2 (range, 29.0-38.0 kg/m 2 ). Polysomnographic recordings were obtained under auto-CPAP, and mandibular behavior was measured with a magnetic sensor. After sleep and respiratory scoring, polysomnographic signals were computed as mean values over nonoverlapping 10-s intervals. The presence/absence of unintentional leakage was dichotomized for each 10-s interval (yes/no). Univariate and multivariate conditional regression models estimated the risk of unintentional leaks during an interval "T" based on the explanatory variables from the previous interval "T-1." A sensitivity analysis for the type of mask was then conducted. The univariate analysis showed that mandibular lowering (mouth opening), a high level of CPAP, body position (other than supine), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased the risk of unintentional leaks and microarousal decreased it. In the multivariate analysis, the same variables remained independently associated with an increased risk of unintentional leakage. The sensitivity analysis showed that oronasal masks reduced the risk of unintentional leaks in cases of mouth opening and REM sleep. Mouth opening, CPAP level, sleep position, and REM sleep independently contribute to unintentional leakage. These results provide a strong rationale for the definition of phenotypes and the individual management of leaks during CPAP treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Splitting Strategy for Simulating Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You


    Full Text Available The splitting approach is developed for the numerical simulation of genetic regulatory networks with a stable steady-state structure. The numerical results of the simulation of a one-gene network, a two-gene network, and a p53-mdm2 network show that the new splitting methods constructed in this paper are remarkably more effective and more suitable for long-term computation with large steps than the traditional general-purpose Runge-Kutta methods. The new methods have no restriction on the choice of stepsize due to their infinitely large stability regions.

  3. The utility of the elbow sign in the diagnosis of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haytham Samy Diab


    Conclusion: The elbow sign questionnaire is a simple and quick screening tool for OSA with good sensitivity and specificity in comparison to other questionnaires, further studies are needed in other populations to determine its reliability and predictive utility.

  4. A Power System Network Splitting Strategy Based on Contingency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zawani Saharuddin


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a network splitting strategy following critical line outages based on N-1 contingency analysis. Network splitting is the best option for certain critical outages when the tendency of severe cascading failures is very high. Network splitting is executed by splitting the power system network into feasible set of islands. Thus, it is essential to identify the optimal splitting solution (in terms of minimal power flow disruption that satisfies certain constraints. This paper determines the optimal splitting solution for each of the critical line outage using discrete evolutionary programming (DEP optimization technique assisted by heuristic initialization approach. Heuristic initialization provides the best initial cutsets which will guide the optimization technique to find the optimal splitting solution. Generation–load balance and transmission line overloading analysis are carried out in each island to ensure the steady state stability is achieved. Load shedding scheme is initiated if the power balance criterion is violated in any island to sustain the generation–load balance. The proposed technique is validated on the IEEE 118 bus system. Results show that the proposed approach produces an optimal splitting solution with lower power flow disruption during network splitting execution.

  5. Relationship between energy expenditure, physical activity and weight loss during CPAP treatment in obese OSA subjects. (United States)

    Bamberga, Michele; Rizzi, Maurizio; Gadaleta, Felice; Grechi, Attilio; Baiardini, Renata; Fanfulla, Francesco


    Increased energy expenditure (EE) has been reported in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It has been postulated that CPAP treatment may induce weight reduction in obese patients, even if it has not been confirmed by recent studies. In the present study we investigated the effect of OSA on EE and the effect of CPAP on body weight and physical activity. One hundred and seven obese OSA patients and 25 healthy obese volunteers, as control group, matched for age, sex and BMI, were enrolled. The following evaluation was performed only in OSA patients after 6 months of CPAP treatment. Baseline total EE was similar in the two groups, but OSA patients showed higher EE during the night, while control group during daytime. In patients, EE correlates with OSA severity, degree of daytime sleepiness or obesity. At follow-up evaluation, BMI and total EE were unchanged. However, daytime EE increased (1066 ± 131.5 vs 1104 ± 133 Kcal/die, p weight and daily physical activity did not change in statistically significant way. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Asthma Control and Its Relationship with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Teodorescu


    Full Text Available Background/Objectives. Asthma in older individuals is poorly understood. We aimed to characterize the older asthma phenotype and test its association with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Pulmonary and Asthma/Allergy clinics. Participants. 659 asthma subjects aged 18–59 years (younger and 154 aged 60–75 (older. Measurements. Sleep Apnea scale of Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SA-SDQ, asthma severity step (1–4, severe if step 3 or 4, established OSA diagnosis, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP use, and comorbidities. Results. Older versus younger had worse control, as assessed by asthma step, lung function, and inhaled corticosteroid use. Among older subjects, after controlling for known asthma aggravators, OSA diagnosis was the only factor robustly associated with severe asthma: on average, OSA was associated with nearly 7 times greater likelihood of severe asthma in an older individual (OR=6.67. This relationship was of greater magnitude than in younger subjects (OR=2.16. CPAP use attenuated the likelihood of severe asthma in older subjects by 91% (P=0.005, much more than in the younger asthmatics. Conclusion. Diagnosed OSA increases the risk for worse asthma control in older patients, while CPAP therapy may have greater impact on asthma outcomes. Unrecognized OSA may be a reason for poor asthma control, particularly among older patients.

  7. Is There a Relationship Between Snoring Sound Intensity and Frequency and OSAS Severity? (United States)

    Acar, Mustafa; Yazıcı, Demet; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Hancı, Deniz; Seren, Erdal; Cingi, Cemal


    We investigated the relationship between snoring sounds and severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). A total number of 103 snoring patients (60 males and 43 females) were evaluated by means of polysomnographic findings and snoring sound recordings. Snoring sound intensity was assessed using fast Fourier transform (FFT) method by measuring maximal frequency (Fmax) and average snoring sound intensity level (SSIL). Maximal frequency and SSIL are correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), REM AHI, and severity of the OSAS. So, as the severity of the OSAS increased, so did the Fmax and SSIL of the snoring recordings, meaning patients started snoring louder with more frequency. In older patients, in females, in severe OSAS group, and in patients with higher body mass index (BMI), AHI and AHI REM values and SSIL and Fmax values increased. As mean oxygen (O2) saturation and lowest O2 saturation decreased, SSIL and Fmax values increased. Maximal frequency and SSIL analysis of the snoring sound increased in severe OSAS patients. People should be aware of the importance of snoring sounds. In particular, patients with snoring sounds increasing in intensity and of higher frequency should discuss with their physicians the possibility of OSAS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Market Split based Congestion Management for Networks with Loops (United States)

    Marmiroli, Marta; Tanimoto, Masahiko; Tsukamoto, Yukitoki; Yokoyama, Ryuichi

    Market splitting is one of the methods to solve the transmission congestion problem associated with the introduction of competitive electricity market and transmission access. Based on the concept of price difference among congested areas, the market splitting approach produces a solution that strongly informs market participants of congestion path. In this paper, an algorithm to solve the market splitting problem for complex networks including loop structures is proposed. The method, based on an algebraic approach, ensures a feasible optimal solution verifiable and easily understandable by the market participants. Complex networks are transformed into simple radial ones using the delta-star approach. The method was tested on large problems to evaluate the performances.

  9. Topographic Distributions of Emergent Trees in Tropical Forests of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica (United States)

    Balzotti, C.; Asner, G. P.; Taylor, P.; Cole, R. J.; Osborne, B. B.; Cleveland, C. C.; Porder, S.; Townsend, A. R.


    Tropical rainforests are reservoirs of terrestrial carbon and biodiversity. Large and often emergent trees store disproportionately large amounts of aboveground carbon and greatly influence the structure and functioning of tropical rainforests. Despite their importance, controls on the abundance and distribution of emergent trees are largely unknown across tropical landscapes. Conventional field approaches are limited in their ability to characterize patterns in emergent trees across vast landscapes with varying environmental conditions and floristic composition. Here we used a high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor, aboard the Carnegie Airborne Observatory Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (CAO-AToMS), to examine the abundance and distribution of tall emergent tree canopies (ETC) relative to surrounding tree canopies (STC), across the Osa Peninsula, a geologically and topographically diverse region of Costa Rica. The abundance of ETC was clearly influenced by fine-scale topographic variation, with distribution patterns that held across a variety of geologic substrates. Specifically, the density of ETC was much greater on lower slopes and in valleys, compared to upper slopes and ridges. Furthermore, using the CAO high-fidelity imaging spectrometer, ETC had a different spectral signature than that of the STC. Most notably, ETC had lower foliar N than STC, which was verified with an independent field survey of canopy leaf chemistry. The underlying mechanisms to explain the topographic-dependence of ETCs and linkages to canopy N are unknown, and remain an important area of research.

  10. Development of a one-step approach for the reconstruction of full thickness skin defects using minced split thickness skin grafts and biodegradable synthetic scaffolds as a dermal substitute. (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Bullock, Anthony; Ralston, David; MacNeil, Sheila


    Tissue engineering has progressed in delivering laboratory-expanded keratinocytes to the clinic; however the production of a suitable alternative to a skin graft, containing both epidermis and dermis still remains a challenge. To develop a one-step approach to wound reconstruction using finely minced split thickness skin and a biodegradable synthetic dermal substitute. This was explored in vitro using scalpel diced pieces of split thickness human skin combined with synthetic electrospun polylactide (PLA) scaffolds. To aid the spreading of tissue, 1% methylcellulose was used and platelet releasate was examined for its effect on cellular outgrowth from tissue explants. The outcome parameters included the metabolic activity of the migrating cells and their ability to produce collagen. Cell presence and migration on the scaffolds were assessed using fluorescence microscopy and SEM. Cells were identified as keratinocytes by immunostaining for pan-cytokeratin. Collagen deposition was quantified by using Sirius red. Skin cells migrated along the fibers of the scaffold and formed new collagen. 1% methylcellulose improved the tissue handling properties of the minced skin. Platelet releasate did not stimulate the migration of skin cells along scaffold fibers. Immunohistochemistry and SEM confirmed the presence of both epithelial and stromal cells in the new tissue. We describe the first key steps in the production of a skin substitute to be assembled in theatre eliminating the need for cell culture. Whilst further experiments are needed to develop this technique it can be a useful addition to armamentarium of the reconstructive surgeon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of the depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) in untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S.; Skinner, Timothy C.


    The assessment of depression in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is confounded by symptom overlap. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-short form (DASS-21) is a commonly used measure of negative affect, but it not known whether the DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. This study compa...... disorders or chronic illness conditions with different patterns of overlapping symptoms.......The assessment of depression in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is confounded by symptom overlap. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-short form (DASS-21) is a commonly used measure of negative affect, but it not known whether the DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. This study...... (DIF) was examined using dMACS. The correlated 3-factor structure (with correlated errors) of the DASS-21 was a better fit in the non-OSA sample. dMACS indicated that there was a degree of DIF for each of the subscales, especially for the Anxiety subscale, in which 2 symptoms (that are also...

  12. Predictive models of objective oropharyngeal OSA surgery outcomes: Success rate and AHI reduction ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ho Choi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model of objective oropharyngeal obstructive sleep apnea (OSA surgery outcomes including success rate and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI reduction ratio in adult OSA patients.Retrospective outcome research.All subjects with OSA who underwent oropharyngeal and/or nasal surgery and were followed for at least 3 months were enrolled in this study. Demographic, anatomical [tonsil size (TS and palate-tongue position (PTP grade (Gr], and polysomnographic parameters were analyzed. The AHI reduction ratio (% was defined as [(postoperative AHI-preoperative AHI x 100 / postoperative AHI], and surgical success was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction in preoperative AHI with a postoperative AHI < 20.A total of 156 consecutive OSAS adult patients (mean age ± SD = 38.9 ± 9.6, M / F = 149 / 7 were included in this study. The best predictive equation by Forward Selection likelihood ratio (LR logistic regression analysis was: [Formula: see text]The best predictive equation according to stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was: [Formula: see text] (TS/PTP Gr = 1 if TS/PTP Gr 3 or 4, TS/PTP Gr = 0 if TS/PTP Gr 1 or 2.The predictive models for oropharyngeal surgery described in this study may be useful for planning surgical treatments and improving objective outcomes in adult OSA patients.

  13. Can sleep microstructure improve diagnosis of OSAS? Integrative information from CAP parameters. (United States)

    Milioli, Giulia; Bosi, Marcello; Grassi, Andrea; Riccardi, Silvia; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Cortelli, Pietro; Poletti, Venerino; Parrino, Liborio


    The scoring of American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) arousal is mandatory for the definition of respiratory event-related arousal (RERA). However there are other EEG activation phenomena, such as A phases of cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) which are associated with respiratory events in non rapid eye movements (NREM) sleep. This study aims at quantifying the additional value of CAP for the definition of respiratory events and sleep alterations in OSAS. Analysis of polysomnographic recordings from nineteen OSAS patients was carried out. Scoring was focused on investigation of the cerebral response to flow limitation (FL) events. For this purpose we used both CAP rules and AASM arousal criteria. While no difference was demonstrated in the arousal index between mild and moderate-severe OSAS patients, CAP time showed a progressive enhancement from normal subjects (152.5±20.76) to mild (180.64±34.76) and moderate-severe (282.27±58.02) OSAS patients. In NREM sleep, only 41.1% of FL events met the criteria for the definition of RERA, while, 75.5% of FL events ended with a CAP A phase and most FL CAP (69.1%) terminated with a CAP phase A3 subtype. Our data indicate that the RERA scoring has a limited accuracy in the detection of FL events. In NREM sleep, CAP rules provided more information than AASM arousal for the definition of respiratory events and sleep alterations in OSAS.

  14. Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting: From basic principles to advanced devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Y.Alfaifi


    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting (PEC offers a promising path for sustainable generation of hydrogen fuel. However, improving solar fuel water splitting efficiency facing tremendous challenges, due to the energy loss related to fast recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, electrode degradation, as well as limited light harvesting. This review focuses on the brief introduction of basic fundamental of PEC water splitting and the concept of various types of water splitting approaches. Numerous engineering strategies for the investgating of the higher efficiency of the PEC, including charge separation, light harvesting, and co-catalysts doping, have been discussed. Moreover, recent remarkable progress and developments for PEC water splitting with some promising materials are discussed. Recent advanced applications of PEC are also reviewed. Finally, the review concludes with a summary and future outlook of this hot field.

  15. Predicting uptake of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy; McNeil, Lindsay; Olaithe, Michelle


    diagnosed with OSA. Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) were administered at time of sleep study. These, patient demographics and sleep study variables were used to determine factors predicting patient......Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder, for which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is a standard treatment. Despite its well-established efficacy, many patients choose not to initiate CPAP treatment. The present study investigated the degree to which...... biological measures (e.g. Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index [AHI]), symptom experiences (e.g. fatigue) and illness representations (e.g. perceived consequences) predict the decision of individuals newly diagnosed with OSA to undergo a trial of CPAP therapy. Methods: Four hundred forty-nine individuals (316 males) newly...

  16. OSA screening with the pediatric sleep questionnaire for adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery in teen-LABS. (United States)

    Ishman, Stacey; Heubi, Christine; Jenkins, Todd; Michalsky, Marc; Simakajornboon, Narong; Inge, Thomas


    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is reported in 70% of adolescents who present for bariatric surgery. The Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) was developed to identify children at risk for OSA but is not validated in adolescents with obesity. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess validity of the PSQ to detect OSA and (2) to determine the correlation between anthropometric and polysomnography measurements. A cross-sectional assessment of Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery participants at high risk for OSA was performed. Participants completed an overnight polysomnography, and caregivers completed the PSQ. Forty-five participants (84% female, 78% Caucasian, mean age = 16.7 ± 1.5 years) were evaluated. Mean BMI was 51.3 ± 7.7 kg/m 2 and mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI) was 6.1 ± 5.9 events/h. For diagnosis of OSA (oAHI ≥5), the total PSQ score sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) were 86%, 38%, and 55%, respectively. For snoring >50% of the time, PPV was 84%, sensitivity was 64%, and specificity was 43%. Sagittal abdominal diameter correlated with oAHI and oxygen saturation nadir (ρ = 0.34, P = 0.027), whereas BMI, neck, and waist circumference correlated with neither. The PSQ demonstrated low specificity, and PPV and the question regarding snoring >50% of the time did not effectively identify OSA. Sagittal abdominal diameter correlated with oAHI and oxygen saturation nadir. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. Behaviour of DFT-based approaches to the spin-orbit term of zero-field splitting tensors: a case study of metallocomplexes, MIII(acac)3(M = V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Mo). (United States)

    Sugisaki, Kenji; Toyota, Kazuo; Sato, Kazunobu; Shiomi, Daisuke; Takui, Takeji


    Spin-orbit contributions to the zero-field splitting (ZFS) tensor (D SO tensor) of M III (acac) 3 complexes (M = V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Mo; acac = acetylacetonate anion) are evaluated by means of ab initio (a hybrid CASSCF/MRMP2) and DFT (Pederson-Khanna (PK) and natural orbital-based Pederson-Khanna (NOB-PK)) methods, focusing on the behaviour of DFT-based approaches to the D SO tensors against the valence d-electron configurations of the transition metal ions in octahedral coordination. Both the DFT-based approaches reproduce trends in the D tensors. Significantly, the differences between the theoretical and experimental D (D = D ZZ - (D XX + D YY )/2) values are smaller in NOB-PK than in PK, emphasising the usefulness of the natural orbital-based approach to the D tensor calculations of transition metal ion complexes. In the case of d 2 and d 4 electronic configurations, the D SO (NOB-PK) values are considerably underestimated in the absolute magnitude, compared with the experimental ones. The D SO tensor analysis based on the orbital region partitioning technique (ORPT) revealed that the D SO contributions attributed to excitations from the singly occupied region (SOR) to the unoccupied region (UOR) are significantly underestimated in the DFT-based approaches to all the complexes under study. In the case of d 3 and d 5 configurations, the (SOR → UOR) excitations contribute in a nearly isotropic manner, which causes fortuitous error cancellations in the DFT-based D SO values. These results indicate that more efforts to develop DFT frameworks should be directed towards the reproduction of quantitative D SO tensors of transition metal complexes with various electronic configurations and local symmetries around metal ions.

  18. Split SUSY Radiates Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgart, Matthew; Zorawski, Thomas


    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of Mini-Split Supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and WIMP dark matter. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  19. How rivers split (United States)

    Seybold, H. F.; Yi, R.; Devauchelle, O.; Petroff, A.; Rothman, D.


    River networks have fascinated mankind for centuries. They exhibit a striking geometry with similar shapes repeating on all scales. Yet, how these networks form and create these geometries remains elusive. Recently we have shown that channels fed by subsurface flow split at a characteristic angle of 2π/5 unambiguously consistent with our field measurements in a seepage network on the Florida Panhandle (Fig.1). Our theory is based only on the simple hypothesis that the channels grow in the direction at which the ground water enters the spring and classical solutions of subsurface hydrology. Here we apply our analysis to the ramification of large drainage basins and extend our theory to include slope effects. Using high resolution stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), we scrutinize our hypothesis in arbitrary channel networks and investigate the branching angle dependence on Horton-Strahler order and the maturity of the streams.; High-resolution topographic map of valley networks incised by groundwater flow, located on the Florida Panhandle near Bristol, FL.

  20. Split supersymmetry radiates flavor (United States)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas


    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  1. Ridge Splitting Technique for Horizontal Augmentation and Immediate Implant Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanasiou Ioannis


    Full Text Available Insufficient width of the alveolar ridge often prevents ideal implant placement. Guided bone regeneration, bone grafting, alveolar ridge splitting and combinations of these techniques are used for the lateral augmentation of the alveolar ridge. Ridge splitting is a minimally invasive technique indicated for alveolar ridges with adequate height, which enables immediate implant placement and eliminates morbidity and overall treatment time. The classical approach of the technique involves splitting the alveolar ridge into 2 parts with use of ostetomes and chisels. Modifications of this technique include the use of rotating instrument, screw spreaders, horizontal spreaders and ultrasonic device.

  2. Automatic anatomy recognition in post-tonsillectomy MR images of obese children with OSAS (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan


    Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) is a recently developed approach for the automatic whole body wide organ segmentation. We previously tested that methodology on image cases with some pathology where the organs were not distorted significantly. In this paper, we present an advancement of AAR to handle organs which may have been modified or resected by surgical intervention. We focus on MRI of the neck in pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). The proposed method consists of an AAR step followed by support vector machine techniques to detect the presence/absence of organs. The AAR step employs a hierarchical organization of the organs for model building. For each organ, a fuzzy model over a population is built. The model of the body region is then described in terms of the fuzzy models and a host of other descriptors which include parent to offspring relationship estimated over the population. Organs are recognized following the organ hierarchy by using an optimal threshold based search. The SVM step subsequently checks for evidence of the presence of organs. Experimental results show that AAR techniques can be combined with machine learning strategies within the AAR recognition framework for good performance in recognizing missing organs, in our case missing tonsils in post-tonsillectomy images as well as in simulating tonsillectomy images. The previous recognition performance is maintained achieving an organ localization accuracy of within 1 voxel when the organ is actually not removed. To our knowledge, no methods have been reported to date for handling significantly deformed or missing organs, especially in neck MRI.

  3. Split-illumination electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira


    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  4. Analysis of the national school feeding program in the municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais. (United States)

    Rocha, Naruna Pereira; Filgueiras, Mariana De Santis; Albuquerque, Fernanda Martins de; Milagres, Luana Cupertino; Castro, Ana Paula Pereira; Silva, Mariane Alves; Costa, Glauce Dias da; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Novaes, Juliana Farias de


    OBJECTIVE To analyze the implementation of the Brazilian National School Feeding Program as a food and nutritional security policy in public schools. METHODS This a cross-sectional study, with a quantitative and qualitative approach, carried out with 268 schoolchildren aged eight to nine years from the public school system of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 2015. Interviews were carried out using semi-structured questionnaires with the children, parents, cooks, nutritionists, trainer of the Technical Assistance and Rural Extension Company, and president of the School Feeding Council. In order to analyze the implementation of the National School Feeding Program in Viçosa, we evaluated the direct weighing of the food served in the schools using mechanical balances with a capacity of up to 10 kg and the perception of the social players involved in the implementation of the National School Feeding Program. The children were questioned about the acceptance of and adherence to the food offered, in addition to the habit of bringing food from home. Parents reported knowledge about the School Feeding Program and Council. The qualitative analysis consisted of content analysis and quantitative analysis using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney test. We adopted the statistical significance of 5% for quantitative analysis. RESULTS Children reported low adherence to the school feeding program and most of them used to bring food from home. Irregularities were identified in the implementation of the National School Feeding Program, such as: inadequate number of nutritionists, suspension of Council meetings, inadequate infrastructure in the areas of preparation and distribution of meals, lack of training of cooks, lack of nutritional adequacy of the food offered, and lack of actions on food and nutritional education. The Program complied with the recommendations for purchasing food from family farms. CONCLUSIONS The National School Feeding Program

  5. Analysis of the national school feeding program in the municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruna Pereira Rocha


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the implementation of the Brazilian National School Feeding Program as a food and nutritional security policy in public schools. METHODS This a cross-sectional study, with a quantitative and qualitative approach, carried out with 268 schoolchildren aged eight to nine years from the public school system of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 2015. Interviews were carried out using semi-structured questionnaires with the children, parents, cooks, nutritionists, trainer of the Technical Assistance and Rural Extension Company, and president of the School Feeding Council. In order to analyze the implementation of the National School Feeding Program in Viçosa, we evaluated the direct weighing of the food served in the schools using mechanical balances with a capacity of up to 10 kg and the perception of the social players involved in the implementation of the National School Feeding Program. The children were questioned about the acceptance of and adherence to the food offered, in addition to the habit of bringing food from home. Parents reported knowledge about the School Feeding Program and Council. The qualitative analysis consisted of content analysis and quantitative analysis using the chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and Mann-Whitney test. We adopted the statistical significance of 5% for quantitative analysis. RESULTS Children reported low adherence to the school feeding program and most of them used to bring food from home. Irregularities were identified in the implementation of the National School Feeding Program, such as: inadequate number of nutritionists, suspension of Council meetings, inadequate infrastructure in the areas of preparation and distribution of meals, lack of training of cooks, lack of nutritional adequacy of the food offered, and lack of actions on food and nutritional education. The Program complied with the recommendations for purchasing food from family farms. CONCLUSIONS The

  6. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro


    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  7. Predictive models of objective oropharyngeal OSA surgery outcomes: Success rate and AHI reduction ratio. (United States)

    Choi, Ji Ho; Lee, Jae Yong; Cha, Jaehyung; Kim, Kangwoo; Hong, Seung-No; Lee, Seung Hoon


    The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model of objective oropharyngeal obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) surgery outcomes including success rate and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) reduction ratio in adult OSA patients. Retrospective outcome research. All subjects with OSA who underwent oropharyngeal and/or nasal surgery and were followed for at least 3 months were enrolled in this study. Demographic, anatomical [tonsil size (TS) and palate-tongue position (PTP) grade (Gr)], and polysomnographic parameters were analyzed. The AHI reduction ratio (%) was defined as [(postoperative AHI-preoperative AHI) x 100 / postoperative AHI], and surgical success was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction in preoperative AHI with a postoperative AHI predictive equation by Forward Selection likelihood ratio (LR) logistic regression analysis was: [Formula: see text]The best predictive equation according to stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was: [Formula: see text] (TS/PTP Gr = 1 if TS/PTP Gr 3 or 4, TS/PTP Gr = 0 if TS/PTP Gr 1 or 2). The predictive models for oropharyngeal surgery described in this study may be useful for planning surgical treatments and improving objective outcomes in adult OSA patients.

  8. A Formal Security Analysis of an OSA/Parlay Authentication Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Di Caprio, G.; Etalle, Sandro; Gnesi, S.; Lenzini, Gabriele; Moiso, C.


    We report on an experience in analyzing the security of the Trust and Security Management (TSM) protocol, an authentication procedure within the OSA/Parlay Application Program Interfaces (APIs) of the Open Service Access and Parlay Group. The experience has been conducted jointly by research

  9. Osa Pärnu poliitikuid saab ärimeestelt igakuist tasu / Teet Roosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosaar, Teet, 1963-


    Kuigi Pärnu uus linnavalitsus kärpis volikogu liikmete äriühingute nõukogudest makstavat tasu poole väiksemaks, saab osa poliitikuid endiselt lisasissetulekut, teiste seas linnakassast doteeritavalt Pärnu ATP-lt

  10. Upper Airway Stimulation for OSA: Early Adherence and Outcome Results of One Center. (United States)

    Kent, David T; Lee, Jake J; Strollo, Patrick J; Soose, Ryan J


    To review outcome measures and objective adherence data for patients treated with hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) therapy for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Case series with chart review. Academic sleep medicine center. The first 20 implanted patients to complete postoperative sleep laboratory testing were assessed. All patients had moderate to severe OSA, were unable to adhere to positive pressure therapy, and met previously published inclusion criteria for the commercially available implantable HNS system. Data included demographics, body mass index (BMI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS), nightly hours of device usage, and procedure- and therapy-related complications. Mean age was 64.8 ± 12.0 years, with 50% female. Mean BMI was unchanged postoperatively (26.5 ± 4.2 to 26.8 ± 4.5 kg/m(2); P > .05). Mean AHI (33.3 ± 13.0 to 5.1 ± 4.3; P stimulation amplitude was 1.89 ± 0.50 V after titration. Adherence monitoring via device interrogation showed high rates of voluntary device use (mean 7.0 ± 2.2 h/night). For a clinical and anatomical subset of patients with OSA, HNS therapy is associated with good objective adherence, low morbidity, and improved OSA outcome measures. Early results at one institution suggest that HNS therapy can be implemented successfully into routine clinical practice, outside of a trial setting. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  11. OSAS Surgery and Postoperative Discomfort: Phase I Surgery versus Phase II Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gasparini


    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aims to investigate the reasons that discourage the patients affected by OSAS to undergo orthognathic surgery and compares the postoperative discomfort of phase I (soft tissue surgery and phase II (orthognathic surgery procedures for treatment of OSAS. Material and Methods. A pool of 46 patients affected by OSAS was divided into two groups: “surgery patients” who accepted surgical treatments of their condition and “no surgery patients” who refused surgical procedures. The “surgery patients” group was further subdivided into two arms: patients who accepted phase I procedures (IP and those who accepted phase II (IIP. To better understand the motivations behind the refusal of II phase procedures, we asked the patients belonging to both the IP group and “no surgery” group to indicate the main reason that influenced their decision to avoid II phase procedures. We also monitored and compared five parameters of postoperative discomfort: pain, painkiller assumption, length of hospitalization, foreign body sensation, and diet assumption following IP and IIP procedures. Results. The main reason to avoid IIP procedures was the concern of a more severe postoperative discomfort. Comparison of the postoperative discomfort following IP versus IIP procedures showed that the former scored worse in 4 out of 5 parameters analyzed. Conclusion. IIP procedures produce less postoperative discomfort. IIP procedures, namely, orthognathic surgery, should be the first choice intervention in patients affected by OSAS and dentoskeletal malformation.

  12. Nasal vs Oronasal CPAP for OSA Treatment: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Andrade, Rafaela G S; Viana, Fernanda M; Nascimento, Juliana A; Drager, Luciano F; Moffa, Adriano; Brunoni, André R; Genta, Pedro R; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo


    Nasal CPAP is the "gold standard" treatment for OSA. However, oronasal masks are frequently used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of all randomized and nonrandomized trials that compared nasal vs oronasal masks on CPAP level, residual apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and CPAP adherence to treat OSA. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies in any language with the following terms: "sleep apnea" and "CPAP" or "sleep apnea" and "oronasal mask" or "OSA" and "oronasal CPAP" or "oronasal mask" and "adherence." Studies on CPAP treatment for OSA were included, based on the following criteria: (1) original article; (2) randomized or nonrandomized trials; and (3) comparison between nasal and oronasal CPAP including pressure level, and/or residual AHI, and/or CPAP adherence. We identified five randomized and eight nonrandomized trials (4,563 patients) that reported CPAP level and/or residual AHI and/or CPAP adherence. Overall, the random-effects meta-analysis revealed that as compared with nasal, oronasal masks were associated with a significantly higher CPAP level (Hedges' g, -0.59; 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.37; P CPAP level, higher residual AHI, and poorer adherence than nasal masks. PROSPERO database; No.: CRD42017064584; URL: Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tarbijate teadlikkus kvaliteetse toidu osas on tõusnud / Ave Kingu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kingu, Ave


    Eesti Põllumajandus-Kaubanduskoja tellimusel tegi TSN Emor uuringu kvaliteedimärkide osas. Uuringu eesmärgiks oli teada saada, kas ja kui palju tarbija teab ja on märganud toidukaupadel Tunnustatud Eesti Maitse ja Tunnustatud Maitse märkidega tooteid. Tabel märgistatud toodete kohta

  14. Lack of effect of sleep apnea on oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Simiakakis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate markers of systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in subjects with and without OSAS in order to investigate the most important factors that determine the oxidant-antioxidant status. METHODS: A total of 66 subjects referred to our Sleep laboratory were examined by full polysomnography. Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity were assessed by measurement of the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs and the biological antioxidant capacity (BAP in blood samples taken in the morning after the sleep study. Known risk factors for oxidative stress, such as age, sex, obesity, smoking, hypelipidemia, and hypertension, were investigated as possible confounding factors. RESULTS: 42 patients with OSAS (Apnea-Hypopnea index >15 events/hour were compared with 24 controls (AHI<5. The levels of d-ROMS were significantly higher (p = 0.005 in the control group but the levels of antioxidant capacity were significantly lower (p = 0.004 in OSAS patients. The most important factors predicting the variance of oxidative stress were obesity, smoking habit, and sex. Parameters of sleep apnea severity were not associated with oxidative stress. Minimal oxygen desaturation and smoking habit were the most important predicting factors of BAP levels. CONCLUSION: Obesity, smoking, and sex are the most important determinants of oxidative stress in OSAS subjects. Sleep apnea might enhance oxidative stress by the reduction of antioxidant capacity of blood due to nocturnal hypoxia.

  15. SAS võib omapoolse panusena kustutada osa Estonian Airi laenust / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.


    Lennufirma SAS investorsuhete asepresidendi Sture Stoleni sõnul ei ole tõenäoline, et nende firma maksaks mingit raha Estonian Airi kapitali, küll aga ei saa välistada võimalust, et võidakse kustutada osa antud laenust

  16. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.

  17. Marcadores de estrés oxidativo en placentas de gestantes añosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Suárez


    Full Text Available Introducción: Un factor de riesgo alto ginecoobstétrico que contribuye a la morbimortalidad materna perinatal es la edad materna mayor de 35 años. Es posible que el estado oxidativo en la placenta de la gestante añosa sea mayor a la de la gestante no añosa. Objetivo: Evaluar el estado oxidativo de la placenta en gestantes mayores de 35 años. Diseño: Estudio observacional y transversal. Lugar: Hospital Nacional Docente Materno Infantil San Bartolomé y Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Material biológico: 28 placentas de gestantes de 35 años o más y 28 placentas de gestantes de menos de 35 años, obtenidas de partos vaginales a término. Intervenciones: La muestra de placenta se homogenizó al 10% con buffer fosfato 10 mM, pH 7,4, se centrifugó a 2000 rpm por 5’. Parte del sobrenadante se usó para analizar lipoperoxidación y glutatión (GSH; el sobrenadante restante fue centrifugado a 42 000 rpm por 1 hora, para medir actividad de superóxido dismutasa (SOD. Principales medidas de resultados: Estado oxidativo de placentas obtenidas de mujeres añosas y no añosas. Resultados: La actividad de la SOD y el contenido de GSH placentarios en añosas fue 43,52 U/g de tejido y 4,67 µmol/mL x 10-²; para el grupo control fueron 54,13 U/g de tejido y 6,02 µmol/mL x 10-², respectivamente; en ambos hubo significancia estadística (p < 0,05. La medición de TBARS (lipoperoxidación no mostró diferencias significativas. Conclusiones: Las placentas obtenidas de mujeres añosas muestran menor capacidad de defensa antioxidante frente a las placentas obtenidas de mujeres no añosas.

  18. Influencing factors on CPAP adherence and anatomic characteristics of upper airway in OSA subjects. (United States)

    Park, Pona; Kim, Jinil; Song, Yoon Jae; Lim, Jae Hyun; Cho, Sung Woo; Won, Tae-Bin; Han, Doo Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Rhee, Chae Seo; Kim, Hyun Jik


    Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective treatment modality, poor adherence still remains a problem for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment and there is little evidence regarding how this might be improved. This study aims to analyze the anatomic and clinical factors of OSA subjects who failed to comply with CPAP therapy.The medical records of 47 OSA subjects who received CPAP therapy as a first-line treatment modality were retrospectively reviewed. The medical records were reviewed for demographic and polysomnographic data and anatomic findings of the nasal cavity and oropharynx.24 patients who adhered to CPAP therapy and 23 patients who were nonadherent were enrolled in the study. There were no statistically significant differences in sleep parameters between CPAP-adherent patients and CPAP nonadherent subjects. Mean body mass index of CPAP nonadherent group was significantly higher than CPAP adherent group. Higher grades of septal deviation and hypertrophic change of the inferior turbinate were observed more in the CPAP nonadherent group. In addition, CPAP nonadherent subjects showed considerably bigger tonsils and higher grade palatal position comparing with the CPAP adherent subjects. Subjective discomfort including inconvenience, mouth dryness, and chest discomfort were the main problems for OSA subjects who did not comply with CPAP therapy.Excessive upper airway blockage in the nasal cavity and oropharynx was predominant in CPAP nonadherent subjects, which might cause the reported subjective discomfort that reduces CPAP compliance. Therefore, resolution of these issues is needed to enhance CPAP compliance for control of OSA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. OSA and Prolonged Oxygen Desaturation During Sleep are Strong Predictors of Poor Outcome in IPF. (United States)

    Bosi, Marcello; Milioli, Giulia; Fanfulla, Francesco; Tomassetti, Sara; Ryu, Jay H; Parrino, Liborio; Riccardi, Silvia; Melpignano, Andrea; Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Ravaglia, Claudia; Tantalocco, Paola; Rossi, Andrea; Poletti, Venerino


    Sleep Breathing Disorders (SBD) are frequently found in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and they are associated with worse quality of sleep and life and with higher mortality. The study aimed at evaluating the impact of SBD on prognosis (mortality or disease progression) in 35 patients with mild to moderate IPF. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was diagnosed in 25/35 patients with IPF: 14/35 mild, 7/35 moderate, and 4/35 severe. According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) definition, sleep-related hypoxemia was found in 9/35 patients with IPF. According to the presence/absence of SBD, IPF patients were divided into 4 groups: NO-SBD group (Group A, 25.7%), OSA without sleep-related hypoxemia (Group B, 48.5%), OSA with sleep-related hypoxemia group (Group C, 22.8%), and only 1/35 had sleep-related hypoxemia without OSA(Group D, 2.8%). Statistical analysis was focused only on group A, B, and C. Patients with OSAS and sleep-related hypoxemia (Group C) had the worse prognosis, both in terms of mortality or clinical deterioration. SBD were the only independent risk factor (Cox Proportional Hazards Multiple Regression Analysis) for mortality (HR 7.6% IC 1.2-36.3; p = 0.029) and disease progression (HR 9.95% IC 1.8-644.9; p = 0.007). SBD are associated with a worse prognosis, both in terms of mortality or clinical progression. The presence of SBD should be explored in all IPF patients.

  20. The effectiveness of combined tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty in the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). (United States)

    Adzreil, Bakri; Wong, Eugene Hung Chih; Saraiza, Abu Bakar; Raman, Rajagopalan; Amin, Jalaludin


    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasing due to a rising rate of obesity. Multiple surgical techniques used to address obstruction at the palatal level have been associated with significant morbidities. Few studies have reported good outcomes of anterior palatoplasty (AP) in mild-to-moderate OSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of combining tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty in the treatment of snoring and OSA. All patients with snoring and OSA treated with tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty were analyzed. The primary outcome was reduction of the apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) with surgical success criteria; reduction of AHI by ≥50% and AHI ≤10. The secondary outcomes measured were patients' Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and snoring visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Thirty one patients completed the study, where 19% had mild, 42% moderate, and 39% had severe OSA. The mean surgical success rate was 45% at 3 months and 32% at 1-year post-operatively. There was a significant reduction of ESS and VAS at 3 months and 1-year post-operatively (p snoring and OSA in selected groups of patients (mild-to-moderate OSA with mainly retropalatal obstruction). The surgical success was found to reduce with time, and BMI optimization should be emphasized as part of post-operative care.

  1. Cognition and nocturnal disturbance in OSA: the importance of accounting for age and premorbid intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaithe, Michelle; Skinner, Timothy C.; Hillman, David


    and a tertiary hospital sleep clinic. All underwent comprehensive, laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) and completed assessments of cognition including attention, short- and long-term memory and executive function. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to construct a theoretically-driven model...... these significant relationships. No significant predictors of memory function were found. Conclusions: The mechanisms underlying the effects of OSA on cognition remain to be defined. Implications are discussed in light of these findings.......© 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that is associated with impaired attention, memory and executive function. However, the mechanisms underlying such dysfunction are unclear. To determine the influence of sleep fragmentation...

  2. Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicedo, Benoit


    We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S 3 . Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet σ-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL 2 (C). (orig.)

  3. Olulist pärimisseadusest. [1.-3. osa] / Albert Paltser

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paltser, Albert, 1931-2007


    Pärandamise ja pärimise liikidest, esimese, teise ja kolmanda järjekorra seadusjärgsetest pärijatest ning abikaasa õigusest eelosale. Testamendi liikidest (notariaalne testament, notari hoiule antud testament, kodune testament), pärija pärandi osa määramisest testamendis, annakust, ase- ja järelpärijast, testamendi tühistamisest ja abikaasade vastastikusest testamendist. Pärimislepingust ja pärandi sundosast

  4. The comparison of nasal surgery and CPAP on daytime sleepiness in patients with OSAS. (United States)

    Tagaya, M; Otake, H; Suzuki, K; Yasuma, F; Yamamoto, H; Noda, A; Nishimura, Y; Sone, M; Nakashima, T; Nakata, S


    Residual sleepiness after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a critical problem in some patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, nasal surgery is likely to reduce daytime sleepiness and feelings of unrefreshed sleep. The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of nasal surgery and CPAP on daytime sleepiness. This is a retrospective and matched-case control study. The participants were consecutive 40 patients with OSAS who underwent nasal surgery (Surgery group) and 40 matched patients who were treated with CPAP (CPAP group). In the Surgery group, although the nasal surgery did not decrease either apnea or hypopnea, it improved oxygenation, the quality of sleep. In the CPAP Group, the CPAP treatment reduced apnea and hypopnea, and improved oxygenation, quality of sleep. The degree of relief from daytime sleepiness was different between the two groups. The improvement of Epworth Sleepiness Scale was more significant in the Surgery Group than those in the CPAP Group (Surgery from 11.0 to 5.1, CPAP from 10.0 to 6.2). These findings suggest that the results of the nasal surgery is more satisfactory for some patients with OSAS than CPAP on daytime sleepiness.

  5. Prevalence and Diagnostic Approach to Sleep Apnea in Hemodialysis Patients: A Population Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Forni Ogna


    Full Text Available Background. Previous observations found a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in the hemodialysis population, but the best diagnostic approach remains undefined. We assessed OSA prevalence and performance of available screening tools to propose a specific diagnostic algorithm. Methods. 104 patients from 6 Swiss hemodialysis centers underwent polygraphy and completed 3 OSA screening scores: STOP-BANG, Berlin’s Questionnaire, and Adjusted Neck Circumference. The OSA predictors were identified on a derivation population and used to develop the diagnostic algorithm, which was validated on an independent population. Results. We found 56% OSA prevalence (AHI ≥ 15/h, which was largely underdiagnosed. Screening scores showed poor performance for OSA screening (ROC areas 0.538 [SE 0.093] to 0.655 [SE 0.083]. Age, neck circumference, and time on renal replacement therapy were the best predictors of OSA and were used to develop a screening algorithm, with higher discriminatory performance than classical screening tools (ROC area 0.831 [0.066]. Conclusions. Our study confirms the high OSA prevalence and highlights the low diagnosis rate of this treatable cardiovascular risk factor in the hemodialysis population. Considering the poor performance of OSA screening tools, we propose and validate a specific algorithm to identify hemodialysis patients at risk for OSA for whom further sleep investigations should be considered.

  6. Phenotypes in obstructive sleep apnea: A definition, examples and evolution of approaches. (United States)

    Zinchuk, Andrey V; Gentry, Mark J; Concato, John; Yaggi, Henry K


    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder and the apnea hypopnea index alone can not capture the diverse spectrum of the condition. Enhanced phenotyping can improve prognostication, patient selection for clinical trials, understanding of mechanisms, and personalized treatments. In OSA, multiple condition characteristics have been termed "phenotypes." To help classify patients into relevant prognostic and therapeutic categories, an OSA phenotype can be operationally defined as: "A category of patients with OSA distinguished from others by a single or combination of disease features, in relation to clinically meaningful attributes (symptoms, response to therapy, health outcomes, quality of life)." We review approaches to clinical phenotyping in OSA, citing examples of increasing analytic complexity. Although clinical feature based OSA phenotypes with significant prognostic and treatment implications have been identified (e.g., excessive daytime sleepiness OSA), many current categorizations lack association with meaningful outcomes. Recent work focused on pathophysiologic risk factors for OSA (e.g., arousal threshold, craniofacial morphology, chemoreflex sensitivity) appears to capture heterogeneity in OSA, but requires clinical validation. Lastly, we discuss the use of machine learning as a promising phenotyping strategy that can integrate multiple types of data (genomic, molecular, cellular, clinical) to identify unique, meaningful OSA phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prosthodontic Approach to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prosthodontic Approach to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea. ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... disordered breathing represents a continuum, ranging from simple snoring sans sleepiness, upper‑airway resistance syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, to hypercapnic respiratory failure.

  8. Hydrogen Production from Semiconductor-based Photocatalysis via Water Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. S. Wu


    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the ideal fuel for the future because it is clean, energy efficient, and abundant in nature. While various technologies can be used to generate hydrogen, only some of them can be considered environmentally friendly. Recently, solar hydrogen generated via photocatalytic water splitting has attracted tremendous attention and has been extensively studied because of its great potential for low-cost and clean hydrogen production. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the development of photocatalytic water splitting for generating hydrogen, particularly under visible-light irradiation. The topics covered include an introduction of hydrogen production technologies, a review of photocatalytic water splitting over titania and non-titania based photocatalysts, a discussion of the types of photocatalytic water-splitting approaches, and a conclusion for the current challenges and future prospects of photocatalytic water splitting. Based on the literatures reported here, the development of highly stable visible–light-active photocatalytic materials, and the design of efficient, low-cost photoreactor systems are the key for the advancement of solar-hydrogen production via photocatalytic water splitting in the future.

  9. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Type-I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split supersymmetry. To lowest order, gauginos are massless while squarks and sleptons are superheavy. For weak magnetic fields, the correct Standard Model spectrum guarantees gauge coupling unification with sin2 W ...

  10. VBSCan Split 2017 Workshop Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Christoph Falk; et al.


    This document summarises the talks and discussions happened during the VBSCan Split17 workshop, the first general meeting of the VBSCan COST Action network. This collaboration is aiming at a consistent and coordinated study of vector-boson scattering from the phenomenological and experimental point of view, for the best exploitation of the data that will be delivered by existing and future particle colliders.

  11. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. November 2006 physics pp. 793–802. Split supersymmetry in brane models. IGNATIOS ANTONIADIS∗. Department of Physics, CERN-Theory Division, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. E-mail: Ignatios. ... that LEP data favor the unification of the three SM gauge couplings are smoking guns for the presence of new ...

  12. Water splitting by cooperative catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetterscheid, D.G.H.; van der Vlugt, J.I.; de Bruin, B.; Reek, J.N.H.


    A mononuclear Ru complex is shown to efficiently split water into H2 and O2 in consecutive steps through a heat- and light-driven process (see picture). Thermally driven H2 formation involves the aid of a non-innocent ligand scaffold, while dioxygen is generated by initial photochemically induced

  13. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lie triple system; system of roots; root space; split Lie algebra; structure theory. 1. Introduction and previous definitions. Throughout this paper, Lie triple systems T are considered of arbitrary dimension and over an arbitrary field K. It is worth to mention that, unless otherwise stated, there is not any restriction on dim Tα or {k ...

  14. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The key tool in this job is the notion of connection of roots in the framework of split Lie triple systems. Author Affiliations. Antonio J Calderón Martín1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 25 January 2008. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences.

  15. Pärast Eesti Raudtee ostmist kaalub riik sellest osa taas müüa / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek


    Läbirääkimistest BRS-iga raudteefirma 66% aktsiate tagasiostmiseks. Peaminister Andrus Ansipi hinnangul oleks mõistlik pärast tagasiostu teedevõrk vedudest eraldada ning vedude osa müüki panna

  16. Semiconductor Nanowires for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting (United States)

    Hwang, Yun Jeong

    Photolysis of water with semiconductor materials has been investigated intensely as a clean and renewable energy resource by storing solar energy in chemical bonds such as hydrogen. One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as nanowires can provide several advantages for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to their high surface areas and excellent charge transport and collection efficiency. This dissertation discusses various nanowire photoelectrodes for single or dual semiconductor systems, and their linked PEC cells for self-driven water splitting. After an introduction of solar water splitting in the first chapter, the second chapter demonstrates water oxidative activities of hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanowire arrays depending on their length and surface properties. The photocurrents with TiO2 nanowire arrays approach saturation due to their poor charge collection efficiency with longer nanowires despite increased photon absorption efficiency. Epitaxial grains of rutile atomic layer deposition (ALD) shell on TiO2 nanowire increase the photocurrent density by 1.5 times due to improved charge collection efficiency especially in the short wavelength region. Chapter three compares the photocurrent density of the planar Si and Si nanowire arrays coated by anatase ALD TiO 2 thin film as a model system of a dual bandgap system. The electroless etched Si nanowire coated by ALD TiO2 (Si EENW/TiO2) shows 2.5 times higher photocurrent density due to lower reflectance and higher surface area. Also, this chapter illustrates that n-Si/n-TiO2 heterojunction is a promising structure for the photoanode application of a dual semiconductor system, since it can enhance the photocurrent density compared to p-Si/n-TiO 2 junction with the assistance of bend banding at the interface. Chapter four demonstrates the charge separation and transport of photogenerated electrons and holes within a single asymmetric Si/TiO2 nanowire. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements show

  17. Geometric inductance effects in the spectrum of split transmon qubits (United States)

    Brierley, R. T.; Blumoff, J.; Chou, K.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Girvin, S. M.


    The low-energy spectra of transmon superconducting qubits in a cavity can be accurately calculated using the black-box quantization approach. This method involves finding the normal modes of the circuit with a linearized Josephson junction and using these as the basis in which to express the non-linear terms. A split transmon qubit consists of two Josephson junctions in a SQUID loop. This configuration allows the Josephson energy to be tuned by applying external flux. Ideally, the system otherwise behaves as a conventional transmon with a single effective Josephson junction. However, the finite geometric inductance of the SQUID loop causes deviations from the simplest ideal description of a split transmon. This alters both the linearized and non-linear behaviour of the Josephson junctions in the superconducting circuit. We study how these changes can be incorporated into the black-box quantization approach and their effects on the low-energy spectrum of the split transmon.

  18. Stability of split Stirling refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waele, A T A M de; Liang, W


    In many thermal systems spontaneous mechanical oscillations are generated under the influence of large temperature gradients. Well-known examples are Taconis oscillations in liquid-helium cryostats and oscillations in thermoacoustic systems. In split Stirling refrigerators the compressor and the cold finger are connected by a flexible tube. The displacer in the cold head is suspended by a spring. Its motion is pneumatically driven by the pressure oscillations generated by the compressor. In this paper we give the basic dynamic equations of split Stirling refrigerators and investigate the possibility of spontaneous mechanical oscillations if a large temperature gradient develops in the cold finger, e.g. during or after cool down. These oscillations would be superimposed on the pressure oscillations of the compressor and could ruin the cooler performance.

  19. Geometrical Applications of Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merab Gogberashvili


    Full Text Available It is shown that physical signals and space-time intervals modeled on split-octonion geometry naturally exhibit properties from conventional (3 + 1-theory (e.g., number of dimensions, existence of maximal velocities, Heisenberg uncertainty, and particle generations. This paper demonstrates these properties using an explicit representation of the automorphisms on split-octonions, the noncompact form of the exceptional Lie group G2. This group generates specific rotations of (3 + 4-vector parts of split octonions with three extra time-like coordinates and in infinitesimal limit imitates standard Poincare transformations. In this picture translations are represented by noncompact Lorentz-type rotations towards the extra time-like coordinates. It is shown how the G2 algebra’s chirality yields an intrinsic left-right asymmetry of a certain 3-vector (spin, as well as a parity violating effect on light emitted by a moving quantum system. Elementary particles are connected with the special elements of the algebra which nullify octonionic intervals. Then the zero-norm conditions lead to free particle Lagrangians, which allow virtual trajectories also and exhibit the appearance of spatial horizons governing by mass parameters.

  20. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell... of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack. ...

  1. Topical nasal steroid treatment does not improve CPAP compliance in unselected patients with OSAS. (United States)

    Strobel, Werner; Schlageter, Manuel; Andersson, Morgan; Miedinger, David; Chhajed, Prashant N; Tamm, Michael; Leuppi, Jörg D


    Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can produce troublesome nasal symptoms (i.e. congestion, rhinorrhea) that may reduce the compliance of CPAP. Topical nasal steroids are often prescribed to reduce these side effects, although scientific data are scarce supporting any benefits of this treatment for CPAP-induced nasal side effects. To study whether a topical nasal steroid can reduce CPAP-induced nasal symptoms and improve CPAP adherence during the initial phase of OSA treatment. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study with fluticasone propionate 100 μg/nasal cavity twice daily Treatment was started 10 days prior to and continued throughout the first 4 weeks of CPAP. 63 patients who were selected for CPAP treatment participated. Nasal symptoms were recorded, nasal patency was assessed and lung function was measured with a peak flow meter. The patients' adherence to CPAP was recorded by the CPAP device. Total nasal symptoms increased from baseline to 4 wks after CPAP use for both nasal treatments (p < 0.05). No differences in total nasal symptoms between treatments were seen (p = 1), and no differences in nasal peak flow values after treatment were seen (p = 0.11). Moreover, there were no differences in CPAP use between the treatments. Fluticasone propionate as a nasal topical steroid does not reduce CPAP-induced unwanted nasal side effects, and has no beneficial effect on CPAP compliance during the first four weeks of treatment in unselected patients with OSAS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Urease inhibitor (NBPT and efficiency of single or split application of urea in wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curitiba Espindula


    Full Text Available NBPT (N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide, a urease inhibitor, has been reported as one of the most promising compounds to maximize urea nitrogen use in agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of irrigated wheat fertilized with urea or urea + NBPT as single or split application. The experiment was conducted from June to October 2006 in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The experimental design followed a 2×2 factorial scheme, in which urea or urea + NBPT were combined with two modes of application: full dose at sowing (60kg ha-1 or split (20kg ha-1 at sowing + 40kg ha-1 as topdressing at tillering, in randomized blocks with ten replications. The split application of nitrogen fertilization does not improve the yield wheat under used conditions. The use of urease inhibitor improves the grain yield of wheat crop when urea is applied in topdressing at tillering, but its use does not promote difference when urea is applied in the furrow at planting.

  3. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri


    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  4. Sistema Viçosa: Nova proposta para o cultivo do tomateiro


    Almeida, Victor de Souza


    Várias são as técnicas que podem ser utilizadas para obter melhor qualidade e maior produtividade dos frutos do tomateiro, como métodos de tutoramento, condução de plantas, poda, raleamento de frutos e densidade de plantio. Nesse sentido, os objetivos do autor nesta pesquisa foram propor e avaliar a eficiência agronômica e econômica de sistemas de cultivo de tomateiro (Sistema Viçosa) e compará-los com os atualmente disponíveis. Os sistemas avaliados foram: Fitilho - plantas tutoradas vertica...

  5. Entropy Analysis of Solar Two-Step Thermochemical Cycles for Water and Carbon Dioxide Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Lange


    Full Text Available The present study provides a thermodynamic analysis of solar thermochemical cycles for splitting of H2O or CO2. Such cycles, powered by concentrated solar energy, have the potential to produce fuels in a sustainable way. We extend a previous study on the thermodynamics of water splitting by also taking into account CO2 splitting and the influence of the solar absorption efficiency. Based on this purely thermodynamic approach, efficiency trends are discussed. The comprehensive and vivid representation in T-S diagrams provides researchers in this field with the required theoretical background to improve process development. Furthermore, results about the required entropy change in the used redox materials can be used as a guideline for material developers. The results show that CO2 splitting is advantageous at higher temperature levels, while water splitting is more feasible at lower temperature levels, as it benefits from a great entropy change during the splitting step.

  6. Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela Nurlaela


    Full Text Available Abstract Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.

  7. Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela


    Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.

  8. Innovative wedge axe in making split firewood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutikainen, A.


    Interteam Oy, a company located in Espoo, has developed a new method for making split firewood. The tools on which the patented System Logmatic are based are wedge axe and cylindrical splitting-carrying frame. The equipment costs about 495 FIM. The block of wood to be split is placed inside the upright carrying frame and split in a series of splitting actions using the innovative wedge axe. The finished split firewood remains in the carrying frame, which (as its name indicates) also serves as the means for carrying the firewood. This innovative wedge-axe method was compared with the conventional splitting of wood using an axe (Fiskars -handy 1400 splitting axe costing about 200 FIM) in a study conducted at TTS-Institute. There were eight test subjects involved in the study. In the case of the wedge-axe method, handling of the blocks to be split and of the finished firewood was a little quicker, but in actual splitting it was a little slower than the conventional axe method. The average productivity of splitting the wood and of the work stages related to it was about 0.4 m 3 per effective hour in both methods. The methods were also equivalent of one another in terms of the load imposed by the work when measured in terms of the heart rate. As regards work safety, the wedge-axe method was superior to the conventional method, but the continuous striking action and jolting transmitted to the arms were unpleasant (orig.)

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) does not affect ventilatory and perceptual responses to exercise in morbidly obese subjects. (United States)

    Innocenti Bruni, Giulia; Gigliotti, Francesco; Scano, Giorgio


    We have tested the hypothesis that high mass loading effects and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) constrain the ventilatory response to exercise in morbidly obese subjects as compared to their counterparts without OSA. Fifteen obese patients with (8) and without OSA and 12 lean healthy subjects performed incremental cycle exercise. The functional evaluation included ventilation, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, end-expiratory-lung-volumes (EELV), inspiratory capacity, heart rate, dyspnea and leg effort (by a modified Borg scale). Changes in ventilation and dyspnea per unit changes in work rate and metabolic variables were similar in the three groups. Breathing pattern and heart rate increased from rest to peak exercise similarly in the three groups. Leg effort was the prevailing symptom for stopping exercise in most subjects. In conclusion, OSA does not limit exercise capacity in morbidly obese subjects. Ventilation contributes to exertional dyspnea similarly as in lean subjects and in obese patients regardless of OSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Oryza sativa H+-ATPase (OSA) is Involved in the Regulation of Dumbbell-Shaped Guard Cells of Rice. (United States)

    Toda, Yosuke; Wang, Yin; Takahashi, Akira; Kawai, Yuya; Tada, Yasuomi; Yamaji, Naoki; Feng Ma, Jian; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kinoshita, Toshinori


    The stomatal apparatus consists of a pair of guard cells and regulates gas exchange between the leaf and atmosphere. In guard cells, blue light (BL) activates H(+)-ATPase in the plasma membrane through the phosphorylation of its penultimate threonine, mediating stomatal opening. Although this regulation is thought to be widely adopted among kidney-shaped guard cells in dicots, the molecular basis underlying that of dumbbell-shaped guard cells in monocots remains unclear. Here, we show that H(+)-ATPases are involved in the regulation of dumbbell-shaped guard cells. Stomatal opening of rice was promoted by the H(+)-ATPase activator fusicoccin and by BL, and the latter was suppressed by the H(+)-ATPase inhibitor vanadate. Using H(+)-ATPase antibodies, we showed the presence of phosphoregulation of the penultimate threonine in Oryza sativa H(+)-ATPases (OSAs) and localization of OSAs in the plasma membrane of guard cells. Interestingly, we identified one H(+)-ATPase isoform, OSA7, that is preferentially expressed among the OSA genes in guard cells, and found that loss of function of OSA7 resulted in partial insensitivity to BL. We conclude that H(+)-ATPase is involved in BL-induced stomatal opening of dumbbell-shaped guard cells in monocotyledon species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fontebasso Pelizari Pinto


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to propose a mixture of micronutrients with amino acid-based foliar fertilizer as an alternative to calda viçosa for application in organic agriculture. The study was conducted in two simultaneous trials in an experimental field in Ipeúna, SP, Brazil. The test plant was carioca type dry edible bean cv. Pérola. The treatments in trial 1 were: Control 1 = water; FA = JK® amino acid-based foliar fertilizer; and FA+Mi = FA + CuSO4 + ZnSO4 + MnSO4 + H3BO3. In trial 2, the FA treatment was substituted by calda viçosa (CVi. The treatments were through spray application three times. Dry edible bean leaves were sampled for determination of macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations. Platings of the application rates used in the treatments were performed in the laboratory in a mixture with Bacillus thuringiensis and with Beauveria bassiana to compare the degree of compatibility by means of colony forming units (CFU. The FA+Mi and CVi treatments raised the concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn in the leaves. The FA+Mi was compatible, the FA was a stimulant, and the CVi was noxious to B. bassiana and to B. thuringiensis when integrated in the spray mixture.

  12. Functional MRI of the pharynx in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with rapid 2-D flash sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, L.; Guenther, E.; Gauger, J.; Nitz, W.; Kastenbauer, E.; Reiser, M.


    Functional imaging of the pharynx used to be the domain of cineradiography, CT and ultrafast CT. The development of modern MRI techniques led to new access to functional disorders of the pharynx. The aim of this study was to implement a new MRI technique to examine oropharyngeal obstructive mechanisms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Sixteen patients suffering from OSA and 6 healthy volunteers were examined on a 1.5 T whole-body imager ('Vision', Siemens, Erlangen Medical Engineering, Germany) using a circular polarized head coil. Imaging was performed with 2D flash sequences in midsagittal and axial planes. Patients and volunteers were asked to breathe normally through the nose and to simulate snoring and the Mueller maneuver during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior to MRI, all patients underwent an ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, functional fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy and polysomnography. A temporal resolution of 6 images/s and an in-plane resolution of 2.67x1.8 mm were achieved. The mobility of the tongue, soft palate and pharyngeal surface could be clearly delineated. The MRI findings correlated well with the clinical examinations. We propose ultrafast MRI as a reliable and non-invasive method of evaluating pharyngeal obstruction and their levels. (orig.) [de

  13. The SomnuSeal Oral Mask Is Reasonably Tolerated by Otherwise CPAP Noncompliant Patients with OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Katz


    Full Text Available Compliance with CPAP is the major limiting factor in treating patients with OSA. The novel SomnuSeal mask is an oral self-adaptable mask located between the teeth and the lips ensuring that there are no air leaks or skin abrasions. Fifty patients with AHI>20, who failed previous CPAP trials, were asked to sleep with the mask for one month. In all patients, the mask was connected to an AutoPAP machine with a heated humidifier. Efficacy, convenience, and compliance (average usage for 4 or more hours per night were monitored. Fifty patients (41 m and 9 f, mean age 57±12 years, BMI 33.6±4.9 kg/m2, and AHI 47±23/h participated. Eleven were classified as compliant (average mask usage of 26 nights, 4.7 hours per night, five were only partially compliant (average usage of 13 nights, 2.9 hours per night, and 34 could not comply with it. In all patients who slept with it, the efficacy (assessed by residual AHI derived from the CPAP device was good with an AHI of less than 8/hour. Interestingly, the required optimal pressure decreased from an average of 9.3 cmH2O to 4.6 cmH2O. The SomnuSeal oral interface is effective and may result in converting noncompliant untreated patients with OSA into well-treated ones.

  14. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John


    Most of today’s complex systems and processes involve several stages through which input or the raw material has to go before the final product is obtained. Also in many cases factors at different stages interact. Therefore, a holistic approach for experimentation that considers all stages...... on the Kronecker product representation of orthogonal designs and can be used for any number of stages, for various numbers of subplots and for different number of subplots for each stage. The procedure is demonstrated on both regular and nonregular designs and provides the maximum number of factors that can...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  15. Parallel BLAST on split databases. (United States)

    Mathog, David R


    BLAST programs often run on large SMP machines where multiple threads can work simultaneously and there is enough memory to cache the databases between program runs. A group of programs is described which allows comparable performance to be achieved with a Beowulf configuration in which no node has enough memory to cache a database but the cluster as an aggregate does. To achieve this result, databases are split into equal sized pieces and stored locally on each node. Each query is run on all nodes in parallel and the resultant BLAST output files from all nodes merged to yield the final output. Source code is available from

  16. Serpentes do Município de Viçosa, Mata Atlântica do Sudeste do Brasil


    Costa,Henrique Caldeira; Pantoja,Davi Lima; Pontes,José Lélis; Feio,Renato Neves


    Apresentamos aqui, com base em exemplares depositados em coleções científicas, uma lista das espécies de serpentes do Município de Viçosa, localizado em uma porção da Mata Atlântica do Estado de Minas Gerais, Sudeste do Brasil. Trinta e quatro espécies foram confirmadas em Viçosa. Outras duas possuem registros duvidosos e cinco espécies que foram registradas em municípios vizinhos poderiam também ocorrer em Viçosa. Informações sobre distribuição e história natural das serpentes são apresentad...

  17. The rheological properties of blood and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Pierzchała


    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is an important public health concern, which affects around 2–4% of the population. Left untreated, it causes a decrease not only in quality of life, but also of life expectancy. Despite the fact that knowledge about the mechanisms of development of cardiovascular disease in patients with OSA is still incomplete, observations confirm a relationship between sleep disordered breathing and the rheological properties of blood. One possible consequence of an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease may be a rise in mortality in OSA patients. Continuously improved research methods are allowing for an increasingly more accurate understanding of the significance of observed changes. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 2, 206–210

  18. Comparison of the area of the pharynx during wakefulness and induced sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). (United States)

    Faria, Ana Célia; Garcia, Luis Vicente; Santos, Antonio Carlos Dos; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; Ribeiro, Helcio Tadeu; Mello-Filho, Francisco Veríssimo de


    The study of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has received growing attention over the past years since various aspects have not been sufficiently established. To evaluate, with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), changes in the area of the pharynx during wakefulness and induced sleep in patients with OSA. A prospective study of thirty-two patients with a polysomnographic diagnosis of OSA. All patients were submitted to MR imaging in order to obtain high-definition anatomical sagittal sequences during wakefulness and during sleep induced with Propofol. An area was defined on the sagittal plane in the midline of the pharynx. This region was called pharyngeal midplane (PMP) area. A significant difference in PMP area (mm²) was observed between wakefulness and induced sleep in each patient (p sleep compared to wakefulness.

  19. Depression, physical activity, energy consumption, and quality of life in OSA patients before and after CPAP treatment. (United States)

    Diamanti, C; Manali, E; Ginieri-Coccossis, M; Vougas, K; Cholidou, K; Markozannes, E; Bakakos, P; Liappas, I; Alchanatis, M


    A variety of studies have demonstrated improvement in quality of life and depressive symptoms in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. However, very little is known about the effect of OSA treatment on physical activity and energy consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in depression, physical activity, energy expenditure, and quality of life (QoL) in OSA patients before and after CPAP therapy. Forty-one patients with OSA as revealed by polysomnography, were included to the study. They responded to the generic World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQoL) questionnaire, to the specific-disease Quebec Sleep Questionnaire, and to Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in order to evaluate QoL and the incidence of depression. In addition, all patients wore an accelerometer which measured physical activity and energy expenditure during a week. At least 6 months after initiation of CPAP treatment (mean time, 9 months) we re-examined 24 patients who met the compliance with the treatment criteria. Patients after CPAP therapy had significantly higher scores in all domains of the Quebec Sleep Questionnaire and in the domains of physical health/level of independence and psychological health/spirituality of the WHOQoL. Depression scores were also better in CES-D after treatment. However, despite the improvement in QoL and psychological status, CPAP therapy had no impact on physical activity and energy expenditure. CPAP therapy improves QoL and lessens depressive symptoms in our group of well-treated OSA patients. However, physical activity and energy expenditure did not present statistically significant improvement in the same group of OSA patients.

  20. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tongsong, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276005 (China); Department of Mathematics, Heze University, Heze, Shandong 274015 (China); Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong [Department of Mathematics, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276005 (China)


    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.

  1. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness is Associated with Increased Health Care Utilization Among Patients Referred for Assessment of OSA (United States)

    Ronksley, Paul E.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Heitman, Steven J.; Flemons, W. Ward; Ghali, William A.; Manns, Braden; Faris, Peter; Tsai, Willis H.


    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness is an important public health concern associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, in the absence of sleep diagnostic testing, it is difficult to separate the independent effects of sleepiness from those of intrinsic sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objective of this study was to determine if excessive daytime sleepiness was independently associated with increased health care utilization among patients referred for assessment of OSA. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting/Participants: 2149 adults referred for sleep diagnostic testing between July 2005 and August 2007. Interventions: N/A Measurements: Subjective daytime sleepiness was defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥10. Health care use (outpatient physician visits, all-cause hospitalizations, and emergency department visits) was determined from Alberta Health and Wellness administrative databases for the 18-month period preceding their sleep study. Rates of health resource use were analyzed using negative binomial regression, with predictors of increased health care use determined using logistic regression. Results: Excessive daytime sleepiness was associated with an increased rate of outpatient physician visits after adjustment for demographic variables, sleep medication use, hypertension, diabetes, depression, and OSA severity (rate ratio [RR]: 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.18, P = 0.02) compared to non-sleepy subjects. There was an interaction between severe OSA and sleepiness (RR: 1.22 [95% CI: 1.06, 1.41]), although OSA was not an independent predictor of health care use. Also, sleepy patients with treated depression had a lower likelihood of outpatient visits (RR: 0.95 [95% CI: 0.86, 1.05]). Finally, sleepiness was an independent predictor of increased health care use for outpatient physician visits (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25 [95% CI: 1.00, 1.57; P = 0.048]) and all-cause hospitalizations (OR: 3

  2. Comparability of pulse oximeters used in sleep medicine for the screening of OSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhning, N; Schultheiß, B; Eilers, S; Schmittendorf, E; Penzel, T; Böhning, W


    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a frequent clinical picture. It is characterized by repetitive respiratory arrest with a consecutive decrease in arterial oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ). In clinical practice, the number of desaturations per hour, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), is used as an important diagnostic criterion. Medical literature, however, mentions different threshold values that are defined as pathological. By means of systematic comparative measurements, the study presented here will examine to what extent the diagnosis and the quantification of OSA severity are affected by the device-specific measurement technique, thus impacting the predictive value of nighttime pulse oximetry in outpatient OSA screening. Different pulse oximeters commonly used in clinical practice were analyzed comparatively regarding technical parameters, temporal dynamics and the reproducibility of measuring results. The measurements were executed simultaneously and time synchronized in a reference group of five test subjects (four males, one female, average age 33.0 ± 9.4 years), in a group of five patients (all males, average age 51.8 ± 18.4 years) and using a simulator (pulse oximeter simulator index 2). All devices underestimate the simulator's predetermined oxygen desaturation of 10%. The dispersion of values is high. The device-specific characteristics have a significant influence on the collected data. The fundamental weakness of the systems lies in the reproducibility of measuring results (this only seems adequate at a signal resolution in steps of 0.1%) as well as the differing temporal dynamics. In the synchronous use of different systems on patients for the purpose of a direct comparison of devices, the dispersion of values is serious, reaching a fluctuation range of up to factor 1.42. In measuring dynamic events (apneas), different pulse oximeters do not record identical values. This is due to the different internal signal processing of the devices

  3. Testing PVLAS axions with resonant photon splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, E; Gabrielli, Emidio; Giovannini, Massimo


    The photon splitting gamma -> gamma gamma in a time-independent and inhomogeneous magnetized background is considered when neutral and ultralight spin-0 particles are coupled to two-photons. Depending on the inhomogeneity scale of the external field, resonant photon splitting can occur. If an optical laser crosses a magnetic field of few Tesla with typical inhomogeneity scale of the order of the meter, a potentially observable rate of photon splittings is expected for the PVLAS range of couplings and masses.

  4. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N


    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  5. Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen


    Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations explains how to solve evolution equations via novel iterative-based splitting methods that efficiently use computational and memory resources. It focuses on systems of parabolic and hyperbolic equations, including convection-diffusion-reaction equations, heat equations, and wave equations. In the theoretical part of the book, the author discusses the main theorems and results of the stability and consistency analysis for ordinary differential equations. He then presents extensions of the iterative splitting methods to partial differential

  6. Análise da atividade florestal no município de Viçosa-MG Analysis of forest activity in Viçosa-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Albino Fontes


    Full Text Available Estudou-se a atividade florestal no município de Viçosa-MG, a partir de questionário aplicado aos agricultores cujas propriedades rurais possuíam florestas plantadas. Foi amostrado um total de 63 propriedades rurais, abrangendo uma área de 2.096,95 ha. As áreas de floresta nativa e plantada, na amostra, foram de 372,00 e 260,17 ha, o que corresponde, respectivamente, a 17,74 e 12,41% da área amostrada. O tipo de floresta nativa predominante foi a capoeira (67,55%, e a espécie preferida para o reflorestamento foi o eucalipto (92,68%. O uso médio da mão-de-obra nas fases de implantação, manutenção e colheita dos plantios florestais foi estimado em 30,21, 13,64 e 61,25 dias-homem/ha, respectivamente, totalizando 105,10 dias-homem/ha, sendo a participação da mão-de-obra familiar de 25,24%. Os custos inerentes à atividade florestal foram estimados em R$419,30/ha para implantação; R$146,49/ha e R$80,34/ha para manutenção no primeiro e segundo ano, respectivamente; e R$2,11/m³ para colheita da madeira. Os plantios florestais concentram-se nas áreas de encostas, e o número médio de empregos gerados pelo reflorestamento (eucalipto foi 0,042 emprego/ha. Concluiu-se, de modo geral, que o reflorestamento é considerado atividade pouco atrativa, não identificando propriedades tipicamente florestais, sendo recomendada a elaboração de políticas públicas de incentivo ao reflorestamento.Forest activity was studied in Viçosa-MG, through a questionnaire applied to farmers who planted forests. A total of 63 farms were sampled, comprising an area of 2,096.95 ha. The natural and planted forest areas sampled were of 372.00 ha and 260.17 ha, corresponding to 17.74% and 12.41%, respectively. The predominant natural forest was the secondary forest (capoeira (67.55%, and the species chosen for reforestation was eucalypt (92.68%. Average labor use in the phases of implementation, maintenance and harvest of the forest plantations was

  7. Spin Splitting in Different Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yafei


    We theoretically investigate the spin splitting in four undoped asymmetric quantum wells in the absence of external electric field and magnetic field. The quantum well geometry dependence of spin splitting is studied with the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling included. The results show that the structure of quantum well plays an important role in spin splitting. The Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin splitting in four asymmetric quantum wells are quite different. The origin of the distinction is discussed in this work. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. Dark matter from split seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.


    The seesaw mechanism in models with extra dimensions is shown to be generically consistent with a broad range of Majorana masses. The resulting democracy of scales implies that the seesaw mechanism can naturally explain the smallness of neutrino masses for an arbitrarily small right-handed neutrino mass. If the scales of the seesaw parameters are split, with two right-handed neutrinos at a high scale and one at a keV scale, one can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, as well as dark matter. The dark matter candidate, a sterile right-handed neutrino with mass of several keV, can account for the observed pulsar velocities and for the recent data from Chandra X-ray Observatory, which suggest the existence of a 5 keV sterile right-handed neutrino.

  9. Emittance compensation in split photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Floettmann


    Full Text Available The compensation of correlated emittance contributions is of primary importance to optimize the performance of high brightness photoinjectors. While only extended numerical simulations can capture the complex beam dynamics of space-charge-dominated beams in sufficient detail to optimize a specific injector layout, simplified models are required to gain a deeper understanding of the involved dynamics, to guide the optimization procedure, and to interpret experimental results. In this paper, a slice envelope model for the emittance compensation process in a split photoinjector is presented. The emittance term is included in the analytical solution of the beam envelope in a drift, which is essential to take the emittance contribution due to a beam size mismatch into account. The appearance of two emittance minima in the drift is explained, and the matching into the booster cavity is discussed. A comparison with simulation results points out effects which are not treated in the envelope model, such as overfocusing and field nonlinearities.

  10. Gauge mediated mini-split (United States)

    Cohen, Timothy; Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon


    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ- b μ problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 105 to 108 GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  11. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.


    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  12. Gauge mediated mini-split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Craig, Nathaniel [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Knapen, Simon [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ−b{sub μ} problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 8} GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  13. PifC and Osa, Plasmid Weapons against Rival Conjugative Coupling Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Getino


    Full Text Available Bacteria display a variety of mechanisms to control plasmid conjugation. Among them, fertility inhibition (FI systems prevent conjugation of co-resident plasmids within donor cells. Analysis of the mechanisms of inhibition between conjugative plasmids could provide new alternatives to fight antibiotic resistance dissemination. In this work, inhibition of conjugation of broad host range IncW plasmids was analyzed in the presence of a set of co-resident plasmids. Strong FI systems against plasmid R388 conjugation were found in IncF/MOBF12 as well as in IncI/MOBP12 plasmids, represented by plasmids F and R64, respectively. In both cases, the responsible gene was pifC, known also to be involved in FI of IncP plasmids and Agrobacterium T-DNA transfer to plant cells. It was also discovered that the R388 gene osa, which affects T-DNA transfer, also prevented conjugation of IncP-1/MOBP11 plasmids represented by plasmids RP4 and R751. Conjugation experiments of different mobilizable plasmids, helped by either FI-susceptible or FI-resistant transfer systems, demonstrated that the conjugative component affected by both PifC and Osa was the type IV conjugative coupling protein. In addition, in silico analysis of FI proteins suggests that they represent recent acquisitions of conjugative plasmids, i.e., are not shared by members of the same plasmid species. This implies that FI are rapidly-moving accessory genes, possibly acting on evolutionary fights between plasmids for the colonization of specific hosts.

  14. Total analysis of clinical factors for surgical success of adenotonsillectomy in pediatric OSAS. (United States)

    Chang, Ting-So; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying


    The objective of this study is the total evaluation of most common clinical factors influencing the successful rate of adenotonsillectomy for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Retrospectively, 63 pediatric patients ranged from 2 to 16 years old were included. Syndromics and patients who had received orthodontic treatment or orthognathic surgery were excluded. All patients received pre-operative and postoperative polysomnography and cephalometry. Each patient received adenotonsillectomy by single surgeon. Surgical success was defined as apneahypopnea index (AHI) decreased ≧50 % or post-operative AHI cephalometry parameters. Mean age of the total 63 patients was 7.78 years old. Mean BMI of the patients was 19.02. The proportion of obese patients was 25.4% (16/63). Surgical success was achieved in 42 out of 63 patients (66.7%). The surgical success was not statistically significant related to all pre-operative cephalometric parameters, age, gender, BMI and adenoid size by multiple logistic regression model. However, the surgical success was significantly related to pre-operative AHI and tonsil size. In addition, all patients who received adenotonsillectomy showed improved polysomnography parameters, including AHI, AI, HI, mean O 2 saturation and nadir O 2 saturation which all reached statistically significant improvement. Although adenotonsillectomy cannot cure pediatric OSAS in our research, all patients showed significant improvement of polysomnography parameters after this procedure. Pre-operative cephalometry parameters, BMI and age did not show significant correlation with surgical success, however, pre-op AHI and tonsil size correlated with surgical success. Higher pre-op AHI value and higher tonsil grade showed higher rate of surgical success. Based on the total evaluation of clinical data, surgical success after adenotonsillectomy might be predicted by pre-op AHI severity and tonsil grade.

  15. Functional MRI of the pharynx in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with rapid 2-D flash sequences; Funktionelle MRT des Pharynx bei obstruktiver Schlafapnoe (OSA) mit schnellen 2D-FLASH-Sequenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, L. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Guenther, E. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkranke, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Gauger, J. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Nitz, W. [Siemens Medizintechnik, Erlangen (Germany); Kastenbauer, E. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkranke, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Reiser, M. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany)


    Functional imaging of the pharynx used to be the domain of cineradiography, CT and ultrafast CT. The development of modern MRI techniques led to new access to functional disorders of the pharynx. The aim of this study was to implement a new MRI technique to examine oropharyngeal obstructive mechanisms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Sixteen patients suffering from OSA and 6 healthy volunteers were examined on a 1.5 T whole-body imager (`Vision`, Siemens, Erlangen Medical Engineering, Germany) using a circular polarized head coil. Imaging was performed with 2D flash sequences in midsagittal and axial planes. Patients and volunteers were asked to breathe normally through the nose and to simulate snoring and the Mueller maneuver during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior to MRI, all patients underwent an ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, functional fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy and polysomnography. A temporal resolution of 6 images/s and an in-plane resolution of 2.67x1.8 mm were achieved. The mobility of the tongue, soft palate and pharyngeal surface could be clearly delineated. The MRI findings correlated well with the clinical examinations. We propose ultrafast MRI as a reliable and non-invasive method of evaluating pharyngeal obstruction and their levels. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die funktionelle Bildgebung des Pharynx war bisher eine Domaene der Hochfrequenzroentgenkinematographie, der Computertomographie (CT) und der ultraschnellen Computertomographie. Die Entwicklung moderner Techniken in der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) fuehrte zu neuen Ansaetzen in der Diagnostik pharyngealer Dysfunktionen. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die Implementierung neuer schneller MR-Sequenzen, um Verschlussmechanismen entlang des Pharnyxschlauches bei Patienten mit obstruktiver Schlafapnoe (OSA) zu untersuchen. 16 Patienten mit OSA und 6 gesunde Probanden wurden an einem 1,5-T-Ganzkoerpermagnetresonanztomographen (`Vision`, Siemens Medizintechnik, Erlangen

  16. SplitDist—Calculating Split-Distances for Sets of Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T


    We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other.......We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other....

  17. Roadmap on solar water splitting: current status and future prospects (United States)

    Chu, Sheng; Li, Wei; Yan, Yanfa; Hamann, Thomas; Shih, Ishiang; Wang, Dunwei; Mi, Zetian


    Artificial photosynthesis via solar water splitting provides a promising approach to storing solar energy in the form of hydrogen on a global scale. However, an efficient and cost-effective solar hydrogen production system that can compete with traditional methods using fossil fuels is yet to be developed. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) tandem cell consisting of a p-type photocathode and an n-type photoanode, with the photovoltage provided by the two photoelectrodes, is an attractive route to achieve highly efficient unassisted water splitting at a low cost. In this article, we provide an overview of recent developments of semiconductor materials, including metal oxides, nitrides, chalcogenides, Si, III-V compounds and organics, either as photocathodes or photoanodes for water reduction and oxidation, respectively. In addition, recent efforts in constructing a PEC tandem system for unassisted water splitting are outlined. The importance of developing a single-photon photocathode and photoanode that can deliver high photocurrent in the low bias region for efficient PEC tandem system is highlighted. Finally, we discuss the future development of photoelectrode materials, and viable solutions to realize highly efficient PEC water splitting device for practical applications.

  18. Split Questionnaire Design for Massive Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adiguzel, F.; Wedel, M.


    Companies are conducting more and longer surveys than ever before. Massive questionnaires are pervasive in marketing practice. As an alternative to the heuristic methods that are currently used to split questionnaires, this study develops a methodology to design the split questionnaire in a way that

  19. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.


    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  20. Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogberashvili M.


    Full Text Available We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors. It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.

  1. Split Scheduling with Uniform Setup Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, F.; Sitters, R.A.; van der Ster, S.L.; Stougie, L.; Verdugo, V.; van Zuylen, A.


    We study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a machine cannot process or

  2. Split scheduling with uniform setup times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen


    htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a

  3. On split Lie triple systems II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lie triple system with a coherent 0-root space is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie triple system, and the simplicity of T is characterized. In the present paper we extend these results to arbitrary split Lie triple systems with no restrictions on their 0-root spaces. Keywords.

  4. Unbiased split variable selection for random survival forests using maximally selected rank statistics. (United States)

    Wright, Marvin N; Dankowski, Theresa; Ziegler, Andreas


    The most popular approach for analyzing survival data is the Cox regression model. The Cox model may, however, be misspecified, and its proportionality assumption may not always be fulfilled. An alternative approach for survival prediction is random forests for survival outcomes. The standard split criterion for random survival forests is the log-rank test statistic, which favors splitting variables with many possible split points. Conditional inference forests avoid this split variable selection bias. However, linear rank statistics are utilized by default in conditional inference forests to select the optimal splitting variable, which cannot detect non-linear effects in the independent variables. An alternative is to use maximally selected rank statistics for the split point selection. As in conditional inference forests, splitting variables are compared on the p-value scale. However, instead of the conditional Monte-Carlo approach used in conditional inference forests, p-value approximations are employed. We describe several p-value approximations and the implementation of the proposed random forest approach. A simulation study demonstrates that unbiased split variable selection is possible. However, there is a trade-off between unbiased split variable selection and runtime. In benchmark studies of prediction performance on simulated and real datasets, the new method performs better than random survival forests if informative dichotomous variables are combined with uninformative variables with more categories and better than conditional inference forests if non-linear covariate effects are included. In a runtime comparison, the method proves to be computationally faster than both alternatives, if a simple p-value approximation is used. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 6A3-5/Osa2 is an Early Activated Gene Implicated in the Control of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenaele Garin


    Full Text Available Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC growth plays a key role in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling gene transcription in VSMC remain poorly understood. We previously identified, by differential display, a new gene (6A3-5 overexpressed in proliferating rat VSMC. In this study, we have cloned the full-length cDNA by screening a rat foetal brain cDNA library and investigated its functions. The 6A3-5 protein shows 4 putative conserved functional motifs: a DNA binding domain called ARID (AT-rich interaction domain, two recently described motifs (Osa Homology Domain, and a nuclear localization signal. The deduced protein sequence was observed to be 85% identical to the recently described human Osa2 gene. Immunolabelling, using an anti-6A3-5/Osa2 monoclonal antibody, showed a nuclear localization of the 6A3-5/Osa2 protein. In addition, PDGF upregulated 6A3-5/Osa2 expression at both the transcript and protein levels in a dose and time-dependent fashion. The pattern of upregulation by PDGF was reminiscent of the early responsive gene c-fos. The PDGF-induced upregulation of 6A3-5/Osa2 and proliferation of VSMC were significantly inhibited in a dose and sequence-dependent fashion by an antisense, but not by sense, scrambled or mismatched oligonucleotides directed against 6A3-5/Osa2. In VSMC of aortas derived from hypertensive (LH rats, 6A3-5/Osa2 is overexpressed as compared to that in normotensive (LL rats. The 6A3-5/Osa2-gene expression is downregulated by an ACE inhibitor and upregulated by exogenous AngiotensinII in LH rats. In summary, these results indicate that 6A3-5/Osa2 is an early activated gene that belongs to a new family of proteins involved in the control of VSMC growth.

  6. A promising split-lesion technique for rapid tattoo removal using a novel sequential approach of a single sitting of pulsed CO(2) followed by Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm). (United States)

    Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K; Bansal, Shivani; Goel, Khushbu


    Laser tattoo removal conventionally uses Q-switched (QS) lasers, but they require multiple sittings, and the end results depend largely on the type of tattoo treated. In pigmented skin, due to the competing epidermal pigment results, laser results in tattoo are slow and inadequate. To evaluate the efficacy of a combined use of ultrapulse CO2 and QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser in the treatment of tattoos in Indian skin. A split-lesion trial was carried out in five patients, with the left side of tattoos receiving the QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and the right side, a sequential combination of Up CO2 and QS Nd: YAG at 6 weeks interval with a maximum of six sittings. Outcome assessment was carried out by a blinded assessor using standardized photography. An assessment of physician improvement score, side-effects score, and patient satisfaction score was taken during and at the end of the study. There was a statistically significant improvement on the combination side(physician improvement score -3.7 vs. 1.87: P = 0.0019) which occurred earlier with fewer sittings (1.7 vs. 6). There was no statistically significant difference in the side effects. A combination of an Up CO2 laser with QS Nd: YAG laser is a promising tool for rapid and effective removal of blue-black/blue amateur tattoo in pigmented skin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Diagnostic and therapeutic approach to coexistent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Jelic


    Full Text Available Sanja JelicDivision of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USAAbstract: The high prevalence of both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Western societies is well documented. However, OSA frequently remains unrecognized and untreated among patients with COPD. Patients with both conditions have a greater risk for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events compared with patients with COPD or OSA alone. Efficacious treatment with continuous positive airway pressure reduces the risk of cardiovascular complications in patients with OSA. The aim of the present review is to discuss the diagnostic approach to patients with both conditions and to delineate the benefits of timely ecognition and treatment of OSA in patients with COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea, continuous positive airway pressure, nocturnal arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation

  8. Split-coil-system SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.


    The high field superconductor test facility SULTAN started operation successfully in May 1992. Originally designed for testing full scale conductors for the large magnets of the next generation fusion reactors, the SULTAN facility installed at PSI (Switzerland) was designed as a common venture of three European Laboratories: ENEA (Italy), ECN (Netherlands) and PSI, and built by ENEA and PSI in the framework of the Euratom Fusion Technology Program. Presently the largest facility in the world, with its superconducting split coil system generating 11 Tesla in a 0.6 m bore, it is ready now for testing superconductor samples with currents up to 50 kA at variable cooling conditions. Similar tests can be arranged also for other applications. SULTAN is offered by the European Community as a contribution to the worldwide cooperation for the next step of fusion reactor development ITER. First measurements on conductor developed by CEA (Cadarache) are now in progress. Others like those of ENEA and CERN will follow. For 1993, a test of an Italian 12 TZ model coil for fusion application is planned. SULTAN is a worldwide unique facility marking the competitive presence of Swiss technology in the field of applied superconductivity research. Based on development and design of PSI, the high field Nb 3 Sn superconductors and coils were fabricated at the works of Kabelwerke Brugg and ABB, numerous Swiss companies contributed to the success of this international effort. Financing of the Swiss contribution of SULTAN was made available by NEFF, BEW, BBW, PSI and EURATOM. (author) figs., tabs., 20 refs

  9. Strength Prediction and Failure Modes of Concrete Specimens Subjected to the Split Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Linh Cao; Andersen, M.E.; Hansen, N.T.


    This paper deals with modelling and test of concrete specimens subjected to the Brazilian split test. Based on the fictitious crack concept, a simple model for the crack propagation process in the splitting plane is developed. From the model, it is possible to determine the distribution of residual...... tensile strength as crack propagation take place. The residual tensile strength is thereafter used in a rigid plastic analysis of the splitting failure. Based on this combined approach, the ultimate load may either be governed by crack propagation or by a plastic failure, which then terminates the crack...

  10. 2-Photon tandem device for water splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard


    Within the field Of photocatalytic water splitting there are several strategies to achieve the goal of efficient and cheap photocatalytic water splitting. This work examines one particular strategy by focusing on monolithically stacked, two-photon photoelectrochemical cells. The overall aim...... absorption, this is the more difficult side to optimize. Nevertheless, by using TiO2 as a transparent cathode protection layer in conjunction with known H-2 evolution catalysts, protection is clearly feasible for a large bandgap photocathode. This suggests that there may be promising strategies...... for photocatalytic water splitting by using a large bandgap photocathode and a low bandgap photoanode with attached protection layers....

  11. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)


    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν{sub 2} bending mode starting with 4ν{sub 2}.

  12. Splitting Functions at High Transverse Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Moutafis, Rhea Penelope; CERN. Geneva. TH Department


    Among the production channels of the Higgs boson one contribution could become significant at high transverse momentum which is the radiation of a Higgs boson from another particle. This note focuses on the calculation of splitting functions and cross sections of such processes. The calculation is first carried out on the example $e\\rightarrow e\\gamma$ to illustrate the way splitting functions are calculated. Then the splitting function of $e\\rightarrow eh$ is calculated in similar fashion. This procedure can easily be generalized to processes such as $q\\rightarrow qh$ or $g\\rightarrow gh$.

  13. Homossexualidades à deriva nos alojamentos da Universidade Federal de Viçosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Barduni Filho


    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda meu interesse de pesquisa pelos jogos de poderes entre estudantes nos alojamentos da Universidade Federal de Viçosa/MG. A pesquisa, que, no caso, é um recorte adaptado do meu próprio projeto de doutorado, origina-se da minha experiência como ex-morador do alojamento Novíssimo da UFV. O objetivo aqui é apresentar brevemente o histórico de dois alojamentos específicos: Novo (feminino e Novíssimo (masculino e traçar um paralelo com as referências foucaultianas no tocante à vigilância, disciplinamento e controle, portanto, a metodologia aqui é a de cunho referencial bibliográfico, pois, trata-se de um projeto que ainda não iniciou a fase de coleta de dados de pesquisa como entrevistas e observações. Tais conceitos foucaultianos estão presentes no espaço microsocial dos alojamentos como elementos de expiação e controle entre estudantes, concretizando tramas e caças às subjetividades incomodantes, se é que podemos assim dizer, das subjetividades homossexuais. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alojamentos estudantis, vigilâncias, controles

  14. The predictive value of drug-induced sleep endoscopy for CPAP titration in OSA patients. (United States)

    Lan, Ming-Chin; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Lan, Ming-Ying; Huang, Yun-Chen; Kao, Ming-Chang; Huang, Tung-Tsun; Chiu, Tsan-Jen; Yang, Mei-Chen


    The aim of this study was to identify possible upper airway obstructions causing a higher continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration level, utilizing drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). A total of 76 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) underwent CPAP titration and DISE. DISE findings were recorded using the VOTE classification system. Polysomnographic (PSG) data, anthropometric variables, and patterns of airway collapse during DISE were analyzed with CPAP titration levels. A significant association was found between the CPAP titration level and BMI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and neck circumference (NC) (P titration level (P titration level and any other collapse at the tongue base or epiglottis. By analyzing PSG data, anthropometric variables, and DISE results with CPAP titration levels, we can better understand possible mechanisms resulting in a higher CPAP titration level. We believe that the role of DISE can be expanded as a tool to identify the possible anatomical structures that may be corrected by oral appliance therapy or surgical intervention to improve CPAP compliance.

  15. Using Protection Layers for a 2-Photon Water Splitting Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Mei, Bastian Timo; Frydendal, Rasmus


    The 2-photon tandem device for photocatalytic water splitting has been theoretically shown to provide a higher efficiency than a single photon device(1). This increased efficiency can be achieved by having one material optimized to absorb high energy photons (large bandgap) and another material...... optimized to absorb low energy photons (small bandgap). To a large degree this approach has been hindered by corrosion issues. In this talk I will first discuss how our computational screening of 2,400 materials showed that very few materials can efficiently absorb light without corroding in water splitting...... conditions.(2) I will follow this up by discussing how protection layers bypass the corrosion issue by creating a buffer layer.(3) Finally I will show how we integrated a photocatalyst/protection layer/(co-catalyst) scheme to produce highly efficient H2 evolution photocathodes and O2 evolution photoanodes.(3...

  16. Photoelectrochemical water splitting in separate oxygen and hydrogen cells (United States)

    Landman, Avigail; Dotan, Hen; Shter, Gennady E.; Wullenkord, Michael; Houaijia, Anis; Maljusch, Artjom; Grader, Gideon S.; Rothschild, Avner


    Solar water splitting provides a promising path for sustainable hydrogen production and solar energy storage. One of the greatest challenges towards large-scale utilization of this technology is reducing the hydrogen production cost. The conventional electrolyser architecture, where hydrogen and oxygen are co-produced in the same cell, gives rise to critical challenges in photoelectrochemical water splitting cells that directly convert solar energy and water to hydrogen. Here we overcome these challenges by separating the hydrogen and oxygen cells. The ion exchange in our cells is mediated by auxiliary electrodes, and the cells are connected to each other only by metal wires, enabling centralized hydrogen production. We demonstrate hydrogen generation in separate cells with solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 7.5%, which can readily surpass 10% using standard commercial components. A basic cost comparison shows that our approach is competitive with conventional photoelectrochemical systems, enabling safe and potentially affordable solar hydrogen production.

  17. Image segmentation by iterative parallel region growing and splitting (United States)

    Tilton, James C.


    The spatially constrained clustering (SCC) iterative parallel region-growing technique is applied to image analysis. The SCC algorithm is implemented on the massively parallel processor at NASA Goddard. Most previous region-growing approaches have the drawback that the segmentation produced depends on the order in which portions of the image are processed. The ideal solution to this problem (merging only the single most similar pair of spatially adjacent regions in the image in each iteration) becomes impractical except for very small images, even on a massively parallel computer. The SCC algorithm overcomes these problems by performing, in parallel, the best merge within each of a set of local, possibly overlapping, subimages. A region-splitting stage is also incorporated into the algorithm, but experiments show that region splitting generally does not improve segmentation results. The SCC algorithm has been tested on various imagery data, and test results for a Landsat TM image are summarized.

  18. Strategies for stable water splitting via protected photoelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Dowon; Seger, Brian; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard


    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar-fuel conversion is a promising approach to provide clean and storable fuel (e.g., hydrogen and methanol) directly from sunlight, water and CO2. However, major challenges still have to be overcome before commercialization can be achieved. One of the largest barriers...... photocathodes. In addition, we review protection layer approaches and their stabilities for a wide variety of experimental photoelectrodes for water reduction. Finally, we discuss key aspects which should be addressed in continued work on realizing stable and practical PEC solar water splitting systems....

  19. Splitting Strip Detector Clusters in Dense Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration


    Tracking in high density environments, particularly in high energy jets, plays an important role in many physics analyses at the LHC. In such environments, there is significant degradation of track reconstruction performance. Between runs 1 and 2, ATLAS implemented an algorithm that splits pixel clusters originating from multiple charged particles, using charge information, resulting in the recovery of much of the lost efficiency. However, no attempt was made in prior work to split merged clusters in the Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), which does not measure charge information. In spite of the lack of charge information in SCT, a cluster-splitting algorithm has been developed in this work. It is based primarily on the difference between the observed cluster width and the expected cluster width, which is derived from track incidence angle. The performance of this algorithm is found to be competitive with the existing pixel cluster splitting based on track information.

  20. Structural basis of photosynthetic water-splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic water-splitting takes place in photosystem II (PSII), a membrane protein complex consisting of 20 subunits with an overall molecular mass of 350 kDa. The light-induced water-splitting reaction catalyzed by PSII not only converts light energy into biologically useful chemical energy, but also provides us with oxygen indispensible for sustaining oxygenic life on the earth. We have solved the structure of PSII at a 1.9 Å resolution, from which, the detailed structure of the Mn 4 CaO 5 -cluster, the catalytic center for water-splitting, became clear. Based on the structure of PSII at the atomic resolution, possible mechanism of light-induced water-splitting was discussed

  1. Irrational beliefs, attitudes about competition, and splitting. (United States)

    Watson, P J; Morris, R J; Miller, L


    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theoretically promotes actualization of both individualistic and social-oriented potentials. In a test of this assumption, the Belief Scale and subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs served as measures of what REBT presumes to be pathogenic irrationalities. These measures were correlated with the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale (HCAS), the Personal Development Competitive Attitude Scale (PDCAS), factors from the Splitting Index, and self-esteem. Results for the HCAS and Self-Splitting supported the REBT claim about individualistic self-actualization. Mostly nonsignificant and a few counterintuitive linkages were observed for irrational beliefs with the PDCAS, Family-Splitting, and Other-Splitting, and these data suggested that REBT may be less successful in capturing the "rationality" of a social-oriented self-actualization. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Full-zone analysis of relativistic spin splitting at band anticrossings: The case of zinc-blende semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chantis, Athanasios N.; Christensen, Niels Egede; Svane, Axel


    . In the first, the spin splitting is completely suppressed for one of the bands and doubled for the other. In the second, the absolute value of the splitting is markedly enhanced for both bands approaching the magnitude of the hybridization gap. We demonstrate these effects in zinc-blende semiconductors...

  3. Mort Rainey's Split Personality in Secret Window


    Sandjaya, Cynthya; Limanta, Liem Satya


    Psychological issue is the main issue discussed in David Koepp's Secret Window through its main character, Mort Rainey. Rainey's psychological struggle will be the main theme in this research. This thesis examines Rainey's split personality. Furthermore, in this study, we want to analyze the process of how Mort Rainey's personality splits into two different personalities. To meet the answer of this study, we will use the theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder with a support from Sigmund Fre...

  4. A split SUSY model from SUSY GUT


    Wang, FeiDepartment of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450000, P.R. China; Wang, Wenyu(Institute of Theoretical Physics, College of Applied Science, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, P.R. China); Yang, Jin(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P.R. China)


    We propose to split the sparticle spectrum from the hierarchy between the GUT scale and the Planck scale. A split supersymmetric model, which gives non-universal gaugino masses, is built with proper high dimensional operators in the framework of SO(10) GUT. Based on a calculation of two-loop beta functions for gauge couplings (taking into account all weak scale threshold corrections), we check the gauge coupling unification and dark matter constraints (relic density and direct detections). We...

  5. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server


    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  6. Are Ducted Mini-Splits Worth It?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zhang, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


    Ducted mini-split heat pumps are gaining popularity in some regions of the country due to their energy-efficient specifications and their ability to be hidden from sight. Although product and install costs are typically higher than the ductless mini-split heat pumps, this technology is well worth the premium for some homeowners who do not like to see an indoor unit in their living area. Due to the interest in this technology by local utilities and homeowners, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop capabilities within the Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) tool to model ducted mini-split heat pumps. After the fundamental capabilities were added, energy-use results could be compared to other technologies that were already in BEopt, such as zonal electric resistance heat, central air source heat pumps, and ductless mini-split heat pumps. Each of these technologies was then compared using five prototype configurations in three different BPA heating zones to determine how the ducted mini-split technology would perform under different scenarios. The result of this project was a set of EnergyPlus models representing the various prototype configurations in each climate zone. Overall, the ducted mini-split heat pumps saved about 33-60% compared to zonal electric resistance heat (with window AC systems modeled in the summer). The results also showed that the ducted mini-split systems used about 4% more energy than the ductless mini-split systems, which saved about 37-64% compared to electric zonal heat (depending on the prototype and climate).

  7. Antenna Splitting Functions for Massive Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC


    An antenna shower is a parton shower in which the basic move is a color-coherent 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting process. In this paper, we give compact forms for the spin-dependent antenna splitting functions involving massive partons of spin 0 and spin 1/2. We hope that this formalism we have presented will be useful in describing the QCD dynamics of the top quark and other heavy particles at LHC.

  8. Effects of a lifestyle intervention on REM sleep-related OSA severity in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Shechter, Ari; Foster, Gary D; Lang, Wei; Reboussin, David M; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Zammit, Gary; Newman, Anne B; Millman, Richard P; Wadden, Thomas A; Jakicic, John M; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Wing, Rena R; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Kuna, Samuel T


    The aim of this study was to determine if an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) reduces the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, and to determine if longitudinal changes in glycaemic control are related to changes in OSA severity during REM sleep over a 4-year follow-up. This was a randomized controlled trial including 264 overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and OSA. Participants were randomized to an ILI targeted to weight loss or a diabetes support and education (DSE) control group. Measures included anthropometry, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) during REM sleep (REM-AHI) and non-REM sleep (NREM-AHI) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at baseline and year 1, year 2 and year 4 follow-ups. Mean baseline values of REM-AHI were significantly higher than NREM-AHI in both groups. Both REM-AHI and NREM-AHI were reduced significantly more in ILI versus DSE, but these differences were attenuated slightly after adjustment for weight changes. Repeated-measure mixed-model analyses including data to year 4 demonstrated that changes in HbA1c were related significantly to changes in weight, but not to changes in REM-AHI and NREM-AHI. Compared to control, the ILI reduced REM-AHI and NREM-AHI during the 4-year follow-up. Weight, as opposed to REM-AHI and NREM-AHI, was related to changes in HbA1c. The findings imply that weight loss from a lifestyle intervention is more important than reductions in AHI for improving glycaemic control in T2D patients with OSA. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Electron transfer with TD-Split, a linear response time-dependent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartell, Lizette A.; Reslan, Randa; Wall, Michael R.; Kennedy, Robert D.; Neuhauser, Daniel


    Graphical abstract: A simple method, time-dependent split (TD-Split) is developed for electron transfer through a TD evaluation of the lowest excitation energy from the ground state of the combined charged system. As an example, we study transfer between substituted fullerenes, primarily PCBM. Numerical linearization reduces the number of required iterations, and trends similar to experiment are found. Highlights: ► Electron transmission from charged-dimer transition-state excitation. ► Starting point: extended dimer charged (above-gap) homo, which is then excited. ► Excitation by real-time and linear response TD propagation. ► Analogous to two level system, but with full polarization included. ► TD-Split much larger than from static LUMO + 1–LUMO splitting for fullerene dimers. - Abstract: We present a simple method, time-dependent split (TD-Split) for A → B electron transfer by a TD evaluation of the lowest excitation energy from the ground state of the combined (AB) − system. As an example, we study transfer between substituted fullerenes, primarily PCBM. Electron transfer in such fullerene systems is important as it is often the bottleneck in organic solar cells. The TD-Split method is described in detail, including numerical linearization which reduces the number of required iterations, and comparison to other possible approaches. We also compare to other molecules such as C 60 Me 5 H, and find similar trends as experiment.

  10. Volumetric analysis of the pharynx in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treated with maxillomandibular advancement (MMA). (United States)

    Faria, Ana Célia; da Silva-Junior, Savio Nogueira; Garcia, Luis Vicente; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Fernandes, Maria Regina França; de Mello-Filho, Francisco Veríssimo


    Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) has been reported to be the most effective surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Most reports about MMA aim to confirm the efficiency of this treatment modality, but few describe the anatomical changes produced in the pharynx by the surgery. Thus, the objective of the present investigation was to quantify the anatomical changes of the pharynx that occur in patients with OSA after MMA surgery using magnetic resonance (MR). Twenty patients with a polysomnographic diagnosis of OSA participated in the study. All patients were submitted to image acquisition by MR performed during wakefulness. Polysomnography and MR were performed preoperatively and 6 months after MMA. Volume analysis (in cubic millimeters) was performed as the sum of the areas multiplied by their thickness, with no intervals between sections. The pharyngeal air space of the region between the hard palate and the base of the epiglottis was divided into a retropalatal (RP) region and a retrolingual (RL) region. Postoperative MR showed a mean volumetric increase of 26.72 % in the RP region and of 27.2 % in the RL region. MMA increases the air space of the pharynx by expanding the facial skeletal structure to which the soft tissues of the pharynx and tongue are fixed, with a consequent reduction of collapsibility in the presence of negative pressure during inspiration. This reduced possibility of pharyngeal collapse may contribute to the reduction of obstructive events.

  11. Investigation of resectability degree for adenoidal surgery in OSA children with the method of computational fluid dynamics. (United States)

    Hu, Changlong; Han, Demin; Zhou, Bing; Zhang, Luo; Li, Yunchuan; Zang, HongRui; Li, LiFeng


    From aspect of fluid dynamics, expanding patients' nasopharyngeal coronal-sectional area to 48.3-54.7% of normal area will bring the airflow velocity back to normal in adenoidal hypertrophy children. It might provide a suggestion for adenoidectomy range selection and whether total resection is necessary. To evaluate the nasopharyngeal airflow characteristics in pediatric OSA patients with adenoidal hypertrophy, and to explore the proper resection range for adenoidectomy Method: Nine OSA patients and four normal children were recruited. The CT scans of their upper airway were collected and used to construct three dimensional models for fluid dynamics analysis. Using computational fluid dynamics, indices such as velocity, pressure, and coronal-sectional area were calculated. Compared with the normal, the OSA children showed three characteristics in nasopharyngeal: the airflow velocity was significantly higher (p  0.05). In a study of the relationship between velocity and coronal-sectional area, this study investigates different coronal-sectional areas from 30-300 mm 2 . It was found that, when patients' nasopharyngeal coronal-sectional area was expanded over 155-170 mm 2 , namely 48.3-54.7% of normal area, airflow velocity in nasopharyngeal showed no difference than normal.

  12. Sleep-disordered breathing in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a genetic model of OSA. (United States)

    Guilleminault, Christian; Primeau, Michelle; Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Yuen, Kin Min; Leger, Damien; Metlaine, Arnaud


    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by cartilaginous defects, including nasal-maxillary cartilages. A retrospective series of 34 patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and complaints of fatigue and poor sleep were evaluated by clinical history, physical examination, polysomnography (PSG), and, in some cases, anterior rhinomanometry. Additionally, a prospective clinical investigation of nine patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was performed in a specialized Ehlers-Danlos syndrome clinic. All patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome evaluated had SDB on PSG. In addition to apneas and hypopneas, SDB included flow limitation. With increasing age, flow limitation decreased in favor of apnea and hypopnea events, but clinical complaints were similar independent of the type of PSG finding. In the subgroup of patients who underwent nasal rhinomanometry, increased nasal resistance was increased relative to normative values. Nasal CPAP improved symptoms. Patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome presenting to the medical clinic had symptoms and clinical signs of SDB, but they were never referred for evaluation of SDB. In patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, abnormal breathing during sleep is commonly unrecognized and is responsible for daytime fatigue and poor sleep. These patients are at particular risk for SDB because of genetically related cartilage defects that lead to the development of facial structures known to cause SDB. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may be a genetic model for OSA because of abnormalities in oral-facial growth. Early recognition of SDB may allow treatment with orthodontics and myofacial reeducation.

  13. Long-term results in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS after laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder Göktas

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a serious disease. The etiology of and optimum therapy options for this disorder have been much discussed and have been the subject of many publications. One much discussed therapy option is laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP. Despite conflicting opinions and guidelines which recommend that it should not be used, it remains in use. Patients who had previously undergone this procedure were invited for follow-up appointments, at which they were asked to complete a questionnaire, underwent an ENT examination and underwent sleep laboratory analysis using a portable sleep lab device. The average time since LAUP treatment was 11 years. The cohort comprised 25 patients. The average preoperative apnea-hypopnea-index (AHI score was 25.25/h; the average postoperative AHI score 23.62/h. Closer examination of our data enabled us to identify 10 responders (40% and 15 non-responders (60%. 12% (3/25 of non-responders experienced either no reduction in their AHI score or an increase compared to their preoperative AHI score of less than 5/h. In the remaining 48% (12/25, AHI increased by more than 5/h compared to the preoperative figure. Our questionnaire showed that 40% (10/25 of patients suffered from dry mouth and 20% (5/25 from foreign body sensation. The data led us to conclude that laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty can indeed result in a reduction in AHI score comparable to other mucosal resection methods. Also in common with these methods, the efficacy of the therapy reduces with time and the procedure carries a high risk of bringing about an increase in the patient's AHI score.

  14. Nasal Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure Devices (Provent for OSA: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riaz


    Full Text Available Objective. To quantify the effectiveness of nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (nasal EPAP devices or Provent as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Methods. PubMed and six other databases were searched through November 15, 2015, without language limitations. Results. Eighteen studies (920 patients were included. Pre- and post-nasal EPAP means ± standard deviations (M ± SD for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI in 345 patients decreased from 27.32±22.24 to 12.78±16.89 events/hr (relative reduction = 53.2%. Random effects modeling mean difference (MD was −14.78 events/hr [95% CI −19.12, −10.45], p value < 0.00001. Oxygen desaturation index (ODI in 247 patients decreased from 21.2±19.3 to 12.4±14.1 events/hr (relative reduction = 41.5%, p value < 0.00001. Lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT M ± SD improved in 146 patients from 83.2±6.8% to 86.2±11.1%, MD 3 oxygen saturation points [95% CI 0.57, 5.63]. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS M ± SD improved (359 patients from 9.9±5.3 to 7.4±5.0, MD −2.5 [95% CI −3.2, −1.8], p value < 0.0001. Conclusion. Nasal EPAP (Provent reduced AHI by 53.2%, ODI by 41.5% and improved LSAT by 3 oxygen saturation points. Generally, there were no clear characteristics (demographic factors, medical history, and/or physical exam finding that predicted favorable response to these devices. However, limited evidence suggests that high nasal resistance could be associated with treatment failure. Additional studies are needed to identify demographic and polysomnographic characteristics that would predict therapeutic success with nasal EPAP (Provent.

  15. Photocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting by Inorganic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Xiaohui


    Hydrogen has been identified as a potential energy carrier due to its high energy capacity and environmental harmlessness. Compared with hydrogen production from hydrocarbons such as methane and naphtha in a conventional hydrogen energy system, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water splitting offers a more economic approach since it utilizes the abundant solar irradiation as energy source and water as initial reactant. Powder photocatalyst, which generates electrons and holes under illumination, is the origin where the overall reaction happens. High solar energy conversion efficiency especially from visible range is commonly the target. Besides, cocatalyst for hydrogen and oxygen evolution is also playing an essential role in facilitating the charge separation and enhancing the kinetics. In this thesis, the objective is to achieve high energy conversion efficiency towards water splitting from diverse aspects. The third chapter focuses on a controllable method to fabricate metal pattern, which is candidate for hydrogen evolution cocatalyst while chapter 4 is on the combination of strontium titanium oxide (SrTiO3) with graphene oxide (GO) for a better photocatalytic performance. In the last chapter, photoelectrochemical water splitting by Ta3N5 photoanode and FeOOH as a novel oxygen evolution cocatalyst has been investigated.

  16. A Beta-splitting model for evolutionary trees. (United States)

    Sainudiin, Raazesh; Véber, Amandine


    In this article, we construct a generalization of the Blum-François Beta-splitting model for evolutionary trees, which was itself inspired by Aldous' Beta-splitting model on cladograms. The novelty of our approach allows for asymmetric shares of diversification rates (or diversification 'potential') between two sister species in an evolutionarily interpretable manner, as well as the addition of extinction to the model in a natural way. We describe the incremental evolutionary construction of a tree with n leaves by splitting or freezing extant lineages through the generating, organizing and deleting processes. We then give the probability of any (binary rooted) tree under this model with no extinction, at several resolutions: ranked planar trees giving asymmetric roles to the first and second offspring species of a given species and keeping track of the order of the speciation events occurring during the creation of the tree, unranked planar trees, ranked non-planar trees and finally (unranked non-planar) trees. We also describe a continuous-time equivalent of the generating, organizing and deleting processes where tree topology and branch lengths are jointly modelled and provide code in SageMath/Python for these algorithms.

  17. Lugejad küsivad - autorid vastavad : [teemad: osaühingu raamatupidamine...] / Maire Otsus-Carpenter, Olesja Timofejeva, Häli Jürimäe ...[jt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Teemad: osaühingu raamatupidamine, sõiduauto liikluskindlustus rendiperioodil, OÜ käibemaksukohustuslasena registreerimine, arvel nõutavad andmed, deklaratsiooni parandamine, päevaraha maksmine lähetuse korral, allkirjastamise õiguse delegeerimine

  18. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate purpose...

  19. On the long run effects of market splitting: Why more price zones might decrease welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Veronika; Martin, Alexander; Weibelzahl, Martin; Zöttl, Gregor


    In liberalized electricity markets we observe different approaches to congestion management. While nodal pricing is implemented in Canada and some markets in the United States, European markets are split up into a limited number of price zones with uniform prices, in order to at least partially realize the benefits of regional price differentiation. Zonal boundaries often coincide with national borders, but some countries are also split into multiple zones. In this paper we shed light on possible negative welfare effects of market splitting that arise in a model where investment incentives in new generation capacity are taken into account if zones are misspecified. We show that standard approaches to configure price zones – on the basis of projected nodal price differences or congested transmission capacity – may fail to suggest reasonable zone specifications. Also an adjustment of Available Transfer Capacities (ATCs) between zones or a switch to flow-based market splitting does not ensure positive welfare effects. Our analysis suggests that a careful and detailed evaluation of the system is needed to ensure a reasonable zone configuration. - Highlights: •We analyze investment and production in energy only markets with market splitting. •Market splitting can lead to decreased welfare even for reasonably chosen zones. •We identify the reasons for the negative impact of introducing prices zones.

  20. Fano resonance Rabi splitting of surface plasmons. (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguang; Li, Jiafang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Li, Zhi-Yuan


    Rabi splitting and Fano resonance are well-known physical phenomena in conventional quantum systems as atoms and quantum dots, arising from strong interaction between two quantum states. In recent years similar features have been observed in various nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic systems. Yet, realization of strong interaction between two or more Fano resonance states has not been accomplished either in quantum or in optical systems. Here we report the observation of Rabi splitting of two strongly coupled surface plasmon Fano resonance states in a three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructure consisting of vertical asymmetric split-ring resonators. The plasmonic system stably supports triple Fano resonance states and double Rabi splittings can occur between lower and upper pairs of the Fano resonance states. The experimental discovery agrees excellently with rigorous numerical simulations, and is well explained by an analytical three-oscillator model. The discovery of Fano resonance Rabi splitting could provide a stimulating insight to explore new fundamental physics in analogous atomic systems and could be used to significantly enhance light-matter interaction for optical sensing and detecting applications.

  1. Photochemical Water-Splitting with Organomanganese Complexes. (United States)

    Kadassery, Karthika J; Dey, Suman Kr; Cannella, Anthony F; Surendhran, Roshaan; Lacy, David C


    Certain organometallic chromophores with water-derived ligands, such as the known [Mn(CO) 3 (μ 3 -OH)] 4 (1) tetramer, drew our attention as possible platforms to study water-splitting reactions. Herein, we investigate the UV irradiation of various tricarbonyl organomanganese complexes, including 1, and demonstrate that dihydrogen, CO, and hydrogen peroxide form as products in a photochemical water-splitting decomposition reaction. The organic and manganese-containing side products are also characterized. Labeling studies with 18 O-1 suggest that the source of oxygen atoms in H 2 O 2 originates from free water that interacts with 1 after photochemical dissociation of CO (1-CO) constituting the oxidative half-reaction of water splitting mediated by 1. Hydrogen production from 1 is the result of several different processes, one of which involves the protons derived from the hydroxido ligands in 1 constituting the reductive half-reaction of water splitting mediated by 1. Other processes that generate H 2 are also operative and are described. Collectively the results from the photochemical decomposition of 1 provide an opportunity to propose a mechanism, and it is discussed within the context of developing new strategies for water-splitting reactions with organomanganese complexes.

  2. Split-hand/split-foot malformation with paternal mutation in the p63 gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witters, I.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Goossens, A.; Assche, F.A. van; Fryns, J.P.


    We report the prenatal diagnosis at 16 weeks' gestation of bilateral split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHSFM) with severe lobster claw deformity of hands and feet in a male fetus without associated malformations. A minor manifestation of SHSFM was present in the father with only mild bilateral

  3. Large Bandgap Semiconductors for Solar Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting represents an eco-friendly technology that could enable the production of hydrogen using water as reactant and solar energy as primary energy source. The exploitation of solar energy for the production of hydrogen would help modern society to reduce the reliance...... (bismuth vanadate) was investigated in view of combining this 2.4 eV large bandgap semiconductor with a Si back-illuminated photocathode. A device obtained by mechanical stacking of BiVO4 photoanode and standard Si photocathode performs non-assisted water splitting under illumination with Solar......-to-Hydrogen efficiency lower than 0.5%. In addition, BiVO4 was synthesized on the back-side of a Si back-illuminated photocathode to produce a preliminary monolithic solar water splitting device.The Faradaic efficiency of different types of catalysts for the electrochemical production of hydrogen or oxygen was evaluated...

  4. Multiple spectral splits of supernova neutrinos. (United States)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Raffelt, Georg G; Smirnov, Alexei Yu


    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos swap the spectra f(nu(e))(E) and f(nu[over ](e))(E) with those of another flavor in certain energy intervals bounded by sharp spectral splits. This phenomenon is far more general than previously appreciated: typically one finds one or more swaps and accompanying splits in the nu and nu[over ] channels for both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies. Depending on an instability condition, swaps develop around spectral crossings (energies where f(nu(e))=f(nu(x)), f(nu[over ](e))=f(nu[over ](x)) as well as E-->infinity where all fluxes vanish), and the widths of swaps are determined by the spectra and fluxes. Washout by multiangle decoherence varies across the spectrum and splits can survive as sharp spectral features.

  5. Split Notochord Syndrome: A Rare Variant (United States)

    Dhawan, Vidhu; Kapoor, Kanchan; Singh, Balbir; Kochhar, Suman; Sehgal, Alka; Dada, Rima


    Split notochord syndrome represents an extremely rare and pleomorphic form of spinal dysraphism characterized by a persistent communication between the endoderm and the ectoderm, resulting in splitting or deviation of the notochord. It manifests as a cleft in the dorsal midline of the body through which intestinal loops are exteriorized and even myelomeningoceles or teratomas may occur at the site. A rare variant was diagnosed on autopsy of a 23+4-week-old fetus showing a similar dorsal enteric fistula and midline protruding intestinal loops in thoracolumbar region. The anteroposterior radiograph showed a complete midline cleft in the vertebral bodies from T11 to L5 region, and a split in the spinal cord was further confirmed by ultrasonography. Myelomeningocele was erroneously reported on antenatal ultrasound. Thus, awareness of this rare anomaly is necessary to thoroughly evaluate the cases of such spinal defects or suspected myelomeningoceles. PMID:28904581

  6. Theoretical models of Rashba spin splitting in asymmetric SrTiO3-based heterostructures (United States)

    van Heeringen, L. W.; McCollam, A.; de Wijs, G. A.; Fasolino, A.


    Rashba spin splitting in two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor systems is generally calculated in a k .p Luttinger-Kohn approach where the spin splitting due to asymmetry emerges naturally from the bulk band structure. In recent years, several new classes of 2D systems have been discovered where electronic correlations are believed to have an important role. In these correlated systems, the effects of asymmetry leading to Rashba splitting have typically been treated phenomenologically. We compare these two approaches for the case of 2D electron systems in SrTiO3-based heterostructures, and find that the two models produce fundamentally different behavior in regions of the Brillouin zone that are particularly relevant for magnetotransport. Our results demonstrate the importance of identifying the correct approach in the quantitative interpretation of experimental data, and are likely to be relevant to a range of 2D systems in correlated materials.

  7. Faster multiple emulsification with drop splitting. (United States)

    Abate, Adam R; Weitz, David A


    Microfluidic devices can form emulsions in which the drops have an intricate, controlled structure; however, a challenge is that the droplets are produced slowly, typically only a few millilitres per hour. Here, we present a simple technique to increase the production rate. Using a large drop maker, we produce large drops at a fast volumetric rate; by splitting these drops several times in a splitting array, we create drops of the desired small size. The advantage of this over forming the small drops directly using a small drop maker is that the drops can be formed at much faster rates. This can be applied to the production of single and multiple emulsions.

  8. Hyperfine splitting in lithium-like bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochmann, Matthias; Froemmgen, Nadja; Hammen, Michael; Will, Elisa [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Andelkovic, Zoran; Kuehl, Thomas; Litvinov, Yuri; Winters, Danyal; Sanchez, Rodolfo [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Botermann, Benjamin; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Dax, Andreas [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Hannen, Volker; Joehren, Raphael; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian [Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Geppert, Christopher [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Stoehlker, Thomas [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Thompson, Richard [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Volotka, Andrey [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Wen, Weiqiang [IMP Lanzhou (China)


    High-precision measurements of the hyperfine splitting values on Li- and H-like bismuth ions, combined with precise atomic structure calculations allow us to test QED-effects in the regime of the strongest magnetic fields that are available in the laboratory. Performing laser spectroscopy at the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI Darmstadt, we have now succeeded in measuring the hyperfine splitting in Li-like bismuth. Probing this transition has not been easy because of its extremely low fluorescence rate. Details about this challenging experiment will be given and the achieved experimental accuracy are presented.

  9. Calidad nutricional y digestibilidad in situ de ensilajes de cuatro leñosas forrajeras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ligia Roa

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del tiempo de conservación en la calidad nutricional y la digestibilidad in situ de ensilajes de cuatro plantas leñosas forrajeras: Cratylia argentea (T1, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (T2, Trichanthera gigantea (T3 y Tithonia diversifolia (T4. Las plantas fueron podadas a los seis meses de establecidas y a los tres meses de rebrote, y se utilizaron las hojas y ramas tiernas pequeñas para confeccionar 64 silos de 10 kg, en bolsas plásticas. Cada tiempo de conservación (0, 30, 60 y 90 días tuvo cuatro repeticiones. Para calcular la digestibilidad de la MS, el NT y la FDN y los parámetros de la digestibilidad efectiva (DE, se utilizaron cuatro bovinos fistulados en el rumen, distribuidos en un diseño cuadrado latino 4 x 4. Los ensilajes presentaron aspecto y olor agradables, con pH entre 4,2 y 4,6 y nitrógeno amoniacal menor que 1 %. El porcentaje de NT fue mayor para T1 (2,52 y T2 (2,43, y este nutriente se redujo hasta los 90 días. La DE de la MS, el NT y la FDN fue superior (p < 0,05 en T2, con tendencia a disminuir con el tiempo de conservación (90 días. Este mismo comportamiento presentaron las fracciones A, B y c. El mayor contenido de lignina se resentó en T3 (5,45 % y T4 (5,60 %, indicador que afectó de manera negativa la cinética ruminal. La disminución de la calidad nutricional y la digestibilidad por el tiempo de conservación fue menor para T2 y T3. Se concluye que las propiedades órganolepticas de los ensilajes fueron óptimas, el nitrógeno amoniacal no superó el 1% y el ácido láctico varió entre 1,0 y 3,6 %; mientras que el tiempo afectó en menor grado la composición nutricional del ensilaje de H. rosa-sinensis, con respecto a las otras forrajeras. Se recomienda ensilar para la época de seca y utilizar los ensilajes antes de los 60 días de conservación.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lucci Resende de Souza


    Full Text Available The understanding of the relief goes by something larger than the observation at the way, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetable covering. However, the forms of the relief interfere as one of the main components of the atmosphere,being necessary its knowledge for the understanding of the dynamics of the area research object.The agreement of the relief passes for something more important that the comment of its form, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetal covering. However, the forms of the relief are inserting as the one of the main components of theenvironment, being necessary its knowledge for the agreement of the dynamic of the area research object.This knowledge is indispensable, because it is impossible to repress the occupation expansion of the spaces and much less to restraint environmental impacts caused by the men and the nature is not capable to regenerate all of the damaged spaces in a short space of time.Many of the inhabited spaces are fruits of segregation, which would be consequence of the exclusion that the effective economical system imposes to the people and spaces. On the other hand, the environmental problems are not correlated only with outlying neighborhoods, but they come very visible in places where constructions of high purchasing power prevail. But, one thing we can do is to prevent, the areas that are not busy, because it is viable naturally,environmentally and less expensive economically speaking. It is in this context, which the study of the mass movements can be of vital importance. The present work seeks to characterize the mass movements that happen in the urban area of Viçosa, with the objective to relate and to compare the rising done in the urban area of the municipal district at the scale 1: 5000 for Vieira in the year of 2000, in order to verify the evolution of the areas studied by the referred author, being analyzed these progressed or some

  11. Desenvolvimento dos frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense LAM, em Viçosa-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Monteiro Matarazzo


    Full Text Available O lulo é um fruto tropical e exótico, originário dos Andes, tem cor laranja quando maduro, e é uma baga globosa, assemelha- se a um tomate, o epicarpo é grosso e coriáceo, sua polpa é verde-clara, pegajosa, ácida e suculenta, contendo muitas sementes. Objetivou-se acompanhar as características físicas, químicas e fisiológicas ocorridas durante o desenvolvimento do fruto de lulo, da antese ao amadurecimento completo, em Viçosa-MG. Os frutos apresentaram um padrão de crescimento sigmoidal simples em resposta à variação do tempo. O desenvolvimento do fruto foi dividido em três fases. A primeira foi até os 7,39 dias após a antese (DAA, sendo caracterizada pela alta taxa respiratória, provavelmente devido à intensa multiplicação celular, e o pericarpo apresentava coloração verde-clara. A segunda fase estendeu-se a partir dos 7,39 até os 57,63 DAA, sendo caracterizada pelas taxas máximas das características estudadas. A taxa respiratória cresceu até 45 DAA, mantendo-se estável até os 52 DAA. A última fase estendeu-se a partir dos 57,63 DAA até os 95,00 DAA. Essa fase foi caracterizada pela estabilização nas dimensões e no acúmulo de massa fresca. Nesse período, ocorreu a ascensão climatérica (dos 52 aos 59 DAA. O climatério respiratório ocorreu aos 66 DAA, com pico de produção de CO2 de 110,99 mg de CO2 kg-1h-1. O pós-climatério ocorreu dos 73 aos 95 DAA, quando houve aumento no teor de sólidos solúveis e queda da acidez titulável e vitamina C da polpa. Nessa fase, o pericarpo dos frutos apresentava-se com coloração alaranjada.

  12. Tunnel splitting for a high-spin molecule in an in-plane field (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Lin


    Direction and strength effects of a magnetic field on the ground-state tunnel splitting for a biaxial spin molecule with the model Hamiltonian H = k1Sz2 + k2Sy2- gµBHzSz- gµBHySy have been investigated within a continuous-spin approach including the Wess-Zumino-Berry term. The topological oscillation and the non-Kramers freezing indicated in the approach are in agreement with those observed in a recent experiment on Fe8 molecular nanomagnets. The behaviour of tunnel splitting with multiple orbits induced by strong fields has been revealed clearly.

  13. Role of computed tomography in the evaluation of orthodontic treatment in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA). (United States)

    Cozza, Paola; Ballanti, Fabiana; Castellano, Monica; Fanucci, Ezio


    The aim of this study was to investigate pharyngeal size differences between pre- and posttrials of a Mandibular Advancement Device (MAD), using a computed tomography (CT),in the treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) adult patients. Eighteen patients with mild to moderate OSA (mean Apnea/Hypopnea Index, AHI, of 16.7) were treated with a MAD to wear at night only. After 3 months of treatment, three-dimensional changes in pharyngeal dimensions were measured on CT images performed with a sixteen detector-row CT scanner (Light Speed Plus; GE Medical Systems). Two consecutive axial sections from the hard palate to the epiglottis were obtained with and without the appliance. Measurements were made of the following airway areas (mm2) and lengths (mm): RF (nasopharynx); ROF (naso-oropharynx); OF (oropharynx); IPF (hypopharynx); SPL (soft palate length); SPT (soft palate thickness); Rgn (retrognation)-hyoid bone; hyoid bone-C2; Rgn-C2; PhL (oropharynx length); pharynx posterior wall thickness at three level. The angle between the hard and the soft palate (APDM) was also calculated. AHI improved significantly (from 16.7 to 11.2) when the appliance was used. Measurements from CT scans showed statistically significant expansion in the naso-oropharynx area (RF p<.014; ROF p<.050), in the Rgn-C2 length (p<.005) and in the angle between the hard and the soft palate (APDM p<.001). Our findings confirm the effectiveness of MAD in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate OSA. The use of MAD significantly expands the areas of the upper airway lumen most involved in the collapse.

  14. Relativistic and perturbational calculations of fine structure splittings in F2 and F2 (United States)

    Mark, F.; Marian, C.; Schwarz, W. H. E.

    Dirac-Fock calculations near the SCF limit using the recently developed basis set expansion technique of Mark and Schwarz have been performed on the F2 ground state with particular consideration of the relativistic splitting of the πg and πu orbitals. The magnetic contribution to the Breit interaction has been included by first-order perturbation theory. Fine structure splittings of the ionic states F2+(X 2Πg) and F2+(A 2Πu) have been calculated by first-order perturbation theory within the Breit-Pauli framework at three levels of approximation for the zero-order wavefunction. The results of the Dirac-Breit and the Breit-Pauli approaches are compared with experimental data. The calculated splittings are analysed by partitioning them into physically meaningful contributions. Aided by results of numerical Dirac-Fock calculations on atoms the general conclusion is drawn that ionic reorganization of the wavefunction increases the fine structure splitting at the Breit-Pauli level, whereas it decreases the splitting at the Dirac-Breit level. Using a model of Ishiguro and Kobori the ratios of Πg and Πu spin-orbit splittings of halogen molecular ions X2+ are discussed.

  15. Discrete objects, splitting closure and connectedness | Castellini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notions of discrete and indiscrete classes with respect to a closure operator are introduced and studied. These notions are strongly related to splitting and cosplitting closure operators. By linking the above concepts, two Galois connections arise whose composition provides a third Galois connection that can be used as a ...

  16. Miniaturized Planar Split-Ring Resonator Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A miniaturized planar antenna based on a broadside-coupled split ring resonator excited by an arc-shaped dipole is presented. The excitation dipole acts as a small tuning capacitor in series with a parallel RLC circuit represented by the SRR. The antenna resonance frequency and dimensions...

  17. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.


    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  18. Split Beta-Lactamase Complementation Assay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Concept of split beta. -lactamase protein fragment complementation assay. (A) and (B) are vector systems involved in the assay. As an example, a vector system for bacterial host is described here. (C) Co-transformation of complementation vectors in appropriate bacterial host. (D) and (E) are types of inter- actions expected ...

  19. Molecular catalytic system for efficient water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joya, Khurram Saleem


    The aim of this dissertation is to construct and explore artificial oxygen evolving complexes that are synthetically accessible, stable, functionally robust and efficient. To achieve this, a class of mono metal water splitting catalysts is introduced in this manuscript and exploitation of these

  20. Splitting up Beta’s change


    Suarez, Ronny


    In this paper we estimated IBM beta from 2000 to 2013, then using differential equation mathematical formula we split up the annual beta’s change attributed to the volatility market effect, the stock volatility effect, the correlation effect and the jointly effect of these variables.

  1. Shear-wave splitting and moonquakes (United States)

    Dimech, J. L.; Weber, R. C.; Savage, M. K.


    Shear-wave splitting is a powerful tool for measuring anisotropy in the Earth's crust and mantle, and is sensitive to geological features such as fluid filled cracks, thin alternating layers of rock with different elastic properties, and preferred mineral orientations caused by strain. Since a shear wave splitting measurement requires only a single 3-component seismic station, it has potential applications for future single-station planetary seismic missions, such as the InSight geophysical mission to Mars, as well as possible future missions to Europa and the Moon. Here we present a preliminary shear-wave splitting analysis of moonquakes detected by the Apollo Passive Seismic Experiment. Lunar seismic data suffers from several drawbacks compared to modern terrestrial data, including severe seismic scattering, low intrinsic attenuation, 10-bit data resolution, thermal spikes, and timing errors. Despite these drawbacks, we show that it is in principle possible to make a shear wave splitting measurement using the S-phase arrival of a relatively high-quality moonquake, as determined by several agreeing measurement criteria. Encouraged by this finding, we further extend our analysis to clusters of "deep moonquake" events by stacking multiple events from the same cluster together to further enhance the quality of the S-phase arrivals that the measurement is based on.

  2. Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness. (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara


    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  3. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change signi- ficantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal varia- tions in the rotation rate near the solar ...

  4. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia


    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  5. Comparing Electrochemical and Biological Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Dimitrievski, Kristian; Siegbahn, P.


    On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system...

  6. Bosque y población en la Península de Osa, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rosero-Bixby


    Full Text Available Este estudio relaciona datos geocodificados de censos de población con información de uso de la tierra proveniente de imágenes de satélite y fotografías aéreas. Se analizan tres procesos: deforestación, reforestación y fragmentación en el período 1980 - 1995 y se identifican relaciones con potenciales de población derivados del censo de 1984, en las que se controlan efectos de terceras variables como caminos, lluvias, distancia al borde de bosque, grado de protección, etc. Entre 1980 y 1995 se taló el 16% del bosque, se fraccionó un 3% adicional y se reforestó el 32% del área en pastos o cultivos. Se identificaron fuertes y significativas asociaciones entre potencial de población en 1984 y los procesos de deforestación, reforestación y fragmentación. La probabilidad de deforestación es nula en áreas despobladas y llega a 54% en bosques con 75 o más hogares potenciales. La regresión múltiple muestra elasticidades del número de hogares de 0.63 en el riesgo de deforestación, de -0.37% en los de reforestación y de 1% en los de fragmentación. Se valora el riesgo de deforestación en 1995 - 2010 y se identifican las zonas geográficas con riesgo de perder el bosque por presión poblacional. Estas áreas incluyen la mayoría de bosques que no son parte del Parque Nacional Corcovado (especialmente la cuenca del río Rincón y representan casi la mitad del bosque actual de la PenínsulaThe research is focused on the relationship between population growth and conservation of the forest on the Osa Peninsula. Data of the geo-referenced censuses and information on land-use, derived from satellite images and aerial photography, were integrated into a GIS. We undertook an historical inventory of the changes in the population and the forest coverage, and the key events in the land tenure and economy of the region. Deforestation, reforestation, and fragmentation of the forest during the period 1980 - 1995 were analyzed. Relationships

  7. Practical splitting methods for the adaptive integration of nonlinear evolution equations. Part I: Construction of optimized schemes and pairs of schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Auzinger, Winfried


    We present a number of new contributions to the topic of constructing efficient higher-order splitting methods for the numerical integration of evolution equations. Particular schemes are constructed via setup and solution of polynomial systems for the splitting coefficients. To this end we use and modify a recent approach for generating these systems for a large class of splittings. In particular, various types of pairs of schemes intended for use in adaptive integrators are constructed.

  8. Non-Mendelian transmission in a human developmental disorder: split hand/split foot.


    Jarvik, G. P.; Patton, M. A.; Homfray, T.; Evans, J. P.


    The study of Mendelian disorders that do not meet some Mendelian expectations has led to an increased understanding of such previously obscure genetic phenomena as anticipation. Split hand/split foot (SHSF), a human developmental malformation, demonstrates such distinctive genetic features as reduced penetrance and variable expressivity. In this study, new pedigrees with defined ascertainment confirm the existence of non-Mendelian transmission characterized by the overtransmission of SHSF fro...

  9. Splitting, splitting and splitting again: A brief history of the development of regional government in Indonesia since independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Booth


    Full Text Available The paper reviews the changes in the structure and role of provincial and sub-provincial governments in Indonesia since independence. Particular attention is paid to the process of splitting both provinces and districts (kabupaten and kota into smaller units. The paper points out that this process has been going on since the 1950s, but has accelerated in the post-Soeharto era. The paper examines why the splitting of government units has occurred in some parts of the Outer Islands to a much greater extent than in Java, and also examines the implications of developments since 1999 for the capacity of local government units to deliver basic services such as health and education.

  10. Split mandrel versus split sleeve coldworking: Dual methods for extending the fatigue life of metal structures (United States)

    Rodman, Geoffrey A.; Creager, Matthew


    It is common practice to use split sleeve coldworking of fastener holes as a means of extending the fatigue life of metal structures. In search of lower manufacturing costs, the aerospace industry is examining the split mandrel (sleeveless) coldworking process as an alternative method of coldworking fastener holes in metal structures. The split mandrel process (SpM) significantly extends the fatigue life of metal structures through the introduction of a residual compressive stress in a manner that is very similar to the split sleeve system (SpSl). Since the split mandrel process is significantly less expensive than the split sleeve process and more adaptable to robotic automation, it will have a notable influence upon other new manufacture of metal structures which require coldworking a significant number of holes, provided the aerospace community recognizes that the resulting residual stress distributions and fatigue life improvement are the same for both processes. Considerable testing has validated the correctness of that conclusion. The findings presented in this paper represent the results of an extensive research and development program, comprising data collected from over 400 specimens fabricated from 2024-T3 and 7075-T651 aluminum alloys in varied configurations, which quantify the benefits (fatigue enhancement and cost savings) of automating a sleeveless coldworking system.

  11. Acceptance and Adherence to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA in a Southeast Asian privately funded healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheah Hooi Ken Lee

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited data on long term Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP adherence in Southeast Asian countries. This is a prospective study on CPAP adherence among Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients in a Southeast Asian privately funded healthcare system. Methods: Patients with moderate-severe OSA who had been initiated on CPAP at least one year previously were contacted for a scripted telephone interview to assess compliance and factors associated with CPAP adherence. Results: Of 135 consecutive patients diagnosed to have moderate to severe OSA, 78 (57.8% were initiated on CPAP treatment while 57 (42.2% rejected CPAP upfront. 41 (52.6% who initiated CPAP remained adherent at one year. OSA severity (AHI, ODI and symptomatic improvement after CPAP were associated with better adherence. Presence of machine related side effects was associated with lower adherence. Inconvenience, cost and poor disease perception were reported as major barriers to uptake of CPAP therapy. Conclusions: In this Southeast Asian privately funded healthcare system, almost half of all patients with significant OSA rejected CPAP treatment upfront, but adherence among those who started CPAP is comparable to other reports. Challenges with CPAP acceptance as well as CPAP adherence need to be addressed to improve outcomes.

  12. Nasal Dilators (Breathe Right Strips and NoZovent for Snoring and OSA: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macario Camacho


    Full Text Available Objective. To systematically review the international literature for studies evaluating internal (NoZovent and external (Breathe Right Strips nasal dilators as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Study Design. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Methods. Four databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, were searched through September 29, 2016. Results. One-hundred twelve studies were screened, fifty-eight studies were reviewed, and fourteen studies met criteria. In 147 patients, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was reported, and there was an improvement from a mean ± standard deviation (M ± SD of 28.7±24.0 to 27.4±23.3 events/hr, p value 0.64. There was no significant change in AHI, lowest oxygen saturation, or snoring index in OSA patients when using nasal dilators. However, a subanalysis demonstrated a slight reduction in apnea index (AI with internal nasal dilators (decrease by 4.87 events/hr versus minimal change for external nasal dilators (increase by 0.64 events/hr. Conclusion. Although nasal dilators have demonstrated improved nasal breathing, they have not shown improvement in obstructive sleep apnea outcomes, with the exception of mild improvement in apnea index when internal nasal dilators were used.

  13. [Treatment compliance with continuous positive airway pressure device among adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): how many adhere to treatment?]. (United States)

    Sarrell, E Michael; Chomsky, Ofer; Shechter, Dalia


    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) afflicts approximately 5% of the adult population and increases with age. The gold standard treatment is with the Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP) machine. Well-designed prospective trials to elucidate long term compliance with CPAP machine are rare. Assessing compliance and long-term use of CPAP machines among patients with OSA who were referred for treatment with this machine. A 4 years prospective cohort observational study was conducted using telephone interviews of 371 newly diagnosed patients with moderate to severe OSA, who received a specialist recommendation to use the CPAP machine which was bought and adjusted to their use. At the end of the first year, 126 (34%) of the OSA patients used the CPAP machine on a nightly basis (regular users), 120 (32.3%) had not used it at all, and 125 (33.7%) had used it only intermittently. The number of regular users increased between the 1st and 2nd year from 126 (34%), to 163 (44%) (p < 0.07) due to additions from the intermittent users group. The non-users group grew from 120 (32.3%) in the first year, and every year afterwards, up to 221 (59.6%) in the fourth year (p < 0.02). In contrast, there was a significant decrease in the intermittent users group, which declined from 125 (33.7%) in the first year to only 18 (4.8%) in the 4th year (p < 0.005). Most of the patients (92.9%) were males. The average age of the regular users was 59.6 years (+/- 11), which was higher in comparison to 55.9 years (+/- 10.3) for the non-users or 58.9 years (+/- 12.6) among the intermittent users (p = 0.064). There were no statistical differences in co-morbidities or demographics between the three groups. However, the regular users were found to have a higher score in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a minimal arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) level lower than the patients in the non-users and intermittent users groups (p = 0.019 and p = 0.03 respectively). Four years follow

  14. Gravitational energy in the framework of embedding and splitting theories (United States)

    Grad, D. A.; Ilin, R. V.; Paston, S. A.; Sheykin, A. A.

    We study various definitions of the gravitational field energy based on the usage of isometric embeddings in the Regge-Teitelboim approach. For the embedding theory, we consider the coordinate translations on the surface as well as the coordinate translations in the flat bulk. In the latter case, the independent definition of gravitational energy-momentum tensor appears as a Noether current corresponding to global inner symmetry. In the field-theoretic form of this approach (splitting theory), we consider Noether procedure and the alternative method of energy-momentum tensor defining by varying the action of the theory with respect to flat bulk metric. As a result, we obtain energy definition in field-theoretic form of embedding theory which, among the other features, gives a nontrivial result for the solutions of embedding theory which are also solutions of Einstein equations. The question of energy localization is also discussed.

  15. Photoelectrochemical water splitting: optimizing interfaces and light absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Sun-Young


    In this thesis several photoelectrochemical water splitting devices based on semiconductor materials were investigated. The aim was the design, characterization, and fabrication of solar-to-fuel devices which can absorb solar light and split water to produce hydrogen.

  16. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao


    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  17. Multiple Rabi Splittings under Ultrastrong Vibrational Coupling. (United States)

    George, Jino; Chervy, Thibault; Shalabney, Atef; Devaux, Eloïse; Hiura, Hidefumi; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W


    From the high vibrational dipolar strength offered by molecular liquids, we demonstrate that a molecular vibration can be ultrastrongly coupled to multiple IR cavity modes, with Rabi splittings reaching 24% of the vibration frequencies. As a proof of the ultrastrong coupling regime, our experimental data unambiguously reveal the contributions to the polaritonic dynamics coming from the antiresonant terms in the interaction energy and from the dipolar self-energy of the molecular vibrations themselves. In particular, we measure the opening of a genuine vibrational polaritonic band gap of ca. 60 meV. We also demonstrate that the multimode splitting effect defines a whole vibrational ladder of heavy polaritonic states perfectly resolved. These findings reveal the broad possibilities in the vibrational ultrastrong coupling regime which impact both the optical and the molecular properties of such coupled systems, in particular, in the context of mode-selective chemistry.

  18. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Facco


    Full Text Available A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H^{-} beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kW of proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fraction of the main H^{-} beam, magnetic splitting of H^{-} and H^{0}, and stripping of H^{0} to H^{+}. The method allows slow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  19. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C


    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  20. Timelike single-logarithm-resummed splitting functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow


    We calculate the single logarithmic contributions to the quark singlet and gluon matrix of timelike splitting functions at all orders in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme. We fix two of the degrees of freedom of this matrix from the analogous results in the massive-gluon regularization scheme by using the relation between that scheme and the MS scheme. We determine this scheme transformation from the double logarithmic contributions to the timelike splitting functions and the coefficient functions of inclusive particle production in e + e - annihilation now available in both schemes. The remaining two degrees of freedom are fixed by reasonable physical assumptions. The results agree with the fixed-order results at next-to-next-to-leading order in the literature. (orig.)

  1. Atom beams split by gentle persuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.


    Two different research teams have taken a big step toward atom interferometry. They have succeeded in splitting atomic beams by using atoms in spin states that neither absorb nor reemit laser light. By proper adjustment of experimental conditions, atoms are changed from one spin state to another, without passing through the intermediary excited state. The atoms in essence absorb momentum from the laser photons, without absorption or emission of photons. The change in momentum deflects atoms in the proper spin state

  2. On split Lie triple systems II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we extend these results to arbitrary split Lie triple systems with no restrictions on their 0-root spaces. Author Affiliations. Antonio J Calderón Martín1 M Forero Piulestán1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 24 June 2009 ...

  3. Transonymization as Revitalization: Old Toponyms of Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lozić Knezović


    Full Text Available The paper deals with ancient toponyms of Split, a city in the centre of the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Along with numerous monuments of spiritual and material culture, toponyms are part of the two-thousand-year-old city’s historical heritage. Split in particular abounds with sources that provide valuable information concerning ancient toponyms. In terms of the study and preservation of toponymy, three basic sources are crucial: the living oral tradition, written records, and old charts — mostly cadastral plans. In addition to researching, recording, documenting, and publishing Split’s ancient place names through toponomastic, geographical, and town planning studies, toponymic heritage preservation is also implemented through the direct use of the names in everyday life. One of the ways of such revitalization of Split’s ancient place names is their transonymization into the category of chrematonyms, i.e. their secondary use as names of institutions, shops, restaurants, schools, sports associations and facilities, bars and coffee shops, cemeteries, and so on. The present paper provides a classification and etymological analysis of detoponymic chrematonyms of Split. The authors propose measures to raise public awareness of the historical information conveyed by the names and raise some issues for consideration regarding further study of transonymization as a means of revitalizing local toponymic tradition.

  4. 26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans. (United States)


    ...) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7872-15 Split-dollar loans. (a) General rules—(1... split-dollar loan depend upon the relationship between the parties and upon whether the loan is a demand...-dollar demand loan is any split-dollar loan that is payable in full at any time on the demand of the...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  6. Split-Session Focus Group Interviews in the Naturalistic Setting of Family Medicine Offices. (United States)

    Fetters, Michael D; Guetterman, Timothy C; Power, Debra; Nease, Donald E


    When recruiting health care professionals to focus group interviews, investigators encounter challenges such as busy clinic schedules, recruitment, and a desire to get candid responses from diverse participants. We sought to overcome these challenges using an innovative, office-based, split-session focus group procedure in a project that elicited feedback from family medicine practices regarding a new preventive services model. This procedure entails allocating a portion of time to the entire group and the remaining time to individual subgroups. We discuss the methodologic procedure and the implications of using this approach for data collection. We conducted split-session focus groups with physicians and staff in 4 primary care practices. The procedure entailed 3 sessions, each lasting 30 minutes: the moderator interviewed physicians and staff together, physicians alone, and staff alone. As part of the focus group interview, we elicited and analyzed participant comments about the split-session format and collected observational field notes. The split-session focus group interviews leveraged the naturalistic setting of the office for context-relevant discussion. We tested alternate formats that began in the morning and at lunchtime, to parallel each practice's workflow. The split-session approach facilitated discussion of topics primarily relevant to staff among staff, topics primarily relevant to physicians among physicians, and topics common to all among all. Qualitative feedback on this approach was uniformly positive. A split-session focus group interview provides an efficient, effective way to elicit candid qualitative information from all members of a primary care practice in the naturalistic setting where they work. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  7. Convex polyhedral abstractions, specialisation and property-based predicate splitting in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick


    We present an approach to constrained Horn clause (CHC) verification combining three techniques: abstract interpretation over a domain of convex polyhedra, specialisation of the constraints in CHCs using abstract interpretation of query-answer transformed clauses, and refinement by splitting pred...

  8. Bone changes in ridge split with immediate implant placement: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Dohiem


    Conclusion: Alveolar ridge splitting might be considered a predictable approach that demonstrates a high implant survival rate, adequate horizontal bone gain and minimal postoperative complications. Weak evidence showed the effect of flap design and immediate implantation on marginal bone loss and survival rate.

  9. Holographic spectrum-splitting optical systems for solar photovoltaics (United States)

    Zhang, Deming

    Solar energy is the most abundant source of renewable energy available. The relatively high cost prevents solar photovoltaic (PV) from replacing fossil fuel on a larger scale. In solar PV power generation the cost is reduced with more efficient PV technologies. In this dissertation, methods to improve PV conversion efficiency with holographic optical components are discussed. The tandem multiple-junction approach has achieved very high conversion efficiency. However it is impossible to manufacture tandem PV cells at a low cost due to stringent fabrication standards and limited material types that satisfy lattice compatibility. Current produced by the tandem multi-junction PV cell is limited by the lowest junction due to series connection. Spectrum-splitting is a lateral multi-junction concept that is free of lattice and current matching constraints. Each PV cell can be optimized towards full absorption of a spectral band with tailored light-trapping schemes. Holographic optical components are designed to achieve spectrum-splitting PV energy conversion. The incident solar spectrum is separated onto multiple PV cells that are matched to the corresponding spectral band. Holographic spectrum-splitting can take advantage of existing and future low-cost technologies that produces high efficiency thin-film solar cells. Spectrum-splitting optical systems are designed and analyzed with both transmission and reflection holographic optical components. Prototype holograms are fabricated and high optical efficiency is achieved. Light-trapping in PV cells increases the effective optical path-length in the semiconductor material leading to improved absorption and conversion efficiency. It has been shown that the effective optical path length can be increased by a factor of 4n2 using diffusive surfaces. Ultra-light-trapping can be achieved with optical filters that limit the escape angle of the diffused light. Holographic reflection gratings have been shown to act as angle

  10. Quadratic String Method for Locating Instantons in Tunneling Splitting Calculations. (United States)

    Cvitaš, Marko T


    The ring-polymer instanton (RPI) method is an efficient technique for calculating approximate tunneling splittings in high-dimensional molecular systems. In the RPI method, tunneling splitting is evaluated from the properties of the minimum action path (MAP) connecting the symmetric wells, whereby the extensive sampling of the full potential energy surface of the exact quantum-dynamics methods is avoided. Nevertheless, the search for the MAP is usually the most time-consuming step in the standard numerical procedures. Recently, nudged elastic band (NEB) and string methods, originaly developed for locating minimum energy paths (MEPs), were adapted for the purpose of MAP finding with great efficiency gains [ J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2016 , 12 , 787 ]. In this work, we develop a new quadratic string method for locating instantons. The Euclidean action is minimized by propagating the initial guess (a path connecting two wells) over the quadratic potential energy surface approximated by means of updated Hessians. This allows the algorithm to take many minimization steps between the potential/gradient calls with further reductions in the computational effort, exploiting the smoothness of potential energy surface. The approach is general, as it uses Cartesian coordinates, and widely applicable, with computational effort of finding the instanton usually lower than that of determining the MEP. It can be combined with expensive potential energy surfaces or on-the-fly electronic-structure methods to explore a wide variety of molecular systems.

  11. Hydrogen production by thermal water splitting using a thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudesocque, N.; Lafon, C.; Girold, C.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.


    CEA has been working for more than 10 years in plasma technologies devoted to waste treatment: incineration, vitrification, gases and liquid treatment. Based on this experience, CEA experiments since several years an innovative route for hydrogen production by thermal water splitting, using a plasma as heat source. This new approach could be considered as an alternative to electrolysis for massive hydrogen production from water and electricity. This paper presents a brief state of the art of water thermal plasmas, showing the temperatures and quench velocity ranges technologically achievable today. Thermodynamic properties of a water plasma are presented and discussed. A kinetic computational model is presented, describing the behavior of splitted products during the quench in a plasma plume for various parameters, such as the quench rate. The model results are compared to gas analysis in the plasma plume obtained with in-situ sampling probe. The plasma composition measurements are issued from an Optical Emission Spectroscopic method (OES). The prediction of 30 % H 2 recovery with a 108 K.s -1 quench rate has been verified. A second experimentation has been performed: mass gas analysis, flowrate measurement and OES to study the 'behavior' and species in underwater electrical arc stricken between graphite electrodes. With this quench, a synthesis gas was produced with a content 55 % of hydrogen. (authors)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Taking into account the urgent need to attract additional amounts to the state budget to cover the increased budget expenditures involved in the implementation of the government program, by the end of August 2017, the Government of Romania adopted an ordinance obliging the entities to apply, starting on January 1st 2018, the VAT split payment mechanism, system which no longer allows them to use the value added tax cashed affently to the delivery of goods and provision of services, which is why these amounts are to be cashed in separate accounts opened by entities in the state treasury or credit institutions. Only that, later, through the draft of Law on the approval of that ordinance, the Senate made changes to the legislative act, so that the VAT split payment would only apply to companies in insolvency or that register delays in payment of the tax. Although this measure aims at combating the tax evasion and fraud by increasing the voluntary compliance and tax collection degree, the measure can prove to be unfounded, which violates the legislative technique and, in particular, the Community provisions by being inappropriate. In this context, the main objective of this scientific approach is to identify the special situations that arise at the level of entities as a result of the application of the breakdown mechanism of value added tax and to determine the possible advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Split quaternions and particles in (2+1)-space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogberashvili, Merab [Andronikashvili Institute of Physics, Tbilisi (Georgia); Javakhishvili State University, Tbilisi (Georgia)


    It is well known that quaternions represent rotations in 3D Euclidean and Minkowski spaces. However, the product by a quaternion gives rotation in two independent planes at once and to obtain single-plane rotations one has to apply half-angle quaternions twice from the left and on the right (with inverse). This 'double-cover' property is a potential problem in the geometrical application of split quaternions, since the (2+2)-signature of their norms should not be changed for each product. If split quaternions form a proper algebraic structure for microphysics, the representation of boosts in (2+1)-space leads to the interpretation of the scalar part of quaternions as the wavelengths of particles. The invariance of space-time intervals and some quantum behaviors, like noncommutativity and the fundamental spinor representation, probably also are algebraic properties. In our approach the Dirac equation represents the Cauchy-Riemann analyticity condition and two fundamental physical parameters (the speed of light and Planck's constant) emerge from the requirement of positive definiteness of the quaternionic norms. (orig.)

  14. Planar holographic spectrum-splitting PV module design (United States)

    Gordon, Michael; Zhang, Deming; Vorndran, Shelby; Russo, Juan M.; Luscombe, Christine K.; Shaheen, Sean E.; Kostuk, Raymond K.


    A design is presented for a planar spectrum-splitting photovoltaic (PV) module using Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs). A repeating array of HOEs diffracts portions of the solar spectrum onto different PV materials arranged in alternating strips. Several combinations of candidate PV materials are explored, and theoretical power conversion efficiency is quantified and compared for each case. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG) film, an inexpensive material which is easily encapsulated directly into the panel. If desired, the holograms can focus the light to achieve concentration. The side-by-side split spectrum layout has advantages compared to a stacked tandem cell approach: since the cells are electrically isolated, current matching constraints are eliminated. Combinations of dissimilar types of cells are also possible: including crystalline, thin film, and organic PV cells. Configurations which yield significant efficiency gain using relatively inexpensive PV materials are of particular interest. A method used to optimize HOE design to work with a different candidate cells and different package aspect ratios is developed and presented. (Aspect ratio is width of the cell strips vs. the thickness of the panel) The relationship between aspect ratio and HOE performance properties is demonstrated. These properties include diffraction efficiency, spectral selectivity, tracking alignment sensitivity, and uniformity of cell illumination.

  15. Assessment and characterization of joineries in the city of Viçosa, MG/ Diagnóstico e caracterização das marcenarias na cidade de Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Castro Silva


    Full Text Available The forestry sector is not only formed by large companies, such as pulp and paper or reconstituted panels, but also by small businesses, and often strictly family businesses, as joineries. This study aimed to identify, assess and characterize joineries in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The object of study was limited to the city’s joinery businesses, mainly the ones belonging to the former Joiner’s Association. A questionnaire was drawn up to obtain information on the used wood, internal management and employee training, machinery, products, market, product advertising and prospects for the sector. It was found that both entrepreneurs and workers have low educational level and lack their own product design. They were producing only ordered products with intensive use of solid wood particularly from native forests. Products were heterogeneous, ranging from furniture to farm utilities. Competition, mainly the informal, represented the biggest obstacle to sector development, as well as serialized products from other locations sold in shops at lower prices. It was concluded that the joinery sector in Viçosa needs greater skill levels, both technical and managerial, to improve the activity. Moreover, the sector needs better organization through associations and support of agencies such as local Sebrae, and wider product advertising targeting consumers in the region.O setor florestal não é constituído apenas por grandes empresas, como as de celulose e papel ou de painéis reconstituídos, mas também por pequenas empresas, muitas das vezes estritamente familiares, como as marcenarias. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a identificação, diagnóstico e caracterização das marcenarias de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais. Delimitaram-se, como objeto de estudo, as empresas de marcenaria da cidade, principalmente, pertencentes ao antigo Núcleo de Marceneiros. Elaborou-se um questionário para buscar informações sobre a madeira utilizada

  16. Surgical Access to a Complex Composite Odontoma via Sagittal Split Osteotomy of the Mandible (United States)

    Periasamy, Senthilnathan; Devadoss, Poorna; Kumar, Santhosh P


    This case report presents the removal of complex composite odontoma in a young patient in the right body of mandible via the unilateral sagittal splitting of the mandible. This article shows that sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible can be very useful to access various pathologies in the body, angle, and ramus of the mandible and to navigate lesions that are in proximity to the inferior alveolar nerve. This technique also helps in avoiding postoperative morbidity when compared to other conventional surgical approaches. It can be used to remove large cysts, benign non-infiltrative tumours of the mandible, odontogenic myxoma, large odontoma, and deeply impacted lower third molars. PMID:29441249

  17. Electromagnetic interaction of split-ring resonators: The role of separation and relative orientation. (United States)

    Feth, Nils; König, Michael; Husnik, Martin; Stannigel, Kai; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt; Wegener, Martin; Linden, Stefan


    Extinction cross-section spectra of split-ring-resonator dimers have been measured at near-infrared frequencies with a sensitive spatial modulation technique. The resonance frequency of the dimer's coupled mode as well as its extinction cross-section and its quality factor depend on the relative orientation and separation of the two split-ring resonators. The findings can be interpreted in terms of electric and magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. Numerical calculations based on a Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain approach are in good agreement with the experiments and support our physical interpretation.

  18. Computational and experimental studies of reassociating RNA/DNA hybrids containing split functionalities. (United States)

    Afonin, Kirill A; Bindewald, Eckart; Kireeva, Maria; Shapiro, Bruce A


    Recently, we developed a novel technique based on RNA/DNA hybrid reassociation that allows conditional activation of different split functionalities inside diseased cells and in vivo. We further expanded this idea to permit simultaneous activation of multiple different functions in a fully controllable fashion. In this chapter, we discuss some novel computational approaches and experimental techniques aimed at the characterization, design, and production of reassociating RNA/DNA hybrids containing split functionalities. We also briefly describe several experimental techniques that can be used to test these hybrids in vitro and in vivo. 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Primeiro registro do gênero Toxorhynchites Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae) em Mata Atlântica, Viçosa, Minas Gerais


    Albeny, Daniel Simões; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Ataíde, Lívia Maria Silva; Vilela, Evaldo Ferreira


    Durante os meses de março e abril de 2007 foi verificada a presença do gênero Toxorhynchites (Diptera, Culicidae) em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. No experimento foram utilizadas 500 armadilhas de oviposição. Registrando-se, pela primeira vez na região de Viçosa o gênero Toxorhynchites, sendo as espécies T. pusillus (Costa Lima, 193 1) e T. theobaldi (Dyar & Knab, 1906) encontradas pela primeira vez no Estado de Minas Gerais. As espécies relatadas ...

  20. Primeiro registro do gênero Toxorhynchites Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae) em Mata Atlântica, Viçosa, Minas Gerais


    Daniel Simões Albeny; Cassiano Sousa Rosa; Lívia Maria Silva Ataíde; Evaldo Ferreira Vilela


    Durante os meses de março e abril de 2007 foi verificada a presença do gênero Toxorhynchites (Diptera, Culicidae) em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. No experimento foram utilizadas 500 armadilhas de oviposição. Registrando-se, pela primeira vez na região de Viçosa o gênero Toxorhynchites, sendo as espécies T. pusillus (Costa Lima, 193 1) e T. theobaldi (Dyar & Knab, 1906) encontradas pela primeira vez no Estado de Minas Gerais. As espécies relata...

  1. Rubiaceae Juss. da Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG, Brasil Rubiaceae Juss. from Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zefa Valdivina Pereira


    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamento florístico e estudo taxonômico da família Rubiaceae, da Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG. Foram registrados para a Reserva 14 gêneros compreendendo 30 espécies. Destas, 19 apresentaram hábito arbustivo e 11 são herbáceos. Os gêneros com maior número de espécies foram Psychotria (10 espécies, Borreria (quatro, Coccocypselum (três e Coussarea e Palicourea (duas. Bathysa, Chiococca, Coutarea, Diodia, Faramea, Galium, Mitracarpus, Richardia e Rudgea apresentaram uma única espécie cada. São fornecidas neste trabalho chaves analíticas, descrições, ilustrações, comentários taxonômicos e distribuição geográfica para cada espécie.This work consists of a floristic survey and a taxonomical study of the Rubiaceae at the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Fourteen genera comprising thirty species were found in the Reserve. From this total, nineteen were shrubs and eleven were herbs. The genera with larger species numbers were Psychotria (10, Borreria (four, Coccocypselum (three, and Coussarea and Palicourea (two. Bathysa, Chiococca, Coutarea, Diodia, Faramea, Galium, Mitracarpus, Richardia and Rudgea presented one species. Analytic key, descriptions, illustrations, taxonomical comments and geographic distribution of each species were also presented in this paper.

  2. Splitting methods for split feasibility problems with application to Dantzig selectors (United States)

    He, Hongjin; Xu, Hong-Kun


    The split feasibility problem (SFP), which refers to the task of finding a point that belongs to a given nonempty, closed and convex set, and whose image under a bounded linear operator belongs to another given nonempty, closed and convex set, has promising applicability in modeling a wide range of inverse problems. Motivated by the increasingly data-driven regularization in the areas of signal/image processing and statistical learning, in this paper, we study the regularized split feasibility problem (RSFP), which provides a unified model for treating many real-world problems. By exploiting the split nature of the RSFP, we shall gainfully employ several efficient splitting methods to solve the model under consideration. A remarkable advantage of our methods lies in their easier subproblems in the sense that the resulting subproblems have closed-form representations or can be efficiently solved up to a high precision. As an interesting application, we apply the proposed algorithms for finding Dantzig selectors, in addition to demonstrating the effectiveness of the splitting methods through some computational results on synthetic and real medical data sets.

  3. Design of Super Narrowband DWDM Filters Based on the Effect of Spectral Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C Q; Chen, M [College of Physics and Electronics, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); Liu, J; Wan, Z M; Luo, Z M [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); Tian, P, E-mail: [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)


    A novel approach is proposed to design super narrowband DWDM Filters consisting of multiple quantum wells (MQWs) by employing photonic crystals. Numerical investigations prove that the closed-cavity MQWs are more suitable for DWDM systems compared with the open-cavity MQWs. It is shown that different confined states could emerge from photonic band gap, which can be used as high-frequency carriers one-to-one. It is also found that these proposed MQWs could split the single spectral lines into multiples based on the effect of spectral splitting, and the number of the splitting is just equal to the number of the wells. In this way, the density of carriers can be increased multiplicatively in the same wave band, and thus the spectral efficiency can be improved multiplicatively. These results provide the prospects of channel density maximization and effective bandwidth optimization for optical communication.

  4. Induced dipole in vanadium-doped zinc oxide nanosheets and its effects on photoelectrochemical water splitting (United States)

    Lee, Song Mi; Shin, Sung-Ho; Nah, Junghyo; Lee, Min Hyung


    Appropriate control of energy band bending at the interface between semiconductors and electrolytes are closely related to performance of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Dipoles formed near the surface of semiconductors induces energy band bending at the interface. Energy band bending control has been demonstrated by employing charged molecules and piezoelectric materials. However, chemical and piezoelectric approaches have demerit of chemical instability and inducement of instantaneous dipole, respectively. To overcome these problems, we adopted the ferroelectric material for PEC water splitting, where spontaneous dipoles in the material can be oriented by applying external electric field. In this work, we hydrothermally synthesized vanadium (V)-doped ferroelectric ZnO nanosheets and employed to systematically investigate the dipole effect on performance of V-doped ZnO PEC for water oxidation. Consequently, positively polarized V-doped ZnO photoanode exhibits 125% enhanced water splitting efficiency compared to negatively polarized ones due to favorable band bending for carrier transport from semiconductor to water.

  5. Hydrogen generation due to water splitting on Si - terminated 4H-Sic(0001) surfaces (United States)

    Li, Qingfang; Li, Qiqi; Yang, Cuihong; Rao, Weifeng


    The chemical reactions of hydrogen gas generation via water splitting on Si-terminated 4H-SiC surfaces with or without C/Si vacancies were studied by using first-principles. We studied the reaction mechanisms of hydrogen generation on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface. Our calculations demonstrate that there are major rearrangements in surface when H2O approaches the SiC(0001) surface. The first H splitting from water can occur with ground-state electronic structures. The second H splitting involves an energy barrier of 0.65 eV. However, the energy barrier for two H atoms desorbing from the Si-face and forming H2 gas is 3.04 eV. In addition, it is found that C and Si vacancies can form easier in SiC(0001)surfaces than in SiC bulk and nanoribbons. The C/Si vacancies introduced can enhance photocatalytic activities. It is easier to split OH on SiC(0001) surface with vacancies compared to the case of clean SiC surface. H2 can form on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface with C and Si vacancies if the energy barriers of 1.02 and 2.28 eV are surmounted, respectively. Therefore, SiC(0001) surface with C vacancy has potential applications in photocatalytic water-splitting.

  6. Endoleak detection using single-acquisition split-bolus dual-energy computer tomography (DECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javor, D.; Wressnegger, A.; Unterhumer, S.; Kollndorfer, K.; Nolz, R.; Beitzke, D.; Loewe, C. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)


    To assess a single-phase, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with a split-bolus technique and reconstruction of virtual non-enhanced images for the detection of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Fifty patients referred for routine follow-up post-EVAR CT and a history of at least one post-EVAR follow-up CT examination using our standard biphasic (arterial and venous phase) routine protocol (which was used as the reference standard) were included in this prospective trial. An in-patient comparison and an analysis of the split-bolus protocol and the previously used double-phase protocol were performed with regard to differences in diagnostic accuracy, radiation dose, and image quality. The analysis showed a significant reduction of radiation dose of up to 42 %, using the single-acquisition split-bolus protocol, while maintaining a comparable diagnostic accuracy (primary endoleak detection rate of 96 %). Image quality between the two protocols was comparable and only slightly inferior for the split-bolus scan (2.5 vs. 2.4). Using the single-acquisition, split-bolus approach allows for a significant dose reduction while maintaining high image quality, resulting in effective endoleak identification. (orig.)

  7. Functional and aesthetic results of various lip-splitting incisions: A clinical analysis of 60 cases. (United States)

    Rapidis, A D; Valsamis, S; Anterriotis, D A; Skouteris, C A


    This study retrospectively evaluated the functional and aesthetic results of various types of lip-splitting incisions in a group of patients in whom this approach was used to treat intraoral tumors. Between 1992 and 1998, 87 consecutive patients were subjected to either mandibulotomy or mandibulectomy using a lip-splitting incision. During this period, 4 types of incisions were sequentially used: straight midline incision, lateral lip-splitting incision, midline splitting with extension around the contour of the chin, and the chevron chin-contour incision. Sixty patients with a follow-up of at least 6 months were included in the study. The patients were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding the degree of satisfaction with the cosmetic result of the procedure and were clinically assessed for sensory and functional impairment resulting from the incision. The remaining 27 patients were lost to follow-up or had died of their disease. The lateral lip-splitting incision caused the fewest postoperative problems in patients subjected to either mandibulotomy or mandibulectomy. The best overall results were achieved by the chevron-chin contour incision. The incision that followed the contour of the chin and the straight midline incision showed less satisfactory results. The chevron chin-contour incision, along with meticulous soft tissue closure, produces the best aesthetic and functional results. Copyright 2001 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

  8. Flow Cytometric Bead Sandwich Assay Based on a Split Aptamer. (United States)

    Shen, Luyao; Bing, Tao; Liu, Xiangjun; Wang, Junyan; Wang, Linlin; Zhang, Nan; Shangguan, Dihua


    A few aptamers still bind their targets after being split into two moieties. Split aptamers have shown great potential in the development of aptameric sensors. However, only a few split aptamers have been generated because of lack of knowledge on the binding structure of their parent aptamers. Here, we report the design of a new split aptamer and a flow cytometric bead sandwich assay using a split aptamer instead of double antibodies. Through DMS footprinting and mutation assay, we figured out the target-binding moiety and the structure-stabilizing moiety of the l-selectin aptamer, Sgc-3b. By separating the duplex strand in the structure-stabilizing moiety, we obtained a split aptamer that bound l-selectin. After optimization of one part of the split sequence to eliminate the nonspecific binding of the split sequence pair, we developed a split-aptamer-based cytometric bead assay (SACBA) for the detection of soluble l-selectin. SACBA showed good sensitivity and selectivity to l-selectin and was successfully applied for the detection of spiked l-selectin in the human serum. The strategies for generating split aptamers and designing the split-aptamer-based sandwich assay are simple and efficient and show good practicability in aptamer engineering.

  9. SplitRFLab: A MATLAB GUI toolbox for receiver function analysis based on SplitLab (United States)

    Xu, Mijian; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu


    We add new modules for receiver function (RF) analysis in SplitLab toolbox, which includes the manual RF analysis module, automatic RF analysis and related quality control modules, and H- k stacking module. The updated toolbox (named SplitRFLab toolbox), especially its automatic RF analysis module, could calculate the RFs quickly and efficiently, which is very useful in RF analysis with huge amount of seismic data. China is now conducting the ChinArray project that plans to deploy thousands of portable stations across Chinese mainland. Our SplitRFLab toolbox may obtain reliable RF results quickly at the first time, which provide essentially new constraint to the crustal and mantle structures.

  10. Genetics of Euglossini bees (Hymenoptera in fragments of the Atlantic Forest in the region of Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Waldschmidt

    Full Text Available With uncontrolled deforestation, forest fragments remain, which in most cases are in different stages of regeneration and present isolated populations. In the present study we analyzed the genetic patterns of Eulaema nigrita populations in seven Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes and successional stages in the region of Viçosa, MG. This was done by RAPD molecular markers. We observed that the area of the fragments had no effect on the genetic variability of E. nigrita in the direction predicted by meta-population models. Medium-sized well-preserved woods presented the lowest variability, whereas large and small woods were statistically identical. The evidence supports the notion that rural areas present greater dispersal among fragments, implying greater similarity between the populations of fragments located in rural areas when compared to fragments in urban areas.

  11. A mast fruiting episode of the tropical tree Peltogyne purpurea(Caesalpinaceaein the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J Rocha


    Full Text Available Se describe un episodio de fructificación en masa en una población de Peltogyne purpurea de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica. En febrero y marzo de 2000, la mayor parte de los árboles de esta especie tuvo una gran cosecha de frutos. En los años anteriores, desde 1995, ninguno o muy pocos árboles produjeron frutos y la producción por árbol fue escasa. La cosecha del año 2000 fue masiva y todos los árboles examinados produjeron frutos abundantes. Este patrón reproductivo podría producir extinciones locales si la extracción maderera no lo toma en cuenta

  12. A mast fruiting episode of the tropical tree Peltogyne purpurea (Caesalpinaceae) in the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. (United States)

    Rocha, Oscar J; Vílchez, Braulio; Anchetta, Ana L Araya


    The existence of mast fruiting has not been well documented in the Neotropics. The occurrence of a mast fruiting episode in the population of the tree Peltogyne purpurea in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica is described. In February and March of 2000 most of the trees of this species produced a large fruit crop, compared with 1995-1999, when the number of fruit producing trees was very low or zero and those that did bear fruit, did so at a low intensity. In contrast, the fruit crop of 2000 was massive, all trees examined produced fruits and the intensity of fruiting was maximal. There is not enough information on the event for a hypothesis to be formed because the climatic or biological cues that triggered this sporadic flowering are unknown and there is no meteorological data available for this area. Populations with this mode of reproduction may experience local extinction bacause of logging operations.

  13. Spectroscopic and magnetic properties of Fe2+ (3d6; S = 2) ions in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O - Modeling zero-field splitting and Zeeman electronic parameters by microscopic spin Hamiltonian approach (United States)

    Zając, Magdalena; Rudowicz, Czesław; Ohta, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Takahiro


    Utilizing the package MSH/VBA, based on the microscopic spin Hamiltonian (MSH) approach, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of Fe2+ (3d6; S = 2) ions at (nearly) orthorhombic sites in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O (FASH) are modeled. The zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters and the Zeeman electronic (Ze) factors are predicted for wide ranges of values of the microscopic parameters, i.e. the spin-orbit (λ), spin-spin (ρ) coupling constants, and the crystal-field (ligand-field) energy levels (Δi) within the 5D multiplet. This enables to consider the dependence of the ZFS parameters bkq (in the Stevens notation), or the conventional ones (e.g., D and E), and the Zeeman factors gi on λ, ρ, and Δi. By matching the theoretical SH parameters and the experimental ones measured by electron magnetic resonance (EMR), the values of λ, ρ, and Δi best describing Fe2+ ions in FASH are determined. The novel aspect is prediction of the fourth-rank ZFS parameters and the ρ(spin-spin)-related contributions, not considered in previous studies. The higher-order contributions to the second- and fourth-rank ZFSPs are found significant. The MSH predictions provide guidance for high-magnetic field and high-frequency EMR (HMF-EMR) measurements and enable assessment of suitability of FASH for application as high-pressure probes for HMF-EMR studies. The method employed here and the present results may be also useful for other structurally related Fe2+ (S = 2) systems.

  14. A mast fruiting episode of the tropical tree Peltogyne purpurea(Caesalpinaceaein the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J Rocha


    Full Text Available Se describe un episodio de fructificación en masa en una población de Peltogyne purpurea de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica. En febrero y marzo de 2000, la mayor parte de los árboles de esta especie tuvo una gran cosecha de frutos. En los años anteriores, desde 1995, ninguno o muy pocos árboles produjeron frutos y la producción por árbol fue escasa. La cosecha del año 2000 fue masiva y todos los árboles examinados produjeron frutos abundantes. Este patrón reproductivo podría producir extinciones locales si la extracción maderera no lo toma en cuentaThe existence of mast fruiting has not been well documented in the Neotropics. The occurrence of a mast fruiting episode in the population of the tree Peltogyne purpurea in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica is described. In February and March of 2000 most of the trees of this species produced a large fruit crop, compared with 1995-1999, when the number of fruit producing trees was very low or zero and those that did bear fruit, did so at a low intensity. In contrast, the fruit crop of 2000 was massive, all trees examined produced fruits and the intensity of fruiting was maximal. There is not enough information on the event for a hypothesis to be formed because the climatic or biological cues that triggered this sporadic flowering are unknown and there is no meteorological data available for this area. Populations with this mode of reproduction may experience local extinction bacause of logging operations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1151-1155. Epub 2006 Dec. 15

  15. Initiation of CPAP therapy for OSA: does prophylactic humidification during CPAP pressure titration improve initial patient acceptance and comfort? (United States)

    Wiest, G H; Harsch, I A; Fuchs, F S; Kitzbichler, S; Bogner, K; Brueckl, W M; Hahn, E G; Ficker, J H


    Heated humidifiers (HH) enable effective treatment of upper airway dryness during nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), but the role of prophylactic use of HH during the initiation of nCPAP treatment has not been studied so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether prophylactic HH during the initiation of CPAP would result in improved initial patient comfort and acceptance. In 44 consecutive, previously untreated OSA patients with no history of upper airway dryness, CPAP titration with and without HH was performed on two consecutive nights in a randomised order. The patients were interviewed after each treatment night in order to establish the comfort of the treatment, and, after the second treatment, they were asked which of the two nights they considered more pleasant, and which treatment they would prefer for long-term use. Following CPAP titration with HH, 32 patients (73%) claimed to have had a better night's sleep than usual (i.e. without CPAP treatment) compared with 33 patients (75%) saying the same following CPAP treatment without HH. For 21 patients (47.7%) treatment with HH was more pleasant, 23 (52.3%) saw no difference or said that treatment without HH was more pleasant. Nineteen patients (43.2%) gave preference to treatment with HH for long-term use, while 25 patients (56.8%) had no preference or said they would prefer treatment without HH. The use of HH during the initiation phase of CPAP treatment was associated neither with an initial improvement in comfort nor with greater initial treatment acceptance. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Translation of Berlin Questionnaire to Portuguese language and its application in OSA identification in a sleep disordered breathing clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Vaz


    Full Text Available Background: Berlin Questionnaire (BQ, an English language screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in primary care, has been applied in tertiary settings, with variable results. Aims: Development of BQ Portuguese version and evaluation of its utility in a sleep disordered breathing clinic (SDBC. Material and methods: BQ was translated using back translation methodology and prospectively applied, previously to cardiorespiratory sleep study, to 95 consecutive subjects, referred to a SDBC, with OSA suspicion. OSA risk assessment was based on responses in 10 items, organized in 3 categories: snoring and witnessed apneas (category 1, daytime sleepiness (category 2, high blood pressure (HBP/obesity (category 3. Results: In the studied sample, 67.4% were males, with a mean age of 51 ± 13 years. Categories 1, 2 and 3 were positive in 91.6, 24.2 and 66.3%, respectively. BQ identified 68.4% of the patients as being in the high risk group for OSA and the remaining 31.6% in the low risk. BQ sensitivity and specificity were 72.1 and 50%, respectively, for an apnea-hipopnea index (AHI > 5, 82.6 and 44.8% for AHI > 15, 88.4 and 39.1% for AHI > 30. Being in the high risk group for OSA did not infl uence significantly the probability of having the disease (positive likelihood ratio [LR] between 1.44-1.49. Only the items related to snoring loudness, witnessed apneas and HBP/obesity presented a statistically positive association with AHI, with the model constituted by their association presenting a greater discrimination capability, especially for an AHI > 5 (sensitivity 65.2%, specificity 80%, positive LR 3.26. Conclusions: The BQ is not an appropriate screening tool for OSA in a SDBC, although snoring loudness, witnessed apneas, HBP/obesity have demonstrated being significant questionnaire elements in this population. Resumo: Introdução: O Questionário de Berlim (QB, originalmente desenvolvido em língua inglesa como um instrumento de

  17. Method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian; Liu, Xintong


    In order to meet the aviation's and machinery manufacturing's pose measurement need of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range, and to resolve the contradiction between measurement range and resolution of vision sensor, this paper proposes an orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement method. This paper designs and realizes an orthogonally splitting imaging vision sensor and establishes a pose measurement system. The vision sensor consists of one imaging lens, a beam splitter prism, cylindrical lenses and dual linear CCD. Dual linear CCD respectively acquire one dimensional image coordinate data of the target point, and two data can restore the two dimensional image coordinates of the target point. According to the characteristics of imaging system, this paper establishes the nonlinear distortion model to correct distortion. Based on cross ratio invariability, polynomial equation is established and solved by the least square fitting method. After completing distortion correction, this paper establishes the measurement mathematical model of vision sensor, and determines intrinsic parameters to calibrate. An array of feature points for calibration is built by placing a planar target in any different positions for a few times. An terative optimization method is presented to solve the parameters of model. The experimental results show that the field angle is 52 °, the focus distance is 27.40 mm, image resolution is 5185×5117 pixels, displacement measurement error is less than 0.1mm, and rotation angle measurement error is less than 0.15°. The method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement can satisfy the pose measurement requirement of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range.

  18. Species Tree Inference from Gene Splits by Unrooted STAR Methods. (United States)

    Allman, Elizabeth S; Degnan, James H; Rhodes, John A


    The method was proposed by Liu and Yu to infer a species tree topology from unrooted topological gene trees. While its statistical consistency under the multispecies coalescent model was established only for a four-taxon tree, simulations demonstrated its good performance on gene trees inferred from sequences for many taxa. Here, we prove the statistical consistency of the method for an arbitrarily large species tree. Our approach connects to a generalization of the STAR method of Liu, Pearl, and Edwards, and a previous theoretical analysis of it. We further show utilizes only the distribution of splits in the gene trees, and not their individual topologies. Finally, we discuss how multiple samples per taxon per gene should be handled for statistical consistency.

  19. Injuries caused by firewood splitting machines. (United States)

    Hellstrand, P H


    The aim of this paper is to present the types of injury caused by firewood splitting machines and also to elucidate the accident mechanism. The study is based on 15 cases. The machine has a rotating spiral cone, and usually the victims' gloved fingertips were caught by the point of the cone. This led to either amputations, usually of radial fingers and/or penetrating wounds through the middle of the hand. In most cases the accidents could not be blamed on bad working techniques. The study of the mechanisms of injury points to insufficient protective devices in a machine construction which has a potentially dangerous working principle.

  20. Modeling volatile isoprenoid emissions--a story with split ends. (United States)

    Grote, R; Niinemets, U


    Accurate prediction of plant-generated volatile isoprenoid fluxes is necessary for reliable estimation of atmospheric ozone and aerosol formation potentials. In recent years, significant progress has been made in understanding the environmental and physiological controls on isoprenoid emission and in scaling these emissions to canopy and landscape levels. We summarize recent developments and compare different approaches for simulating volatile isoprenoid emission and scaling up to whole forest canopies with complex architecture. We show that the current developments in modeling volatile isoprenoid emissions are "split-ended" with simultaneous but separated efforts in fine-tuning the empirical emission algorithms and in constructing process-based models. In modeling volatile isoprenoid emissions, simplified leaf-level emission algorithms (Guenther algorithms) are highly successful, particularly after scaling these models up to whole regions, where the influences of different ecosystem types, ontogenetic stages, and variations in environmental conditions on emission rates and dynamics partly cancel out. However, recent experimental evidence indicates important environmental effects yet unconsidered and emphasize, the importance of a highly dynamic plant acclimation in space and time. This suggests that current parameterizations are unlikely to hold in a globally changing and dynamic environment. Therefore, long-term predictions using empirical algorithms are not necessarily reliable. We show that process-based models have large potential to capture the influence of changing environmental conditions, in particular if the leaf models are linked with physiologically based whole-plant models. This combination is also promising in considering the possible feedback impacts of emissions on plant physiological status such as mitigation of thermal and oxidative stresses by volatile isoprenoids. It might be further worth while to incorporate main features of these approaches

  1. Randomized clinical trial comparing fixed-time split dosing and split dosing of oral Picosulfate regimen for bowel preparation. (United States)

    Jun, Jae Hyuck; Han, Koon Hee; Park, Jong Kyu; Seo, Hyun Il; Kim, Young Don; Lee, Sang Jin; Jun, Baek Gyu; Hwang, Min Sik; Park, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, Myeong Jong; Cheon, Gab Jin


    To compare the efficacy of fixed-time split dose and split dose of an oral sodium picosulfate for bowel preparation. This is study was prospective, randomized controlled study performed at a single Institution (2013-058). A total of 204 subjects were assigned to receive one of two sodium picosulfate regimens ( i.e ., fixed-time split or split) prior to colonoscopy. Main outcome measurements were bowel preparation quality and subject tolerability. There was no statistical difference between the fixed-time split dose regimen group and the split dose regimen group (Ottawa score mean 2.57 ± 1.91 vs 2.80 ± 2.51, P = 0.457). Cecal intubation time and physician's satisfaction of inspection were not significantly different between the two groups ( P = 0.428, P = 0.489). On subgroup analysis, for afternoon procedures, the fixed-time split dose regimen was equally effective as compared with the split dose regimen (Ottawa score mean 2.56 ± 1.78 vs 2.59 ± 2.27, P = 0.932). There was no difference in tolerability or compliance between the two groups. Nausea was 21.2% in the fixed-time split dose group and 14.3% in the split dose group ( P = 0.136). Vomiting was 7.1% and 2.9% ( P = 0.164), abdominal discomfort 7.1% and 4.8% ( P = 0.484), dizziness 1% and 4.8% ( P = 0.113), cold sweating 1% and 0% ( P = 0.302) and palpitation 0% and 1% ( P = 0.330), respectively. Sleep disturbance was two (2%) patients in the fixed-time split dose group and zero (0%) patient in the split dose preparation ( P = 0.143) group. A fixed-time split dose regimen with sodium picosulfate is not inferior to a split dose regimen for bowel preparation and equally effective for afternoon colonoscopy.

  2. Teatritükk, mille järgmist osa näeb 2040. aastal / Mari Hiiemäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiiemäe, Mari


    VAT Teatri lavastusest "... viimane lint / Saare esimene lint", kus põimuvad Tanel Saare esitus ja Jüri Järvet vana Krappina ("Krappi viimane lint") ekraanil. Tanel Saar lindistab S. Becketti "Krappi viimase lindi" salvestatud osa, mille kuulamine taaslavastatakse 30 aasta pärast, kui T. Saar ise on juba vana Krappi eas

  3. Characterization of mammalian orthologues of the Drosophila osa gene: cDNA cloning, expression, chromosomal localization, and direct physical interaction with Brahma chromatin-remodeling complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozmik, Zbyněk; Machoň, Ondřej; Krešlová, Jana; Pačes, Jan; Vlček, Čestmír


    Roč. 73, č. 2 (2001), s. 140-148 ISSN 0888-7543 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5052805; GA MŠk LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mammalian orthologues of Drosophila osa gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.418, year: 2001

  4. Oronasal mask may compromise the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure on OSA treatment: is there evidence for avoiding the oronasal route? (United States)

    Andrade, Rafaela Garcia Santos; Madeiro, Fernanda; Genta, Pedro Rodrigues; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo


    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered by nasal mask is the gold standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, oral and oronasal masks are also available. We considered experimental evidence and reviewed clinical trials that evaluated the impact of oral and oronasal mask on OSA treatment. One recent study in 18 OSA patients that slept with a customized oronasal mask with two sealed compartments showed that the change of CPAP flow from nasal to oronasal and oral caused upper airway obstruction because of posterior displacement of the tongue demonstrated by nasoendoscopy. Oral masks use a mouthpiece that may stabilize the jaw and the tongue and have shown to be effective. However, oral masks are not widely used in clinical practice. Four out of five observational studies and all five reviewed randomized studies showed a worse performance of oronasal when compared with nasal masks. Oronasal masks were associated with higher residual apnea-hypopnea index, lower adherence, more leaks, and less satisfaction than nasal mask in the majority of the studies. Nasal CPAP must be the first choice to treat OSA. Patients on oronasal mask should be carefully followed. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  5. Influence of olive storage period on oil quality of three Portuguese cultivars of Olea europea, Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana. (United States)

    Pereira, J A; Casal, S; Bento, A; Oliveira, M B P P


    Olives (Olea europaea cv. Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) used for oil production were stored, in plastic containers, at 5 +/- 2 degrees C (70% relative humidity) for three different periods before oil extraction: 0, 7, and 14 days (T(0), T(7), and T(14), respectively). In the crop year 1997/1998 this procedure was done only for cv. Cobrançosa and in 1998/1999 for the three cultivars. After storage, the oils were extracted from the fruits, and the acidity, peroxide value, coefficients of specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm, stability, color, p-anisidine value, fatty acids, and tocopherols compositions were determined. The results confirm that storage of fruits produces losses in the olive oil quality. Acidity and stability to oxidation indicate a progressive deterioration of oil quality as fruit is stored. The storage time affects the total tocopherols contents, namely, alpha-tocopherol, which clearly decreased during fruit storage. The oil quality of the Verdeal Transmontana cultivar deteriorated more rapidly than that of Cobrançosa and Madural cultivars. This study also shows that cv. Cobrançosa, the main cultivar in the region, is a good choice in terms of final olive oil quality.

  6. Indicadores de campo para solos hidromórficos na região de Viçosa (MG Field indicators for the identification of hydromorphic soils in the region of Viçosa, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. B. Campos


    Full Text Available Indicadores locais são úteis para a identificação de ambientes. Na região de Viçosa, embora os solos encharcados ocorram sob vegetação de taboa (Thypha dominguensis, Gleissolos, de coloração típica acinzentada, são incomuns. A maioria dos solos com lençol freático alto é coberta pela taboa e as características gleizadas do solo são pouco pronunciadas, especialmente nos solos com mais altos teores de ferro. Não há clara conexão entre altura do lençol freático e deficiência de oxigênio. Como as relações entre altura do lençol freático, deficiência de oxigênio e cor do solo não são claras o bastante, hipotetizou-se que outros indicadores para as condições de redução poderiam ser encontrados nesses ambientes. Neste propósito, caracterizou-se o solo e trabalhou-se na sua relação com a vegetação. Estudaram-se os solos com várias intensidades de condições de drenagem em três áreas: Cajuri (Área 1, Viçosa (Área 2 e Coimbra (Área 3, todas pertencentes ao Planalto de Viçosa. Na avaliação das condições de redox dos solos (pH e pE a campo, utilizou-se um medidor digital adaptado a uma sonda de aço. Conquanto importante na identificação de indicadores de ambientes, a caracterização morfológica não se mostrou precisa o bastante para evidenciar o que os solos encharcados têm mais em comum: a deficiência de oxigênio por longos períodos. A cor, embora seja um bom e útil indicador para muitas das condições de drenagem do solo, não se mostrou também eficiente nessas áreas. De modo geral, os Gleissolos estudados apresentaram cromas maiores do que dois, o que supera o limite do critério para identificar horizonte glei no Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, embora o teste indicador da presença de Fe2+ com alfa,alfa'-dipiridil tenha sido positivo. Por outro lado, a presença da taboa foi um bom indicador das condições de má drenagem. Nos locais dos povoamentos puros de taboa, os

  7. The Regularity of Functions on Dual Split Quaternions in Clifford Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim


    Full Text Available This paper shows some properties of dual split quaternion numbers and expressions of power series in dual split quaternions and provides differential operators in dual split quaternions and a dual split regular function on Ω⊂ℂ2×ℂ2 that has a dual split Cauchy-Riemann system in dual split quaternions.

  8. Splitting of the weak hypercharge quantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.


    The ratio between the weak hypercharge quantum for particles having no coupling to the gauge bosons corresponding to the semisimple component of the gauge group and the smallest hypercharge quantum for particles that do have such couplings is exceptionally large for the standard model, considering its rank. To compare groups with respect to this property we propose a quantity χ which depends on the rank of the group and the splitting ratio of the hypercharge(s) to be found in the group. The quantity χ has maximal value for the gauge group of the standard model. This suggest that the hypercharge splitting may play an important role either in the origin of the gauge symmetry at a fundamental scale or in some kind of selection mechanism at a scale perhaps nearer to the experimental scale. Such selection mechanism might be what we have called confusion which removes groups with many (so called generalized) automorphisms. The quantity χ tends to be large for groups with few generalized automorphisms. (orig.)

  9. An Iterative Algorithm for the Split Equality and Multiple-Sets Split Equality Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoyi Shi


    Full Text Available The multiple-sets split equality problem (MSSEP requires finding a point x∈∩i=1NCi, y∈∩j=1MQj such that Ax=By, where N and M are positive integers, {C1,C2,…,CN} and {Q1,Q2,…,QM} are closed convex subsets of Hilbert spaces H1, H2, respectively, and A:H1→H3, B:H2→H3 are two bounded linear operators. When N=M=1, the MSSEP is called the split equality problem (SEP. If  B=I, then the MSSEP and SEP reduce to the well-known multiple-sets split feasibility problem (MSSFP and split feasibility problem (SFP, respectively. One of the purposes of this paper is to introduce an iterative algorithm to solve the SEP and MSSEP in the framework of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces under some more mild conditions for the iterative coefficient.

  10. Estado nutricional e fatores associados em idosos do Município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil Nutritional status and associated factors among the elderly in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa de Matos Nascimento


    Full Text Available Investigaram-se as prevalências de baixo peso e excesso de peso, bem como os fatores associados em idosos. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, com 621 idosos residentes no Município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, realizado em 2009. As informações foram obtidas por meio de entrevistas domiciliares e se referiam à avaliação do estado nutricional, condições sociodemográficas e de saúde. Do total de pessoas estudadas, 53,3% eram do gênero feminino. A mediana do IMC foi de 26,40kg/m² (mínima 15,20 e máxima 46,82 e foi menor para os homens do que para as mulheres. A prevalência de excesso de peso foi elevada (45%; IC95%: 40%-49%, diminuiu com a idade, associou-se positivamente ao gênero feminino e história de artrite/artrose, e negativamente à faixa etária de 80 anos ou mais e ao tabagismo. A prevalência de baixo peso foi maior no gênero masculino (18,2%, aumentou com o avanço da idade e associou-se positivamente à pior percepção de saúde. O conjunto dos resultados salientam a importância de estratégias em saúde que favoreçam mudanças no estilo de vida e hábitos alimentares saudáveis.This cross-sectional study in 2009 focused on the prevalence of underweight and overweight and associated factors in a sample of 621 elderly individuals in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Data were obtained through home interviews on nutritional status and socio-demographic and health conditions. Of the total sample, 53.3% were females. Median BMI was 26.40kg/m² (range = 15.20-46.82 and was lower for men than for women. Prevalence of overweight was high (45%; 95%CI: 40%-49%, decreased with age, was positively associated with female gender and history of arthritis/arthrosis, and was negatively associated with age 80 years or older and smoking. Prevalence of underweight was high in men (18.2%, increased with age, and was positively associated with worse self-rated health. The findings highlight the importance of health strategies

  11. Electrocatalytic water splitting to produce fuel hydrogen (United States)

    Yuan, Hao

    Solar energy is regarded as a promising source for clean and sustainable energy. However, it is not a continuous energy source, thus certain strategies have to be developed to effectively convert and store it. Solar-driven electrocatalytic water splitting, which converts solar energy into chemical energy for storage as fuel hydrogen, can effectively mitigate the intermittence of solar radiation. Water splitting consists of two half reactions: water oxidation and hydrogen evolution. Both reactions rely on highly effective electrocatalysts. This dissertation is an account of four detailed studies on developing highly effective low-cost electrocatalysts for both reactions, and includes a preliminary attempt at system integration to build a functional photoanode for solar-driven water oxidation. For the water oxidation reaction, we have developed an electrochemical method to immobilize a cobalt-based (Co-OXO) water oxidation catalyst on a conductive surface to promote recyclability and reusability without affecting functionality. We have also developed a method to synthesize a manganese-based (MnOx) catalytic film in situ, generating a nanoscale fibrous morphology that provides steady and excellent water oxidation performance. The new method involves two series of cyclic voltammetry (CV) over different potential ranges, followed by calcination to increase crystallinity. The research has the potential to open avenues for synthesizing and optimizing other manganese-based water oxidation catalysts. For the hydrogen evolution reaction, we have developed a new electrodeposition method to synthesize Ni/Ni(OH)2 catalysts in situ on conductive surfaces. The new method involves only two cycles of CV over a single potential range. The resulting catalytic film has a morphology of packed walnut-shaped particles. It has superior catalytic activity and good stability over long periods. We have investigated the feasibility of incorporating manganese-based water oxidation catalysts

  12. The impact of payment splitting on liquidity requirements in RTGS


    Denbee, Edward; Norman, Ben


    This paper examines the impact that payment splitting could have upon the liquidity requirements and efficiency of a large-value payment system, such as the United Kingdom’s CHAPS. Using the Bank of Finland Payment and Settlement Simulator and real UK payments data we find that payment splitting could reduce the liquidity required to settle payments. The reduction in required liquidity would increase as the payment splitting threshold decreased but the relationship is non-linear. Liquidity sa...

  13. Splitting methods in communication, imaging, science, and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Osher, Stanley; Yin, Wotao


    This book is about computational methods based on operator splitting. It consists of twenty-three chapters written by recognized splitting method contributors and practitioners, and covers a vast spectrum of topics and application areas, including computational mechanics, computational physics, image processing, wireless communication, nonlinear optics, and finance. Therefore, the book presents very versatile aspects of splitting methods and their applications, motivating the cross-fertilization of ideas. .

  14. A Frequency Splitting Method For CFM Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The performance of conventional CFM imaging will often be degraded due to the relatively low number of pulses (4-10) used for each velocity estimate. To circumvent this problem we propose a new method using frequency splitting (FS). The FS method uses broad band chirps as excitation pulses instead...... of narrow band pulses as in conventional CFM imaging. By appropriate filtration, the returned signals are divided into a number of narrow band signals which are approximately disjoint. After clutter filtering the velocities are found from each frequency band using a conventional autocorrelation estimator....... Finally the velocity estimates from each frequency band are averaged to obtain an improved velocity estimate. The FS method has been evaluated in simulations using the Field II program and in flow phantom experiments using the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS. In both simulations and experiments...

  15. Estrato de regeneração natural de um trecho de floresta estacional semidecidual, Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brena Karina Siqueira Franco


    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na Mata da Praça de Esportes, situada no Campus da UFV, em Viçosa, MG, com 10,65 ha em regeneração há 75 anos. Foram estabelecidos quatro transectos paralelos de 3 x 50 m, espaçados por 3 m e subdivididos em 10 parcelas de 3 x 5 m cada. A amostragem do estrato de regeneração natural incluiu todos os indivíduos com altura ≥ 0,3 m e com DAP < 5 cm. Calcularam-se os parâmetros fitossociológicos, e realizou-se a classificação quanto à classe sucessional e à síndrome de dispersão. Comparou-se a composição florística entre a área estudada e diversos levantamentos florísticos de regeneração na região de Viçosa, MG, por meio de análise de agrupamento. Foram obtidas 30 famílias e 84 espécies. As espécies mais importantes foram Coffea arabica, Siparuna guianensis, Psychotria sessilis e Erythroxylum pelleterianum. Houve predomínio da classe sucessional secundária tardia (49,3% dos indivíduos e da síndrome de dispersão zoocórica (91,6% dos indivíduos. Não houve similaridade florística entre o trecho de floresta estudada e os demais fragmentos florestais da região. A predominância da síndrome de dispersão zoocórica no estrato de regeneração natural é fator importante para a continuidade da manutenção de animais frugívoros na área. A riqueza florística e a abundância de espécies secundárias tardias são fortes indicativos de que o ambiente estudado está oferecendo condições ecológicas adequadas ao desenvolvimento dessas espécies, permitindo, assim, o avanço da sucessão secundária.

  16. The "DOC" screen: Feasible and valid screening for depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cognitive impairment in stroke prevention clinics. (United States)

    Swartz, Richard H; Cayley, Megan L; Lanctôt, Krista L; Murray, Brian J; Cohen, Ashley; Thorpe, Kevin E; Sicard, Michelle N; Lien, Karen; Sahlas, Demetrios J; Herrmann, Nathan


    Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Cognitive impairment ("DOC") are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool ("DOC" screen) to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment. All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines. 1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes), less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index), had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens. Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may facilitate improved identification and treatment

  17. The "DOC" screen: Feasible and valid screening for depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA and cognitive impairment in stroke prevention clinics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H Swartz

    Full Text Available Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and Cognitive impairment ("DOC" are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool ("DOC" screen to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment.All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines.1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes, less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA. 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index, had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens.Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may facilitate improved identification and

  18. Contaminación fecal en varios ríos de la Gran Área Metropolitana y la Península de Osa Fecal contamination in several rivers of the Greater Metropolitan Area and the Osa Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Calvo Brenes


    Full Text Available La contaminación en los ríos de Costa Rica es un problema que merece especial atención. El concepto “contaminación del agua” implica la incorporación de materias extrañas a esta, tales como microorganis- mos (coliformes totales y fecales, productos quími- cos (jabones, fer tilizantes, pesticidas, metales pesados (cromo, plomo, mercurio, etc. o materia orgánica proveniente de los suelos a través de la escorrentía superficial y de las aguas residuales domésticas. Estas materias deterioran la calidad del agua y reducen los diferentes usos que podría tener un río. El recurso hídrico es importante tanto para la preservación de la vida humana como para la conservación de la flora y fauna. Costa Rica se ha caracterizado por ser un país poseedor de una rica biodiversidad. Sin embargo, muchos de los ríos de la Gran Área Metropolitana ya presentan una contaminación severa, según el Índice holandés de clasificación de la calidad del agua. En este estudio se analizó el contenido de colifor- mes fecales en 10 ríos de las provincias de San José, Alajuela, Heredia y Car tago, así como de la Península de Osa. Para correlacionar el contenido de colifor- mes fecales con la densidad poblacional, además, se muestrearon tres puntos en cada río: la zona alta cercana a la naciente, la zona media y la zona baja cercana a su desembocadura. Se encontró que los puntos de muestreo con densi- dades poblacionales medias o altas están altamente contaminados con coliformes fecales.Varios de ellos superan el límite máximo permisible en el contenido de coliformes fecales establecido por los reglamen- tos nacionales para el uso de los ríos en actividades de recreación de contacto primario. También se determinó que las zonas con menor pobla- ción, tales como los ríos Tigre y Rincón en la Península de Osa, el río Poás en Alajuela en todo su recorrido y los ríos Purires y Birrís en Cartago, en sus zonas medias y altas, están menos

  19. Analysis of Seismic Anisotropy Across Central Anatolia by Shear Wave Splitting (United States)

    Pamir, Dilekcan; Abgarmi, Bizhan; Arda Özacar, A.


    Analysis of Seismic Anisotropy Across Central Anatolia by Shear Wave Splitting Dilekcan Pamir, Bizhan Abgarmi, A. Arda Özacar Department of Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU), Dumlupinar Bulvari 1, 06800 Ankara, Turkey Central Anatolia holds the key to connect the theories about the ongoing tectonic escape, the African Plate subduction along Cyprus Arc and the indenter-style collision of Arabian Plate along Bitlis Suture. However, the shear wave splitting measurements which are needed to characterize seismic anisotropy are very sparse in the region. Recently, seismic data recorded by national seismic networks (KOERI, ERI-DAD) with dense coverage, provided a unique opportunity to analyze the effect of present slab geometry (slab tears, slab break-off) on mantle deformation and test different models of anisotropy forming mechanisms. In this study, the anisotropic structure beneath the Central Anatolia is investigated via splitting of SKS and SKKS phases recorded at 46 broadband seismic stations. Our measurements yielded 1171 well-constrained splitting and 433 null results. Overall, the region displays NE-SW trending fast splitting directions and delay times on the order of 1 sec. On the other hand, a large number of stations which are spatially correlated with Cyprus Slab, Neogene volcanism and major tectonic structures present significant back azimuthal variations on splitting parameters that cannot be explained by one-layered anisotropy with horizontal symmetry. Thus, we have modeled anisotropy for two-layered structures using a forward approach and identified NE-SW trending fast splitting directions with delay times close to 1 sec at the lower layer and N-S, NW-SE trending fast splitting with limited time delays (0.1 - 0.3 sec) at the upper layer. Fast directions and delay times of the lower layer are similar to one-layered anisotropy and parallel or sub-parallel to the absolute plate motions which favors asthenospheric flow model

  20. Split-Doa10: a naturally split polytopic eukaryotic membrane protein generated by fission of a nuclear gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Stuerner

    Full Text Available Large polytopic membrane proteins often derive from duplication and fusion of genes for smaller proteins. The reverse process, splitting of a membrane protein by gene fission, is rare and has been studied mainly with artificially split proteins. Fragments of a split membrane protein may associate and reconstitute the function of the larger protein. Most examples of naturally split membrane proteins are from bacteria or eukaryotic organelles, and their exact history is usually poorly understood. Here, we describe a nuclear-encoded split membrane protein, split-Doa10, in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. In most species, Doa10 is encoded as a single polypeptide with 12-16 transmembrane helices (TMs, but split-KlDoa10 is encoded as two fragments, with the split occurring between TM2 and TM3. The two fragments assemble into an active ubiquitin-protein ligase. The K. lactis DOA10 locus has two ORFs separated by a 508-bp intervening sequence (IVS. A promoter within the IVS drives expression of the C-terminal KlDoa10 fragment. At least four additional Kluyveromyces species contain an IVS in the DOA10 locus, in contrast to even closely related genera, allowing dating of the fission event to the base of the genus. The upstream Kluyveromyces Doa10 fragment with its N-terminal RING-CH and two TMs resembles many metazoan MARCH (Membrane-Associated RING-CH and related viral RING-CH proteins, suggesting that gene splitting may have contributed to MARCH enzyme diversification. Split-Doa10 is the first unequivocal case of a split membrane protein where fission occurred in a nuclear-encoded gene. Such a split may allow divergent functions for the individual protein segments.

  1. Strategies for the production of genetically identical monkeys by embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paprocki AM


    Full Text Available Abstract Genetically identical rhesus monkeys would have tremendous utility as models for the study of human disease and would be particularly valuable for vaccine trials and tissue transplantation studies where immune function is important. While advances in nuclear transfer technology may someday enable monkeys to be cloned with some efficiency, embryo splitting may be a more realistic approach to creating pairs of genetically identical monkeys. Although several different approaches to embryo splitting, including blastocyst bisection and blastomere separation, have been used successfully in rodents and domestic species for production of pairs and sets of identical offspring, efforts to create monozygotic twins in rhesus monkeys using these approaches have not met with similar success. Aggregation of split embryos with other types of blastomeres, such as tetraploid and developmentally asynchronous blastomeres, that could potentially increase their cell numbers and developmental competence without contributing to term development has been investigated as an alternative approach to creating monozygotic twin monkeys. The major challenges encountered with respect to the efficient production of monozygotic twins in rhesus monkeys and potential strategies to overcome these challenges are discussed.

  2. Market splitting in Germany – New evidence from a three-stage numerical model of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trepper, Katrin; Bucksteeg, Michael; Weber, Christoph


    With the sharp increase in redispatch measures seen during recent years, the importance of an efficient congestion management has increased, particularly in Germany. As the current market design, with a single bidding area, ignores the physical constraints of the transmission grid, there is an ongoing discussion about introducing price zones. Against this background, we develop a three-stage approach to model redispatch and market splitting for Germany while considering interactions with interconnected countries. We identify an increasing spatial imbalance between generation and load and delays in grid extension as being the main drivers for the increase of modeled redispatch volumes from 2012 to 2020. We show that market splitting reduces imminent congestion although results are sensitive to the zonal delimitation and corresponding net transfer capacities. The overall welfare effect is negligible, but price differences between the bidding areas investigated, i.e. one Northern and Southern price zone, result in considerable distributional effects. While consumers in Northern Germany would benefit – producer rents and in particular the value of wind energy would decrease – the opposite is true for Southern Germany. We conclude that market splitting constitutes a solution to reduce redispatch measures as long as transmission grid expansion is further delayed. - Highlights: • A three-stage approach to model redispatch and zonal pricing is proposed. • Energy transition will lead to a tripling of congestion in Germany until 2020. • Market splitting in Germany substantially reduces redispatch measures. • Overall welfare gain is negligible, but considerable distributional effects occur. • The beneficial effects of market splitting depend strongly on its design.

  3. O tratamento dos doentes insanos de Vila Viçosa no hospital de Rilhafoles (segunda metade do século XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo de Araújo, Maria Marta


    Full Text Available In this work we examined the procedural requirements related to the sending of insane patients of Vila Viçosa to the hospital of Rilhafoles, in the second half of the 19th century, and the relationships established with the hospital of this Alentejo town relating to the payment of treatment. Faced with a severe financial crisis, the hospital of Vila Viçosa systematically refused the responsibility to send the insane patients to the Rilhafoles hospital in an attempt to pass this burden on the administration of the county, being very reluctant to pay the bills that came to him from the hospital of São José. The conflict between the two institutions came to the monarch with no other alternative than the payment, the hospital of village of the Alentejo region proceeded to sending parcels of money, albeit way too late. For the realization of this work we use the books of the Misericórdia and the documents of the Civil Governor found of the city of Évora under the custody of the Distrital Archive of the same city. This documents results, basically, from the correspondence between the Misericórdia of Vila Viçosa, the council administrator and the civil governor of Évora.[pt] Neste trabalho analisamos os trâmites processuais respeitantes ao envio de doentes insanos de Vila Viçosa para o hospital de Rilhafoles, na segunda metade do século XIX, e as relações estabelecidas com o hospital desta vila alentejana relativamente ao pagamento do tratamento. A braços com uma grave crise financeira, o hospital de Vila Viçosa recusava sistematicamente a responsabilidade de enviar os alienados para Rilhafoles, numa tentativa de passar esse ónus para a administração do concelho, mostrando-se muito renitente no pagamento das faturas que lhe chegavam do hospital de São José. O conflito entre as duas instituições chegou ao monarca e sem outra alternativa que a do pagamento, o hospital da vila alentejana procedeu ao envio de parcelas de dinheiro

  4. Homossexualidades à deriva nos alojamentos da Universidade Federal de Viçosa-MG: algumas reflexões iniciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Barduni Filho


    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda meu interesse de pesquisa pelos jogos de poderes entre estudantes nos alojamentos da Universidade Federal de Viçosa/MG, a pesquisa, que no caso é um recorte adaptado do meu próprio projeto de doutorado, origina-se da minha experiência como ex morador do alojamento Novíssimo da UFV. O objetivo aqui é apresentar brevemente o histórico de dois alojamentos específicos: Novo (feminino e Novíssimo (masculino e traçar um paralelo com as referências foucaultianas no tocante a vigilância, disciplinamento e controle, portanto, a metodologia aqui é a de cunho referencial bibliográfico, pois, trata-se de um projeto que ainda não iniciou a fase de coleta de dados de pesquisa como entrevistas e observações. Tais conceitos foucaultianos, estão presentes no espaço microsocial dos alojamentos como elementos de expiação e controle entre estudantes, concretizando tramas e caças as subjetividades incomodantes se é que podemos assim dizer, das subjetividades homossexuais.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gastauer


    Full Text Available According to its owners, the Forest of Seu Nico (FSN from the Viçosa municipality, Minas Gerais, Brazil, never has been logged and is therefore considered a primary forest. Nevertheless, the forest patch suffered impacts due to selective wood and non-timber extraction, fragmentation and isolation. Aim of this study was to test if the FSN, despite impacts, preserved characteristics of primary forests, which are elevated percentages of non-pioneer (>90%, animal-dispersed (>80 %, understory (>50% and endemic species (~40%. For that, all trees with diameter at breast height equal or major than 3.2 cm within a plot of 100 x 100 m were identified. With 218 tree species found within this hectare, the FSN's species richness is outstanding for the region. The percentages of non-pioneer (92 %, animal-dispersed (85 %, understory (55 % and endemic species (39.2 % from the FSN fulfill the criteria proposed for primary forest. Therefore, we conclude that the FSN maintained its characteristics as a primary forest which highlights its importance for the conservation of biotic resources in the region, where similar fragments are lacking or not described yet.

  6. Epidemiological survey of the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex in cattle farms in Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane O. Santos


    Full Text Available Despite the importance of human taeniasis/bovine cysticercosis for public and animal health and the economy, its actual epidemiological status in Brazil is not well-studied. We sought to assess the epidemiological profile of this zoonosis in the rural area of Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was 0.42%, whereas no case of human taeniasis was diagnosed. Factors favoring the persistence of zoonosis were identified. These included the supply of untreated water to animals, animals raised for slaughter without sanitary supervision, poor mechanization of raising techniques, and the use of untreated water for human consumption. Bovine meat for human consumption acquired in the city or from the farm itself was characterized as a risk factor for bovine cysticercosis (Odds Ratio (OR =16.77; p<0.05. Nevertheless, the families on the investigated farms did apply several appropriate measures to control this disease, such as the virtual lack of open sewers and the consumption of well-cooked meat. The presence of bovine cysticercosis cases, and the factors favoring its persistence, point to the need for constant epidemiological and sanitary surveillance in this county.

  7. Unraveling the hydrodynamics of split root water uptake experiments using CT scanned root architectures and three dimensional flow simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai eKoebernick


    Full Text Available Split root experiments have the potential to disentangle water transport in roots and soil, enabling the investigation of the water uptake pattern of a root system. Interpretation of the experimental data assumes that water flow between the split soil compartments does not occur. Another approach to investigate root water uptake is by numerical simulations combining soil and root water flow depending on the parameterization and description of the root system. Our aim is to demonstrate the synergisms that emerge from combining split root experiments with simulations. We show how growing root architectures derived from temporally repeated X-ray CT scanning can be implemented in numerical soil-plant models. Faba beans were grown with and without split layers and exposed to a single drought period during which plant and soil water status were measured. Root architectures were reconstructed from CT scans and used in the model R-SWMS (root-soil water movement and solute transport to simulate water potentials in soil and roots in 3D as well as water uptake by growing roots in different depths. CT scans revealed that root development was considerably lower with split layers compared to without. This coincided with a reduction of transpiration, stomatal conductance and shoot growth. Simulated predawn water potentials were lower in the presence of split layers. Simulations showed that this was caused by an increased resistance to vertical water flow in the soil by the split layers. Comparison between measured and simulated soil water potentials proved that the split layers were not perfectly isolating and that redistribution of water from the lower, wetter compartments to the drier upper compartments took place, thus water losses were not equal to the root water uptake from those compartments. Still, the layers increased the resistance to vertical flow which resulted in lower simulated collar water potentials that led to reduced stomatal conductance and

  8. Recent Advances in Bismuth-Based Nanomaterials for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting. (United States)

    Bhat, Swetha S M; Jang, Ho Won


    In recent years, bismuth-based nanomaterials have drawn considerable interest as potential candidates for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting owing to their narrow band gaps, nontoxicity, and low costs. The unique electronic structure of bismuth-based materials with a well-dispersed valence band comprising Bi 6s and O 2p orbitals offers a suitable band gap to harvest visible light. This Review presents significant advancements in exploiting bismuth-based nanomaterials for solar water splitting. An overview of the different strategies employed and the new ideas adopted to improve the PEC performance of bismuth-based nanomaterials are discussed. Morphology control, the construction of heterojunctions, doping, and co-catalyst loading are several approaches that are implemented to improve the efficiency of solar water splitting. Key issues are identified and guidelines are suggested to rationalize the design of efficient bismuth-based materials for sunlight-driven water splitting. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A new location to split Cre recombinase for protein fragment complementation. (United States)

    Rajaee, Maryam; Ow, David W


    We have previously described a recombinase-mediated gene stacking system in which the Cre recombinase is used to remove lox-site flanked DNA no longer needed after each round of Bxb1 integrase-mediated site-specific integration. The Cre recombinase can be conveniently introduced by hybridization with a cre-expressing plant. However, maintaining an efficient cre-expressing line over many generations can be a problem, as high production of this DNA-binding protein might interfere with normal chromosome activities. To counter this selection against high Cre activity, we considered a split-cre approach, in which Cre activity is reconstituted after separate parts of Cre are brought into the same genome by hybridization. To insure that the recombinase-mediated gene stacking system retains its freedom to operate, we tested for new locations to split Cre into complementing fragments. In this study, we describe testing four new locations for splitting the Cre recombinase for protein fragment complementation and show that the two fragments of Cre split between Lys244 and Asn245 can reconstitute activity that is comparable to that of wild-type Cre. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Gold split-ring resonators (SRRs) as substrates for surface-enhanced raman scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng


    We used gold split ring resonators (SRRs) as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The arrays of SRRs were fabricated by electron-beam lithography in combination with plasma etching. In the detection of rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules, SERS enhancement factors of the order of 105 was achieved. This SERS enhancement increased as the size of the split gap decrease as a consequence of the matching between the resonance wavelength of the SRRs and the excitation wavelength of SERS. As the size of the split gap decreased, the localized surface plasmon resonance shifted to near the excitation wavelength and, thus, resulted in the increase in the electric field on the nanostructures. We used finite integration method (FIT) to simulate numerically the electromagnetic properties of the SRRs. The results of the simulation agreed well with our experimental observations. We anticipate this work will provide an approach to manipulate the SERS enhancement by modulating the size of split gap with SRRs without affecting the area and structural arrangement. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Rice microRNA osa-miR1848 targets the obtusifoliol 14α-demethylase gene OsCYP51G3 and mediates the biosynthesis of phytosterols and brassinosteroids during development and in response to stress. (United States)

    Xia, Kuaifei; Ou, Xiaojing; Tang, Huadan; Wang, Ren; Wu, Ping; Jia, Yongxia; Wei, Xiaoyi; Xu, Xinlan; Kang, Seung-Hye; Kim, Seong-Ki; Zhang, Mingyong


    Phytosterols are membrane components or precursors for brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis. As they cannot be transported long distances, their homeostasis is tightly controlled through their biosynthesis and metabolism. However, it is unknown whether microRNAs are involved in their homeostatic regulation. Rice (Oryza sativa) plants transformed with microRNA osa-miR1848 and its target, the obtusifoliol 14α-demethylase gene, OsCYP51G3, were used to investigate the role of osa-miR1848 in the regulation of phytosterol biosynthesis. osa-miR1848 directs OsCYP51G3 mRNA cleavage to regulate phytosterol and BR biosynthesis in rice. The role of OsCYP51G3 as one of the osa-miR1848 targets is supported by the opposite expression patterns of osa-miR1848 and OsCYP51G3 in transgenic rice plants, and by the identification of OsCYP51G3 mRNA cleavage sites. Increased osa-miR1848 and decreased OsCYP51G3 expression reduced phytosterol and BR concentrations, and caused typical phenotypic changes related to phytosterol and BR deficiency, including dwarf plants, erect leaves, semi-sterile pollen grains, and shorter cells. Circadian expression of osa-miR1848 regulated the diurnal abundance of OsCYP51G3 transcript in developing organs, and the response of OsCYP51G3 to salt stress. We propose that osa-miR1848 regulates OsCYP51G3 expression posttranscriptionally, and mediates phytosterol and BR biosynthesis. osa-miR1848 and OsCYP51G3 might have potential applications in rice breeding to modulate leaf angle, and the size and quality of seeds. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Towards Highly Efficient Bias-Free Solar Water Splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdi, F.F.


    Solar water splitting has attracted significant attention due to its potential of converting solar to chemical energy. It uses semiconductor to convert sunlight into electron-hole pairs, which then split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can be used as a renewable fuel, or it can serve as

  13. 77 FR 8127 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events (United States)


    ... Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and... affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the... that if there is a foreign tax credit splitting event with respect to a foreign income tax paid or...

  14. 77 FR 8184 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events (United States)


    ... Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... these proposed regulations. The regulations affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. Special... of the Federal Register.] Sec. 1.909-6 Pre-2011 foreign tax credit splitting events. [The text of...

  15. Clonal differences in log end splitting in Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the juvenile–mature correlation of log end splitting among Eucalyptus grandis clones from two trials and how differences in splitting relate to differences in wood density, pith-to-bark gradient and growth rate. Two approximately 20-year-old Eucalyptus grandis clonal trials at Bergvliet plantation were ...

  16. April / May 2006. 108 Harvesting split thickness skin in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Background: In the third world countries like Ethiopia the majority of Hospitals have difficulties in harvesting split thickness skin ... The grafts were well taken by the recipient areas and technically there was no danger of deep bite. Conclusion: Split ... to meet the hospital needs. Thus we need to improvise and use appropriate.

  17. Pulse splitting in nonlinear media with anisotropic dispersion properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Schmidt, M.R.


    to a singularity in the transverse plane. Instead, the pulse spreads out along the direction of negative dispersion and splits up into small-scale cells, which may undergo further splitting events. The analytical results are supported by direct numerical solutions of the three dimensional cubic Schrodinger...

  18. Split-liver transplantation : An underused resource in liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogiers, Xavier; Sieders, Egbert


    Split-liver transplantation is an efficient tool to increase the number of liver grafts available for transplantation. More than 15 years after its introduction only the classical splitting technique has reached broad application. Consequently children are benefiting most from this possibility.

  19. Plasmonic nanoparticle-semiconductor composites for efficient solar water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, M.; Jonsson, M.P.; Biskos, G.; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Smith, W.A.


    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising technology that uses light absorbing semiconductors to convert solar energy directly into a chemical fuel (i.e., hydrogen). PEC water splitting has the potential to become a key technology in achieving a sustainable society, if high solar

  20. Enhanced residual mean circulation during the evolution of split type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    keywords: split events, stratospheric sudden warming, residual mean circulation. 1 Introduction ... sudden warming. It is characterized by a rapid cooling of the polar cap tempera- ture (Kuroda, 2008). The competition between planetary waves and gravity waves to the residual .... any automated scheme. The split events ...

  1. Recent developments in solar H 2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Assistance of metal nanostructures and quantum dots to semiconductors attains vital importance as they are exuberant visible light harvesters and charge carrier amplifiers. Benevolent use of quantum dots in solar water splitting and photoelectrochemical water splitting provides scope to revolutionize the quantum efficiency ...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2753 - U.S. Virginia Splits. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Virginia Splits. 51.2753 Section 51.2753... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2753 U.S. Virginia Splits. “U.S. Virginia Splits” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar varietal...

  3. Linear expansion of products out of thermal splitting graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishina, E.A.; Kurnevich, G.I.


    Linear expansion of thermally split graphite in the form of foil and pressed items of different density was studied. It is ascertained that the extreme character of temperature dependence of linear expansion factor of pressed samples of thermally split graphite is determined by the formation of closed pores containing air in the course of their production. 3 refs., 2 figs

  4. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairi M. S. Fahelelbom


    Full Text Available Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves. The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.

  5. Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Reaction from Catalytic and Kinetic Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Hisatomi, Takashi


    Abstract: Some particulate semiconductors loaded with nanoparticulate catalysts exhibit photocatalytic activity for the water-splitting reaction. The photocatalysis is distinct from the thermal catalysis because photocatalysis involves photophysical processes in particulate semiconductors. This review article presents a brief introduction to photocatalysis, followed by kinetic aspects of the photocatalytic water-splitting reaction.Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Marchese


    Full Text Available Positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice among obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients. Among surgical options, multilevel approach is a good option in patients with an involvement of all tract of first airway. The aim of the present work is to establish the efficacy of anterior palatoplasty in the treatment of selected patients with mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or simple snoring, within a multilevel surgery. The group was composed of 16 mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome adult patients collected from January 2015 to June 2016 at University of Palermo, Ear, Nose and Throat Department. To make diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, we employed polysomnography, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and an endoscopic study of aerodigestive tract in order to identify the sites of collapse. All patients underwent to inferior turbinate reduction, anterior pharyngoplasty and hyoid suspension. After treatment, 11 patients had Apnea Hypopnea Index ≤5 and 4 patients less than 50% compared to the starting one. According to Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the daytime sleepiness enhanced from 12.6 to 8.6 post-operative average. Pre-operative mean value of Muller’s maneuver was N (nose:2.6, O (oropharinx: 3.4, H (hypopharinx:2.5 Before performing surgical procedure each patient was subjected to sleep endoscopy to evaluate better the pattern of collapse. The post-operative mean outcomes of Mueller’s Maneuver was: N 1.5, O 1.3, H 1.3. Barbed Anterior pharyngoplasty, combined with other surgical procedures, can be considered a valid surgical option to relieve snoring, and mild apnoic events. Our preliminary results, show that the anterior palatoplasty, combined with other surgical procedures, can be considered a valid surgical option to relieve snoring and mild apnoic events.

  7. Epigraphical splitting for solving constrained convex formulations of inverse problems with proximal tools


    Chierchia, Giovanni; Pustelnik, Nelly; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice


    We propose a proximal approach to deal with a class of convex variational problems involving nonlinear constraints. A large family of constraints, proven to be effective in the solution of inverse problems, can be expressed as the lower level set of a sum of convex functions evaluated over different, but possibly overlapping, blocks of the signal. For such constraints, the associated projection operator generally does not have a simple form. We circumvent this difficulty by splitting the lowe...

  8. Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics and Plasticity of the Split Cylinder Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, John Forbes; Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik


    The split cylinder testis subjected to an analysis combining nonlinear fracture mechanics and plasticity. The fictitious crack model is applied for the analysis of splitting tensile fracture, and the Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion is adopted for modelling the compressive crushing/sliding failure. Two...... demonstrates the influence of varying geometry or constitutive properties. For a split cylinder test in load control it is shown how the ultimate load is either plasticity dominated or fracture mechanics dominated. The transition between the two modes is related to changes in geometry or constitutive...... properties. This implies that the linear elastic interpretation of the ultimate splitting force in term of the uniaxial tensile strength of the material is only valid for special situations, e.g. for very large cylinders. Furthermore, the numerical analysis suggests that the split cylinder test is not well...

  9. Optimizing TCP Performance over UMTS with Split TCP Proxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Dittmann, Lars


    . To cope with large delay bandwidth product, we propose a novel concept of split TCP proxy which is placed at GGSN between UNITS network and Internet. The split proxy divides the bandwidth delay product into two parts, resulting in two TCP connections with smaller bandwidth delay products which can...... be pipelined and thus operating at higher speeds. Simulation results show, the split TCP proxy can significantly improve the TCP performance in terms of RLC throughput under high bit rate DCH channel scenario (e.g.256 kbps). On the other hand, it only brings small performance improvement under low bit rate DCH...... scenario (e.g.64 kbps). Besides, the split TCP proxy brings more performance gain for downloading large files than downloading small ones. To the end, for the configuration of the split proxy, an aggressive initial TCP congestion window size (e.g. 10 MSS) at proxy is particularly useful for radio links...

  10. Primeiro registro do gênero Toxorhynchites Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae em Mata Atlântica, Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simões Albeny


    Full Text Available Durante os meses de março e abril de 2007 foi verificada a presença do gênero Toxorhynchites (Diptera, Culicidae em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. No experimento foram utilizadas 500 armadilhas de oviposição. Registrando-se, pela primeira vez na região de Viçosa o gênero Toxorhynchites, sendo as espécies T. pusillus (Costa Lima, 193 1 e T. theobaldi (Dyar & Knab, 1906 encontradas pela primeira vez no Estado de Minas Gerais. As espécies relatadas como primeiro registro e sua distribuição são citadas e discutidas.

  11. Perfil socioeconômico, nutricional e de antioxidantes de jovens fumantes, do município de Viçosa-MG


    Batista, Ellencristina da Silva


    Com o objetivo de comparar o perfil socieconômico, nutricional e de antioxidantes de indivíduos jovens fumantes e não fumantes de Viçosa-MG, conduziu-se um estudo transversal controlado. Foram selecionados indivíduos fumantes e não fumantes de instituições de ensino da cidade de Viçosa-MG. Considerou-se como fumante o indivíduo que fumava pelo menos um cigarro diariamente, por pelo menos 30 dias antes do inicio do estudo, e não fumante o que nunca fumou e/ou não fumava esporadicamente. Os fum...

  12. Regeneração natural em um fragmento de floresta estacional semidecidual em Viçosa, Minas Gerais Natural regeneration in a fragment of a seasonal semideciduous forest in Viçosa - Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Marangon


    Full Text Available O levantamento da regeneração natural das espécies arbóreas em diferentes toposseqüências foi realizado em uma área de aproximadamente 40 ha, localizada no Município de Viçosa, MG, que se encontra nas coordenadas 20º 45' S e 42º 55' W e está preservada desde 1965. A altitude, na área de estudo, apresenta uma cota mínima de 730 m e uma máxima de 870 m, sendo o solo predominante o Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo álico, com vegetação de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Na amostragem de 1,0 ha foram locadas 40 subparcelas de 25 m² (5 x 5 m, em 40 parcelas de 10 x 25 m, utilizadas anteriormente em um levantamento fitossociológico das espécies adultas. Essas subparcelas estão distribuídas nas toposseqüências que apresentam áreas diferenciadas e o número de subparcelas foi proporcional à área. Plano (5,07 ha -5 subparcelas, encosta (13,2 ha - 15 subparcelas, ravina (17,28 ha - 17 subparcelas e topo (2,43 ha - 3 subparcelas. Os indivíduos amostrados foram incluídos em três classes: a classe 1 contemplou indivíduos com altura (H 1,0 3,0 m. O nível de inclusão foi de CAP Natural regeneration of tree species at different toposequences was assessed in an area of 40 ha in Viçosa-MG.( 20º 45'S and 42º 55' W, preserved since 1965, with minimum altitude of 730 m and maximum of 870 m. The soil was classified as Red-yellow alico Latisol and the vegetation was characterized as semideciduous forest.The 1.0 samplings consisted of 40 sub-units (samples with 5 x 5 m. These sub-units were inserted in the middle samples (10 x 25 m.previously evaluated the phyto-sociology of the tree community distributed in the toposequence's different: plan (5.07 ha - 5 sub-units, lean (13.2 ha - 15 sub-units, ravine (17.28 ha - 17 sub-units and top (2.43 ha - 3 sub-units. Was developed with heights divided in three categories (1 - individuals with minimum height 1 3 m. The inclusion level was of CAP < 15,0 cm. 957 individuals were observed, belonging

  13. Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerenquima Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerénquima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Elena


    Full Text Available An anatomy study was made of following wood easy-to-root species: Aucuba japonica Thunb., Buddleja  japonica Hemsley,  Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium.  L., Citrus limon (L. Burm. fil.,  Cvdonia oblonga Miller,  Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L., Populus nigra L.,  Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix  viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. and Symphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake.  It was observed the presence or absence of a discontinous sclerenchyma ring so the species studied had not a mechanical barrier to the emergence of adventitious roots. Se realizó un estudio histológico de las siguientes especies leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Aucuba japonica Thumb, Buddleja japonica Hemsley, Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon (L. Burm, fil., Cydonia oblonga Miller, Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L. Populus nigra L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. y Syrnphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake. Se observó la presencia o ausencia de un anillo discontinuo de esclerénquima, por lo tanto dichas especies no poseen ningún impedimento mecánico para la emergencia de las raíces adventicias.

  14. Perfil cualitativo de metabolitos secundarios en la fracción comestible de especies leñosas seleccionadas por vacunos en un bosque semicaducifolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á Ojeda

    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar cualitativamente el perfil de metabolitos secundarios de la fracción comestible de plantas leñosas seleccionadas por vacunos en silvopastoreo, las cuales se encuentran en un bosque tropófilo semicaducifolio de Venezuela, se utilizaron 14 vacunos machos Brahman x Holstein de 390,4 ± 18,0 kg de PV. Estos fueron manejados en pastoreo continuo en una superficie de 81 ha, de las cuales 50 ha correspondían a un bosque semicaducifolio y el resto, a vegetación herbácea natural (Cynodon nlemfuensis, Sporobolus indicus, Axonopus sp., Mimosa pudica e Hyptis suaveolens. La composición de la biomasa leñosa seleccionada por los animales se estudió mediante la evaluación de los fragmentos epidérmicos presentes en las heces colectadas por vía transrectal, cada 15 días. A partir de estos resultados, se tomaron muestras de cinco plantas por especie leñosa, en los periodos seco y lluvioso. Se determinaron 15 grupos de metabolitos: alcaloides, á-aminos, carbohidratos solubles, cardenólidos, cianógenos, esteroles, fenoles totales, flavonoides, lectinas, mucílagos, quinonas, saponinas, taninos extractables (totales y condensados y terpenoides. La mayoría de la biomasa correspondió a especies de la familia Fabaceae, las cuales presentaron todos los metabolitos evaluados. En ambos periodos se detectaron niveles de esteroles, terpenoides, fenoles totales y taninos extractables que variaron desde leves hasta cuantiosos. Con independencia del periodo, el 66,7 % de las especies presentó entre 10-11 metabolitos secundarios en su biomasa comestible. Se recomienda realizar estudios para la cuantificación de los metabolitos secundarios presentes en plantas leñosas de valor forrajero, para este sistema silvopastoril

  15. Control of OSA during automatic positive airway pressure titration in a clinical case series: predictors and accuracy of device download data. (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Hillman, David R; McArdle, Nigel


    To investigate the factors associated with physiologic control of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) titration in a clinical series. To also assess the usefulness of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) data downloaded from the APAP device (Dev AHI). Retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with OSA who underwent APAP titration (Autoset Spirit, ResMed, Bella Vista, New South Wales, Australia ) with simultaneous polysomnographic (PSG) monitoring in the sleep laboratory. Tertiary sleep clinic. There were 190 consecutive patients with OSA referred for APAP titration. There were 58% of patients who achieved optimal or good control of OSA (titration PSG AHI titration. The independent predictors of titration PSG AHI were a history of cardiac disease and elevated central apnea and arousal indices during the diagnostic study. Although the median and interquartile range (IQR) AHI from the device (7.0, 3.9-11.6 events/hr) was only slightly less than the PSG AHI (7.8, 3.9-14.4 events/hr, P = 0.04) during titration, case-by-case agreement between the two measures was poor (chi-square titration is often poor, and close clinical follow-up is particularly needed in patients with a history of cardiac disease or with high arousal or central apnea indices on the diagnostic study. Device AHI does not reliably assess control during APAP titration, and PSG assessment may be required if clinical response to treatment is poor. The findings relate to the ResMed AutoSet device and may not apply to other devices.

  16. A Split-Path Schema-Based RFID Data Storage Model in Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang


    Full Text Available In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products . Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance.

  17. Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu


    The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.

  18. Split-Field Magnet facility upgraded

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The Split Field Magnet (SFM) was the largest spectrometer for particles from beam-beam collisions in the ISR. It could determine particle momenta in a large solid angle, but was designed mainly for the analysis of forward travelling particles.As the magnet was working on the ISR circulating beams, its magnetic field had to be such as to restore the correct proton orbit.The SFM, therefore, produced zero field at the crossing point and fields of opposite signs upstream and downstream of it and was completed by 2 large and 2 small compensator magnets. The gradient effects were corrected by magnetic channels equipped with movable flaps. The useful magnetic field volume was 28 m3, the induction in the median plane 1.14 T, the gap heigth 1.1 m, the length 10.5 m, the weight about 1000 ton. Concerning the detectors, the SFM was the first massive application of multiwire proportional chambers (about 70000 wires) which filled the main and the large compensator magnets. In 1976 an improved programme was started with tw...

  19. Auxiliary gauge mediation: a new route to mini-split supersymmetry (United States)

    Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew; Thaler, Jesse


    The discovery of a standard-model-like Higgs at 126 GeV and the absence of squark signals thus far at the LHC both point towards a mini-split spectrum for supersymmetry. Within standard paradigms, it is non-trivial to realize a mini-split spectrum with heavier sfermions but lighter gauginos while simultaneously generating Higgs sector soft terms of the correct magnitude, suggesting the need for new models of supersymmetry breaking and mediation. In this paper, we present a new approach to mini-split model building based on gauge mediation by "auxiliary groups", which are the anomaly-free continuous symmetries of the standard model in the limit of vanishing Yukawa couplings. In addition to the well-known flavor SU(3) F and baryon-minus-lepton U(1) B-L groups, we find that an additional U(1) H acting on the Higgs doublets alone can be used to generate Higgs soft masses and B-terms necessary for a complete model of mini-split. Auxiliary gauge mediation is a special case of Higgsed gauge mediation, and we review the resulting two-loop scalar soft terms as well as three-loop gaugino masses. Along the way, we present a complete two-loop calculation of A-terms and B-terms in gauge mediation, which — contrary to a common misconception — includes a non-zero contribution at the messenger threshold which can be sizable in models with light gauginos. We present several phenomenologically acceptable mini-split spectra arising from auxiliary gauge mediation and highlight a complete minimal model which realizes the required spectrum and Higgs sector soft terms with a single U(1) X auxiliary gauge symmetry. We discuss possible experimental consequences.

  20. Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Oviedo


    Full Text Available Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006. Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP. Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA, where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (Las ballenas jorobadas viajan a aguas tropicales para reproducirse y criar a sus ballenatos. Es importante entender las características oceanográficas que influencian su distribución para lograr una planificación efectiva de áreas marinas protegidas con hábitats críticos para estos cetáceos. Este estudio examina la relación entre la profundidad, la pendiente del suelo oceánico y la distribución de estas ballenas, usando avistamientos del 2005 y 2006 en la costa Pacífica de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica (temporada de reproducción del sur y norte en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental. Usamos Análisis de Factores de Nicho Ecológico (ENFA por sus siglas en inglés, donde los índices de Marginalidad y Tolerancia ilustran las restricciones en uso de hábitat. En una escala local

  1. Role of spousal involvement in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP adherence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool-Anwar S


    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the impact of spousal involvement on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP adherence. The aim of this study was to determine whether spouse involvement affects adherence with CPAP therapy, and how this association varies with gender. Methods: 194 subjects recruited from Apnea Positive Pressure Long Term Efficacy Study (APPLES completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS. The majority of participants were Caucasian (83%, and males (73%, with mean age of 56 years, mean BMI of 31 kg/m2. & 62% had severe OSA. The DAS is a validated 32-item self-report instrument measuring dyadic consensus, satisfaction, cohesion, and affectional expression. A high score in the DAS is indicative of a person’s adjustment to the marriage. Additionally, questions related to spouse involvement with general health and CPAP use were asked. CPAP use was downloaded from the device and self-report, and compliance was defined as usage > 4 h per night. Results: There were no significant differences in overall marital quality between the compliant and noncompliant subjects. However, level of spousal involvement was associated with increased CPAP adherence at 6 months (p=0.01. After stratifying for gender these results were significant only among males (p=0.03. Three years after completing APPLES, level of spousal involvement was not associated with CPAP compliance even after gender stratification. Conclusion: Spousal involvement is important in determining CPAP compliance in males in the 1st 6 months after initiation of therapy but is not predictive of longer-term adherence. Involvement of the spouse should be considered an integral part of CPAP initiation procedures.

  2. Mapping Tropical Forest Mosaics with C- and L-band SAR: First Results from Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica (United States)

    Pinto, N.; Hensley, S.; Aguilar-Amuchastegui, N.; Broadbent, E. N.; Ahmed, R.


    In tropical countries, economic incentives and improved infrastructure are creating forest mosaics where small-scale farming and industrial plantations are embedded within and potentially replacing native ecosystems. Practices such as agroforestry, slash-and-burn cultivation, and oil palm monocultures bring widely different impacts on carbon stocks. Characterizing these production systems is not only critical to ascribe deforestation to particular drivers, but also essential to understand the impact of macroeconomic scenarios, national policies, and land tenure schemes on carbon fluxes. The last decade has experienced a dramatic improvement in the extent and consistency of tree cover and gross deforestation products from optical imagery. At the same time, recent work shows that Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can complement optical data and reveal structural types that cannot be easily resolved with reflectance measurements alone. While these results demonstrate the validity of sensor fusion methodologies, they typically rely on local classifications or even manual delineation and as such they cannot support large-scale investigations. Furthermore, there have been few attempts to exploit PolInSAR or multiple wavelengths that can provide critical information to resolve natural and anthropogenic land cover types. We report results from our research at Costa Rica's Osa Peninsula. This site is ideal for algorithm development as it includes a highly diverse tropical forest within Corcovado National Park, as well as agroforestry zones, mangroves, and palm plantations. We first integrate SAR backscatter and coherence data from NASA's L-band UAVSAR, JAXA's ALOS/PALSAR, and ESA's Sentinel to produce a map of structural types. Second, we assess whether coherence measurements and PolInSAR retrievals can be used to resolve forest stand differences at 30m resolution and disitinguish between primary and secondary forest sites.

  3. Photoswitchable Rabi Splitting in Hybrid Plasmon-Waveguide Modes. (United States)

    Lin, Linhan; Wang, Mingsong; Wei, Xiaoling; Peng, Xiaolei; Xie, Chong; Zheng, Yuebing


    Rabi splitting that arises from strong plasmon-molecule coupling has attracted tremendous interests. However, it has remained elusive to integrate Rabi splitting into the hybrid plasmon-waveguide modes (HPWMs), which have advantages of both subwavelength light confinement of surface plasmons and long-range propagation of guided modes in dielectric waveguides. Herein, we explore a new type of HPWMs based on hybrid systems of Al nanodisk arrays covered by PMMA thin films that are doped with photochromic molecules and demonstrate the photoswitchable Rabi splitting with a maximum splitting energy of 572 meV in the HPWMs by controlling the photoisomerization of the molecules. Through our experimental measurements combined with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, we reveal that the photoswitchable Rabi splitting arises from the switchable coupling between the HPWMs and molecular excitons. By harnessing the photoswitchable Rabi splitting, we develop all-optical light modulators and rewritable waveguides. The demonstration of Rabi splitting in the HPWMs will further advance scientific research and device applications of hybrid plasmon-molecule systems.

  4. Wideband metasurface filter based on complementary split-ring resonators (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Jiameng; Xu, Jianchun; Wang, Qingmin; Zhao, Ruochen; Liu, Hao; Dong, Guoyan; Hao, Yanan; Bi, Ke


    A wideband metasurface filter based on complementary split-ring resonators (CSRR) has been prepared. The frequency and transmission bandwidth of the metasurface filters with different split widths are discussed. After analyzing the mechanism of the metasurface, the proposed metasurface filters are fabricated. The electromagnetic properties of the metasurface are measured by a designed test system. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated ones, which shows that the metasurface filter has a wideband property. As the split width of the CSRR increases, the frequency of the passband shifts to higher frequency regions and the transmission bandwidth decreases.

  5. A splitting algorithm for directional regularization and sparsification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau; Nielsen, Mads


    We present a new split-type algorithm for the minimization of a p-harmonic energy with added data fidelity term. The half-quadratic splitting reduces the original problem to two straightforward problems, that can be minimized efficiently. The minimizers to the two sub-problems can typically...... be computed pointwise and are easily implemented on massively parallel processors. Furthermore the splitting method allows for the computation of solutions to a large number of more advanced directional regularization problems. In particular we are able to handle robust, non-convex data terms, and to define...

  6. Split kinetic energy method for quantum systems with competing potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineo, H.; Chao, Sheng D.


    For quantum systems with competing potentials, the conventional perturbation theory often yields an asymptotic series and the subsequent numerical outcome becomes uncertain. To tackle such a kind of problems, we develop a general solution scheme based on a new energy dissection idea. Instead of dividing the potential energy into “unperturbed” and “perturbed” terms, a partition of the kinetic energy is performed. By distributing the kinetic energy term in part into each individual potential, the Hamiltonian can be expressed as the sum of the subsystem Hamiltonians with respective competing potentials. The total wavefunction is expanded by using a linear combination of the basis sets of respective subsystem Hamiltonians. We first illustrate the solution procedure using a simple system consisting of a particle under the action of double δ-function potentials. Next, this method is applied to the prototype systems of a charged harmonic oscillator in strong magnetic field and the hydrogen molecule ion. Compared with the usual perturbation approach, this new scheme converges much faster to the exact solutions for both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. When properly extended, this new solution scheme can be very useful for dealing with strongly coupling quantum systems. - Highlights: ► A new basis set expansion method is proposed. ► Split kinetic energy method is proposed to solve quantum eigenvalue problems. ► Significant improvement has been obtained in converging to exact results. ► Extension of such methods is promising and discussed.

  7. Multilevel hybrid split-step implicit tau-leap

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Hammouda, Chiheb


    In biochemically reactive systems with small copy numbers of one or more reactant molecules, the dynamics is dominated by stochastic effects. To approximate those systems, discrete state-space and stochastic simulation approaches have been shown to be more relevant than continuous state-space and deterministic ones. In systems characterized by having simultaneously fast and slow timescales, existing discrete space-state stochastic path simulation methods, such as the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and the explicit tau-leap (explicit-TL) method, can be very slow. Implicit approximations have been developed to improve numerical stability and provide efficient simulation algorithms for those systems. Here, we propose an efficient Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method in the spirit of the work by Anderson and Higham (SIAM Multiscal Model. Simul. 10(1), 2012). This method uses split-step implicit tau-leap (SSI-TL) at levels where the explicit-TL method is not applicable due to numerical stability issues. We present numerical examples that illustrate the performance of the proposed method. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  8. Hybrid flux splitting schemes for numerical resolution of two-phase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaatten, Tore


    This thesis deals with the construction of numerical schemes for approximating. solutions to a hyperbolic two-phase flow model. Numerical schemes for hyperbolic models are commonly divided in two main classes: Flux Vector Splitting (FVS) schemes which are based on scalar computations and Flux Difference Splitting (FDS) schemes which are based on matrix computations. FVS schemes are more efficient than FDS schemes, but FDS schemes are more accurate. The canonical FDS schemes are the approximate Riemann solvers which are based on a local decomposition of the system into its full wave structure. In this thesis the mathematical structure of the model is exploited to construct a class of hybrid FVS/FDS schemes, denoted as Mixture Flux (MF) schemes. This approach is based on a splitting of the system in two components associated with the pressure and volume fraction variables respectively, and builds upon hybrid FVS/FDS schemes previously developed for one-phase flow models. Through analysis and numerical experiments it is demonstrated that the MF approach provides several desirable features, including (1) Improved efficiency compared to standard approximate Riemann solvers, (2) Robustness under stiff conditions, (3) Accuracy on linear and nonlinear phenomena. In particular it is demonstrated that the framework allows for an efficient weakly implicit implementation, focusing on an accurate resolution of slow transients relevant for the petroleum industry. (author)

  9. Effect of pump-1 laser on Autler-Townes splitting in photoelectron spectrum of K2 molecule (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Lu, Xing-Qiang; Wang, Xin-Lin; Yao, Hong-Bin


    We theoretically investigate the Autler-Townes (AT) splitting in the photoelectron spectrum of four-level ladder K2 molecule driven by a pump 1-pump 2-probe pulse via employing the time-dependent wave packet approach. The effects of the pump-1 laser intensity and wavelength on AT splitting are studied for the first time. The magnitude of AT splitting increases with increasing the pump-1 laser intensity. The triple splitting with asymmetric profile occurs due to the nonresonant excitation. The triple structure is transformed into a double structure (near-resonant region), and then becomes a peak (far-off resonant region) progressively as the pump-1 laser is detuned from the resonance wavelength, which can be explained in terms of the asymmetric excitation/population of dressed states. The splitting between adjacent peaks and the splitting between the two sideband peaks in the triplet do not change with the pump-1 pulse wavelength. The three peaks shift toward lower energy with the same shift 1/4*Δ1 as the pump-1 wavelength changes in near-resonant region. The asymptotic behaviors of AT splitting with the pump-1 laser intensity are interesting in the threshold points of the near-resonant region and the far-off resonant region. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41104094 and 11174119), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20114324120002), the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hunan Province, China (Grant No. 12C0370), and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars.

  10. Faddeev calculations of pμ+p collisions: Effect of hyperfine splitting on the cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chi-Yu; Kvitsinsky, A.


    The Faddeev equations, modified to remove long-range coupling between different channels, are solved in the total-angular-momentum representation for pμ + p collisions. S-wave elastic and hyperfine-transition cross sections are calculated with and without explicit inclusion of the hyperfine splitting ΔE. For hyperfine quenching the simpler approach without hyperfine splitting is found adequate at collision energies above about ΔE, but for elastic scattering it becomes adequate at somewhat higher energies. The present cross sections tend to fall in between earlier calculations done using a large Standard adiabatic expansion and those done using a two-state improved adiabatic expansion, but are closer to the former

  11. A Multiscale Time-Splitting Discrete Fracture Model of Nanoparticles Transport in Fractured Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed F.


    Recently, applications of nanoparticles have been considered in many branches of petroleum engineering, especially, enhanced oil recovery. The current paper is devoted to investigate the problem of nanoparticles transport in fractured porous media, numerically. We employed the discrete-fracture model (DFM) to represent the flow and transport in the fractured formations. The system of the governing equations consists of the mass conservation law, Darcy\\'s law, nanoparticles concentration in water, deposited nanoparticles concentration on the pore-wall, and entrapped nanoparticles concentration in the pore-throat. The variation of porosity and permeability due to the nanoparticles deposition/entrapment on/in the pores is also considered. We employ the multiscale time-splitting strategy to control different time-step sizes for different physics, such as pressure and concentration. The cell-centered finite difference (CCFD) method is used for the spatial discretization. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed multiscale time splitting approach.

  12. Split Node and Stress Glut Methods for Dynamic Rupture Simulations in Finite Elements. (United States)

    Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Bielak, J.


    I present two numerical techniques to solve the Dynamic problem. I revisit and modify the Split Node approach and introduce a Stress Glut type Method. Both algorithms are implemented using a iso/sub- parametric FEM solver. In the first case, I discuss the formulation and perform an analysis of convergence for different orders of approximation for the acoustic case. I describe the algorithm of the second methodology as well as the assumptions made. The key to the new technique is to have an accurate representation of the traction. Thus, I devote part of the discussion to analyze the tractions for a simple example. The sensitivity of the method is tested by comparing against Split Node solutions.

  13. Vacuum Rabi Splitting and Dynamics of the Jaynes—Cummings Model for Arbitrary Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu-Yu; Chen Qing-Hu; Zhu Shi-Yao


    The effects of counter-rotating terms (CRTs) on Rabi splitting and the dynamic evolution of atomic population in the Jaynes—Cummings model are studied with a coherent-state approach. When the coupling strength increases, the Rabi splitting becomes of multi-Rabi frequencies for the initial state of an excited atom in a vacuum field, and the collapses and revivals gradually disappear, and then reappear with quite good periodicity. Without the rotating-wave approximation (RWA), the initial excited state contains many eigenstates rather than two eigenstates under the RWA, which results in the multi-peak emission spectrum. An analytical approximate solution for the strong coupling regime is obtained, which gives a new oscillation frequency and explains the recovery of collapses and revivals due to the equal energy spacing

  14. Materials-Related Aspects of Thermochemical Water and Carbon Dioxide Splitting: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pitz-Paal


    Full Text Available Thermochemical multistep water- and CO2-splitting processes are promising options to face future energy problems. Particularly, the possible incorporation of solar power makes these processes sustainable and environmentally attractive since only water, CO2 and solar power are used; the concentrated solar energy is converted into storable and transportable fuels. One of the major barriers to technological success is the identification of suitable active materials like catalysts and redox materials exhibiting satisfactory durability, reactivity and efficiencies. Moreover, materials play an important role in the construction of key components and for the implementation in commercial solar plants. The most promising thermochemical water- and CO2-splitting processes are being described and discussed with respect to further development and future potential. The main materials-related challenges of those processes are being analyzed. Technical approaches and development progress in terms of solving them are addressed and assessed in this review.

  15. Forward two-photon exchange in elastic lepton-proton scattering and hyperfine-splitting correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)


    We relate the forward two-photon exchange (TPE) amplitudes to integrals of the inclusive lepton-proton scattering cross sections. These relations yield an alternative way for the evaluation of the TPE correction to hyperfine-splitting (HFS) in the hydrogen-like atoms with an equivalent to the standard approach (Iddings, Drell and Sullivan) result implying the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule. For evaluation of the individual effects (e.g., elastic contribution) our approach yields a distinct result. We compare both methods numerically on examples of the elastic contribution and the full TPE correction to HFS in electronic and muonic hydrogen. (orig.)

  16. Investigation of an upwind finite element flux-split algorithm for the steady compressible Euler equations (United States)

    Lamarche, L.; Degrez, G.; Prince, A.

    A method is described that combines the geometric flexibility of finite element methodology with recent developments of high-resolution finite difference schemes for hyperbolic systems of equations. It is proposed to use the standard weighted residual approach to set up the discrete equations. Upwinding is then achieved via a modified quadrature rule. The Gaussian point is chosen to match the finite difference discretization on a model scalar equation. The extension to systems of equations is then obtained following the flux-splitting approach suggested by Steger and Warming (1981) and Van Leer (1982).

  17. Shear wave splitting in the Isparta Angle, southwestern Turkey ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    broadband station in the Isparta Angle,southwestern Turkey.We selected 21 good quality seismic events out of nearly 357 earthquakes and calculated splitting parameters (polarization direction of fast wave, and delay time between fast and ...

  18. Field Monitoring Protocol. Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomerlin, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)


    This Building America program report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential mini-split heat pump, which will be used in high-performance retrofit applications.

  19. Electrochemical Water-Splitting Based on Hypochlorite Oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minhová Macounová, Kateřina; Simic, N.; Ahlberg, E.; Krtil, Petr


    Roč. 137, č. 23 (2015), s. 7262-7265 ISSN 0002-7863 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * hypochlorite oxidation * water-splitting Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 13.038, year: 2015

  20. Possibilities of Intermodal Passenger Transport between Split Airport and Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Roguljić


    Full Text Available A substantial number of passengers landing at Split Airportduring the tourist season continue their journey to the destinationson the central Dalmatian islands. Today the transfer isdone mainly through the ferry port in Split. The insufficient capacitiesof roads from the airport to the city centre which accommodatesthe ferry port and waiting for the embarkation onthe ferries and the transport itself to the islands and the finaldestinations take much longer than the air transport itself toSplit. The paper studies the possible improvements of the existingcondition as well as the construction completion and openingto traffic of the passenger sea port next to Split Airport whichwould provide a much better solution of passenger transfer tothe islands.

  1. Effect of Repeated Food Morsel Splitting on Jaw Muscle Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Kumar; Svensson, Krister G; Baad-Hansen, Lene


    Mastication is a complex motor task often initiated by splitting of the food morsel between the anterior teeth. Training of complex motor tasks has consistently been shown to trigger neuroplastic changes in corticomotor control and optimization of muscle function. It is not known if training...... and repeated food morsel splitting lead to changes in jaw muscle function. Objective: To investigate if repeated splitting of food morsels in participants with natural dentition changes the force and jaw muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age = 26.2 ± 3.9 years......) participated in a single one-hour session divided into six series. Each series consisted of ten trials of a standardized behavioral task (total of 60 trials). The behavioral task was to hold and split a food morsel (8 mm, 180 mg placebo tablet) placed on a bite force transducer with the anterior teeth...

  2. Acoustic Split-Beam Echosounder Data (EK60) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories collects data using Simrad EK60 scientific split-beam acoustic echosounders during resource...

  3. The homogeneous property and flux splitting in gas dynamics (United States)

    Lerat, A.

    The homogeneous property of fluxes in gas dynamics is investigated, and its consequences concerning the flux splitting introduced by Steger and Warming (1981) are examined. It is shown that, for any hyperbolic system w sub t + f(w) sub x = 0 which satisfies the homogeneous property, the flux f(w) can be expressed in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix A(w) = df(w)/dw. This same result is also found to hold for the split fluxes f(+)(w) and f(-)(w). The problem of the validity of flux splitting is studied using these results. Three applications of flux splitting are then considered. The first application concerns uncentered schemes and particularly a precise analysis of their stability, the second is connected with a method for correcting the dispersive error of second-order accurate schemes, and the third deals with a nonreflective boundary condition.

  4. Recent Progress in Energy-Driven Water Splitting. (United States)

    Tee, Si Yin; Win, Khin Yin; Teo, Wee Siang; Koh, Leng-Duei; Liu, Shuhua; Teng, Choon Peng; Han, Ming-Yong


    Hydrogen is readily obtained from renewable and non-renewable resources via water splitting by using thermal, electrical, photonic and biochemical energy. The major hydrogen production is generated from thermal energy through steam reforming/gasification of fossil fuel. As the commonly used non-renewable resources will be depleted in the long run, there is great demand to utilize renewable energy resources for hydrogen production. Most of the renewable resources may be used to produce electricity for driving water splitting while challenges remain to improve cost-effectiveness. As the most abundant energy resource, the direct conversion of solar energy to hydrogen is considered the most sustainable energy production method without causing pollutions to the environment. In overall, this review briefly summarizes thermolytic, electrolytic, photolytic and biolytic water splitting. It highlights photonic and electrical driven water splitting together with photovoltaic-integrated solar-driven water electrolysis.

  5. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.


    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  6. Bearing splitting and near-surface source ranging in the direct zone of deep water (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Nan; Zhou, Shi-Hong; Peng, Zhao-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ren-He


    Sound multipath propagation is very important for target localization and identification in different acoustical zones of deep water. In order to distinguish the multipath characteristics in deep water, the Northwest Pacific Acoustic Experiment was conducted in 2015. A low-frequency horizontal line array towed at the depth of around 150 m on a receiving ship was used to receive the noise radiated by the source ship. During this experiment, a bearing-splitting phenomenon in the direct zone was observed through conventional beamforming of the horizontal line array within the frequency band 160 Hz-360 Hz. In this paper, this phenomenon is explained based on ray theory. In principle, the received signal in the direct zone of deep water arrives from two general paths including a direct one and bottom bounced one, which vary considerably in arrival angles. The split bearings correspond to the contributions of these two paths. The bearing-splitting phenomenon is demonstrated by numerical simulations of the bearing-time records and experimental results, and they are well consistent with each other. Then a near-surface source ranging approach based on the arrival angles of direct path and bottom bounced path in the direct zone is presented as an application of bearing splitting and is verified by experimental results. Finally, the applicability of the proposed ranging approach for an underwater source within several hundred meters in depth in the direct zone is also analyzed and demonstrated by simulations. Project supported by the Program of One Hundred Talented People of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434012 and 41561144006).

  7. Plasma-Assisted Synthesis of NiCoP for Efficient Overall Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng


    Efficient water splitting requires highly active, earth-abundant, and robust catalysts. Monometallic phosphides such as NiP have been shown to be active toward water splitting. Our theoretical analysis has suggested that their performance can be further enhanced by substitution with extrinsic metals, though very little work has been conducted in this area. Here we present for the first time a novel PH plasma-assisted approach to convert NiCo hydroxides into ternary NiCoP. The obtained NiCoP nanostructure supported on Ni foam shows superior catalytic activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with a low overpotential of 32 mV at 10 mA cm in alkaline media. Moreover, it is also capable of catalyzing the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) with high efficiency though the real active sites are surface oxides in situ formed during the catalysis. Specifically, a current density of 10 mA cm is achieved at overpotential of 280 mV. These overpotentials are among the best reported values for non-noble metal catalysts. Most importantly, when used as both the cathode and anode for overall water splitting, a current density of 10 mA cm is achieved at a cell voltage as low as 1.58 V, making NiCoP among the most efficient earth-abundant catalysts for water splitting. Moreover, our new synthetic approach can serve as a versatile route to synthesize various bimetallic or even more complex phosphides for various applications.

  8. Plasma-Assisted Synthesis of NiCoP for Efficient Overall Water Splitting. (United States)

    Liang, Hanfeng; Gandi, Appala N; Anjum, Dalaver H; Wang, Xianbin; Schwingenschlögl, Udo; Alshareef, Husam N


    Efficient water splitting requires highly active, earth-abundant, and robust catalysts. Monometallic phosphides such as Ni 2 P have been shown to be active toward water splitting. Our theoretical analysis has suggested that their performance can be further enhanced by substitution with extrinsic metals, though very little work has been conducted in this area. Here we present for the first time a novel PH 3 plasma-assisted approach to convert NiCo hydroxides into ternary NiCoP. The obtained NiCoP nanostructure supported on Ni foam shows superior catalytic activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with a low overpotential of 32 mV at -10 mA cm -2 in alkaline media. Moreover, it is also capable of catalyzing the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) with high efficiency though the real active sites are surface oxides in situ formed during the catalysis. Specifically, a current density of 10 mA cm -2 is achieved at overpotential of 280 mV. These overpotentials are among the best reported values for non-noble metal catalysts. Most importantly, when used as both the cathode and anode for overall water splitting, a current density of 10 mA cm -2 is achieved at a cell voltage as low as 1.58 V, making NiCoP among the most efficient earth-abundant catalysts for water splitting. Moreover, our new synthetic approach can serve as a versatile route to synthesize various bimetallic or even more complex phosphides for various applications.

  9. Endoscopic classification of representations of quasi-split unitary groups

    CERN Document Server

    Mok, Chung Pang


    In this paper the author establishes the endoscopic classification of tempered representations of quasi-split unitary groups over local fields, and the endoscopic classification of the discrete automorphic spectrum of quasi-split unitary groups over global number fields. The method is analogous to the work of Arthur on orthogonal and symplectic groups, based on the theory of endoscopy and the comparison of trace formulas on unitary groups and general linear groups.

  10. Spectral splitting for thermal management in photovoltaic cells (United States)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Chiou, Yu-Cheng; Chiesa, Matteo; Almansouri, Ibraheem


    Spectral splitting is widely employed as a way to divide light between different solar cells or processes to optimize energy conversion. Well-understood but less explored is the use of spectrum splitting or filtering to combat solar cell heating. This has impacts both on cell performance and on the surrounding environment. In this manuscript we explore the design of spectral filtering systems that can improve the thermal and power-conversion performance of commercial PV modules.

  11. Split Octonion electrodynamics and unified fields of dyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, P.S.


    Split octonion electrodynamics has been developed in terms of Zorn's vector matrix realization by reformulating electromagnetic potential, current, field tensor and other dynamical quantities. Corresponding field equation (Unified Maxwell's equations) and equation of motion have been reformulated by means of split octonion and its Zorn vector realization in unique, simpler and consistent manner. It has been shown that this theory reproduces the dyon field equations in the absence of gravito-dyons and vice versa

  12. Visualization of the sequence of a couple splitting outside shop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Visualization of tracks of couple walking together before splitting and one goes into shop the other waits outside. The visualization represents the sequence described in figure 7 in the publication 'Taking the temperature of pedestrian movement in public spaces'......Visualization of tracks of couple walking together before splitting and one goes into shop the other waits outside. The visualization represents the sequence described in figure 7 in the publication 'Taking the temperature of pedestrian movement in public spaces'...

  13. A Modified Halpern's Iterative Scheme for Solving Split Feasibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitsupa Deepho


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study a modified Halpern’s iterative scheme for solving the split feasibility problem (SFP in the setting of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Under suitable conditions a strong convergence theorem is established. The main result presented in this paper improves and extends some recent results done by Xu (Iterative methods for the split feasibility problem in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, Inverse Problem 26 (2010 105018 and some others.

  14. Controllable Microdroplet Splitting via Additional Lateral Flow and its Application in Rapid Synthesis of Multi-scale Microspheres

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu


    In this paper, we demonstrate that controllable microdroplet splitting could be obtained via additional lateral flow with simplicity and high controllability. The volume ratio of the two splitting products can be flexibly regulated by adjusting the flow rate ratio between the main and additional lateral flows. The splitting phenomena under different main flow rates were investigated. A volume ratio up to 200 : 1 of the two daughter droplets under a relatively higher main flow rate was experimentally achieved based on our approach. In this case, we have successfully achieved uniform daughter droplets with a smallest diameter of ∼19.5 ± 1.6 μm. With such a design, we have synthesized uniform PEGDA hydrogel microspheres with diameters ranging from ∼30 μm to over hundred of micrometers simultaneously.

  15. Management of the first in vitro fertilization cycle for unexplained infertility: a cost-effectiveness analysis of split in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection. (United States)

    Vitek, Wendy S; Galárraga, Omar; Klatsky, Peter C; Robins, Jared C; Carson, Sandra A; Blazar, Andrew S


    To determine the cost-effectiveness of split IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for the treatment of couples with unexplained infertility. Adaptive decision model. Academic infertility clinic. A total of 154 couples undergoing a split IVF-ICSI cycle and a computer-simulated cohort of women infertility undergoing IVF. Modeling insemination method in the first IVF cycle as all IVF, split IVF-ICSI, or all ICSI, and adapting treatment based on fertilization outcomes. Live birth rate, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). In a single cycle, all IVF is preferred as the ICER of split IVF-ICSI or all ICSI ($58,766) does not justify the increased live birth rate (3%). If two cycles are needed, split IVF/ICSI is preferred as the increased cumulative live birth rate (3.3%) is gained at an ICER of $29,666. In a single cycle, all IVF was preferred as the increased live birth rate with split IVF-ICSI and all ICSI was not justified by the increased cost per live birth. If two IVF cycles are needed, however, split IVF/ICSI becomes the preferred approach, as a result of the higher cumulative live birth rate compared with all IVF and the lesser cost per live birth compared with all ICSI. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical investigation of a dual-loop EGR split strategy using a split index and multi-objective Pareto optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jungsoo; Song, Soonho; Lee, Kyo Seung


    Highlights: • Model-based control of dual-loop EGR system is performed. • EGR split index is developed to provide non-dimensional index for optimization. • EGR rates are calibrated using EGR split index at specific operating conditions. • Multi-objective Pareto optimization is performed to minimize NO X and BSFC. • Optimum split strategies are suggested with LP-rich dual-loop EGR at high load. - Abstract: A proposed dual-loop exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system that combines the features of high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) systems is considered a key technology for improving the combustion behavior of diesel engines. The fraction of HP and LP flows, known as the EGR split, for a given dual-loop EGR rate play an important role in determining the engine performance and emission characteristics. Therefore, identifying the proper EGR split is important for the engine optimization and calibration processes, which affect the EGR response and deNO X efficiencies. The objective of this research was to develop a dual-loop EGR split strategy using numerical analysis and one-dimensional (1D) cycle simulation. A control system was modeled by coupling the 1D cycle simulation and the control logic. An EGR split index was developed to investigate the HP/LP split effects on the engine performance and emissions. Using the model-based control system, a multi-objective Pareto (MOP) analysis was used to minimize the NO X formation and fuel consumption through optimized engine operating parameters. The MOP analysis was performed using a response surface model extracted from Latin hypercube sampling as a fractional factorial design of experiment. By using an LP rich dual-loop EGR, a high EGR rate was attained at low, medium, and high engine speeds, increasing the applicable load ranges compared to base conditions

  17. Sensory analysis and volatile compounds of olive oil (cv. Cobrançosa from different irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes-Silva, A. A.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation strategies on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil (VOO from the cv. “cobrançosa” integrated into a protected denomination of origin of “Azeite de Trás-os-Montes” in the Northeast of Portugal. Three irrigation treatments were applied: (T2-full irrigation, which received a seasonal water equivalent of 100% of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc, (T1-continuous deficit irrigation (30% ETc and (T0- rainfed treatment. Data were collected from two consecutive crop years (2005-2006. Olive oil samples were analyzed for volatiles by GC-MS and the results compared with sensory evaluation data. Total volatile compounds tended to decrease with the amount of water applied. The characteristics pungent and bitter were more pronounced in olive oils from T0 and T1, which had higher polyphenolic concentrations, with a strong positive relationship with this variable and the bitter attribute. The Principal Components Analysis clearly separates the three olive oils from 2005, the driest year, and aggregates into a single group the three samples from 2006, suggesting no effect of irrigation on volatile compounds in years with a rainy spring and a marked effect in years with severe drought, suggesting that the effect of the trees’ water status on these variables occurs throughout the crop season and not just during the oil accumulation phase. In general, olive oil from the cv. Cobrançosa is more bitter than pungent and has a typical nutty sensory attribute shown by a strong positive relationship between benzaldehyde and the sensory notes of almonds and nuts.

    Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar el efecto de distintas estrategias de riego en la composición relativa de los compuestos volátiles y en la calidad sensorial. El experimento se realizó en el Noreste de Portugal, dentro de la denominación de origen protegida “Azeites de Tr

  18. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of OSA-18, a Quality of Life Questionnaire for Evaluation of Children with Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome. (United States)

    Chiner, Eusebi; Landete, Pedro; Sancho-Chust, José Norberto; Martínez-García, Miguel Ángel; Pérez-Ferrer, Patricia; Pastor, Esther; Senent, Cristina; Arlandis, Mar; Navarro, Cristina; Selma, María José


    To analyze the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the OSA-18 quality of life questionnaire in children with apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). Children with suspected SAHS were studied with polysomnography (PSG) before and after adenotonsillectomy (AA). Age, gender, clinical data, PSG, anthropometric data, and Mallampati and Brodsky scales were analyzed. OSA-18 was administered at baseline and 3-6months post AA. After translation and backtranslation by bilingual professionals, the internal consistency, reliability, construct validity, concurrent validity, predictive validity and sensitivity to change of the questionnaire was assessed. In total, 45 boys and 15 girls were evaluated, showing BMI 18±4, neck 28±5, Brodsky (0: 7%; 50 to 75%: 6%), AHI 12±7 pre AA. Global Cronbach alpha was 0.91. Correlations between domains were significant except for emotional aspects, although the total scores correlated with all domains (0.50 to 0.90). The factorial analysis was virtually identical to the original structure. The total scores showed good correlation for concurrent validity (0.2-0.45). With regard to predictive validity, the questionnaire adequately differentiated levels of severity according to Mallampati (ANOVA P=.002) and apnea-hypopnea index (ANOVA P=.006). Test-retest reliability was excellent, as was sensitivity to change, both in the total scores (P<.001) and in each domain (P<.001). The Spanish adaptation of the OSA-18 and its psychometric characteristics suggest that the Spanish version is equivalent to the original and can be used in Spanish-speaking countries. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Sismos y lluvias, factores detonantes de deslizamientos de laderas en las regiones montañosas de Puebla, México


    Oscar A. Cuanalo C.; Paúl Quezada P.; Araceli Aguilar M.; Alejandra M. Olivan R.; Edgar Barona D.


    El estado de Puebla ubicado en el centro de la República Mexicana, se ve afectado por sismos producto de la actividad a lo largo del Cinturón Volcánico Mexicano que tienen impacto en el centro y sur del estado, además de lluvias intensas en las regiones montañosas ubicadas al Norte y Nororiente del mismo, originadas por los huracanes y tormentas tropicales procedentes del Golfo de México. El escenario anterior ofrece peculiaridades de tipo geomorfológico y meteorológico que han desen...

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA and depressive symptoms Sintomas depressivos e síndrome de apnéia obstrutiva do sono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Dominici


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and depressive symptoms is ambiguous in the literature. PURPOSE: To investigate if there is a correlation between depressive symptoms and the severity of OSA. METHOD: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of data from 123 consecutive adults patients with neither mental illness nor psychotropic drugs intake, referred to a sleep laboratory for an evaluation of OSA. For the statistical analysis (uni- and multivariate, we used the following variables: gender and age, as well as scores based on several scales and indexes such as Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Body Mass Index (BMI and Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI. RESULTS: Univariate analysis found a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between BDI and AHI. However, with the multivariate logistic regression analysis model, the inverse relation between AHI and BDI no longer has statistical significance. CONCLUSION: There is no causal relationship between OSA and depressive symptoms in the population studied.CONTEXTO: A relação entre apnéia obstrutiva do sono (AOS e sintomas depressivos é ambígua na literatura. OBJETIVO: Investigar se há relação entre sintomas depressivos e intensidade da AOS. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal e retrospectivo com 123 pacientes adultos, consecutivamente atendidos em laboratório de sono, para avaliar AOS, sem transtornos mentais nem uso de psicotrópicos. Para análise estatística (uni e multivariada, utilizamos as seguintes variáveis: sexo e idade, além de escores de diversas escalas: Escala de Depressão de Beck (EDB, Escala de Sonolência diurna de Epworth (EPW, Índice de Massa Corporal e o Índice de Apnéia /Hipopnéia (IAH. RESULTADOS: A análise univariada demonstrou fraca, mas estatisticamente significativa relação negativa entre EDB e IAH. Porém, na análise multivariada por regressão logística, esta relação inversa perdeu sua signific

  1. Enteroparasitas em populações usuárias de diferentes sistemas de abastecimento de água em Viçosa-MG


    Oliveira, Adriana Aguiar


    As doenças relacionadas com a água são importantes problemas de saúde pública no Brasil e em diversas partes do mundo. Dentre estas, destacam-se as parasitoses intestinais ou enteroparasitoses, por se associarem freqüentemente a quadros de diarréia crônica e desnutrição, acometendo, principalmente, as faixas etárias mais jovens. O presente trabalho objetivou realizar pesquisa sobre enteroparasitas no município de Viçosa em três cortes populacionais de crianças menores de sete anos de idade, b...

  2. Comparison of Standard and Novel Signal Analysis Approaches to Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife eRoebuck


    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is a disorder characterised by repeated pauses in breathing during sleep, which leads to deoxygenation and voiced chokes at the end of each episode. OSA is associated by daytime sleepiness and an increased risk of serious conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. Between 2-7% of the adult population globally has OSA, but it is estimated that up to 90% of those are undiagnosed and untreated. Diagnosis of OSA requires expensive and cumbersome screening. Audio offers a potential non-contact alternative, particularly with the ubiquity of excellent signal processing on every phone.Previous studies have focused on the classification of snoring and apnoeic chokes. However, such approaches require accurate identification of events. This leads to limited accuracy and small study populations. In this work we propose an alternative approach which uses multiscale entropy (MSE coefficients presented to a classifier to identify disorder in vocal patterns indicative of sleep apnoea. A database of 858 patients was used, the largest reported in this domain. Apnoeic choke, snore, and noise events encoded with speech analysis features were input into a linear classifier. Coefficients of MSE derived from the first 4 hours of each recording were used to train and test a random forest to classify patients as apnoeic or not.Standard speech analysis approaches for event classification achieved an out of sample accuracy (Ac of 76.9% with a sensitivity (Se of 29.2% and a specificity (Sp of 88.7% but high variance. For OSA severity classification, MSE provided an out of sample Ac of 79.9%, Se of 66.0% and Sp = 88.8%. Including demographic information improved the MSE-based classification performance to Ac = 80.5%, Se = 69.2%, Sp = 87.9%. These results indicate that audio recordings could be used in screening for OSA, but are generally under-sensitive.

  3. Solar water splitting by photovoltaic-electrolysis with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency over 30% (United States)

    Jia, Jieyang; Seitz, Linsey C.; Benck, Jesse D.; Huo, Yijie; Chen, Yusi; Ng, Jia Wei Desmond; Bilir, Taner; Harris, James S.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.


    Hydrogen production via electrochemical water splitting is a promising approach for storing solar energy. For this technology to be economically competitive, it is critical to develop water splitting systems with high solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiencies. Here we report a photovoltaic-electrolysis system with the highest STH efficiency for any water splitting technology to date, to the best of our knowledge. Our system consists of two polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysers in series with one InGaP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb triple-junction solar cell, which produces a large-enough voltage to drive both electrolysers with no additional energy input. The solar concentration is adjusted such that the maximum power point of the photovoltaic is well matched to the operating capacity of the electrolysers to optimize the system efficiency. The system achieves a 48-h average STH efficiency of 30%. These results demonstrate the potential of photovoltaic-electrolysis systems for cost-effective solar energy storage. PMID:27796309

  4. Increasing Gas Bubble Escape Rate for Water Splitting with Nonwoven Stainless Steel Fabrics. (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Huang, Xiaolei; Jiang, Songshan; Li, Meng; Zhang, Kai; Yan, Ying; Zhang, Huiping; Xue, Jun Min


    Water electrolysis has been considered as one of the most efficient approaches to produce renewable energy, although efficient removal of gas bubbles during the process is still challenging, which has been proved to be critical and can further promote electrocatalytic water splitting. Herein, a novel strategy is developed to increase gas bubble escape rate for water splitting by using nonwoven stainless steel fabrics (NWSSFs) as the conductive substrate decorated with flakelike iron nickel-layered double hydroxide (FeNi LDH) nanostructures. The as-prepared FeNi LDH@NWSSF electrode shows a much faster escape rate of gas bubbles as compared to that of other commonly used three-dimensional porous catalytic electrodes, and the maximum dragging force for a bubble releasing between NWSSF channels is only one-seventh of the dragging force within nickel foam channels. As a result, it exhibits excellent electrocatalytic performance for both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), with low overpotentials of 210 and 110 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm -2 in 1 M KOH for OER and HER, respectively. There is almost no current drop after a long-time durability test. In addition, its performance for full water splitting is superior to that of the previously reported catalysts, with a voltage of 1.56 V at current density of 10 mA cm -2 .

  5. Interactions between co-expressed Arabidopsis sucrose transporters in the split-ubiquitin system

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    Lalonde Sylvie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis genome contains nine sucrose transporter paralogs falling into three clades: SUT1-like, SUT2 and SUT4. The carriers differ in their kinetic properties. Many transport proteins are known to exist as oligomers. The yeast-based split ubiquitin system can be used to analyze the ability of membrane proteins to interact. Results Promoter-GUS fusions were used to analyze the cellular expression of the three transporter genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. All three fusion genes are co-expressed in companion cells. Protein-protein interactions between Arabidopsis sucrose transporters were tested using the split ubiquitin system. Three paralogous sucrose transporters are capable of interacting as either homo- or heteromers. The interactions are specific, since a potassium channel and a glucose transporter did not show interaction with sucrose transporters. Also the biosynthetic and metabolizing enzymes, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and sucrose synthase, which were found to be at least in part bound to the plasma membrane, did not specifically interact with sucrose transporters. Conclusions The split-ubiquitin system provides a powerful tool to detect potential interactions between plant membrane proteins by heterologous expression in yeast, and can be used to screen for interactions with membrane proteins as baits. Like other membrane proteins, the Arabidopsis sucrose transporters are able to form oligomers. The biochemical approaches are required to confirm the in planta interaction.

  6. Defect-Rich Ultrathin Cobalt-Iron Layered Double Hydroxide for Electrochemical Overall Water Splitting. (United States)

    Liu, Peng Fei; Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Hua Gui


    Efficient and durable electrocatalysts from earth-abundant elements play a vital role in the key renewable energy technologies including overall water splitting and hydrogen fuel cells. Here, generally used CoFe based layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were first delaminated and exfoliated in the DMF-ethanol solvent (CoFe LDH-F), with enhancement both in oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The exfoliation process creates more coordinatively unsaturated metals and improves the intrinsic electronic conductivity, which is important in water electrolyzer reactions. In the basic solution, the CoFe LDH-F catalyst outperforms the commercial iridium dioxide (IrO 2 ) electrocatalyst in activity and stability for OER and approaches the performance of platinum (Pt) for HER. The bifunctional electrocatalysts can be further used for overall water splitting, with a current density of ∼10 mA/cm 2 at the applied voltage of 1.63 V for long-term electrolysis test, rivalling the performance of Pt and IrO 2 combination as benchmarks. Our findings demonstrate the promising catalytic activity of LDHs for scale-up alkaline water splitting.

  7. Joint angles of the ankle, knee, and hip and loading conditions during split squats. (United States)

    Schütz, Pascal; List, Renate; Zemp, Roland; Schellenberg, Florian; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio


    The aim of this study was to quantify how step length and the front tibia angle influence joint angles and loading conditions during the split squat exercise. Eleven subjects performed split squats with an additional load of 25% body weight applied using a barbell. Each subject's movements were recorded using a motion capture system, and the ground reaction force was measured under each foot. The joint angles and loading conditions were calculated using a cluster-based kinematic approach and inverse dynamics modeling respectively. Increases in the tibia angle resulted in a smaller range of motion (ROM) of the front knee and a larger ROM of the rear knee and hip. The external flexion moment in the front knee/hip and the external extension moment in the rear hip decreased as the tibia angle increased. The flexion moment in the rear knee increased as the tibia angle increased. The load distribution between the legs changed squat execution was varied. Our results describing the changes in joint angles and the resulting differences in the moments of the knee and hip will allow coaches and therapists to adapt the split squat exercise to the individual motion and load demands of athletes.

  8. Solar water splitting by photovoltaic-electrolysis with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency over 30% (United States)

    Jia, Jieyang; Seitz, Linsey C.; Benck, Jesse D.; Huo, Yijie; Chen, Yusi; Ng, Jia Wei Desmond; Bilir, Taner; Harris, James S.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.


    Hydrogen production via electrochemical water splitting is a promising approach for storing solar energy. For this technology to be economically competitive, it is critical to develop water splitting systems with high solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiencies. Here we report a photovoltaic-electrolysis system with the highest STH efficiency for any water splitting technology to date, to the best of our knowledge. Our system consists of two polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysers in series with one InGaP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb triple-junction solar cell, which produces a large-enough voltage to drive both electrolysers with no additional energy input. The solar concentration is adjusted such that the maximum power point of the photovoltaic is well matched to the operating capacity of the electrolysers to optimize the system efficiency. The system achieves a 48-h average STH efficiency of 30%. These results demonstrate the potential of photovoltaic-electrolysis systems for cost-effective solar energy storage.

  9. Flux-split algorithms for flows with non-equilibrium chemistry and thermodynamics (United States)

    Cinnella, Pasquale

    New flux-split algorithms are developed for high velocity, high temperature flow situations, when finite-rate chemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics greatly affect the physics of the problem. Two-vector-split algorithms, of the Steger-Warming and of the Van Leer type, and one flux-difference-split algorithm of the Roe type are established and utilized for the accurate numerical simulation of flows with dissociation, ionization, and combustion phenomena. Several thermodynamic models are used, including a simplified vibrational non-eqilibrium model and an equilibrium model based upon refined statistical mechanical properties. The framework provided is flexible enough to accommodate virtually any chemical model and a wide range of non-equilibrium, multi-temperature thermodynamic models. A theoretical study of the main features of flows with free electrons, for conditions that require the use of two translational temperatures in the thermal model, is developed. A simple but powerful asymptotic analysis is developed which allows the establishment of the fundamental gas dynamic properties of flows with multiple translational temperatures. The new algorithms developed demonstrate their accuracy and robustness for challenging flow problems. The influence of several assumptions on the chemical and thermal behavior of the flows is investigated, and a comparison with results obtained using different numerical approaches, in particular spectral methods, is provided, and proves to be favorable to the present techniques.

  10. Large valley splitting in monolayer WS2 by proximity coupling to an insulating antiferromagnetic substrate (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Yang, Ming; Shen, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Zhu, Tao; Feng, Yuan Ping


    Lifting the valley degeneracy is an efficient way to achieve valley polarization for further valleytronics operations. In this Rapid Communication, we demonstrate that a large valley splitting can be obtained in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides by magnetic proximity coupling to an insulating antiferromagnetic substrate. As an example, we perform first-principles calculations to investigate the electronic structures of monolayer WS2 on the MnO(111) surface. Our calculation results suggest that a large valley splitting of 214 meV, which corresponds to a Zeeman magnetic field of 1516 T, is induced in the valence band of monolayer WS2. The magnitude of valley splitting relies on the strength of interfacial orbital hybridization and can be tuned continually by applying an external out-of-plane pressure and in-plane strain. More interestingly, we find that both spin and valley index will flip when the magnetic ordering of MnO is reversed. Besides, owing to the sizable Berry curvature and time-reversal symmetry breaking in the WS2/MnO heterostructure, a spin- and valley-polarized anomalous Hall current can be generated in the presence of an in-plane electric field, which allows one to detect valleys by the electrical approach. Our results shed light on the realization of valleytronic devices using the antiferromagnetic insulator as the substrate.

  11. Validação dos sistemas VIÇOSA, CNCPS e NRC para formulação de dietas para bovinos Nelore e Caracu, não-castrados, selecionados em condições brasileiras Validation of VIÇOSA, CNCPS and NRC systems of diets formulation for genetic improved Nellore and Caracu bulls for brazilian conditions

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    Antonio Gesualdi Júnior


    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os sistemas VIÇOSA, CNCPS e NRC para formulação de dietas, utilizando-se 22 bovinos (oito Nelore, oito Caracu selecionados e seis Nelore não-selecionados confinados com média de 18 meses de idade e peso vivo inicial médio de 404 kg, para Nelore selecionado, 345 kg, para Nelore não-selecionado, e 434 kg, para Caracu. A dieta apresentou relação volumoso:concentrado de 50:50, contendo silagem de milho como volumoso. O critério de abate foi determinado pela medida de ultra-som quando os animais atingiam 4 mm de espessura de gordura subcutânea. Utilizou-se o teste T de Student, comparando-se as médias observadas dos grupos genéticos para os consumos de matéria seca (CMS e ganhos médios diários (GMD e aquelas preditas pelos sistemas VIÇOSA, CNCPS e NRC. O sistema VIÇOSA apresentou boas estimativas para os GMD de animais Nelore selecionados e não-selecionados, mas os valores diferiram do observado para a raça Caracu. Não houve boa estimativa para CMS de nenhum grupo genético, com o uso do sistema VIÇOSA. O CNCPS, níveis 1 e 2, foi eficiente para as estimativas dos CMS dos três tipos genéticos, sendo que os GMD diferiram estatisticamente do observado tanto no nível 1 quanto no 2, pois os valores foram subestimados. Apenas o nível 2 do NRC apresentou valores preditos semelhantes aos observados tanto para CMS quanto para GMD.Twenty-two animals, eight from genetic improved Nellore breed, six non-improved Nellore and eight from genetic improved Caracu breed, were used to evaluate and to validate the VIÇOSA, CNCPS (level 1 and 2 and NRC (level 1 and 2 systems, for diet formulations. The animals were confined with average live weight of 404 kg to genetic improved Nellore, 345 kg to non-improved Nellore and 434 kg to genetic improved Caracu breed, all with 18 months of age. The forage used was corn silage in forage to concentrate ratio of 50:50 in the diet. The slaughter criterion was determined by ultra-sound and


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    Nádia Menezes de Rodrigues


    Full Text Available RESUMOA história da cidade de Viçosa/MG foi marcada por uma ocupação resultante de processos construtivos sem preocupação com a legislação ambiental e com a carência de profissionais qualificados. A aprovação das leis encabeçadas pelo Plano Diretor de Viçosa e a participação da UFV, significam importantes avanços. Porém, Viçosa ainda possui dificuldades na aplicação das leis no planejamento urbano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a ocupação das margens de um trecho do ribeirão São Bartolomeu na área urbana do município de Viçosa/MG. Para essa pesquisa seguimos quatro etapas: i levantamento da legislação municipal e federal sobre uso e ocupação do solo; ii georeferenciamento de imagem Ikonos da área estudada ; iii mapeamento de áreas de preservação permanente de acordo com as legislações vigente ; e iv obtenção de coordenadas geográficas com auxílio do instrumento GPS de navegação, para verificação das ocupações ilegais em áreas de APP. Como resultados, notamos uma intensa inadimplência em relação ao cumprimento das leis, causando fortes impactos socioambientais presentes em toda a cidade.Palavras-chave: Geografia, Geoprocessamento, áreas de preservação permanente.ABSTRACTThe history of Viçosa city was marked by an ocupation that didn't take into consideration the environmental legislation and with few qualified professionals in the construction of buildings. The appoval of laws headed by the director plan of Viçosa and the participation of the UFV (FUV , means an important progress. However, Viçosa still has difficulties to enforce the application of the laws in the urban planning.The goal of this work was to analize the ocupation of the Saint Bartolomeu river's shore at the urban part of the city of Viçosa / MG. For this research we followed four steps: i Survey of the municipal and federal legislation about the use of the soil; II Geo referential of ikonos image of the studied

  13. The use of endomarketing in credit unions: a case study of the UFVCredi and the Unicred-Viçosa O emprego do endomarketing em cooperativas de crédito: estudo de caso da UFV-Credi e da Unicred-Viçosa

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    Henrique Lopes Dornelas


    Full Text Available Endomarketing can be considered as a group of activities concerned with the internal aspects of the organization, whose purpose is to value the human being. In order to become competitive, the Credit Unions should adopt Endomarketing strategies that combine motivation, training and communication elements. The purpose of the present work was to verify how the Credit Union of the Workers of the Federal University of Viçosa Ltd. / UFV-CREDI and the Credit Union of the Doctors and Health-related Professionals of Viçosa Ltd. – UNICRED/VIÇOSA – MG are using the tools offered by Endomarketing. In the methodology, a study concerning the Endomarketing and the Credit Unions war carried out. After that, the employees and the members of the Credit Unions were asked to answer a questionnaire. After the analysis of the obtained data, it was concluded that UFV-CREDI and UNICRED/VIÇOSA-MG have effectively reached their objectives because their Endomarketing strategies have presented positive results, making it possible for them to get new members as well as to keep their members and employees motivated and satisfied with the products and services offered by the Credit Unions.O Endomarketing pode ser conceituado como um conjunto de atividades voltadas para o interior da organização, cuja finalidade é valorizar o ser humano. Para que as cooperativas de crédito sejam competitivas, elas devem adotar estratégias de Endomarketing, que combinem elementos de motivação, treinamento e comunicação. Procurou-se com o presente estudo, verificar como a Cooperativa de Economia e Crédito Mútuo dos Servidores da Universidade Federal de Viçosa – LTDA / UFV-CREDI e a Cooperativa de Economia e Crédito Mútuo dos Médicos e demais Profissionais da Saúde de Viçosa Ltda – UNICRED/VIÇOSA-MG estão utilizando as ferramentas oferecidas pelo Endomarketing. Na metodologia foi realizado um estudo acerca do Endomarketing e das cooperativas de crédito, para

  14. An Examination Of Fracture Splitting Parameters Of Crackable Connecting Rods

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    Zafer Özdemir


    Full Text Available Fracture splitting method is an innovative processing technique in the field of automobile engine connecting rod (con/rod manufacturing. Compared with traditional method, this technique has remarkable advantages. Manufacturing procedures, equipment and tools investment can be decreased and energy consumption reduced remarkably. Furthermore, product quality and bearing capability can also be improved. It provides a high quality, high accuracy and low cost route for producing connecting rods (con/rods. With the many advantages mentioned above, this method has attracted manufacturers attention and has been utilized in many types of con/rod manufacturing. In this article, the method and the advantages it provides, such as materials, notches for fracture splitting, fracture splitting conditions and fracture splitting equipment are discussed in detail. The paper describes an analysis of examination of fracture splitting parameters and optik-SEM fractography of C70S6 crackable connectıng rod. Force and velocity parameters are investigated. That uniform impact force distrubition starting from the starting notch causes brittle and cleavage failure mode is obtained as a result. This induces to decrease the toughness.

  15. New Splitting Criteria for Decision Trees in Stationary Data Streams. (United States)

    Jaworski, Maciej; Duda, Piotr; Rutkowski, Leszek


    The most popular tools for stream data mining are based on decision trees. In previous 15 years, all designed methods, headed by the very fast decision tree algorithm, relayed on Hoeffding's inequality and hundreds of researchers followed this scheme. Recently, we have demonstrated that although the Hoeffding decision trees are an effective tool for dealing with stream data, they are a purely heuristic procedure; for example, classical decision trees such as ID3 or CART cannot be adopted to data stream mining using Hoeffding's inequality. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new algorithms, which are both mathematically justified and characterized by good performance. In this paper, we address this problem by developing a family of new splitting criteria for classification in stationary data streams and investigating their probabilistic properties. The new criteria, derived using appropriate statistical tools, are based on the misclassification error and the Gini index impurity measures. The general division of splitting criteria into two types is proposed. Attributes chosen based on type-$I$ splitting criteria guarantee, with high probability, the highest expected value of split measure. Type-$II$ criteria ensure that the chosen attribute is the same, with high probability, as it would be chosen based on the whole infinite data stream. Moreover, in this paper, two hybrid splitting criteria are proposed, which are the combinations of single criteria based on the misclassification error and Gini index.

  16. Experimental study on dynamic splitting of recycled concrete using SHPB (United States)

    Lu, Yubin; Yu, Shuisheng; Cai, Yong


    To study the recycled concrete splitting tensile properties and fracture state with various recycled coarse aggregate replacement percentage (i.e. 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), the dynamic splitting test of recycled concrete was carried out using large diameter (75 mm) split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The results show that the recycled concrete splitting tensile strength increases with the increase of loading rate, and the loading rate also affects the recycled concrete fracture state, which indicates that the recycled concrete has obvious rate sensitivity. The damage state of the recycled concrete is not only the destruction of the interface between coarse aggregate and cement mortar, but also associates with the fracture damage of aggregates. Under the same water cement ratio, when the replacement percentage of coarse aggregates is around 50%-75%, the gradation of natural and recycled coarse aggregate is optimal, and thus the splitting tensile strength is the largest. This study offers theoretical basis for the engineering applications of recycled concrete.

  17. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips

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    Alessandro Moro


    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  18. Banco de sementes do solo de uma Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, em Viçosa, Minas Gerais.

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    Juvenal Pinheiro Batista Neto


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se quantitativa e qualitativamente a florística do banco de sementes do solo de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana, no município de Viçosa, MG. No final da estação chuvosa (março/2004, foram coletadas duas amostras de solo de 20 x 15 cm, com 5 cm de profundidade, no centro de seis subparcelas contíguas de 10 x 20 m, em dez parcelas permanentes de 20 x 60 m, em dez locais, totalizando 120 amostras (3,6 m2. As amostras de solo foram colocadas em estruturas de sombreamento de 11,5 % e 60 %, e as sementes germinadas foram identificadas em graminóides, herbáceo-cipós, arbustivas e arbóreas. Foram registradas 3.416 sementes germinadas, sendo 30,2 % graminóides, 29,2 % herbáceo-cipós, 17,5 % arbustivas e 23,1 % arbóreas, estas duas últimas distribuídas em 17 famílias, 25 gêneros e 31 espécies. Melastomataceae, Cecropiaceae e Piperaceae contribuíram com 31,8 %, 10,0 % e 8,8 % do total de espécies, respectivamente, sendo que Miconia cinnamomifolia e Leandra purpurascens foram responsáveis por 59,3 % das sementes arbustivo-arbóreas germinadas. As pioneiras se destacaram com 61,3 % das espécies e 88,5 % das sementes germinadas. Não foram registradas espécies secundárias tardias. A densidade média de sementes germinadas para todos os hábitos e locais foi de 949 sementes/m2. O número de espécies e de sementes germinadas do grupo arbustivo-arbóreo diferiu significativamente pelo teste Kruskal-Wallis (P ≤ 0,05 entre os locais estudados. Esses resultados indicam que, no banco de sementes do solo, há predomínio de espécies pioneiras que são importantes para a sucessão em clareiras ou após o corte da floresta. Porém, esse estoque de sementes não é suficiente para a continuidade do processo de sucessão, que inclui o estabelecimento de maior proporção de espécies secundárias iniciais e tardias. Isso indica que há necessidade de um manejo adequado do banco de pl

  19. El cura y sus hijos osos o el recorrido civilizador de los hijos de un cura y una osa

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    Full Text Available LE CURE ET SES ENFANTS OURS OU LE PARCOURS CIVILISATEUR DES ENFANTS D’UN CURE ET D’UNE OURSE. Cet article constitue un essai d’interprétation de deux versions quechuas cuzquéniennes du récit panandin connu comme “Jean de l’Ours” ou “Le fils de l’ours”. A partir d’une analyse du symbolisme du récit, la logique profonde qui l’ordonne est mise en lumière: la société humaine et civilisée ne peut se perpétuer sans établir des échanges et une coopération avec les êtres sauvages de l’au-delà. Les protagonistes, fils d’un curé et d’une ourse, ainsi que le curé lui-même, sont les héros médiateurs d’un récit mythique dont la logique prétend aussi s’appliquer aux relations interethniques dans les Andes. Este artículo presenta un ensayo de interpretación de dos versiones quechuas cuzqueñas del relato panandino conocido como “Juan Oso” o “El hijo del oso”. A partir de un análisis del simbolismo del relato, se saca a luz la lógica profunda que lo ordena: la sociedad humana y civilizada no puede perpetuarse sin establecer un intercambio y una cooperación con los seres salvajes del más allá. Los protagonistas, hijos de un cura y una osa, así como el cura mismo, son los héroes mediadores de un relato mítico cuya lógica pretende también aplicarse a las relaciones interétnicas en los Andes. THE PRIEST AND HIS BEAR CHILDREN OR THE PASSAGE TO CIVILIZATION OF THE CHILDREN OF A PRIEST AND A SHE-BEAR. This article sets out to interpret two Cuzco Quechua versions of the pan-Andean tale known as “Juan Oso” or “The Bear’s Son”. The analysis of the story’s symbolism sheds light on the profound logic on which it is based: human and civilized society cannot survive without establishing interchange and cooperation with wild beings from the other world. The protagonist, the son of the priest and the she-bear, as well as the priest himself, are the mediator heroes of a tale whose logic also applies to interethnic

  20. SplitRacer - a semi-automatic tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting (United States)

    Reiss, Miriam Christina; Rümpker, Georg


    We present a semi-automatic, graphical user interface tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting in MATLAB. Shear wave splitting analysis is a standard tool to infer seismic anisotropy, which is often interpreted as due to lattice-preferred orientation of e.g. mantle minerals or shape-preferred orientation caused by cracks or alternating layers in the lithosphere and hence provides a direct link to the earth's kinematic processes. The increasing number of permanent stations and temporary experiments result in comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. Their successive comparison with a growing number of global models of mantle flow further advances our understanding the earth's interior. However, increasingly large data sets pose the inevitable question as to how to process them. Well-established routines and programs are accurate but often slow and impractical for analyzing a large amount of data. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same quality criteria which complicates a straight-forward comparison. SplitRacer consists of several processing steps: i) download of data per FDSNWS, ii) direct reading of miniSEED-files and an initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold. iii) an analysis of the particle motion of selected phases and successive correction of the sensor miss-alignment based on the long-axis of the particle motion. iv) splitting analysis of selected events: seismograms are first rotated into radial and transverse components, then the energy-minimization method is applied, which provides the polarization and delay time of the phase. To estimate errors, the analysis is done for different randomly-chosen time windows. v) joint-splitting analysis for all events for one station, where the energy content of all phases is inverted simultaneously. This allows to decrease the influence of noise and to increase robustness of the measurement

  1. Sismos y lluvias, factores detonantes de deslizamientos de laderas en las regiones montañosas de Puebla, México

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    Oscar A. Cuanalo C.


    Full Text Available El estado de Puebla ubicado en el centro de la República Mexicana, se ve afectado por sismos producto de la actividad a lo largo del Cinturón Volcánico Mexicano que tienen impacto en el centro y sur del estado, además de lluvias intensas en las regiones montañosas ubicadas al Norte y Nororiente del mismo, originadas por los huracanes y tormentas tropicales procedentes del Golfo de México. El escenario anterior ofrece peculiaridades de tipo geomorfológico y meteorológico que han desencadenado deslizamientos de laderas, los cuales han causado considerables daños económicos y lamentables pérdidas humanas. En este artículo se describe brevemente las características geomorfológicas del estado de Puebla, considerando su clima, el cual tiene impacto en la meteorización de las rocas que conforman la región montañosa; además se incluye su historia sismológica en los últimos 100 años, para eventos mayores de 6° Richter, y las lluvias torrenciales de 1999 y 2005 que han desencadenado deslizamientos de laderas

  2. The Effect of the Transition to Home Monitoring for the Diagnosis of OSAS on Test Availability, Waiting Time, Patients’ Satisfaction, and Outcome in a Large Health Provider System

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    Ahmad Safadi


    Full Text Available During 2009, the Haifa district of Clalit Health Services (CHS has switched from in-lab polysomnography (PSG to home studies for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. We assessed the effects of this change on accessibility, waiting time, satisfaction, costs, and CPAP purchase by the patients. Data regarding sleep studies, CPAP purchase, and waiting times were collected retrospectively from the computerized database of CHS. Patients’ satisfaction was assessed utilizing a telephone questionnaire introduced to a randomized small sample of 70 patients. Comparisons were made between 2007 and 2008 (in-lab PSGs and 2010 and 2011 (when most studies were ambulatory. Of about 650000 insured individuals in the Haifa district of CHS, 1471 sleep studies were performed during 2007-2008 compared to 2794 tests during 2010-2011. The average waiting time was 9.9 weeks in 2007-2008 compared to 1.1 weeks in 2010-2011 (P<0.05. 597 CPAPs were purchased in 2007-2008 compared to 831 in 2010-2011. The overall patients’ satisfaction was similar, but discomfort tended to be higher in the in-laboratory group (4.1 vs 2.7 in a scale of 0–10; P=0.11. Switching to ambulatory diagnosis improved the test accessibility and reduced the waiting times. Patients’ satisfaction remained similarly high. The total direct cost of OSA management was reduced.

  3. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). (United States)

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto


    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly α-copaene. Toluene and α-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest.

  4. (Redesenhando o trabalho com/para surdos em Viçosa: contribuições do projeto Surdo Cidadão da UFV

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    Eduardo Andrade Gomes


    Full Text Available A grande maioria das pessoas surdas possui um histórico de vida marcado por preconceito e restrições, sobretudo em relação à comunicação. Isso se deve ao fato da sociedade ainda estar atenta apenas a questões clínicas e não valorizá-los enquanto indivíduos plurais capazes de se desenvolverem por meio da Língua de Sinais. Devido a essas equivocadas concepções, o Projeto Surdo Cidadão tem como parâmetro de atuação divulgar e ensinar, por meio de minicursos em nível básico, a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras aos ouvintes, promover e orientar, através de palestras e oficinas, estudantes, professores e funcionários da Universidade Federal de Viçosa e da própria cidade a respeito de algumas nuances da Libras, cultura surda e ainda desenvolver atividades de Química e Matemática de cunho educacional voltado à estudantes surdos de Viçosa e região que cursam o Ensino Médio ou que já concluíram. Por isso, nesse relato será explanado sobre essas ações que foram realizadas em 2015 no projeto.PROEXT

  5. The Differences Between Stock Splits and Stock Dividends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Raaballe, Johannes

    It is often asserted that stock splits and stock dividends are purely cosmetic events. However, many studies have documented several stock market effects associated with stock splits and stock dividends. This paper examines the effects of these two types of events for the Danish stock market...... different. Second, the positive stock market reaction is closely related to associated changes in a firm's payout policy, but the relationship varies for the two types of events. Finally, there is only very weak evidence for a change in the liquidity of the stock. On the whole, after controlling...... for the firm's payout policy, the results suggest that a stock split is a cosmetic event and that a stock dividend on its own is considered negative news....

  6. Electron refrigeration in hybrid structures with spin-split superconductors (United States)

    Rouco, M.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Bergeret, F. S.


    Electron tunneling between superconductors and normal metals has been used for an efficient refrigeration of electrons in the latter. Such cooling is a nonlinear effect and usually requires a large voltage. Here we study the electron cooling in heterostructures based on superconductors with a spin-splitting field coupled to normal metals via spin-filtering barriers. The cooling power shows a linear term in the applied voltage. This improves the coefficient of performance of electron refrigeration in the normal metal by shifting its optimum cooling to lower voltage, and also allows for cooling the spin-split superconductor by reverting the sign of the voltage. We also show how tunnel coupling spin-split superconductors with regular ones allows for a highly efficient refrigeration of the latter.

  7. Giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3: Tl

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra


    First-principles calculations are employed to demonstrate a giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3:Tl. Biaxial tensile and compressive strain is used to tune the splitting by modifying the potential gradient. The band gap is found to increase under compression and decreases under tension, whereas the dependence of the Rashba spin splitting on the strain is the opposite. Large values of αR = 1.57 eV Å at the bottom of the conduction band (electrons) and αR = 3.34 eV Å at the top of the valence band (holes) are obtained without strain. These values can be further enhanced to αR = 1.83 eV Å and αR = 3.64 eV Å, respectively, by 2% tensile strain. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Stride length asymmetry in split-belt locomotion. (United States)

    Hoogkamer, Wouter; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Duysens, Jacques


    The number of studies utilizing a split-belt treadmill is rapidly increasing in recent years. This has led to some confusion regarding the definitions of reported gait parameters. The purpose of this paper is to clearly present the definitions of the gait parameters that are commonly used in split-belt treadmill studies. We argue that the modified version of stride length for split-belt gait, which is different from the standard definition of stride length and actually is a measure of limb excursion, should be referred to as 'limb excursion' in future studies. Furthermore, the symmetry of stride length and stride time is specifically addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Point splitting in a curved space-time background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggatt, P.A.J.; Macfarlane, A.J.


    A prescription is given for point splitting in a curved space-time background which is a natural generalization of that familiar in quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theory. It is applied (to establish its validity) to the verification of the gravitational anomaly in the divergence of a fermion axial current. Notable features of the prescription are that it defines a point-split current that can be differentiated straightforwardly, and that it involves a natural way of averaging (four-dimensionally) over the directions of point splitting. The method can extend directly from the spin-1/2 fermion case treated to other cases, e.g., to spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fermions. (author)

  10. Splitting rules for spectra of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices (United States)

    Yang, Xiangbo; Liu, Youyan


    In the framework of the single-electron tight-binding on-site model, after establishing the method of constructing a class of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices, we have studied the rules of energy spectra splitting for these quasilattices by means of a decomposition-decimation method based on the renormalization-group technique. Under the first approximation, the analytic results show that there exist only six kinds of clusters and the electronic energy bands split as type Y and consist of nine subbands. Instead of the on-site model, the transfer model should be used for the higher hierarchy of the spectra, the electronic energy spectra split as type F. The analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  11. Split and delay photon correlation spectroscopy with a visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasch, Marten


    The development and performance of a setup constructed with the aim for the split pulse photon correlation spectroscopy is presented in this thesis. The double pulse time structure is accomplished with help of an Acusto-Optic Modulator (AOM) crystal, which mimics the splitting and delaying of photon pulses. The setup provides double pulses and allows to control the pulse width and delay and to synchronize them into one camera exposure window. The performance of the setup was successfully verified in a proof of principle experiment with a model system of polystyrene particles following Brownian motion. The measured radius of particles obtained with from the split pulse experiment (R h =(2.567±0.097) μm) is in agreement with the particle size provided by the manufacturer (R=(2.26±0.08) μm). The achieved results show higher statistics compared to a standard Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement.

  12. Guidelines to Develop Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.


    Photocatalytic overall water splitting is the only viable solar-to-fuel conversion technology. The research discloses an investigation process wherein by dissecting the photocatalytic water splitting device, electrocatalysts, and semiconductor photocatalysts can be independently studied, developed and optimized. The assumption of perfect catalysts leads to the realization that semiconductors are the limiting factor in photocatalysis. This dissertation presents a guideline for efficient photocatalysis using semiconductor particles developed from idealized theoretical simulations. No perfect catalysts exist; then the discussion focus on the development of efficient non-noble metal electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution from water reduction. Tungsten carbide (WC) is selective for the catalysis of hydrogen without the introduction of the reverse reaction of water formation, which is critical to achieving photocatalytic overall water splitting as demonstrated in this work. Finally, photoelectrochemistry is used to characterize thoroughly Cu-based p-type semiconductors with potential for large-scale manufacture. Artificial photosynthesis may be achieved by following the recommendations herein presented.

  13. Rabi splitting in an acoustic cavity embedded plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Ze-Guo; Zheng, Li-Yang; Xu, Ye-Long; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng


    We design a structure to realize Rabi splitting and Rabi oscillation in acoustics. We develop rigorous analytical models to analyze the splitting effect from the aspect of phase matching, and from the aspect of mode coupling using a coupled mode model. In this model, we discover that the splitting effect is caused by the coupling of the Fabry–Perot fundamental mode with the resonant mode of an artificial acoustic ‘atom’. We then extract the coupling strength and analyze the impact of structural parameters on it. In addition, we demonstrate Rabi oscillation in the time domain. Such quantum phenomena in the classical regime may have potential applications in the design of novel ultrasonic devices.

  14. Immediate Loaded Implants in Split-Crest Procedure. (United States)

    Crespi, Roberto; Bruschi, Giovanni B; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Capparé, Paolo; Gherlone, Enrico F


    The aim of this study was to assess survival rate of immediate loading implants placed after split-crest technique. Thirty-six patients were enrolled in the study. They underwent placement of 93 dental implants in edentulous region after split-crest ridge expansion procedure. Implants followed an immediate loading procedure. Crestal bone levels were measured at baseline, at temporary prosthesis placement, at 1 year, and at 2 years from implant placement. For dental implants, a survival rate of 98.92% was reported at 2-year follow-up, with a mean value bone loss of -1.02 ± 0.48. This study assessed immediate loading implant placement after split-crest procedure at 2-year follow-up. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao


    Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

  16. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Ken; Shindo, Daisuke


    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible

  17. Design-Parameters Setup for Power-Split Dual-Regime IVT (United States)

    Preda, Ion; Ciolan, Gheorghe; Covaciu, Dinu


    To analyze the working possibilities of power-split infinitely variable transmissions (IVTs) it is necessary to follow a systematic approach. The method proposed in this paper consists of generating a block diagram of the transmission and then, based on this diagram, to derive the kinematics and dynamics equations of the transmission. For an actual numerical case, the derived equations are used to find characteristic values of the transmission components (gear and chain drives, planetary units) necessary to calculate the speed ratios, the speeds, torques and powers acting on the shafts and coupling (control) elements, and even to estimate the overall efficiency of the transmission.

  18. An Operator-Integration-Factor Splitting (OIFS) method for Incompressible Flows in Moving Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Saumil S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fischer, Paul F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Min, Misun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tomboulides, Ananias G [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece)


    In this paper, we present a characteristic-based numerical procedure for simulating incompressible flows in domains with moving boundaries. Our approach utilizes an operator-integration-factor splitting technique to help produce an effcient and stable numerical scheme. Using the spectral element method and an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation, we investigate flows where the convective acceleration effects are non-negligible. Several examples, ranging from laminar to turbulent flows, are considered. Comparisons with a standard, semi-implicit time-stepping procedure illustrate the improved performance of the scheme.

  19. Pulse Splitting for Harmonic Beamforming in Time-Modulated Linear Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Poli


    Full Text Available A novel strategy for harmonic beamforming in time-modulated linear arrays is proposed. The pulse splitting technique is exploited to simultaneously generate two harmonic patterns, one at the central frequency and another at a preselected harmonic of arbitrary order, while controlling the maximum level of the remaining sideband radiations. An optimization strategy based on the particle swarm optimizer is developed in order to determine the optimal parameters describing the pulse sequence used to modulate the excitation weights of the array elements. Representative numerical results are reported and discussed to point out potentialities and limitations of the proposed approach.

  20. A comparison between kinetic flux vector splitting and flux difference splitting methods in solution of Euler equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, M.; Shahverdi, M.


    This paper is proposed to compare the performances of deferent inviscid flux approximation methods in solution of two-dimensional Euler equations. The methods belong to two different group of flux splitting methods: flux difference splitting (FDS) methods and kinetic flux vector splitting (KFVS) method. Here Roe method and Osher method belonging to flux difference splitting (FDS) group have been employed and their performances are compared with that of kinetic flux vector splitting method (KFVS). Roe and Osher methods are based on approximate solution of Riemann problem over computational cell surfaces while the KFVS has a quit different base. In KFVS inviscid fluxes are approximated based on the kinetic theory and correlation between Boltzmann equation and Euler equations. For comparison the performances of the above mentioned methods three different problems have been solved. The first problem is flow over a 10 degree compression-expansion ramp with Mach number of 2.0, the second one is a transonic flow with Mach number of 0.85 over a 4.2% circular bump in a duct and the third is supersonic flow with Mach number of 3.0 over a circular blunt slab. (author)

  1. Splitting and non splitting are pollution models photochemical reactions in the urban areas of greater Tehran area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarinasab, A.; Dabir, B.; Sahimi, M.; Badii, Kh.


    During the past years, one of the most important problems has been air pollution in urban areas. In this regards, ozone, as one of the major products of photochemical reactions, has great importance. The term 'photochemical' is applied to a number of secondary pollutants that appear as a result of sun-related reactions, ozone being the most important one. So far various models have been suggested to predict these pollutants. In this paper, we developed the model that has been introduced by Dabir, et al. [4]. In this model more than 48 chemical species and 114 chemical reactions are involved. The result of this development, showed good to excellent agreement across the region for compounds such as O 3 , NO, NO 2 , CO, and SO 2 with regard to VOC and NMHC. The results of the simulation were compared with previous work [4] and the effects of increasing the number of components and reactions were evaluated. The results of the operator splitting method were compared with non splitting solving method. The result showed that splitting method with one-tenth time step collapsed with non splitting method (Crank-Nicolson, under-relaxation iteration method without splitting of the equation terms). Then we developed one dimensional model to 3-D and were compared with experimental data

  2. Screening current induced magnetic field in REBCO superconducting coil wound by using split wire having intermittent inner split (United States)

    Matsuda, Tetsuro; Jin, Xinzhe; Okamura, Tetsuji


    REBCO-coated conductor having a high critical current is promising for applications in next generation apparatuses such as ultra-high field NMR, high-resolution MRI, and high-precision accelerator. However, it has an important challenge for application in NMR and MRI, due to the single core in REBCO superconducting layer. The single core induces a large screening current-induced magnetic field (screening current field), and it influences the controlling of center field in NMR/MRI magnet. To reduce the screening current field, we have recently developed a split wire having multi-core structure by inner split method (electrical separation by bending stress, ESBS). In experiment, short samples with linear inner split by a large bending stress of 80 N were prepared and tested. However, to fabricate a long length wire with good quality, it is better to use a smaller bending stress. In this study, a low-bending-stress inner split method is used to fabricate superconducting tapes with longitudinal split in their superconducting layer. The fabrication and experimental assessments for the wire and coil are carried out.

  3. Tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting. (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jijie; Gong, Jinlong


    Solar energy utilization is one of the most promising solutions for the energy crises. Among all the possible means to make use of solar energy, solar water splitting is remarkable since it can accomplish the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. The produced hydrogen is clean and sustainable which could be used in various areas. For the past decades, numerous efforts have been put into this research area with many important achievements. Improving the overall efficiency and stability of semiconductor photocatalysts are the research focuses for the solar water splitting. Tantalum-based semiconductors, including tantalum oxide, tantalate and tantalum (oxy)nitride, are among the most important photocatalysts. Tantalum oxide has the band gap energy that is suitable for the overall solar water splitting. The more negative conduction band minimum of tantalum oxide provides photogenerated electrons with higher potential for the hydrogen generation reaction. Tantalates, with tunable compositions, show high activities owning to their layered perovskite structure. (Oxy)nitrides, especially TaON and Ta3N5, have small band gaps to respond to visible-light, whereas they can still realize overall solar water splitting with the proper positions of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. This review describes recent progress regarding the improvement of photocatalytic activities of tantalum-based semiconductors. Basic concepts and principles of solar water splitting will be discussed in the introduction section, followed by the three main categories regarding to the different types of tantalum-based semiconductors. In each category, synthetic methodologies, influencing factors on the photocatalytic activities, strategies to enhance the efficiencies of photocatalysts and morphology control of tantalum-based materials will be discussed in detail. Future directions to further explore the research area of tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting

  4. Murdelisest tegelaskõnest "Tõe ja õiguse" I osas / Dialect in the Speech of Characters in A. H. Tammsaare’s Truth and Justice Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mandri


    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel keskendub A. H. Tammsaare „Tõe ja õiguse“ pentaloogia I osas leiduvale murdelisele tegelaskõnele. Murdeline tegelaskõne on ilukirjanduslik võte, mis lähtub autori loomingulistest taotlustest ning on seega lahutamatu teose sisust. Keele- ja kirjandusteadust ühendades pakub artikkel seni puudu nud kontekstisidusa käsitluse „Tõe ja õiguse“ I osa tegelaskõnes kasutatud murdepärasuste omadustest ning funktsioonist teose sisu ja kompositsiooni toetamisel. Murdeline tegelaskõne osutab geograafiliselt kesk- ja läänemurde alale, iseloomustab tegelasi kui talurahva hulka kuulujaid, taotleb külaühiskonna realistlikku esitlust, toetab keeleliselt Vargamäe Ees- ja Tagapere ning vanade ja noorte vastandust.    SU M M A R Y   The use of language in Part I of A. H. Tammsaare’s five-volume novel Truth and Justice (Tõde ja Õigus has received quite a bit of scholarly attention. However, up till now there have been few treatments of dialect in characters’ speech that also take into account the coherence of context and the writer’s aesthetic goals. Features of dialect in characters’ speech have been noticed by many researchers, but they mostly limited themselves to giving descriptive accounts of dialect words. These earlier accounts often approached these passages as authentic specimens of dialect, and did not interpret them in context or as aspects of literary form. This article is based on the literary dialect theory of linguist and literary scholar Sumner Ives, who argues from the principle that dialect phenomena in literature cannot be studied as authentic specimens of dialect. In literature, when characters speak in dialect, this serves goals related to the content and composition of the work, and does not attempt to be a precise representation of real dialect speech. In this spirit, I will examine dialect in the characters’ speech in the first volume of Tammsaare’s cycle of novels Truth and Justice

  5. Identification of genomic indels and structural variations using split reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Alexander E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated the genetic significance of insertions, deletions, and other more complex structural variants (SVs in the human population. With the development of the next-generation sequencing technologies, high-throughput surveys of SVs on the whole-genome level have become possible. Here we present split-read identification, calibrated (SRiC, a sequence-based method for SV detection. Results We start by mapping each read to the reference genome in standard fashion using gapped alignment. Then to identify SVs, we score each of the many initial mappings with an assessment strategy designed to take into account both sequencing and alignment errors (e.g. scoring more highly events gapped in the center of a read. All current SV calling methods have multilevel biases in their identifications due to both experimental and computational limitations (e.g. calling more deletions than insertions. A key aspect of our approach is that we calibrate all our calls against synthetic data sets generated from simulations of high-throughput sequencing (with realistic error models. This allows us to calculate sensitivity and the positive predictive value under different parameter-value scenarios and for different classes of events (e.g. long deletions vs. short insertions. We run our calculations on representative data from the 1000 Genomes Project. Coupling the observed numbers of events on chromosome 1 with the calibrations gleaned from the simulations (for different length events allows us to construct a relatively unbiased estimate for the total number of SVs in the human genome across a wide range of length scales. We estimate in particular that an individual genome contains ~670,000 indels/SVs. Conclusions Compared with the existing read-depth and read-pair approaches for SV identification, our method can pinpoint the exact breakpoints of SV events, reveal the actual sequence content of insertions, and cover the whole

  6. Rabi-like splitting from large area plasmonic microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hosseini Alast


    Full Text Available Rabi-like splitting was observed from a hybrid plasmonic microcavity. The splitting comes from the coupling of cavity mode with the surface plasmon polariton mode; anti-crossing was observed alongside the modal conversional channel on the reflection light measurement. The hybrid device consists of a 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating integrated onto the Fabry-Perot microcavity. The 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating fabricated from laser interference and the area is sufficiently large to be used in the practical optical device. The larger area hybrid plasmonic microcavity can be employed in polariton lasers and biosensors.

  7. Optimal Cross-Validation Split Ratio: Experimental Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan


    Cross-validation is a common method for assessing the generalisation ability of a model in order to tune a regularisation parameter or otherhyper-parameters of a learning process. The use of cross-validation requires to set yet an additional parameter, the split rati. While a few texts haveinvest......Cross-validation is a common method for assessing the generalisation ability of a model in order to tune a regularisation parameter or otherhyper-parameters of a learning process. The use of cross-validation requires to set yet an additional parameter, the split rati. While a few texts...

  8. Crystal Splitting in the Growth of Bi2S3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jing; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Novel Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures with a sheaf-like morphology are obtained via reaction of bismuth acetate-oleic acid complex with elemental sulfur in 1-octadecence. We propose these structures form by the splitting crystal growth mechanism, which is known to account for the morphology some mineral crystals assume in nature. By controlling the synthetic parameters, different forms of splitting, analogous to observed in minerals, are obtained in our case of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}. These new and complex Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures are characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD and ED.

  9. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon


    output. The double pulse test shows the devices' current during commutation process and the reduced switching losses of SiC MOSFETs compared to that of the traditional half bridge. The efficiency comparison is presented with experimental results of half bridge power inverter with split output...... and traditional half bridge inverter, from switching frequency 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The experimental results comparison shows that the half bridge with split output has an efficiency improvement of more than 0.5% at 100 kHz switching frequency....

  10. Cooper Pair Splitting by Means of Graphene Quantum Dots (United States)

    Tan, Z. B.; Cox, D.; Nieminen, T.; Lähteenmäki, P.; Golubev, D.; Lesovik, G. B.; Hakonen, P. J.


    A split Cooper pair is a natural source for entangled electrons which is a basic ingredient for quantum information in the solid state. We report an experiment on a superconductor-graphene double quantum dot (QD) system, in which we observe Cooper pair splitting (CPS) up to a CPS efficiency of ˜10 % . With bias on both QDs, we are able to detect a positive conductance correlation across the two distinctly decoupled QDs. Furthermore, with bias only on one QD, CPS and elastic cotunneling can be distinguished by tuning the energy levels of the QDs to be asymmetric or symmetric with respect to the Fermi level in the superconductor.

  11. Frobenius splitting and geometry of $G$-Schubert varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xuhua; Thomsen, Jesper Funch


    Let X be an equivariant embedding of a connected reductive group G over an algebraically closed field k of positive characteristic. Let B denote a Borel subgroup of G. A G-Schubert variety in X is a subvariety of the form diag(G) V , where V is a B×B -orbit closure in X. In the case where X...... admits a stable Frobenius splitting along an ample divisors. Although this indicates that G-Schubert varieties have nice singularities we present an example of a nonnormal G-Schubert variety in the wonderful compactification of a group of type G2 . Finally we also extend the Frobenius splitting results...

  12. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter R.


    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described that uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  13. Split-plot Experiments with Unusual Numbers of Subplot Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat


    In many experimental situations, it may not be feasible or even possible to run experiments in a completely randomized fashion as usually recommended. Under these circumstances, split-plot experiments in which certain factors are changed less frequently than the others are often used. Most...... of the literature on split-plot designs is based on 2-level factorials. For those designs, the number of subplots is a power of 2. There may however be some situations where for cost purposes or physical constraints, we may need to have unusual number of subplots such as 3, 5, 6, etc. In this article, we explore...

  14. Novel Split Chest Tube Improves Post-Surgical Thoracic Drainage (United States)

    Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Cherry, Brandon H; Gurji, Hunaid A; White, Daniel W; Newton, J Tyler; Scott, Gary F; Hoxha, Besim; Gourlay, Terence; Mallet, Robert T


    Objective Conventional, separate mediastinal and pleural tubes are often inefficient at draining thoracic effusions. Description We developed a Y-shaped chest tube with split ends that divide within the thoracic cavity, permitting separate intrathoracic placement and requiring a single exit port. In this study, thoracic drainage by the split drain vs. that of separate drains was tested. Methods After sternotomy, pericardiotomy, and left pleurotomy, pigs were fitted with separate chest drains (n=10) or a split tube prototype (n=9) with internal openings positioned in the mediastinum and in the costo-diaphragmatic recess. Separate series of experiments were conducted to test drainage of D5W or 0.58 M sucrose, an aqueous solution with viscosity approximating that of plasma. One litre of fluid was infused into the thorax, and suction was applied at −20 cm H2O for 30 min. Results When D5W was infused, the split drain left a residual volume of 53 ± 99 ml (mean value ± SD) vs. 148 ± 120 for the separate drain (P=0.007), representing a drainage efficiency (i.e. drained vol/[drained + residual vol]) of 95 ± 10% vs. 86 ± 12% for the separate drains (P = 0.011). In the second series, the split drain evacuated more 0.58 M sucrose in the first minute (967 ± 129 ml) than the separate drains (680 ± 192 ml, P<0.001). By 30 min, the split drain evacuated a similar volume of sucrose vs. the conventional drain (1089 ± 72 vs. 1056 ± 78 ml; P = 0.5). Residual volume tended to be lower (25 ± 10 vs. 62 ± 72 ml; P = 0.128) and drainage efficiency tended to be higher (98 ± 1 vs. 95 ± 6%; P = 0.111) with the split drain vs. conventional separate drains. Conclusion The split chest tube drained the thoracic cavity at least as effectively as conventional separate tubes. This new device could potentially alleviate postoperative complications. PMID:25478289

  15. Quantum field theory of material properties. Its application to models of Rashba spin splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, Giulio Albert Heinrich


    In this thesis, we argue that microscopic field theories - which as such are already scientifically established - have emerged as a new paradigm in materials physics. We hence seek to elaborate on such field theories which underlie modern ab initio calculations, and we apply them to the bismuth tellurohalides (BiTeX with X=I,Br,Cl) as a prototypical class of spin-based materials. For this purpose, we begin by constructing tight-binding models which approximately describe the spin-split conduction bands of BiTeI. Following this, we derive the theory of temperature Green functions systematically from their fundamental equations of motion. This in turn enables us to develop a combined functional renormalization and mean-field approach which is suitable for application to multiband models. For the Rashba model including an attractive, local interaction, this approach yields an unconventional superconducting phase with a singlet gap function and a mixed singlet-triplet order parameter. We further investigate the unusual electromagnetic response of BiTeI, which is caused by the Rashba spin splitting and which includes, in particular, an orbital paramagnetism. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the Functional Approach to electrodynamics of media as a microscopic field theory of electromagnetic material properties which sits in accordance with ab initio physics.

  16. An electromagnetism-like method for the maximum set splitting problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratica Jozef


    Full Text Available In this paper, an electromagnetism-like approach (EM for solving the maximum set splitting problem (MSSP is applied. Hybrid approach consisting of the movement based on the attraction-repulsion mechanisms combined with the proposed scaling technique directs EM to promising search regions. Fast implementation of the local search procedure additionally improves the efficiency of overall EM system. The performance of the proposed EM approach is evaluated on two classes of instances from the literature: minimum hitting set and Steiner triple systems. The results show, except in one case, that EM reaches optimal solutions up to 500 elements and 50000 subsets on minimum hitting set instances. It also reaches all optimal/best-known solutions for Steiner triple systems.

  17. SplitRacer - a new Semi-Automatic Tool to Quantify And Interpret Teleseismic Shear-Wave Splitting (United States)

    Reiss, M. C.; Rumpker, G.


    We have developed a semi-automatic, MATLAB-based GUI to combine standard seismological tasks such as the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting. Shear-wave splitting analysis is widely used to infer seismic anisotropy, which can be interpreted in terms of lattice-preferred orientation of mantle minerals, shape-preferred orientation caused by fluid-filled cracks or alternating layers. Seismic anisotropy provides a unique link between directly observable surface structures and the more elusive dynamic processes in the mantle below. Thus, resolving the seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere/asthenosphere is of particular importance for geodynamic modeling and interpretations. The increasing number of seismic stations from temporary experiments and permanent installations creates a new basis for comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. However, the increasingly large data sets pose new challenges for the rapid and reliably analysis of teleseismic waveforms and for the interpretation of the measurements. Well-established routines and programs are available but are often impractical for analyzing large data sets from hundreds of stations. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same well-defined quality criteria which may complicate comparison with results from different studies. SplitRacer has been designed to overcome these challenges by incorporation of the following processing steps: i) downloading of waveform data from multiple stations in mseed-format using FDSNWS tools; ii) automated initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold; iii) particle-motion analysis of selected phases at longer periods to detect and correct for sensor misalignment; iv) splitting analysis of selected phases based on transverse-energy minimization for multiple, randomly-selected, relevant time windows; v) one and two-layer joint-splitting analysis for all phases at one station by

  18. Atributos vitales de especies leñosas en bordes de bosque altoandino de la Reserva Forestal de Cogua (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucía Montenegro


    Full Text Available En la Reserva Forestal de Cogua (Colombia, estudiamos mediante transectos la vegetación leñosa en dos parches de bosque altoandino para tres tipos de borde: chusque, paramizado y antiguo (este último denominado así por presentar un estado sucesional más avanzado. Seleccionamos como especies típicas de borde las que tenían mayor abundancia en esta zona, presentes en ambos parches del borde y capaces de colonizar la matriz adyacente. Se obtuvo un conjunto de nueve especies a las cuales se les evaluaron 20 atributos vitales, generando seis grupos mediante un análisis de agrupamiento (cluster: 1 Weinmannia balbisiana-W. tomentosa, 2 Gaiadendron punctatum-Hedyosmum bonplandianum, 3 Miconia ligustrina-M. squamulosa, 4 Macleania rupestris, 5 Pentacalia pulchella y 6 Tibouchina grossa. La amplia variación y plasticidad de las especies estudiadas en cuanto a los atributos analizados, conduce a pensar que los conjuntos obtenidos no obedecen a grupos funcionales claramente diferenciados, sino más bien a estrategias diferentes y que estas especies podrían hacer parte de un solo grupo funcional de gran plasticidad. T. grossa es la especie de borde más exitosa en la reserva, dados sus altos valores de abundancia, tolerancia fisiológica, reproducción vegetativa, producción de hojarasca y producción de semillas pequeñas, numerosas, formadoras de un banco de semillas persistente que evidencian su alta fecundidad.Vital traits of woody species in High Andean forest edges of the Cogua Forest Reserve (Colombia. The Cogua Forest Reserve was studied throughout eight months to detect the existence of functional species-groups associated with edge wood forest. A second goal was to determine which species were the most successful in edge areas and their particular vital traits. The regeneration and growth of the forest patches to the adjacent matrix depends on the establishment of these species and their tolerance to both habitats. Three types of High

  19. Tangled up in mood : Exploring Panará split ergativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardagil-Mas, Bernat


    The two primary goals of this article are to present data concerning the mood-based alignment split that can be observed in Panará pronominal clitics and to put forward a tentative formal analysis that can capture the motivations of such phenomena in the grammar. This paper aims to explore an

  20. Split Dirac Supersymmetry: An Ultraviolet Completion of Higgsino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Kribs, Graham D. [Oregon U.; Martin, Adam [Notre Dame U.


    Motivated by the observation that the Higgs quartic coupling runs to zero at an intermediate scale, we propose a new framework for models of split supersymmetry, in which gauginos acquire intermediate scale Dirac masses of $\\sim 10^{8-11}$ GeV. Scalar masses arise from one-loop finite contributions as well as direct gravity-mediated contributions. Like split supersymmetry, one Higgs doublet is fine-tuned to be light. The scale at which the Dirac gauginos are introduced to make the Higgs quartic zero is the same as is necessary for gauge coupling unification. Thus, gauge coupling unification persists (nontrivially, due to adjoint multiplets), though with a somewhat higher unification scale $\\gtrsim 10^{17}$ GeV. The $\\mu$-term is naturally at the weak scale, and provides an opportunity for experimental verification. We present two manifestations of Split Dirac Supersymmetry. In the "Pure Dirac" model, the lightest Higgsino must decay through R-parity violating couplings, leading to an array of interesting signals in colliders. In the "Hypercharge Impure" model, the bino acquires a Majorana mass that is one-loop suppressed compared with the Dirac gluino and wino. This leads to weak scale Higgsino dark matter whose overall mass scale, as well as the mass splitting between the neutral components, is naturally generated from the same UV dynamics. We outline the challenges to discovering pseudo-Dirac Higgsino dark matter in collider and dark matter detection experiments.

  1. Deconstruction, G_2 Holonomy, and Doublet-Triplet Splitting


    Witten, Edward


    We describe a mechanism for using discrete symmetries to solve the doublet-triplet splitting problem of four-dimensional supersymmetric GUT's. We present two versions of the mechanism, one via ``deconstruction,'' and one in terms of M-theory compactification to four dimensions on a manifold of G_2 holonomy.

  2. Split shielding plates in electrostatic sector analyzers and Wien filters (United States)

    Yavor, Mikhail I.


    An analytical method is developed for calculation of the influence of the splitted shielding plates in inhomogeneous electrostatic sector analyzers and Wien filters on their electron optical properties. The method allows one to simplify considerably the choice of the mode of operation of the shielding plates needed to achieve a required electrostatic field distribution inside the analyzer.

  3. Split tensile strength of soilcrete blocks | Okere | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the ever increasing problems associated with dredging of rivers to obtain river sand, reduced dependence on river sand should be encouraged by using alternative materials in block production. This work deals with the production of soilcrete blocks using readily available and affordable laterite. Split tensile strength of ...

  4. Signature splitting in two quasiparticle rotational bands of Ta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jun 20, 2016 ... ... of 182Ta are analysed within the framework of two-quasiparticle rotor model. The phase as well as magni- tude of the experimentally observed signature splitting in Kπ = 1+ band of 180Ta, which could not be explained in earlier calculations, is successfully reproduced. The conflict regarding placement of ...

  5. Split Hand and Foot Malformation | Salati | East and Central African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Split Hand and Foot Malformation. SA Salati ...

  6. Reconstruction of bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tibial aplasia is of heterogeneous aetiology, the majority of reports are sporadic. We describe the reconstruction procedures in two subjects - a daughter and father manifested autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance of the bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome. Materials and Methods: ...

  7. Split calvarial graft and titanium mesh for reconstruction of post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The goal of cranioplasty is to achieve a lifelong, stable and structural reconstruction of the cranium covered by a healthy skin and scalp flap. We present two cases of large frontal bone defect following a accident.. Cases: We describe the utilization of autogenous local split calvarial graft and titanium mesh for ...

  8. Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.


    While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular

  9. Stride length asymmetry in split-belt locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogkamer, W.; Bruijn, S.M.; Duysens, J.


    The number of studies utilizing a split-belt treadmill is rapidly increasing in recent years. This has led to some confusion regarding the definitions of reported gait parameters. The purpose of this paper is to clearly present the definitions of the gait parameters that are commonly used in

  10. Relations among the crack growth modes resulting from tensor splitting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kafka, Vratislav


    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2015), s. 319-335 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : fracture mechanics * combination of crack-growth modes * non-local effect * tensor splitting Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  11. The Case of Missing Solar Neutrinos with their Split Personalities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Case of Missing Solar Neutrinos with their Split Personalities. ~~~'<,. ~. The Case of Missing Solar Neutrinos ... general theory of relativity and the observed precession of the perihelion of Mercury was a great triumph ..... neutrino counting rate, by nearly a factor of 3 over the. SSM prediction, constitutes the solar neutrino ...

  12. Splitting and Projection: Drawing on Psychodynamics in Educational Psychology Practice (United States)

    Pellegrini, Dario W.


    This paper reflects the author's journey into an area of psychology which is not dominant in Educational Psychology discourse, namely psychodynamic psychology. Two psychodynamic mechanisms, namely splitting and projection are explained, and then the author describes and critiques how these mechanisms have proved useful in his practice. Two case…

  13. Split-Framework in Mandibular Implant-Supported Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Omar Mendoza Marin


    Full Text Available During oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with an implant-supported prosthesis, mandibular flexure must be considered an important biomechanical factor when planning the metal framework design, especially if implants are installed posterior to the interforaminal region. When an edentulous mandible is restored with a fixed implant-supported prosthesis connected by a fixed full-arch framework, mandibular flexure may cause needless stress in the overall restorative system and lead to screw loosening, poor fit of prosthesis, loss of the posterior implant, and patient’s discomfort due to deformation properties of the mandible during functional movements. The use of a split-framework could decrease the stress with a precise and passive fit on the implants and restore a more natural functional condition of the mandible, helping in the longevity of the prosthesis. Therefore, the present clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient by a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis with a split-framework to compensate for mandibular flexure. Clinical Significance. The present clinical report shows that the use of a split-framework reduced the risk of loss of the posterior implants or screws loosening with acceptable patient comfort over the period of a year. The split-framework might have compensated for the mandibular flexure during functional activities.

  14. Transient Splitting of Conoscopic Isogyres of a Uniaxial Nematic (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ki; Senuk, Bohdan; Tortora, Luana; Sprunt, Samuel; Lehmann, Matthias; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.


    The phase identification is often based on conoscopic observations of homeotropic cells: A uniaxial nematic produces a pattern with crossed isogyres, while the biaxial nematic shows a split of isogyres. We demonstrate that the splitting of isogyres occurs even when the material remains in the uniaxial nematic phase. In particular, in the bent core material J35, splitting of isogyres is caused by change of the temperature. The effect is transient and the isogyres return to a uniaxial (crossed) configuration after a certain time that depends on sample thickness, temperature, and rate of temperature change; the time varies from a few seconds to tens of hours. The transient splitting is caused by the temperature-induced material flow that triggers a (uniaxial) director tilt in the cell. The flows and the director tilt are demonstrated by the CARS microscopy and fluorescent confocal polarizing microscopy (FCPM). This transient effect is general and can be observed even in E7 and 5CB. The effect should be considered in textural identifications of potential biaxial nematic materials.

  15. Mass Communication and Ticket Splitting in the 1972 General Election. (United States)

    Atwood, L. Erwin; Sanders, Keith R.

    There is evidence of a growing trend toward ticket splitting, or independent voting patterns in all U.S. elections, especially in recent years. Independence of the electorate in 1972 was visible in the large Republican vote for President, during substantial voting for Democrats in Congress, and in gubernatorial elections. Analysis of mass media…

  16. Trellis plots as visual aids for analyzing split plot experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Menon, Anil


    The analysis of split plot experiments can be challenging due to a complicated error structure resulting from restrictions on complete randomization. Similarly, standard visualization methods do not provide the insight practitioners desire to understand the data, think of explanations, generate h...

  17. A cyclic iterative method for solving multiple sets split feasibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (An iterative regularization method for the solution of the split feasibility problem in Banach spaces, Inverse Problems 24 (2008), 055008) and many important recent results in this direction. Mathematics Subject Classification (2010): 49J53, 65K10, 49M37, 90C25. Keywords: Bregman projection, strong convergence, metric ...

  18. Degloved foot sole successfully reconstructed with split thickness skin grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Loes; Holtslag, Herman R.; Schellekens, Pascal P A; Leenen, Luke P H


    Introduction The current opinion is that split thickness skin grafts are not suitable to reconstruct a degloved foot sole. The tissue is too fragile to carry full bodyweight; and therefore, stress lesions frequently occur. The treatment of choice is the reuse of the avulsed skin whenever possible,

  19. The split notochord syndrome with dorsal enteric fistula. (United States)

    Hoffman, C H; Dietrich, R B; Pais, M J; Demos, D S; Pribram, H F


    Split notochord syndrome with dorsal enteric fistula is an extremely rare congenital anomaly that may be associated with meningomyelocele or meningocele, and genitourinary anomalies. This case presented with an additional finding of bladder exstrophy, raising the possibility of a relationship between this syndrome and the OEIS complex.

  20. Recent developments in solar H 2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen production from water and sunlight through photocatalysis could become one of the channels, in the not-so-distant future, to meet a part of ever growing energy demands. However, accomplishing solar water splitting through semiconductor particulate photocatalysis seems to be the 'Holy Grail' problem of science.